WorldWideScience

Sample records for superior environmental performance

  1. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  2. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    as its starting point to investigate liveness within a specific kind of contemporary performance: ‘environmental performances’. Environmental performances are arts practices that take environmental processes as their focus by framing activities of non-human performers such as clouds, wind and weeds - key...

  3. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    2017-01-01

    Presence, attention and awareness are challenged in a cultural landscape with an overflow of media and information (big data, mediatization processes), an overflow of time scheduling (rationalization, effectuation), and an overflow of marketing for example of ‘live performance’ as a promotional...... from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television......, performance art), and seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate on the quality and status of live performance (Reason & Lindelof 2016). As a critical response to the above mentioned overflows these performances make their own overflow through their characteristically non-representational, unpredictable...

  4. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja Mølle; Schmidt, Ulrik; Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Do ants and grasshoppers perform? Do clouds, plants and melting ice? Do skyscrapers, traffic jams and computer vira? And what happens to our understanding of liveness if that is the case? This chapter takes ongoing theoretical disputes about the nature of live performance in performance studies a...... examples being Francisco López’ La Selva (1998), James Turrell’s Skyspaces (1974-), James Benning’s Ten Skies (2004), Pierre Huyghes Untilled (2012) and Pierre Sauvageots Harmonic Fields (2010)....

  5. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  6. Avaliação do desempenho ambiental de uma instituição pública de ensino técnico e superior Environmental performance assessment of a public institution of technical and undergraduate education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaz Sessegolo Marques de Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi relatar um estudo de caso baseado em indicadores ambientais categóricos no qual foi avaliado o desempenho ambiental de uma instituição pública de ensino técnico e superior. A revisão incluiu a série de normas ISO 14000, o Prêmio Nacional de Qualidade em Saneamento (PNQS e o Ecoblock. O método usado foi adaptado do SBP, um conjunto de procedimentos para a mensuração do desempenho ambiental de uma atividade antrópica, que se vale de construtos latentes e indicadores categóricos que expliquem o desempenho. Os indicadores foram organizados em sete construtos. Segundo os avaliadores e o modelo, a instituição faz 56,7% do máximo possível em gestão ambiental. Os construtos mais carentes foram gestão de resíduos sólidos e poluição sonora. O resultado da avaliação pode ser usado para reformulação da política ambiental da instituição.This article reports a case study in which the environmental performance of a public institution of higher and technical education was evaluated, based on environmental indicators in spades. The following standards series were reviewed: ISO 14000, National Quality Award in Sanitation (PNQS and Ecoblock. The method was adapted from SBP, a set of procedures for measuring the environmental performance of an anthropic activity, composed by latent constructs and categorical indicators that explain the performance. The indicators were organized in seven constructs. According to the assessed respondents and the model, the institution reached 56.7% of the maximum possible in environmental management. Lower constructs were management of solid waste and noise pollution. The evaluation can be used for reshaping the environmental policy of the institution.

  7. Environmental Performance Report 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braus, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the laboratory's environmental management activities for 2016, including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes. The purpose of this report is to ensure that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers; the environment; or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and is prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  8. Environmental Performance Report 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the laboratory's environmental management activities for 2015, including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes. The purpose of this report is to ensure that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers; the environment; or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and is prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  9. Environmental performance reviews: Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The environmental performance review mission took place in April 2002, at a time when the Government was preparing new constitutions for the federation and the republics that would, interalia, change their respective responsibilities. The review covers Serbia and Montenegro but not Kosovo and Metohija. Part I covers environmental policy and management, Part II management of pollution and of natural resources (air, water, waste and mineral resources management, biodiversity conservation and nature protection), and Part III economic and sectoral integration. Recommendations are made to remedy environmental damage caused by coal mining in Serbia and Montenegro. Yugoslavia has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. It has begun work on preparing its first national communication to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  10. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Contextualization of the superior courses of environment in Brazil: environmental engineering, sanitary engineering, ecology, technicians and sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Araújo de Medeiros,

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The creation of superior courses related to the environmental area has increased surprisingly in Brazil in the last decade and in the beginning of the 21st century, situation possibly stimulated by the policy of increase of the superior education, courses, and offered vacancies propagated by the Education Ministry in the last years as well as by the increasing environmental preoccupation and the consequent addition in the search for qualified professionals in this area. In this context, new undergraduation courses in Environmental Engineering and Environmental Management have emerged to form professionals with similar habilitation to other already established professions such as the sanitary engineer and the ecologist as well as the other traditional professionals (engineers, geologists, biologists, geographers, chemist. Because of that, there is, currently, a very offensive discussion in the organs of the class, at the education institutes, and in the general society about the area of actuation of the professionals that works in the environmental area. In the present article it is shown a data survey about superior courses (graduation, technology or sequences of environment in Brazil as well as the norms and legislations that regulate the performance of these professionals. The aim is to analyze the basic questions related to each course, and to work as subsidy to further analyses and discussions.

  13. Biological Motion Task Performance Predicts Superior Temporal Sulcus Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, John D.; Nymberg, Charlotte; Schultz, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies implicate superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the perception of human movement. More recent theories hold that STS is also involved in the "understanding" of human movement. However, almost no studies to date have associated STS function with observable variability in action understanding. The present study directly associated STS…

  14. Oxygen vacancy induced bismuth oxyiodide with remarkably increased visible-light absorption and superior photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongchao; Li, Haibo; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Liu, Wenyue; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Xihong; Ji, Hongbing

    2014-12-24

    With the increasingly serious environmental problems, photocatalysis has recently attracted a great deal of attention, with particular focus on water and air purification and disinfection. Herein, we show an electroreduction strategy to improve significantly the solar absorption and donor density of BiOI nanosheet photocatalyst by introducing oxygen vacancies. These oxygen-deficient BiOI nanosheets exhibit an unexpected red shift of about 100 nm in light absorption band and 1 order of magnitude improvement in donor density compared to the untreated BiOI nanosheets and show 10 times higher photocatalytic activity than the untreated BiOI nanosheets for methyl orange (MO) degradation under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the as-prepared oxygen-deficient BiOI nanosheets also have excellent cycling stability and superior photocatalytic performance toward other dye pollutants.

  15. Advanced Modeling of Teaming Data to Enable Superior Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    permission should be directed to the Software Engineering Institute at permission@sei.cmu.edu. CMMI ® is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark...Hill AFB) has had a long-term initiative to improve performance based on CMMI  and TSP. Work Progress • Multi-year effort with SEI support and...internal resource commitments • Training in the basic SEI technologies plus extensive training in six-sigma methods . Plan: sustain and improve Goal

  16. Substitutional Doping for Aluminosilicate Mineral and Superior Water Splitting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Fu, Liangjie; Shu, Zhan; Yang, Huaming; Tang, Aidong; Jiang, Tao

    2017-07-01

    Substitutional doping is a strategy in which atomic impurities are optionally added to a host material to promote its properties, while the geometric and electronic structure evolution of natural nanoclay mineral upon substitutional metal doping is still ambiguous. This paper first designed an efficient lanthanum (La) doping strategy for nanotubular clay (halloysite nanotube, HNT) through the dynamic equilibrium of a substitutional atom in the presence of saturated AlCl3 solution, and systematic characterization of the samples was performed. Further density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to reveal the geometric and electronic structure evolution upon metal doping, as well as to verify the atom-level effect of the La doping. The CdS loading and its corresponding water splitting performance could demonstrate the effect of La doping. CdS nanoparticles (11 wt.%) were uniformly deposited on the surface of La-doped halloysite nanotube (La-HNT) with the average size of 5 nm, and the notable photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate of CdS/La-HNT reached up to 47.5 μmol/h. The results could provide a new strategy for metal ion doping and constructive insight into the substitutional doping mechanism.

  17. Quantifying environmental performance using an environmental footprint calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.B.; Loney, A.C.; Chan, V. [Conestoga-Rovers & Associates, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provides a case study using relevant key performance indicators (KPIs) to evaluate the environmental performance of a business. Using recognized calculation and reporting frameworks, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates (CRA) designed the Environmental Footprint Calculator to quantify the environmental performance of a Canadian construction materials company. CRA designed the Environmental Footprint calculator for our client to track and report their environmental performance in accordance with their targets, based on requirements of relevant guidance documents. The objective was to design a tool that effectively manages, calculates, and reports environmental performance to various stakeholders in a user-friendly format. (author)

  18. Superior sensory, motor, and cognitive performance in elderly individuals with multi-year dancing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Christoph Kattenstroth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive decline of mental and physical abilities. Considering the current demographic changes in many civilizations there is an urgent need for measures permitting an independent lifestyle into old age. The critical role of physical exercise in mediating and maintaining physical and mental fitness is well-acknowledged. Dance, in addition to physical activity, combines emotions, social interaction, sensory stimulation, motor coordination and music, thereby creating enriched environmental conditions for human individuals. Here we demonstrate the impact of multi-year (average 16.5 years amateur dancing (AD in a group of elderly subjects (aged 65 to 84 years as compared to education-, gender- and aged-matched controls (CG having no record of dancing or sporting activities. Besides posture and balance parameters, we tested reaction times, motor behavior, tactile and cognitive performance. In each of the different domains investigated, the AD group had a superior performance as compared to the non-dancer CG group. Analysis of individual performance revealed that the best participants of the AD group were not better than individuals of the CG group. Instead, the AD group lacked individuals showing poor performance, which was frequently observed for the CG group. This observation implies that maintaining a regular schedule of dancing into old age can preserve cognitive, motor and perceptual abilities and prevent them from degradation. We conclude that the far-reaching beneficial effects found in the AD group make dance, beyond its ability to facilitate balance and posture, a prime candidate for the preservation of everyday life competence of elderly individuals.

  19. Superior sensory, motor, and cognitive performance in elderly individuals with multi-year dancing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kolankowska, Izabella; Kalisch, Tobias; Dinse, Hubert R

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline of mental and physical abilities. Considering the current demographic changes in many civilizations there is an urgent need for measures permitting an independent lifestyle into old age. The critical role of physical exercise in mediating and maintaining physical and mental fitness is well-acknowledged. Dance, in addition to physical activity, combines emotions, social interaction, sensory stimulation, motor coordination and music, thereby creating enriched environmental conditions for human individuals. Here we demonstrate the impact of multi-year (average 16.5 years) amateur dancing (AD) in a group of elderly subjects (aged 65-84 years) as compared to education-, gender- and aged-matched controls (CG) having no record of dancing or sporting activities. Besides posture and balance parameters, we tested reaction times, motor behavior, tactile and cognitive performance. In each of the different domains investigated, the AD group had a superior performance as compared to the non-dancer CG group. Analysis of individual performance revealed that the best participants of the AD group were not better than individuals of the CG group. Instead, the AD group lacked individuals showing poor performance, which was frequently observed for the CG group. This observation implies that maintaining a regular schedule of dancing into old age can preserve cognitive, motor and perceptual abilities and prevent them from degradation. We conclude that the far-reaching beneficial effects found in the AD group make dance, beyond its ability to facilitate balance and posture, a prime candidate for the preservation of everyday life competence of elderly individuals.

  20. Intangible Assets and Superior and Sustained Performance of Innovative Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Martins Mendes De Luca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the Resource-Based View, the nature of the resources, competences and knowledge accumulated by firms are the major causes of variation in business performance. In view of the importance attributed to intangible assets, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether innovative firms with superior and sustained performance and firms without superior and sustained performance differ with regard to investments in intangible assets. The sample consisted of 137 firms listed on the Brazilian stock exchange from 2007 to 2010 and belonging to innovative sectors according to the Brazilian Innovation Index. Only 51 firms with profitability above the sector average during the entire study period (four years met the criterion of superior and sustained performance. Thus, using return on assets as a proxy for performance, investments in intangibles were found to be greater in firms without superior and sustained performance, particularly with regard to the categories intellectual property assets (the predominant category and infrastructure assets. Based on the lack of evidence for a significant correlation between corporate performance and investment in intangible assets, our initial hypothesis that a positive relation exists between the composition of investments in intangible assets and the performance of innovative firms could not be confirmed.

  1. Competitively Distinct Operations as a Key for Superior and Sustainable Business Performance: An Example from Walmart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Timilsina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing research on the resource-based view (RBV has provided limited evidence on how firms achieve superior and sustainable business performance; this failure is because current literature de-emphasizes the importance of operations. This paper argues that to gain and sustain superior business performance, a firm’s sustainable competitive advantage is not enough, its operations also needs to be competitively distinct. Therefore, through unifying the necessary conditions of superior and sustainable business performance the paper presents a better understanding of the RBV. The success story of Walmart, from existing literature, is considered as an example to support the proposed framework. The paper concludes that the cost of operations, opportunity cost, cost of resources and possible output are the crucial factors in resource choice and operations decision to secure competitively distinct operations. Finally, theoretical and managerial implications, research limitations and future research possibilities are discussed.

  2. OECD environmental performance reviews: Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The review surveys the environmental conditions and environmental progress of Poland. It found that although most environmental targets were met Poland still faces challenges in complying with EU environmental laws. Topics covered are: environmental management; air, water and waste management; nature and biodiversity; economy and environment; sectoral integration: transport; and international co-operation. Top issues for conformity include pollution prevention, waste water treatment, waste management, biodiversity and landscape conservation, and climate protection. The review outlines 46 recommendations for the country to take in order to improve its environmental situation. Task areas include progressing toward meeting international environmental commitments and integrating environmental considerations in to economic policies through means such as improved rice signals, subsidy removal, and fiscal reforms.

  3. Investigation on Superior Performance by Fractional Controller for Cart-Servo Laboratory Set-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya Anil Kesarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an investigation is made on the superiority of fractional PID controller (PI^alpha D^beta over conventional PID for the cart-servo laboratory set-up. The designed controllers are optimum in the sense of Integral Absolute Error (IAE and Integral Square Error (ISE. The paper contributes in three aspects: 1 Acquiring nonlinear mathematical model for the cart-servo laboratory set-up, 2 Designing fractional and integer order PID for minimizing IAE, ISE, 3 Analyzing the performance of designed controllers for simulated plant model as well as real plant. The results show a significantly superior performance by PI^alpha D^beta as compared to the conventional PID controller.

  4. Superior performance of cone beam tomography in detecting a calcaneus fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Christian; Catala-Lehnen, Philip; Regier, Marc; Heiland, Max

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography is a state-of-the-art imaging tool, initially developed for dental and maxillofacial application. With its high resolution and low radiation dose, cone beam tomography has been expanding its application fields, for example, to diagnosis of traumata and fractures in the head and neck area. In this study, we demonstrate superior and satisfactory performance of cone beam tomography for the imaging of a calcaneus fracture in comparison to conventional X-ray and computed tomography.

  5. Unique properties of halide perovskites as possible origins of the superior solar cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wan-Jian; Shi, Tingting; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-07-16

    Halide perovskites solar cells have the potential to exhibit higher energy conversion efficiencies with ultrathin films than conventional thin-film solar cells based on CdTe, CuInSe2 , and Cu2 ZnSnSe4 . The superior solar-cell performance of halide perovskites may originate from its high optical absorption, comparable electron and hole effective mass, and electrically clean defect properties, including point defects and grain boundaries.

  6. Environmental Management Performance Report 11/1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDER, D.M.

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Management Performance Report (EMPR) is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL's) report of Hanford's Environmental Management performance by: US Department of Energy, Richland Operation

  7. Charismatic leadership, environmental dynamism, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogh,, Kees de; Hartog, den, H.; Koopman, Paul L.; Thierry, Henk; Berg, van den, G.J.; Weide, van der, R.Y.; Celeste P M Wilderom

    2004-01-01

    Most studies relating charismatic leadership to performance have limitations concerning selection of criterion measures and investigation of moderators. Therefore, this study examines relationships between charismatic leadership and multiple performance outcomes under different levels of environmental dynamism (i.e., level of environmental uncertainty, degree of technological change) and per type of Chief Executive Officer (firm owner versus managing director). Results revealed that charismat...

  8. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee; Sabouini, Ridah; Evans, Tracy

    2013-07-01

    Industrial companies are seeking to manage energy consumption and costs, mitigate risks associated with energy, and introduce transparency into reports of their energy performance achievements. Forty industrial facilities are participating in the U.S. DOE supported Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program in which facilities implement an energy management system based on the ISO 50001 standard, and pursue third-party verification of their energy performance improvements. SEP certification provides industrial facilities recognition for implementing a consistent, rigorous, internationally recognized business process for continually improving energy performance and achievement of established energy performance improvement targets. This paper focuses on the business value of SEP and ISO 50001, providing an assessment of the costs and benefits associated with SEP implementation at nine SEP-certified facilities across a variety of industrial sectors. These cost-benefit analyses are part of the U.S. DOE?s contribution to the Global Superior Energy Performance (GSEP) partnership, a multi-country effort to demonstrate, using facility data, that energy management system implementation enables companies to improve their energy performance with a greater return on investment than business-as-usual (BAU) activity. To examine the business value of SEP certification, interviews were conducted with SEP-certified facilities. The costs of implementing the SEP program, including internal facility staff time, are described and a marginal payback of SEP certification has been determined. Additionally, more qualitative factors with regard to the business value and challenges related to SEP and ISO 50001 implementation are summarized.

  9. Performance indicators of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance indicators of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) assessment in hospital buildings: a ... Four-factor parameters of IEQ were assessed; such as thermal quality, acoustic quality, ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  10. Insights into collaborative separation process of photogenerated charges and superior performance of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangyang, E-mail: lxy081276@126.com; Wang, Shun; Zheng, Haiwu; Gu, Yuzong [Institute of Microsystems Physics and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2016-07-25

    ZnO nanowires/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} (ZnO/CBS) and ZnO nanowires/CBS-graphene nanoplates (ZnO/CBS-GNs), as well as two types of solar cells were prepared. The photovoltaic responses of CBS-GNs and ZnO/CBS-GNs can be improved with incorporation of GNs. The transient surface photovoltage (TPV) can provide detailed information on the separation and transport of photogenerated carriers. The multichannel separation process from the TPVs indicates that the macro-photoelectric signals can be attributed to the photogenerated charges separated at the interface of CBS/GNs, rather than CBS/ZnO. The multi-interfacial recombination is the major carrier loss, and the hole selective p-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} can efficiently accelerate the charge extraction to the external circuit. The ZnO/CBS-GNs cell exhibits the superior performance, and the highest efficiency is 10.9%. With the adequate interfaces of CBS/GNs, GNs conductive network, energy level matching, etc., the excitons can easily diffuse to the interface of CBS/GNs, and the separated electrons and holes can be collected quickly, inducing the high photoelectric properties. Here, a facile strategy for solid state solar cells with superior performance presents a potential application.

  11. A new C=C embedded porphyrin sheet with superior oxygen reduction performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawei Li[1; Shunhong Zhang[2; Jiabing Yu[1; Qian Wang[2; Qiang Sun[1,2,3; Puru Jena[3

    2015-01-01

    C2 is a well-known pseudo-oxygen unit with an electron affinity of 3.4 eV. We show that it can exhibit metal-ion like behavior when embedded in a porphyrin sheet and form a metal-free two-dimensional material with superior oxygen reduction performance. Here, the positively charged C=C units are highly active for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) via dissociation pathways with a small energy barrier of 0.09 eV, much smaller than that of other non-platinum group metal (non-PGM) ORR catalysts. Using a microkinetics-based model we calculated the partial current density to be 3.0 mA/cm2 at 0.65 V vs. a standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst. We further confirm that the C=C embedded porphyrin sheet is dynamically and thermally stable with a quasi-direct band gap of 1.14 eV. The superior catalytic performance and geometric stability make the metal-free C=C porphyrin sheet ideal for fuel cell applications.

  12. Insights into collaborative separation process of photogenerated charges and superior performance of solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyang; Wang, Shun; Zheng, Haiwu; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-07-01

    ZnO nanowires/Cu4Bi4S9 (ZnO/CBS) and ZnO nanowires/CBS-graphene nanoplates (ZnO/CBS-GNs), as well as two types of solar cells were prepared. The photovoltaic responses of CBS-GNs and ZnO/CBS-GNs can be improved with incorporation of GNs. The transient surface photovoltage (TPV) can provide detailed information on the separation and transport of photogenerated carriers. The multichannel separation process from the TPVs indicates that the macro-photoelectric signals can be attributed to the photogenerated charges separated at the interface of CBS/GNs, rather than CBS/ZnO. The multi-interfacial recombination is the major carrier loss, and the hole selective p-V2O5 can efficiently accelerate the charge extraction to the external circuit. The ZnO/CBS-GNs cell exhibits the superior performance, and the highest efficiency is 10.9%. With the adequate interfaces of CBS/GNs, GNs conductive network, energy level matching, etc., the excitons can easily diffuse to the interface of CBS/GNs, and the separated electrons and holes can be collected quickly, inducing the high photoelectric properties. Here, a facile strategy for solid state solar cells with superior performance presents a potential application.

  13. STRATEGIES FOR SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE IN RECESSIONS: PRO OR COUNTER-CYCLICAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ramos Conti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recessions are recurring events in which most firms suffer severe impacts while others are less affected or may even prosper. Strategic management has made little progress in understanding such performance differences. In a scenario of decreased demand, intensified competition, and higher uncertainty, most firms try to survive by pro-cyclically cutting costs and investments. But firms could take advantage of undervalued resources in the market to counter-cyclically invest in new business opportunities to overtake competitors. We survey Brazilian firms in various industries about the 2008-2009 recession and analyze data using PLS-SEM. We find that while most firms pro-cyclically reduce costs and investments in recessions, a counter-cyclical strategy of investing in opportunities created by changes in the market enables superior performance. Most successful are firms with a propensity to recognize opportunities, an entrepreneurial orientation to invest, and the flexibility to efficiently implement investments.

  14. Energy performance of cleanroom environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Tschudi, William F.

    2001-11-01

    By developing metrics for evaluating cleanroom air system performance and overall load intensity, this paper provides energy benchmarking results for thirteen cleanroom environmental system performance, and identifies opportunities for improving cleanroom energy efficiency while maintaining or improving cleanroom contamination control. Comparisons with IEST Recommended Practice are made to examine the performance of cleanroom air systems. These results can serve as a vehicle to identify energy efficient cleanroom design practices and to highlight important issues in cleanroom operation and maintenance. Results from this study confirm that there are opportunities in improving energy efficiency of cleanroom environmental systems while maintaining effective contamination control.

  15. Energy performance of cleanroom environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Tschudi, William F.

    2001-11-01

    By developing metrics for evaluating cleanroom air system performance and overall load intensity, this paper provides energy benchmarking results for thirteen cleanroom environmental system performance, and identifies opportunities for improving cleanroom energy efficiency while maintaining or improving cleanroom contamination control. Comparisons with IEST Recommended Practice are made to examine the performance of cleanroom air systems. These results can serve as a vehicle to identify energy efficient cleanroom design practices and to highlight important issues in cleanroom operation and maintenance. Results from this study confirm that there are opportunities in improving energy efficiency of cleanroom environmental systems while maintaining effective contamination control.

  16. Environmental Management Performance Report for December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDER, D.M.

    2000-02-16

    The purpose of the Environmental Management Performance Report (EMPR) is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL's) report of Hanford's Environmental Management (EM) performance by: U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) through Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FHI) and its subcontractors, Environmental Restoration Contract through Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and its subcontractors, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) for EM and EM Science and Technology (S&T) Mission. This report is a monthly publication that summarizes EM Site performance under RL Operations Office. It is organized by the four sections listed above, with each section containing an Executive Summary and Area Performance Summaries. A listing of what is contained in the sections can be found in the Table of Contents.

  17. Environmental Management Performance Report April 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDER, D.M.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Management Performance Report (EMPR) is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL's) report of Hanford's Environmental Management (EM) performance by: Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) through Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FHI) and its subcontractors; Environmental Restoration Contract through Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and its subcontractors; Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) for EM and EM Science and Technology (S and T) Mission; and Office of Safety Regulation of the TWRS Privatization Contractor. This report is a monthly publication that summarizes EM Site performance under RL Operations Office. It is organized by the four sections listed above, with each section containing an Executive Summary and Area Performance Summaries.

  18. Environmental Management Performance Report November 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDER, D.M.

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Management Performance Report (EMPR) is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL's) report of Hanford's Environmental Management (EM) performance by: Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) through Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) and its subcontractors; Environmental Restoration Contract through Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and its subcontractors; Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) for Science and Technology support to the EM Mission; and Office of Safety Regulation of the TWRS Privatization Contractor. This report is a monthly publication that summarizes EM Site performance under RL Operations Office. It is organized by the four sections listed above, with each section containing an Executive Summary and Area Performance Summaries. A glossary of terms is provided at the end of this report for reference purposes.

  19. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  20. Nanotubes within transition metal silicate hollow spheres: Facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; An, Yongling; Zhai, Wei; Gao, Xueping [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, Jinkui, E-mail: jinkui@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Ci, Lijie [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Xiong, Shenglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using SiO{sub 2} nanosphere. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were tested as anode materials for lithium batteries. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} delivered superior electrochemical performance. • The lithium storage mechanism is probe via cyclic voltammetry and XPS. - Abstract: A series of transition metal silicate hollow spheres, including cobalt silicate (Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), manganese silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}) and copper silicate (CuSiO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O, CuSiO{sub 3} as abbreviation in the text) were prepared via a simple and economic hydrothermal method by using silica spheres as chemical template. Time-dependent experiments confirmed that the resultants formed a novel type of hierarchical structure, hollow spheres assembled by numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes building blocks. For the first time, the transition metal silicate hollow spheres were characterized as novel anode materials of Li-ion battery, which presented superior lithium storage capacities, cycle performance and rate performance. The 1D nanotubes assembly and hollow interior endow this kind of material facilitate fast lithium ion and electron transport and accommodate the big volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that low-cost transition metal silicate with rationally designed nanostructures can be promising anode materials for high capacity lithium-ion battery.

  1. Behavioral patterns of environmental performance evaluation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanxin; Mauerhofer, Volker

    2016-11-01

    During the past decades numerous environmental performance evaluation programs have been developed and implemented on different geographic scales. This paper develops a taxonomy of environmental management behavioral patterns in order to provide a practical comparison tool for environmental performance evaluation programs. Ten such programs purposively selected are mapped against the identified four behavioral patterns in the form of diagnosis, negotiation, learning, and socialization and learning. Overall, we found that schemes which serve to diagnose environmental abnormalities are mainly externally imposed and have been developed as a result of technical debates concerning data sources, methodology and ranking criteria. Learning oriented scheme is featured by processes through which free exchange of ideas, mutual and adaptive learning can occur. Scheme developed by higher authority for influencing behaviors of lower levels of government has been adopted by the evaluated to signal their excellent environmental performance. The socializing and learning classified evaluation schemes have incorporated dialogue, participation, and capacity building in program design. In conclusion we consider the 'fitness for purpose' of the various schemes, the merits of our analytical model and the future possibilities of fostering capacity building in the realm of wicked environmental challenges.

  2. Development of an Enhanced Payback Function for the Superior Energy Performance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelsen, Peter; Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; Sabouni, Ridah; Sheihing, Paul

    2015-08-03

    The U.S. DOE Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program provides recognition to industrial and commercial facilities that achieve certification to the ISO 50001 energy management system standard and third party verification of energy performance improvements. Over 50 industrial facilities are participating and 28 facilities have been certified in the SEP program. These facilities find value in the robust, data driven energy performance improvement result that the SEP program delivers. Previous analysis of SEP certified facility data demonstrated the cost effectiveness of SEP and identified internal staff time to be the largest cost component related to SEP implementation and certification. This paper analyzes previously reported and newly collected data of costs and benefits associated with the implementation of an ISO 50001 and SEP certification. By disaggregating “sunk energy management system (EnMS) labor costs”, this analysis results in a more accurate and detailed understanding of the costs and benefits of SEP participation. SEP is shown to significantly improve and sustain energy performance and energy cost savings, resulting in a highly attractive return on investment. To illustrate these results, a payback function has been developed and is presented. On average facilities with annual energy spend greater than $2M can expect to implement SEP with a payback of less than 1.5 years. Finally, this paper also observes and details decreasing facility costs associated with implementing ISO 50001 and certifying to the SEP program, as the program has improved from pilot, to demonstration, to full launch.

  3. Performance evaluation of cleanroom environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2003-07-07

    This paper presents in-situ measurement results for energy and environmental performance of thirteen cleanroom systems located in the USA, including key metrics for evaluating cleanroom air system performance and overall electric power intensity. Comparisons with the IEST Recommended Practice (IEST-RP-CC012.1) are made to examine the performance of cleanroom air systems. Based upon the results, the paper discusses likely opportunities for improving cleanroom energy efficiency while maintaining effective contamination control. The paper concludes that there are wide variations in energy performance of cleanroom environmental systems, and that performance benchmarking can serve as a vehicle to identify energy efficient cleanroom design practices and to highlight important issues in cleanroom operation and maintenance.

  4. Identifying blood biomarkers and physiological processes that distinguish humans with superior performance under psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Cooksey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB, which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress.

  5. Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Wei

    2012-04-20

    Upconversion rare-earth nanomaterials (URENs) possess highly efficient near-infrared (NIR), e.g., 980 nm, laser absorption and unique energy upconversion capabilities. On the other hand, graphene and its derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO), show excellent performance in optical limiting (OL); however, the wavelengths of currently used lasers for OL studies mainly focus on either 532 or 1064 nm. To design new-generation OL materials working at other optical regions, such as the NIR, a novel nanocomposites, GO-URENs, which combines the advantages of both its components, is synthesized by a one-step chemical reaction. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence studies prove that the α-phase URENs uniformly attach on the GO surface via covalent chemical bonding, which assures highly efficient energy transfer between URENs and GO, and also accounts for the significantly improved OL performance compared to either GO or URENs. The superior OL effect is also observed in the proof-of-concept thin-film product, suggesting immediate applications in making high-performance laser-protecting products and optoelectronic devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Identifying Blood Biomarkers and Physiological Processes That Distinguish Humans with Superior Performance under Psychological Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, Amanda M.; Momen, Nausheen; Stocker, Russell; Burgess, Shane C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB), which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others. Methodology/Principal Findings Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology. Conclusions/Significance The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress. PMID:20020041

  7. Environmental Management Performance Report July 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDER, D.M.

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) a monthly summary of the Project Hanford Management Contractor's (PHMC) Environmental Management (EM) performance by Fluor Hanford (FH) and its subcont.

  8. Benchmarking the environmental performances of farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoo, de G.R.

    2006-01-01

    Background, Aim and Scope The usual route for improvement of agricultural practice towards sustainability runs via labelling schemes for products or farm practices. In most approaches requirements are set in absolute terms, disregarding the variation in environmental performance of farms. Another ap

  9. Testing the performance of technical trading rules in the Chinese markets based on superior predictive test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Sai-Ping; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-12-01

    Technical trading rules have a long history of being used by practitioners in financial markets. The profitable ability and efficiency of technical trading rules are yet controversial. In this paper, we test the performance of more than seven thousand traditional technical trading rules on the Shanghai Securities Composite Index (SSCI) from May 21, 1992 through June 30, 2013 and China Securities Index 300 (CSI 300) from April 8, 2005 through June 30, 2013 to check whether an effective trading strategy could be found by using the performance measurements based on the return and Sharpe ratio. To correct for the influence of the data-snooping effect, we adopt the Superior Predictive Ability test to evaluate if there exists a trading rule that can significantly outperform the benchmark. The result shows that for SSCI, technical trading rules offer significant profitability, while for CSI 300, this ability is lost. We further partition the SSCI into two sub-series and find that the efficiency of technical trading in sub-series, which have exactly the same spanning period as that of CSI 300, is severely weakened. By testing the trading rules on both indexes with a five-year moving window, we find that during the financial bubble from 2005 to 2007, the effectiveness of technical trading rules is greatly improved. This is consistent with the predictive ability of technical trading rules which appears when the market is less efficient.

  10. Rational design of reduced graphene oxide for superior performance of supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Rasul, Shahid

    2016-10-24

    Strategies to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (rGO) abound but, in most studies, research teams select one particular oxidation-reduction method without providing a methodic reasoning for doing so. Herein, it is analyzed how diverse oxidation-reduction strategies commonly used can result in considerable performance differences of rGO for supercapacitor applications. Depending on the graphite oxidation method followed, the surface chemistry analysis of the products confirms that there is a marked disparity in the degree of oxidation and the nature of the oxygen functional groups present. Subsequent reduction of the oxidized graphite (using three different methods) showed that the maximum specific capacitance of rGOs produced from the classical Hummers\\' method was 128 F g−1 whereas an analogous material obtained from an improved Hummers\\' method reached ∼274 F g−1 (both via an hydrothermal reduction route). Besides showing that the improved oxidation method results in superior capacitance performance, explained by the higher number of structural defects allied to a surface chemistry where residual hydroxyl and epoxy functional groups predominate, this study highlights the need to rationalize the oxidation-reduction strategies followed when investigating applications of rGO materials.

  11. Designing Appraisal Pattern for Performance of Superior League Football Teams by Emphasizing on Stakeholders’ Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi TAYEBI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance assessment by stakeholders is a strategic process that this research formed based on Freeman Stakeholders’ theory (1986 and Lee Stakeholders’ model and its goal is replying to following questions in order to present proper model for performance assessment: Who are most important stakeholders of superior football teams? What are their most important purposes? What are most important actions for fulfilling their needs? The research information collected from ministry of sport and youth, federation, club universalities, library and f iled experts and in first stage based on Freeman theory and past studies and experts’ opinions, a questionnaire was developed with Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.891 and by using Shannon entropy model and TOPSIS method extracted 9 priorities out of 21. In second stage, a second questionnaire was developed with Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.928 and 20 most important requests out of 71extracted by TOPSIS method. In 3rd stage, a third questionnaire was developed through interview with managers of 3 sup erior leagues and took measures to examine most implorations actions for providing stakeholders requests that 49 executive actions was recognized and performed by QFD model and quality house model indicated relation among requests of stakeholders, actions, weighting and ranked ultimately 24 important actions was recognized and by using results and normalization, performance assessment model extracted from above three processes that indicated victory result and monetary benefits included their most important requests and teams shall take action to establish clear financial and planning unit and shall be assessed periodically.

  12. High-Performance, Low Environmental Impact Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, E. T.; Dhooge, P. M.; Glass, S. M.; Nimitz, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Refrigerants used in process and facilities systems in the US include R-12, R-22, R-123, R-134a, R-404A, R-410A, R-500, and R-502. All but R-134a, R-404A, and R-410A contain ozone-depleting substances that will be phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Some of the substitutes do not perform as well as the refrigerants they are replacing, require new equipment, and have relatively high global warming potentials (GWPs). New refrigerants are needed that addresses environmental, safety, and performance issues simultaneously. In efforts sponsored by Ikon Corporation, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ETEC has developed and tested a new class of refrigerants, the Ikon (registered) refrigerants, based on iodofluorocarbons (IFCs). These refrigerants are nonflammable, have essentially zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP), low GWP, high performance (energy efficiency and capacity), and can be dropped into much existing equipment.

  13. Superior electrode performance of mesoporous hollow TiO2 microspheres through efficient hierarchical nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Yu; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2011-10-01

    Mesoporous hollow TiO2 microspheres with controlled size and hierarchical nanostructures are designed from a process employing in suit template-assisted and hydrothermal methods. The results show that the hollow microspheres composed of mesoporous nanospheres possess very stable reversible capacity of 184 mAh g-1 at 0.25C and exhibit extremely high power of 122 mAh g-1 at the high rate of 10C. The superior high-rate and high-capacity performance of the sample is attributed to the efficient hierarchical nanostructures. The hollow structure could shorten the diffusion length for lithium ion in the microspheres. The large mesoporous channels between the mesoporous nanospheres provide an easily-accessed system which facilitates electrolyte transportation and lithium ion diffusion within the electrode materials. The electrolyte, flooding the mesoporous channels, can also lead to a high electrolyte/electrode contact area, facilitating transport of lithium ions across the electrolyte/electrode interface. The small mesopores in the meosporous nanospheres can make the electrolyte and lithium ion further diffuse into the interior of electrode materials and increase electrolyte/electrode contact area. The small nanoparticles can also ensure high reversible capacity.

  14. Assessing environmental performance by combining life cycle assessment, multi-criteria analysis and environmental performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new analytical tool, called COMPLIMENT, which can be used to provide detailed information on the overall environmental impact of a business. COMPLIMENT integrates parts of tools such as life cycle assessment, multi-criteria analysis and environmental performance indicators. It avoids di

  15. A framework for the integration of Green and Lean Six Sigma for superior sustainability performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherrafi, Anass; Elfezazi, Said; Govindan, Kannan

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that Lean, Six Sigma and Green approaches make a positive contribution to the economic, social and environmental (i.e. sustainability) performance of organisations. However, evidence also suggests that organisations have found their integration and implementation challenging....... The purpose of this research is therefore to present a framework that methodically guides companies through a five stages and sixteen steps process to effectively integrate and implement the Green, Lean and Six Sigma approaches to improve their sustainability performance. To achieve this, a critical review...... of industries. The results showed that the integration of Lean Six Sigma and Green helped the organisations to averagely reduce their resources consumption from 20 to 40% and minimise the cost of energy and mass streams by 7–12%. The application of the framework should be gradual, the companies should assess...

  16. Superior mechanical performance of highly porous, anisotropic nanocellulose-montmorillonite aerogels prepared by freeze casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donius, Amalie E; Liu, Andong; Berglund, Lars A; Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2014-09-01

    Directionally solidified nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)-sodium-montmorillonite (MMT) composite aerogels with a honeycomb-like pore structure were compared with non-directionally frozen aerogels with equiaxed pore structure and identical composition and found to have superior functionalities. To explore structure-property correlations, three different aerogel compositions of 3wt% MMT, and 0.4wt%, 0.8wt%, and 1.2wt% NFC, respectively, were tested. Young׳s modulus, compressive strength and toughness were found to increase with increasing NFC content for both architectures. The modulus increased from 25.8kPa to 386kPa for the isotropic and from 2.13MPa to 3.86MPa for the anisotropic aerogels, the compressive yield strength increased from 3.3kPa to 18.0kPa for the isotropic and from 32.3kPa to 52.5kPa for the anisotropic aerogels, and the toughness increased from 6.3kJ/m(3) to 24.1kJ/m(3) for the isotropic and from 22.9kJ/m(3) to 46.2kJ/m(3) for the anisotropic aerogels. The great range of properties, which can be achieved through compositional as well as architectural variations, makes these aerogels highly attractive for a large range of applications, for which either a specific composition, or a particular pore morphology, or both are required. Finally, because NFC is flammable, gasification experiments were performed, which revealed that the inclusion of MMT increased the heat endurance and shape retention functions of the aerogels dramatically up to 800°C while the mechanical properties were retained up to 300°C.

  17. Environmental Management Performance Report May 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDER, D.M.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-FU) a report of the Project Hanford Management Contractors' (PHMC)' Environmental Management (EM) performance by Fluor Hanford (FH) and its subcontractors. This report is a monthly publication that summarizes the PHMC EM performance. In addition, it includes some PHMC-level data not detailed elsewhere in the report. Section A, Executive Summary, provides an executive level summary of the cost, schedule, and technical performance described in this report. It summarizes performance for the period covered, highlights areas worthy of management attention, and provides a forward look to some of the upcoming key performance activities as extracted from the PHMC baseline. The remaining sections provide detailed performance data relative to each individual Project (e.g., Waste Management, Spent Nuclear Fuels, etc.), in support of Section A of the report. A glossary of terms is provided at the end of this report for reference purposes. Unless otherwise noted, the Safety, Conduct of Operations, Metrics, and Cost/Schedule data contained herein is as of March 31, 2000. All other information is updated as noted.

  18. Environmental Management Performance Report March 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDER, D.M.

    2000-03-16

    The purpose of this report is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) a report of the Project Hanford Management Contractors' (PHMC) Environmental Management (EM) performance by Fluor Hanford (FH) and its subcontractors. This report is a monthly publication that summarizes the PHMC EM performance. In addition, it includes some PHMC-level data not detailed elsewhere in the report. Section A, Executive Summary, provides an executive level summary of the cost, schedule, and technical performance described in this report. It summarizes performance for the period covered, highlights areas worthy of management attention, and provides a forward look to some of the upcoming key performance activities as extracted from the PHMC baseline. The remaining sections provide detailed performance data relative to each individual mission area (e.g., Waste Management, Spent Nuclear fuels , etc.), in support of Section A of the report. A glossary of terms is provided at the end of this report for reference purposes. Unless otherwise noted, the Safety, Conduct of Operations, and Cost/schedule data contained herein is as of January 31, 2000. All other information is as of March 1, 2000.

  19. Characterizing ammonia emissions from swine farms in eastern North Carolina: part 2--potential environmentally superior technologies for waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P; Arya, S Pal; Rumsey, Ian C; Kim, D-S; Bajwa, K; Arkinson, H L; Semunegus, H; Dickey, D A; Stefanski, L A; Todd, L; Mottus, K; Robarge, W P; Williams, C M

    2008-09-01

    The need for developing environmentally superior and sustainable solutions for managing the animal waste at commercial swine farms in eastern North Carolina has been recognized in recent years. Program OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen), funded by the North Carolina State University Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center (APWMC), was initiated and charged with the evaluation of potential environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) that have been developed and implemented at selected swine farms or facilities. The OPEN program has demonstrated the effectiveness of a new paradigm for policy-relevant environmental research related to North Carolina's animal waste management programs. This new paradigm is based on a commitment to improve scientific understanding associated with a wide array of environmental issues (i.e., issues related to the movement of N from animal waste into air, water, and soil media; the transmission of odor and odorants; disease-transmitting vectors; and airborne pathogens). The primary focus of this paper is on emissions of ammonia (NH3) from some potential ESTs that were being evaluated at full-scale swine facilities. During 2-week-long periods in two different seasons (warm and cold), NH3 fluxes from water-holding structures and NH3 emissions from animal houses or barns were measured at six potential EST sites: (1) Barham farm--in-ground ambient temperature anaerobic digester/energy recovery/greenhouse vegetable production system; (2) BOC #93 farm--upflow biofiltration system--EKOKAN; (3) Carrolls farm--aerobic blanket system--ISSUES-ABS; (4) Corbett #1 farm--solids separation/ gasification for energy and ash recovery centralized system--BEST; (5) Corbett #2 farm--solid separation/ reciprocating water technology--ReCip; and (6) Vestal farm--Recycling of Nutrient, Energy and Water System--ISSUES-RENEW. The ESTs were compared with similar measurements made at two conventional lagoon and spray technology (LST) farms (Moore

  20. Environmental Management Performance Report September 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDER, D.M.

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) a monthly summary of the Project Hanford Management Contractor's (PHMC) Environmental Management (EM) performance by Fluor Hanford (FH) and its subcontractors. In addition to project-specific information, it includes some PHMC-level data not detailed elsewhere in the report. Section A, Executive Summary, provides an executive level summary of the cost, schedule, and technical performance described in this report. It summarizes performance for the period covered, highlights areas worthy of management attention, and provides a forward look to some of the upcoming key performance activities as extracted from the PHMC baseline. The remaining sections provide detailed performance data relative to each individual Project (e.g., Waste Management, Spent Nuclear Fuels, etc.), in support of Section A of the report. Unless otherwise noted, the Safety, Conduct of Operations, and Cost/Schedule data contained herein is as of July 31, 2000. All other information is updated as of August 24, unless otherwise noted. ''Stoplight'' boxes are used to indicate at a glance the condition of a particular area. Green boxes denote on schedule. Yellows denote behind schedule but recoverable. Red is either missed or unrecoverable.

  1. Environmental Management Performance Report June 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDER, D.M.

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) a monthly summary of the Project Hanford Management Contractor's (PHMC) Environmental Management (EM) performance by Fluor Hanford (FH) and its subcontractors. In addition to project-specific information, it includes some PHMC-level data not detailed elsewhere in the report. Section A, Executive Summary, provides an executive level summary of the cost, schedule, and technical performance described in this report. It summarizes performance for the period covered, highlights areas worthy of management attention, and provides a forward look to some of the upcoming key performance activities as extracted from the PHMC baseline. The remaining sections provide detailed performance data relative to each individual Project (e.g., Waste Management, Spent Nuclear Fuels, etc.), in support of Section A of the report. Unless otherwise noted, the Safety, Conduct of Operations, and Cost/Schedule data contained herein is as of April 30, 2000. All other information is updated as of May 19, unless otherwise noted.

  2. FeS anchored reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as advanced anode material with superior high-rate performance for alkaline secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Guo, Litan; Li, Fei; Wang, Qin; Li, Jing; Li, Quanmin; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi

    2016-09-01

    A new nanocomposite formulation of the iron-based anode for alkaline secondary batteries is proposed. For the first time, FeS nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets are synthesized via a facile, environmentally friendly direct-precipitation approach. In this nanocomposite, FeS nanoparticles are anchored uniformly and tightly on the surface of RGO nanosheets. As an alkaline battery anode, the FeS@RGO electrode delivers a superior high-rate charge/discharge capability and outstanding cycling stability, even at a condition without any conductive additives and a high electrode loading of ∼40 mg cm-2. At high charge/discharge rates of 5C, 10C and 20C (6000 mA g-1), the FeS@RGO electrode presents a specific capacity of ∼288, 258 and 220 mAh g-1, respectively. Moreover, the FeS@RGO electrode exhibits an admirable long cycling stability with a superior capacity retention of 87.6% for 300 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 2C. The excellent electrochemical properties of the FeS@RGO electrode can be stemmed from the high specific surface area, peculiar electric conductivity and robust sheet-anchored structure of the FeS@RGO nanocomposite. By virtue of its superior fast charge/discharge properties, the FeS@RGO nanocomposite is suitable as an advanced anode material for high-performance alkaline secondary batteries.

  3. The impact of strategic planning process variation on superior organizational performance in nonprofit human service organizations providing mental health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karun Krishna

    This research investigated the question: What is the impact of strategic planning process variation on superior organizational performance in nonprofit human service organizations providing mental health services? The study employed a retrospective, cross-sectional, comparison group design using a combination of survey data, unobtrusive agency backup data, and follow-up in-person interview data. The sample was comprised of two main groups of organizations, those that were doing strategic planning and those that were not engaged in strategic planning. Responses were obtained from the chief executive officers of 306 of the 380 randomly selected organizations resulting in a response rate of 81%. Hypotheses were tested using multiple and logistic regression procedures. The major finding of this study was that complete strategic planning is highly correlated with superior organizational performance. The implications of the findings for administration, policy, research, and the social work profession are discussed.

  4. Environmental Proactivity and Environmental and Economic Performance: Evidence from the Winery Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Barba-Sánchez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability in the winery sector is receiving increased attention from governments, environmental groups, and consumers. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the degree of proactivity of a firm’s environmental strategies and its business performance. The novelty of this research work lies in its definition of business performance, which includes business environmental performance in terms of reducing the firm’s environmental impacts and eco-efficiency in the use of resources such as water, energy, and raw materials, in addition to its economic performance. A model is proposed and tested using a sample of 312 Spanish wineries. Data were analysed using partial least squares path modelling (PLS-PM. The fitness and robustness of the structural model proved adequate. The results indicate positive correlation of environmental proactivity with economic and environmental performance. Although environmental proactivity improves business performance, it has a greater impact on reducing environmental impacts and improving eco-efficiency.

  5. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P; Thorne, M; Egan, M; Calvez, M; Kautsky, U

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example.

  6. OECD environmental performance reviews: Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-11

    This book presents the results of a peer review of the Czech Republic's environmental policies and programmes. It systematically covers air, water, and waste management; nature and biodiversity management; the environmental/economic interface; the environmental/social interface; and international co-operation. It includes extensive statistical information as well as specific recommendations in each of the topics covered. 7 refs., 34 figs., 34 tabs.

  7. Origin of the superior performance of (thio)squaramides over (thio)ureas in organocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tongxiang; Wheeler, Steven E

    2013-11-04

    The Diels-Alder cycloaddition of anthracene and nitrostyrene catalyzed by the squaramide-derived aminocatalysts (Sq) recently reported by Jørgensen and co-workers (Angew. Chem. 2012, 124, 10417; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 10271) has been studied by using modern tools of computational quantum chemistry. This catalyst is compared with analogous urea-, thiourea-, and thiosquaramide-derived aminocatalysts. Ultimately, a thiosquar-amide-derived catalyst is predicted to result in the lowest free-energy barrier, while retaining the same high degree of enantioselectivity as Sq. This stems in part from the superior hydrogen-bonding ability of thiosquaramides, compared to squaramides and (thio)ureas. We also examine the hydrogen-bonding ability of (thio)ureas and (thio)-squaramides in model complexes. In contrast to previous work, we show that aromaticity does not contribute significantly to the enhanced hydrogen-bonding interactions of squaramides. Overall, thiosquaramide, which has not been explored in the context of either organocatalysis or molecular recognition, is predicted to lead to strong, co-planar hydrogen bonds, and should serve as a potent hydrogen-bonding element in a myriad of applications.

  8. Superior supercapacitive performance of hollow activated carbon nanomesh with hierarchical structure derived from poplar catkins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Li; Cheng, Ming-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yang, Jing-He; Zheng, Xiu-Cheng; Guan, Xin-Xin

    2017-09-01

    The hollow activated carbon nanomesh (PCACM) with a hierarchical porous structure is derived from biowaste-poplar catkins by in-situ calcination etching with Ni(NO3)2·6H2O and KOH in N2 flow combined with an acid dissolution technique. This procedure not only inherits the natural tube morphology of poplar catkins, but also generates a fascinating nanomesh structure on the walls. PCACM possesses a large specific surface area (SBET = 1893.0 m2 g-1) and high total pore volume (Vp = 1.495 cm3 g-1), and displays an exciting meso-macoporous structure with a concentrated pore size distribution of 4.53 nm. The specific capacitance of PCACM is as high as 314.6 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 when used as the electrode materials for supercapacitor. Furthermore, the symmetric supercapacitor of PCACM with 1.0 M Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte displays a high energy density of 20.86 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 180.13 W kg-1 within a wide voltage rage of 0-1.8 V, which is comparable or even obviously higher than those of other biomass derived carbon reported. It is noteworthy that PCACM also exhibits superior cycling stability and coulombic efficiency. The excellent electrochemical behaviors enable PCACM to be a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  9. Active vacuum brazing of CNT films to metal substrates for superior electron field emission performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longtin, Rémi; Sanchez-Valencia, Juan Ramon; Shorubalko, Ivan; Furrer, Roman; Hack, Erwin; Elsener, Hansrudolf; Gröning, Oliver; Greenwood, Paul; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Teo, Kenneth; Leinenbach, Christian; Gröning, Pierangelo

    2015-02-01

    The joining of macroscopic films of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to titanium substrates is demonstrated by active vacuum brazing at 820 °C with a Ag-Cu-Ti alloy and at 880 °C with a Cu-Sn-Ti-Zr alloy. The brazing methodology was elaborated in order to enable the production of highly electrically and thermally conductive CNT/metal substrate contacts. The interfacial electrical resistances of the joints were measured to be as low as 0.35 Ω. The improved interfacial transport properties in the brazed films lead to superior electron field-emission properties when compared to the as-grown films. An emission current of 150 μA was drawn from the brazed nanotubes at an applied electric field of 0.6 V μm-1. The improvement in electron field-emission is mainly attributed to the reduction of the contact resistance between the nanotubes and the substrate. The joints have high re-melting temperatures up to the solidus temperatures of the alloys; far greater than what is achievable with standard solders, thus expanding the application potential of CNT films to high-current and high-power applications where substantial frictional or resistive heating is expected.

  10. Graphite assisted synthesis of nanoparticles interconnected porous two-dimensional LiMn2O4 nanoplates with superior performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X. H.; Liu, H. Q.; Jiang, Y.; Liu, G. Y.; Guo, Y. J.; Wang, H. F.; Sun, L. F.; Chu, W. G.

    2016-10-01

    A facile graphite assisted approach is proposed to synthesize high performance LiMn2O4 nanostructures. Graphite plates with different sizes and thicknesses are found to have different influences on the structure, morphology and performance of LiMn2O4. Larger and thicker graphite plates result in 2-D porous LiMn2O4 nanoplates whereas smaller and thinner ones lead to the formation of dispersed nanoparticles. Despite the smaller lattice constant, the shorter Lisbnd O and longer Mnsbnd O bonds, and the lower BET surface area compared to dispersed LiMn2O4 nanoparticles, LiMn2O4 nanoplates formed by primary nanoparticles with similar sizes and morphologies exhibit the superior performance because of the better interparticle electronic conductivity. LiMn2O4 nanoplates show the discharge capacity of 104 mAh g-1 at 50 C and the capacity retention of 70.0% after 1000 cycles for 1 C at RT, better than the corresponding values, 95 mAh g-1 and 64.5% for dispersed LiMn2O4 nanoparticles, respectively. The more superior performance of LiMn2O4 nanoplates compared to dispersed LiMn2O4 nanoparticles is particularly manifested in the case of lower percentage conductive additive, which is very significant for practical application. This simple, cost effective, green and up scalable approach can also be employed to synthesize other 2-D nanostructured materials.

  11. Educación ambiental y participación ciudadana en la Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori (Environmental education and citizen participation at Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Stella Manosalva Corredor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Frente al deterioro de las condiciones ambientales, el equipo ambiental de la Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori de Bogotá y el “Colectivo Acción Ciudadana” convocan a instituciones gubernamentales locales y “ciudadanos habitantes de calle” a un diálogo de saberes para encontrar soluciones concertadas a la problemática ambiental. En el mismo sentido, el proyecto Educación ambiental y participación ciudadana: estrategias de una política de desarrollo sustentable de la ENSDMM trabaja en la propuesta del Plan Institucional de Gestión Ambiental, por lo que realiza una evaluación estratégica ambiental y señala que la educación ambiental y la participación ciudadana son posibles si logran vincular educación y gestión en la definición de los procesos, actividades y actuaciones, con principios de una ética de responsabilidad social, para alcanzar las metas ambientales sustentables.Abstract: With the aim of facing up to the deterioration of the environmental condition, the environmental team of Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori and “the Collective Citizen Action” convoke the local government institutions and “the citizen street inhabitants” to have a dialogue of knowledge to find concerted solutions for the current environmental problems. In the same sense, the project Environmental Education and Citizen Participation: Strategies for a policy of sustainable development at ENSDMM works on the proposal of the Environmental Management Institutional Plan. It helps to develop a strategic environmental evaluation and points out that the environmental education and citizen participation are possible if education and management are involved in the processes, activities and actions based on principles of social responsibility ethics to achieve the sustainable environmental goals.

  12. Lignocellulose Nanofiber-Reinforced Polystyrene Produced from Composite Microspheres Obtained in Suspension Polymerization Shows Superior Mechanical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballner, Daniel; Herzele, Sabine; Keckes, Jozef; Edler, Matthias; Griesser, Thomas; Saake, Bodo; Liebner, Falk; Potthast, Antje; Paulik, Christian; Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    A facile approach to obtaining cellulose nanofiber-reinforced polystyrene with greatly improved mechanical performance compared to unreinforced polystyrene is presented. Cellulose nanofibers were obtained by mechanical fibrillation of partially delignified wood (MFLC) and compared to nanofibers obtained from bleached pulp. Residual hemicellulose and lignin imparted amphiphilic surface chemical character to MFLC, which enabled the stabilization of emulsions of styrene in water. Upon suspension polymerization of styrene from the emulsion, polystyrene microspheres coated in MFLC were obtained. When processed into polymer sheets by hot-pressing, improved bending strength and superior impact toughness was observed for the polystyrene-MFLC composite compared to the un-reinforced polystyrene.

  13. Toward a science of exceptional achievement: attaining superior performance through deliberate practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K Anders; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Roring, Roy W

    2009-08-01

    Exceptional performance is frequently attributed to genetic differences in talent. Since Sir Francis Galton's book, Hereditary Genius, many scientists have cited heritable factors that set limits of performance and only allow some individuals to attain exceptional levels. However, thus far these accounts have not explicated the causal processes involved in the activation and expression of unique genes in DNA that lead to the emergence of distinctive physiological attributes and cognitive capacities (innate talent). This article argues on the basis of our current knowledge that it is possible to account for the development of elite performance among healthy children without recourse to innate talent (genetic endowment)--excepting the innate determinants of body size. Our account is based on the expert-performance approach and proposes that the distinctive characteristics of exceptional performers are the result of adaptations to extended and intense practice activities that selectively activate dormant genes that are contained within all healthy individuals' DNA. Furthermore, the theoretical framework of expert performance explains the apparent emergence of early talent by identifying factors that influence starting ages for training and the accumulated engagement in sustained extended deliberate practice, such as motivation, parental support, and access to the best training environments and teachers. In sum, our empirical investigations and extensive reviews show that the development of expert performance will be primarily constrained by individuals' engagement in deliberate practice and the quality of the available training resources.

  14. Identifying Blood Biomarkers and Physiological Processes That Distinguish Humans with Superior Performance under Psychological Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-18

    Analysis of the factors contributing to serum retinol binding protein and transthyretin levels in Japanese adults. J Atheroscler Thromb 13: 209–215. 23...susceptible low perform- ing colleagues, we compared expression levels of low and median- scoring vs. high-scoring performers. This resulted in nine...effect of catecholamines (eg. epinephrine) either by increasing the release or preventing the reuptake of catecholamines at a pre-synaptic level [11,12

  15. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-11

    May 11, 2010 ... on the relationship between mother tongue instruction and school performance, but the ... pupil performance (Colclough et. al, 2003; Zuze, 2010). ... master reading skills and to perform well in school (Harlech-Jones, 1998;.

  16. DOES ENVIRONMENTAL HOSTILITY MODERATE TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ellitan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah lama disepakati bahwa teknologi membantu perusahaan untuk meningkatkan kinerja, untuk memperoleh keunggulan kompetitif, dan menciptakan hambatan dalam persaingan. Adopsi teknologi dan kekuatan-kekuatan teknologi secara langsung terkait dengan pendorong persaingan seperti kecepatan proses, tingkat cacat produk, ketepatan penghantaran dan produktivitas. Beberapa studi sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa tingkat kompetisi dalam persaingan bisnis memoderasi hubungan teknologi-kinerja. Studi ini memfokuskan pada peran environmental hostility terhadap hubungan teknologi-kinerja. Data dikumpulkan melalui survey surat yang ditujukan kepada pimpinan perusahaan mamufaktur di Indonesia. Studi ini menemukan bahwa teknologi lunak dan teknologi keras berpengaruh positif terhadap seluruh indikator kinerja. Environmental hostility memoderasi hubungan teknologi keras dengan semua indikator kinerja kecuali pertumbuhan kinerja manufaktur. Selanjutnya studi ini juga menemukan bahwa environmental hostility memoderasi hubungan teknologi lunak dengan kinerja finansial, pertumbuhan kinerja manufaktur, dan kinerja keseluruhan. Kata Kunci: lingkungan, hostility, teknologi, kinerja

  17. Antisaccade Performance in Schizophrenia: A Neural Model of Decision Making in the Superior Colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis eCutsuridis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Antisaccade performance deficits in schizophrenia are generally interpreted as an impaired top-down inhibitory signal failing to suppress the erroneous response. We recorded the antisaccade performance (error rates and latencies of healthy and schizophrenia subjects performing the mirror antisaccade task. A neural rise-to-threshold model of antisaccade performance was developed to uncover the biophysical mechanisms giving rise to the observed deficits in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients displayed greater variability in the antisaccade and corrected antisaccade latency distributions, increased error rates and decreased corrected errors, relative to healthy participants. Our model showed that i increased variability is due to a more noisy accumulation of information by schizophrenia patients, but their confidence level required before making a decision is unaffected, and ii competition between the correct and erroneous decision processes, and not a third top-down inhibitory signal of the erroneous response, accounts for the antisaccade performance of healthy and schizophrenia subjects. Local competition further ensured that a correct antisaccade is never followed by an error prosaccade.

  18. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  19. High-performance hybrid pervaporation membranes with superior hydrothermal and acid stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L. Castricum; R. Kreiter; H.M. van Veen; D.H.A. Blank; J.F. Vente; J.E. ten Elshof

    2008-01-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid membrane has been prepared with exceptional performance in dewatering applications. The only precursor used in the sol-gel synthesis of the selective layer was organically linked 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE). The microporous structure of this layer enables sel

  20. White Matter Microstructure in Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Spatial Working Memory Performance in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William F C

    2011-01-01

    memory (SWM) performance improves significantly throughout the childhood years, and several lines of evidence implicate the left fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts in SWM processing. Here we report results from a study of 76 typically developing children, 7 to 13 years of age. We...

  1. Assessing the Local Environmental Performance in Western Moldavia (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Alexandra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental performance is a result of measurable characteristics emerging from the functionality of integrated environmental management systems based on various sustainable development policies at different administrative levels. This paper aims to quantify some dimensions of environmental performance in terms of outcomes and administrative efficiency for Western Moldavia region, using the latest available data. The obtained results demonstrate the territorial heterogeneity of environmental state, pressure and spatial resilience by highlighting the importance of ecosystems viability (forest cover, land degradation, sustainable local governance (environmental expenditure, energy, water quality, sanitation and environmental health (sanitation services, access to water and sewage, use of renewable energy. If completed in future by integrating other local environmental performance indicators the outcome of this research could become a viable tool for local and regional system of government in establishing policies in order to effectively preserve the environment.

  2. The application of DEA model in enterprise environmental performance auditing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Zhu, L. Y.; Zhang, J. D.; Liu, C. Y.; Qu, Z. G.; Xiao, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    As a part of society, enterprises have an inescapable responsibility for environmental protection and governance. This article discusses the feasibility and necessity of enterprises environmental performance auditing and uses DEA model calculate the environmental performance of Haier for example. The most of reference data are selected and sorted from Haier’s environmental reportspublished in 2008, 2009, 2011 and 2015, and some of the data from some published articles and fieldwork. All the calculation results are calculated by DEAP software andhave a high credibility. The analysis results of this article can give corporate managements an idea about using environmental performance auditing to adjust their corporate environmental investments capital quota and change their company’s environmental strategies.

  3. Superior recognition performance for happy masked and unmasked faces in both younger and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim eSvard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aging literature it has been shown that even though emotion recognition performance decreases with age, the decrease is less for happiness than other facial expressions. Studies in younger adults have also revealed that happy faces are more strongly attended to and better recognized than other emotional facial expressions. Thus, there might be a more age independent happy face advantage in facial expression recognition. By using a backward masking paradigm and varying stimulus onset asynchronies (17–267 ms the temporal development of a happy face advantage, on a continuum from low to high levels of visibility, was examined in younger and older adults. Results showed that across age groups, recognition performance for happy faces was better than for neutral and fearful faces at durations longer than 50 ms. Importantly, the results showed a happy face advantage already during early processing of emotional faces in both younger and older adults. This advantage is discussed in terms of processing of salient perceptual features and elaborative processing of the happy face. We also investigate the combined effect of age and neuroticism on emotional face processing. The rationale was previous findings of age related differences in physiological arousal to emotional pictures and a relation between arousal and neuroticism. Across all durations, there was an interaction between age and neuroticism, showing that being high in neuroticism might be disadvantageous for younger, but not older adults’ emotion recognition performance during arousal enhancing tasks. These results indicate that there is a relation between aging, neuroticism, and performance, potentially related to physiological arousal.

  4. High concentration nitrogen doped carbon nanotube anodes with superior Li+ storage performance for lithium rechargeable battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xifei; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Li, Yongliang; Liu, Hao; Meng, Xiangbo; Yang, Jinli; Geng, Dongsheng; Wang, Dongniu; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2012-01-01

    A floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to synthesize carbon nanotubes doped with a high concentration of nitrogen. Their electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in comparison to pristine carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the nitrogen content reaches as high as 16.4 at.%. Bamboo-like compartments were fabricated as shown by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. High concentration nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (HN-CNTs) show approximately double reversible capacity of CNTs: 494 mAh g-1 vs. 260 mAh g-1, and present a much better rate capability than CNTs. The significantly superior electrochemical performance could be related to the high electrical conductivity and the larger number of defect sites in HN-CNTs for anodes of LIBs.

  5. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Factors Influencing Performance and Progress of Primary School Pupils in ... found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school ... on school progress and performance, however; home language did play a role.

  6. Carbon footprint as environmental performance indicator for the manufacturing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    With the current focus on our climate change impacts, the embodied CO2 emission or "Carbon footprint" is often used as an environmental performance indicator for our products or production activities. The ability of carbon footprint to represent other types of impact like human toxicity, and hence......, and the appropriateness of carbon footprint as an overall indicator of the environmental performance is discussed....

  7. Price competition, short-termism and environmental performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the relationships between the intensity of price competition, time horizon and environmental performance. We hypothesize that more intense price competition discourages environmental performance by inducing short-termism in companies.We test the hypotheses on a sample of 3152 comp

  8. Open Economy, Institutional Quality, and Environmental Performance: A Macroeconomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaryllis Mavragani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As the subject of how economic development affects the quality of the natural environment has gained great momentum, this paper focuses on examining the extent to which the openness of a market economy and the quality of the institution affect environmental performance. The majority of the current studies focus on the Environmental Kuznets Curve and the level of economic growth. This paper addresses this question by relating environmental (“Environmental Performance Index” to macroeconomic (Gross Domestic Product per capita, “Open Markets Index” and governance indicators (“Worldwide Governance Indicators”. The sample consists of 75 countries, including all G20 and EU members, comprising “more than 90% of global trade and investment”. Findings show that the Environmental Performance Index is positively correlated to each of the (institutional indicators, so as to confirm that the selected indices are consistent with previous studies, suggesting that environmental performance increases in line with economic development and that good governance increases a country’s levels of environmental protection. By applying factor analysis, an empirical model of the Environmental Performance Index is estimated, suggesting that there is a significant positive correlation between a country’s economic growth, the openness of an economy, high levels of effective governance, and its environmental performance.

  9. Cobalt-based metal organic framework with superior lithium anodic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoshi; Hu, Huiping; Li, Chao; Li, Tian; Lou, Xiaobing; Chen, Qun; Hu, Bingwen

    2016-10-01

    The reversible charging of a Co-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate MOF (Co-BDC MOF) prepared via an one-pot solvothermal method was studied for use as the anode in a Li-ion cell. It was found that this MOF anode provides high reversible capacities (1090 and 611 mA h g-1 at current densities of 0.2 and 1 A g-1, respectively), and an impressive rate performance. Such an outstanding Li-ion storage property has not been reported previously for the LIB anodes within the MOFs category. Ex-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) studies of this material at different state of charge suggest that cobalt stays at Co2+ state during discharge/charge process, so that in this case Li+ may be inserted into the organic moiety without the direct participation of cobalt ions.

  10. Multifunctional graphene sheets embedded in silicone encapsulant for superior performance of light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungae; Hong, Jin-Yong; Jang, Jyongsik

    2013-07-23

    Graphene nanosheets with uniform shape are successfully incorporated into a silicone encapsulant of a light-emitting diode (LED) using a solvent-exchange approach which is a facile and straightforward method. The graphene nanosheets embedded in the silicone encapsulant have a multifunctional role which improves the performance of light-emitting diodes. The presence of graphene gives rise to effective heat dissipation, improvement of protection ability from external stimuli, such as moisture and hazardous gas, and enhancement of mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and fracture toughness. Consequently, the LEDs composed of a graphene-embedded silicone encapsulant exhibit long-term stability without loss of luminous efficiency by addition of relatively small amounts of graphene. This novel strategy offers a feasible candidate for their practical or industrial applications.

  11. TiO2 hollow microspheres with mesoporous surface: Superior adsorption performance for dye removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Cai, Xia; Shen, Fenglei

    2014-06-01

    TiO2 hollow microspheres with mesoporous surface were synthesized by a facile template-assisted solvothermal reaction. The adsorption performance of TiO2 hollow microspheres for removing Methylene Blue from aqueous solution has been investigated. The comparative adsorption study indicated that adsorption capacity of TiO2 hollow microspheres with mesoporous surface is markedly higher than that of solid microsphere. The equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacity reached 196.83 mg/g. The kinetics of dye adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model and the adsorbed dye could be degraded completely by the subsequent photocatalytic process. These TiO2 hollow microspheres can be considered as a low-cost alternative adsorbent for removal of organic pollutants from wastewater.

  12. Environmental Performance in Countries Worldwide: Determinant Factors and Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gallego-Alvarez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental performance of countries and the variables that can influence it. At the same time, we performed a multivariate analysis using the HJ-biplot, an exploratory method that looks for hidden patterns in the data, obtained from the usual singular value decomposition (SVD of the data matrix, to contextualize the countries grouped by geographical areas and the variables relating to environmental indicators included in the environmental performance index. The sample used comprises 149 countries of different geographic areas. The findings obtained from the empirical analysis emphasize that socioeconomic factors, such as economic wealth and education, as well as institutional factors represented by the style of public administration, in particular control of corruption, are determinant factors of environmental performance in the countries analyzed. In contrast, no effect on environmental performance was found for factors relating to the internal characteristics of a country or political factors.

  13. Facile fabrication of graphene/nickel oxide composite with superior supercapacitance performance by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Peng [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyzhang@gdut.edu.cn [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Yiming [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Zhenghui; Huang, Zhikun; Xu, Xingfa [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Yunyong; Shi, Zhicong [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • G/NiO was synthesized by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate. • G/NiO presents a globule-on-sheet structure and reveals a synergistic effect. • G/NiO displays high specific capacitance and superior cycling stability. - Abstract: Graphene/nickel oxide composite (G/NiO) was synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method and subsequently microwave thermal treatment by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate. The as-prepared G/NiO was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that the graphene oxide has been successfully reduced to graphene, and NiO nanoparticles are homogeneous anchored on the surface of graphene, forming a globule-on-sheet structure. The loading content of NiO nanoparticles anchoring on the surface of graphene nanosheets can be controlled by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature. The G/NiO displays superior electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 530 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} in 2 M of NaOH. After 5000 cycles, the supercapacitor still maintains a specific capacitance of 490 F g{sup −1} (92% retention of the initial capacity), exhibiting excellent cycling stability.

  14. Superior lithium storage performance of hierarchical porous vanadium pentoxide nanofibers for lithium ion battery cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Bo [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); National Key Laboratory of Power Sources, Tianjin Institute of Power Sources, Tianjin 300381 (China); Li, Xifei, E-mail: xfli2011@hotmail.com [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Bai, Zhimin, E-mail: zhimibai@cugb.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Minsi [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Dong, Lei; Xiong, Dongbin [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Dejun, E-mail: dejunli@mail.tjnu.edu.cn [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchical porous vanadium pentoxide nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers showed much enhanced lithium storage performance. • Kinetics process of electrospinning V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers was studied by means of EIS for the first time. • Strategies to enhance the electrochemical performance of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrode were concluded. - Abstract: The hierarchical V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers cathode materials with diameter of 200–400 nm are successfully synthesized via an electrospinning followed by annealing. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms the formation of phase-pure product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) obviously display the hierarchical porous nanofibers constructed by attached tiny vanadium oxide nanoplates. Electrochemical behavior of the as-prepared product is systematically studied using galvanostatic charge/discharge testing, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It turns out that in comparison to the commercial V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and other unique nanostructured materials in the literature, our V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers show much enhanced lithium storage capacity, improved cyclic stability, and higher rate capability. After 100 cycles at a current density of 800 mA g{sup −1}, the specific capacity of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers retain 133.9 mAh g{sup −1}, corresponding to high capacity retention of 96.05%. More importantly, the EIS at various discharge depths clearly reveal the kinetics process of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode reaction with lithium. Based on our results, the possible approach to improve the specific capacity and rate capability of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode material is proposed. It is expected that this study could accelerate the development of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  15. Selection for superior growth advances the onset of puberty and increases reproductive performance in ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-06-01

    The reproductive efficiency of the entire sheep flock could be improved if ewe lambs go through puberty early and produce their first lamb at 1 year of age. The onset of puberty is linked to the attainment of critical body mass, and therefore we tested whether it would be influenced by genetic selection for growth rate or for rate of accumulation of muscle or fat. We studied 136 Merino ewe lambs with phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values at post-weaning age (200 days) for live weight (PWT), eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT). First oestrus was detected with testosterone-treated wethers and then entire rams as the ewes progressed from 6 to 10 months of age. Blood concentrations of leptin and IGF-I were measured to test whether they were related to production traits and reproductive performance (puberty, fertility and reproductive rate). In total, 97% of the lambs reached first oestrus at average weight 39.4 ± 0.4 kg (mean ± s.e.m.) and age 219 days (range 163 to 301). Age at first oestrus decreased with increases in values for PWT (P growth can accelerate the onset of puberty and increase fertility and reproductive rate of Merino ewe lambs. The metabolic hormones, IGF-I and leptin, might act as a physiological link between the growing tissues and the reproductive axis.

  16. Vertical jumping performance of bonobo (Pan paniscus) suggests superior muscle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Melanie N; D'Août, Kristiaan; Bobbert, Maarten F; Aerts, Peter

    2006-09-07

    Vertical jumping was used to assess muscle mechanical output in bonobos and comparisons were drawn to human jumping. Jump height, defined as the vertical displacement of the body centre of mass during the airborne phase, was determined for three bonobos of varying age and sex. All bonobos reached jump heights above 0.7 m, which greatly exceeds typical human maximal performance (0.3-0.4m). Jumps by one male bonobo (34 kg) and one human male (61.5 kg) were analysed using an inverse dynamics approach. Despite the difference in size, the mechanical output delivered by the bonobo and the human jumper during the push-off was similar: about 450 J, with a peak power output close to 3000 W. In the bonobo, most of the mechanical output was generated at the hips. To account for the mechanical output, the muscles actuating the bonobo's hips (directly and indirectly) must deliver muscle-mass-specific power and work output of 615 Wkg-1 and 92 Jkg-1, respectively. This was twice the output expected on the basis of muscle mass specific work and power in other jumping animals but seems physiologically possible. We suggest that the difference is due to a higher specific force (force per unit of cross-sectional area) in the bonobo.

  17. Corporate sustainability: environmental, social, economic and corporate performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alena Kocmanová; Marie Dočekalová

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with corporate sustainability and environmental and social issues of the integration of corporate performance measurement that may lead to sustainable economic success. Sustainability is a strategy of the process of sustainable development. Sustainability of businesses and sustainable performance can be defined as an integration of environmental, social and economic performance. First and foremost, businesses will want to know what indicators can be used to measure environme...

  18. Product-Oriented Environmental Management: : A System for Product Environmental Performance Communication

    OpenAIRE

    de Lima Ottoni, Frederico

    2010-01-01

    This project is an action research study which presents the development of a system for product environmental performance internal communication for the Atlas Copco Tools AB scenario. The study is based on the study of available literature upon product-oriented environmental management systems and the European Integrated Product Policy scheme. Through the analysis of the literature and the scenario in study, a concept for integrated product environmental performance communication from the pro...

  19. Environmental performance assessment of a company of aluminum surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Catieri Ramalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to evaluate the environmental performance of a medium-sized company that provides services for surface treatment of aluminum. The treatment is known as anodizing. The research method was qualitative numerical modeling. The environmental performance of the company was organized into five constructs: atmosphere, wastewater, energy and natural resources, solid waste, and legislation and management. Nineteen indicators were chosen to explain the five constructs. Ten employees of the company prioritized the constructs and evaluated the situation of the indicators by means of a scale of assessment. By means of a mathematical model, the general performance of the environmental operation was calculated at 74.5% of the maximum possible. The indicators that most contributed to the performance not to reach 100% were consumption of electricity and water consumption. The construct of worse performance was natural and energy resources. These are the priorities for future environmental improvement actions that the company may promote.

  20. Environmental Management Performance Report October 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDER, D.M.

    2000-10-01

    This section provides an executive level summary of the performance information covered in this report and is intended to bring to Management's attention that information considered to be most noteworthy. All cost, schedule, milestone commitments, performance measures. and safety data is current as of August 31. Accomplishments, Issues and Integration items are current as of September 18 unless otherwise noted. The section begins with a description of notable accomplishments that have occurred since the last report and are considered to have made the greatest contribution toward safe, timely, and cost-effective clean up. Following the accomplishment section is an overall fiscal year-to-date summary analysis addressing cost, schedule, and milestone performance. Overviews of safety ensue. The next segment of the Executive Summary, entitled Critical Issues, is designed to identify the high-level challenges to achieving cleanup progress. The next section includes FY 2000 EM Management Commitment High Visibility Project Milestones and Critical Few Performance Measures. The Key Integration Activities section follows next, highlighting PHMC activities that cross contractor boundaries and demonstrate the shared value of partnering with other Site entities to accomplish the work. Concluding the Executive Summary, a forward-looking synopsis of Upcoming Planned Key Events is provided.

  1. Hierarchical porous NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays directly grown on carbon cloth with superior lithium storage performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Tian, Chungui; Feng, He; Diao, Zhongwei; Fu, Honggang

    2017-03-23

    Binary metal oxides have been explored as advanced candidates in lithium-ion battery (LIB) anodes due to their high specific capacity. Herein, the hierarchical structures of porous NiCo2O4 nanosheets directly grown on a conductive carbon cloth substrate (3D NCO-PSA/CC) were obtained by a facile in situ synthetic strategy. When applied as a binder-free LIB anode, it exhibited satisfactory performance with a high discharge capacity (a first discharge capacity of 2090.8 mA h g(-1) and a stable capacity of 1687.6 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1)), superior rate capacity (discharge capacity of 375.5 mA h g(-1) at 6000 mA g(-1)) and excellent reversibility (coulombic efficiency of approximately 100%). The outstanding performances should be attributed to the 3D porous structures, nanosheets and good conductivity of NCO-PSA/CC that could not only ensure the rapid transport of Li(+) ions and electrons but also remit the huge volume change during lithiation/delithiation processes. Undoubtedly, the present facile and effective strategy can be extended to other binary metal-oxide materials for use as high-performance energy storage and conversion devices.

  2. Dimensional heterostructures of 1D CdS/2D ZnIn2S4 composited with 2D graphene: designed synthesis and superior photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qingyong; Wu, Wei; Liu, Jun; Wu, Zhaohui; Yao, Weijing; Ding, Jin; Jiang, Changzhong

    2017-02-28

    The development of photocatalysts with superior photoactivity and stability for the degradation of organic dyes is very important for environmental remediation. In this study, we have presented a multidimensional (1D and 2D) structured CdS/ZnIn2S4/RGO photocatalyst with superior photocatalytic performance. The CdS/ZnIn2S4 helical dimensional heterostructures (DHS) were prepared via a facile solvothermal synthesis method to facilitate the epitaxial growth of 2D ZnIn2S4 nanosheets on 1D CdS nanowires. Ultrathin 2D ZnIn2S4 nanosheets have grown uniformly and perpendicular to the surface of 1D CdS nanowires. The as-obtained 1D/2D CdS/ZnIn2S4 helical DHS show good photocatalytic properties for malachite green (MG). Subsequently, 2D reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was introduced into the 1D/2D CdS/ZnIn2S4 helical DHS as a co-catalyst. The photoactivity and stability of the CdS/ZnIn2S4/RGO composites are significantly improved after 6 cycles. The enhanced photoactivity can be attributed to the high surface area of RGO, the improved adsorption of organic dyes and the efficient spatial separation of photo-induced charge carriers. The transfer of photo-generated electrons from the interface of CdS and ZnIn2S4 to RGO also restricted the photocorrosion of metal sulfide, suggesting an improved stability of the reused CdS/ZnIn2S4/RGO composited photocatalyst.

  3. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  4. Differentiation-Based Analysis of Environmental Management and Corporate Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Dong-ming; MU Xin

    2007-01-01

    By building a duopoly model based on product differentiation, both of the clean firm's and the dirty firm's performances are studied under the assumptions that consumers have different preferences for the product environmental attributes, and that the product cost increases with the environmental attribute. The analysis results show that under either the case with no environmental regulation or that with a tariff levied on the dirty product, the clean firm would always get more profit. In addition, the stricter the regulation is, the more profit the clean firm would obtain. This can verify that from the view of product differentiation, a firm could improve its corporate competitiveness with environmental management.

  5. Robust Slippery Coating with Superior Corrosion Resistance and Anti-Icing Performance for AZ31B Mg Alloy Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialei; Gu, Changdong; Tu, Jiangping

    2017-03-29

    Biomimetic slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPSs) are developed as a potential alternative to superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) to resolve the issues of poor durability in corrosion protection and susceptibility to frosting. Herein, we fabricated a double-layered SLIPS coating on the AZ31 Mg alloy for corrosion protection and anti-icing application. The porous top layer was infused by lubricant, and the compact underlayer was utilized as a corrosion barrier. The water-repellent SLIPS coating exhibits a small sliding angle and durable corrosion resistance compared with the SHS coating. Moreover, the SLIPS coating delivers durable anti-icing performance for the Mg alloy substrate, which is obviously superior to the SHS coating. Multiple barriers in the SLIPS coating, including the infused water-repellent lubricant, the self-assembled monolayers coated porous top layer, and the compact layered double hydroxide-carbonate composite underlayer, are suggested as being responsible for the enhanced corrosion resistance and anti-icing performance. The robust double-layered SLIPS coating should be of great importance to expanding the potential applications of light metals and their alloys.

  6. Unlocking the Origin of Superior Performance of a Si-Ge Core-Shell Nanowire Quantum Dot Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Kamal B; Jaishi, Meghnath; Pati, Ranjit

    2016-07-13

    The sustained advancement in semiconducting core-shell nanowire technology has unlocked a tantalizing route for making next generation field effect transistor (FET). Understanding how to control carrier mobility of these nanowire channels by applying a gate field is the key to developing a high performance FET. Herein, we have identified the switching mechanism responsible for the superior performance of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FET over its homogeneous Si counterpart. A quantum transport approach is used to investigate the gate-field modulated switching behavior in electronic current for ultranarrow Si and Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FETs. Our calculations reveal that for the ON state, the gate-field induced transverse localization of the wave function restricts the carrier transport to the outer (shell) layer with the pz orbitals providing the pathway for tunneling of electrons in the channels. The higher ON state current in the Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET is attributed to the pz orbitals that are distributed over the entire channel; in the case of Si nanowire, the participating pz orbital is restricted to a few Si atoms in the channel resulting in a smaller tunneling current. Within the gate bias range considered here, the transconductance is found to be substantially higher in the case of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET than in a Si nanowire FET, which suggests a much higher mobility in the Si-Ge nanowire device.

  7. Corporate sustainability: environmental, social, economic and corporate performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kocmanová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with corporate sustainability and environmental and social issues of the integration of corporate performance measurement that may lead to sustainable economic success. Sustainability is a strategy of the process of sustainable development. Sustainability of businesses and sustainable performance can be defined as an integration of environmental, social and economic performance. First and foremost, businesses will want to know what indicators can be used to measure environmental, social and economic performance. What is the mutual relationship between environmental, social and economic performance? How can firms arrive at a comprehensive assessment of their performance in relation to sustainability? The aim of this paper is to analyze corporate environmental, social and economic performance and to analyze their mutual relationships. The final part of the article is an assessment of the contemporary situation and draft Key Performance Indicators (KPI for assessment of corporate sustainability that will be the subject of further research in a selected NACE-CZ sector and in accordance with Corporate Sustainability Reporting. KPI provide businesses with a means of measuring progress toward achieving objectives.

  8. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The Relation between Sustainable Innovation Strategy and Financial Performance Mediated By Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariyati Hariyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the relationship of sustainable innovation strategy and financial performance through the mediation environmental performance. The hypothesis in this study is sustainable innovation strategy affect the financial performance which is mediated by environmental performance. This study is quantitative research in the explanatory level. The population of this study is all the manufacturer companies in East Java. The data is collected through questionnaire. The unit of analysis is a business unit. The respondent of this study is the manager of a business unit manufacturing company in East Java. The results showed that the environmental performance mediates partially the relation between sustainable innovation strategy and financial performance.

  10. Development of high performance nano-porous polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes with hydrophilic surface and superior antifouling properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimpour, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmadrahimpour@yahoo.com [Nanobiotechnology Research Laboratory, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Madaeni, Sayed Siavash [Membrane Research Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahanshahi, Mohsen [Nanobiotechnology Research Laboratory, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansourpanah, Yaghoub [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Lorestan University, Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mortazavian, Narmin [Nanobiotechnology Research Laboratory, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-08-30

    Hydrophilic nano-porous polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes were developed for milk concentration. The membranes were prepared from new dope solution containing polyethersulfone (PES)/polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP)/polyethyleneglycole (PEG)/cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP)/acrylic acid/Triton X-100 using phase inversion induced by immersion precipitation technique. This casting solution leads to formation of new hydrophilic membranes. The morphological studies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, the hydrophilicity and performance of membranes were examined by contact angel measurements and cross-flow filtration (pure water flux, milk water permeation, protein rejection and antifouling measurements). The contact angle measurements indicate that a surface with superior hydrophilicity was obtained for PES membranes. Two concentrations of PES (16 and 14.4 wt.%) and two different non-solvents (pure water and mixtures of water and IPA) were used for preparation of membranes. The morphological studies showed that the higher concentration of PES and the presence of IPA in the gelation media results in formation of a membrane with a dense top and sub-layer with small pores on the surface. The pure water flux of membranes was decreased when higher polymer concentration and mixtures of water and IPA were employed for membrane formation. On the other hand, the milk water permeation and protein rejection were increased using mixtures of water and IPA as non-solvent. Furthermore, the fouling analysis of the membranes demonstrated that the membrane surface with fewer tendencies for fouling was obtained.

  11. Environmental Proactivity and Environmental and Economic Performance: Evidence from the Winery Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barba-Sánchez, Virginia; Atienza-Sahuquillo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ... is to explore the relationship between the degree of proactivity of a rms environmental strategies and its business performance. The novelty of this research work lies in its denition of busine...

  12. Desempenho agronômico das videiras 'Crimson Seedless' e 'Superior Seedless' no norte de Minas Gerais Agronomic performance of 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless' vines in the north region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Feldberg

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do vigor dos porta-enxertos '1103 Paulsen' e 'IAC-572 Jales', no desempenho agronômico das cultivares Crimson Seedless e Superior Seedless. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental da Epamig, em Mocambinho, distrito de Jaíba, MG, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições em esquema fatorial 2x2. Foram analisadas a fertilidade de gemas, o número e a massa de cachos e a massa de ramos. O porta-enxerto '1103 Paulsen' proporcionou os melhores resultados nas cultivares Crimson Seedless e Superior Seedless quanto à massa e número de cachos por planta e fertilidade de gemas, com produtividade média de 31,9 e 22,4 t ha-1 ano-1 , respectivamente. O porta-enxerto 'IAC-572 Jales' proporcionou maior vigor, com maior massa de ramos por planta nas duas cultivares. O porta-enxerto '1103 Paulsen' induziu a maiores fertilidade de gemas e produtividades em 'Crimson Seedless' e 'Superior Seedless' e pode ser indicado para o cultivo na região de Jaíba, MG.The objective of this work was to study the influence of the '1103 Paulsen' and 'IAC-572 Jales' rootstocks vigor in the agronomic performance of the cultivars 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless'. The experiment was carried in the Epamig Experimental Farm located in Mocambinho, Jaíba, MG, Brazil, in completely randomized experimental design with seven replications in factorial 2x2. The following variables were studied: bud fertility, number and weight of clusters and cane weight. The '1103 Paulsen' rootstock showed better results for cultivars 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless' regarding the number of clusters and their weight by plant and bud fertility, with average productivity of 31.9 and 22.4 t ha-1 year-1 , respectively. The 'IAC-572 Jales' rootstock provided higher vigor, comprising greater weight of canes per plant in both cultivars. The '1103 Paulsen' rootstock induced higher bud fertility and

  13. Covalently coupled hybrid of graphitic carbon nitride with reduced graphene oxide as a superior performance lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongsheng; Zhu, Junwu; Hu, Chong; Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Xin

    2014-11-01

    An in situ chemical synthetic approach has been designed for the fabrication of a covalently coupled hybrid consisting of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with differing g-C3N4/rGO ratio. The epoxy groups of graphene oxide (GO) undergo a nucleophilic substitution reaction with dicyandiamide (C2H4N4) to form the C2H4N4-GO composite via a covalent C-N bond, and then both the in situ polymerization of C2H4N4 and the thermal reduction of GO can be achieved at higher temperatures, forming the covalently coupled g-C3N4-rGO. FT-IR, CP-MAS NMR and XPS analyses, clearly revealed a covalent interaction between the g-C3N4 and rGO sheets. The g-C3N4-rGO exhibits an unprecedented high, stable and reversible capacity of 1525 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. Even at a large current density of 1000 mA g(-1), a reversible capacity of 943 mA h g(-1) can still be retained. The superior electrochemical performance of g-C3N4-rGO is attributed to the specific characteristics of the unique nanostructure of g-C3N4-rGO and the concerted effects of g-C3N4 and rGO, including covalent interactions between the two moieties, the good conductivity and high special surface area of the nanocomposite, as well as the template effect of the planar amino group of g-C3N4 for the dispersed decoration of Li(+) ions.

  14. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  15. Environmental performance evaluation and strategy management using balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Lung; Liu, Chun-Chu

    2010-11-01

    Recently, environmental protection and regulations such as WEEE, ELV, and RoHS are rapidly emerging as an important issue for business to consider. The trend of swinging from end-of-pipe control to product design, green innovation, and even the establishment of image or brand has affected corporations in almost every corner in the world, and enlarged to the all modern global production network. Corporations must take proactive environmental strategies to response the challenges. This study adopts balanced scorecard structure and aim at automobile industries to understand the relationships of internal and external, financial and non-financial, and outcome and driving factors. Further relying on these relationships to draw the "map of environment strategy" to probe and understand the feasibility of environmental performance evaluation and environmental strategy control.

  16. Performance objectives and criteria for conducting DOE environmental audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the Performance Objectives and Criteria (POC) that have been developed for environmental audits and assessments conducted by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health. The Environmental POC can serve multiple purposes. Primarily, they are to serve as guidelines for the technical specialists conducted the audits and assessments, and for the team management. The POC can also serve as supporting documents for training of technical discipline specialists and Team Leaders and as bases for DOE programs and field offices and contractors conducting audit or assessment activities or improving environmental protection programs. It must be recognized that not all of the POC will necessarily apply to all DOE facilities. The users of this document must rely upon their knowledge of the facility and their professional judgment, or the judgment of qualified environmental professionals to determine the applicability of each POC. The POC cover eleven technical disciplines: air; surface water and drinking water quality; groundwater; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; radiation; quality assurance; inactive waste sites and releases; ecological and cultural resources; the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); and environmental management systems.

  17. Environmental Performance Report 2011: Annual Site Environmental Report per the U.S. Department of Energy Order 231.1B (Management Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: NREL's Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the lab's environmental activities for 2011 including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes.

  18. Tracking the evolution in corporate environmental performance in Danish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Based on longitudinal data, collected over a period of 16 years, this paper addresses how management responds to stakeholders’ concerns about the natural environment by prioritizing their activities and thus improving the environmental performability of the firms. The paper specifically seeks...... to answer how stakeholders' perceived influence develops over time and whether those changes affect firms' environmental activities. Starting in 1995, and every fourth year following, we distributed a pre-tested structured questionnaire to a random sample of small and medium-sized industrial firms...... in Denmark. Before concluding, key implications for corporate managers and other affected decision-makers are addressed. Despite the continuing economic crisis, our findings indicate that environmental management initiatives have successfully moved up on industry’s strategic agenda to become an enduring...

  19. Environmental value engineering (EVE): a green building performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudebush, W. H. [Bowling Green Univ., College of Technology, OH (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Establishing criteria for assessing green building performance is discussed. Performance criteria identified include building energy consumption, building material reduction, pollution minimization, indoor air quality, waste reduction, and occupant performance/output maximization. This paper specifically focuses on the use of an assessment methodology called environmental value engineering to maximize building performance at the least cost to the environment, i.e. the least quantity of inputs required per unit of building function. The inputs are grouped into four categories of: environment, fuel energy, goods, and services. The assessment is conducted at various points in the building`s life cycle (natural resource formation, exploration and extraction, material production, construction, use, demolition, natural resource recycling and disposal), with the four categories of inputs accounted for during each of the life cycle phases. Environmental value engineering is based on the EMERGY Analysis methodology developed at the University of Florida, and the ASTM (1993) UNIFORMAT of building subsystem organization. Total EMERGY per unit of function is considered to be the measure of building performance. The methodology can be used to compare traditional building performance to green building performance towards sustainable development. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Environmental and Thermal Performance of District Heating Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeling, Morgan

    2002-06-01

    The introduction of district heating has reduced the environmental impact from local heat production in urban areas. However, in order to fit into a sustainable society, district heating must be continuously developed according to the increasing demands on activities in a society moving towards sustainability. Our technical improvements must result in environmental improvements. This thesis focuses on the environmental performance of the distribution system - the district heating pipes. The purpose of this research is to understand how the distribution system can be improved. The information presented in this thesis can be used to identify possibilities for improving the environmental performance of different life cycle phases of the distribution system as well as a baseline when evaluating new technical developments. The heat losses during use of the pipes are of large importance for the environmental impact of district heating pipes. Such heat losses can be modelled if the mass transfer parameters for gases in the polyurethane insulation and the polyethylene casing are known. The diffusion coefficients, the permeability coefficients and the solubility coefficients and their temperature dependence have been determined for cyclopentane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen. The same parameters have been studied for the blowing agent alternative HFC-365mfc at room temperature. The long-term thermal performance of district heating pipes has been modelled using effective permeabilities for the pipe construction. Environmental consequences of heat losses during the use phase of district heating pipes have been compared with the impacts from production of the pipes and from construction of the district heating network. The use of the district heating pipes is the most important of the studied life cycle phases. Thus, it is very important to minimise heat losses from the pipes. The heat losses will for some district heating pipes increase notably during use due to foam

  1. Performing environmental audits: An engineer's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, J.A. (Cohen, Shapiro, Polisher, Shiekman and Cohen, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Today, environmental auditing is both a technical exercise and a legal art. To perform a comprehensive and effective environmental audit requires a team of individuals who combined have broad engineering skills, a knowledge of chemistry, and specialized legal experience with all the relevant environmental regulations. Because the audit involves such highly qualified individuals, it is typically quite expensive. Nonetheless, the cost is well worth the investment, because of the high stakes involved in environmental legislation and litigation. Simply put, the cost of non-compliance can far outweigh the costs associated with a comprehensive audit. The paper describes starting the audit, the ideal team, a standard method, doing a compliance audit, data analysis after the audit, advantages and disadvantages, and policies on auditing. The paper briefly describes the four factors that the Department of Justice considers in deciding whether to bring criminal prosecution for violation of an environmental statute. The four factors are: voluntary disclosure; cooperation; preventive measures and compliance program; and pervasiveness of non-compliance.

  2. ANALYZE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE IN ROMANIA BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA SIMA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some interpretations of the results of calculated EPI for 2014.The paper didn’t aim EPI assesment, but it wanted to present an analyze of the main results obtained by the European Commission. Also, a correlation anlyze of GDP/capita and overall score of EPI was performed, showing the link between these two indicators, showing a moderate direct link between these two indicators. Also, a comparison between Romania and Switzerland was performed. This comparison revealed that Romania ranks over Switzerland in terms of agriculture, and the largest gap between the two countries was recorded in the field of water resources and water and sanitation. The paper concludes with Romanian situation.

  3. Industrial environmental performance assessment: developing a referential methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Marize Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to the development of a methodological framework for the broadly evaluation of environmental performance in industrial companies. The methodological framework developed is composed for nine aspects of evaluation, namely: Organizational Management, Human Resources, Product, Production Process, Physical Facilities, Emissions, Social Development, Economic and Financial Aspect and Media. For each of these aspects were created evaluation indicators, a total of 35 indicators. Each indicator is accompanied by a numeric ID, a description, a generic goal, and its metric unit of measure and a scale to measure the care of each indicator. As an illustration, the proposed framework was applied to the evaluation in an industrial metal-mechanical company, the latter achieved environmental performance of 84.0%.

  4. Economic and environmental performance of the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2007-01-01

    on performance related to new products introductions, changes in production equipment, changes in planning concepts and their cross sections. We argue that interdisciplinary research that uses operations research techniques, operations management insights, food process technology and product design helps...... in exploring the effect of uncertainty in demand and production. As a result, process design can be more robust: both economic and environmental. This position paper explores the problem and the main elements of the proposed scenario-based simulation approach....

  5. A Methodological Comparison between Energy and Environmental Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pagliaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is working on strategies in order to increase the energy efficiency of buildings. A useful solution is to identify the energy performance of buildings through the Energy Performance Certificate (EPC, as it provides information for the comparison of buildings with different architectural typology, shape, design technology and geographic location. However, this tool does not assess the real energy consumption of the building and does not always take into account its impact on the environment. In this work, two different types of analysis were carried out: one based only on the energy efficiency and the other one based on the environmental impact. Those analyses were applied on a standard building, set in three different Italian locations, with the purpose of obtaining cross-related information. After the evaluation of the results, interventions on some parameters (walls insulation, windows frame, filler gas in the insulated glazing have been identified in order to improve the energy behavior of the building with an acceptable environmental impact. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology that integrates the EPC with green building rating systems, leading to a more conscious choice of retrofit interventions as a compromise between energy performances and environmental impact.

  6. Performance Analysis of an Environmental Adaptive CFAR Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The constant false alarm rate (CFAR is a detection algorithm that is generally used in radar or sonar systems, but its performance depends greatly on the environment. This means that the detection performance cannot be satisfied with only a single CFAR detector. This paper evaluates mathematically a proposed environmental adaptive (EA CFAR detector. The proposed CFAR detector selects an optimal CFAR detector depending on the environment. Computer simulations validate the mathematical analysis and robustness of the detector in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous backgrounds.

  7. Environmental Performance Evaluation of Ro-Ro Passenger Ferry Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Hagemeister, Constantin

    2012-01-01

    With increasing focus on the environmental performance of different transport modes (for example trucks, trains, ships and aircraft) it is of utmost importance that the different transport modes are compared on an equal basis so that the environmental impact, defined as energy demand and....../or emissions per transport unit, is related to the same unit for the different transport forms. For Ro-Ro passenger ferries it can be difficult to find a suitable common transport unit, as they often transport a mix of cargo, such as passengers, passenger cars, trucks, lorries, busses and other rolling...... transport units. In this paper a method for determination of a common transport unit for Ro-Ro passenger ships will be described....

  8. Community intervention in higher education of environmental health Intervencion comunitaria en la educación superior de salud ambiental Intervenção comunitária no ensino superior de saúde ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodrigues dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in the Bologna context, university teaching methods focus on the student and on a learning experience based on practical methods. Under the guidance of teachers, students in the second year of the first Environmental Health Course at the Polytechnic Institute of Beja have designed and developed the following nine community intervention projects relating to environmental health: dangerous products (mercury; habitability and geriatrics; health education and the environment; drinking water; information and communication in environmental health; efficient use of resources in public buildings; child development in outdoor spaces; and allergenic factors in housing. This pedagogical action takes place over three semesters, corresponding to the three distinct phases: design, implementation and evaluation / dissemination. To ensure the viability of the projects, each group of three students has established partnerships with various entities, such as city and parish councils, hospitals, schools, consumer cooperatives, companies dealing with hazardous waste, the Youth Institute and other commercial enterprises. Although it has not been possible to evaluate the whole project, preliminary results suggest that the planned activities have been very successful, with health benefits for the people involved, through environmental improvements or an increase in empowerment. It was also possible to achieve economic gains and contribute to the conservation of the environment. The students were able to gain skills and knowledge in a teaching model characterized by the absence of lectures in which students, assisted by teachers, take decisions and independent action, simulating a real context of professional practice. This experience suggests that, by utilizing the Bologna method, the polytechnic institutions may improve their real contribution to the health of communities.Actualmente y en el marco del Plan de Bolonia, las actividades docentes

  9. THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY CONTRIBUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING FACE TO NEEDED FOR SUSTAINABILITY = A TEMÁTICA AMBIENTAL NO ENSINO SUPERIOR: A CONTRIBUIÇÃO MULTIDISCIPLINAR DA ENGENHARIA AMBIENTAL FACE À BUSCA PELA SUSTENTABILIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cardoso de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues began to be addressed by universities from the 60s, however, quite so departmentalized by traditional undergraduate courses. In the 90s there was an explosion of higher education courses related to that area with varied titles and assignments. The number of higher education courses in the environmental area increased from 284 in 2004 to 610 in 2011, particularly in the area of engineering interface with the environment. In this scenario, environmental engineering arises in 1992, based on the integration between some lines of research and, consequently, multidisciplinary cooperation. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the contribution of environmental engineering as an emerging science in the wake of the environmental crisis presents a literature review that part of the integration of environmental issues in higher education and contextualizes the contribution of environmental engineering from a global and national scene. Additionally, there was a survey from the National Institute for Educational Studies Teixeira (INEP in order to analyze the development of this area over the years. At the end of 2013, there was the record of 702 courses: undergraduate (351, technological (343 and sequential (8. = A questão ambiental começou a ser tratada pelas universidades a partir dos anos 1960, embora, de forma bastante departamentalizada por alguns cursos de graduação. Na década de 1990, houve uma verdadeira explosão de cursos superiores ligados à referida área, com as mais variadas titulações e atribuições. O número de cursos superiores na área ambiental elevou-se de 284 em 2004 para 610 em 2011, com destaque para a área das engenharias com interface em meio ambiente. Neste cenário, a engenharia ambiental surge em 1992, baseada na integração entre algumas linhas de pesquisa e, consequentemente, na necessidade de uma cooperação multidisciplinar. Desse modo, o presente trabalho, com o objetivo de analisar a

  10. MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF BAKERY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian TAICU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the economic life, the economic and financial crisis and the social and environmental problems determine the increase in the role of information provided by managerial accounting in decision-making. The efficient management of any economic unit is based on the existence of a well structured information system, according to managers’ information needs, the main component of such system being accounting. The article aims at clarifying certain aspects concerning the role of managerial accounting in the correct assessment and in managing performance in bakery companies.

  11. Benchmarking and Performance Improvement at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. [Kaiser-Hill Co., LLC, Golden, CO (United States)], Doyle, D. [USDOE Rocky Flats Office, Golden, CO (United States)], Featherman, W.D. [Project Performance Corp., Sterline, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes.

  12. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants....... This paper discusses and presents a number of comfort indicators that includes both the temporal variation and the degree of discomfort in the calculations. A test case comprising a ventilated office building is used to show the application of the various comfort indices. It is found that the new comfort...... indices provide substantially new information and constitute much better decision tools....

  13. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  14. Energy and Environmental Performance of Bioethanol from Different Lignocelluloses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Luo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the wish to reduce the dependence on oil are the incentives for the development of alternative energy sources. The use of lignocellulosic biomass together with cellulosic processing technology provides opportunities to produce fuel ethanol with less competition with food and nature. Many studies on energy analysis and life cycle assessment of second-generation bioethanol have been conducted. However, due to the different methodology used and different system boundary definition, it is difficult to compare their results. To permit a direct comparison of fuel ethanol from different lignocelluloses in terms of energy use and environmental impact, seven studies conducted in our group were summarized in this paper, where the same technologies were used to convert biomass to ethanol, the same system boundaries were defined, and the same allocation procedures were followed. A complete set of environmental impacts ranging from global warming potential to toxicity aspects is used. The results provide an overview on the energy efficiency and environmental performance of using fuel ethanol derived from different feedstocks in comparison with gasoline.

  15. The superior cycling performance of the hydrothermal synthesized carbon-coated ZnO as anode material for zinc-nickel secondary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhaobin; Yang, Zhanhong; Huang, Jianhang; Xie, Xiaoe; Zhang, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Carbon-coated ZnO is synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) tests indicate that carbon is uniformly coated on the surface of the ZnO particle. And the crystal form of ZnO isn't changed. The effects of carbon layer on the electrochemical performances of ZnO have also been investigated by the charge/discharge cycling test, cyclic voltammetry (CV), Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscope (EIS) tests. The CV curves at different scan rates exhibit that carbon-coated ZnO has the superior reversibility at high scan rate. The charge/discharge cycling tests under different charge/discharge rates show, even if at high-rate, the cycling performance and specific discharge capacity of carbon-coated ZnO are also superior to that of bare ZnO. The Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscope (EIS) verify that the carbon layer can improve the anti-corrosion and charge-transfer performances of ZnO. The different rate experiments indicate that, compared with the increase of the conductivity, the effect of carbon layer on improving the anti-corrosion performance of ZnO plays a more dominating role in improving the electrochemical performances of ZnO at low charge/discharge rate.

  16. Leading product-related environmental performance indicators: a selection guide and database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.;

    2015-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management and improvement approach employed in the product development process, which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during a product's life cycle and thus improve its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environment...

  17. Performance of Savonius Rotor for Environmentally Friendly Hydraulic Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Miyoshi; Iio, Shouichiro; Ikeda, Toshihiko

    The aim of this investigation was to develop an environmentally friendly nano-hydraulic turbine. A model of a two-bucket Savonius type hydraulic turbine was constructed and tested in a water tunnel to arrive at an optimum installation condition. Effects of two installation parameters, namely a distance between a rotor and a bottom wall of the tunnel, a rotation direction of the rotor, on the power performance were studied. A flow field around the rotor was examined visually to clarify influences of installation conditions on the flow field. The flow visualization showed differences of flow pattern around the rotor by the change of these parameters. From this study it was found that the power performances of Savonius hydraulic turbine were changed with the distance between the rotor and the bottom wall of the tunnel and with a rotation direction of the rotor.

  18. Local versus Global Environmental Performance of Dairying and Their Link to Economic Performance: A Case Study of Swiss Mountain Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Repar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complying with the carrying capacity of local and global ecosystems is a prerequisite to ensure environmental sustainability. Based on the example of Swiss mountain dairy farms, the goal of our research was firstly to investigate the relationship between farm global and local environmental performance. Secondly, we aimed to analyse the relationship between farm environmental and economic performance. The analysis relied on a sample of 56 Swiss alpine dairy farms. For each farm, the cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment was calculated, and the quantified environmental impacts were decomposed into their on- and off-farm parts. We measured global environmental performance as the digestible energy produced by the farm per unit of global environmental impact generated from cradle-to-farm-gate. We assessed local environmental performance by dividing farm-usable agricultural area by on-farm environmental impact generation. Farm economic performance was measured by work income per family work unit, return on equity and output/input ratio. Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed no significant relationship, trade-offs or synergies between global and local environmental performance indicators. Interestingly, trade-offs were observed far more frequently than synergies. Furthermore, we found synergies between global environmental and economic performance and mostly no significant relationship between local environmental and economic performance. The observed trade-offs between global and local environmental performance mean that, for several environmental issues, any improvement in global environmental performance will result in deterioration of local environmental performance and vice versa. This finding calls for systematic consideration of both dimensions when carrying out farm environmental performance assessments.

  19. A Green Synthesis of Nanosheet-Constructed Pd Particles in an Ionic Liquid and Their Superior Electrocatalytic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohua; Xue, Yiguo; Xue, Zhimin; Li, Zhonghao; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-12-21

    The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]Ac) is investigated as a solvent for the synthesis of Pd particles. Interestingly, nanosheet-constructed Pd particles could be successfully synthesized in [EMIM]Ac without any additional reducing agent and template under ionothermal conditions. [EMIM]Ac itself works as the solvent, the reducing agent, and the template for the formation of these interesting Pd particles, making this method complementary to the well-known ionic-liquid-precursor approach. Furthermore, [EMIM]Ac can be recycled with no loss of activity for the formation of nanosheet-constructed Pd particles within our studied cycles. Specifically, the nanosheet-constructed Pd particles exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards ethanol oxidation and formic acid oxidation compared with commercially available Pd black catalyst, thus demonstrating their promising applications in fuel-cell area. The current approach, thus, presents a green approach towards the synthesis of Pd particles, using only a simple palladium salt and an ionic liquid. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Lead-carbon electrode designed for renewable energy storage with superior performance in partial state of charge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Li; Yin, Jian; Lin, Zhe-Qi; Shi, Jun; Wang, Can; Liu, De-Bo; Wang, Yue; Bao, Jin-Peng; Lin, Hai-Bo

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy storage is a key issue in our modern electricity-powered society. Lead acid batteries (LABs) are operated at partial state of charge in renewable energy storage system, which causes the sulfation and capacity fading of Pb electrode. Lead-carbon composite electrode is a good solution to the sulfation problem of LAB. In this paper, a rice-husk-derived hierarchically porous carbon with micrometer-sized large pores (denoted as RHC) has been used as the component of lead-carbon composite electrode. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of lead-carbon composite electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the charge transfer capability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Both full charge-discharge method and charge-discharge method operating at harsh partial state of charge condition have been used to prove the superior energy storage capability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Experiment results prove that the micrometer-sized pores of RHC are beneficial to the construction and stability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Microporous carbon material with high surface area is not suitable for the construction of lead-carbon electrode due to the ruin of lead-carbon structure caused by severe electrochemical hydrogen evolution.

  1. Community intervention in higher education of environmental health Intervencion comunitaria en la educación superior de salud ambiental Intervenção comunitária no ensino superior de saúde ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Currently, in the Bologna context, university teaching methods focus on the student and on a learning experience based on practical methods. Under the guidance of teachers, students in the second year of the first Environmental Health Course at the Polytechnic Institute of Beja have designed and developed the following nine community intervention projects relating to environmental health: dangerous products (mercury); habitability and geriatrics; health education and the environment; drinking...

  2. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang, Yize Sun, Yang Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8 m/s, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000 W/m2. Root mean square error (RMSE between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  3. Measurement of Air Force Environmental Protection Program Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Environmental Improvement. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1974. 36. Seneca, Joseph J. and Michael K. Taussig . Environmental Economics. Englewood Cliffs NJ...Responsibility. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1980. 18. Deland, Michael R. "Environmental Auditing," Environmental Science and Technology, 16: 509...November 1982). 19. Deland, Michael R. "EPA’s New Management Approach," Environmental Science and Technology, 16: 605 (November 1982). 20. DeMarco, Anthony

  4. Environmental performance of green building code and certification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sangwon; Tomar, Shivira; Leighton, Matthew; Kneifel, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential life-cycle environmental impact reduction of three green building code and certification (GBCC) systems: LEED, ASHRAE 189.1, and IgCC. A recently completed whole-building life cycle assessment (LCA) database of NIST was applied to a prototype building model specification by NREL. TRACI 2.0 of EPA was used for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). The results showed that the baseline building model generates about 18 thousand metric tons CO2-equiv. of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and consumes 6 terajoule (TJ) of primary energy and 328 million liter of water over its life-cycle. Overall, GBCC-compliant building models generated 0% to 25% less environmental impacts than the baseline case (average 14% reduction). The largest reductions were associated with acidification (25%), human health-respiratory (24%), and global warming (GW) (22%), while no reductions were observed for ozone layer depletion (OD) and land use (LU). The performances of the three GBCC-compliant building models measured in life-cycle impact reduction were comparable. A sensitivity analysis showed that the comparative results were reasonably robust, although some results were relatively sensitive to the behavioral parameters, including employee transportation and purchased electricity during the occupancy phase (average sensitivity coefficients 0.26-0.29).

  5. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y; Adelman, S

    1995-06-01

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  6. Environmental management and operational performance in automotive companies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, C.J.C.; De Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.; Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to verify the influence of Environmental Management (EM) on Operational Performance (OP) in Brazilian automotive companies, analyzing whether Lean Manufacturing (LM) and Human Resources (HR) interfere in the greening of these companies. Therefore, a conceptual...... from 75 companies, were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The main results are as follows: (a) the model tested revealed an adequate goodness of fit, showing that overall, the relations proposed between EM and OP and between HR, LM and EM tend to be statistically valid; (b) EM tends....... The originality of this paper lies in its gathering the concepts of EM, LM, HR and OP in a single study, as they generally tend not to be treated jointly. This paper also provided valid empirical evidence for a littlestudied context: the Brazilian automotive sector....

  7. Environmentally degradable, high-performance thermoplastics from phenolic phytomonomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tatsuo; Thi, Tran Hang; Shi, Dong Jian; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2006-12-01

    Aliphatic polyesters, such as poly(lactic acid), which degrade by hydrolysis, from naturally occurring molecules form the main components of biodegradable plastics. However, these polyesters have become substitutes for only a small percentage of the currently used plastic materials because of their poor thermal and mechanical properties. Polymers that degrade into natural molecules and have a performance closer to that of engineering plastics would be highly desirable. Although the use of a high-strength filler such as a bacterial cellulose or modified lignin greatly increases the plastic properties, it is the matrix polymer that determines the intrinsic properties of the composite. The introduction of an aromatic component into the thermoplastic polymer backbone is an efficient method to intrinsically improve the material performance. Here, we report the preparation of environmentally degradable, liquid crystalline, wholly aromatic polyesters. The polyesters were derived from polymerizable plant-derived chemicals--in other words, 'phytomonomers' that are widely present as lignin biosynthetic precursors. The mechanical performance of these materials surpasses that of current biodegradable plastics, with a mechanical strength, sigma, of 63 MPa, a Young's modulus, E, of 16 GPa, and a maximum softening temperature of 169 degrees C. On light irradiation, their mechanical properties improved further and the rate of hydrolysis accelerated.

  8. Vintage-level energy and environmental performance of manufacturing establishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.A.; Bock, M.J.; Neifer, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Karlson, S.H. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Economics; Ross, M.H. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1994-05-01

    This report examines the relationship between an industrial plant`s vintage and its energy and environmental performance. Basic questions related to defining vintage and measuring the effects of the manufacturing industry`s vintage distribution of plant-level capacity and energy intensity are explored in general for six energy-intensive sectors (paper, chlorine, nitrogenous fertilizer, aluminum, steel, and cement) at the four-digit standard industrial classification (SIC) level and in detail for two sectors (steel and cement). Results show that greenfield (i.e., newly opened) plants in the paper, steel, and cement industries exhibit low fossil fuel intensities. These results are consistent with expectations. New plants in the paper and steel industries, where processes are undergoing electrification, exhibit high electricity intensities. An analysis of a subsector of the steel industry -- minimills that use scrap-based, electric arc furnaces -- reveals a decline in electricity intensity of 6.2 kilowatt-hours per ton for each newer year of installed vintage. This estimate is consistent with those of engineering studies and raises confidence that analyses of vintage effects in other industries could be conducted. When a vintage measure is assigned on the basis of investment data rather than trade association data, the vintage/performance relationship results for the cement industry are reasonably robust; thus, the analysis of vintage and performance could be extended to sectors for which only US Bureau of the Census data are available.

  9. Environmental Uncertainty, Performance Measure Variety and Perceived Performance in Icelandic Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    The use of performance measures and performance measurement frameworks has increased significantly in recent years. The type and variety of performance measures in use has been researched in various countries and linked to different variables such as the external environment, performance measurem......The use of performance measures and performance measurement frameworks has increased significantly in recent years. The type and variety of performance measures in use has been researched in various countries and linked to different variables such as the external environment, performance...... measurement frameworks, and management characteristics. This paper reports the results of a study carried out at year end 2013 of the use of performance measures by Icelandic companies and the links to perceived environmental uncertainty, management satisfaction with the performance measurement system...... and the perceived performance of the company. The sample was the 300 largest companies in Iceland and the response rate was 27%. Compared to other studies the majority of the respondents use a surprisingly high number of different measures – both financial and non-financial. This made testing of the three...

  10. What doesn't kill me…: Adversity-related experiences are vital in the development of superior Olympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David; Brown, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    Recent research suggests that experiencing some adversity can have beneficial outcomes for human growth and development. The purpose of this paper was to explore the adversities that the world's best athletes encounter and the perceived role that these experiences play in their psychological and performance development. A qualitative design was employed because detailed information of rich quality was required to better understand adversity-related experiences in the world's best athletes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Olympic gold medalists from a variety of sports. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings indicate that the participants encountered a range of sport- and non-sport adversities that they considered were essential for winning their gold medals, including repeated non-selection, significant sporting failure, serious injury, political unrest, and the death of a family member. The participants described the role that these experiences played in their psychological and performance development, specifically focusing on their resultant trauma, motivation, and learning. Adversity-related experiences were deemed to be vital in the psychological and performance development of Olympic champions. In the future, researchers should conduct more in-depth comparative studies of Olympic athletes' adversity- and growth-related experiences, and draw on existing and alternative theoretical explanations of the growth-performance relationship. For professional practitioners, adversity-related experiences offer potential developmental opportunities if they are carefully and purposely harnessed. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-based ternary nanocomposites: synthesis and their superior performances for hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol and adsorption for methyl blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fang-Yuan; Fan, Yan-Ling; Ni, Jing-Jing; Xu, Ting-Ting; Song, Ji-Ming, E-mail: songjm@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: jiming@ahu.edu.cn [Anhui University, The Key Laboratory of Environment Friendly Polymer Materials of Anhui Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-01-15

    A new kind of Co-based ternary nanocomposites has been obtained via one step without any additional surfactant at zero centigrade degree. Some experimental parameters play crucial roles in determining the morphologies and homogeneity of the final products, such as reaction temperature and the introduction of Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}·5H{sub 2}O. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, UV–Vis, XPS, and BET. The result reveals that the as-prepared samples are Co{sub 1.29}Ni{sub 1.71}O{sub 4}–Co{sub 3}S{sub 4}–Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} Co-based ternary nanocomposites with an elliptic morphology composed of numerous fold-shaped superthin films (average thickness of ca. 2 nm). Interestingly, the obtained nanocomposites display superior performance for the hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol at room temperature in the presence of NaBH{sub 4}. More importantly, the as-prepared nanocomposites show the huge adsorption capacity for methyl blue at room temperature, reaches 1100 mg g{sup −1}. Graphical Abstract: A kind of new-type Co-based ternary nanocomposites has been obtained via one step without surfactants at zero centigrade degree. The as-prepared nanocomposites display superior performance for the hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH{sub 4} at room temperature.

  12. High Pseudocapacitance in FeOOH/rGO Composites with Superior Performance for High Rate Anode in Li-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hui; Cao, Liyun; Li, Jiayin; Huang, Jianfeng; Xu, Zhanwei; Cheng, Yayi; Kong, Xingang; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi

    2016-12-28

    Capacitive storage has been considered as one type of Li-ion storage with fast faradaic surface redox reactions to offer high power density for electrochemical applications. However, it is often limited by low extent of energy contribution during the charge/discharge process, providing insufficient influences to total capacity of Li-ion storage in electrodes. In this work, we demonstrate a pseudocapacitance predominated storage (contributes 82% of the total capacity) from an in-situ pulverization process of FeOOH rods on rGO (reduced graphene oxide) sheets for the first time. Such high extent of pseudocapacitive storage in the FeOOH/rGO electrode achieves high energy density with superior cycling performance over 200 cycles at different current densities (1135 mAh/g at 1 A/g and 783 mAh/g at 5 A/g). It is further revealed that the in-situ pulverization process is essential for the high pseudocapacitance in this electrode, because it not only produces a porous structure for high exposure of tiny FeOOH crystallites to electrolyte but also maintains stable electrochemical contact during ultrahigh rate charge transfer with high energy density in the battery. The utilization of in-situ pulverization in an Fe-based anode to realize high surface pseudocapacitance with superior performance may inspire future design of electrode structures in Li-ion batteries.

  13. Superior electrochemical performance of sulfur/graphene nanocomposite material for high-capacity lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Li, Kefei; Su, Dawei; Ahn, Hyojun; Wang, Guoxiu

    2012-06-01

    Sulfur/graphene nanocomposite material has been prepared by incorporating sulfur into the graphene frameworks through a melting process. Field-emission scanning electron microscope analysis shows a homogeneous distribution of sulfur in the graphene nanosheet matrix. The sulfur/graphene nanocomposite exhibits a super-high lithium-storage capacity of 1580 mA h g(-1) and a satisfactory cycling performance in lithium-sulfur cells. The enhancement of the reversible capacity and cycle life could be attributed to the flexible graphene nanosheet matrix, which acts as a conducting medium and a physical buffer to cushion the volume change of sulfur during the lithiation and delithiation process. Graphene-based nanocomposites can significantly improve the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  14. Enhancing Electrode Performance by Exsolved Nanoparticles: A Superior Cobalt-Free Perovskite Electrocatalyst for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangming; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Meilin; Shao, Zongping

    2016-12-28

    The successful development of low-cost, durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at intermediate temperatures is critical for broad commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells. Here, we report our findings in design, fabrication, and characterization of a cobalt-free SrFe0.85Ti0.1Ni0.05O3-δ cathode decorated with NiO nanoparticles. Exsolved from and well bonded to the parent electrode under well-controlled conditions, the NiO nanoparticles uniformly distributed on the surface of the parent electrode greatly enhance cathode performance, demonstrating ORR activity better than that of the benchmark cobalt-based Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ. Further, a process for regeneration of the NiO nanoparticles was also developed to mitigate potential performance degradation due to coarsening of NiO particles under practical operating conditions. As a general approach, this exsolution-dissolution of electrocatalytically active nanoparticles on an electrode surface may be applicable to the development of other high-performance cobalt-free cathodes for fuel cells and other electrochemical systems.

  15. Effective Approach for Increasing the Heteroatom Doping Levels of Porous Carbons for Superior CO2 Capture and Separation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoaty, Yomna H; Tessema, Tsemre-Dingel; Norouzi, Nazgol; El-Kadri, Oussama M; Turner, Joseph B McGee; El-Kaderi, Hani M

    2017-10-09

    Development of efficient sorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from flue gas or its removal from natural gas and landfill gas is very important for environmental protection. A new series of heteroatom-doped porous carbon was synthesized directly from pyrazole/KOH by thermolysis. The resulting pyrazole-derived carbons (PYDCs) are highly doped with nitrogen (14.9-15.5 wt %) as a result of the high nitrogen-to-carbon ratio in pyrazole (43 wt %) and also have a high oxygen content (16.4-18.4 wt %). PYDCs have a high surface area (SABET = 1266-2013 m(2) g(-1)), high CO2 Qst (33.2-37.1 kJ mol(-1)), and a combination of mesoporous and microporous pores. PYDCs exhibit significantly high CO2 uptakes that reach 2.15 and 6.06 mmol g(-1) at 0.15 and 1 bar, respectively, at 298 K. At 273 K, the CO2 uptake improves to 3.7 and 8.59 mmol g(-1) at 0.15 and 1 bar, respectively. The reported porous carbons also show significantly high adsorption selectivity for CO2/N2 (128) and CO2/CH4 (13.4) according to ideal adsorbed solution theory calculations at 298 K. Gas breakthrough studies of CO2/N2 (10:90) at 298 K showed that PYDCs display excellent separation properties. The ability to tailor the physical properties of PYDCs as well as their chemical composition provides an effective strategy for designing efficient CO2 sorbents.

  16. Estonian electricity supply scenarios for 2020 and their environmental performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, Sirkka; Seppaelae, Jyri; Hiltunen, Marja-Riitta [Research Programme for Production and Consumption, Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, 00251 Helsinki (Finland); Lipp, Ando; Pold, Evelin; Talve, Siret [CyclePlan Ltd, Akadeemia road 33, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2007-07-15

    Estonia is the only country in Europe with significant environmentally intensive oil shale-based energy production. However, the legal obligations of the EU will make substantial changes over the coming years to current electricity production technology. Increasing the use of alternative energy carriers for responding to future requirements has also been in focus. In this study, three different future electricity supply scenarios for Estonia in 2020 are considered and compared to the situation in 2002. They are based on domestic oil shale, imported natural gas, and imported nuclear power. According to the aims of the national energy policy, renewable energy sources were raised to 10% in all scenarios. Using the LCA methodology, the least damaging impact on the environment occurs in the 'nuclear scenario', with nuclear energy as the main energy source. The best scenario, however, depends on the weight or acceptance of accidental releases or other impacts not defined in this context. The 'Oil shale scenario' would be a slightly more damaging alternative than the 'Natural gas scenario' even if new technical solutions will remarkably improve the environmental performance of oil shale electricity production. Land use and waste disposal are crucial issues, particularly for oil shale and nuclear electricity production. However, the depletion of oil shale is not as critical an issue as the depletion of natural gas and uranium. According to the significance analysis of impact categories, climate change is the most significant impact on the environment in the scenarios. Future decisions on the development of the Estonian energy sector are most likely to be based on technological, economical and political aspects. Political aspects are likely to be the most significant. However, this type of study can give additional value to the discussion due to the increasing role of sustainability in energy issues. (author)

  17. High-Quality Fe-doped TiO2 films with Superior Visible-Light Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren; Bechstein, Ralf; Kibsgaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We report on high-quality polycrystalline Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe–TiO2) porous films synthesized via one-step electrochemical oxidation. We demonstrate that delicate properties such as the impurity concentration and the microstructure that strongly influence the performance of the material...... for photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications can be controlled by adjusting the electrolyte composition. Compared to Fe-doped TiO2 films prepared with traditional phosphate- or silicate-based electrolytes, our newly synthesised Fe–TiO2 films contain solely Fe dopants, which results in excellent photocatalytic...

  18. Modelo de avaliação de desempenho global para instituição de ensino superior Evaluation Model of Global Performance for Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Martins Galvão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a model to evaluate overall performance for Higher Education Institutions. It is unquestionable the importance of organizations from the education sector for knowledge development and dissemination of information, necessary for the progress of a city, region or country. However, it is necessary to develop tools for planning and management control to monitor organizational performance. In this case, one of the most important tasks is related to the types of information that managers need to monitor and tune the performance of the organization. The proposed evaluation model helps to improve the organizational performance of education institutions, creating higher value in the services offered.Este estudo propõe um modelo de avaliação de desempenho global para instituições de ensino superior. É indiscutível a importância das organizações do setor da educação, decisivas para o progresso de uma cidade, região ou país, por serem indutoras do desenvolvimento do conhecimento e da disseminação da informação. Por isso, torna-se necessário desenvolver, para essas instituições educacionais, instrumentos gerenciais de planejamento e de controle que monitorem o desempenho organizacional. Neste caso, uma das tarefas mais relevantes relaciona-se aos tipos de informações que os gerentes necessitam para monitorar e ajustar o desempenho da organização. O modelo de avaliação proposto contribui para melhorar o desempenho organizacional das instituições de ensino, criando valor superior nos serviços oferecidos.

  19. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-12

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g(-1) is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g(-1) to 40 A g(-1) with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g(-1). Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  20. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g‑1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g‑1 to 40 A g‑1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g‑1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  1. Are performance-based functional assessments superior to semistructured interviews for enhancing return-to-work outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Douglas P; Asante, Alexander K; Miciak, Maxi; Battié, Michele C; Carroll, Linda J; Sun, Ambrose; Mikalsky, Marti; Huellstrung, Rene; Niemeläinen, Riikka

    2014-05-01

    To examine whether use of functional capacity evaluation (FCE) leads to better outcomes for injured workers. Cluster randomized controlled trial conducted with analysis at level of claimant. Rehabilitation facility. Participants included claimants (N=203); of these, 103 were tested with FCE. Data were collected on all claimants undergoing RTW assessment at the facility for musculoskeletal conditions. Participants were predominantly employed (59%) men (73%) with chronic musculoskeletal conditions (median duration, 496d). FCEs are commonly used to identify work abilities and inform return-to-work (RTW) decisions. Therefore, FCE results have important consequences. Clinicians who were trained and experienced in performing FCEs were randomized into 2 groups. One group included 14 clinicians who were trained to conduct a semistructured functional interview; the other group (control group) continued to use standard FCE procedures. Outcomes included RTW recommendations after assessment, functional work level at time of assessment and 1, 3, and 6 months after assessment, and compensation outcomes. Analysis included Mann-Whitney U, chi-square, and t tests. All outcomes were similar between groups, and no statistically or clinically significant differences were observed. Mean differences between groups on functional work levels at assessment and follow-up ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 out of 4 (3%-8% difference, P>.05). Performance-based FCEs did not appear to enhance RTW outcomes beyond information gained from semistructured functional interviewing. Use of functional interviewing has the potential to improve efficiency of RTW assessment without compromising clinical, RTW, or compensation outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Superior performance of highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor based on the ternary composites of graphene oxide supported poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haihan; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Han, Gaoyi

    2016-08-01

    Ternary composite electrodes based on carbon nanotubes thin films (CNFs)-loaded graphene oxide (GO) supported poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- carbon nanotubes (GO/PEDOT-CNTs) have been prepared via a facile one-step electrochemical codeposition method. The effect of long and short CNTs-incorporated composites (GO/PEDOT-lCNTs and GO/PEDOT-sCNTs) on the electrochemical behaviors of the electrodes is investigated and compared. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the incorporation of CNTs effectively improves the electrochemical performances of the GO/PEDOT electrodes. Long CNTs-incorporated GO/PEDOT-lCNTs electrodes have more superior electrochemical behaviors with respect to the short CNTs-incorporated GO/PEDOT-lCNTs electrodes, which can be attributed to the optimized composition and specific microstructures of the former. To verify the feasibility of the prepared composite electrodes for utilization as flexible supercapacitor, a solid-state supercapacitor using the CNFs-loaded GO/PEDOT-lCNTs electrodes is fabricated and tested. The device shows lightweight, ultrathin, and highly flexible features, which also has a high areal and volumetric specific capacitance (33.4 m F cm-2 at 10 mV s-1 and 2.7 F cm-3 at 0.042 A cm-3), superior rate capability, and excellent cycle stability (maintaining 97.5% for 5000 cycles). This highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor has great potential for applications in flexible electronics, roll-up display, and wearable devices.

  3. Coaxial electrospinning of WO3 nanotubes functionalized with bio-inspired Pd catalysts and their superior hydrogen sensing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Chattopadhyay, Saptarshi; Kim, Jae Jin; Kim, Sang-Joon; Tuller, Harry L.; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Kim, Il-Doo

    2016-04-01

    Macroporous WO3 nanotubes (NTs) functionalized with nanoscale catalysts were fabricated using coaxial electrospinning combined with sacrificial templating and protein-encapsulated catalysts. The macroporous thin-walled nanotubular structures were obtained by introducing colloidal polystyrene (PS) particles to a shell solution of W precursor and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). After coaxial electrospinning with a core liquid of mineral oil and subsequent calcination, open pores with an average diameter of 173 nm were formed on the surface of WO3 NTs due to decomposition of the PS colloids. In addition, catalytic Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using bio-inspired protein cages, i.e., apoferritin, and uniformly dispersed within the shell solution and subsequently on the WO3 NTs. The resulting Pd functionalized macroporous WO3 NTs were demonstrated to be high performance hydrogen (H2) sensors. In particular, Pd-functionalized macroporous WO3 NTs exhibited a very high H2 response (Rair/Rgas) of 17.6 at 500 ppm with a short response time. Furthermore, the NTs were shown to be highly selective for H2 compared to other gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4). The results demonstrate a new synthetic method to prepare highly porous nanotubular structures with well-dispersed nanoscale catalysts, which can provide improved microstructures for chemical sensing.Macroporous WO3 nanotubes (NTs) functionalized with nanoscale catalysts were fabricated using coaxial electrospinning combined with sacrificial templating and protein-encapsulated catalysts. The macroporous thin-walled nanotubular structures were obtained by introducing colloidal polystyrene (PS) particles to a shell solution of W precursor and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). After coaxial electrospinning with a core liquid of mineral oil and subsequent calcination, open pores with an average diameter of 173 nm were formed on the surface of WO3 NTs due to decomposition of the PS colloids. In addition

  4. Can you afford to perform an environmental audit? Update 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, D.P.; Marty, K.F.

    1999-07-01

    A struggle has emerged in recent years between the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the states over the appropriateness of providing privileges for the results of environmental compliance audits. This paper summarizes the state audit privilege statutes, EPA's final audit policy statement, and the common law privileges that may help protect the results of voluntary environmental audits from discovery. This sixth annual update also focuses on recent developments relating to EPA's authority to overfile enforcement actions and the impact of overfiling on environmental audit and self-disclosure issues

  5. Fabrication and magnetic-induced aggregation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal composites for superior SERS performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Zibao; Zhao, Aiwu, E-mail: awzhao@iim.ac.cn; Zhang, Maofeng; Wang, Dapeng; Guo, Hongyan; Tao, Wenyu; Gao, Qian; Mao, Ranran; Liu, Erhu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Intelligent Machines (China)

    2013-11-15

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal composites were obtained by combining Au, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy demonstrates the obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal composites inherit the typical surface plasmon resonance bands of Au, Ag at 533 and 453 nm, respectively. Magnetic measurements also indicated that the superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal composites have excellent magnetic response behavior. A magnetic-induced idea was introduced to change their aggregated states and take full advantage of their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performances. Under the induction of an external magnetic field, the bifunctional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal aggregates exhibit the unique superiority in SERS detection of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), compared with the naturally dispersed Au, Ag NPs. Especially, the detection limit of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–Ag aggregates for R6G is as low as 10{sup −14} M, and the calculated EF reaches up to 1.2 × 10{sup 6}, which meets the requirements for trace detection of analytes. Furthermore, the superiority could be extended to sensitive detection of other organic molecules, such as 4-mercaptopyridine. This work provides a new insight for active adjustment of the aggregated states of SERS substrates and the optimization of SERS performances.

  6. Assessing the energy and environmental performance of algae-mediated tertiary treatment of estrogenic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosi, Lisa M; Resurreccion, Eleazer P; Zhang, Yongli

    2015-02-01

    This study uses a systems-level modeling approach to illustrate a novel synergy between municipal wastewater treatment and large-scale algaculture for production of bio-energy, whereby algae-mediated tertiary treatment provides efficient removal of unregulated, strongly estrogenic steroid hormones from the secondary effluent. Laboratory results from previously published studies suggested that algae-mediated treatment could deliver roughly 75-85% removal of a model estrogen (17β-estradiol) within typical algae pond residence times. As such, experimental results are integrated into a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) framework, to assess the environmental performance of an algae-based tertiary treatment system relative to three conventional tertiary treatments: ozonation, UV irradiation, and adsorption onto granular activated carbon. Results indicate that the algae-mediated tertiary treatment is superior to the selected benchmarks on the basis of raw energy return on investment (EROI) and normalized energy use per mass of estrogenic toxicity removed. It is the only tertiary treatment system that creates more energy than it consumes, and it delivers acceptable effluent quality for nutrient and coliform concentrations while rendering a significant reduction in estrogenic toxicity. These results highlight the dual water and energy sustainability benefits that accrue from the integration of municipal wastewater treatment and large-scale algae farming.

  7. The Influence of Voluntary and Mandatory Environmental Performance on Financial Performance: An Empirical Study of Indonesian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kimitaka Nishitani; Nurul Jannah; Hardinsyah Ridwan; Shinji Kaneko

    2013-01-01

    This paper, using data derived from a questionnaire survey of Indonesian firms, analyzes not only whether a firm's environmental performance improves its financial performance, but also whether this relationship depends on the firm's stance on conducting environmental management voluntarily or mandatorily. The estimation results suggest that a reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increases a firm's profit, because firms that conduct environmental management voluntarily are more likely ...

  8. Analysis of the Correlation between Environmental Performance in Enterprise Green Management and the Competitive Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Yang, Zihan; Zhang, Peiyao

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing concern over the topics of enterprise green management and environmental performance’s influence on a company’s competitive edge. This paper mainly analyzed the effect of enterprise green management on a company’s environmental performance and its competitive advantages, as well as environmental performance’s influence over the competitive edge. Furthermore, this paper discussed the role of environmental performance between enterprise green management and competitive edge. Objects of this study are manufactures in northwestern China which have acquired the ISO 9001 certification before December, 2014. Research discoveries shows that enterprise green management would exert positive influence on the environmental performance and its competitive edge; the environmental performance could also add significant competitive edge to a company; last but not the least, environmental performance also plays an intermediary role between enterprise green management and its competitive advantages

  9. The link between 'green' and economic success: environmental management as the crucial trigger between environmental and economic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Synnestvedt, Terje

    2002-08-01

    The link between environmental and economic performance has been widely debated in the literature for the last ten to fifteen years. One view is that improved environmental performance mainly causes extra costs for the firm and thus reduces profitability. However, also the opposite has been argued for: improved environmental performance would induce cost savings and increase sales and thus improve economic performance. Theoretical and empirical research have provided arguments for both positions and have not been conclusive so far. This article discusses reasons for the different views and the differences in empirical research and presents a theoretical framework to explain the coexistence of the conflicting views. It is argued that not merely the level of environmental performance, but mainly the kind of environmental management with which a certain level is achieved, influences the economic outcome. The model presented provides implications for both empirical research and company management in practice. Research and business practice should focus less on general correlations and more on causal relationships of eco-efficiency, i.e. the effect of different environmental management approaches on economic performance.

  10. High Performance Fiber-Optic Sensor for Environmental Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a low-cost, compact, lightweight, rugged and easy-to-use environmental monitoring optical fiber sensor device based on...

  11. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John Plodinec

    2002-08-01

    This report covers the following topics: Characterization of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides; Development of Tools for Long-term Monitoring; Hanford Tank Waste Chemistry; Environmental Control Device Testing; and Process Monitoring and Control of Toxic Organics.

  12. How environmental collaboration with suppliers and customers influences firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grekova, K.; Calantone, R.J.; Bremmers, H.J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Searching for sustainable growth opportunities, manufacturing firms are increasingly embedding sustainability concerns into their relationships with supply chain partners. In the present paper, we explore the potential of environmental collaboration with suppliers and customers to induce

  13. Genetic and environmental effects on performance traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Beef cattle, birth mass, environmental effects, gain, genetic effects, weaning mass. * Author to whom .... the early calving silage group heifers seenls to be a lower milk ... An economic evaluation of the three managemsnt systems ...

  14. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track?: Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, wich is epresented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which ndicate the economic performance of the

  15. The impact of the dimensions of environmental performance on firm performance in travel and tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siow-Hooi; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah; Tan, Siow-Kian; Choon, Shay-Wei

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the impact of the aggregate and individual dimensions of environmental performance (EP) on financial performance (FP), based on a dataset covering the travel and tourism industry (airlines, casinos, hotels, and restaurants) across different economic regions over the period 2003-2014. The results reveal that EP positively affects the FP in the hotel industry when aggregate EP is used. When individual dimensions of EP are considered, resource reduction is found to positively (negatively) affect the performance in the hotel (airline) industry, while product innovation positively affects the performance in the restaurant industry. Hence, the trade-off effect seems to be dominant in the airline industry, and the 'heterogeneous resources and reputation-building' hypothesis is evident in both the hotel and restaurant industries. In addition, in general, the findings support the positive moderating effect of slack resources on the relationship between the individual dimensions of EP and FP in the travel and tourism industry, and, hence, are supportive of the slack resources hypothesis. These effects, however, vary depending on the travel and tourism industry under investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Superior Light-Harvesting Heteroleptic Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Electron-Donating Antennas for High Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wang-Chao; Kong, Fan-Tai; Li, Zhao-Qian; Pan, Jia-Hong; Liu, Xue-Peng; Guo, Fu-Ling; Zhou, Li; Huang, Yang; Yu, Ting; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2016-08-03

    Three heteroleptic polypyridyl ruthenium complexes, RC-41, RC-42, and RC-43, with efficient electron-donating antennas in the ancillary ligands were designed, synthesized, and characterized as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell. All the RC dye sensitizers showed remarkable light-harvesting capacity and broadened absorption range. Significantly, RC-43 obtained the lower energy metal-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) band peaked at 557 nm with a high molar extinction coefficient of 27 400 M(-1) cm(-1). In conjunction with TiO2 photoanode of submicrospheres and iodide-based electrolytes, the DSSCs sensitizing with the RC sensitizers, achieved impressively high short-circuit current density (19.04 mA cm(-2) for RC-41, 19.83 mA cm(-2) for RC-42, and 20.21 mA cm(-2) for RC-43) and power conversion efficiency (10.07% for RC-41, 10.52% for RC-42, and 10.78% for RC-43). The superior performances of RC dye sensitizers were attributed to the enhanced light-harvesting capacity and incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) caused by the introduction of electron-donating antennas in the ancillary ligands. The interfacial charge recombination/regeneration kinetics and electron lifetime were further evaluated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS). These data decisively revealed the dependences on the photovoltaic performance of ruthenium sensitizers incorporating electron-donating antennas.

  17. One-step solvothermal deposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on a wood surface for robust superamphiphobic performance and superior ultraviolet resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Chao; Fan, Bitao; Wang, Hanwei; Sun, Qingfeng; Jin, Chunde; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, uniformly large-scale wurtzite-structured ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNAs) were deposited onto a wood surface through a one-step solvothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). ZNAs with a diameter of approximately 85 nm and a length of approximately 1.5 μm were chemically bonded onto the wood surface through hydrogen bonds. The superamphiphobic performance and ultraviolet resistance were measured and evaluated by water or oil contact angles (WCA or OCA) and roll-off angles, sand abrasion tests and an artificially accelerated ageing test. The results show that the ZNA-treated wood demonstrates a robust superamphiphobic performance under mechanical impact, corrosive liquids, intermittent and transpositional temperatures, and water spray. Additionally, the as-prepared wood sample shows superior ultraviolet resistance. PMID:27775091

  18. One-step solvothermal deposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on a wood surface for robust superamphiphobic performance and superior ultraviolet resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Chao; Fan, Bitao; Wang, Hanwei; Sun, Qingfeng; Jin, Chunde; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    In the present paper, uniformly large-scale wurtzite-structured ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNAs) were deposited onto a wood surface through a one-step solvothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). ZNAs with a diameter of approximately 85 nm and a length of approximately 1.5 μm were chemically bonded onto the wood surface through hydrogen bonds. The superamphiphobic performance and ultraviolet resistance were measured and evaluated by water or oil contact angles (WCA or OCA) and roll-off angles, sand abrasion tests and an artificially accelerated ageing test. The results show that the ZNA-treated wood demonstrates a robust superamphiphobic performance under mechanical impact, corrosive liquids, intermittent and transpositional temperatures, and water spray. Additionally, the as-prepared wood sample shows superior ultraviolet resistance.

  19. N-doped graphene layers encapsulated NiFe alloy nanoparticles derived from MOFs with superior electrochemical performance for oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-01-01

    Water splitting, an efficient approach for hydrogen production, is often hindered by unfavorable kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In order to reduce the overpotential, noble metal oxides-based electrocatalysts like RuO2 and IrO2 are usually utilized. However, due to their scarcity, the development of cost-effective non-precious OER electrocatalysts with high efficiency and good stability is urgently required. Herein, we report a facile one-step annealing of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) strategy to synthesize N-doped graphene layers encapsulated NiFe alloy nanoparticles (NiFe@C). Through tuning the nanoparticle size and calcination temperature, NiFe@C with an average size of around 16 nm obtained at 700 °C exhibits superior OER performance with an overpotential of only 281 mV at 10 mA cm−2 and high durability. The facile synthesis method and excellent electrochemical performance show great potential of NiFe@C in replacing the precious metal-based electrocatalysts in the OER. PMID:27658968

  20. How to reconcile environmental and economic performance to improve corporate sustainability: corporate environmental strategies in the European paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Marcus

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between environmental and economic performance and the influence of corporate strategies with regard to sustainability and the environment. After formulating a theoretical model, results are reported from an empirical analysis of the European paper manufacturing industry. New data are used to test hypotheses derived from the theoretical model, using environmental performance indices representing different corporate environmental strategy orientations. In particular, an emissions-based index largely reflecting end-of-pipe strategies and an inputs-based index reflecting integrated pollution prevention are distinguished. For the emissions-based index, a predominantly negative relationship between environmental and economic performance is found, whereas for the inputs-based index no significant link is found. This is consistent with the theoretical model, which predicts the possibility of different relationships. The results also show that for firms with pollution prevention-oriented corporate environmental strategies, the relationship between environmental and economic performance is more positive, thus making improvements in corporate sustainability more likely. Based on this last insight, managerial implications of this are discussed with regard to strategy choices, investment decisions and operations management.

  1. Carboplatin plus pemetrexed offers superior cost-effectiveness compared to pemetrexed in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and performance status 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluckebier, Luciene; Garay, Osvaldo U; Zukin, Mauro; Ferreira, Carlos G

    2015-09-01

    Pemetrexed plus carboplatin offers survival advantage in first line treatment of advanced lung cancer patients with performance status of 2. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of this combined regimen compared to pemetrexed alone in a Brazilian population. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted based on a randomized phase III trial in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and ECOG performance status of 2 (PS2), comparing doublet regimen pemetrexed plus carboplatin with pemetrexed alone. The perspective adopted was the public health care sector over a three-year period. Direct medical costs and survival time were calculated from patient-level data and utility values were extracted from the literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate uncertainties in the results. The combined regimen pemetrexed plus carboplatin yielded a gain of 0.16 life year (LY) and 0.12 quality-adjusted life year (QALY) compared to pemetrexed alone. The total cost was 17,674.31 USD for the combined regimen and 15,722.39 USD for pemetrexed alone. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $12,016.09 per LY gained and $15,732.05 per QALY gained. The factors with the greatest impact on the ICER are pemetrexed price and the time to progression utility value. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve showed an upper 90% probability of pemetrexed plus carboplatin being cost-effective with a threshold between two and three GDP per capita. Our study suggests superiority of the combined pemetrexed plus carboplatin regimen in terms of efficacy as well as cost-effectiveness in advanced NSCLC patients with a poor performance status of 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainability Performance of Scandinavian Corporations and their Value Chains assessed by UN Global Compact and Global Reporting Initiative standards - a way to identify superior performers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Strategies & Policies, Management Systems, Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanisms and Key Outcomes on sustainability defined broadly as the Human Rights, Labour, Environment and Anti-Corruption issues by the UN Global Compact. The study firmly concludes that Scandinavian corporations on average......The purpose of this study was to introduce a combination of the two most adopted multi- stakeholder standards for sustainability reporting as an alternate framework for assessing sustainability performance in Scandinavian corporations. This novel approach leverages numeric measures on the criteria...... are not performing on higher levels concerning their implementation of these issues. The generalization of the results is moderated by the study's limitations concerning the framework and data sources used, sample size and the indirect use of GRI indicators. The uniqueness of the sustainability practice by two...

  3. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  4. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities.

  5. Stimulating environmental management performance. Towards a contingency approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, D.J.; Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This article aims to provide an analysis of the joint impact of the business network and the company's internal resources on the level of environmental management (EM) deployment. Design/methodology/approach – Correlation, regression and cluster analyses of data gathered in 2005 in the Dut

  6. An environmental impact causal model for improving the environmental performance of construction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Casals, Alba; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel; Roca Ramon, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing efforts made by the construction sector to reduce the environmental impact of their processes, construction sites are still a major source of pollution and adverse impacts on the environment. This paper aims to improve the understanding of construction-related environmental impacts by identifying on-site causal factors and associated immediate circumstances during construc- tion processes for residential building projects. Based on the literature and focus g...

  7. Does symbolism benefit environmental and business performance in the adoption of ISO 14001?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrón-Vílchez, Vera

    2016-12-01

    Much research has focused on the organisational and reputational benefits of ISO 14001. However, less discussed is the symbolic adoption that some firms are implementing without experiencing significant reductions in environmental impacts. This work analyses the relationships between the different ISO 14001 adoption profiles (from symbolic profile to factual approach) and both environmental performance and profitability. These relationships are examined using a sample of 1214 manufacturing firms in 7 OECD countries while controlling for selection bias. The results suggest that only ISO 14001 adopters that monitor an extensive set of negative environmental impacts are associated with real improvements in both environmental performance and business performance.

  8. Performance on the American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) certification examination: are superior test-taking skills alone sufficient to pass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Thomas R; Royal, Kenneth D; Puffer, James C

    2011-01-01

    Certification examinations used by American specialty boards have been the sine qua non for demonstrating the knowledge sufficient for attainment of board certification in the United States for more than 75 years. Some people contend that the examination is predominantly a test of superior test-taking skills rather than of family medicine decision-making ability. In an effort to explore the validity of this assertion, we administered the American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) Certification to examinees who had demonstrated proficiency in taking standardized tests but had limited medical knowledge. Four nonphysician experts in the field of measurement and testing were administered one version of the 2009 ABFM certification examination. Scaled scores were calculated for each examinee, and psychometric analyses were performed on the examinees responses to examination items and compared with the performance of physicians who took the same examination. The minimum passing threshold for the examination was a scaled score of 390, corresponding to 57.7% to 61.0% of questions answered correctly, depending on the version of the examination. The 4 nonphysician examinees performed poorly, with scaled scores that ranged from 20 to 160 (mean, 87.5; SD, 57.4). The number of questions answered correctly ranged from 24.0% to 35.1% (mean, 29.2%; SD, 0.05%). Rasch analyses of the examination items revealed that the nonphysician examinees were more likely to use guessing strategies in an effort to answer questions correctly. Distracter analysis suggest near-complete randomness in the nonphysician responses. Though all 4 nonphysician examinees performed better than would have been predicted by chance alone, none performed well enough to even fall within 8 SE below the passing thresholds; their performance was far below that of almost all physicians who completed the examination. Given that the nonphysicians relied heavily on the identifying cues in the phrasing of items and the

  9. Solvothermal Synthesis of Hierarchical TiO2 Microstructures with High Crystallinity and Superior Light Scattering for High-Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Mo, Li-E; Chen, Wang-Chao; Shi, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Ning; Hu, Lin-Hua; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2017-09-20

    In this article, hierarchical TiO2 microstructures (HM-TiO2) were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method adopting tetra-n-butyl titanate as the titanium source in a mixed solvent composed of N,N-dimethylformamide and acetic acid. Due to the high crystallinity and superior light-scattering ability, the resultant HM-TiO2 are advantageous as photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. When assembled to the entire photovoltaic device with C101 dye as a sensitizer, the pure HM-TiO2-based solar cells showed an ultrahigh photovoltage up to 0.853 V. Finally, by employing the as-obtained HM-TiO2 as the scattering layer and optimizing the architecture of dye-sensitized solar cells, both higher photovoltage and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency value were harvested with respect to TiO2 nanoparticles-based dye-sensitized solar cells, resulting in a high power conversion efficiency of 9.79%. This work provides a promising strategy to develop photoanode materials with outstanding photoelectric conversion performance.

  10. Y and Ni Co-Doped BaZrO3 as a Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolyte Exhibiting Superior Power Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Shafi, Shahid P.

    2015-10-16

    The fabrication of anode supported single cells based on BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY20) electrolyte is challenging due to its poor sinteractive nature. The acceleration of shrinkage behavior, improved sinterability and larger grain size were achieved by the partial substitution of Zr with Ni in the BZY perovskite. Phase pure Ni-doped BZY powders of nominal compositions BaZr0.8-xY0.2NixO3-δ were synthesized up to x = 0.04 using a wet chemical combustion synthesis route. BaZr0.76Y0.2Ni0.04O3-δ (BZYNi04) exhibited adequate total conductivity and the open circuit voltage (OCV) values measured on the BZYNi04 pellet suggested lack of significant electronic contribution. The improved sinterability of BZYNi04 assisted the ease in film fabrication and this coupled with the application of an anode functional layer and a suitable cathode, PrBaCo2O5+δ (PBCO), resulted in a superior fuel cell power performance. With humidified hydrogen and static air as the fuel and oxidant, respectively, a peak power density value of 428 and 240 mW cm−2 was obtained at 700 and 600°C, respectively.

  11. A comparison of Nannochloropsis salina growth performance in two outdoor pond designs: conventional raceways versus the ARID pond with superior temperature management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, Braden J.; Attalah, Said; Agrawal, Shweta; Waller, Peter; Ryan, Randy; Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Chavis, Aaron R.; Kyndt, John; Kacira, Murat; Ogden, Kimberly L.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-10-01

    The present study examines how climatic conditions and pond design affect the growth performance of microalgae. From January to April of 2011, outdoor batch cultures of Nannochloropsis salina were grown in three replicate 780 L conventional raceways, as well as in an experimental 7500 L ARID (Algae Raceway Integrated Design) pond. The ARID culture system utilizes a series of 8 to 20 cm deep basins and a 1.5 m deep canal to enhance light exposure and mitigate temperature variations and extremes. The ARID culture reached the stationary phase 27 days earlier than the conventional raceways, which can be attributed to its superior temperature management and shallower basins. On a night when the air temperature dropped to -9 °C, the water temperature was 18 °C higher in the ARID pond than in the conventional raceways. Lipid and fatty acid content ranged from 16 - 25 % and 5 - 15 %, respectively, as a percentage of AFDW. Palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosapentaenoic acid comprised the majority of fatty acids. While the ARID culture system achieved nearly double the volumetric productivity relative to the conventional raceways (0.023 vs 0.013 g L-1day-1), areal biomass productivities were of similar magnitude in both pond systems (3.34 vs. 3.47 g m-2day-1), suggesting that the ARID pond design has to be further optimized, most likely by increasing the culture depth or operating at higher cell densities while maintaining adequate mixing.

  12. Market performance and environmental policy. Four tradeable permits schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boom, J.T.; Duizendstraal, A.; De Jong, R.; Koster, J.M.M.; Nentjes, A.; Zhang, Z.X. [Department of Economics and Public Finance of the University of Groningen ECOF, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Buiren, K.; Van Es, G.A.; De Groot, A.W.M.; Velthuijsen, J.W. [Foundation for Economic Research of the University of Amsterdam SEO, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Duyse, P.; Heijnes, H. [Applied Environmental Economics TME, The Hague (Netherlands); Dijkgraaf, E.; Varkevisser, M. [Research Centre for Economic Policy OCfEB, Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wiersma, D.

    1998-08-01

    Six feasible schemes of tradeable permits are presented and the cost savings arising from the application of such schemes instead of conventional policies have been calculated. In this background study four other schemes are discussed. The major reason for their separate presentation is twofold: there was insufficient statistical information available to calculate potential cost savings that are sufficiently reliable and further study is needed to determine the most appropriate design of the schemes. Only after the questions about cost savings and design have been answered it can be established whether indeed introduction of the schemes will improve environmental effectiveness and cost effectiveness of environmental policy. The schemes to be presented in the next sections are tradeable permits for winning sand, for mortar and cement, for noise control on industrial sites, for packaging materials and for heavy metals in waste water and sludge. 13 refs.

  13. Factors underlying farmers’ intentions to perform unsubsidised agri-environmental measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van William F.A.; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Berendse, Frank; Snoo, de Geert R.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades there is a growing body of literature on how to enhance farmers’ participation in voluntary subsidised agri-environmental programmes. However, additional unsubsidised agri-environmental measures that farmers perform are often ignored. The willingness to perform these

  14. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Fujie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ and menaquinones (MK without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces.

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography of respiratory quinones for microbial community analysis in environmental and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2012-03-05

    Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ) in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA) detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ) and menaquinones (MK) without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost) and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces).

  16. Core–shell structure carbon coated ferric oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C) nanoparticles for supercapacitors with superior electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Yipeng [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Haiyan [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Yiming, E-mail: chenym@gdut.edu.cn [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Deng, Peng; Huang, Zhikun [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Liying; Qian, Yannan; Li, Yunyong [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Qingyu [School of Chemistry and Chemistry Engineering, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C was prepared by using arc discharge method followed by heat treatment. • KOH activation made the core–shell structure Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C porous. • The activated-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C supercapacitor exhibited superior electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Core–shell structure carbon coated ferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C) were fabricated by the oxidation of carbon coated iron nanoparticles (Fe@C) prepared by a direct current carbon arc discharge method. Porous activated-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C was prepared by KOH activation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C at the temperature of 750 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the structure and morphology of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C and activated-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C. The specific surface area and pore size distribution of the samples were also tested. The activated-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C electrodes exhibited good electrochemical performance with a maximum specific capacitance of 612 F g{sup −1} at the charge/discharge current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1} with 5 M NaOH electrolyte. After 10,000 cycling DC tests at the charge/discharge current density of 4 A g{sup −1}, a high level specific capacitance of 518 F g{sup −1} was obtained (90.6% retention of the initial capacity), suggesting excellent long-term cycling stability.

  17. Environmental Performance Report 2014. NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukavina, Frank [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Myers, Lissa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elmore, Adrienne [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruckman, Kathryn [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gray, Lori [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margason, Laura [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgensen, Lisa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sweeney, Robin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to ensure that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers, the environment, or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the DOE requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and has been prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B Chg 1, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  18. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained.

  19. Identification of farmer characteristics and farm strategies explaining changes in environmental management and environmental and economic performance of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, the Mineral Accounting System (MINAS) was introduced in The Netherlands. MINAS penalises farms with a levy if the farm nutrient surpluses exceed a certain threshold. The threshold is strict, meaning that most farmers need to change their environmental management and performance to avoid hig

  20. Market performance and environmental policy. A scenario study for a market oriented environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boom, J.T.; Duizendstraal, A.; De Jong, R.; Koster, J.M.M.; Nentjes, A.; Zhang, Z.X. [Department of Economics and Public Finance of the University of Groningen ECOF, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Buiren, K.; Van Es, G.A.; De Groot, A.W.M.; Velthuijsen, J.W. [Foundation for Economic Research of the University of Amsterdam SEO, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Duyse, P.; Heijnes, H. [Applied Environmental Economics TME, The Hague (Netherlands); Dijkgraaf, E.; Varkevisser, M. [Research Centre for Economic Policy OCfEB, Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wiersma, D.

    1998-08-01

    Different sets of instruments to realize targets set in the Dutch environmental policy are assessed by comparing scenarios. They have in common their aim to realise the targets set for the year 2010 in the Dutch National Environmental Policy plans, but they differ in the sets of instruments. In the reference scenario mainly conventional instruments are applied. The tradeable permit scenario introduces tradeable environmental permits. The right price scenario introduces competition instead of public monopoly and reduces tax exemptions and subsidies. Chapter 2 of this study deals with the essential features of tradeable permit systems and describes the specific schemes that are part of the tradeable permit scenario. This chapter also compares the economic results of each separate scheme with the corresponding policy in the reference scenario. Chapter 3 deals with the influence of (semi-)public monopoly in markets for environmental services and other services with major environmental impacts on costs and prices. Furthermore, a number of price distorting tax exemptions and subsidies with major environ- mental impacts are identified. This chapter then describes the specific measures aimed at the introduction of competition, control of monopolistic pricing prac- tices and termination of tax exemptions and subsidies that are part of the right price scenario. It also compares the economic results of each separate measure with the corresponding policy in the reference scenario. Whereas Chapters 2 and 3 present the economic consequences of market oriented policies one by one (partial analysis), Chapter 4 presents the economic im- pacts of simultaneous application of conventional versus market oriented instruments (comprehensive analysis). This is done by incorporating a selected num- ber of the instruments described in Chapters 2 and 3 in a computable general equilibrium model of the Dutch economy. Both (selective) scenarios are con- structed for the year 2010. First is the

  1. Environmental performance assessment of Napier grass for bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimmanterdwong, Prathana; Chalermsinsuwan, Benjapon; Østergård, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    The industrial production of chemicals and energy carriers has grown enormously with the support of new technologies. A proper assessment is needed to provide broader aspects for long-term sustainability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental sustainability of a biorefinery...... based on lignocellulosic biomass feedstock using emergy analysis and to propose the method to minimize material consumption and waste. The concept of emergy is to express the record of all resources used by the biosphere in earlier steps to produce a product or service, in term of solar energy......, comprised of the evaluation of the feedstock cultivation and of a biorefinery producing liquid fuels, methanol, steam, electricity and other by products, i.e., high purity CO2, sulfur. The emergy results revealed that the bio-based products depend mostly on non-renewable resources used in both biomass...

  2. Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI): The First Global Environmental Assessment of Marine Fish Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Jenna M.S. Stoner; Wilson, Amanda J; Martina Beck; Jennifer L.M. Gee; Valerie A. Ethier; John P. Volpe

    2013-01-01

    “Sustainable” is among the most sought after of all seafood product adjectives. Ironically it is also one of the most poorly defined and understood. The Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI) is the first tool to assess environmental performance of global marine aquaculture production, permitting direct comparison of disparate species, production methods and jurisdictions. Clear patterns emerge from this analysis; significant variation of environmental performance is driven by the specie...

  3. Well-Combined Magnetically Separable Hybrid Cobalt Ferrite/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene as Efficient Catalyst with Superior Performance for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lei; Hao, Qingli; Lei, Wu; Xia, Xifeng; Liu, Peng; Sun, Dongping; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xujie

    2015-11-18

    Catalysts with low-cost, high activity and stability toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are extremely desirable, but its development still remains a great challenge. Here, a novel magnetically separable hybrid of multimetal oxide, cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4), anchored on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (CoFe2O4/NG) is prepared via a facile solvothermal method followed by calcination at 500 °C. The structure of CoFe2O4/NG and the interaction of both components are analyzed by several techniques. The possible formation of Co/Fe-N interaction in the CoFe2O4/NG catalyst is found. As a result, the well-combination of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with NG and its improved crystallinity lead to a synergistic and efficient catalyst with high performance to ORR through a four-electron-transfer process in alkaline medium. The CoFe2O4/NG exhibits particularly comparable catalytic activity as commercial Pt/C catalyst, and superior stability against methanol oxidation and CO poisoning. Meanwhile, it has been proved that both nitrogen doping and the spinel structure of CoFe2O4 can have a significant contribution to the catalytic activity by contrast experiments. Multimetal oxide hybrid demonstrates better catalysis to ORR than a single metal oxide hybrid. All results make the low-cost and magnetically separable CoFe2O4/NG a promising alternative for costly platinum-based ORR catalyst in fuel cells and metal-air batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Uniformly active phase loaded selective catalytic reduction catalysts (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TNTs) with superior alkaline resistance performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Wang, Penglu [Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental & Resources Science, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Research Center of Industrial Boiler & Furnace Flue Gas Pollution Control, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Xiongbo [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Wu, Zhongbiao, E-mail: zbwu@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental & Resources Science, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Research Center of Industrial Boiler & Furnace Flue Gas Pollution Control, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • VOSO{sub 4} exhibited better synergistic effect with titanate nanotubes than NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}. • Ion-exchange reaction occurs between VOSO{sub 4} and titanate nanotubes. • Ion-exchange resulting in uniformly vanadium distribution on titanate nanotubes. • VOSO{sub 4}-based catalyst exhibited impressive SCR activity and alkaline resistance. - Abstract: In this work, protonated titanate nanotubes was performed as a potential useful support and different vanadium precursors (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} and VOSO{sub 4}) were used to synthesize deNO{sub x} catalysts. The results showed that VOSO{sub 4} exhibited better synergistic effect with titanate nanotubes than NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}, which was caused by the ion-exchange reaction. Then high loading content of vanadium, uniformly active phase distribution, better dispersion of vanadium, more acid sites, better V{sup 5+}/V{sup 4+} redox cycles and superior oxygen mobility were achieved. Besides, VOSO{sub 4}-based titanate nanotubes catalysts also showed enhanced alkaline resistance than particles (P25) based catalysts. It was strongly associated with its abundant acid sites, large surface area, flexible redox cycles and oxygen transfer ability. For the loading on protonated titanate nanotubes, active metal with cation groups was better precursors than anion ones. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TNTs catalyst was a promising substitute for the commercial vanadium catalysts and the work conducted herein provided a useful idea to design uniformly active phase loaded catalyst.

  5. A Novel Magnetically Recoverable Ni-CeO2-x/Pd Nanocatalyst with Superior Catalytic Performance for Hydrogenation of Styrene and 4-Nitrophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-Fan; Yuan, Cheng-Zong; Xie, Xiao; Zhou, Xiao; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Xin; Imran, Muhammad; Xu, An-Wu

    2017-02-28

    Metal/support nanocatalysts consisting of various metals and metal oxides not only retain the basic properties of each component, but also exhibit higher catalytic activity due to their synergistic effects. Herein, we report the creation of a highly efficient, long-lasting and magnetic recyclable catalyst, composed of magnetic nickel (Ni) nanoparticles (NPs), active Pd NPs and oxygen deficient CeO2-x support. These hybrid nanostructures composed of oxygen deficient CeO2-x and active metal nanoparticles could effectively facilitate diffusion of reactant molecules and active site exposure that can dramatically accelerate the reaction rate. Impressively, the rate constant k and k/m of 4-nitrophenol reduction over 61 wt%Ni-CeO2-x/0.1 wt%Pd catalyst are respectively 0.0479 s-1 and 2.1×104 min-1 g-1, and the reaction conversion shows negligible decline even after 20 cycles. Meanwhile, the optimal 61 wt%Ni-CeO2-x/3 wt%Pd catalyst manifests remarkable catalytic activity towards styrene hydrogenation with a high TOF of 6827 molstyrene molPd-1 h-1 and a selective conversion of 100% to ethylbenzene even after eight cycles. The strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) between Ni NPs, Pd NPs and oxygen deficient CeO2-x support is beneficial for superior catalytic efficiency and stability toward hydrogenation of styrene and 4-nitrophenol. Moreover, Ni species could boost the catalytic activity of Pd due to their synergistic effect and strengthen the interaction between reactant and catalyst, which seems responsible for the great enhancement of catalytic activity. Our findings provide a new perspective to develop other high-performance and magnetically recoverable nanocatalysts, which would be widely applied to a variety of catalytic reactions.

  6. A Comparison of Nannochloropsis salina Growth Performance in Two Outdoor Pond Designs: Conventional Raceways versus the ARID Pond with Superior Temperature Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braden Crowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines how climatic conditions and pond design affect the growth performance of microalgae. From January to April of 2011, outdoor batch cultures of Nannochloropsis salina were grown in three replicate 780 L conventional raceways, as well as in an experimental 7500 L algae raceway integrated design (ARID pond. The ARID culture system utilizes a series of 8–20 cm deep basins and a 1.5 m deep canal to enhance light exposure and mitigate temperature variations and extremes. The ARID culture reached the stationary phase 27 days earlier than the conventional raceways, which can be attributed to its superior temperature management and shallower basins. On a night when the air temperature dropped to −9°C, the water temperature was 18°C higher in the ARID pond than in the conventional raceways. Lipid and fatty acid content ranged from 16 to 25% and from 5 to15%, respectively, as a percentage of AFDW. Palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosapentaenoic acids comprised the majority of fatty acids. While the ARID culture system achieved nearly double the volumetric productivity relative to the conventional raceways (0.023 versus 0.013 g L−1day−1, areal biomass productivities were of similar magnitude in both pond systems (3.47 versus 3.34 g m−2day−1, suggesting that the ARID pond design has to be further optimized, most likely by increasing the culture depth or operating at higher cell densities while maintaining adequate mixing.

  7. The effect of environmental performance and preference disclosure on financial performance: Empirical evidence from unbalanced panel data of heavy-pollution industries in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Environmental performance and propensity disclosure is important for stakeholders to estimate firms’ incentives in environmental management practices. The purpose of this article is to explore the impacts of environmental performance and propensity disclosure on financial performance using unbalanced panel data of eight heavy-pollution industries in China. Design/methodology/approach: Environmental performance and propensity exhibits mutual causality relationship with Tobin’s Q value using unit root and co-integration test of panel data. Using panel data analysis, we take the impacts of environmental performance and propensity disclosure on financial performance from 2008 to 2012. Findings: Environmental performance has a significantly negative impact on Tobin’s Q value at the significance levels of 1%, while environmental propensity has a significantly positive effect on Tobin’s Q value at the significance levels of 5%. Firm size, financial leverage and return of assets have significantly positive impacts on financial performance at the significance levels of 1%. Meanwhile the effect of corporate environmental performance and propensity on financial performance has a significantly periodic difference from 2008 to 2012. Research limitations/implications: Those results are helpful for environmental regulators to evaluate the implementing effect of voluntary environmental policy and for firms’ managers to increase market expectation and improve financial performance. Originality/value: Environmental performance is estimated by 30 environmental indicators in eight heavy-pollution industries in China. Environmental performance and propensity disclosure has a U-typed relationship with financial performance.

  8. Interrelationship between a brand’s environmental embeddedness, brand awareness and company performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana First

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to define and measure a brand’s environmental embeddedness that, unlike the constructs used in previous environmental research, measures to which extent brand identity is embedded in environmental values. The purpose was also to assess a correlation of this variable to brand awareness and company performance. This study is based on three overlapping theoretical backgrounds: brand management, corporate social responsibility and organizational culture. Secondary data as well as content analysis and survey-based primary data were used. The results indicate a correlation between the environmental embeddedness of brands and brand awareness, but no correlation of these two variables to company performance. Such results support the idea that companies should indeed invest in being environmentally friendly so as to increase their chances of being recognized, while also indicating that the companies that own strong brands cannot afford not to be environmentally conscious as that could hurt their corporate brand values.

  9. Environmental Management Performance Report to DOE-RL December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDER, D.M.

    2000-12-01

    This section provides an executive level summary of the performance information covered in this report and is intended to bring to Management's attention that information considered to be most noteworthy. All cost, schedule, milestone commitments, performance measures, and safety data is current as of October 31. Accomplishments, Issues and Integration items are current as of November 17 unless otherwise noted. The section begins with a description of notable accomplishments that have occurred since the last report and are considered to have made the greatest contribution toward safe, timely, and cost-effective clean up. Following the accomplishment section is an overall fiscal year-to-date summary analysis addressing cost, schedule, and milestone performance. Overviews of safety ensue. The next segment of the Executive Summary, entitled Critical Issues, is designed to identify the high-level challenges to achieving cleanup progress. The next section includes FY 2001 EM Management Commitment High Visibility Project Milestones and Critical Few Performance Measures. The Key Integration Activities section follows next, highlighting PHMC activities that cross contractor boundaries and demonstrate the shared value of partnering with other Site entities to accomplish the work. Concluding the Executive Summary, a forward-looking synopsis of Upcoming Planned Key Events is provided.

  10. Evaluating Sustainability of Household Consumption Using DEA to Assess Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Line Block; Jensen, Trine Susanne; Wier, Mette

    2005-01-01

    We assess environmental performance across product types and across household types in order to evaluate environmental pressure from human activities. To so do, we combine family budget statistics, input-output tables, energy and material flow matrices, various types of emissions and environmenta...... friendly consumption pattern. Middle income families living in houses have the least environmentally friendly consumer basket, and these families constitute a high share of all families in Denmark....

  11. Evaluating sustainability of household consumption - using DEA to assess environmental performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wier, Mette; Christoffersen, Line Block; Jensen, Trine S.

    2005-01-01

    We assess environmental performance across product types and across household types in order to evaluate environmental pressure from human activities. To so do, we combine family budget statistics, input-output tables, energy and material flow matrices, various types of emissions and environmenta...... friendly consum-ption pattern. Middle income families living in houses have the least environmentally friendly consumer basket, and these families constitute a high share of all families in Denmark....

  12. Do Certified Buildings Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality and Performance of Office Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva, Nuno Alexandre Faria; Wargocki, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of sustainability consciousness, the awareness of stakeholders for high performance buildings has also increased. The concept of green buildings has appeared. Several voluntary environmental rating schemes for buildings were created. Their focus has been energy conservation...... and environmental impacts. The schemes use different credit system for various variables and different approaches to rate indoor environmental quality (IEQ) (Figure 1). It is interesting to examine, whether human related factors are properly addressed in the schemes, especially considering the potential effects...

  13. CORPORATE ENVIRONMENTAL DISCLOSURE AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE LEVELS: DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Maria Beuren

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study poses to investigate the relationship between the level of environmental disclosure and economic performance of open capital companies as classified by the Você S/A – As Melhores Empresas para Você Trabalhar (The Best Companies to Work guide. A descriptive study, employing a quantitative approach, was conducted via documental analysis of financial statements of the therein featured, 21 open capital companies. Survey results evidence that: a in the environmental disclosure categorization, 680 data entries were found, ranging from 99 deemed complete information, 126 as incomplete and 455 absent; b in terms of environmental disclosure score levels, 55% of the companies were graded as unsatisfactory, 35% regular and 9% good; and c the relationship between corporate environmental disclosure levels and economic performance revealed bleak correlation. Thus, once employing the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA methodology, the study concludes that not all companies that presented higher environmental information disclosure levels attained efficient economic performance.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF THE W.L. GORE & ASSOCIATES GORE-SORBER SCREENING SURVEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  15. Sociopolitical and economic elements to explain the environmental performance of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Thiago Alexandre das Neves; García-Sánchez, Isabel-María

    2017-01-01

    The present research explains environmental performance using an ecological composite index as the dependent variable and focusing on two national dimensions: sociopolitical characteristics and economics. Environmental performance is measured using the Composite Index of Environmental Performance (CIEP) indicator proposed by García-Sánchez et al. (2015). The first model performs a factor analysis to aggregate the variables according to each analyzed dimension. In the second model, the estimation is run using only single variables. Both models are estimated using generalized least square estimation (GLS) using panel data from 152 countries and 6 years. The results show that sociopolitical factors and international trade have a positive effect on environmental performance. When the variables are separately analyzed, democracy and social policy have a positive effect on environmental performance while transport, infrastructure, consumption of goods, and tourism have a negative effect. Further observation is that the trade-off between importing and exporting countries overshadows the pollution caused by production. It was also observed that infrastructure has a negative coefficient for developing countries and positive for developed countries. The best performances are in the democratic and richer countries that are located in Europe, while the worst environmental performance is by the nondemocratic and the poorest countries, which are on the African continent.

  16. Environmental certification: a scientific tool for sustainability. Evaluation of possible indicators for the environmental performance evaluation (EPE) of Ravenna province (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzieri, Margherita; Marchettini, Nadia; Ridolfi, Roberto

    2003-04-01

    Environmental certification is becoming the main tool for application of sustainable development principles. The European Regulation Emas and the international standard ISO 14001 both require for certification, to perform an environmental management system to prevent environmental impacts and to continuously improve environmental performance. For a good environmental performance evaluation (EPE), certification needs to use scientific methodologies and to interface with scientific research; here we proposed emergy analysis as a valid method for EPE and emergetic environmental performance and condition indicators (EPIs, ECIs) to monitor a territorial system: Ravenna province (Italy). Together with emergy indicators were selected other indicators for a deeper EPE: emitted/adsorbed CO2, energy consumptions, air and water pollution measures. The paper showed that Ravenna system has a good environmental performance and demonstrated how different indicators from the most advanced chemical research (chemical-physical, analytical, etc.) contribute to a complete EPE of a complex territorial system and are useful for environmental certification and sustainable development.

  17. EPIQR software. [Energy Performance, Indoor Environmental Quality, Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flourentzos, F. (Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)); Droutsa, K. (National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece)); Wittchen, K.B. (Danish Building Research Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    1999-01-01

    The support of the EPIQR method is a multimedia computer program. Several modules help the users of the method to treat the data collected during a diagnosis survey, to set up refurbishment scenario and calculate their cost or energy performance, and finally to visualize the results in a comprehensive way and to prepare quality reports. This article presents the structure and the main features of the software. (au)

  18. 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa R. Meachum

    2004-02-01

    The 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe the conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operations of the facilities during the 2003 permit year are discussed.

  19. 2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meachum, T.R.; Lewis, M.G.

    2003-02-20

    The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

  20. LCA as a Tool to Evaluate Green Infrastructure's Environmental Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano De Sousa, M.; Erispaha, A.; Spatari, S.; Montalto, F.

    2011-12-01

    Decentralized approaches to managing urban stormwater through use of green infrastructure (GI) often lead to system-wide efficiency gains within the urban watershed's energy supply system. These efficiencies lead to direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions savings, and also restore some ecosystem functions within the urban landscape. We developed a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) model to estimate the life cycle energy, global warming potential (GWP), and payback times for each if GI were applied within a select neighborhood in New York City. We applied the SIMAPRO LCA software and the economic input-output LCA (EIO-LCA) tool developed by Carnegie Mellon University. The results showed that for a new intersection installation highlighted in this study a conventional infrastructure construction would emit and use approximately 3 times more for both CO2 and energy than a design using GI. Two GI benefits were analyzed with regards to retrofitting the existing intersection. The first was related to the savings in energy and CO2 at the Waste Water Treatment Plant via runoff reduction accrued from GI use. The second benefit was related to the avoided environmental costs associated with an additional new grey infrastructure installation needed to prevent CSO in case of no GI implementation. The first benefit indicated a high payback time for a GI installation in terms of CO2 and energy demand (80 and 90 years respectively) and suggest a slow energy and carbon recovery time. However, concerning to the second benefit, GI proved to be a sustainable alternative considering the high CO2 releases (429 MTE) and energy demand (5.5 TJ) associated with a grey infrastructure construction.

  1. Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency : performance report for the period ending March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report presents the results and achievements of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA) during the most recent fiscal year. It explains the importance of environmental assessment and how the federal environmental assessment process works. Environmental assessments are conducted to identify and ensure that the potential environmental effects of projects are carefully considered before they are undertaken to avoid any irreversible damage. The CEAA's strategy for sustainable development focuses on increasing the knowledge and understanding of environmental assessments within and outside government in an effort to design better projects and policies that integrate environmental, economic and social goals. In the last fiscal year, the Agency supported the completion of 10 comprehensive environmental assessments and completed bilateral agreements between the federal government and Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Agency also completed the Canada Port Authority Environmental Assessment Regulations which are designed to improve the overall application of environmental assessments under federal jurisdiction. Other accomplishments included the Five Year Review of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and the completion of comprehensive consultations with more than 1,200 Canadians. This document also outlines specific spending according to departments, agencies and programs. Detailed information is also included on specific departments and their programs in terms of strategic planning. Accomplishments achieved in the last fiscal year were also compared with performance expectations. 11 tabs.

  2. Environmental Policy Performance Revisited: Designing Effective Policies for Green Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    instruments directed at the demand-side of the market. Therefore this article develops a policy typology for government intervention aimed at creating green markets. The typology distinguishes between four types of policies based on the balance between supply-side and demand-side policy instruments applied....... On the basis of the typology, a hypothesis on their ability to expand green markets is generated and tested in a comparative analysis of the performance of organic food policies in Denmark, Sweden, the UK and the US, focusing on their impact on organic consumption. Our analysis demonstrates that cross...

  3. Performance of newly implemented Environmental Management Systems in primary schools in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Luc; Wiedemann, Torsten; Raath, Schalk; Stone, Riana; Renders, Paul; Craenhals, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative results from Environmental Management Systems (EMS) at primary schools have rarely been examined in literature. This paper presents the monitoring results of environmental care in 39 primary schools in Northern South Africa. During 2 years, after the EMS was implemented in the curriculum and in the school's management, the progress of environmental performances of the participating schools has been measured, by means of detailed questionnaires, related to four environmental aspects: water, waste, energy and greening. At the beginning of the project, 50% of the schools performed well on water-related environmental actions. Two years later it was 76%. For waste-related activities the improvement was even stronger: from 50% to 100%. The environmental performances of the schools improved also for greening-related actions, from 50% at the start of the project to 64% two years later. Only energy-related activities did not improve significantly with only 24% of all schools performing well at the end of the survey period. In general, the introduction of an EMS succeeded in an improvement of the overall environmental performances of the schools, but cost-intensive activities were less successful than others.

  4. Isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Palle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA dissection without involvement of the aorta and the SMA origin is unusual. We present a case of an elderly gentleman who had chronic abdominal pain, worse after meals. CT angiography, performed on a 64-slice CT scanner, revealed SMA dissection with a thrombus. A large artery of Drummond was also seen. The patient was managed conservatively.

  5. Highlighting High Performance: Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-11-01

    Oberlin College’s Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies is a high-performance building featuring an expansive photovoltaic system and a closed-loop groundwater heat pump system. Designers incorporated energy-efficient components and materials

  6. The Influence of Environmental and Social Performance on Financial Performance: Evidence from Romania’s Listed Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dobre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Companies that are listed on a stock exchange should know that reporting only financial measures is not enough for ensuring sustainable development. To be truly competitive, they should also include information about environmental policies and about the benefits that the company offers to its employees. The present research aims to provide information on how Romanian listed companies report environmental and social indicators and whether or not this has an impact on financial performance. We used a four time period panel fixed effect model for Romanian companies that are listed in the first category of the Bucharest Stock of Exchange. The results point out that increasing water, air and soil protection has a negative impact on current return on equity, while no effects were detected on return on assets and stock market returns. Other environmental variables such as gas, energy or sound were found not to be statistically significant. Training and benefits after retirement have a mixed effect on financial measures. The research correlates Romanian accounting regulation changes with companies’ characteristics and the influence of financial audit on financial performance, and concludes that increasing environmental and social protection could have an impact on financial performance in the long run, as positive correlation was detected between social or environmental performance and stock market returns one year after the changes occurred.

  7. Technology, managerial, and policy initiatives for improving environmental performance in small-scale gold mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilson, Gavin; Van der Vorst, Rita

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews a series of strategies for improving environmental performance in the small-scale gold mining industry. Although conditions vary regionally, few regulations and policies exist specifically for small-scale gold mining activity. Furthermore, because environmental awareness is low in most developing countries, sites typically feature rudimentary technologies and poor management practices. A combination of policy-, managerial- and technology-related initiatives is needed to facilitate environmental improvement in the industry. Following a broad overview of these initiatives, a recommended strategy is put forth for governments keen on improving the environmental conditions of resident small-scale gold mines.

  8. 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meachum, Teresa Ray; Lewis, Michael George

    2002-02-01

    The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.

  9. 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meachum, T.R.; Lewis, M.G.

    2002-02-15

    The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.

  10. Critical evaluation of environmental and economic performance of green buildings in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Cheuk-yi; 陳卓兒

    2015-01-01

    Due to the two key drivers, energy crisis and climate change, green buildings has become increasingly important around the world and many building environmental assessment methods have been developed to assess the performance of green buildings. However, it is sometimes criticized that the environmental performance of those certified green buildings may not be guaranteed in real situation. Some green technologies used in green buildings are found to be not cost effective. This study aims to c...

  11. Effects of variation of environmental parameters on the performance of Resistive Plate Chamber detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meghna, K.K. [INO Graduate Training Programme and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400085 (India); Biswas, S. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Jash, A. [INO Graduate Training Programme and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chattopadhyay, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400085 (India); Saha, S., E-mail: satyajit.saha@saha.ac.in [Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-04-21

    Performance of single gap Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors is investigated under variation of environmental parameters, such as temperature and relative humidity. Operational characteristics of the RPCs depend on both the environmental temperature and the relative humidity. Sensitivity to such dependence is found to be more on temperature rather than the relative humidity. Qualitative interpretation of some of the results obtained is given based on the known properties of the electrode materials and gases used in the detectors. - Highlights: • Performance of single gap bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors is investigated under independent variation of environmental temperature and relative humidity. • Parameters such as leakage currents, noise rates, efficiency and timing characteristics of RPCs are investigated. • Operational characteristics of the RPCs depend on both the environmental temperature and the relative humidity. • Sensitivity of the operational parameters to variation of environmental parameters is found to be more on temperature rather than the relative humidity.

  12. Improving environmental performance through unit-level organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment: A capability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Elisa; Spitzeck, Heiko

    2016-11-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment (OCBEs) are increasingly advocated as a means of complementing formal practices in improving environmental performance. Adopting a capability perspective, we propose that a firm's employee involvement capability translates into environmental performance through the manifestation of unit-level OCBEs, and that this relationship is amplified by a shared vision capability. In a cross-country and multi-industry sample of 170 firms, we find support for our hypotheses, shedding light on contextual determinants of OCBEs, and on how firms may engender a positive relationship between top-down environmental initiatives and bottom-up behaviors.

  13. PERFORMANCES OF TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem plays an obvious role in maintaining the biological balance in the coastal environment where shrimp ponds are usually constructed. The removal of mangroves around shrimp ponds has frequently brought about harvest failure. The study evaluated the performance of tiger shrimp culture in ponds provided with water from a water body where there was mangrove vegetation (hereafter mangrove reservoir. Twelve ponds, each measuring 2,500 m2, were filled with seawater from the mangrove reservoir until the water depth of 100 cm and then stocked with 20-40 PL/m2. In the first six ponds, the bottom water was released into the reservoir when the water depth reached 140 cm and then the water depth was maintained at 100 cm. In the second six ponds, the water was released from the ponds until the water depth reached 60 cm and then refilled with reservoir water until a depth of 100 cm. Both treatment ponds received water from the reservoir which also received the wastewater. The feeds for the shrimps were broadcast into the ponds twice a day to meet the 3% shrimp biomass requirement, which adjusted every other week through sampling. The result showed that mangrove  vegetation is capable of removing excessive nutrients, up to 70% for NO3- N and NH4 +-N, reducing PO4 =-P fluctuation, and producing bioactive  compounds. In the second treatment ponds, shrimp mortality started to occur in day 28 and most died by day 54 after stocking due to white spot disease outbreak. Mass mortality took place 54 days after stocking in two out of six of the first treatment ponds.

  14. Enhanced propellant performance via environmentally friendly curable surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface coating of granular propellants is widely used in a multiplicity of propellants for small, medium and large caliber ammunition. All small caliber ball propellants exhibit burning progressivity due to application of effective deterrent coatings. Large perforated propellant grains have also begun utilizing plasticizing and impregnated deterrent coatings with the purpose of increasing charge weights for greater energy and velocity for the projectile. The deterrent coating and impregnation process utilizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs which results in propellants that need to be forced air dried which impacts air quality. Propellants undergo temperature fluctuations during their life. Diffusion coefficients vary exponentially with variations in temperature. A small temperature increase can induce a faster migration, even over a short period of time, which can lead to large deviations in the concentration. This large concentration change in the ammunition becomes a safety or performance liability. The presence of both polymeric deterrents and nitroglycerin(NG in the nitrocellulose matrix and organic solvents leads to higher diffusion rates. This results in continued emissions of VOCs and HAPs. Conventional polymers tend to partition within the propellant matrix. In other words, localized mixing can occur between the polymer and underlying propellant. This is due to solvent induced softening of the polymer vehicle over the propellant grain. In effect this creates a path where migration can occur. Since nitrate esters, like NG, are relatively small, it can exude to the surface and create a highly unstable and dangerous situation for the warfighter. Curable polymers do not suffer from this partitioning due to “melting” because no VOC solvents are present. They remain surface coated. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and

  15. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods.

  16. Home and Community Environmental Features, Activity Performance, and Community Participation among Older Adults with Functional Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Yu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes relationships among home and community environmental features, activity performance in the home, and community participation potential to support aging in place. A subset of data on older adults with functional limitations (=122, sixty three (63 with mobility and 59 with other limitations, were utilized in this study from a larger project's subject pool. Results showed significant and positive correlations between environmental barriers, activity dependence and difficulty at home, and less community participation in the mobility limitation group. While kitchen and bathroom features were most limiting to home performance, bathtub or shower was the only home feature, and destination social environment was the only community feature, that explained community participation. Compared to environmental features, home performance explained much more community participation. Study results provide detailed information about environmental features as well as types of home activities that can be prioritized as interventions for aging in place.

  17. The effects of greening the supplier and innovation on environmental performance and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unine van den Berg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies in South Africa should realise the important influence of greening their suppliers and of innovation to achieve environmental goals and competitive advantages. In order to prove this, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 75 companies from 11 industries in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality region, South Africa. A confirmatory factor analysis was done, followed by bivariate correlations to determine the strength of association between the latent constructs. Correlations between greening the supplier, innovation, environmental performance and competitive advantages were done. The research found that a green innovative process had a significant effect on environmental performance. Green managerial innovation further had a significant correlation with competitive advantage. The primary result of the study indicated that all the constructs positively related to each other, meaning that greening suppliers, by means of green innovation, leads to an enhanced environmental performance and to competitive advantages.

  18. Home and Community Environmental Features, Activity Performance, and Community Participation among Older Adults with Functional Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiang-Yu; Sanford, Jon A

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes relationships among home and community environmental features, activity performance in the home, and community participation potential to support aging in place. A subset of data on older adults with functional limitations (N = 122), sixty three (63) with mobility and 59 with other limitations, were utilized in this study from a larger project's subject pool. Results showed significant and positive correlations between environmental barriers, activity dependence and difficulty at home, and less community participation in the mobility limitation group. While kitchen and bathroom features were most limiting to home performance, bathtub or shower was the only home feature, and destination social environment was the only community feature, that explained community participation. Compared to environmental features, home performance explained much more community participation. Study results provide detailed information about environmental features as well as types of home activities that can be prioritized as interventions for aging in place.

  19. Exploring the Impact of Complementary Assets on the Environmental Performance in Manufacturing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungwon Woo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the impact of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs on the environment increases, there is a need for effective environmental policies to sustain their development. Under this condition, SMEs implement innovation to meet environmental regulations and to achieve environmental competitiveness in sustainability. We examine the impact of environmental innovation on labor productivity in SME manufacturers. The literature shows that complementary assets help SMEs to increase their performance in environmental innovation. Therefore, we study the interactive effects of the SMEs’ business-group affiliation and the listing status on the relationship between environmental innovation and labor productivity. We add these interaction terms to multivariate regressions by using the 2010 Korea Innovation Survey. The results show that SMEs are able to use environmental innovation as a business strategy for green growth with improved labor productivity. Also, the results highlight that the business-group affiliation and the listing status as the complementary assets positively moderate the performance of the environmental innovation of the SMEs.

  20. An Analysis of Social Factors Influencing Students’ Environmental Attitudes and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Salehi

    2014-05-01

    The results of this research showed that 53 percent of the surveyed students used public media as the main source of environmental information. Urban student’ attitudes were more favorable to the environment. Environmental attitudes and behaviors of the sample students were not different in terms of gender. There was a weak relationship between environmental attitudes and behavior. Also, environmental attitudes and behaviors were different by the family ‘environmental performance, and informational resources related with environmental attitude and behavior. In conclusion, it can be said that based on the descriptive and inferential findings while students attitudes toward the environment seem to be positive, their environmental performance is not and should be changed, if we want to achieve to a sustainable development. Therefore, in any major decision and national policy aiming at sustainable development, we should consider the factors that reinforce environmental responsible behavior. By helping students to recognize the importance of environment, we can boost the spirit of protection of the environment and increase a sense of responsibility among them.

  1. Documenting cost and performance for environmental remediation projects: Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-08

    The purpose of this DOE guide is to facilitate the use of consistent procedures to document cost and performance information for projects involving the remediation of media contaminated with hazardous and radioactive wastes. It provides remedial action project managers with a standardized set of data to document completed remediation projects. Standardized reporting of data will broaden the utility of the information, increase confidence in the effectiveness of future remedial technologies, and enhance the organization, storage and retrieval of relevant information for future cleanup projects. The foundation for this guide was laid down by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) in their publication, Guide to Documenting Cost and Performance for Remediation Projects, EPA-542-B- 95-002. Member agencies of the FRTR include the US EPA, the US DOD, the US DOE, and the US DOI. All the member agencies are involved in site remediation projects and anticipate following the guidance provided in the above reference. Therefore, there is much to be gained for DOE to be consistent with the other member agencies as it will be easier to compare projects across different agencies and also to learn from the experiences of a wider spectrum of prior completed projects.

  2. Satisfaction and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Frontczak, Monika; Schiavon, Stefano;

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines how satisfaction with indoor environmental parameters and building features affects satisfaction and self-estimated job performance. The analyses used subjective responses from around 50, 000 occupants collected mainly in US office buildings using a web-based survey administered...... by the Center for the Built Environment (CBE) over the period of ten years. Overall satisfaction with the workspace significantly improved self-estimated job performance; increased satisfaction with temperature was estimated to provide the greatest improvement in self-estimated job performance, followed...... environmental quality and building design are used, and that they should consider whether comfort or working morale are expected to be improved....

  3. Developing an environmental performance standard for the materials in buildings for the Dutch Building Decree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Groot-Van Dam, A. de; Kortman, J.G.M.; Huppes, G.; Ven, B. van der; Schuurmans, A.; Anink, D.

    2001-01-01

    After consulting the building industry the Dutch government decided in February 1998 to implement sustainability requirements in the Dutch Building Decree by the year 2001. Part of these requirements will be the material-based environmental performance of a building, mepb.. An energy performance

  4. Prolonged self-paced exercise in the heat - environmental factors affecting performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Nicklas; Jørgensen, Rasmus; Flouris, Andreas D

    2016-01-01

    In this review we examine how self-paced performance is affected by environmental heat stress factors during cycling time trial performance as well as considering the effects of exercise mode and heat acclimatization. Mean power output during prolonged cycling time trials in the heat (≥30°C) was ...

  5. Environmental cycling of cellulosic thermal insulation and its influence on fire performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, J. R.

    1984-08-01

    A study was conducted on climatological data for eleven cities located throughout the United States. Findings from this environmental study were used to develop conditioning cycles for a research project on the influence of environments on the fire performance of loose-fill cellulosic thermal insulation. Six cellulosic insulation materials with different compositions of fire retardant chemicals at an add-on level of 25% by weight were specially manufactured for this study. These materials were tested for fire performance using the smoldering combustion test and the attic flooring radiant panel test to establish a baseline. After the materials were exposed to the various environmental cycles, they were tested for fire performance. Results from these tests show that environmental exposure can have a significant effect on the fire performance of cellulosic insulation materials and indicates that long term fire protection provided by fire retardant compounds may be limited.

  6. Environmental performance of hydrothermal carbonization of four wet biomass waste streams at industry-relevant scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Ryberg, Morten; Renz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    parameters influencing environmental performance. Hydrochar produced from green waste performs best and second best in respectively 2 and 10 out of 15 impact categories, including climate change, mainly due to low transportation needs of the biowaste and optimized pumping efficiency for the feedstock....... By contrast, hydrochar produced from the organic fraction of MSW performs best in 6 impact categories, but has high potential impacts on human health and ecosystems caused by emissions of toxic elements through ash disposal. The greatest potential for environmental optimization for the HTC technology...... is in the use of heat and electricity with increasing plant size, but its overall environmental performance is largely influenced in a given geographic location by the incumbent waste management system that it replaces. Impact scores are within the range of existing alternative treatment options, suggesting...

  7. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  8. The Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management: Project performance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy commissioned Independent Project Analysis, Inc. (IPA) to perform this Project Performance Study to provide a quantitative analysis determining how well EM develops and executes environmental remediation and waste management projects. The approach consisted of collecting detailed data on a sample of 65 completed and ongoing EM projects conducted since 1984. These data were then compared with key project characteristics and outcomes from 233 environmental remediation projects (excluding EM) in IPA`s Environmental Remediation Database and 951 projects In IPA`s Capital Projects Database. The study establishes the standing of the EM system relative to other organizations, and suggests areas and opportunities for improvement.

  9. Using information technology to measure, monitor and report on environmental performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, G.

    1999-07-01

    This article provides an overview of the process of environmental performance evaluation (EPE), including a discussion of the rationale and context for EPE as a key component of environmental management and sustainability metrics for businesses around the world. New and emerging developments, such as environmental performance benchmarking and standardized reporting, are highlighted. The ISO 14000 model for EPE and its environmental performance indicators is described. The article then discusses the need for new technology, including the Internet, to meet these new demands, and examines the important role of information technology in creating an efficient and effective system for the EPE process. In this regard, issues such as scaleability, data identification, data collection, reporting, user interface, integration and data warehousing are explored, and examples of the application of information technology to address these issues are provided. The article concludes with a discussion of the need to use emerging information technology to integrate various key types of performance information, including environmental, according to the balanced scorecard model for integrated business sustainability metrics. It concludes that such technology should be used now, even in the absence of global standards for performance metrics, and in spite of the theoretical and practical challenges in doing so, in order to move toward the important goal of achieving comprehensive sustainability metrics.

  10. Emprego de uma abordagem multicritério para classificação do desempenho de instituições de ensino superior Utilización de una metodología multicriterio para la clasificación del desempeño de instituciones de educación superior Using a multicriteria approach for classifying universities' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Policani Freitas

    2009-12-01

    Ponderada para clasificar el funcionamiento de las Instituciones de Educación Superior segundo la opinión de profesores y estudiantes. Con el deseo de investigar el uso de esta metodología, fue realizado un experimento en una universidad publica - el análisis de los resultados y algunas conclusiones son presentadas. Las potencialidades/debilidades y los puntos críticos que se deben dar la prioridad a favor de la mejora de la Calidad en la Educación fueran identificados.Since the 90's, the Brazilian University System has experienced a fast growth, which is characterized by the increasing quantity of Universities and University Degree Courses. In this context, it's essential that exists an efficient Education Evaluation System to monitor the information of these universities and to assure that the education quality provided by them achieve the recommended standards. One way to get the Education System efficiency is to continuously evaluate the performance of Universities concerning several criteria. Thus, this work presents a multicriteria approach based on the traditional Weighted Average method for sorting the universities performance according to professors and students points of view. In order to investigate the application of this approach, a case study was conducted in a Public university. The weaknesses/potentialities and the critical points which must be prioritized in order to improve the Education Quality were identified.

  11. SOCIAL LEGITIMACY VERSUS BUSINESS PERFORMANCE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY POLICIES OF ANDALUSIAN GOLF COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José, Riquel Ligero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts an analysis of organizational motivations when developing policies for environmental liability. Specifically, to compare the production of social legitimacy to the improvement of organizational performance, we proceeded to test two models in a sector which in recent years has opened a wide debate on environmental sustainability. We refer to golf tourism in Andalusia, in which there has been a considerable increase in such facilities. We have used the statistical technique Partial Least Square (PLS.

  12. The effect of environmental factors on job Performance using manual and mental tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Finding of the present research manifested that increase in noise and heat stress and also reduction in lighting lessen the speed of manual tests and time and accuracy of mathematical calculations. Therefore this result confirm the effects of various environmental factors on individuals’ job performance, in a way that by variation of different environmental factors, time of manual test and time and accuracy of mental tests would be changed.

  13. Home and Community Environmental Features, Activity Performance, and Community Participation among Older Adults with Functional Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes relationships among home and community environmental features, activity performance in the home, and community participation potential to support aging in place. A subset of data on older adults with functional limitations ( = 1 2 2 ), sixty three (63) with mobility and 59 with other limitations, were utilized in this study from a larger project's subject pool. Results showed significant and positive correlations between environmental barriers, activity dependence and d...

  14. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  15. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  16. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  17. Factors Promoting Environmental Responsibility in European SMEs: The Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Sáez-Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing social and political awareness of the importance of developing environmental responsibility at a corporate level. When focusing on issues of responsibility, large companies are frequently perceived to be more responsible for driving climate change and resource depletion. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute significantly to the use of resources such as material and energy and produce approximately 64% of the pollution in Europe. Drawing on evidence from “The Eurobarometer 381 Survey on SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets”, we analyze the environmental responsibility of European SMEs, studying their compliance with environmental legislation and how several factors drive environmental orientation among SMEs. Our sample consists of 3647 SMEs operating in 38 countries. Only around a fifth of the firms go beyond environmental regulations, showing the highest levels of environmental responsibility. We conduct OLS regressions to analyze the factors that affect a positive environmental attitude among European SMEs (internal drivers being more significant than external ones and then, to observe the positive effect of environmental responsibility and firm’s experience in offering green services/products on performance, although a conjoint effect was not found. Implications for practitioners, academics, and policy-makers are outlined.

  18. Using the Fuzzy DEMATEL to Determine Environmental Performance: A Case of Printed Circuit Board Industry in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sang-Bing; Chien, Min-Fang; Xue, Youzhi; Li, Lei; Jiang, Xiaodong; Chen, Quan; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The method by which high-technology product manufacturers balance profits and environmental performance is of crucial concern for governments and enterprises. To examine the environmental performance of manufacturers, the present study applied Fuzzy-DEMATEL model to examine environmental performance of the PCB industry in Taiwan. Fuzzy theory was employed to examine the environmental performance criteria of manufacturers and analyse fuzzy linguistics. The fuzzy-DEMATEL model was then employed to assess the direction and level of interaction between environmental performance criteria. The core environmental performance criteria which were critical for enhancing environmental performance of the PCB industry in Taiwan were identified and presented. The present study revealed that green design (a1), green material procurement (a2), and energy consumption (b3) constitute crucial reason criteria, the core criteria influencing other criteria, and the driving factors for resolving problems.

  19. Using the Fuzzy DEMATEL to Determine Environmental Performance: A Case of Printed Circuit Board Industry in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Bing Tsai

    Full Text Available The method by which high-technology product manufacturers balance profits and environmental performance is of crucial concern for governments and enterprises. To examine the environmental performance of manufacturers, the present study applied Fuzzy-DEMATEL model to examine environmental performance of the PCB industry in Taiwan. Fuzzy theory was employed to examine the environmental performance criteria of manufacturers and analyse fuzzy linguistics. The fuzzy-DEMATEL model was then employed to assess the direction and level of interaction between environmental performance criteria. The core environmental performance criteria which were critical for enhancing environmental performance of the PCB industry in Taiwan were identified and presented. The present study revealed that green design (a1, green material procurement (a2, and energy consumption (b3 constitute crucial reason criteria, the core criteria influencing other criteria, and the driving factors for resolving problems.

  20. Testing the environmental performance of urban agriculture as a food supply in northern climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Fernandez, John

    2016-01-01

    conferring a number of ancillary benefits to host cities (runoff attenuation, urban heat island mitigation) and ex-urban environments (carbon sequestration). Previous environmental assessments have found urban agriculture to be more sustainable than conventional agriculture when performed in mild climates......The past decade has seen a renaissance of urban agriculture in the world's wealthy, northern cities. The practice of producing food in and around cities is championed as a method to reduce environmental impacts of urban food demands (reducing distance from farm to fork - ‘food miles’) whilst......, though opposite findings emerge when external energy inputs are significant. In this study we perform an environmental life cycle assessment of six urban farms in Boston, US producing lettuce and tomatoes, with conventional counterparts across six impact categories. Performance of urban agriculture...

  1. Development of a model to assess environmental performance, concerning HSE-MS principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, M; Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, F; Karbassi, A R; Roayaei, E; Nikoomaram, H

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of the present study was to develop a valid and appropriate model to evaluate companies' efficiency and environmental performance, concerning health, safety, and environmental management system principles. The proposed model overcomes the shortcomings of the previous models developed in this area. This model has been designed on the basis of a mathematical method known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). In order to differentiate high-performing companies from weak ones, one of DEA nonradial models named as enhanced Russell graph efficiency measure has been applied. Since some of the environmental performance indicators cannot be controlled by companies' managers, it was necessary to develop the model in a way that it could be applied when discretionary and/or nondiscretionary factors were involved. The model, then, has been modified on a real case that comprised 12 oil and gas general contractors. The results showed the relative efficiency, inefficiency sources, and the rank of contractors.

  2. Environmental Performance of Companies in the Iron and Steel Industry. Accounting Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELKARIM Abdelali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron and steel industry is a sector of great importance in the development of a country's economy due to the close relationship that it has with many other industries. Iron and steel industry is an industry that uses large amounts of material and consumes a lot of energy. In this context, achieving environmental performance and its management is a major issue. Accounting provides a number of tools to realize this. The paper aims to show how the accounts can become a means of measuring and managing environmental performance of companies in the iron and steel industry.

  3. How to evaluate the environmental performance of Product/Service- Systems (PSS)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Laumann; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    Popular concepts such as “circular economy”, “sharing economy”, and “service economy”, often promote that more sustainable businesses can be created when offering product performance (e.g. lighting as a service) rather than selling products (e.g. light bulbs). These types of offerings are often...... termed Product/Service-Systems (PSS). However, offering or buying a PSS does not necessarily lead to environmental improvements, as highlighted by several examples (such as car sharing). Due to a set of challenges with the current methodologies, the actual environmental performance of PSS...

  4. Analysis of indoor environmental quality influence toward occupants' work performance in Kompleks Eureka, USM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainon, Mohamad Rizal; Baharum, Faizal; Seng, Loh Yong

    2016-08-01

    The indoor environment much more important for people health and comfort than the outdoor environment. This scenario would make the performance of occupants at their work more important than energy costs in the building. So, this task is to upgrade indoor environmental quality conditions for comfort and work performance of occupants in Kompleks Eureka, USM while conserving energy of the building.. Recent studies have shown an important impact of the indoor thermal environment on occupants' work performance. Also studies on occupants medical leave show a very high loss of work time and working performance, which have important economical consequences for companies. The paper will mainly dealing with the indoor environmental qualities, such as thermal comfort level, air quality, lighting, and acoustic quality. The studies before showing that comfortable room temperatures, increased air ventilation above normal recommendation, comfortable acoustic surrounding will increases the work performance of occupants in Kompleks Eureka, USM.

  5. Environmental heat stress enhances mental fatigue during sustained attention task performing: evidence from an ASL perfusion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shaowen; Li, Min; Li, Guoying; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Jiang, Qingjun; Li, Li; Yang, Zhen; Sun, Gang

    2015-03-01

    This study was to investigate the potential enhancing effect of heat stress on mental fatigue progression during sustained attention task using arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Twenty participants underwent two thermal exposures in an environmental chamber: normothermic (NT) condition (25°C, 1h) and hyperthermic (HT) condition (50°C, 1h). After thermal exposure, they performed a twenty-minute psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) in the scanner. Behavioral analysis revealed progressively increasing subjective fatigue ratings and reaction time as PVT progressed. Moreover, heat stress caused worse performance. Perfusion imaging analyses showed significant resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations after heat exposure. Specifically, increased CBF mainly gathered in thalamic-brainstem area while decreased CBF predominantly located in fronto-parietal areas, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and medial frontal cortex. More importantly, diverse CBF distributions and trend of changes between both conditions were observed as the fatigue level progressed during subsequent PVT task. Specifically, higher CBF and enhanced rising trend were presented in superior parietal lobe, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, while lower CBF or inhibited rising trend was found in dorsolateral frontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, inferior parietal lobe and thalamic-brainstem areas. Furthermore, the decrease of post-heat resting-state CBF in fronto-parietal cortex was correlated with subsequent slower reaction time, suggesting prior disturbed resting-state CBF might be indicator of performance potential and fatigue level in following task. These findings may provide proof for such a view: heat stress has a potential fatigue-enhancing effect when individual is performing highly cognition-demanding attention task.

  6. Pilot test of ANSI draft standard N13.29 environmental dosimetry -- Performance criteria for testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemic, G.; Shebell, P.; Monetti, M.; Raccah, F. [Dept. of Energy, New York, NY (United States). Environmental Measurement Lab.; Shobe, J.; Lamperti, P.; Soares, C. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Sengupta, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-09-01

    American National Standards Institute Draft N13.29 describes performance tests for environmental radiation dosimetry providers. If approved it would be the first step toward applying the types of performance testing now required in personnel dosimetry to environmental radiation monitoring. The objective of this study was to pilot test the draft standard, before it undergoes final balloting, on a small group of dosimetry providers that were selected to provide a mix of facility types, thermoluminescent dosimeter designs and monitoring program applications. The first phase of the pilot test involved exposing dosimeters to laboratory photon, beta, and x-ray sources at routine and accident dose levels. In the second phase, dosimeters were subjected to ninety days of simulated environmental conditions in an environmental chamber that cycled through extremes of temperature and humidity. Two out of seven participants passed all categories of the laboratory testing phase, and all seven passed the environmental test phase. While some relatively minor deficiencies were uncovered in the course of the pilot test, the results show that draft N13.29 describes useful tests that could be appropriate for environmental dosimetry providers. An appendix to this report contains recommendations that should be addressed by the N13.29 working group before draft N13.29 is submitted for balloting.

  7. Sustainability appraisal. Quantitative methods and mathematical techniques for environmental performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erechtchoukova, Marina G.; Khaiter, Peter A. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). School of Information Technology; Golinska, Paulina (eds.) [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2013-06-01

    The book will present original research papers on the quantitative methods and techniques for the evaluation of the sustainability of business operations and organizations' overall environmental performance. The book contributions will describe modern methods and approaches applicable to the multi-faceted problem of sustainability appraisal and will help to fulfil generic frameworks presented in the literature with the specific quantitative techniques so needed in practice. The scope of the book is interdisciplinary in nature, making it of interest to environmental researchers, business managers and process analysts, information management professionals and environmental decision makers, who will find valuable sources of information for their work-related activities. Each chapter will provide sufficient background information, a description of problems, and results, making the book useful for a wider audience. Additional software support is not required. One of the most important issues in developing sustainable management strategies and incorporating ecodesigns in production, manufacturing and operations management is the assessment of the sustainability of business operations and organizations' overall environmental performance. The book presents the results of recent studies on sustainability assessment. It provides a solid reference for researchers in academia and industrial practitioners on the state-of-the-art in sustainability appraisal including the development and application of sustainability indices, quantitative methods, models and frameworks for the evaluation of current and future welfare outcomes, recommendations on data collection and processing for the evaluation of organizations' environmental performance, and eco-efficiency approaches leading to business process re-engineering.

  8. Environmental performance of household waste management in Europe - An example of 7 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasi Bassi, Susanna; Christensen, Thomas H; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-08-07

    An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of the management of 1ton of household waste was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044:2006 and the ILCD Handbook for seven European countries, namely Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy, Poland and Greece, representing different household waste compositions, waste management practices, technologies, and energy systems. National data were collected from a range of sources regarding household waste composition, household sorting efficiency, collection, waste treatments, recycling, electricity and heat composition, and technological efficiencies. The objective was to quantify the environmental performance in the different countries, in order to analyze the sources of the main environmental impacts and national differences which affect the results. In most of the seven countries, household waste management provides environmental benefits when considering the benefits of recycling of materials and recovering and utilization of energy. Environmental benefits come from paper recycling and, to a lesser extent, the recycling of metals and glass. Waste-to-energy plants can lead to an environmental load (as in France) or a saving (Germany and Denmark), depending mainly on the composition of the energy being substituted. Sensitivity analysis and a data quality assessment identified a range of critical parameters, suggesting from where better data should be obtained. The study concluded that household waste management is environmentally the best in European countries with a minimum reliance on landfilling, also induced by the implementation of the Waste Hierarchy, though environmental performance does not correlate clearly with the rate of material recycling. From an environmental point of view, this calls for a change in the waste management paradigm, with less focus on where the waste is routed and more of a focus on the quality and utilization of recovered materials and energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F. [and others

    1996-08-01

    The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

  10. The Integration of Cleaner Production Indicators on the Environmental Performance Measurement System for the Indonesian Natural Rubber Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawarni Hasibuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the priority of the cleaner production implementation and integrate it in the design of a comprehensive environmental performance measurement system for natural rubber industry in Indonesia. Prioritizing the cleaner production on the production process of natural rubber is based on the case of 10 Indonesian crumb rubber companies using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. The comprehensive environmental performance measurement system in natural rubber industry, i.e. in crumb rubber industry, starts from the selection of key environmental performance indicators (KEPI using the fuzzy independent preference evaluation method. The environmental performance measurement model is developed to assist users in evaluating the comprehensive environmental performance and condition of the key indicators. The weighting for each of the KEPI is performed by means of the expert choice software. The environmental performance measurement model is designed in the form of a environmental scorecard with traffic light facilities which can provide recommendations based on the performance achievement status of each KEPI. From the results of the model verification in the case of crumb rubber industry, several indicator statuses were found "not good", i.e. on the index of raw materials, solid waste load, water conservation, energy conservation, and environmental innovation indicators. The environmental performance ranking model is designed to evaluate the comprehensive environmental performance in different companies or at different assessment periods.

  11. Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI: The First Global Environmental Assessment of Marine Fish Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M.S. Stoner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available “Sustainable” is among the most sought after of all seafood product adjectives. Ironically it is also one of the most poorly defined and understood. The Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI is the first tool to assess environmental performance of global marine aquaculture production, permitting direct comparison of disparate species, production methods and jurisdictions. Clear patterns emerge from this analysis; significant variation of environmental performance is driven by the species being farmed, significant room for improvement exists across the entire sector, the worst performing players are also the fastest growing, particularly within Asia, and perhaps most importantly, this work highlights the potential trap awaiting policy makers who focus too narrowly on farm production efficiency alone as a solution to diminishing seafood availability.

  12. Toward a sustainable cement industry in 2020 : improvement of the environmental, health & safety performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    This background document concentrates on technical and managerial aspects of Environmental, Health & Safety Performance (EHS) control in the cement industry. It gives an overview of options for improvement toward a sustainable cement production in 2020. Energy consumption and use of alternative fuel

  13. Highlighting High Performance Buildings: Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-11-01

    Oberlin College's Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies is a high-performance building featuring an expansive photovoltaic system and a closed-loop groundwater heat pump system. Designers incorporated energy-efficient components and materials that are local, non-toxic, and durable.

  14. Effects of environmental enrichment on cognitive performance of pigs in a spatial holeboard discrimination task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimberg-Henrici, C.G.E.; Vermaak, P.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Nordquist, R.E.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on the cognitive performance of female conventional farm (growing) pigs in a spatial holeboard task. Ten pairs of littermates matched for weight were used. From each litter, one piglet was randomly assigned to a barren environment; the

  15. The contribution of new technology to improved environmental performance in the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, A.S.; Hume, H.R. [Chamber of Mines of South Africa, Marshalltown (South Africa)

    1997-10-01

    The contribution of new technology (and of technology under development) to improved environmental performance in mining, mineral processing and disposal of mining wastes is described. While the emphasis of the article is on development in South Africa, the examples are of more general interest and application. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  16. Organizations as Information Processing Systems. Environmental Characteristics, Company Performance, and Chief Executive Scanning: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Environmental sectors also differ in their pePV𔃻...., .’,.porte:,: e for or),n.ini at i ionI performance ( Aaker , 1983). Importance is related t,) the notion of...your company’s external environment. . % 30 Re f e rences Aaker , David A., "Organizing a Strategic inturmatLou Scanning System," % California

  17. Combined acoustical and visual performance of noise barriers in mitigating the environmental impact of motorways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Like; Kang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the overall performance of noise barriers in mitigating environmental impact of motorways, taking into consideration their effects on reducing noise and visual intrusions of moving traffic, but also potentially inducing visual impact themselves. A laboratory experiment was carried out, using computer-visualised video scenes and motorway traffic noise recordings to present experimental scenarios covering two traffic levels, two distances of receiver to road, two types of background landscape, and five barrier conditions including motorway only, motorway with tree belt, motorways with 3 m timber barrier, 5m timber barrier, and 5m transparent barrier. Responses from 30 participants of university students were gathered and perceived barrier performance analysed. The results show that noise barriers were always beneficial in mitigating environmental impact of motorways, or made no significant changes in environmental quality when the impact of motorways was low. Overall, barriers only offered similar mitigation effect as compared to tree belt, but showed some potential to be more advantageous when traffic level went high. 5m timber barrier tended to perform better than the 3m one at the distance of 300 m but not at 100 m possibly due to its negative visual effect when getting closer. The transparent barrier did not perform much differently from the timber barriers but tended to be the least effective in most scenarios. Some low positive correlations were found between aesthetic preference for barriers and environmental impact reduction by the barriers.

  18. Effects of environmental enrichment on cognitive performance of pigs in a spatial holeboard discrimination task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimberg-Henrici, C.G.E.; Vermaak, P.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Nordquist, R.E.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on the cognitive performance of female conventional farm (growing) pigs in a spatial holeboard task. Ten pairs of littermates matched for weight were used. From each litter, one piglet was randomly assigned to a barren environment; the

  19. Urban environmental and economic performance linked to sustainability: Evidence from big and medium size Chinese cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter); Z. Mingshun (Zhang)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is based on research in Chinese cities. It addresses the issues related to urban environmental performance and sustainability in emerging Chinese cities. The result shows that: (1) To basically control the degradation of urban environment the minimum per capita GDP should be a

  20. Environmental and economic performance of beef farming systems with different feeding strategies in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, Farahnaz; Linden, van der Aart; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Malafaia, Guilherme Cunha; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Beef production is one of the contributors to emission of pollutants to the environment, and increasingly competes for natural resources. Beef producers can improve their environmental performance by adopting alternative feeding strategies. Adoption of alternative feeding strategies, however, mig

  1. Life cycle assessment of sisal fibre – Exploring how local practices can influence environmental performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, Martijn L M; Dellaert, Stijn N C; Cok, Benjamin; Patel, Martin K.; Worrell, Ernst; Shen, Li

    2017-01-01

    Sisal fibre can potentially replace glass fibre in natural fibre composites. This study focuses on the environmental performance of sisal fibre production by quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of producing sisal fibre in Tanzania and Brazil using life cycle assessment

  2. Validating Performance Level Descriptors (PLDs) for the AP® Environmental Science Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetar, Rosemary; Kaliski, Pamela; Chajewski, Michael; Lionberger, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This presentation summarizes a pilot study conducted after the May 2011 administration of the AP Environmental Science Exam. The study used analytical methods based on scaled anchoring as input to a Performance Level Descriptor validation process that solicited systematic input from subject matter experts.

  3. Indoor environmental input parameters for the design and assessment of energy performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The first international standard that dealtwith all indoor environmental parameters (thermal comfort, air quality, lightingand acoustic) was published in 2007 asEN15251. This standard prescribed inputparameters for design and assessment ofenergy performance of buildings and was apart of the set...

  4. PERSISTENT LEFT SUPERIOR VENACAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Persistent Left Superior Venacava (PLSVC is the most common variation of the thoracic venous system and rare congenital vascular anomaly and is prevalent in 0.3% of the population. It may be associated with other cardiovascular abnormalities including atrial septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, coronary sinus ostial atresia, and cor triatriatum. Incidental rotation of a dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should raise the suspicion of PLSVC. The diagnosis should be confirmed by saline contrast echocardiography. Condition is usually asymptomatic. Here we present a rare case of persistent left superior vena cava presented in OPD with dyspnoea & palpitations.

  5. Environmental Management Practices and Firm Performance in a South African Mining Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Nyirenda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of environmental management practices on the financial performance of a South African mining firm. The major aim of this paper is to investigate whether such practices have a close relationship with the mining firm’s financial performance (represented by return on equity [ROE]. The approach is a case study of a South African mining firm listed under the socially responsible index (SRI of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE. It uses Green-Steel sa (pseudonym used in place of the real name as a case study. Using multiple regression statistics, the return on equity of Green-Steel sa is regressed on three environmental management practices of Green- Steel (carbon reduction, energy efficiency, and water usage. The result shows there is no significant relationship between the variables and this lends credence to information gathered from Green-Steel environmental reports that Green-Steel’s environmental management practices are driven mostly by a desire to abide by regulations and also by a moral obligation to use environmental management practices to mitigate climate change impact.

  6. Evaluation of environmental performance on The Derrick Laying Barge –BGL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio José Soibelman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes methodology directed to environmentalist’s managers working with ferries that deals with underwater oil extraction in order to evaluate their (EMS Environmental Management Systems performance. The study was developed throughout two methodological dimensions: Bibliographical and Field Research. A Literature’s review describing the evolution of environmental problems and ISO 14.001 and ISO 14.031 Norms were discussed, since they are employed by many organizations to administer theirenvironmental demands. The work is qualified as a qualitative research since a field case study was carried out. A propel derrick and induction ferry (BGL was investigated in order to answer the questions considered in the study’s introduction. The aim was to integrate the evaluation process of environmental performance, like for instance: current policies, objectives and benchmarks analysis of Integrated Management System for the BGL. Moreover, the study intended to develop a methodology to identify benchmarks and toevaluate the impacts at BGL. It also intended to apply the methodology developed to identify benchmarks and significant impacts at the BGL. Afterward, to consider new environmental protection targets based on the significant aspects identified and to develop newenvironmental benchmarks based on the environmental targets proposed.

  7. National differences in environmental concern and performance are predicted by country age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershfield, Hal E; Bang, H Min; Weber, Elke U

    2014-01-01

    There are obvious economic predictors of ability and willingness to invest in environmental sustainability. Yet, given that environmental decisions represent trade-offs between present sacrifices and uncertain future benefits, psychological factors may also play a role in country-level environmental behavior. Gott's principle suggests that citizens may use perceptions of their country's age to predict its future continuation, with longer pasts predicting longer futures. Using country- and individual-level analyses, we examined whether longer perceived pasts result in longer perceived futures, which in turn motivate concern for continued environmental quality. Study 1 found that older countries scored higher on an environmental performance index, even when the analysis controlled for country-level differences in gross domestic product and governance. Study 2 showed that when the United States was framed as an old country (vs. a young one), participants were willing to donate more money to an environmental organization. The findings suggest that framing a country as a long-standing entity may effectively prompt proenvironmental behavior.

  8. Characterization of few-layer 1T-MoSe{sub 2} and its superior performance in the visible-light induced hydrogen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Uttam; Naidu, B. S.; Maitra, Urmimala; Rao, C. N. R., E-mail: cnrrao@jncasr.ac.in [Chemistry and Physics Materials Unit, New Chemistry Unit and International Centre for Materials Science, Sheik Saqr Laboratory, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P. O., Bangalore 560064 (India); Singh, Anjali; Shirodkar, Sharmila N.; Waghmare, Umesh V. [Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P. O., Bangalore 560064 (India)

    2014-09-01

    Based on earlier results on the photocatalytic properties of MoS{sub 2}, the 1T form of MoSe{sub 2}, prepared by lithium intercalation and exfoliation of bulk MoSe{sub 2}, has been employed for the visible-light induced generation of hydrogen. 1T-MoSe{sub 2} is found to be superior to both 2H and 1T MoS{sub 2} as well as 2H-MoSe{sub 2} in producing hydrogen from water, the yield being in the 60–75 mmol h{sup −1} g{sup −1} range with a turn over frequency of 15–19 h{sup −1}. First principles calculations reveal that 1T-MoSe{sub 2} has a lower work function than 2H-MoSe{sub 2} as well as 1T and 2H-MoS{sub 2}, making it easier to transfer an electron from 1T-MoSe{sub 2} for the production of H{sub 2}.

  9. Characterization of few-layer 1T-MoSe2 and its superior performance in the visible-light induced hydrogen evolution reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on earlier results on the photocatalytic properties of MoS2, the 1T form of MoSe2, prepared by lithium intercalation and exfoliation of bulk MoSe2, has been employed for the visible-light induced generation of hydrogen. 1T-MoSe2 is found to be superior to both 2H and 1T MoS2 as well as 2H-MoSe2 in producing hydrogen from water, the yield being in the 60–75 mmol h−1 g−1 range with a turn over frequency of 15–19 h−1. First principles calculations reveal that 1T-MoSe2 has a lower work function than 2H-MoSe2 as well as 1T and 2H-MoS2, making it easier to transfer an electron from 1T-MoSe2 for the production of H2.

  10. The effect of environmental regulation on firms' competitive performance: the case of the building & construction sector in some EU regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Iraldo, Fabio; Frey, Marco

    2011-09-01

    There is a considerable debate on the effects of environmental regulation on competitive performance. Based on survey data, this paper analyzes the two main research questions, derived from literature, on the links between environmental regulation and competitiveness, by focusing on firms operating in the building and construction sector, i.e.: 1) whether environmental policy stringency affects the competitive performance of firms in the building and construction sector 2) and how a specific form of environmental regulation (direct regulation, economic instruments and soft instruments) affects this performance? By applying a regression analysis, we find that a more stringent environmental regulation, measured by inspection frequency, provides a positive impulse for increasing investments in advanced technological equipment and innovative products and on business performance. Moreover, a well-designed "direct regulation" appears to be the most effective policy instrument for prompting the positive impact of environmental policies on innovation and intangible performance while economic instruments do negatively affect business performance.

  11. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  12. Environmental Performance Report 2013: Annual Site Environmental Report per the U.S. Department of Energy Order 231.1-1B (Management Publication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomberg, K.; Eickhoff, J.; Beatty, B.; Braus, G.; Durbin, L.; Fiehweg, R.; Ray, M.; Ryon, T.; Schmitz, E.

    2014-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the laboratory's environmental management activities for 2013, including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes. The purpose of this report is to ensure that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers; the environment; or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and is prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  13. The effect of lameness on the environmental performance of milk production by rotational grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; White, Eoin; Holden, Nicholas M

    2016-05-01

    Dairy production leads to significant environmental impacts and increased production will only be feasible if the environmental performance at farm level permits a sustainable milk supply. Lameness is believed to become more prevalent and severe as herd sizes increase, and can significantly reduce milk output per cow while not influencing other attributes of the production system. The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of lameness on the environmental performance of a typical grazed grass dairy farm and evaluate the theoretical value of sensor-based real-time lameness management. Life cycle assessment was used to compare a typical baseline farm with scenarios assuming increased lameness severity and prevalence. It was found that lameness could increase the farm level global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and fossil fuel depletion by 7-9%. As increased herd sizes will increase cow: handler ratio, this result was interpreted to suggest that the use of sensors and information and communication technology for lameness detection could improve management on dairy farms to reduce the adverse impact on environmental performance that is associated with lameness.

  14. Environmental and Economic Performance: Ecoinnovation Practices in Biodigesters of Cassava Processing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rodrigues da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass, considered one of the main sources of alternative energy, originates from residual organic material such as the cassava crop. Biodigesters are capable of transforming these residuals into biogas and biofertilizers. This allows a reduction of almost 80% in the residual organic material being deposited in the earth or rivers, avoiding deposits accumulating on riverbeds and negative environmental impacts. It also allows substantial savings in terms of energy. The general aim of this study is to investigate, with the implementation of biodigesters, how eco-innovation practices contribute to the economic and environmental performance of cassava processing companies in Paraná State. Through qualitative research, the method employed an exploratory approach and intensive multiple-case analyses, with data collected through semi-structured interviews. The study showed that the eco-innovation practices that were adopted aided the economic and environmental performance of the companies in question. The study contributes to academia with scientific research on biodigester technology using the residual organic material of cassava for sustainable development. It also contributes to the corporate universe by demonstrating an opportunity for sustainable innovation with improved economic and environmental performance, which can be extrapolated to other industrial segments.

  15. Ambient Intelligence Application Based on Environmental Measurements Performed with an Assistant Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Martinez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of an autonomous assistant mobile robot in order to monitor the environmental conditions of a large indoor area and develop an ambient intelligence application. The mobile robot uses single high performance embedded sensors in order to collect and geo-reference environmental information such as ambient temperature, air velocity and orientation and gas concentration. The data collected with the assistant mobile robot is analyzed in order to detect unusual measurements or discrepancies and develop focused corrective ambient actions. This paper shows an example of the measurements performed in a research facility which have enabled the detection and location of an uncomfortable temperature profile inside an office of the research facility. The ambient intelligent application has been developed by performing some localized ambient measurements that have been analyzed in order to propose some ambient actuations to correct the uncomfortable temperature profile.

  16. Satisfaction and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Frontczak, Monika; Schiavon, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines how satisfaction with indoor environmental parameters and building features affects satisfaction and self-estimated job performance. The analyses used subjective responses from around 50, 000 occupants collected mainly in US office buildings using a web-based survey administered...... by the Center for the Built Environment (CBE) over the period of ten years. Overall satisfaction with the workspace significantly improved self-estimated job performance; increased satisfaction with temperature was estimated to provide the greatest improvement in self-estimated job performance, followed...

  17. Trajetória escolar do surdo no ensino superior: condições e possibilidades School performance of the deaf in higher education: conditions and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ildon Gonçalves da Cruz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao número relativamente pequeno de surdos que frequentam o ensino superior, este estudo objetivou conhecer as suas condições nesse nível de ensino. Participaram da pesquisa sete surdos universitários, na faixa etária entre 22 e 39 anos. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas individuais sucessivas, presenciais ou à distância, via internet, empregando o português falado, escrito ou a língua de sinais, com a mediação de intérprete. Realizaram-se dez entrevistas presenciais, gravadas e transcritas, e onze à distância, mediante e-mail e Messenger®. Os relatos foram analisados sob o ponto de vista sócio-antropológico, que entende os surdos como diferentes, linguística e culturalmente, pertencentes aos grupos minoritários e que frequentam, na maioria das vezes, uma escola organizada para ouvintes e padronizada. Os resultados apontam que as condições dos surdos no ensino superior são de dificuldades, de impedimentos, de abandono e de rejeição. Os surdos são obrigados a se responsabilizarem por sua aprendizagem, priorizando o trabalho extra classe para recuperação de notas. A escola se organiza de acordo com interesses e necessidades dos ouvintes, isto é: não há uma língua compartilhada com os alunos surdos, não há intérprete português-Libras, não há contexto bicultural, não há interlocução na escola. Concluiu-se que os surdos são capazes, produtivos, solidários e interessados em avançar no seu processo de escolarização, apesar dos empecilhos encontrados no interior do espaço escolar.Due to the relatively small number of deaf students enrolled in higher education, this study aimed to look at learning conditions at that educational level. Seven deaf college students, aged 22-39, participated in the research study. Data was collected through successive individual interviews, in person or by internet, using Portuguese language in spoken or written form or through the manual alphabet with the

  18. Environmental performance of household waste management in Europe - an example of 7 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasi Bassi, Susanna; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of the management of 1 ton of household waste was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044:2006 and the ILCD Handbook for seven European countries, namely Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy, Poland and Greece, representing different household waste...... compositions, waste management practices, technologies, and energy systems. National data were collected from a range of sources regarding household waste composition, household sorting efficiency, collection, waste treatments, recycling, electricity and heat composition, and technological efficiencies....... The objective was to quantify the environmental performance in the different countries, in order to analyze the sources of the main environmental impacts and national differences which affect the results. In most of the seven countries, household waste management provides environmental benefits when considering...

  19. Environmental performance of Miscanthus as a fuel alternative for district heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Sperling, K.; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    scenarios: (i) in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant and (ii) in a Boiler (producing heat only). Biomass conversion to heat is also compared with the conversion of natural gas (NG). The environmental impact categories considered for the assessment are: Global Warming Potential (GWP), Non-Renewable Energy......This study discusses about the environmental performance of Miscanthus conversion to district heat. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is used as a tool to assess the environmental impacts related to the biomass conversion to heat. Energy conversion of Miscanthus is compared in two combustion...... that despite the biomass possessed advantage in reducing GWP and NRE use, additional land required for Miscanthus could be seen as a disadvantage....

  20. Mating system affects population performance and extinction risk under environmental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesnar-Bielak, Agata; Skrzynecka, Anna M; Prokop, Zofia M; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-11-22

    Failure of organisms to adapt to sudden environmental changes may lead to extinction. The type of mating system, by affecting fertility and the strength of sexual selection, may have a major impact on a population's chances to adapt and survive. Here, we use experimental evolution in bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus robini) to examine the effects of the mating system on population performance under environmental change. We demonstrate that populations in which monogamy was enforced suffered a dramatic fitness decline when evolving at an increased temperature, whereas the negative effects of change in a thermal environment were alleviated in polygamous populations. Strikingly, within 17 generations, all monogamous populations experiencing higher temperature went extinct, whereas all polygamous populations survived. Our results show that the mating system may have dramatic effects on the risk of extinction under environmental change.

  1. The impact of supply chain-related factors on the environmental performance of manufacturing firms in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akin, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Wynstra, F.; Raaij, van E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of supply chain-related factors on the adoption of proactive environmental strategies, and the impact of such strategies on environmental investments and environmental performance. Data were collected from 96 Turkish manufacturers using an online questionnaire. The

  2. The impact of supply chain-related factors on the environmental performance of manufacturing firms in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akin, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Wynstra, F.; Raaij, van E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of supply chain-related factors on the adoption of proactive environmental strategies, and the impact of such strategies on environmental investments and environmental performance. Data were collected from 96 Turkish manufacturers using an online questionnaire. The

  3. Influence of environmental temperature and electrolyte balance on the performance of quails (Coturnix Coturnix Coturnix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Barbosa Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High environmental temperatures have a negative effect on the production efficiency of poultry reared in hot climates. This study evaluated the efficiency of electrolyte supplementation under high environmental temperature conditions by manipulating water and feed electrolyte balance (EB on the survival and performance of European quails. In experiment 1, a completely randomized experimental design was applied in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted in four feed EB values (0, 120, 240, 360 mEq/kg, and two environmental temperatures (25 and 34 ºC. Feed electrolyte balance was manipulated by the addition of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride. In experiment 2, birds were randomly distributed according to a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted in five BE values in the drinking water (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 mEq/L and two environmental temperatures (25 and 34 °C. Only sodium bicarbonate was added to the water to obtain the different BE values. The experiments were carried out simultaneously in environmental chambers at constant temperatures with 20- to 37-d-old quails. Most evaluated parameters were influenced by temperature in both experiments. In experiment 1, EB affected water intake and intestinal length. In experiment 2, EB values influenced (p < 0.05 water intake and heart and liver relative weights. Electrolyte balance values of 120 mEq/kg of feed and of 30 mEq/L of drinking water are recommended to increase water intake of grower European quails reared under hot temperature.

  4. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loidl, Verena; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Ballert, Carolina; Coenen, Michaela; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla

    2016-04-12

    Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity.

  5. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Loidl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity.

  6. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  7. A second-generation environmental performance assessment system for buildings : green building challenge `98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, N.K. [Natural Resources Canada, ON (Canada); Cole, R.J. [University of British Columbia, BC (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    The issue of testing and labelling building materials and products and the criteria that should be used to describe their performance characteristics were discussed. The Green Building Challenge Project was established to develop a method for assessing building performance with an emphasis on energy and environmental performance. International and collaborative processes will be used to develop the method of assessment. The performance of more than 30 comparable buildings from the participating countries will be assessed in 1998 and results of the process will be reported at an international conference scheduled for Vancouver during October 1998. Equal focus will be placed on the performance of the buildings and the adequacy of the assessment framework. The assessment will focus on the following design features: land use, water use, materials, air borne emissions during building production and building operation, solid waste from building operations, liquid waste flows to municipal system, indoor air quality, thermal comfort, noise and acoustics, and longevity. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Impact of ISO 14001 certification on the environmental performance of organizations: case study of industries in the Republic of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Bejarano, Carlos Hernando

    2002-01-01

    This preliminary study of an exploratory-descriptive nature compares attitude towards environmental management and administration expressed by companies (large, medium and small) from the industrial sector in Colombia since 1999; emphasis was made on analysing the current relation between adopting an ISO 14001 Environmental Management System and the companies' environmental performance. The study reveals the state of development of the Environmental Management System of Colombian industries o...

  9. The Effect of Financial Performance and Environmental Performance on Firm Value with Islamic Social Reporting (ISR Disclosure as Intervening Variable in Companies Listed at Jakarta Islamic Index (JII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratri Rahma Frida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how far ISR disclosure as the intervening variable could mediate the effect of financial performance and environmental performance on the firm value. The subjects of this study were the companies listed in Jakarta Islamic Index (JII in 2012-2014. The samples of the study were sixty companies chosen by purposive sampling method, and the analytical technic used path analysis. The results of this study proved that: (1 financial performance had positive effect to the firm value, (2 environmental performance had no effect to the firm value, (3 financial performance had positive effect to the ISR disclosure, (4 environmental performance had positive effect to the ISR disclosure, (5 ISR disclosure had positive effect to the firm value, (6 ISR disclosure could mediate the effect of financial and environmental performances on the firm value.

  10. Detailed performance and environmental monitoring of aquifer heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, José; Ahlkrona, Malva; Zandin, Hanna; Singh, Ashutosh

    2016-04-01

    The project intends to quantify the performance and environmental impact of large scale aquifer thermal energy storage, as well as point at recommendations for operating and estimating the environmental footprint of future systems. Field measurements, test of innovative equipment as well as advanced modelling work and analysis will be performed. The following aspects are introduced and covered in the presentation: -Thermal, chemical and microbiological influence of akvifer thermal energy storage systems: measurement and evaluation of real conditions and the influence of one system in operation. -Follow up of energy extraction from aquifer as compared to projected values, recommendations for improvements. -Evaluation of the most used thermal modeling tool for design and calculation of groundwater temperatures, calculations with MODFLOW/MT3DMS -Test and evaluation of optical fiber cables as a way to measure temperatures in aquifer thermal energy storages

  11. Performance Comparison of Widely-Used Maximum Power Point Tracker Algorithms under Real Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURUSU, A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs play an essential role in extracting power from photovoltaic (PV panels as they make the solar panels to operate at the maximum power point (MPP whatever the changes of environmental conditions are. For this reason, they take an important place in the increase of PV system efficiency. MPPTs are driven by MPPT algorithms and a number of MPPT algorithms are proposed in the literature. The comparison of the MPPT algorithms in literature are made by a sun simulator based test system under laboratory conditions for short durations. However, in this study, the performances of four most commonly used MPPT algorithms are compared under real environmental conditions for longer periods. A dual identical experimental setup is designed to make a comparison between two the considered MPPT algorithms as synchronized. As a result of this study, the ranking among these algorithms are presented and the results show that Incremental Conductance (IC algorithm gives the best performance.

  12. Can Clinical Assessment of Locomotive Body Function Explain Gross Motor Environmental Performance in Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Mengibar, Jose Manuel; Santonja-Medina, Fernando; Sanchez-de-Muniain, Paloma; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System has discriminative purposes but does not assess short-term therapy goals. Locomotion Stages (LS) classify postural body functions and independent activity components. Assessing the relation between Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Locomotion Stages will make us understand if clinical assessment can explain and predict motor environmental performance in cerebral palsy. A total of 462 children were assessed with both scales. High reliability and strong negative correlation (-0.908) for Gross Motor Function Classification System and Locomotion Stages at any age was found. Sensitivity was 83%, and specificity and positive predictive value were 100% within the same age range. Regression analysis showed detailed probabilities for the realization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System depending on the Locomotion Stages and the age group. Postural body function measure with Locomotion Stages is reliable, sensitive, and specific for gross motor function and able to predict environmental performance.

  13. Environmental performance of an innovative waste refinery based on enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    ) from the waste. The waste refinery was compared to alternative treatments such as incineration, bioreactor landfill and mechanical-biological treatment followed by utilization of the RDF (refuse-derived fuel) for energy. The performance of the waste refinery turned out to be comparable...... for virgin material and saving fossil resources. In this paper a life-cycle assessment of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials...... with incineration for most environmental categories. Landfilling turned out to be the worst option with respect to most categories (especially energy-related such as GW). The refinery treatment has large margins of improvement with respect to the environmental performance. These are mainly associated...

  14. The whole relationship between environmental variables and firm performance: competitive advantage and firm resources as mediator variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamero, María D; Molina-Azorín, José F; Claver-Cortés, Enrique

    2009-07-01

    The examination of the possible direct link between environmental protection and firm performance in the literature has generally produced mixed results. The present paper contributes to the literature by using the resource-based view as a mediating process in this relationship. The study specifically tests whether or not the resource-based view of the firm mediates the positive relationships of proactive environmental management and improved environmental performance with competitive advantage, which also has consequences for financial performance. We also check the possible link between the adoption of a pioneering approach and good environmental management practices. Our findings support that early investment timing and intensity in environmental issues impact on the adoption of a proactive environmental management, which in turn helps to improve environmental performance. The findings also show that a firm's resources and competitive advantage act as mediator variables for a positive relationship between environmental protection and financial performance. This contribution is original because the present paper develops a comprehensive whole picture of this path process, which has previously only been partially discussed in the literature. In addition, this study clarifies a relevant point in the literature, namely that the effect of environmental protection on firm performance is not direct and can vary depending on the sector considered. Whereas competitive advantage in relation to costs influences financial performance in the IPPC law sector, the relevant influence in the hotel sector comes from competitive advantage through differentiation.

  15. Environmental impacts and production performances of organic agriculture in China: A monetary valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanqiao; Qiao, Yuhui; Wu, Wenliang; Smith, Pete; Scott, Steffanie

    2017-03-01

    Organic agriculture has developed rapidly in China since the 1990s, driven by the increasing domestic and international demand for organic products. Quantification of the environmental benefits and production performances of organic agriculture on a national scale helps to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimum impacts on the environment. Data of organic production for 2013 were obtained from a national survey organized by the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China. Farming performance and environmental impact indicators were screened and indicator values were defined based on an intensive literature review and were validated by national statistics. The economic (monetary) values of farming inputs, crop production and individual environmental benefits were then quantified and integrated to compare the overall performances of organic vs. conventional agriculture. In 2013, organically managed farmland accounted for approximately 0.97% of national arable land, covering 1.158 million ha. If organic crop yields were assumed to be 10%-15% lower than conventional yields, the environmental benefits of organic agriculture (i.e., a decrease in nitrate leaching, an increase in farmland biodiversity, an increase in carbon sequestration and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions) were valued at 1921 million RMB (320.2 million USD), or 1659 RMB (276.5 USD) per ha. By reducing the farming inputs, the costs saved was 3110 million RMB (518.3 million USD), or 2686 RMB (447.7 USD) per ha. The economic loss associated with the decrease in crop yields from organic agriculture was valued at 6115 million RMB (1019.2 million USD), or 5280 RMB (880 USD) per ha. Although they were likely underestimated because of the complex relationships among farming operations, ecosystems and humans, the production costs saved and environmental benefits of organic agriculture that were quantified in our study compensated substantially for the

  16. Research on the Environmental Performance Evaluation of Electronic Waste Reverse Logistics Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Fei-Yang; Tong, Tong

    According to the characteristic of e-waste reverse logistics, environmental performance evaluation system of electronic waste reverse logistics enterprise is proposed. We use fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method to evaluate the system. In addition, this paper analyzes the enterprise X, as an example, to discuss the evaluation method. It's important to point out attributes and indexes which should be strengthen during the process of ewaste reverse logistics and provide guidance suggestions to domestic e-waste reverse logistics enterprises.

  17. Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER) Evaluation of 112 Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    experimental design. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1971. 111. Wonderlic EF. Wonderlic Personnel Test Manual. Northfield, IL: Wonderlic , 1978. 112...Mackaman SM, Bittner AC Jr, Harbeson MM, Kennedy RS, Stone D A. Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER): Wonderlic Personnel...GENERAL C 12 G 48(ɚ) 0.34 MACKAMAIN, BITTNER, PERSONNEL INTELLIGENCE HARBESON, KENNEDY. & STONE TEST ( WONDERLIC , 1978) (1982); WONOERLIC (1978) 24 X3

  18. Balancing environmental and economic performance in the food-processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2010-01-01

    on performance related to new product introductions, changes in production equipment, changes in planning concepts and their cross sections. We argue that interdisciplinary research that uses operations research techniques, operations management insights, food process technology and product design helps...... in exploring the effect of uncertainty in demand and production. As a result, process design can be more robust: both economic and environmental. This position paper explores the problem and the main elements of the proposed scenario-based simulation approach....

  19. Translating stakeholder pressures into environmental performance – the mediating role of green HRM practices

    OpenAIRE

    Guerci, Marco; Longoni, Annachiara; Luzzini, Davide

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper contributes to extant research on green human resource management (HRM) relying on the instrumental value of stakeholder theory, which implies that stakeholders impact on company decisions and their development of organizational resources and performance. Following that theory, the study conceives green HRM practices as a set of management processes that companies implement for responding to stakeholder pressures on environmental issues. Accordingly with tho...

  20. Compilation of Quality Assurance Documentation for Analyses Performed for the Resumption of Transient Testing Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2013-11-01

    This is a companion document to the analyses performed in support of the environmental assessment for the Resumption of Transient Fuels and Materials Testing. It is provided to allow transparency of the supporting calculations. It provides computer code input and output. The basis for the calculations is documented separately in INL (2013) and is referenced, as appropriate. Spreadsheets used to manipulate the code output are not provided.

  1. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Performance of Environmental Impact Assessment Practices (EIA in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessment is used to detect changes that a proposed project may have on environment. The intent of present study is to investigate impact of institutional capacity and legal framework on performance of Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Pakistan such as screening, scoping and mitigation, environmental management plan and reporting. Sample of 200 EIA professionals have been selected by using random sampling approach from all provinces of Pakistan. Data has been collected through structured questionnaire and analysed by using AMOS 19 (Analysis of Moment Structures software. Results of path analysis indicated that institutional capacity and legal framework have significant direct impact on performance of all EIA practices in Pakistan. Model fit statistics such as GFI, RMR, NFI, IFI, TLI, RFI, CFI indicate the fitness of research model in this context. It has been suggested that there must be relevant and sufficient human resources that can uplift institutional capacity and legal framework must be well implemented because it will lead to enhanced performance of EIA practices in Pakistan.

  2. Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaumont, Arthus; Pierret, Charles; de Kerangal, Xavier; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Laborde, François

    2014-08-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava is a very rare tumor and only a few cases have been reported, with various techniques of vascular reconstruction. We describe a new case of leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava in a 61-year-old woman with extension to the brachiocephalic arterial trunk. Resection and vascular reconstruction were performed using, respectively, polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene terephtalate vascular grafts.

  3. Physical performance and environmental conditions: 2014 World Soccer Cup and 2016 Summer Olympics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneroso, Christiano E; Ramos, Guilherme P; Mendes, Thiago T; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2015-01-01

    This editorial is for the special issue "Temperature sciences in Brazil" of the journal Temperature. It focuses on the physical performance and environmental conditions during the 2014 World Cup and the coming 2016 Summer Olympics. It emphasizes that a hot and humid environment imposes a great challenge to the human thermoregulation system, can lead to performance decrements, and increases the risk of developing hyperthermia. Adequate hydration, acclimatization, and body cooling strategies are effective interventions to minimize the risks associated with exercise in the heat.

  4. Dust control products at Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge, Texas: environmental safety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Bethany K.; Little, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling fugitive dust while protecting natural resources is a challenge faced by all managers of unpaved roads. Unfortunately, road managers choosing between dust control products often have little objective environmental information to aid their decisions. To address this information gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collaborated on a field test of three dust control products with the objectives of (a) evaluating product performance under real-world conditions, (b) verifying the environmental safety of products identified as practically nontoxic in laboratory tests, and (c) testing the feasibility of several environmental monitoring techniques for use in dust control tests. In cooperation with refuge staff and product vendors, three products (one magnesium chloride plus binder, one cellulose, and one synthetic fluid plus binder) were applied in July 2012 to replicated road sections at the Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge in Texas. These sections were monitored periodically for 12 months after application. Product performance was assessed by mobile-mounted particulate-matter meters measuring production of fugitive dust and by observations of road conditions. Environmental safety was evaluated through on-site biological observations and leaching tests with samples of treated aggregate. All products reduced dust and improved surface condition during those 12 months. Planned environmental measurements were not always compatible with day-to-day refuge management actions; this incompatibility highlighted the need for flexible biological monitoring plans. As one of the first field tests of dust suppressants that explicitly incorporated biological endpoints, this effort provides valuable information for improving field tests and for developing laboratory or semifield alternatives.

  5. Performance appraisal for green/environmental friendliness of a supply chain department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Olasunkanmi Odeyale

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims at proposing a method for evaluating the environmental friendliness of a supply chain department in any organization. Supply chain involves activities that could affect the natural environment and if these activities are not properly evaluated and monitored, it could affect the natural environment and also generate ecological performance change. Design/methodology/approach: The model for the appraisal consists of 5 criteria and 30 subcriteria. The method is applied at 3 level; beginning with finding the relative weight of the subcriteria under each criterion using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, followed by computing the value associated with each level descriptor in a scale. Some subcriteria have 5 level descriptors (very strong/moderate /weak/very weak / no, some subcriteria have 3 level descriptors (always / sometimes/ never and some have 2 levels descriptor (yes/no. Finally the method is concluded by the means of an additive model, whereby the weight associated with each subcriteria is multiplied by the corresponding level descriptor and summed up to get the limit/state. This methodology is called the weighing multiplication and additive model (WMAAM. Finding: Supply chain (SC involves operational activities and for these activities to be environmental friendly, they have been categorized under criteria namely; green design, green procurement, green manufacturing, environmental management and green marketing. These criteria which consist of 30 subcriteria are evaluated in other to compute the overall environmental friendly appraisal of the SC department. Practical Implication: The study plays important role in understanding various areas to be monitored and considered during supply chain activities in order to achieve a green supply chain management or an environmental friendly supply chain. Originality/value: The main contribution of this work is to propose an effective methodology that guides SC practitioners on

  6. The economical and environmental performance of miscanthus and switchgrass production and supply chains in a European setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.; Lewandowski, I.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the economical and environmental performance of switchgrass and miscanthus production and supply chains in the European Union (EU25), for the years 2004 and 2030. The environmental performance refers to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the primary fossil en

  7. Porous nitrogen-doped carbon derived from silk fibroin protein encapsulating sulfur as a superior cathode material for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Cai, Yurong; Zhong, Qiwei; Lai, Dongzhi; Yao, Juming

    2015-11-14

    The features of a carbon substrate are crucial for the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Nitrogen doping of carbon materials is assumed to play an important role in sulfur immobilisation. In this study, natural silk fibroin protein is used as a precursor of nitrogen-rich carbon to fabricate a novel, porous, nitrogen-doped carbon material through facile carbonisation and activation. Porous carbon, with a reversible capacity of 815 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 60 cycles, serves as the cathode material in Li-S batteries. Porous carbon retains a reversible capacity of 567 mA h g(-1), which corresponds to a capacity retention of 98% at 1 C after 200 cycles. The promising electrochemical performance of porous carbon is attributed to its mesoporous structure, high specific surface area and nitrogen doping into the carbon skeleton. This study provides a general strategy to synthesise nitrogen-doped carbons with a high specific surface area, which is crucial to improve the energy density and electrochemical performance of Li-S batteries.

  8. Does national scale economic and environmental indicators spur logistics performance? Evidence from UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Syed Abdul Rehman; Qianli, Dong

    2017-09-27

    The aim of this study is to examine the association between national economic and environmental indicators with green logistics performance in a time series data of UK since 1981 to 2016. The research used autoregressive distributed lag method to understand the long-run and short-run relationships of national scale economic (foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, per capita income) and environmental indicators (total greenhouse gases, fossil fuel, and renewable energy) on green logistics. In the short run, the research findings indicate that the green logistics and renewable energy have positive relationship, while fossil fuel is negatively correlated with green logistics operations. On the other hand, in the long run, the results show that FDI inflows, renewable energy sources, and per capita income have statistically significant and positive association with green logistics activities, while foreign investments attracted by environmental friendly policies and practices adopted in global logistics operations, which not only increase the environmental sustainability but also enhance economic activities with greater export opportunities in the region.

  9. Appraisal of the impact of environmental scanning on corporate performance in selected Nigerian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olu Ojo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This research study examines the Impact of Environmental Scanning on Corporate Performancein Selected Nigerian Banks. Our goal was to establish whether the knowledge of organizations environmentand its scanning has any relationship with corporate performance.This research was conducted to increase our level of understanding of the subject investigated andto add to the existing literature on the subject especially in the Third World countries where such study isnot popular.Survey research method was used in carrying out the study. Analysis was done using Difference ofMean and Pearson Correlation Coefficient with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences.From the study, the findings show that environmental scanning firms outperform non- scanningfirms, that information derived from environmental scanning is increasingly been used to drive the strategicmanagement process, that managers have a significant knowledge of their environment, that the fold upof some banks in the Nigerian banking industry was due to its inefficiencies in scanning its environmentfor threats and opportunities and that the scanning intensity in each sector is based on the level of perceivedstrategic uncertainty in each of these sectors.Base on the findings of the study, recommendations were made that more financial resources shouldbe provided by organisation to put the required systems in place for environmental scanning.

  10. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  11. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  12. Social end environmental corporate responsibility end maturity indicator mediating organizations strategic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni de Araujo Gomes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The business environment has presented constant challenges to organizations leaders. In this context, permanent surveillance, reflecting the search for competitiveness and productivity, causes them turn attention to factors or actions antecedents and consequences of corporate social and environmental responsibility dimension (RSAC. The paper analyzes and estimates the intensity of the relations between the factors of brand value, reputation sense of the company concerned (stakeholders and perspective to generate external risks, all of them such as satellites explaining the RSAC. And, in addition to tests of goodness of fit to the relational model, also was proposed an equation to measure the degree (or index of maturity in Environmental Responsibility Corporate Sector (RSACS, attempting to analyze and identify in what stage the RSACS constructs affects the final performance as strategic for organizations. This research was performed in the construction of Minas Gerais, represented by their managers adopti a survey method using a structured questionnaires with questions based on likert variations. The data collected were evaluated by analysis of structural equations using LVPLS. To measure the shares in Environmental Responsibility, we used known models in organizations and academia, such as the Corporate Sustainability Index, the Dow Jones Indexes, the index of the Ethos Institute and the representation theory of Hopkins (1997.

  13. A system dynamics-based environmental performance simulation of construction waste reduction management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhikun; Yi, Guizhen; Tam, Vivian W Y; Huang, Tengyue

    2016-05-01

    A huge amount of construction waste has been generated from increasingly higher number of construction activities than in the past, which has significant negative impacts on the environment if they are not properly managed. Therefore, effective construction waste management is of primary importance for future sustainable development. Based on the theory of planned behaviors, this paper develops a system dynamic model of construction waste reduction management at the construction phase to simulate the environmental benefits of construction waste reduction management. The application of the proposed model is shown using a case study in Shenzhen, China. Vensim is applied to simulate and analyze the model. The simulation results indicate that source reduction is an effective waste reduction measure which can reduce 27.05% of the total waste generation. Sorting behaviors are a premise for improving the construction waste recycling and reuse rates which account for 15.49% of the total waste generated. The environmental benefits of source reduction outweigh those of sorting behaviors. Therefore, to achieve better environmental performance of the construction waste reduction management, attention should be paid to source reduction such as low waste technologies and on-site management performance. In the meantime, sorting behaviors encouragement such as improving stakeholders' waste awareness, refining regulations, strengthening government supervision and controlling illegal dumping should be emphasized.

  14. Performance of Hybrid Corn in Different Environmental Conditions in the Region Of Sinop-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. T. Souza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of corn hybrids in environmental conditions favorable and unfavorable. For this, two experiments were conducted at Sinop / MT, being considered as favorable environmental conditions the use of fertilizer recommended for the crop at planting and coverage, and unfavorable conditions only recommended fertilization at planting. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replicates, with plots of 2 rows of 3 meters. The treatments were: double hybrid (Balu 761, single hybrids (AG 7088 and 30F90Y and triple hybrid (2B688. The characteristics evaluated were number of spikes, husked spikes weight, plant height and height of first spike. Regarding the number of ears, under favorable conditions, the hybrid double (Balu 761 and the triple hybrid (2B688 stood out against the simple hybrid. For the character number of spikes per plant, the husked spike weight in kg the triple hybrid 2B688 stood in relation to other unfavorable conditions. Considering the character plant height and first spike insertion, single hibrid 30F90Y, showed higher estimate in unfavorable conditions. In conclusion, the agronomic performance of types of hybrids varies in relation to environmental conditions and genotypes composition, and in this study the triple hybrid stood out in relation to others. Keywords: Zea mays, fertilization and breeding.

  15. The Impacts of Macroergonomics on Environmental Protection and Human Performance in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Azadeh, J Nouri, I Mohammad Fam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and his performance is a vital factor in protection of asset including environmental properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of total system design factors (TSD on human performance in a power plant. The TSD factors are defined as design factors, which have impact on overall performance of the power plants in context of total human engineering or macroergonomics. The systems being studied are the control rooms and maintenance departments of a 2000 MW thermal power plant. To achieve the above objective, the TSD factors were addressed and assessed through a detailed questionnaire. The relationships between TSD factors and human performance were then examined through non-parametric correlation analysis (Kramer’s Phi and Kruskal-Wallis test of means. The results of this study show that the macroergonomic factors such as organizational and safety procedures, teamwork, self-organization, job design and information exchange, influence human performance in the power plant. The findings also suggest that the selected macroergonomic factors are correlated to human performance and must be considered, designed and tested concurrently with the engineering factors at the design phase of the system developmental cycle. Consequently, total system’s faults and organizational errors are reduced to an acceptable level and human performance is significantly increased. The main goal in such program is customer's satisfaction (Internal customers. However, more elaboration on the scientific tools for implementation of TDS factors in context of human performance is also under investigation.

  16. A plum-pudding like mesoporous SiO2/flake graphite nanocomposite with superior rate performance for LIB anode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Fan, Chao-Ying; Wang, Kang; Wu, Xing-Long; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2015-09-21

    A novel kind of plum-pudding like mesoporous SiO2 nanospheres (MSNs) and flake graphite (FG) nanocomposite (pp-MSNs/FG) was designed and fabricated via a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that most of the MSNs were well anchored on FG. This special architecture has multiple advantages, including FG that offers a conductive framework and hinders the volume expansion effect. Moreover, the porous structure of MSNs could provide more available lithium storage sites and extra free space to accommodate the mechanical strain caused by the volume change during the repeated reversible reaction between Li(+) and active materials. Due to the synergetic effects of its unique plum-pudding structure, the obtained pp-MSNs/FG nanocomposite exhibited a decent reversible capacity of 702 mA h g(-1) (based on the weight of MSNs in the electrode material) after 100 cycles with high Coulombic efficiency above 99% under 100 mA g(-1) and a charge capacity of 239.6 mA h g(-1) could be obtained even under 5000 mA g(-1). Their high rate performance is among the best-reported performances of SiO2-based anode materials.

  17. Polyimide-coated carbon electrodes combined with redox mediators for superior Li-O2 cells with excellent cycling performance and decreased overpotential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seon Hye; Park, Yong Joon

    2017-02-01

    We report an air electrode employing polyimide-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combined with a redox mediator for Li-O2 cells with enhanced electrochemical performance. The polyimide coating on the carbon surface suppresses unwanted side reactions, which decreases the amount of accumulated reaction products on the surface of the air electrode during cycling. The redox mediators lower the overpotential of the Li-O2 cells because they can easily transfer electrons from the electrode to the reaction products. The low overpotential can also decrease the side reactions that activate at a high potential range. Specifically, the CsI redox mediator effectively interrupted dendrite growth on the Li anode during cycling due to the shielding effect of its Cs+ ions and acted as a redox mediator due to its I‑ ions. LiNO3 also facilitates the decrease in side reactions and the stabilization of the Li anode. The synergic effect of the polyimide coating and the electrolyte containing the LiNO3/CsI redox mediator leads to a low overpotential and excellent cycling performance (over 250 cycles with a capacity of 1,500 mAh·gelectrode‑1).

  18. Superior performance of metal-organic frameworks over zeolites as solid acid catalysts in the Prins reaction: green synthesis of nopol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanasenko, Maksym; Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Hwang, Young Kyu; Chang, Jong-San; Garcia, Hermenegildo; Čejka, Jiří

    2013-05-01

    The catalytic performance of a set of metal-organic frameworks [CuBTC, FeBTC, MIL-100(Fe), MIL-100(Cr), ZIF-8, MIL-53(Al)] was investigated in the Prins condensation of β-pinene with formaldehyde and compared with the catalytic behavior of conventional aluminosilicate zeolites BEA and FAU and titanosilicate zeolite MFI (TS-1). The activity of the investigated metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) increased with the increasing concentration of accessible Lewis acid sites in the order ZIF-8zeolites BEA and FAU, which showed significantly lower selectivity to the target nopol than the MOFs. Its high activity, the preservation of its structure and active sites, and the possibility to use it in at least three catalytic cycles without loss of activity make MIL-100 (Fe) the best performing catalyst of the series for the Prins condensation of β-pinene and paraformaldehyde. Our report exemplifies the advantages of MOFs over zeolites as solid catalysts in liquid-phase reactions for the production of fine chemicals.

  19. Polyimide-coated carbon electrodes combined with redox mediators for superior Li-O2 cells with excellent cycling performance and decreased overpotential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seon Hye; Park, Yong Joon

    2017-01-01

    We report an air electrode employing polyimide-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combined with a redox mediator for Li-O2 cells with enhanced electrochemical performance. The polyimide coating on the carbon surface suppresses unwanted side reactions, which decreases the amount of accumulated reaction products on the surface of the air electrode during cycling. The redox mediators lower the overpotential of the Li-O2 cells because they can easily transfer electrons from the electrode to the reaction products. The low overpotential can also decrease the side reactions that activate at a high potential range. Specifically, the CsI redox mediator effectively interrupted dendrite growth on the Li anode during cycling due to the shielding effect of its Cs+ ions and acted as a redox mediator due to its I− ions. LiNO3 also facilitates the decrease in side reactions and the stabilization of the Li anode. The synergic effect of the polyimide coating and the electrolyte containing the LiNO3/CsI redox mediator leads to a low overpotential and excellent cycling performance (over 250 cycles with a capacity of 1,500 mAh·gelectrode−1). PMID:28198419

  20. Statistics of superior records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  1. Frenillo labial superior doble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Albornoz López del Castillo

    Full Text Available El frenillo labial superior doble no sindrómico es una anomalía del desarrollo que no hemos encontrado reportada en la revisión bibliográfica realizada. Se presenta una niña de 11 años de edad que fue remitida al servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Eduardo Agramonte Piña", de Camagüey, por presentar un frenillo labial superior doble de baja inserción. Se describen los síntomas clínicos asociados a esta anomalía y el tratamiento quirúrgico utilizado para su solución: una frenectomía y plastia sobre la banda muscular frénica anormal que provocaba exceso de tejido en la mucosa labial. Consideramos muy interesante la descripción de este caso, por no haber encontrado reporte similar en la literatura revisada.

  2. Superior electrochemical performance of mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CNT nanocomposites as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Syed Mustansar, E-mail: qau_abbas@yahoo.com [Nanoscience and Catalysis Division, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Saqib, E-mail: drsa54@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Niaz, Niaz Ahmad [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan); Ali, Nisar; Ahmed, Rashid [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Nisar [Nanoscience and Catalysis Division, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-10-25

    Graphical abstract: The mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CNT nanocomposite synthesized via a modified co-precipitation method in combination with subsequent calcination was applied in the negative electrode materials for lithium ion batteries and exhibited high electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite of functionalized CNTs with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles is prepared. • Good quality interfacial adhesion between CNTs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} matrix. • High discharge capacity of 1093 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. • 50th Cycle coulombic efficiency of 98.4% at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. - Abstract: A series of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CNT nanocomposites are effectively synthesized by an in situ chemical co-precipitation technique. The structure, morphology and chemical composition of synthesized nanocomposites are analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of synthesized nanocomposites is tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge/discharge studies and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The carbon nanotubes are nicely dispersed in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles for all the nanocomposites. Due to the synergistic effect arising from Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, the electrochemical properties of pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} material is considerably enhanced. A discharge capacity of 1093 mA h g{sup −1} is demonstrated by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–7%CNT nanocomposite at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} with a high columbic efficiency of 98.4%. Moreover, this nanocomposite shows a stable cycling and rate performance at higher current densities. Hence, based on the above studies, such Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CNT nanocomposite could be a possible contributor for lithium ion batteries.

  3. Computer-Aided Chemical Product Design Framework: Design of High Performance and Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei; Gani, Rafiqul

    a driving force for the industry to continuously seek novel refrigerants as current refrigerants risk phasing out due to environmental regulations. This trend has been seen since the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 and recently from the EU regulations from 2014, which will restrict the use of some known refrigerants...... properties and needs should carefully be selected for a given heat pump cycle to ensure that an optimum refrigerant is found? How can cycle performance and environmental criteria be integrated at the product design stage and not in post-design analysis? Computer-aided product design methods enable...... the possibility of designing novel molecules, mixtures and blends, such as refrigerants through a systematic framework (Cignitti et al., 2015; Yunus et al., 2014). In this presentation a computer-aided framework is presented for chemical product design through mathematical optimization. Here, molecules, mixtures...

  4. Health and safety plan for operations performed for the Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippet, W.A. II (IT Corp., (United States)); Reneau, M.; Morton, S.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the EPR. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  5. Synthesis of Pt/K2CO3/MgAlOx–reduced graphene oxide hybrids as promising NOx storage–reduction catalysts with superior catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xueyi; Yan, Qinghua; Lu, Peng; Wang, Junya; Cui, Yuhan; Nie, Yu; Umar, Ahmad; Wang, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Pt/K2CO3/MgAlOx–reduced graphene oxide (Pt/K/MgAlOx–rGO) hybrids were synthesized, characterized and tested as a promising NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst. Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were grown on rGO via in situ hydrothermal crystallization. The structure and morphology of samples were thoroughly characterized using various techniques. Isothermal NOx adsorption tests indicated that MgAlOx–rGO hybrid exhibited better NOx trapping performance than MgAlOx, from 0.44 to 0.61 mmol · g‑1, which can be attributed to the enhanced particle dispersion and stabilization. In addition, a series of MgAlOx–rGO loaded with 2 wt% Pt and different loadings (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%) of K2CO3 (denoted as Pt/K/MgAlOx–rGO) were obtained by sequential impregnation. The influence of 5% H2O on the NOx storage capacity of MgAlOx–rGO loaded with 2 wt% Pt and 10% K2CO3 (2Pt/10 K/MgAlOx–rGO) catalyst was also evaluated. In all, the 2Pt/10 K/MgAlOx–rGO catalyst not only exhibited high thermal stability and NOx storage capacity of 1.12 mmol · g‑1, but also possessed excellent H2O resistance and lean–rich cycling performance, with an overall 78.4% of NOx removal. This work provided a new scheme for the preparation of highly dispersed MgAlOx–rGO hybrid based NSR catalysts.

  6. Synthesis of Pt/K2CO3/MgAlOx–reduced graphene oxide hybrids as promising NOx storage–reduction catalysts with superior catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xueyi; Yan, Qinghua; Lu, Peng; Wang, Junya; Cui, Yuhan; Nie, Yu; Umar, Ahmad; Wang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Pt/K2CO3/MgAlOx–reduced graphene oxide (Pt/K/MgAlOx–rGO) hybrids were synthesized, characterized and tested as a promising NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst. Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were grown on rGO via in situ hydrothermal crystallization. The structure and morphology of samples were thoroughly characterized using various techniques. Isothermal NOx adsorption tests indicated that MgAlOx–rGO hybrid exhibited better NOx trapping performance than MgAlOx, from 0.44 to 0.61 mmol · g−1, which can be attributed to the enhanced particle dispersion and stabilization. In addition, a series of MgAlOx–rGO loaded with 2 wt% Pt and different loadings (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%) of K2CO3 (denoted as Pt/K/MgAlOx–rGO) were obtained by sequential impregnation. The influence of 5% H2O on the NOx storage capacity of MgAlOx–rGO loaded with 2 wt% Pt and 10% K2CO3 (2Pt/10 K/MgAlOx–rGO) catalyst was also evaluated. In all, the 2Pt/10 K/MgAlOx–rGO catalyst not only exhibited high thermal stability and NOx storage capacity of 1.12 mmol · g−1, but also possessed excellent H2O resistance and lean–rich cycling performance, with an overall 78.4% of NOx removal. This work provided a new scheme for the preparation of highly dispersed MgAlOx–rGO hybrid based NSR catalysts. PMID:28205630

  7. IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental performance assessment of glazing and windows - context, overview, main concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, J.L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Sustainable Development Dept., Saint-Martin D' Heres (France); Krogh, H. [Danish Building and Urban Research, Energy and Indoor Climate Div., Hoersholm (Denmark); Tarantini, Mario [The Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    While all industrial sectors are integrating the environment concern into their culture and strategy, actors of the construction field seem to be torn between motivation and suspicion in front of this new topic. In most countries, the economic situation of the passed years for building was not suitable for investing in new long-term approaches, and the strong particularities of the building world appear as many complicating elements for introducing new concepts easily. But now the awareness for a sustainable development of all human activities is also growing in our sector, and it is time to take benefit of some favourable habits like the use of multi-criteria analysis: beyond performances, suitability for use, and durability, environmental quality criteria will just widen the actual scope of the technical assessment of building products. The first question is a double one : Who will use environmental criteria related to the building products, and for which purpose? Because actors in the field are many, we will have several distinct answers, which may call for different tools. In other industrial sectors, two approaches have been experimented: the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and the environmental labelling. Between LCA and green labels, several relevant tools are in development for the building products, each of them adapted to specific users and objectives, and most often of limited use in other contexts. A short review of the studies already performed on the environmental quality of glazing and windows revealed quite a small amount of available matter, and justifies the work undertaken within the programme of IEA/SHCP/Task 27, which will be presented in the third part of this paper. (au)

  8. Correlation Model between Economic Development and Environmental Performance on the Basis of Non-Financial Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dmitrievich Bogdanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common international standards for the non-financial reporting are reviewed. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI is determined as an optimal standard of sustainability reporting for the use in the Russian conditions. The environmental component of guidance on the compilation of G4 non-financial reporting of GRI standard is analyzed, the contribution of each aspect in terms of the overall picture of sustainability is determined. The progress of economic science has outlined the importance of incorporating natural components. Moreover, the value of biological resources would be increased through time, and therefore, the economic development of the company cannot be in isolation. To determine the degree of harmony between the economic development and ecological condition of the territory where the company carries out the economic activities, the application of new approaches and methods is necessary. Based on the statistical methods, a correlation model between economic development and environmental performance is developed to identify their relationship on the basis of non-financial reporting. The developed model of correlation can be used by a wide range of oil and gas companies and its general principles by the companies of different industries. The results may be of interest to stakeholders, also, it can be used for administrative purposes, to serve as a platform for forecasting and adoption of administrative decisions to achieve harmony between economic development and environmental performance. The model of correlation has been tested for the data of non-financial reporting of the Russian largest oil and gas company JSC “Surgutneftegas”. The testing has shown a positive relationship between the two systems of the company’s sustainable development: economy and ecology. This obtained result demonstrates a high level of social responsibility of the company in terms of environmental protection. A further study in this field can

  9. Optimal Environmental Performance of Water-cooled Chiller System with All Variable Speed Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fu Wing; Chan, Kwok Tai

    This study investigates how the environmental performance of water-cooled chiller systems can be optimized by applying load-based speed control to all the system components. New chiller and cooling tower models were developed using a transient systems simulation program called TRNSYS 15 in order to assess the electricity and water consumption of a chiller plant operating for a building cooling load profile. The chiller model was calibrated using manufacturer's performance data and used to analyze the coefficient of performance when the design and control of chiller components are changed. The NTU-effectiveness approach was used for the cooling tower model to consider the heat transfer effectiveness at various air-to-water flow ratios and to identify the makeup water rate. Applying load-based speed control to the cooling tower fans and pumps could save an annual plant operating cost by around 15% relative to an equivalent system with constant speed configurations.

  10. Towards better environmental performance of wastewater sludge treatment using endpoint approach in LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyaseri, Isam; Zhou, Jianpeng

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to use the life cycle assessment method to measure the environmental performance of the sludge incineration process in a wastewater treatment plant and to propose an alternative that can reduce the environmental impact. To show the damages caused by the treatment processes, the study aimed to use an endpoint approach in evaluating impacts on human health, ecosystem quality, and resources due to the processes. A case study was taken at Bissell Point Wastewater Treatment Plant in Saint Louis, Missouri, U.S. The plant-specific data along with literature data from technical publications were used to build an inventory, and then analyzed the environmental burdens from sludge handling unit in the year 2011. The impact assessment method chosen was ReCipe 2008. The existing scenario (dewatering-multiple hearth incineration-ash to landfill) was evaluated and three alternative scenarios (fluid bed incineration and anaerobic digestion with and without land application) with energy recovery from heat or biogas were proposed and analyzed to find the one with the least environmental impact. The existing scenario shows that the most significant impacts are related to depletion in resources and damage to human health. These impacts mainly came from the operation phase (electricity and fuel consumption and emissions related to combustion). Alternatives showed better performance than the existing scenario. Using ReCipe endpoint methodology, and among the three alternatives tested, the anaerobic digestion had the best overall environmental performance. It is recommended to convert to fluid bed incineration if the concerns were more about human health or to anaerobic digestion if the concerns were more about depletion in resources. The endpoint approach may simplify the outcomes of this study as follows: if the plant is converted to fluid bed incineration, it could prevent an average of 43.2 DALYs in human life, save 0.059 species in the area from extinction

  11. Environmental performance of aquaculture in Rondônia state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio Ferreira Borges

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the environmental performance of aquaculture in the city of Colorado do Oeste, Rondônia State, Brazil. Fifteen fish farmers were interviewed. For data collection, structured interviews were carried out, using a questionnaire based on information supplied by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The questionnaire considered 12 items, organized into three main topics: a social and legal standards b environmental standards c standards of food safety and hygiene. The questionnaire considered 12 items, organized into three main topics: a social and legal standards b environmental standards c standards of food safety and hygiene. Aquaculture in the city of Colorado do Oeste, Rondônia presents two fish production systems: extensive and semi-intensive. In the semi-intensive system, stocking rate was one fish per m3, on average; tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, tilapias (Oreochromis spp., pirarucu (Arapaima gigas and pintado (Pseudoplatystoma spp. were the species farmed at the largest number. The rate of water renewal was due to the greater availability of natural food in this system. Water renewal was constant in the ponds (1,500 liters per minute. In the semi-intensive system using dug ponds, alevins were stocked and fed during the entire rearing time with natural and exogenous food. The extensive system relied on the natural production of the pond, with stocking density limited by the production of natural food. The little renewal of water made the cultivation tank itself acted as a decantation lake, with the occurrence of oxidation and sedimentation of residual organic matter, consisting of feces, debris and organic fertilizer. Production of reduced effluent volume took place in the extensive system, compared to the cultivation area. In addition, there was high water turbidity, caused by high concentration of planktonic organisms, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the water

  12. Superiority of branched side chains in spontaneous nanowire formation: exemplified by poly(3-2-methylbutylthiophene) for high-performance solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsieh-Chih; Wu, I-Che; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Chen, Fu-Je; Chen, I-Wen P; Peng, Yung-Kang; Lin, Chao-Sung; Chen, Chun-Hsien; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2011-04-18

    One-dimensional nanostructures containing heterojunctions by conjugated polymers, such as nanowires, are expected to greatly facilitate efficient charge transfer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Thus, a combined theoretical and experimental approach is pursued to explore spontaneous nanowire formation. A dissipative particle dynamics simulation is first performed to study the morphologies formed by rodlike polymers with various side-chain structures. The results surprisingly predict that conjugated polymers with branched side chains are well suited to form thermodynamically stable nanowires. Proof of this concept is provided via the design and synthesis of a branched polymer of regioregular poly(3-2-methylbutylthiophene) (P3MBT), which successfully demonstrates highly dense nanowire formation free from any stringent conditions and stratagies. In BHJ solar cells fabricated using a blend of P3MBT and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(71) BM), P3MBT polymers are self-organized into highly crystalline nanowires with a d(100) spacing of 13.30 Å. The hole mobility of the P3MBT:PC(71) BM (1:0.5 by weight) blend film reaches 3.83 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , and the maximum incident photon-to-current efficiency reaches 68%. The results unambiguously prove the spontaneous formation of nanowires using solution-processable conjugated polymers with branched alkyl side chains in BHJ solar cells.

  13. MnO(x) Nanoparticle-Dispersed CeO2 Nanocubes: A Remarkable Heteronanostructured System with Unusual Structural Characteristics and Superior Catalytic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putla, Sudarsanam; Amin, Mohamad Hassan; Reddy, Benjaram M; Nafady, Ayman; Al Farhan, Khalid A; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2015-08-05

    Understanding the interface-induced effects of heteronanostructured catalysts remains a significant challenge due to their structural complexity, but it is crucial for developing novel applied catalytic materials. This work reports a systematic characterization and catalytic evaluation of MnOx nanoparticle-dispersed CeO2 nanocubes for two important industrial applications, namely, diesel soot oxidation and continuous-flow benzylamine oxidation. The X-ray diffraction and Raman studies reveal an unusual lattice expansion in CeO2 after the addition of MnOx. This interesting observation is due to conversion of smaller sized Ce(4+) (0.097 nm) to larger sized Ce(3+) (0.114 nm) in cerium oxide led by the strong interaction between MnOx and CeO2 at their interface. Another striking observation noticed from transmission electron microscopy, high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies is that the MnOx species are well-dispersed along the edges of the CeO2 nanocubes. This remarkable decoration leads to an enhanced reducible nature of the cerium oxide at the MnOx/CeO2 interface. It was found that MnOx/CeO2 heteronanostructures efficiently catalyze soot oxidation at lower temperatures (50% soot conversion, T50 ∼660 K) compared with that of bare CeO2 nanocubes (T50 ∼723 K). Importantly, the MnOx/CeO2 heteronanostructures exhibit a noticeable steady performance in the oxidation of benzylamine with a high selectivity of the dibenzylimine product (∼94-98%) compared with that of CeO2 nanocubes (∼69-91%). The existence of a strong synergistic effect at the interface sites between the CeO2 and MnOx components is a key factor for outstanding catalytic efficiency of the MnOx/CeO2 heteronanostructures.

  14. Phase Tuning of Nanostructured Gallium Oxide via Hybridization with Reduced Graphene Oxide for Superior Anode Performance in Li-Ion Battery: An Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharad B; Kim, In Young; Gunjakar, Jayavant L; Oh, Seung Mi; Eom, Taedaehyeong; Kim, Hyungjun; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2015-08-26

    The crystal phase of nanostructured metal oxide can be effectively controlled by the hybridization of gallium oxide with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) at variable concentrations. The change of the ratio of Ga2O3/rGO is quite effective in tailoring the crystal structure and morphology of nanostructured gallium oxide hybridized with rGO. This is the first example of the phase control of metal oxide through a change of the content of rGO hybridized. The calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) clearly demonstrate that the different surface formation energy and Ga local symmetry of Ga2O3 phases are responsible for the phase transition induced by the change of rGO content. The resulting Ga2O3-rGO nanocomposites show promising electrode performance for lithium ion batteries. The intermediate Li-Ga alloy phases formed during the electrochemical cycling are identified with the DFT calculations. Among the present Ga2O3-rGO nanocomposites, the material with mixed α-Ga2O3/β-Ga2O3/γ-Ga2O3 phase can deliver the largest discharge capacity with the best cyclability and rate characteristics, highlighting the importance of the control of Ga2O3/rGO ratio in optimizing the electrode activity of the composite materials. The present study underscores the usefulness of the phase-control of nanostructured metal oxides achieved by the change of rGO content in exploring novel functional nanocomposite materials.

  15. Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B M Drummond

    Full Text Available Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects, whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture. Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations.

  16. Wind farm topology-finding algorithm considering performance, costs, and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi, Nacef; Chatelet, Eric; Bouzidi, Youcef; Meziane, Rachid

    2017-06-05

    Optimal power in wind farms turns to be a modern problem for investors and decision makers; onshore wind farms are subject to performance and economic and environmental constraints. The aim of this work is to define the best installed capacity (best topology) with maximum performance and profits and consider environmental impacts as well. In this article, we continue the work recently done on wind farm topology-finding algorithm. The proposed resolution technique is based on finding the best topology of the system that maximizes the wind farm performance (availability) under the constraints of costs and capital investments. Global warming potential of wind farm is calculated and taken into account in the results. A case study is done using data and constraints similar to those collected from wind farm constructors, managers, and maintainers. Multi-state systems (MSS), universal generating function (UGF), wind, and load charge functions are applied. An economic study was conducted to assess the wind farm investment. Net present value (NPV) and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated for best topologies found.

  17. Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations.

  18. Sustainable Campus: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ Performance Measurement for Malaysian Public Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Zahari Wan Yusoff

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ for academic buildings is one of the key characteristics of a sustainable campus. The low conditions of IEQ performance can contribute to the sick building syndrome and cause discomfort to the building users.Furthermore, good performance of IEQ can contribute to a comfort and conducive learning and working environment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss on the IEQperformance measurement of academic buildings for public universities in Malaysia. This research involved scientific measurement of academic buildings for public universities inMalaysia. The performance measurement focuses on the six key elements of IEQ; thermal comfort, humidity, noise comfort, air movement, lighting and thickness of CO2. Theresults were compared to the Malaysian Standard (MS 1525:2007 and UNESCO guideline. The findings showed that most universities are in the standard set, while someuniversities under the standards set and still in need of improvement. This study is useful for facilities managers in public universities in order to improve the IEQ on academicbuildings in achieving sustainable campus.Keywords: Sustainable development, Sustainable environment, Sustainable campus, Indoor Environmental Quality, Malaysian public universities.

  19. Annual Status Report (FY2016) Performance Assessment for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casbon, M. A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE M 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual, require that a determination of continued adequacy of the performance assessment (PA), composite analysis (CA), and disposal authorization statement (DAS) be made on an annual basis, and it must consider the results of data collection and analysis from research, field studies, and monitoring. Annual summaries of low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations must be prepared with respect to the conclusions and recommendations of the PA and CA, and a determination of the need to revise the PA or CA must be made. The annual summary requirement provides a structured approach for demonstrating the continued adequacy of the PA and CA in demonstrating a reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met. This annual summary addresses only the status of the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) PA (CP-60089, Performance Assessment for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, Hanford Site, Washington, formerly WCH-520 Rev. 1)1. The CA for ERDF is supported by DOE/RL-2016-62, Annual Status Report (FY 2016): Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site. The ERDF PA portion of the CA document is found in Section 3.1.4, and the ERDF operations portion is found in Section 3.3.3.2 of that document.

  20. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  1. Life cycle environmental performance of miscanthus gasification versus other technologies for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the life cycle environmental performance of miscanthus gasification for electricity production in Denmark is evaluated and compared with that of direct combustion and anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, the results obtained are compared to those of natural gas to assess the potential...... of miscanthus as an energy source. Our results indicate that production of 1 kWh electricity from miscanthus via gasification leads to a global warming potential (100-year GWP) of 26 g and 296 g CO2e, without and with consideration of CO2 emissions from indirect land use change respectively. For other impact...

  2. How an Organization's Environmental Orientation Impacts Environmental Performance and Its Resultant Financial Performance through Green Computing Hiring Practices: An Empirical Investigation of the Natural Resource-Based View of the Firm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aken, Andrew Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation uses the logic embodied in Strategic Fit Theory, the Natural Resource- Based View of the Firm (NRBV), strategic human resource management, and other relevant literature streams to empirically demonstrate how the environmental orientation of a firm's strategy impacts their environmental performance and resultant financial…

  3. A strategic management model for evaluation of health, safety and environmental performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Majid; Toutounchian, Solmaz; Roayaei, Emad; Nassiri, Parvin

    2012-05-01

    Strategic health, safety, and environmental management system (HSE-MS) involves systematic and cooperative planning in each phase of the lifecycle of a project to ensure that interaction among the industry group, client, contractor, stakeholder, and host community exists with the highest level of health, safety, and environmental standard performances. Therefore, it seems necessary to assess the HSE-MS performance of contractor(s) by a comparative strategic management model with the aim of continuous improvement. The present Strategic Management Model (SMM) has been illustrated by a case study and the results show that the model is a suitable management tool for decision making in a contract environment, especially in oil and gas fields and based on accepted international standards within the framework of management deming cycle. To develop this model, a data bank has been created, which includes the statistical data calculated by converting the HSE performance qualitative data into quantitative values. Based on this fact, the structure of the model has been formed by defining HSE performance indicators according to the HSE-MS model. Therefore, 178 indicators have been selected which have been grouped into four attributes. Model output provides quantitative measures of HSE-MS performance as a percentage of an ideal level with maximum possible score for each attribute. Defining the strengths and weaknesses of the contractor(s) is another capability of this model. On the other hand, this model provides a ranking that could be used as the basis for decision making at the contractors' pre-qualification phase or during the execution of the project.

  4. Ag/g-C3N4 catalyst with superior catalytic performance for the degradation of dyes: a borohydride-generated superoxide radical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongsheng; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2015-08-01

    dissolved oxygen in the presence of BH4- and the synergistic effect of Ag nanoparticles and g-C3N4. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The typical experimental details for the color reaction between the ferrous irons (Fe2+) and nitric oxide (NO); MO photodegradation performances in the presence of Ag/g-C3N4 or Ag/g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposites; TEM image of the pure g-C3N4 catalyst; The remaining MO, MB and NDY-GL in solution after reaching the adsorption-desorption equilibrium in the dark for 60 min with stirring; Catalytic degradation of MB and NDY-GL over the Ag/g-C3N4-4 catalyst in the presence of BH4- in the dark and under visible light irradiation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03260a

  5. SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN NGOS: A LOOK FROM THE BUSINESS PERFORMANCE AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS AS STAKEHOLDERS FROM OTHERS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Duarte Couto Fernandes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The reflection of environmental management is felt by the entire chain of stakeholders of an organization. Within the environmental context, the NGOs act as important actors in the dissemination and engagement, being one of the key stakeholders which relate to the company. This article aims to discuss the concept of environmental management from the performance of environmental NGOs in Uberlândia/MG, checking their perception as one of all stakeholders from organizations. The research is descriptive and exploratory. Data collection started from semi-structured interviews with managers and research websites of entities. The results of this study show the relevance of the subject; how the environmental management of the NGOs involves both aspects of environmental and social; and the difficulty to relate and act together with government agencies and private sector, given the different goals that each ball has when it comes to environmental management.

  6. A novel 3D energetic MOF of high energy content: synthesis and superior explosive performance of a Pb(ii) compound with 5,5'-bistetrazole-1,1'-diolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yu; Jin, Bo; Peng, Rufang; Liu, Qiangqiang; Tan, Bisheng; Guo, Zhicheng; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Qingchun

    2016-09-21

    The development of high-performance insensitive energetic materials is important because of the increasing demand for these materials in military and civilian applications. A novel 3D energetic metal-organic framework (MOF) of exceptionally high energy content, [Pb(BTO)(H2O)]n, was synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, featuring a three-dimensional parallelogram porous framework, where BTO represents 5,5'-bistetrazole-1,1'-diolate. The thermal stability and energetic properties were determined, exhibiting good thermostability (Td = 309.0 °C), excellent detonation pressure (P) of 53.06 GPa, a detonation velocity (D) of 9.204 km s(-1), and acceptable sensitivity to confirmed impact (IS = 7.5 J). Notably, the complex possesses unprecedented superior density than the reported energetic MOFs. The results highlight this new MOF as a potential energetic material.

  7. Efficient plasma-enhanced method for layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes with sulfur atom-scale modification for superior-performance Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qianqian; Chen, Ning; Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Shuangyin; Zhang, Han

    2016-06-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material, atom-scale modification was realized to obtain the layered oxysulfide LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx using a novel plasma-enhanced doping strategy. The structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx are investigated systematically, which confirms that the S doping can make the structure stable and benefit the electrochemical performance. The phys-chemical characterizations indicate that oxygen atoms in the initial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 have been partially replaced by S atoms. It should be pointed out that the atom-scale modification does not significantly alter the intrinsic structure of the cathode. Compared to the pristine material, the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx shows a superior performance with a higher capacity (200.4 mA h g(-1)) and a significantly improved cycling stability (maintaining 94.46% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles). Moreover, it has an excellent rate performance especially at elevated performance, which is probably due to the faster Li(+) transportation after S doping into the layered structure. All the results show that the atom-scale modification with sulfur atoms on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, which significantly improved the electrochemical performance, offers a novel anionic doping strategy to realize the atom-scale modification of electrode materials to improve their electrochemical performance.

  8. Improvement of Environmental Performance of Publishing Processes: Application of the Integrated Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Minkevičiūtė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on printing industry, environmental impact assessment of the prevailing environmental issues, use of resources, waste production and possible options to solve environmental problems. Printing industry is “difficult” due to product diversity and differences of their parameters. A systematic evaluation is essential to analyse impact on the environment and to identify opportunities for implementation of the eco-label the Nordic Swan. The research is based on data from one of experimental Lithuanian design and printing company.To assess the life cycle of printing process, the software SimaPro 8 has been used. 1 ton of printing products was chosen as the functional unit for the impact assessment. The assessment included 1 ton of different paper sorts. The assessment of the offset printing process of the pilot company was conducted in accordance with the criterions of a group P of the eco-label the Nordic Swan (version 5.4. The layout software of green graphic design was used as an additional preventive tool for reduction of the environmental impact.The assessment of the life cycle of printing processes revealed that the process of offset printing have the most significant impact on the environment in all the categories of impact. The analysis of paper materials revealed that recycled paper has the least impact on the environment. The total impact does not exceed 5% when compared to all other tested materials. Chalk coated printing paper made from mechanical pulp has the biggest impact. The assessment of the company’s activity in accordance with the criterions of the group P of the eco-label the Nordic Swan showed that tested company had 63,6 points (122 points is the maximum. To reduce identified environmental problems in the Lithuanian printing industry and to meet the requirements of the Nordic Swan, environmental performance improvement recommendations have been developed. The recommendations are applicable in any

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscoid superior labrum: normal variant or superior labral tear*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Marcelo Novelino; Vinson, Emily N.; Spritzer, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of a "meniscoid" superior labrum. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of 582 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of shoulders. Of those 582 examinations, 110 were excluded, for a variety of reasons, and the final analysis therefore included 472 cases. Consensus readings were performed by three musculoskeletal radiologists using specific criteria to diagnose meniscoid labra. Results A meniscoid superior labrum was identified in 48 (10.2%) of the 472 cases evaluated. Arthroscopic proof was available in 21 cases (43.8%). In 10 (47.6%) of those 21 cases, the operative report did not include the mention a superior labral tear, thus suggesting the presence of a meniscoid labrum. In only one of those cases were there specific comments about a mobile superior labrum (i.e., meniscoid labrum). In the remaining 11 (52.4%), surgical correlation demonstrated superior labral tears. Conclusion A meniscoid superior labrum is not an infrequent finding. Depending upon assumptions and the requirement of surgical proof, the prevalence of a meniscoid superior labrum in this study was between 2.1% (surgically proven) and 4.8% (projected). However, superior labral tears are just as common and are often confused with meniscoid labra. PMID:27777474

  10. Environmental performance of crop residues as an energy source for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    or for natural gas reduces global warming, non-renewable energy use, human toxicity and ecotoxicity, but increases eutrophication, respiratory inorganics, acidification and photochemical ozone. The results at the aggregate level show that the use of straw biomass for conversion to energy scores better than...... that of coal but worse than natural gas. In order to investigate the question of whether and how a reduction in the single score per kW h of electricity produced from straw is feasible, we perform a scenario analysis where we consider two approaches. The first one is a potential significant reduction......This paper aims to address the question, “What is the environmental performance of crop residues as an alternative energy source to fossil fuels, and whether and how can it be improved?”. In order to address the issue, we compare electricity production from wheat straw to that from coal and natural...

  11. Interaction between intention and environmental constraints on the fractal dynamics of human performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Auriel; Coey, Charles A; Romero, Veronica; Malone, MaryLauren; Richardson, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether the influence of available task constraints on power-law scaling might be moderated by a participant's task intention. Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement task with the intention of controlling either movement period or amplitude, either with or without an experimental stimulus designed to constrain period. In the absence of the stimulus, differences in intention did not produce any changes in power-law scaling. When the stimulus was present, however, a shift toward more random fluctuations occurred in the corresponding task dimension, regardless of participants' intentions. More importantly, participants' intentions interacted with available task constraints to produce an even greater shift toward random variation when the task dimension constrained by the stimulus was also the dimension the participant intended to control. Together, the results suggest that intentions serve to more tightly constrain behavior to existing environmental constraints, evidenced by changes in the fractal scaling of task performance.

  12. Comparison of the environmental performance of light mechanization and animal traction using a modular LCA approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerutti, Alessandro K.; Calvo, Angela; Bruun, Sander

    2014-01-01

    operations. This achievement completely changed food production systems for all populations able to access such technology. Nowadays, animal traction is mainly used in the developing countries, in specific contexts such as mountainous areas due to the difficulties in using tractors, and within farm tourism...... life cycle impact assessment phase was performed and results were related to the contribution of the module in the main workflow of the scenario. The final results showed better environmental performance of animal traction both per unit weight of market-ready wood and per unit surface area of prepared...... in the developed countries. Although the consumption of non-renewable resources is clearly higher in crop production systems that use mechanized traction, tractor traction may involve low consumption of fuel relative to that needed for feed production for equivalent draught animals. Mechanical traction can also...

  13. INFORMAÇÕES SOBRE A PUBLICAÇÃO PERIÓDICA DO INSTITUTO DE ENSINO SUPERIOR DE RONDÔNIA/FACULDADES ASSOCIADAS DE ARIQUEMES (IESUR/FAAR AREL FAAR - AMAZON’S RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conselho Editorial

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Revista é de titularidade do Instituto de Ensino Superior de Rondônia/Faculdades Associadas de Ariquemes - IESUR/FAAr. Sua missão é publicar estudos e pesquisas inéditas realizadas na área do Direito, preferencialmente no escopo das linhas editoriais, visando disseminar conhecimento científico jurídico, estabelecida em dezembro do ano de 2012, após aprovação no Conselho Superior do IESUR/FAAr (CONSUP.

  14. The Energy and Environmental Performance of Ground-Mounted Photovoltaic Systems—A Timely Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Leccisi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Given photovoltaics’ (PVs constant improvements in terms of material usage and energy efficiency, this paper provides a timely update on their life-cycle energy and environmental performance. Single-crystalline Si (sc-Si, multi-crystalline Si (mc-Si, cadmium telluride (CdTe and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS systems are analysed, considering the actual country of production and adapting the input electricity mix accordingly. Energy pay-back time (EPBT results for fixed-tilt ground mounted installations range from 0.5 years for CdTe PV at high-irradiation (2300 kWh/(m2·yr to 2.8 years for sc-Si PV at low-irradiation (1000 kWh/(m2·yr, with corresponding quality-adjusted energy return on investment (EROIPE-eq values ranging from over 60 to ~10. Global warming potential (GWP per kWhel averages out at ~30 g(CO2-eq, with lower values (down to ~10 g for CdTe PV at high irradiation, and up to ~80 g for Chinese sc-Si PV at low irradiation. In general, results point to CdTe PV as the best performing technology from an environmental life-cycle perspective, also showing a remarkable improvement for current production modules in comparison with previous generations. Finally, we determined that one-axis tracking installations can improve the environmental profile of PV systems by approximately 10% for most impact metrics.

  15. Evaluation of the environmental performance of alternatives for polystyrene production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Adriana Petrella; da Silva, Gil Anderi; Kulay, Luiz

    2015-11-01

    The global demand for polystyrene is supposed to reach an overall baseline of 23.5 million tons by 2020. The market has experienced the effects of such growth, especially regarding the environmental performance of the production processes. In Brazil, renewable assets have been used to overcome the adverse consequences of this expansion. This study evaluates this issue for the production of Brazilian polystyrene resins, general-purpose polystyrene (GPPS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS). The effects of replacing fossil ethylene with a biobased alternative are also investigated. Life Cycle Assessment is applied for ten scenarios, with different technological approaches for renewable ethylene production and an alternative for obtaining bioethanol, which considers the export of electricity. The fossil GPPS and HIPS show a better performance than the partially renewable sources in terms of Climate Change (CC), Terrestrial Acidification (TA), Photochemical Oxidant Formation (POF), and Water Depletion (WD). The exception is Fossil Depletion (FD), a somewhat predictable result. The main environmental loads associated with the renewable options are related to the sugarcane production. Polybutadiene fails to provide greater additional impact to HIPS when compared to GPPS. With regard to obtaining ethylene from ethanol, Adiabatic Dehydration (AD) technology consumes less sugarcane than Adiabatic Dehydration at High Pressure (ADHP), which leads to gains in TA and POF. In contrast, ADHP was more eco-friendly for WD because of its lower water losses and in terms of CC because of the advantageous balance of fossil CO2(eq) at the agricultural stage and the lower consumption of natural gas in ethylene production. The electricity export is an auspicious environmental opportunity because it can counterbalance some of the negative impacts associated with the renewable route. According to a "cradle-to-grave" perspective, the partially renewable resins show a more favorable balance of

  16. 2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Associated Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meachum, Teresa Ray; Michael G. Lewis

    2003-02-01

    The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

  17. Environmental performance evaluation of hot water supplying systems for domestic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alexandre Kulay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consumption profile of Brazilian citizens is changing as alternatives are sought to reduce costs. A major focus of this change of attitude involves expenditures for electricity, particularly in relation to water heating systems. The manufacturers of these devices add value to their products beyond price. A usual strategy is the enhancement of the environmental performance of the product. This study compared four water heating systems: electric, gas, solar and hybrid, using an environmental perspective. The systems were operated under similar conditions. The analysis was conducted by using the Life Cycle Assessment technique, for the impact categories of Climate Change, Acidification Eutrophication and Water, Metal and Fossil Resource depletion. The results indicated that the electric and hybrid systems are less harmful to the environment for all the impact categories under analysis. On the other hand, the gas system provided the worst performance of the group. The solar heating system was penalized due to its dependence on electricity to operate under the conditions in which the study was conducted.

  18. Socioeconomic and Environmental Performance: A Composite Index and Comparative Application to the USA and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanilio Rodolpho Teixeira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an analytical framework to provide a measure of overall performance which involves both socioeconomic activities and environmental sustainability using a recent Index of well-being. The composite indicator, created by Medrano-B & Teixeira (2013, is associated with the so called “Magic Square”, a diagram stimulated by the work of Kaldor (1971. From this starting point, we introduce a set of four variables to measure their total impact on the sustainable development of regions. They are: human development index, per capita carbon dioxide, drinkable water and sanitation, and intensity of renewable energy measured as a fraction of the total generated energy. This formal approach is applied to the comparative performance of the USA and China from 2002 to 2012. As expected, environmental, socioeconomic and institutional indicators affect the level of welfare. This being the case, an important lesson to be learned is that careful regulation and policy actions, not just proposals, are required to implement a sustainable and acceptable quality of life. In this article we complete the argument by suggesting that a new paradigm is required to fulfill our desirable objectives, and get more out of our intellectual effort, capabilities and political influence.

  19. Effects of Green Innovation on Environmental and Corporate Performance: A Stakeholder Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Hung (Robin Weng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “Going green” has become an important environmental issue in contemporary business practice worldwide. This study examined the influence of a number of factors on green innovation and the consequences in terms of performance. The stakeholder theory was adopted to observe the effects of each stakeholder on the green innovation practices of companies and to determine how green innovation practices influence environmental and business performance. A research model with eight hypotheses was proposed to determine the associations between the variables of interest. An empirical survey was conducted of 202 Taiwanese service and manufacturing companies. The survey found that pressure from competitors and the government, along with employee conduct, all had significant and positive effects on green innovation practices. Additionally, a moderating effect of innovation orientation existed only in the relationship between green product innovation practices and employee conduct. This study not only provides a systematic way to analyze the effects of green innovation practices but also suggests the best means for companies to adopt green innovation practices.

  20. Assessing the environmental performance of English arable and livestock holdings using data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, D B; Park, J R; Mauchline, A L; Crane, R T; Mortimer, S R

    2011-03-01

    Agri-environment schemes (AESs) have been implemented across EU member states in an attempt to reconcile agricultural production methods with protection of the environment and maintenance of the countryside. To determine the extent to which such policy objectives are being fulfilled, participating countries are obliged to monitor and evaluate the environmental, agricultural and socio-economic impacts of their AESs. However, few evaluations measure precise environmental outcomes and critically, there are no agreed methodologies to evaluate the benefits of particular agri-environmental measures, or to track the environmental consequences of changing agricultural practices. In response to these issues, the Agri-Environmental Footprint project developed a common methodology for assessing the environmental impact of European AES. The Agri-Environmental Footprint Index (AFI) is a farm-level, adaptable methodology that aggregates measurements of agri-environmental indicators based on Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) techniques. The method was developed specifically to allow assessment of differences in the environmental performance of farms according to participation in agri-environment schemes. The AFI methodology is constructed so that high values represent good environmental performance. This paper explores the use of the AFI methodology in combination with Farm Business Survey data collected in England for the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN), to test whether its use could be extended for the routine surveillance of environmental performance of farming systems using established data sources. Overall, the aim was to measure the environmental impact of three different types of agriculture (arable, lowland livestock and upland livestock) in England and to identify differences in AFI due to participation in agri-environment schemes. However, because farm size, farmer age, level of education and region are also likely to influence the environmental performance of a

  1. The Role of Environmental Factors on Sleep Patterns and School Performance in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance. The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective routes in alleviating modern teenage sleep debt, and in

  2. The role of environmental factors on sleep patterns and school performance in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara eDimitriou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behaviour.Aims. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship.Sample and method. Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Results. An average of 7.08 hours of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behaviour problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance.Conclusion. The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may

  3. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... on organizational practices relates closely to an increased focus on communication as being constitutive of the organization in general and the superior-subordinate relationship in specific. The current study aims to contribute to this line of research by investigating micro-practices involved in establishing...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...

  4. Prediction of College Performance of Superior Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Roy J.

    1965-01-01

    Using 857 male National Merit Finalists and Commended Students, scales to predict 1st year college grades and science, writing, art, music, speech, and leadership achievement were developed by analysis of 906 pre-college questionnaire items. Two item analysis strategies were used: responses of achieving subjects (S's) and general samples of…

  5. Performance Attributional Effects on Feedback from Superiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    of the task and the general procedure. He then administered the Wonderlic Per- sonnel Test. Following completion of the test, a "random drawing" was...Upon arrival at the experimental session, the supervisor 7 and the three confederates were all administered the Wonderlic Personnel Test. Following

  6. Delegation: A Competency of Superior Performers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    subordinate, distribution of power and responsibility. Henri Fayol does no better with this subject in his classic fourteen principles of management. He...Structure and Behavior, Litterer, Joseph A., Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1963. 4. Fayol , Henri , "General Principles of Management", from Classics...chain, As with Weber, Fayol concerns himself with systems in which positional delegation can occur, rather than with the individualized action this

  7. Enhancing Supply Chain Performance with Environmental Cost Information: Examples from Commonwealth Edison, Andersen Corportation, and Ashland Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collection of case studies illustrates how supply chain management practices can be improved by determining the financial impact of business activities that have an impact on a company’s environmental performance.

  8. The Relationship between Environmental Turbulence, Management Support, Organizational Collaboration, Information Technology Solution Realization, and Process Performance, in Healthcare Provider Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglia, Victor O.

    2010-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental turbulence, management support, organizational collaboration, information technology solution realization, and process performance in healthcare provider organizations. Method: A descriptive/correlational study of Hospital medical services process…

  9. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  10. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-09-21

    Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy), it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  11. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Eusebio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy, it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  12. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-01-01

    Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy), it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable. PMID:27657086

  13. Operational and environmental performance in China's thermal power industry: Taking an effectiveness measure as complement to an efficiency measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jieming; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-05-01

    The trend toward a more fiercely competitive and strictly environmentally regulated electricity market in several countries, including China has led to efforts by both industry and government to develop advanced performance evaluation models that adapt to new evaluation requirements. Traditional operational and environmental efficiency measures do not fully consider the influence of market competition and environmental regulations and, thus, are not sufficient for the thermal power industry to evaluate its operational performance with respect to specific marketing goals (operational effectiveness) and its environmental performance with respect to specific emissions reduction targets (environmental effectiveness). As a complement to an operational efficiency measure, an operational effectiveness measure not only reflects the capacity of an electricity production system to increase its electricity generation through the improvement of operational efficiency, but it also reflects the system's capability to adjust its electricity generation activities to match electricity demand. In addition, as a complement to an environmental efficiency measure, an environmental effectiveness measure not only reflects the capacity of an electricity production system to decrease its pollutant emissions through the improvement of environmental efficiency, but it also reflects the system's capability to adjust its emissions abatement activities to fulfill environmental regulations. Furthermore, an environmental effectiveness measure helps the government regulator to verify the rationality of its emissions reduction targets assigned to the thermal power industry. Several newly developed effectiveness measurements based on data envelopment analysis (DEA) were utilized in this study to evaluate the operational and environmental performance of the thermal power industry in China during 2006-2013. Both efficiency and effectiveness were evaluated from the three perspectives of operational

  14. NCI's High Performance Computing (HPC) and High Performance Data (HPD) Computing Platform for Environmental and Earth System Data Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben; Allen, Chris; Antony, Joseph; Bastrakova, Irina; Gohar, Kashif; Porter, David; Pugh, Tim; Santana, Fabiana; Smillie, Jon; Trenham, Claire; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has established a powerful and flexible in-situ petascale computational environment to enable both high performance computing and Data-intensive Science across a wide spectrum of national environmental and earth science data collections - in particular climate, observational data and geoscientific assets. This paper examines 1) the computational environments that supports the modelling and data processing pipelines, 2) the analysis environments and methods to support data analysis, and 3) the progress so far to harmonise the underlying data collections for future interdisciplinary research across these large volume data collections. NCI has established 10+ PBytes of major national and international data collections from both the government and research sectors based on six themes: 1) weather, climate, and earth system science model simulations, 2) marine and earth observations, 3) geosciences, 4) terrestrial ecosystems, 5) water and hydrology, and 6) astronomy, social and biosciences. Collectively they span the lithosphere, crust, biosphere, hydrosphere, troposphere, and stratosphere. The data is largely sourced from NCI's partners (which include the custodians of many of the major Australian national-scale scientific collections), leading research communities, and collaborating overseas organisations. New infrastructures created at NCI mean the data collections are now accessible within an integrated High Performance Computing and Data (HPC-HPD) environment - a 1.2 PFlop supercomputer (Raijin), a HPC class 3000 core OpenStack cloud system and several highly connected large-scale high-bandwidth Lustre filesystems. The hardware was designed at inception to ensure that it would allow the layered software environment to flexibly accommodate the advancement of future data science. New approaches to software technology and data models have also had to be developed to enable access to these large and exponentially

  15. (Re)developing for environmental performance : learning from the occupants' perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, L. [Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia). Faculty of Design Architecture and Building

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) study of the Stockland Head Office in Sydney, Australia. The 31 storey-office tower was extensively refurbished in order to improve energy efficiency and workplace quality. Occupants were surveyed using the Building Use Studies (BUS) methodology in order to evaluate occupant satisfaction with the working environment. The study identified factors that influenced their experience in the context of design process and interventions, ongoing building management and building environmental performance. This paper outlined several insights regarding temperature; ventilation and air quality; light and access to views; noise, privacy and office layout; and perceived heath and productivity. The positive outcomes of this project showed that it is possible to remodel an existing shell and secure a workplace that enhances workplace quality. The study highlighted the importance of increased fresh air, daylight, glare control, access to views, noise management, low VOC finishes towards improving user experience of indoor environmental quality. In order to incorporate these aspects, all of these attributes must be designed-in at the inception of the design process. The positive results in terms of energy consumption and occupant feedback reinforce the importance of an integrated approach to building design, development and management that takes user needs into consideration. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Real-Time Performance of a Self-Powered Environmental IoT Sensor Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs play an increasingly important role in monitoring applications in many areas. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things (IoT, many more lowpower sensors will need to be deployed in various environments to collect and monitor data about environmental factors in real time. Providing power supply to these sensor nodes becomes a critical challenge for realizations of IoT applications as sensor nodes are normally battery-powered and have a limited lifetime. This paper proposes a wireless sensor network that is powered by solar energy harvesting. The sensor network monitors the environmental data with low-power sensor electronics and forms a network using multiple XBee wireless modules. A detailed performance analysis of the network system under solar energy harvesting has been presented. The sensor network system and the proposed energy-harvesting techniques are configured to achieve a continuous energy source for the sensor network. The proposed energy-harvesting system has been successfully designed to enable an energy solution in order to keep sensor nodes active and reliable for a whole day. The paper also outlines some of our experiences in real-time implementation of a sensor network system with energy harvesting.

  17. Real-Time Performance of a Self-Powered Environmental IoT Sensor Network System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Rüdiger, Christoph; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-02-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play an increasingly important role in monitoring applications in many areas. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), many more lowpower sensors will need to be deployed in various environments to collect and monitor data about environmental factors in real time. Providing power supply to these sensor nodes becomes a critical challenge for realizations of IoT applications as sensor nodes are normally battery-powered and have a limited lifetime. This paper proposes a wireless sensor network that is powered by solar energy harvesting. The sensor network monitors the environmental data with low-power sensor electronics and forms a network using multiple XBee wireless modules. A detailed performance analysis of the network system under solar energy harvesting has been presented. The sensor network system and the proposed energy-harvesting techniques are configured to achieve a continuous energy source for the sensor network. The proposed energy-harvesting system has been successfully designed to enable an energy solution in order to keep sensor nodes active and reliable for a whole day. The paper also outlines some of our experiences in real-time implementation of a sensor network system with energy harvesting.

  18. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Zhao, Yazhao; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-04-05

    Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al2O3 from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C-A-S-H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH)2 with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl2Si2O8·4H2O and Na2Al2Si2O8·H2O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C-A-S-H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities.

  19. Environmental Performance of Electricity Generation Based on Resources: A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Günkaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine how to change the environmental performance of electricity generation depending on the resources and their shares, in order to support decision-makers. Additionally, this paper presents an application of life cycle assessment (LCA methodology to determine the environmental burdens of electricity generation in Turkey. Electricity generation data in Turkey for the years 2012 and 2023 were used as a case study. The functional unit for electricity generation was 1 kWh. The LCA calculations were carried out using CML-IA (v3.00 data and the results were interpreted with respect to Monte Carlo simulation analysis (with the Monte Carlo function built in SimaPro 8.0.1 software. The results demonstrated that the fossil fuel consumption not only contributes to global warming, but it also has effects on the elemental basis of abiotic depletion due to raw material consumption for plant infrastructure. Additionally, it was observed that the increasing proportion of wind power in the electricity mix would also increase certain life cycle impacts (such as the elemental basis of abiotic depletion, human ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity in Turkey’s geography compared to increasing the share of other renewable energy sources, such as hydropower, geothermal, as well as solar.

  20. Environmental responsibility and financial performance nexus in South Africa: panel Granger causality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Adomah Worae

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors examined environmental responsibility and financial performance nexus of Johannesburg Stock Exchange’s socially responsible investing manufacturing and mining firms during the period of 2008-2014. The study employs annual panel dataset of fourteen manufacturing and mining companies on the index, and Granger causality analysis using Gcause2 Baum’s version. The paper found unidirectional causal relationship between environmental responsibility, measured by emissions intensity and equity returns, and bidirectional causal relationship between emissions intensity and market value of equity deflated by sales at 1% significant levels. Impliedly, improvements in ‘energy efficient technologies’ to reduce fossil energy consumption (prevention activities seem to exhibit value destroying tendencies, while improvements in ‘end-of-pipe’ activities seem to estimate a drive market value of equity deflated by sales and equity returns. The Pesaran CD and Breusch-Pagan LM tests confirmed existence of cross-sectional dependence amongst panel members. The authors tend to support institutional and stakeholder theories.

  1. Superior oblique surgery: when and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Şekeroğlu H

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hande Taylan Şekeroğlu,1 Ali Sefik Sanac,1 Umut Arslan,2 Emin Cumhur Sener11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Biostatistics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyBackground: The purpose of this paper is to review different types of superior oblique muscle surgeries, to describe the main areas in clinical practice where superior oblique surgery is required or preferred, and to discuss the preferred types of superior oblique surgery with respect to their clinical outcomes.Methods: A consecutive nonrandomized retrospective series of patients who had undergone superior oblique muscle surgery as a single procedure were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis, clinical features, preoperative and postoperative vertical deviations in primary position, type of surgery, complications, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The primary outcome measures were the type of strabismus and the type of superior oblique muscle surgery. The secondary outcome measure was the results of the surgeries.Results: The review identified 40 (20 male, 20 female patients with a median age of 6 (2–45 years. Nineteen patients (47.5% had Brown syndrome, eleven (27.5% had fourth nerve palsy, and ten (25.0% had horizontal deviations with A pattern. The most commonly performed surgery was superior oblique tenotomy in 29 (72.5% patients followed by superior oblique tuck in eleven (27.5% patients. The amount of vertical deviation in the fourth nerve palsy and Brown syndrome groups (P = 0.01 for both and the amount of A pattern in the A pattern group were significantly reduced postoperatively (P = 0.02.Conclusion: Surgery for the superior oblique muscle requires experience and appropriate preoperative evaluation in view of its challenging nature. The main indications are Brown syndrome, fourth nerve palsy, and A pattern deviations. Superior oblique surgery may be effective in terms of pattern collapse and correction of vertical deviations in primary

  2. Uncertainty quantification of environmental performance metrics in heterogeneous aquifers with long-range correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Mahsa; de Barros, Felipe P. J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how the uncertainty stemming from disordered porous media that display long-range correlation in the hydraulic conductivity (K) field propagates to predictions of environmental performance metrics (EPMs). In this study, the EPMs are quantities that are of relevance to risk analysis and remediation, such as peak flux-averaged concentration, early and late arrival times among others. By using stochastic simulations, we quantify the uncertainty associated with the EPMs for a given disordered spatial structure of the K-field and identify the probability distribution function (PDF) model that best captures the statistics of the EPMs of interest. Results indicate that the probabilistic distribution of the EPMs considered in this study follows lognormal PDF. Finally, through the use of information theory, we reveal how the persistent/anti-persistent correlation structure of the K-field influences the EPMs and corresponding uncertainties.

  3. Do social and environmental screens influence ethical portfolio performance? Evidence from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ortas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to test whether social and environmental screening processes could determine the financial performance of ethical or Socially Responsible Investment (SRI strategies in the European context. We compare the risk-adjusted returns and systematic risk levels obtained by the two mainstream SRI equity indexes in Europe with those achieved by their official benchmarks. We find that, although these SRI indexes do not underperform their benchmarks in terms of risk-adjusted returns, they experience higher levels of risk. Additionally, the results show that higher screening intensity results in higher risk for the SRI indexes. Furthermore, the underperformance in terms of risk associated with the SRI indexes is worse in periods when there is a market downturn. This may indicate that SRI indexes are more sensitive to changes in the market cycle, because SRI indexes include companies that are more affected by market fluctuations.

  4. Measurements of Energy Performance and Indoor Environmental Quality in 10 Danish Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2009-01-01

    part. The house considered in this paper has an air change rate (ACR) of 0.34 h-1 and the results from the first few months of measurements show excellent results when relative humidity (RH) and CO2-levels are considered. When the temperatures are assessed problems with slight overheating are found......The paper describes the first results from a large Danish project regarding measurements of energy performance and indoor environmental quality in 10 Danish Passive Houses. The project includes both qualitative and quantitative analyses. This paper describes the first results from the quantitative....... One of the main reasons for this is the low solar angles during spring combined with the lack of solar shading and a low ACR. Solar shading and increased ventilation should be able so solve the problem. The energy consumption for room heating show a very low consumption as expected whereas the energy...

  5. Graphene oxide reduced and modified by environmentally friendly glycylglycine and its excellent catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Mingxi; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Fengling; Li, Xichuan; Liu, Yu; Hu, Wenping; Gao, Jianping

    2014-04-01

    An environmentally friendly new approach to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was developed by using glycylglycine (gly-gly) as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. Graphene oxide (GO) was transformed to RGO with the appropriate pH, temperature and reducing agent/GO ratio. The RGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy. The RGO aqueous suspension showed extraordinary stability in the absence of any external stabilizing reagents. The XPS analysis showed that this excellent stability is due to modifications of the RGO nanosheets by the gly-gly molecules. The modified RGO complex with copper shows good catalytic performance for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  6. Evaluating stream health based environmental justice model performance at different spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Fariborz; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Zhang, Zhen; Herman, Matthew R.; Shortridge, Ashton; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of spatial resolution on environmental justice analysis concerning stream health. The Saginaw River Basin in Michigan was selected since it is an area of concern in the Great Lakes basin. Three Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models (ordinary regression, weighted regression and spatial) were developed for each stream health measure based on 17 socioeconomic and physiographical variables at three census levels. For all stream health measures, spatial models had better performance compared to the two non-spatial ones at the census tract and block group levels. Meanwhile no spatial dependency was found at the county level. Multilevel Bayesian CAR models were also developed to understand the spatial dependency at the three levels. Results showed that considering level interactions improved models' prediction. Residual plots also showed that models developed at the block group and census tract (in contrary to county level models) are able to capture spatial variations.

  7. A proposed framework for establishing integrated cost and performance criteria for environmental technologies: A summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    This document presents a summary of results of a joint EPA/DOE project aimed at establishing a suite of standard cost and performance criteria for evaluating environmental cleanup technologies for DOE sites. Project findings include: (1) decisionmakers have quite different perspectives with interests and information needs varying among decisionmaker groups, (2) previous criteria development efforts may be too narrowly focused to apply to all decisionmakers, (3) criteria must include social/political/economic interests of decisionmakers as well as site-specific variations, and (4) there are 5 core questions that all decisionmakers are likely to ask when considering a technology for use at a site. The resource developed in the project offers decisionmakers a first-time comprehensive assessment of major technology evaluation issues.

  8. Performance of Double-step Savonius Rotor for Environmentally Friendly Hydraulic Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Miyoshi; Iio, Shouichiro; Ikeda, Toshihiko

    The aim of this investigation is to develop an environmentally friendly nano-hydraulic turbine. Three type models of Savonius rotor are constructed and tested in a water tunnel to improve and clarify the power performance. Flow field around the rotor is examined visually to reveal the enhancement mechanisms of power coefficient using the double-step rotor. Flow visualization showed the difference of flow patterns at the central section between the standard (single-step) rotor and the double-step one. A meandering flow in the axial direction of the rotor was observed only for the double-step rotor. This flow had the pressure restoration effect at the returning blade's concave side and the torque strengthened effect at the advancing blade's convex side. As a consequence, the power coefficient was 10% improved.

  9. Superior Na-Storage Performance of Low-Temperature-Synthesized Na3(VO(1-x)PO4)2F(1+2x) (0≤x≤1) Nanoparticles for Na-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yuruo; Mu, Linqin; Zhao, Junmei; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Huizhou; Dai, Sheng

    2015-08-17

    Na-ion batteries are becoming comparable to Li-ion batteries because of their similar chemical characteristics and abundant sources of sodium. However, the materials production should be cost-effective in order to meet the demand for large-scale application. Here, a series of nanosized high-performance cathode materials, Na3(VO(1-x)PO4)2F(1+2x) (0≤x≤1), has been synthesized by a solvothermal low-temperature (60-120 °C) strategy without the use of organic ligands or surfactants. The as-synthesized Na3(VOPO4)2F nanoparticles show the best Na-storage performance reported so far in terms of both high rate capability (up to 10 C rate) and long cycle stability over 1200 cycles. To the best of our knowledge, the current developed synthetic strategy for Na3(VO(1-x)PO4)2F(1+2x) is by far one of the least expensive and energy-consuming methods, much superior to the conventional high-temperature solid-state method. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Relationship between physical, environmental and sociodemographic factors and school performance in primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmert, Elif N; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Soysal, Sebnem; Kulak-Kayikçi, Mavis E; Belgin, Erol; Ozmert, Emin; Laleli, Yahya; Saraçbasi, Osman

    2005-02-01

    Poor primary school performance is a risk factor for low high-school and university graduation, as well as poverty in later life. In this case-control study, the relation between a variety of physical, environmental and sociodemographic factors, and primary school performance was investigated. Grade one students with good and poor school achievement, from different socioeconomic levels were studied. A questionnaire about the sociodemographic characteristics and child's medical history, together with a Child Behavior Checklist, was filled out by parents. Physical examination, visual and hearing screening were performed. Blood count and blood lead levels were determined. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) was performed to determine the IQ. A total of 177 students participated in the study. Stepwise logistic regression revealed an independent positive relation between duration of study (OR, 2.69; Cl, 1.19-6.05; p=0.016), maternal education (OR, 1.47; Cl, 1.14-1.87; p=0.002), full scale score of WISC-R (OR, 1.08; Cl, 1.03-1.3; p=0.002) and school performance. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that the risk of having a below average full scale WISC-R score was higher among children having a hearing loss, uncorrected vision loss, heating house with stove, cigarette smoking of both parents, and low paternal education (less than 8 years). The chance of having an above average full scale WISC-R score was lower among children whose either parent smoked cigarettes, height-for-age percentile was below 10, and maternal education was less than 8 years. Policies for increasing male and female education, growth monitoring, appropriate feeding (breastfeeding and weaning), well-baby and child followup and clean environment (indoor and outdoor) will not only promote the physical health but also promote the cognitive development of the new generations.

  11. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy, E-mail: jlundholm@smu.ca

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%–26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21 °C–36 °C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  12. The relationship between regional transport superiority and regional economic performance in Hainan%海南省区域交通优势度与经济发展关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓燕; 曹小曙; 李涛

    2011-01-01

    This study takes Hainan as a case and its 18 counties as basic unit for analysis.Choosing 3 indexes, including transport network density, proximity and accessibility, this paper constituted the spatial mathematical model to evaluate transport superiority degree firstly. Then, by utilizing GIS and IDW (Inverse Distance Weighted) technology, this paper studied spatial characteristic of transport network in Hainan. Moreover, we selected 4 aspects, i. e., total economic output and industrial structure, population and urbanization,living standards, transportation and the urban construction, 20 indexes all together and uses SPSS16.0 software with principal component analysis to quantitatively evaluate the level of economic development. By analysing spatial characteristic and summarizing spatial disciplinarian, this paper studied the relationship between regional transport superiority and economic performance in Hainan. The results showed that there were great differences in spatial distribution patterns between accessibility and economic development. But the spatial distribution patterns of transport superiority and regional economic performance are coherent, and there are positive relations between them, which showed an opposite spatial arrangement with geographic characteristics in Hainan.%以海南省为例,选取县级及以上城市为研究节点,采用交通网络密度、邻近度、通达性等指标,构建区域交通优势度综合评价的数理模型,运用GIS网络分析技术及IDW空间插值法定量分析海南省交通网络的地域空间特征.选取了经济总量和产业结构、人口与城市化、人民生活水平、交通与城市建设等4方面共20项主要的经济指标,运用SPSS软件用主成分分析法定量分析海南省区域经济差异及空间格局.通过对海南省各县市交通优势度及经济发展水平的特点及空问结构性规律进行分析,并比较二者间的联系,结果表明:海南省通达性空间格

  13. Genetic and environmental variation in performance of a marine isopod: effects of eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Anne; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2004-07-01

    Environmental variation in food resources modifies performance of herbivores, in addition to genetic variation and maternal effects. In marine benthic habitats, eutrophication may modify herbivores' diets by changing host species composition or nutritional quality of algae for herbivores. We studied experimentally the effects of diet breadth and nutrient availability for the host algae on fitness components of the herbivorous isopod Idotea baltica. We fed the adult isopods with the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus and Pilayella littoralis and juveniles with the green alga Cladophora glomerata. By using half-sib families, we were able to separate the genetic, environmental and maternal effects on intermolt duration and size of the juveniles. The mothers confined to the diet consisting of both Fucus and Pilayella grew better and produced larger egg mass than those having consumed Fucus alone. Nutrient enhancement of algae did not influence the performance of the adult herbivores. However, the juveniles achieved twice the weight as well as shorter intermolt duration when consuming nutrient-treated C. glomerata. Mother's nutrition, either nutrient enrichment of her food algae or diet breadth, did not affect juvenile survival or growth as such, but we found evidence that the broader diet consumed by the mother mediated offspring performance by further accelerating growth rate of the offspring that fed on nutrient-treated alga. Intermolt duration was a highly heritable trait, but size showed very low heritability. Instead, maternal effects on size were substantial, suggesting that differences among mothers in their egg-provisioning ability strongly affect weight gain of their offspring. A high amount of additive genetic variance in intermolt duration implies potential for quick evolutionary responses in the growth schedule in the face of changes in the selective environment. We conclude that eutrophication, in addition to improving growth and reproduction of I. baltica by

  14. Performance Analysis of Solar Combined Ejector-Vapor Compression Cycle Using Environmental Friendly Refrigerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kasaeian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new model of a solar combined ejector-vapor compression refrigeration system has been considered. The system is equipped with an internal heat exchanger to enhance the performance of the cycle. The effects of working fluid and operating conditions on the system performance including COP, entrainment ratio (ω, compression ratio (rp and exergy efficiency were investigated. Some working fluids suggested are: R114, R141b, R123, R245fa, R600a, R365mfc, R1234ze(e and R1234ze(z. The results show that R114 and R1234ze(e yield the highest COP and exergy efficiency followed by R123, R245fa, R365mfc, R141b, R152a and R600a. It is noticed that the COP value of the new solar ejector-vapor compression refrigeration cycle is higher than that of the conventional ejector cycle with R1234ze(e for all operating conditions. This paper also demonstrates that R1234ze(e will be a suitable refrigerant in the solar combined ejector-vapor compression refrigeration system, due to its environmental friendly properties and better performance. ABSTRAK: Kajian ini menganalisa model baru sistem penyejukan mampatan gabungan ejektor-wap solar.Sistem ini dilengkapi dengan penukar haba dalaman untuk meningkatkan prestasi kitaran.Kesan bendalir bekerja dan keadaan operasi pada prestasi sistem termasuk COP, nisbah pemerangkapan (ω, nisbah mampatan (rp dan kecekapan eksergi telah disiasat.Beberapa bendalir bekerja yang dicadangkan adalah: R114, R141b, R123, R245fa, R600a, R365mfc, R1234ze(e dan R1234ze(z.Hasil kajian menunjukkan R114 dan R1234ze(e menghasilkan COP dan kecekapan eksergi tertinggi diikuti oleh R123, R245fa, R365mfc, R141b, R152a dan R600a.Didapati nilai COP kitaran penyejukan mampatan bagi ejektor-wap solar baru adalah lebih tinggi daripada kitaran ejektor konvensional dengan R1234ze(e bagi semua keadaan operasi.Kertas kerja ini juga menunjukkan bahawa R1234ze(e boleh menjadi penyejuk yang sesuai dalam sistem penyejukan mampatan gabungan ejektor

  15. Graphene-enhanced environmentally-benign cutting fluids for high-performance micro-machining applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bryan; Singh, Eklavya; Koratkar, Nikhil; Samuel, Johnson

    2013-08-01

    A canola-based cutting oil enhanced with graphene platelet (GPL) additives has been developed to fulfill the need for environmentally benign cutting oils for high performance micro-machining applications. Carboxyl-functionalized graphene platelets are used to enable stable GPL dispersion in the polar oil. Three oil formulations consisting of 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15% GPL by weight are tested. The GPL-laden canola oil is first characterized based on its kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and coefficient of friction. Micro-turning tests are then performed to study the effect of GPL loading on the cutting temperature, cutting force, and the surface finish of the part. All tested loadings improve the cooling and lubricating properties of the canola oil. For cooling, this improvement is seen to increase with GPL loading. In the case of lubrication, there appears to be an optimal loading of around 0.10%. The presence of GPL also leads to a decrease in the surface roughness of the micro-machined surface but this improvement drops with increased GPL loading.

  16. Thermal efficiency and environmental performances of a biogas-diesel stationary engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilcan, A; Le Corre, O; Delebarre, A

    2003-09-01

    Municipal and agricultural waste, and sludge from wastewater treatment represent a large source of pollution. Gaseous fuels can be produced from waste decomposition and then used to run internal combustion engines for power and heat generation. The present paper focuses on thermal efficiency and environmental performances of dual-fuel engines fuelled with biogas. Experiments have been carried out on a Lister-Petter single cylinder diesel engine, modified for dual-fuel operation. Natural gas was first used as the primary fuel. An empirical correlation was determined to predict the engine load for a given mass flow rate for the pilot fuel (diesel) and for the primary fuel (natural gas). That correlation has then been tested for three synthesized biogas compositions. Computations were performed and the error was estimated to be less than 10%. Additionally, NOx and CO2 contents were measured from exhaust gases. Based on exhausts gas temperature, the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of an Arrhenius law were then proposed, resulting in a simpler mean to predict NOx.

  17. Performance and environmental impact of biodegradable polymers as agricultural mulching films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchaleaume, François; Martin-Closas, Lluís; Angellier-Coussy, Hélène; Chevillard, Anne; Cesar, Guy; Gontard, Nathalie; Gastaldi, Emmanuelle

    2016-02-01

    In the aim of resolving environmental key issues such as irreversible soil pollution by non-biodegradable and non-recoverable polyethylene (PE) fragments, a full-scale field experiment was set up to evaluate the suitability of four biodegradable materials based on poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) (PBAT) to be used as sustainable alternatives to PE for mulching application in vineyard. Initial ultimate tensile properties, functional properties during field ageing (water vapour permeability and radiometric properties), biodegradability and agronomical performance of the mulched vines (wood production and fruiting yield) were studied. In spite of their early loss of physical integrity that occurred only five months after vine planting, the four materials satisfied all the requested functional properties and led to agronomic performance as high as polyethylene. In the light of the obtained results, the mulching material lifespan was questioned in the case of long-term perennial crop such as grapevine. Taking into account their mulching efficiency and biodegradability, the four PBAT-based studied materials are proven to constitute suitable alternatives to the excessively resistant PE material.

  18. Evaluation of polyethersulfone performance for the microextraction of polar chlorinated herbicides from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ailette; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael; Möder, Monika; Rodríguez, Isaac

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the suitability of bulk polyethersulfone (PES) for sorptive microextraction of eight polar, chlorinated phenoxy acids and dicamba from environmental water samples is assessed and the analytical features of the optimized method are compared to those reported for other microextraction techniques. Under optimized conditions, extractions were performed with samples (18 mL) adjusted at pH 2 and containing a 30% (w/v) of sodium chloride, using a tubular PES sorbent (1 cm length × 0.7 mm o.d., sorbent volume 8 µL). Equilibrium conditions were achieved after 3h of direct sampling, with absolute extraction efficiencies ranging from 39 to 66%, depending on the compound. Analytes were recovered soaking the polymer with 0.1 mL of ethyl acetate, derivatized and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Achieved quantification limits (LOQs) varied between 0.005 and 0.073 ng mL(-1). After normalization with the internal surrogate (IS), the efficiency of the extraction was only moderately affected by the particular characteristics of different water samples (surface and sewage water); thus, pseudo-external calibration, using spiked ultrapure water solutions, can be used as quantification technique. The reduced cost of the PES polymer allowed considering it as a disposable sorbent, avoiding variations in the performance of the extraction due to cross-contamination problems and/or surface modification with usage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance of an image analysis processing system for hen tracking in an environmental preference chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiha, Mohammad Amin; Green, Angela R; Sales, Tatiana Glogerley; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Daniel; Gates, Richard S

    2014-10-01

    Image processing systems have been widely used in monitoring livestock for many applications, including identification, tracking, behavior analysis, occupancy rates, and activity calculations. The primary goal of this work was to quantify image processing performance when monitoring laying hens by comparing length of stay in each compartment as detected by the image processing system with the actual occurrences registered by human observations. In this work, an image processing system was implemented and evaluated for use in an environmental animal preference chamber to detect hen navigation between 4 compartments of the chamber. One camera was installed above each compartment to produce top-view images of the whole compartment. An ellipse-fitting model was applied to captured images to detect whether the hen was present in a compartment. During a choice-test study, mean ± SD success detection rates of 95.9 ± 2.6% were achieved when considering total duration of compartment occupancy. These results suggest that the image processing system is currently suitable for determining the response measures for assessing environmental choices. Moreover, the image processing system offered a comprehensive analysis of occupancy while substantially reducing data processing time compared with the time-intensive alternative of manual video analysis. The above technique was used to monitor ammonia aversion in the chamber. As a preliminary pilot study, different levels of ammonia were applied to different compartments while hens were allowed to navigate between compartments. Using the automated monitor tool to assess occupancy, a negative trend of compartment occupancy with ammonia level was revealed, though further examination is needed.

  20. Ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffman, P M

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, I address three topics relevant to the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. First, I describe the fundamental ecological factors that influence the environmental performance of these systems and address how precision agriculture practices can or cannot interact with these factors. Second, I review the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture relative to agricultural inputs to determine whether managing these processes can significantly affect system environmental performance. Finally, I address scale incongruencies between ecological processes and precision agriculture techniques that could limit the ability of these techniques to manage variability in these processes. The analysis suggests that there are significant ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture techniques to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. The primary constraint is that these techniques do not address many of the key factors that cause poor environmental performance in these systems. Further, the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture are quite small relative to agricultural inputs and, finally, these processes vary on scales that are incongruent with precision management techniques.

  1. T'ain't what you say, it's the way that you say it--left insula and inferior frontal cortex work in interaction with superior temporal regions to control the performance of vocal impersonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Manly, Tom; Wisbey, Duncan; Scott, Sophie K

    2013-11-01

    Historically, the study of human identity perception has focused on faces, but the voice is also central to our expressions and experiences of identity [Belin, P., Fecteau, S., & Bedard, C. Thinking the voice: Neural correlates of voice perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 129-135, 2004]. Our voices are highly flexible and dynamic; talkers speak differently, depending on their health, emotional state, and the social setting, as well as extrinsic factors such as background noise. However, to date, there have been no studies of the neural correlates of identity modulation in speech production. In the current fMRI experiment, we measured the neural activity supporting controlled voice change in adult participants performing spoken impressions. We reveal that deliberate modulation of vocal identity recruits the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus, supporting the planning of novel articulations. Bilateral sites in posterior superior temporal/inferior parietal cortex and a region in right middle/anterior STS showed greater responses during the emulation of specific vocal identities than for impressions of generic accents. Using functional connectivity analyses, we describe roles for these three sites in their interactions with the brain regions supporting speech planning and production. Our findings mark a significant step toward understanding the neural control of vocal identity, with wider implications for the cognitive control of voluntary motor acts.

  2. Performance of PRD Welled Surfaces in T Shape Noise Barriers for Controlling Environmental Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Momen Bellah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: There is a considerable notice in the use of noise barriers in recent years. Noise barriers as a control noise solution can increase the insertion loss to protect receivers. This paper presents the results of an investigation about the acoustic efficiency of primitive root sequence diffuser (PRD on environmental single T-shape barrier."nMaterials and Methods: A 2D boundary element method (BEM is used to predict the insertion loss of the tested barriers. The results of rigid and with quadratic residue diffuser (QRD coverage are also predicted for comparison."nResults: It is found that decreasing the design frequency of PRD shifts the frequency effects towards lower frequencies, and therefore the overall A-weighted insertion loss is improved. It is also found that using wire mesh with reasonably efficient resistivity on the top surface of PRD improves the efficiency of the reactive barriers; however utilizing wire meshes with flow resistivity higher than specific acoustic impedance of air on the PRD top of a diffuser barrier significantly reduces the performance of the barrier within the frequency bandwidth of the diffuser. The performance of PRD covered T-shape barrier at 200 Hz was found to be higher than that of its equivalent QRD barriers in both the far field and areas close to the ground. The amount of improvement compared made by PRD barrier compared with its equivalent rigid barrier at far field is about 2 to 3 dB, while this improvement relative to barrier model .QR4. can reach up to 4- 6 dB."nConclusion: Employing PRD on the top surface of T-shape barrier is found to improve the performance of barriers compared with using rigid and QRD coverage at the examined receiver locations.

  3. Performance Measures for Evaluating Public Participation Activities in the Office of Environmental Management (DOE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.

    2001-02-15

    Public participation in Office of Environmental Management (EM) activities throughout the DOE complex is a critical component of the overall success of remediation and waste management efforts. The challenges facing EM and its stakeholders over the next decade or more are daunting (Nuclear Waste News 1996). Achieving a mission composed of such challenges will require innovation, dedication, and a significant degree of good will among all stakeholders. EM's efforts to date, including obtaining and using inputs offered by EM stakeholders, have been notable. Public participation specialists have accepted and met challenges and have consistently tried to improve their performance. They have reported their experiences both formally and informally (e.g., at professional conferences and EM Public Participation Network Workshops, other internal meetings of DOE and contractor public participation specialists, and one-on-one consultations) in order to advance the state of their practice. Our research, and our field research in particular (including our interactions with many representatives of numerous stakeholder groups at nine DOE sites with diverse EM problems), have shown that it, is possible to develop coherent results even in a problem domain as complex as that of EM. We conclude that performance-based evaluations of public participation appear possible, and we have recommended an approach, based on combined and integrated multi-stakeholder views on the attributes of successful public participation and associated performance indicators, that seems workable and should be acceptable to diverse stakeholders. Of course, as an untested recommendation, our approach needs the validation that can only be achieved by application (perhaps at a few DOE sites with ongoing EM activities). Such an application would serve to refine the proposed approach in terms of its clarity, its workability, and its potential for full-scale use by EM and, potentially, other government

  4. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...... are shaped, (re)confirmed and re-evaluated. This paper pursues the better understanding of the latter aspect by looking at one substantial and recurrent activity in PAIs: the evaluation of employee performance. One resource for doing the evaluation work is making assessments (e.g. Goodwin & Goodwin, 1987...

  5. Is the environmental performance of industrialized countries converging? A 'SURE' approach to testing for convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, Mariam [Departamento de Economia. Universidad Jaume I. Campus del Riu Sec. 12071 Castellon (Spain); Picazo-Tadeo, Andres J. [Departamento de Economia Aplicada II. Universidad de Valencia. Avda. dels Tarongers s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Tamarit, Cecilio [Departamento de Economia Aplicada II. Universidad de Valencia. Avda dels Tarongers s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, we test for convergence in the environmental performance of a sample of OECD countries, with data ranging from 1971 to 2002. First, we use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to compute two environmental performance indicators (EPIs) in the production theory framework. Second, we propose the use of a sequential multivariate approach to test for convergence in environmental performance. These tests allow us to reconcile the time series literature with the cross-sectional dimension, which is basic when testing for convergence in regional blocs. The SURE technique is used, which allows for the existence of correlations across the series without imposing a common speed of mean reversion. The empirical results show that the group of countries as a whole, as well as the majority of countries considered on an individual basis (results for some countries vary between EPIs), are catching-up with Switzerland (the benchmark country). (author)

  6. A design proposal of real-time monitoring stations: implementation and performance in contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of creating a real-time monitoring network for both oceanographic and meteorological data, a monitoring station conceptual design was developed. A common framework for software and electronics was adapted to different environmental conditions using two buoy approaches: one intended for oceanic waters, to be moored up to 30-40 m depth, where waves are the critical design factor, and one for continental waters (rivers, lakes and the inner part of estuaries, where currents are the critical design factor. When structures such as bridges are present in the area, the monitoring station can be installed on these structures, thus reducing its impact and increasing safety. In this paper, the design, implementation, operation and performance of these stations are described. A reliability index is calculated for the longest time series of the three related deployment options on the Galician coast: Cíes (oceanic buoy in front of the Ría de Vigo, Catoira (continental buoy in the Ulla river and Cortegada (installation in a bed in the Ría de Arousa.

  7. Assessment of Environmental Performance of TiO2 Nanoparticles Coated Self-Cleaning Float Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Pini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, superhydrophilic and photocatalytic self-cleaning nanocoatings have been widely used in the easy-to-clean surfaces field. In the building sector, self-cleaning glass was one of the first nanocoating applications. These products are based on the photocatalytic property of a thin layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on the surface of any kind of common glass. When exposed to UV radiation, TiO2 nanoparticles react with the oxygen and water molecules adsorbed on their surface to produce radicals leading to oxidative species. These species are able to reduce or even eliminate airborne pollutants and organic substances deposited on the material’s surface. To date, TiO2 nanoparticles’ benefits have been substantiated; however, their ecological and human health risks are still under analysis. The present work studies the ecodesign of the industrial scale-up of TiO2 nanoparticles self-cleaning coated float glass production performed by the life cycle assessment (LCA methodology and applies new human toxicity indicators to the impact assessment stage. Production, particularly the TiO2 nanoparticle application, is the life cycle phase most contributing to the total damage. According to the ecodesign approach, the production choices carried out have exacerbated environmental burdens.

  8. Comparison of the energy and environmental performances of nine biomass/coal co-firing pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

    2012-11-01

    Life cycle energy and environmental performances of nine different biomass/coal co-firing pathways to power generation were compared. Agricultural residue (AR), forest residue (FR), and whole trees (WT) as feedstock were analyzed for direct (DC) and parallel co-firing (PC) in various forms (e.g., chip, bale and pellet). Biomass co-firing rate lies in the range of 7.53-20.45% (energy basis; rest of the energy comes from coal) for the co-firing pathways, depending on type of feedstock and densification. Net energy ratios (NER) for FR-, WT-, and AR-based co-firing pathways were 0.39-0.42, 0.39-0.41, and 0.37-0.38, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 957-1004, 967-1014, and 1065-1083 kg CO(2eq)/MWh, acid rain precursor (ARP) emissions were 5.16-5.39, 5.18-5.41, and 5.77-5.93 kgSO(2eq)/MWh, and ground level ozone precursor (GOP) emissions were 1.79-1.89, 1.82-1.93, and 1.88-1.91 kg (NO(x)+VOC)/MWh, respectively. Biomass/coal co-firing life cycle results evaluated in this study are relevant for any jurisdiction around the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Do Government Policies Foster Environmental Performance of Enterprises from CEE Region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowska Małgorzata Stefania

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, EU countries, including these from the Central Eastern European (CEE region has recognised, that eco-innovation should be treated as strategic priority of their economies. The aim of this paper is to present a cross-country analysis of the connection between eco-innovation and its main drivers within firms from selected CEE countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Romania and Germany. The empirical part is based on micro-data for Community Innovation Survey (CIS 2006-2008. Based on the results of stepwise regression between main policy actions sustaining innovation activity and eco-innovation performance we can conclude, that financial support for innovation activities has a rather limited role in promoting eco-innovation. At the same time enterprises from the CEE region regard environmental regulations as the most important drivers of eco-innovation. In Germany, a country ranked in the highest category in the Eco-Innovation Scoreboard, the variety of forces that influence eco-innovation is much more wide-ranging. This indicates that government actions should take a broader look and lay the more general bases fostering the model of a green growth.

  10. A critical process analysis of wine production to improve cost, quality and environmental performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, C M; Bauer, F F; Burton, S; Lorenzen, L

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Wine production in South Africa is delocalised, with numerous small-to-medium sized producers within several regions within the Western Cape. Whilst adapting to new technological changes, producers have to respond to pressure from consumers and governments regarding the environmental consequences of winemaking, especially water usage and pollution. To date, no systematic analysis integrating the various aspects of winemaking in South Africa has been done. This study assessed both physical inputs and outputs. A detailed questionnaire was developed to broadly assess these parameters and was submitted to all cellars in South Africa. Case studies were performed at three cellars during the 2002 harvest season to validate the questionnaires and collect missing information. Based on this, and a cocurrent project, the following parameters were correlated to the tons of grapes presses per annum: effluent parameters which include chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, sodium adsorption ratio, quantity of effluent; wine produced, water consumed, and electricity consumed. These parameters were used to develop an input/output model. This model may be used by wineries to predict their water and electrical consumption, wine produced and effluent characteristics provided they know the tonnage of grapes pressed per year.

  11. National intercomparison programme for radionuclide analysis in environmental samples: Aramar radioecological laboratory performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arine, Bruno Burini Robles, E-mail: bruno.arine@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP/ARAMAR), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Lab. Radioecologico; Moraes, Marco Antonio P.V., E-mail: marco.proenca@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The radioecological laboratory is concerned with the measurements of background radiation (mainly uranium and thorium natural series) and present effluents in the Aramar Experimental Centre, as well as in its surroundings. The laboratory is directly subordinated to the Navy Technological Centre in Sao Paulo (CTMSP - Sao Paulo - Brazil), a military research organization whose goal is to develop nuclear and energy systems for the Brazilian naval ship propulsion. The measurements were performed in addition to the Environmental Monitoring Programme carried out in the same region. For this endeavour, the laboratory has attended to the National Intercomparison Programme conducted by the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD) by analyzing several kinds of solid and liquid samples containing specific radionuclides through gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation, alpha-beta total counting and fluorimetry techniques, since December 1995. In the last 15 years, our results were compared to another 19 laboratories and rated as 'very good' and 'acceptable' in at least 90% of the results. (author)

  12. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  13. EPIQR - a decision making tool for apartment building refurbishment. [Energy Performance, Indoor Environmental Quality, Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccavelli, D. (Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Cedex (France)); Balaras, C. (National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece)); Bluyssen, P. (TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft (Netherlands)); Flourentzou, F. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (France)); Jaggs, M. (Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)); Wetzel, C. (Fraunhofer-Institut

    1999-01-01

    In a large majority of European countries, the amount of the maintenance and refurbishment works represents nearly 50% of the total amount spent in the building sector. New requirements are being added to the necessity of maintaining or re-establishing the building stock's usage value. They are linked to the determination to reduce energy consumption, pollutant emissions, work site wastes, to improve the Indoor Environment Quality and all the modern conveniences inside apartment. Aware of this matter, the European Community has launched a two-year European research project, entitled EPIQR (Energy Performance, Indoor Environmental Quality, Retrofit) involving seven research institutions in the frame of the JOULE III programme. The purpose is to give architects and contracting authorities a multimedia tool to enable them to simultaneously grasp the whole process of apartment building refurbishment or retrofit. It has a number of functions: Assess the building's degradation state based on a technical diagnosis after a standardised and complete inspection of the building; Prepare work proposals. These take into account not only the renovation of the building but also the improvement of the energy performance and IEQ; Estimate the costs corresponding to these works. A data base, containing the costs of 800 refurbishment works, provides a fast estimate of the total amount of the works being considered; Estimate the evolution of the degradation of the components if none of the works were to be carried out, as well as the refurbishment costs which would result. This paper provides an overview of the EPIQR methodology and the final deliverables of the project. (au)

  14. Influence of environmental color on zootechnical performance and feeding behavior during masculinization of Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perila Maciel Rebouças

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rise of tilapia in Brazil and the world increasingly needs the best growing conditions. Despite the Nile tilapia has diurnal, your vision is considered a strong sensory stimulus, and as the perception of the color contrast of medium, production losses may be evidence due to stress caused too. Thus, an experiment was conducted at Biotechnology Aquaculture Applied Center (CEBIAQUA, The Fishing Engineering Department, Federal University of Ceará, with the aim of evaluating the influence of the background color translucent on zootechnical performance and feeding behavior of Nile tilapia during masculinization. We used 200 post-larvae (average weight = 0:02 ± 0.01g; mean initial length = 1.10 ± 0.01 cm of Nile tilapia, packed in 40 L aquarium, covered with cellophane, for 28 days. Fish were distributed in a completely randomized in two treatments (blue and green and five replications. Environmental variables analyzed were dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and photoperiod and productive performance was evaluated weight, total length, condition factor and lot uniformity. Behavioral observations occurred twice daily, immediately before the first feeding and 2 minutes after each feeding treatment. We found no significant difference in water parameters in two treatments. The weight, length and condition factor did not differ between treatments. There was a higher survival rate, more lot uniformity, and an obvious grouped behavior during feeding in aquaria translucent greens than blues. So for the masculinization of Nile tilapia, it is recommended to translucent green, because the results were most satisfactory.

  15. Optical performance assessment under environmental and mechanical perturbations in large, deployable telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folley, Christopher; Bronowicki, Allen

    2005-09-01

    Prediction of optical performance for large, deployable telescopes under environmental conditions and mechanical disturbances is a crucial part of the design verification process of such instruments for all phases of design and operation: ground testing, commissioning, and on-orbit operation. A Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) analysis methodology is often created that integrates the output of one analysis with the input of another. The integration of thermal environment predictions with structural models is relatively well understood, while the integration of structural deformation results into optical analysis/design software is less straightforward. A Matlab toolbox has been created that effectively integrates the predictions of mechanical deformations on optical elements generated by, for example, finite element analysis, and computes optical path differences for the distorted prescription. The engine of the toolbox is the real ray-tracing algorithm that allows the optical surfaces to be defined in a single, global coordinate system thereby allowing automatic alignment of the mechanical coordinate system with the optical coordinate system. Therefore, the physical location of the optical surfaces is identical in the optical prescription and the finite element model. The application of rigid body displacements to optical surfaces, however, is more general than for use solely in STOP analysis, such as the analysis of misalignments during the commissioning process. Furthermore, all the functionality of Matlab is available for optimization and control. Since this is a new tool for use on flight programs, it has been verified against CODE V. The toolbox' functionality, to date, is described, verification results are presented, and, as an example of its utility, results of a thermal distortion analysis are presented using the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) prescription.

  16. Role of functionally dominant species in varying environmental regimes: evidence for the performance-enhancing effect of biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langenheder Silke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theory suggests that biodiversity can act as a buffer against disturbances and environmental variability via two major mechanisms: Firstly, a stabilising effect by decreasing the temporal variance in ecosystem functioning due to compensatory processes; and secondly, a performance enhancing effect by raising the level of community response through the selection of better performing species. Empirical evidence for the stabilizing effect of biodiversity is readily available, whereas experimental confirmation of the performance-enhancing effect of biodiversity is sparse. Results Here, we test the effect of different environmental regimes (constant versus fluctuating temperature on bacterial biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relations. We show that positive effects of species richness on ecosystem functioning are enhanced by stronger temperature fluctuations due to the increased performance of individual species. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for the performance enhancing effect and suggest that selection towards functionally dominant species is likely to benefit the maintenance of ecosystem functioning under more variable conditions.

  17. O impacto do desempenho das instituições de educação básica na qualidade do ensino superior El impacto del desempeño de las instituciones de educación básica en la calidad de la educación superior The impact of the performance of basic education institutions in the quality of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Nogueira Gramani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa analisou a eficiência educacional das Unidades Federativas (UF do Brasil, relacionando o desempenho das instituições de Educação Básica com a qualidade alcançada pelas instituições do ensino superior. Além disso, investigou-se em qual nível da Educação Básica devem alocar-se esforços para melhoria da eficiência educacional de cada UF. A eficiência educacional foi medida considerando a relação entre o índice de qualidade do Ensino Superior (produto e o desempenho da Educação Básica (insumos. O desempenho da educação básica levou em consideração o Índice de Desenvolvimento da Educação Básica (Ideb, já a qualidade do Ensino Superior foi determinada pelo Índice Geral de Cursos (IGC. Através de uma técnica denominada Data Envelopment Analysis, foram identificadas as UFs mais eficientes e as metas de melhoria para as menos eficientes. Os resultados indicaram ainda que, em geral, os anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental merecem maior atenção por parte dos gestores e governantes.Este estudio analizó la eficiencia educacional de las Unidades de la Federación (UF en Brasil, relacionando el desempeño de las instituciones de la educación básica con la calidad de la educación superior. Además, se investigó en qué nivel de la educación básica se deben destinar los esfuerzos para mejorar la eficiencia educacional de cada estado. La eficiencia educacional se midió teniendo en cuenta la relación entre el índice de calidad de la enseñanza superior (producto y el rendimiento de la educación básica (insumos. El desempeño de la educación básica tuvo en cuenta el Índice de Desarrollo de la Educación Básica (IDEB, ya que la calidad de la educación superior fue determinada por el Índice General de Cursos (IGC. La técnica conocida como Análisis Exploratorio de Datos (DEA se utilizó para identificar la UF más eficiente y las metas de mejora para los menos eficientes. Los resultados también se

  18. NAFTA`s institutions : the environmental potential and performance of the NAFTA free trade commission and related bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirton, J.; de Castro, R.F.

    1997-12-31

    The way the North American Free Trade Agreement`s (NAFTA`s) economic institutions have acted to fulfill their responsibilities in enforcing environmental law was examined by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). The CEC is the international organization charged with the responsibility of addressing regional environmental concerns and to help prevent potential trade and environmental conflicts. The performance of the NAFTA institutions is critical in determining the ability of Canada, the USA and Mexico to fulfill their commitment to sustainable development. In this study, the major NAFTA-related institutions that have clear obligations to enhance North American ecology were reviewed. The formation, mandates, composition, structure, procedures, and accomplishments of these bodies during the first three years of NAFTA`s operation were summarized and major patterns were identified. It was concluded that NAFTA`s economic institutions have dealt only marginally with environmental concerns, and that their environmental activities and accomplishments have been minor. However, despite this slow start, 1996 showed a sharp increase in establishing work plans to fulfill environmental aspects of trade agreements. 16 refs.

  19. A climatic environmental performance assessment method for ecological city construction: Application to Beijing Yanqi Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yi Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the input perspective for evaluating planning metrics, this research takes the climatic environmental output effects as the starting point for assessing ecological city construction. Based on approaches such as observation data analysis, meteorological model simulation, and remote sensing, a set of climatic environmental performance assessment methods is developed and established. These methods mainly focus on surface ventilation assessment and urban thermal environment assessment. With the Yanqi Lake ecological development demonstration area located in Huairou district, Beijing as an example, the assessment of the local climatic environment before and after the construction are conducted, and relevant policy suggestions for urban planning and construction are presented. The results show that after development, the ventilation capacity will decrease overall and the ventilation potential index will decrease from 0.53 to 0.44. While this is not a large reduction, and is still at a favorable level, the ventilation potential in some local areas will markedly decrease. Furthermore, the thermal environment will become poorer to some extent; the urban heat island (UHI area and intensity will increase compared with the current situation; continuous heat islands may occur in local areas; the UHI potential index of the core area will rise from 0.0878 to 0.1217 (still a favorable level. Therefore, urban surfaces should be carefully developed and arranged during planning. It is suggested that the negative impacts of large areas of urban construction on the local climatic environment in the Yanqi Lake could be mitigated by 1 strengthening the airflow by introducing fresh, cold, northwesterly air via constructed ventilation corridors, 2 increasing the number of ecological cold sources, particularly for water bodies and green belts to prevent the UHI in the southern region of Yanqi Lake from becoming linked with each other, and 3 considering a

  20. A climatic environmental performance assessment method for ecological city construction:Application to Beijing Yanqi Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiao-Yi; CHENG Chen; LIU Yong-Hong; DU Wu-Peng; XIAO Xiao-Jun; DANG Bing

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the input perspective for evaluating planning metrics, this research takes the climatic environmental output effects as the starting point for assessing ecological city construction. Based on approaches such as observation data analysis, meteorological model simu-lation, and remote sensing, a set of climatic environmental performance assessment methods is developed and established. These methods mainly focus on surface ventilation assessment and urban thermal environment assessment. With the Yanqi Lake ecological development demonstration area located in Huairou district, Beijing as an example, the assessment of the local climatic environment before and after the construction are conducted, and relevant policy suggestions for urban planning and construction are presented. The results show that after development, the ventilation capacity will decrease overall and the ventilation potential index will decrease from 0.53 to 0.44. While this is not a large reduction, and is still at a favorable level, the ventilation potential in some local areas will markedly decrease. Furthermore, the thermal environment will become poorer to some extent;the urban heat island (UHI) area and intensity will increase compared with the current situation;continuous heat islands may occur in local areas;the UHI potential index of the core area will rise from 0.0878 to 0.1217 (still a favorable level). Therefore, urban surfaces should be carefully developed and arranged during planning. It is suggested that the negative impacts of large areas of urban construction on the local climatic environment in the Yanqi Lake could be mitigated by 1) strengthening the airflow by introducing fresh, cold, northwesterly air via constructed ventilation corridors, 2) increasing the number of ecological cold sources, particularly for water bodies and green belts to prevent the UHI in the southern region of Yanqi Lake from becoming linked with each other, and 3) considering a pre-program before

  1. Associations among environmental exposure to manganese, neuropsychological performance, oxidative damage and kidney biomarkers in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Sabrina; Baierle, Marília; Göethel, Gabriela; Barth, Anelise; Brucker, Natália; Charão, Mariele; Sauer, Elisa; Gauer, Bruna; Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Altknecht, Louise; Jager, Márcia; Dias, Ana Cristina Garcia; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Saint' Pierre, Tatiana; Gioda, Adriana; Moresco, Rafael; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) results in several toxic effects, mainly neurotoxicity. This study investigated associations among Mn exposure, neuropsychological performance, biomarkers of oxidative damage and early kidney dysfunction in children aged 6-12 years old. Sixty-three children were enrolled in this study, being 43 from a rural area and 20 from an urban area. Manganese was quantified in blood (B-Mn), hair (H-Mn) and drinking water using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The neuropsychological functions assessed were attention, perception, working memory, phonological awareness and executive functions - inhibition. The Intelligence quotient (IQ) was also evaluated. The biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCO), δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), reactivation indexes with dithiothreitol (ALA-RE/DTT) and ZnCl2 (ALA-RE/ZnCl2), non-protein thiol groups, as well as microalbuminuria (mALB) level and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity were assessed. The results demonstrated that Mn levels in blood, hair and drinking water were higher in rural children than in urban children (p<0.01). Adjusted for potential confounding factors, IQ, age, gender and parents' education, significant associations were observed mainly between B-Mn and visual attention (β=0.649; p<0.001). Moreover, B-Mn was negatively associated with visual perception and phonological awareness. H-Mn was inversely associated with working memory, and Mn levels from drinking water with written language and executive functions - inhibition. Rural children showed a significant increase in oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, as well as alteration in kidney function biomarkers (p<0.05). Moreover, significant associations were found between B-Mn, H-Mn and Mn levels in drinking water and biomarkers of oxidative damage and kidney function, besides between some oxidative stress biomarkers and neuropsychological tasks (p<0.05). The findings of this

  2. A Novel Environmental Performance Evaluation of Thailand’s Food Industry Using Structural Equation Modeling and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirut Pipatprapa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the environment and sustainability are important topics for every industry. The food industry is particularly complicated in this regard because of the dynamic and complex character of food products and their production. This study uses structural equation modeling (SEM and a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP to investigate which factors are suitable for evaluating the environmental performance of Thailand’s food industry. A first-stage questionnaire survey was conducted with 178 managers in the food industry that obtained a certificate from the Department of Industrial Work of Thailand to synthesize the performance measurement model and the significance of the relationship between the indicators. A second-stage questionnaire measured 18 experts’ priorities regarding the criteria and sub-factors involved in the different aspects and assessment items regarding environmental performance. SEM showed that quality management, market orientation, and innovation capability have a significantly positive effect on environmental performance. The FAHP showed that the experts were most concerned about quality management, followed by market orientation and innovation capability; the assessment items for quality policy, quality assurance, and customer orientation were of the most concern. The findings of this study can be referenced and support managerial decision making when monitoring environmental performance.

  3. LCA as an environmental technology development performance indicator of engineered nano-materials and their application in polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    to assess products and systems, but current knowledge about the development of ENM’s environmental impacts is too scarce to be included for application within the LCA framework. In the EUFP7 project MINANO the aim is to develop an efficient, continuous method of large‐scale, low cost synthesis of ENM......Engineered nano‐material (ENM) application in products has in recent years developed to an important market segment but with rising environmental concerns, as the environmental life cycle impacts, especially toxicity of nanoparticles, are not assessed. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic tool...... to the conventional ways of attaining these in the polymer product industry. To assure environmental sustainability LCA will be performed within the MINANO project and more precisely comparing the new ENM technology and the conventional technology approach to attain the same functionalities. The LCA in the MINANO...

  4. Circular economy practices among Chinese manufacturers varying in environmental-oriented supply chain cooperation and the performance implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qinghua; Geng, Yong; Lai, Kee-hung

    2010-06-01

    The rapidly growing industrial activities in emerging economies such as China have been causing resource depletion and pollution problems. This reality requires China to adopt an integrated management approach to resolve the conflict between industrial development and environmental protection, and the concept of circular economy (CE) serves this purpose. In this paper, we examine if different types of manufacturing enterprises on environmental-oriented supply chain cooperation (ESCC) exist. We also determine if the Chinese manufacturer types varying in ESCC differ in their implementation of the CE practices towards achieving the CE-targeted goals on improving both environmental and economic performance. Our cluster analytic results with multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) among the four identified types of Chinese manufacturers varying in environmental-oriented supply chain cooperation highlight the importance to intensify the cooperation with upstream and downstream supply chain partners for a CE initiative to succeed.

  5. Benchmarking the environmental performance of specialized dairy production systems: selection of a set indocators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, W.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Benchmarking the environmental impacts of dairy production systems across the world can provide insights into their potential for improvement. However, collection of high-quality data for an environmental impact assessment can be difficult and time consuming. Based on a dataset of 55 dairy farms

  6. Nitrogen surplus: An environmental performance indicator for sustainable food supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen pollution and negative impacts on human and environmental health are embodied in crop commodities traded domestically and internationally. Food supply chain companies can play a catalytic role in reducing that burden by helping to decrease the environmental nitrogen load from agriculture. T...

  7. Investor’s Perception of Value Creation in Environmental Strategies: The Impact of Past Environmental Performance on Future Stock Market Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nicoleta BORSAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test whether investors incorporate into stock market prices thefuture increase or decrease in firm value due to corporate strategies that causebetter or worse firm environmental performance. We report strong evidence thatlow-polluter companies have substantial abnormal positive returns in thesubsequent years after the environmental information was publicized while inthe same period of time, high-polluter companies have no abnormal returns(positive or negative. On the contrary, we find exactly the opposite resultswhen we analyze stock market behavior the exact same day the environmentalinformation was publicly released. This is, for this exact publication date highpolluter companies have significant negative abnormal returns while lowpollutercompanies have abnormal returns that are not statistically different thanzero. Overall, our results are consistent with a world in which investors havebeen slow to properly evaluate future increases in firm value associated withcurrent good firm environmental performance while on the other hand investorshave correctly discounted the future negative financial effects corresponding tohigh-polluter companies.

  8. Um indicador para a avaliação do desempenho docente em instituições de ensino superior Un Indicador para la evaluación del desempeño docente en instituciones de enseñanza superior An indicator for the evaluation of the teaching performance in teaching institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Embiruçu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe a criação de um indicador de avaliação docente (IAD, objetivo e quantitativo, para ser utilizado como um instrumento da avaliação do desempenho de docentes em Instituições de Ensino Superior. Este indicador é aderente aos indicadores institucionais estabelecidos pelo Programa de Apoio a Planos de Reestruturação e Expansão das Universidades Federais (REUNI e procura também contemplar aspectos importantes para um indicador deste tipo, tais como robustez e exogenia, além de considerar ainda aspectos importantes da atuação universitária, tais como afastamentos, gestão acadêmica, atividades de extensão e produção científica qualificada, não contemplados na formulação original dos indicadores do REUNI. São incluídos também outros aspectos fundamentais, tais como a qualidade da graduação e a taxa de conclusão da pós-graduação. Assim, o índice faz uma avaliação docente bastante completa na medida em que considera todas as principais atividades docentes, quais sejam, ensino, pesquisa, extensão e gestão acadêmica, tanto na graduação quanto na pós-graduação. Os resultados apresentados mostram que o indicador é robusto e que o alcance das metas propostas é razoavelmente factível, podendo este ser utilizado como um instrumento útil para a política e a gestão acadêmica das instituições, de forma harmonizada com os programas e políticas de governo e de estado. Alguns parâmetros do indicador podem ser ajustados a fim de satisfazer metas e políticas específicas das instituições.Este trabajo propone la creación de un indicador de evaluación docente (IAD, objetivo y cuantitativo, con el objeto de utilizarlo como instrumento de evaluación del funcionamiento de profesores en instituciones de Enseñanza Superior. Este indicador se basa en Indicadores institucionales establecidos por el REUNI (Programa de Apoyo a Planes de Reestructuración y Expansión de las Universidades Federales

  9. Comparative Environmental Performance of Two-Diesel-Fuel Oxygenates: Dibutyl Maleate (DBM) and Triproplyene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (TGME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Marchetti, A.A.

    2001-10-01

    Many studies have shown that the addition of oxygen bearing compounds to diesel fuel can significantly reduce particulate emissions. To assist in the evaluation of the environmental performance of diesel-fuel oxygenates, we have implemented a suite of diagnostic models for simulating the transport of compounds released to air, water, and soils/groundwater as well as regional landscapes. As a means of studying the comparative performance of DBM and TGME, we conducted a series of simulations for selected environmental media. Benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were also addressed because they represent benchmark fuel-related compounds that have been the subject of extensive environmental measurements and modeling. The simulations showed that DBM and TGME are less mobile in soil because of reduced vapor-phase transport and increased retention on soil particles. The key distinction between these two oxygenates is that DBM is predicted to have a greater potential than TGME for aerobic biodegradation, based on chemical structure.

  10. Energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem based on life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; Chen, Yahui; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-07-01

    Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37 MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem.

  11. Assessment of the influence of energy density and feedstock transport distance on the environmental performance of methane from maize silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Lovarelli, Daniela; Ingrao, Carlo; Tricase, Caterina; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In Europe, thanks to public subsidy, the production of electricity from anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural feedstock has considerably grown and several AD plants were built. When AD plants are concentrated in specific areas (e.g., Northern Italy), increases of feedstock' prices and transport distances can be observed. In this context, as regards low-energy density feedstock, the present research was designed to estimate the influence of the related long-distance transport on the environmental performances of the biogas-to-electricity process. For this purpose the following transport systems were considered: farm trailers and trucks. For small distances (silage shows the lowest impact; however, when distances increase, silages with higher energy density (even though characterised by lower methane production per hectare) become more environmentally sustainable. The transport by trucks achieves better environmental performances especially for distances greater than 25 km.

  12. Approach and Strategy for Performing Ecological Risk Assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1992-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04.07.02 (Activity Data Sheet 8304) and meets an Environmental Restoration Program milestone for FY 95. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance developed for the ORR and relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency documents and guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it could be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources.

  13. Air quality indicators from the Environmental Performance Index: potential use and limitations in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Garland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In responding to deteriorating air quality, many countries, including South Africa, have implemented national programmes that aim to manage and regulate ambient air quality, and the emissions of air pollutants. One aspect within these management strategies is effective communication to stakeholders, including the general public, with regard to the state and trend of ambient air quality in South Africa. Currently, information on ambient air quality is communicated through ambient mass concentration values, as well as number of exceedances of South African National Ambient Standards. However, these do not directly communicate the potential impact on human health and the ecosystem. To this end, the use of air quality indicators is seen as a potential way to achieve communication to stakeholders in a simplified, yet scientifically defensible manner. Air quality indicators and their source data from the Environmental Performance Index (EPI were interrogated to understand their potential use in South Africa. An assessment of four air quality indicators, together with their source data, showed improvements in air quality over the time period studied, though the input data do have uncertainties. The source data for the PM indicators, which came from a global dataset, underestimated the annual PM2.5 concentrations in the Highveld Priority Area and Vaal Triangle Airshed Priority Area over the time period studied (2009-2014 by ~3.7 times. This highlights a key limitation of national-scale indicators and input data, that while the data used by the EPI are a well-thought out estimate of a country’s air quality profile, they remain a generalised estimate. The assumptions and uncertainty inherent in such an ambitious global-wide attempt make the estimates inaccurate for countries without proper emissions tracking and accounting and few monitoring stations, such as South Africa. Thus, the inputs and resultant indicators should be used with caution until such

  14. Developments in life cycle assessment applied to evaluate the environmental performance of construction and demolition wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Powell, J C

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature that applies the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to the assessment of the environmental performance of the life cycle of construction and demolition waste (CDW) management systems. This article is focused on generating a general mapping of the literature and on identifying the best practices in compliance with LCA framework and proposing directions for future LCA studies in this field. The temporal evolution of the research in this field and the aim of the studies have grown in parallel with the legal framework related to waste and energy efficiency of buildings. Most studies have been published in Europe, followed by USA. Asia and Australia, being at an incipient application stage to the rest of the world. Topics related to "LCA of buildings, including their EoL" and "LCA of general CDW management strategies" are the most frequently analysed, followed by "LCA of EoL of construction elements" and "LCA of natural material vs recycled material". Regarding the strategies, recycling off-site and incineration, both combined with landfill for the rejected fractions, are the most commonly applied. Re-use or recycling on-site is the strategy least applied. The key aspect when LCA is applied to evaluate CDW management systems is the need to normalise which processes to include in the system boundary and the functional unit, the use of inventory data adapted to the context of the case study and the definition of a common set of appropriate impact assessment categories. Also, it is important to obtain results disaggregated by unit processes. This will allow the comparison between case studies.

  15. Evaluation of Environmental and Hydraulic Performance of Bio-Composite Revetment Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer A.  Ahmeed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to develop a concrete revetment block which can cater for environment and at the same time it will be effective in protecting river banks (stabilize the slope of banks from scouring during flood. In the present study, the environmental and hydraulic performance of the proposed revetment block was evaluated through laboratory and field tests. The tested revetment block is called bio-composite because it is composed of concrete, plastic mesh and biological material (coconut husk. The dimensions of the bio-composite revetment block are 400 mm x 400 mm x 100 mm (length x width x thickness and has a central opening with a dimensions of 280 mm x 140 mm that has a 10 mm layer of coconut husks protected by two layers of plastic mesh. The coconut husk was selected based on laboratory experiments. The experiments showed that the coconut husk is a good media for grass growth and it allows faster growth of grass compared with other tested types of biological wastes (sugar cane husk and oil palm husk. Field tests were conducted on a selected stream which is located at the Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. The stream banks were protected from scouring by using the bio-composite blocks and monitoring after installation revealed that rate of grass growth was 15% per week. However, it was found that the rate of grass growth is depends on the slope of stream banks. This confirms that the proposed bio-composite block is friendly to the environment and can give a good aesthetic appearance. For a given water depth, hydraulic tests showed that the value of Manning coefficient of roughness for the bio-composite revetment blocks depends mainly on the rate of grass growth. The values of Manning coefficient roughness for the stream were found to range from 0.031 to 0.055.

  16. Assisting People with Disabilities in Actively Performing Designated Occupational Activities with Battery-Free Wireless Mice to Control Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    The latest researches use software technology (OLDP, object location detection programs) to turn a commercial high-technology product, i.e. a battery-free wireless mouse, into a high performance/precise object location detector to detect whether or not an object has been placed in the designated location. The preferred environmental stimulation is…

  17. A Commentary on "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrinaga, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?" (Wynder, Wellner, and Reinhard 2013), researchers test whether business education and (controller) experience influence decision-makers to consider a longer-term perspective and,…

  18. Effect of litter substrates on the performance, carcass traits, and environmental comfort of red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Nunes, Joao; Carvalho, M.M.; Sugui, J.K.; Queiroz, F.A.; Santana, A.E.; Hata, M.E.; Aiura, A.L.O.; Oliveira, J.A.; Queiroz, De Sandra Aidar

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the effect of litter substrates on the performance, carcass traits, and environmental comfort of red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens). In this experiment, 160 birds, with 100 and 300 days of age, were housed into 20 pens, and distributed according to a completel

  19. Pathways to Children's Academic Performance and Prosocial Behaviour: Roles of Physical Health Status, Environmental, Family, and Child Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; McDougall, Janette; DeWit, David; Hong, Sungjin; Miller, Linda; Offord, David; Meyer, Katherine; LaPorta, John

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the pathways by which children's physical health status, environmental, family, and child factors affect children's academic performance and prosocial behaviour, using a theoretically-based and empirically-based model of competence development. The model proposes that 3 types of relational processes,…

  20. A Commentary on "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrinaga, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?" (Wynder, Wellner, and Reinhard 2013), researchers test whether business education and (controller) experience influence decision-makers to consider a longer-term perspective and,…

  1. Effect of litter substrates on the performance, carcass traits, and environmental comfort of red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Nunes, Joao; Carvalho, M.M.; Sugui, J.K.; Queiroz, F.A.; Santana, A.E.; Hata, M.E.; Aiura, A.L.O.; Oliveira, J.A.; Queiroz, De Sandra Aidar

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the effect of litter substrates on the performance, carcass traits, and environmental comfort of red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens). In this experiment, 160 birds, with 100 and 300 days of age, were housed into 20 pens, and distributed according to a

  2. 羧基功能化和表面活性剂修饰对石墨烯电化学性能的影响%Superior Electrochemical Performance of Graphene via Carboxyl Functionalization and Surfactant Intercalation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建华; 许丽丽; 朱倩倩; 王晓霞; 云茂金; 董立峰

    2016-01-01

    通过简单的两步溶液法对石墨烯进行羧基接枝和表面活性剂修饰,并研究其电化学性能。研究结果表明,与纯石墨烯(比电容50 F/g)相比,表面活性剂本身并不能有效提高石墨烯的比电容(45 F/g),羧基功能化可以将石墨烯的比电容提高至130 F/g。而羧基功能化和表面活性剂修饰双处理工艺能够将石墨烯的比电容提高到230 F/g,且经800次充放电循环后其比电容仍然具有95%的保持率,表明该材料具有良好的循环稳定性。因此,调控石墨烯的表面化学特性对提高其电化学性能具有重要的意义。%Superior capacitance of carboxyl functionalized and surfactant-intercalated graphene were prepared by a relatively simple with two-step solution-based processing technique. In comparison to pristine graphene, surface car-boxyl functionalization and surfactant intercalation can tailor its specific capacitance from 50 F/g to 230 F/g. Mean-while, the modified materials retain more than 95% of their capacitance after 800 charge-discharge cycles, demon-strating good cyclic stability. Surfactant itself cannot improve the performance of pristine graphene as graphene inter-calated with surfactant has a specific capacitance of 45 F/g, however, carboxyl groups can dramatically enhance spe-cific capacitance to 130 F/g. The excellent performance of functionalized graphene emphasizes the importance of con-trolling its surface chemistry.

  3. Efeito da fisioterapia no desempenho funcional do membro superior no pós-operatório de câncer de mama = Physical therapy effects on upper functional performance after breast cancer surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rett,Mariana Tirolli

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Verificar o efeito da fisioterapia na amplitude de movimento (ADM) e no desempenho funcional do membro superior homolateral no pós-operatório para tratamento do câncer de mama e correlacionar estas variáveis Materiais e Métodos: Série de casos envolvendo mulheres submetidas à cirurgia unilateral para tratamento do câncer de mama, associado à linfadenectomia axilar. A ADM foi mensurada nos dois membros superiores através da goniometria, sendo o membro contralateral à cirurgia cons...

  4. BASF Issues First Report on Economic,Environmental,and Social Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Seven key indicators standardize and integrate transparency BASF, the world’s leading chemical company, will enhance its transparency in Greater China by reporting annually on seven key financial, social and environmental indicators: sales, number of employees,

  5. Comparative analysis of environmental performance of an office building using BREEAM and GBL

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    With rapid economic growth and urban expansion in China, the Chinese building sector is now facing the huge challenge of balancing its energy demand and pollution. In order to minimize the environmental impact, the Ministry of Housing Urban-Rural Development (MOHURD) has set an ambitious energy reduction target requiring that 30% of all new constructions to be green by 2020. This paper presents comparative analysis of two environmental rating systems: the latest version of Chinese Green Bu...

  6. Inclusion of the Environmental Practices in Audits Performed at the Federal Institution of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Campagnin Luiz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether an environmental audit has been conducted at a Federal Institution of Education. The specific objectives are to: i verify the environmental controls held at the institution, ii investigate the environmental audits within the institution; and, iii prepare a list containing the main environmental factors that could be monitored by the institution. The research has a descriptive purpose; the procedures we used are bibliographic, document review, and case study. The research instrument is documentary research or primary sources to approach the problem in the qualitative way. The study sample is a federal institution of professional and technological education, and temporal analysis includes the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. Based upon the annual plan for internal audit activities, and on the annual report of the internal audit activities, we found that the institution has not conducted any environmental audits in the investigated period. The result was that, in relation to internal control, there is the obligation for the adoption of a Plan of Sustainable Logistics (PSL and its publicity on the institutional web page. We found the absence of the PSL at the institution, making it impossible to assert that the institution conducts internal environmental controls. We observed only a self-assessment in the institutional management report, in which one of its topics included information on sustainable procurement, awareness campaigns, and waste separation. Within the absence of the environmental controls and audits, we prepared a list containing the main factors that can be seen on environmental audits in the public educational institutions.

  7. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind Power System in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind power systems.

  8. A technical, economic, and environmental performance of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power system in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems.

  9. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind) Power System in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems. PMID:24489488

  10. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election of... Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  11. [The superior laryngeal nerve and the superior laryngeal artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Nachbaur, S; Fischer, K; Vogel, E

    1987-01-01

    Length, diameter and anastomoses of the nervus vagus and its ganglion inferius were measured 44 halved heads. On the average, 8.65 fiber bundles of the vagus nerve leave the retro-olivary area. In the area of the jugular foramen is the near superior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve. In this area were found 1.48 (mean value) anastomoses with the 9th cranial nerve. 11.34 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea branches off the ramus internus of the accessory nerve which has a length of 9.75 mm. Further anastomoses with the 10th cranial nerve were found. The inferior ganglion of the 10th nerve had a length of 25.47 mm and a diameter of 3.46 mm. Five mm below the ganglion the 10th nerve had a width of 2.9 and a thickness of 1.5 mm. The mean length of the superior sympathetic ganglion was 26.6 mm, its width 7.2 and its thickness 3.4 mm. In nearly all specimens anastomoses of the superior sympathetic ganglion with the ansa cervicalis profunda and the inferior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve were found. The superior laryngeal nerve branches off about 36 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea. The width of this nerve was 1.9 mm, its thickness 0.8 mm on the right and 1.0 mm on the left side. The division in the internal and external rami was found about 21 mm below its origin. Between the n. vagus and thyreohyoid membrane the ramus internus had a length of 64 mm, the length of external ramus between the vagal nerve and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle was 89 mm. Its mean length below the thyreopharyngeal part was 10.7 mm, 8.6 branchlets to the cricothyroid muscle were counted. The superior laryngeal artery had its origin in 80% of cases in the superior thyroideal artery, in 6.8% this vessel was a branch of the external carotid artery. Its average outer diameter was 1.23 mm on the right side and 1.39 mm on the left. The length of this vessel between its origin and the thyreohyoid membrane was 34 mm. In 7% on the right side and in 13% on the left, the superior

  12. Environmental Management System Adoption and the Operational Performance of Firm in the Textile and Apparel Industry of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In China, more firms in the textile and apparel industry adopt environmental management systems compared to firms that manufacture other products. It is important to know how the firms’ financial and real performances are affected. We study the changes of firms’ performance in profitability, sales, and operational efficiency after environmental management system (EMS adoption using an event study. Based on 22 events of EMS adoption, we found a significant decrease in firms’ profitability, sales, and inventory productivity. We explore the reasons which led to the decrease in firm performances. We found that the increase in sample firms’ total assets is the major reason. The loss in operational efficiency and flexibility are due to the requirements of the EMS.

  13. The Effects of Environmental, Social and Governance on the Corporate Performance of Malaysian Government-Linked Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweh Qian Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impacts of ESG on the corporate performance government-linked companies (GLCs in Malaysia. For the period 2006-2012, ESG disclosure data were extracted from the Sustainalytics ESG performance reports, while financial data were obtained from the Bloomberg database. Data development analysis (DEA was used to estimate efficiency in the first stage; a regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between ESG and efficiency in the second stage. The empirical results of this study show that GLCs focused more on governance disclosures, followed by social and environmental aspects. Moreover, governance will improve firm efficiency, but social and environmental factors have no similar effect. In conclusion, this study provides insight on the limited literature on ESG and informs the relevant stakeholders on the important ESG components for financial and investment decisions.

  14. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold...... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...... processing speed: words are simply processed faster than single letters. It is also clear from this experiment, that the word superiority effect can be observed at a large range of exposure durations, from the perceptual threshold to ceiling performance. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented...

  15. Implicações e conquistas da atuação do intérprete de língua de sinais no Ensino Superior/Implications and conquests of the performance of the interpreter of language of signals in Superior Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina de Oliveira Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A profissão do intérprete educacional tem ganhado espaço dentro da sala de aula. Salientamos que a notória presença e a maior visibilidade, atualmente, do intérprete de língua de sinais, é caracterizada no ensino superior. Isso em cumprimento da legislação que garante ao educando, com necessidades especiais, as mudanças necessárias para o atendimento e as adaptações pertinentes ao seu pleno acesso dentro da instituição de ensino. Nesse estudo observaremos a atuação do intérprete no ensino superior e as mudanças corporativas referentes à recepção e enquadramento deste novo profissional da educação. The profession as an educational interpreter has gained more and more ground in the classroom. It is important to emphasize that the greater current presence and visibility of the interpreter are specially noticed at the university-level education. That is due to the Brazilian legislation, which guarantees the necessary changes and adaptations for pupils with special needs, so that he or she can have full access to the educational facilities. This study aims to show the work of the interpreter in higher education and the corporate changes concerning the reception and the adjustments of this new professional in education.

  16. What are Millian Qualitative Superiorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Riley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an article published in Prolegomena 2006, Christoph Schmidt-Petri has defended his interpretation and attacked mine of Mill’s idea that higher kinds of pleasure are superior in quality to lower kinds, regardless of quantity. Millian qualitative superiorities as I understand them are infinite superiorities. In this paper, I clarify my interpretation and show how Schmidt-Petri has misrepresented it and ignored the obvious textual support for it. As a result, he fails to understand how genuine Millian qualitative superiorities determine the novel structure of Mill’s pluralistic utilitarianism, in which a social code of justice that distributes equal rights and duties takes absolute priority over competing considerations. Schmidt-Petri’s own interpretation is a non-starter, because it does noteven recognize that Mill is talking about different kinds of pleasant feelings, such that the higher kinds are intrinsically more valuable than the lower. I conclude by outlining why my interpretation is free of any metaphysical commitment to the “essence” of pleasure.

  17. The effect of the Nature's Classroom environmental education program on middle school student performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Whitehead, Susan M.

    This study examine the educative aspects of environmental education and the dynamics of innovation initiation in schools. Environmental education is an approach to learning that includes teaching methods which education reformers are currently advocating: interdisciplinary, relevant context; child-centered constructivist approach; inquiry, problem-solving based; cooperative learning and team teaching. The program under study is the comprehensive environmental education program, Nature's Classroom. Nature's Classroom is a veteran in the field of environmental education and covers a broad geographic base and diverse community. An earlier qualitative examination of the program (Whitehead, 1999) indicated that the affective aspects of the environmental education approach are a pivotal element of the program. This study attempts to define and quantify this phenomenon. It is hypothesized that a student's disposition to learn, and inter alia academic success, is enriched through the affective-cognitive synergy enhanced by the environmental education approach. Using quantitative methodology, the School Attitude Measurement (SAM) was used to capture the concept of Disposition to learn. SAM is a self-report instrument and provides scores on five sub-scales as well as a total score. The sample understudy is composed of 110 participants in of two groups of intact sixth grade public school classrooms. The treatment imposed was participation in a five-day residential Nature's Classroom program. Results from SAM were examined for statistical difference pre- and post-treatment. Findings indicate that the environmental education program, Nature's Classroom positively affects a student's disposition to learn. In particular, a student's sense of control is strongly impacted by the program. This study also examined the social-psychological underpinnings of school culture and structure with respect to innovation initiation. Specifically, it considers the dynamics and difficulties of

  18. Performance and life cycle environmental benefits of recycling spent ion exchange brines by catalytic treatment of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Bergquist, Allison M; Jeong, Sangjo; Guest, Jeremy S; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2015-09-01

    Salt used to make brines for regeneration of ion exchange (IX) resins is the dominant economic and environmental liability of IX treatment systems for nitrate-contaminated drinking water sources. To reduce salt usage, the applicability and environmental benefits of using a catalytic reduction technology to treat nitrate in spent IX brines and enable their reuse for IX resin regeneration were evaluated. Hybrid IX/catalyst systems were designed and life cycle assessment of process consumables are used to set performance targets for the catalyst reactor. Nitrate reduction was measured in a typical spent brine (i.e., 5000 mg/L NO3(-) and 70,000 mg/L NaCl) using bimetallic Pd-In hydrogenation catalysts with variable Pd (0.2-2.5 wt%) and In (0.0125-0.25 wt%) loadings on pelletized activated carbon support (Pd-In/C). The highest activity of 50 mgNO3(-)/(min - g(Pd)) was obtained with a 0.5 wt%Pd-0.1 wt%In/C catalyst. Catalyst longevity was demonstrated by observing no decrease in catalyst activity over more than 60 days in a packed-bed reactor. Based on catalyst activity measured in batch and packed-bed reactors, environmental impacts of hybrid IX/catalyst systems were evaluated for both sequencing-batch and continuous-flow packed-bed reactor designs and environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid system were found to be 38-81% of those of conventional IX. Major environmental impact contributors other than salt consumption include Pd metal, hydrogen (electron donor), and carbon dioxide (pH buffer). Sensitivity of environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid reactor system to sulfate and bicarbonate anions indicate the hybrid system is more sustainable than conventional IX when influent water contains catalyst reactor systems have potential to reduce resource consumption and improve environmental impacts associated with treating nitrate-contaminated water sources.

  19. A escrita no Ensino Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Pillon Christofoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198464445865 O presente artigo trata de apresentar resultados oriundos de pesquisa realizada no Ensino Superior, enfocando a escrita em contextos universitários. Depoimentos por parte dos acadêmicos evidenciam certa resistência ao ato de escrever, o que acaba muitas vezes distanciando o sujeito da produção de um texto. Assim sendo, mesmo que parciais, os resultados até então analisados dão conta de que: pressuposto 1 – há ruptura da ideia de coerência entre o que pensamos, o que conseguimos escrever, o que entende nosso interlocutor; pressuposto 2 – a autocorreção de textos como exercício de pesquisa é imprescindível para a qualificação da escrita; pressuposto 3 – os diários de aula representam rico instrumento para a qualificação da escrita no Ensino Superior; pressuposto 4 – há necessidade de que o aluno do Ensino Superior escreva variados tipos de escrita, ainda que a universidade cumpra com seu papel, enfatizando a escrita acadêmica; pressuposto 5 – o trabalho com a escrita no Ensino Superior deve enfatizar os componentes básicos da expressão escrita: o código escrito e a composição da escrita. Palavras-chave: Escrita; Ensino Superior; formação de professores.

  20. State of the Art of Environmental Dosimetry: 11th International Intercomparison and Proposed Performance Tests (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemic, G.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.; Azziz, N. [New York (United States); Shobe, J.; Lamperti, P.; Soares, C. [Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Sengupta, S.; Holeman, G.; Kahnhauser, H.; Carolan, P.T. [Upton, NY (United States); Moscovitch, M. [Washington, DC (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The eleventh international intercomparison of environmental dosemeters was organised by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory in collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Brookhaven National Laboratory. One hundred and twenty one participants from 31 countries submitted 174 sets of dosemeters, including thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs), film, electrets, and a Geiger-Mueller device. An outdoor field site was used to expose dosemeters to natural radiation for three months, while other dosemeters were exposed to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am laboratory sources. A pressurised ionisation chamber, operated continuously at the field site, provided an independent measure of the air kerma in the field, and laboratory air kerma values were verified with chambers calibrated by NIST. Results are presented and current issues in environmental dosimetry are highlighted, including the field performance of new hypersensitive TLD materials. Preliminary results are given from a pilot test of a proposed standard from the American National Standards Institute that provides performance test criteria for environmental dosemeters. (author)

  1. The environmental performance of solar energy systems and related energy saving installations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, A.; Oversloot, H.P.; Spoorenberg, H.H.R.

    2001-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are contributing to environmental protection if looked upon from the energy point of view. But also aspects like resource depletion and waste production need attention. A desired large-scale introduction of renewable energy systems will require large quantities of resources

  2. Design issues for improved environmental performance of dye-sensitized and organic nanoparticulate solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2010-01-01

    Though environmental improvement has been claimed for the application of nanotechnology to solar cells, several characteristics of the fullerene-based organic, and the dye-sensitized nanoparticulate, solar cell are not conducive to such improvement. These include relatively high energy and materials

  3. Modeling the environmental behavior and performance of livestock farmers in China: An ABM approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, C.; Liu, Y.; Bluemling, B.; Chen, J.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of farmers is a central concern in the development of environmental policies related to livestock production. However, this diversity is largely ignored in policy making, implementation and evaluation in China. In this research, an Agent-based Nutrient Emission Model (ANEM) was develop

  4. Spatial learning in pigs: effects of environmental enrichment and individual characteristics on behaviour and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Spruijt, B.M.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of both environmental enrichment and individual behavioural characteristics on spatial cognitive capabilities of pigs, using a novel latent spatial learning paradigm based on Tolman's detour experiments (1948). Pigs were housed either in 'barren' pens or in pens e

  5. Design issues for improved environmental performance of dye-sensitized and organic nanoparticulate solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2010-01-01

    Though environmental improvement has been claimed for the application of nanotechnology to solar cells, several characteristics of the fullerene-based organic, and the dye-sensitized nanoparticulate, solar cell are not conducive to such improvement. These include relatively high energy and materials

  6. Performing an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional Economy. A Computable General Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cardenete, M.A.; Velazquez, E.

    2003-01-01

    We use a Computable General Equilibrium model to simulate the effects of an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional economy (Andalusia, Spain).The reform involves imposing a tax on CO2 or SO2 emissions and reducing either the Income Tax or the payroll tax of employers to Social Security, and eventual

  7. Structural Model for the Effects of Environmental Elements on the Psychological Characteristics and Performance of the Employees of Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Realyvásquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of environmental elements on the psychological characteristics and performance of employees in manufacturing systems using structural equation modeling. Increasing the comprehension of these effects may help optimize manufacturing systems regarding their employees’ psychological characteristics and performance from a macroergonomic perspective. As the method, a new macroergonomic compatibility questionnaire (MCQ was developed and statistically validated, and 158 respondents at four manufacture companies were considered. Noise, lighting and temperature, humidity and air quality (THAQ were used as independent variables and psychological characteristics and employees’ performance as dependent variables. To propose and test the hypothetical causal model of significant relationships among the variables, a data analysis was deployed. Results found that the macroergonomic compatibility of environmental elements presents significant direct effects on employees’ psychological characteristics and either direct or indirect effects on the employees’ performance. THAQ had the highest direct and total effects on psychological characteristics. Regarding the direct and total effects on employees’ performance, the psychological characteristics presented the highest effects, followed by THAQ conditions. These results may help measure and optimize manufacturing systems’ performance by enhancing their macroergonomic compatibility and quality of life at work of the employees.

  8. Structural Model for the Effects of Environmental Elements on the Psychological Characteristics and Performance of the Employees of Manufacturing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realyvásquez, Arturo; Maldonado-Macías, Aidé Aracely; García-Alcaraz, Jorge; Cortés-Robles, Guillermo; Blanco-Fernández, Julio

    2016-01-05

    This paper analyzes the effects of environmental elements on the psychological characteristics and performance of employees in manufacturing systems using structural equation modeling. Increasing the comprehension of these effects may help optimize manufacturing systems regarding their employees' psychological characteristics and performance from a macroergonomic perspective. As the method, a new macroergonomic compatibility questionnaire (MCQ) was developed and statistically validated, and 158 respondents at four manufacture companies were considered. Noise, lighting and temperature, humidity and air quality (THAQ) were used as independent variables and psychological characteristics and employees' performance as dependent variables. To propose and test the hypothetical causal model of significant relationships among the variables, a data analysis was deployed. Results found that the macroergonomic compatibility of environmental elements presents significant direct effects on employees' psychological characteristics and either direct or indirect effects on the employees' performance. THAQ had the highest direct and total effects on psychological characteristics. Regarding the direct and total effects on employees' performance, the psychological characteristics presented the highest effects, followed by THAQ conditions. These results may help measure and optimize manufacturing systems' performance by enhancing their macroergonomic compatibility and quality of life at work of the employees.

  9. [Superior vena cava syndrome--surgical solution--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galie, N; Vasile, R; Savu, C; Petreanu, C; Grigorie, V; Tabacu, E

    2010-01-01

    The patient of 52-year-old smoker was admitted in emergency with headaches, dyspnea, oedema and cyanosis of the cephalic extremity and of the superior members. This signs and symptoms suggest a superior vena cava sindrom. Thoracic CT scan shows the thrombosis of the superior vena cava and a tumor localized in the Bariety's Lodge of about 30/40 mm witch is around the right lateral wall of the traheea.This tumor is also tangent to the superior the superior vena cava. The patient was operated by total median sternotomy. By this approach we performed a complete excision of the mediastinal tumor mass. After that we effected a longitudinal cavotomy, we took out the endoluminal clot and we sutured the superior vena cava. The histological diagnosis of the mediastinal tumor was adenocarcinoma tubular-papillary moderately differentiated. The evolution post operative period was favorable the superior vena cava sindrom was a complet remission. The thoracic CT scan control after 9 months later didn't show a local relapse and blood flow was normally throw the superior vena cava.

  10. [Mitral surgery by superior biatrial septotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, A; Delepine, G; Lemaitre, C; Baehrel, B

    1995-01-01

    The superior biatrial septotomy approach consists of two semicircular right atrial and septal incisions joined at the superior end of the interatrial septum and extended across the dome of the left atrium, allowing exposure of the mitral valve by reflecting the ventricular side using stay sutures. From 1991 to 1993, 81 patients underwent mitral valve surgery by this technic. Mitral valve operation was combined with other cardiac procedures in 30 patients (37%) and was performed as a second operation in 21 patients (25.9%). Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic occlusion was not significantly different from that of patients operated via a conventional left atrial approach. The five hospital deaths (6.2%) were not related to this operative approach. Only 2 patients (3.3%) with preoperative in sinus rythm were discharged in atrial fibrillation after operation. In one patient (1.6%), atrioventricular block appeared at late follow-up. There were no cases of bleeding, atrioventricular nodal dysfunction or intra-atrial shunting related to the approach. This approach provides excellent exposure of the mitral valve even in unfavorable situations such as a small left atrium, dense adhesions from previous procedures or a previously implanted aortic prosthesis, without damage to various cardiac structures due to excessive traction. No retractor or vena cava repair are required. These data support a wide application of the superior biatrial septotomy approach in mitral valve surgery.

  11. Biofuel production system with operation flexibility: Evaluation of economic and environmental performance under external disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Nannan

    Biomass derived liquid hydrocarbon fuel (biofuel) has been accepted as an effective way to mitigate the reliance on petroleum and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. An increasing demand for second generation biofuels, produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstock and compatible with current infrastructure and vehicle technologies, addresses two major challenges faced by the current US transportation sector: energy security and global warming. However, biofuel production is subject to internal disturbances (feedstock supply and commodity market) and external factors (energy market). The biofuel industry has also heavily relied on government subsidy during the early development stages. In this dissertation, I investigate how to improve the economic and environmental performance of biorefineries (and biofuel plant), as well as enhance its survivability under the external disturbances. Three types of disturbance are considered: (1) energy market fluctuation, (2) subsidy policy uncertainty, and (3) extreme weather conditions. All three factors are basically volatile, dynamic, and even unpredictable, which makes them difficult to model and have been largely ignored to date. Instead, biofuel industry and biofuel research are intensively focused on improving feedstock conversion efficiency and capital cost efficiency while assuming these advancements alone will successfully generate higher profit and thus foster the biofuel industry. The collapse of the largest corn ethanol biofuel company, Verasun Energy, in 2008 calls into question this efficiency-driven approach. A detailed analysis has revealed that although the corn ethanol plants operated by Verasun adopted the more efficient (i.e. higher ethanol yield per bushel of corn and lower capital cost) dry-mill technology, they could not maintain a fair profit margin under fluctuating market condition which made ethanol production unprofitable. This is because dry-mill plant converts a single type of biomass feedstock (corn

  12. BASF Issues First Report on Economic,Environmental,and Social Performance Seven key indicators standardize and integrate transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ BASF,the world's leading chemical company,will enhance its transparency in Greater China by reporting annually on seven key financial,social and environmental indicators:sales,number of employees,occupational safety,water,waste,emissions to air,and energy consumption.BASF Greater China today issued the first report under the new guidelines,revealing the latest information about the company's performance in the world's most dynamic chemical market.

  13. Evaluation of operational, economic, and environmental performance of mixed and selective collection of municipal solid waste: Porto case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carlos A; Russo, Mário; Matos, Cristina; Bentes, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    This article describes an accurate methodology for an operational, economic, and environmental assessment of municipal solid waste collection. The proposed methodological tool uses key performance indicators to evaluate independent operational and economic efficiency and performance of municipal solid waste collection practices. These key performance indicators are then used in life cycle inventories and life cycle impact assessment. Finally, the life cycle assessment environmental profiles provide the environmental assessment. We also report a successful application of this tool through a case study in the Portuguese city of Porto. Preliminary results demonstrate the applicability of the methodological tool to real cases. Some of the findings focus a significant difference between average mixed and selective collection effective distance (2.14 km t(-1); 16.12 km t(-1)), fuel consumption (3.96 L t(-1); 15.37 L t(-1)), crew productivity (0.98 t h(-1) worker(-1); 0.23 t h(-1) worker(-1)), cost (45.90 € t(-1); 241.20 € t(-1)), and global warming impact (19.95 kg CO2eq t(-1); 57.47 kg CO2eq t(-1)). Preliminary results consistently indicate: (a) higher global performance of mixed collection as compared with selective collection; (b) dependency of collection performance, even in urban areas, on the waste generation rate and density; (c) the decline of selective collection performances with decreasing source-separated material density and recycling collection rate; and (d) that the main threats to collection route efficiency are the extensive collection distances, high fuel consumption vehicles, and reduced crew productivity.

  14. Studies on zooplankton of Lago Paione Superiore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia COMOLI

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available We report here the results of a three year study on the zooplankton of Lago Paione Superiore, an acid sensitive lake above the tree line in the Italian Alps. The research was carried out within MOLAR, an EC-founded Project on “Measuring and Modeling the dynamic response of remote mountain lakes ecosystems to environmental change”. This study comes after a series of investigations on the effects of acidification, in which we documented the changes occurred with decreasing water pHs, by comparing the recent situation with that in the literature of the 40s, and reconstructed the beginning of anthropogenic disturbance through an analysis of the past cladocera assemblages archived in the lake sediments. A characteristic pattern in seasonal periodicity is a transition from a community dominated by small zooplankton (August to a community where the large particle-feeder Daphnia longispina dominates. This is a typical pattern observed in fishless, copepod-cladocera lakes. Regardless from which food is able to exploit, Daphnia population of Lago Paione Superiore is composed by well-fed organisms, visually rich in lipids, able to produce more than one generation/ year of parthenogenetic females at density levels which are rather high in an oligotrophic high mountain lake.

  15. Optimizing the Environmental Performance of In Situ Thermal Remediation Technologies Using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Nielsen, Steffen G.; Weber, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    to 75%. Moreover, a number of technology-specific improvements were identified, for instance by the substitution of stainless steel types in wells, heaters, and liners used in thermal conduction heating, thus reducing the nickel consumption by 45%. The combined effect of introducing all the suggested......In situ thermal remediation technologies provide efficient and reliable cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater, but at a high cost of environmental impacts and resource depletion due to the large amounts of energy and materials consumed. This study provides a detailed investigation of four...... in situ thermal remediation technologies (steam enhanced extraction, thermal conduction heating, electrical resistance heating, and radio frequency heating) in order to (1) compare the life-cycle environmental impacts and resource consumption associated with each thermal technology, and (2) identify...

  16. Energy Performance Assessment of Virtualization Technologies Using Small Environmental Monitoring Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trends of electrical consumption within data centres are a growing concern for business owners as they are quickly becoming a large fraction of the total cost of ownership. Ultra small sensors could be deployed within a data centre to monitor environmental factors to lower the electrical costs and improve the energy efficiency. Since servers and air conditioners represent the top users of electrical power in the data centre, this research sets out to explore methods from each subsystem of the data centre as part of an overall energy efficient solution. In this paper, we investigate the current trends of Green IT awareness and how the deployment of small environmental sensors and Site Infrastructure equipment optimization techniques which can offer a solution to a global issue by reducing carbon emissions.

  17. Economic-environmental performance indexes for solar-powered absorption cooling system in Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cardinale, G. Rospi, F. Ruggiero

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The most recent European (Directive 2006/32/CE of April 5/2006 relating to the efficiency of the final uses of the energy and the energetic services and national (Decree 311/06 normatives impose the use of energetic systems more efficient that minimize the use of fossil fuels in comparison to the use of renewable energy. In this research a comparison was developed between the traditional electric equipments (which use vapour compression and the absorption equipments (powered by solar thermal energy. This comparison was implemented considering the energetic, economic and environmental aspects. This research explores the technical - economic potentialities of solar HVAC systems, with particular reference to those based on the absorption cycles, verifying the possible applications in regions of the Mediterranean area (in particular Madrid, Palermo and Athens. In particular we define an economic index and an environmental-energetic index.

  18. The Role of Environmental Factors on Sleep Patterns and School Performance in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriou, D.; Le Cornu Knight, F.; Milton, P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. AIMS: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. SAMPLE AND METHOD: Forty-seven adolescents took p...

  19. Comparative environmental performance of artisanal and commercial feed use in Peruvian freshwater aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate some of the environmental implications of using commercial versus artisanal feeds in Peruvian freshwater aquaculture of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and black pacu (Colossoma macropomum). Several scenarios believed to be representative of current Peruvian aquaculture practices were modelled, namely: production of trout in Andean lake cages; and culture of black pacu and tilapia in Amazonian and coastal lowland ponds, r...

  20. Future-proofing the environmental performance of low-income housing: a South African case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available sustainable development targets. 4 Building operation and maintenance Space and water heating, space cooling, appliances, lighting Facility improvement and maintenance materials 3 On-site construction Foundation and site earthwork... Code for Sustainable Homes (2006) is an environmental standard which is mainly concerned with achieving Use Phase energy efficiency. The key interventions include installation of smart metres, upgrades to insulation and boilers, appliance labelling...