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Sample records for superior colliculus subthalamic

  1. Morphological evaluation of the superior colliculus of young Wistar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological evaluation of the superior colliculus of young Wistar rats following prenatal exposure to Carica papaya leaf extract. ... 9 and 10 of gestation (Group A); days 16 and 17 (Group B); and on days 9, 10, 16 and 17 (Group C); while Group D represented the control, and received distilled water throughout gestation.

  2. Dynamic ensemble coding of saccades in the monkey superior colliculus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, H.H.L.M.; Opstal, A.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The deeper layers of the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) contain a topographic motor map in which a localized population of cells is recruited for each saccade, but how the brain stem decodes the dynamic SC output is unclear. Here we analyze saccade-related responses in the monkey SC to test a new

  3. Accommodation and convergence palsy caused by lesions in the bilateral rostral superior colliculus.

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    Ohtsuka, Kenji; Maeda, Sachie; Oguri, Naomi

    2002-03-01

    To report a patient who developed accommodation and convergence palsy caused by lesions in the bilateral rostral superior colliculus. Observational case report. A 30-year-old right-handed man experienced sudden onset of diplopia and blurred vision at near vision. The patient showed accommodation and convergence palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed lesions located in the bilateral rostral superior colliculus. These findings suggest that the rostral superior colliculus is involved in the control of accommodation and vergence eye movements.

  4. Circuits for Action and Cognition: A View from the Superior Colliculus.

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    Basso, Michele A; May, Paul J

    2017-09-15

    The superior colliculus is one of the most well-studied structures in the brain, and with each new report, its proposed role in behavior seems to increase in complexity. Forty years of evidence show that the colliculus is critical for reorienting an organism toward objects of interest. In monkeys, this involves saccadic eye movements. Recent work in the monkey colliculus and in the homologous optic tectum of the bird extends our understanding of the role of the colliculus in higher mental functions, such as attention and decision making. In this review, we highlight some of these recent results, as well as those capitalizing on circuit-based methodologies using transgenic mice models, to understand the contribution of the colliculus to attention and decision making. The wealth of information we have about the colliculus, together with new tools, provides a unique opportunity to obtain a detailed accounting of the neurons, circuits, and computations that underlie complex behavior.

  5. Electrical Microstimulation of the Superior Colliculus in Strabismic Monkeys.

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    Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M G; Ono, Seiji; Mustari, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Visually guided saccades are disconjugate in human and nonhuman strabismic primates. The superior colliculus (SC) is a region of the brain topographically organized in visual and motor maps where the saccade goal is spatially coded. The present study was designed to investigate if a site of stimulation on the topographic motor map was evoking similar or different saccade vectors for each eye. We used microelectrical stimulation (MS) of the SC in two strabismic (one esotrope and one exotrope) and two control macaques under binocular and monocular viewing conditions. We compared the saccade amplitudes and directions for each SC site and each condition independently of the fixating eye and then between each fixating eye. A comparison with disconjugacies of visually guided saccades was also performed. We observed different saccade vectors for the two eyes in strabismic monkeys, but conjugate saccades in normal monkeys. Evoked saccade vectors for the left eye when that eye was fixating the target were different from those of the right eye when it was fixating. The disconjugacies evoked by the MS were not identical but similar to those observed for visually guided saccades especially for the dominant eye. Our results suggest that, in strabismus, the saccade generator does not interpret activation of a single location of the SC as the same desired displacement for each eye. This finding is important for advancing understanding of the development of neural circuits in strabismus. French Abstract.

  6. Age-related audiovisual interactions in the superior colliculus of the rat.

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    Costa, M; Piché, M; Lepore, F; Guillemot, J-P

    2016-04-21

    It is well established that multisensory integration is a functional characteristic of the superior colliculus that disambiguates external stimuli and therefore reduces the reaction times toward simple audiovisual targets in space. However, in a condition where a complex audiovisual stimulus is used, such as the optical flow in the presence of modulated audio signals, little is known about the processing of the multisensory integration in the superior colliculus. Furthermore, since visual and auditory deficits constitute hallmark signs during aging, we sought to gain some insight on whether audiovisual processes in the superior colliculus are altered with age. Extracellular single-unit recordings were conducted in the superior colliculus of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10-12 months) and aged (21-22 months) rats. Looming circular concentric sinusoidal (CCS) gratings were presented alone and in the presence of sinusoidally amplitude modulated white noise. In both groups of rats, two different audiovisual response interactions were encountered in the spatial domain: superadditive, and suppressive. In contrast, additive audiovisual interactions were found only in adult rats. Hence, superior colliculus audiovisual interactions were more numerous in adult rats (38%) than in aged rats (8%). These results suggest that intersensory interactions in the superior colliculus play an essential role in space processing toward audiovisual moving objects during self-motion. Moreover, aging has a deleterious effect on complex audiovisual interactions. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The synaptic pharmacology underlying sensory processing in the superior colliculus.

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    Binns, K E

    1999-10-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is one of the most ancient regions of the vertebrate central sensory system. In this hub afferents from several sensory pathways converge, and an extensive range of neural circuits enable primary sensory processing, multi-sensory integration and the generation of motor commands for orientation behaviours. The SC has a laminar structure and is usually considered in two parts; the superficial visual layers and the deep multi-modal/motor layers. Neurones in the superficial layers integrate visual information from the retina, cortex and other sources, while the deep layers draw together data from many cortical and sub-cortical sensory areas, including the superficial layers, to generate motor commands. Functional studies in anaesthetized subjects and in slice preparations have used pharmacological tools to probe some of the SC's interacting circuits. The studies reviewed here reveal important roles for ionotropic glutamate receptors in the mediation of sensory inputs to the SC and in transmission between the superficial and deep layers. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors appear to have special responsibility for the temporal matching of retinal and cortical activity in the superficial layers and for the integration of multiple sensory data-streams in the deep layers. Sensory responses are shaped by intrinsic inhibitory mechanisms mediated by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors and influenced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These sensory and motor-command activities of SC neurones are modulated by levels of arousal through extrinsic connections containing GABA, serotonin and other transmitters. It is possible to naturally stimulate many of the SC's sensory and non-sensory inputs either independently or simultaneously and this brain area is an ideal location in which to study: (a) interactions between inputs from the same sensory system; (b) the integration of inputs from several sensory systems; and (c) the influence of non-sensory systems on

  8. Prenatal VPA exposure and changes in sensory processing by the superior colliculus

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    Georgia eDendrinos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Disorders involving dysfunctional sensory processing are characterized by an inability to filter sensory information, particularly simultaneously arriving multimodal inputs. We examined the effects of prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA, a teratogen linked to sensory dysfunction, on the behavior of juvenile and adult rats, and on the anatomy of the superior colliculus, a critical multisensory integration center in the brain. VPA-exposed rats showed deficits in colliculus-dependent behaviors including startle response, prepulse inhibition and nociceptive responses. Some deficits reversed with age. Stereological analyses revealed that colliculi of VPA-treated rats had significantly fewer parvalbumin-positive neurons, a subset of GABAergic cells. These results suggest that prenatal VPA treatment affects the development of the superior colliculus and leads to persistent anatomical changes evidenced by aberrant behavior in tasks that require sensory processing.

  9. The superior colliculus of the camel: a neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) and neuropeptide study

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    Mensah-Brown, E P K; Garey, L J

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the superior colliculus of the midbrain of the one-humped (dromedary) camel, Camelus dromedarius, using Nissl staining and anti-neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) immunohistochemistry for total neuronal population as well as for the enkephalins, somatostatin (SOM) and substance P (SP). It was found that, unlike in most mammals, the superior colliculus is much larger than the inferior colliculus. The superior colliculus is concerned with visual reflexes and the co-ordination of head, neck and eye movements, which are certainly of importance to this animal with large eyes, head and neck, and apparently good vision. The basic neuronal architecture and lamination of the superior colliculus are similar to that in other mammals. However, we describe for the first time an unusually large content of neurons in the superior colliculus with strong immunoreactivity for met-enkephalin, an endogenous opioid. We classified the majority of these neurons as small (perimeters of 40–50 µm), and localized diffusely throughout the superficial grey and stratum opticum. In addition, large pyramidal-like neurons with perimeters of 100 µm and above were present in the intermediate grey layer. Large unipolar cells were located immediately dorsal to the deep grey layer. By contrast, small neurons (perimeters of 40–50 µm) immunopositive to SOM and SP were located exclusively in the superficial grey layer. We propose that this system may be associated with a pain-inhibiting pathway that has been described from the periaqueductal grey matter, juxtaposing the deep layers of the superior colliculus, to the lower brainstem and spinal cord. Such pain inhibition could be important in relation to the camel's life in the harsh environment of its native deserts, often living in very high temperatures with no shade and a diet consisting largely of thorny branches. PMID:16441568

  10. Interlayer neurones in the rat superior colliculus: a tracer study using Dil/Di-ASP.

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    Hilbig, H; Schierwagen, A

    1994-01-12

    Five different populations of interlayer neurones (ILNs) can be described after DiI/Di-ASP tracing in rat superior colliculus (SC). All of these labelled neurones preferentially lay in the rostro-medial part of the SC. Most of them are located in the stratum opticum and in the stratum griseum superficiale. Our results indicate that ILNs represent a minority of neurones in the superficial layers but may constitute a substantial population of neurones in the stratum opticum connecting the visual and the multimodal collicular layers.

  11. Endogenous attention signals evoked by threshold contrast detection in human superior colliculus.

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    Katyal, Sucharit; Ress, David

    2014-01-15

    Human superior colliculus (SC) responds in a retinotopically selective manner when attention is deployed on a high-contrast visual stimulus using a discrimination task. To further elucidate the role of SC in endogenous visual attention, high-resolution fMRI was used to demonstrate that SC also exhibits a retinotopically selective response for covert attention in the absence of significant visual stimulation using a threshold-contrast detection task. SC neurons have a laminar organization according to their function, with visually responsive neurons present in the superficial layers and visuomotor neurons in the intermediate layers. The results show that the response evoked by the threshold-contrast detection task is significantly deeper than the response evoked by the high-contrast speed discrimination task, reflecting a functional dissociation of the attentional enhancement of visuomotor and visual neurons, respectively. Such a functional dissociation of attention within SC laminae provides a subcortical basis for the oculomotor theory of attention.

  12. Role of the superior colliculus in choosing mixed-strategy saccades.

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    Thevarajah, Dhushan; Mikulić, Areh; Dorris, Michael C

    2009-02-18

    Game theory outlines optimal response strategies during mixed-strategy competitions. The neural processes involved in choosing individual strategic actions, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we tested whether the superior colliculus (SC), a brain region critical for generating sensory-guided saccades, is also involved in choosing saccades under strategic conditions. Monkeys were free to choose either of two saccade targets as they competed against a computer opponent during the mixed-strategy game "matching pennies." The accuracy with which presaccadic SC activity predicted upcoming choice gradually increased in the time leading up to the saccade. Probing the SC with suprathreshold stimulation demonstrated that these evolving signals were functionally involved in preparing strategic saccades. Finally, subthreshold stimulation of the SC increased the likelihood that contralateral saccades were selected. Together, our results suggest that motor regions of the brain play an active role in choosing strategic actions rather than passively executing those prespecified by upstream executive regions.

  13. Electrical stimulation of superior colliculus affects strabismus angle in monkey models for strabismus

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    Upadhyaya, Suraj; Meng, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of binocular vision during the critical period for development leads to eye misalignment in humans and in monkey models. We have previously suggested that disruption within a vergence circuit could be the neural basis for strabismus. Electrical stimulation in the rostral superior colliculus (rSC) leads to vergence eye movements in normal monkeys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SC stimulation on eye misalignment in strabismic monkeys. Electrical stimulation was delivered to 51 sites in the intermediate and deep layers of the SC (400 Hz, 0.5-s duration, 10–40 μA) in 3 adult optical prism-reared strabismic monkeys. Scleral search coils were used to measure movements of both eyes during a fixation task. Staircase saccades with horizontal and vertical components were elicited by stimulation as predicted from the SC topographic map. Electrical stimulation also resulted in significant changes in horizontal strabismus angle, i.e., a shift toward exotropia/esotropia depending on stimulation site. Electrically evoked saccade vector amplitude in the two eyes was not significantly different (P > 0.05; paired t-test) but saccade direction differed. However, saccade disconjugacy accounted for only ~50% of the change in horizontal misalignment while disconjugate postsaccadic movements accounted for the other ~50% of the change in misalignment due to electrical stimulation. In summary, our data suggest that electrical stimulation of the SC of strabismic monkeys produces a change in horizontal eye alignment that is due to a combination of disconjugate saccadic eye movements and disconjugate postsaccadic movements. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Electrical stimulation of the superior colliculus in strabismic monkeys results in a change in eye misalignment. These data support the notion of developmental disruption of vergence circuits leading to maintenance of eye misalignment in strabismus. PMID:28031397

  14. Distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus in macaque monkeys

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    Cerkevich CM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Cerkevich,1 David C Lyon,2 Pooja Balaram,3 Jon H Kaas3 1Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Systems Neuroscience Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: To better reveal the pattern of corticotectal projections to the superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SC, we made a total of ten retrograde tracer injections into the SC of three macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta. The majority of these injections were in the superficial layers of the SC, which process visual information. To isolate inputs to the purely visual layers in the superficial SC from those inputs to the motor and multisensory layers deeper in the SC, two injections were placed to include the intermediate and deep layers of the SC. In another case, an injection was placed in the medial pulvinar, a nucleus not known to be strongly connected with visual cortex, to identify possible projections from tracer spread past the lateral boundary of the SC. Four conclusions are supported by the results: 1 all early visual areas of cortex, including V1, V2, V3, and the middle temporal area, project to the superficial layers of the SC; 2 with the possible exception of the frontal eye field, few areas of cortex outside of the early visual areas project to the superficial SC, although many do, however, project to the intermediate and deep layers of the SC; 3 roughly matching retinotopy is conserved in the projections of visual areas to the SC; and 4 the projections from different visual areas are similarly dense, although projections from early visual areas appear somewhat denser than those of higher order visual areas in macaque cortex. Keywords: visual cortex, superior colliculus, frontal eye field, posterior parietal cortex, visual system

  15. The influence of vibrissal somatosensory processing in rat superior colliculus on prey capture.

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    Favaro, P D N; Gouvêa, T S; de Oliveira, S R; Vautrelle, N; Redgrave, P; Comoli, E

    2011-03-10

    The lateral part of intermediate layer of superior colliculus (SCl) is a critical substrate for successful predation by rats. Hunting-evoked expression of the activity marker Fos is concentrated in SCl while prey capture in rats with NMDA lesions in SCl is impaired. Particularly affected are rapid orienting and stereotyped sequences of actions associated with predation of fast moving prey. Such deficits are consistent with the view that the deep layers of SC are important for sensory guidance of movement. Although much of the relevant evidence involves visual control of movement, less is known about movement guidance by somatosensory input from vibrissae. Indeed, our impression is that prey contact with whiskers is a likely stimulus to trigger predation. Moreover, SCl receives whisker and orofacial somatosensory information directly from trigeminal complex, and indirectly from zona incerta, parvicelular reticular formation and somatosensory barrel cortex. To better understand sensory guidance of predation by vibrissal information we investigated prey capture by rats after whisker removal and the role of superior colliculus (SC) by comparing Fos expression after hunting with and without whiskers. Rats were allowed to hunt cockroaches, after which their whiskers were removed. Two days later they were allowed to hunt cockroaches again. Without whiskers the rats were less able to retain the cockroaches after capture and less able to pursue them in the event of the cockroach escaping. The predatory behaviour of rats with re-grown whiskers returned to normal. In parallel, Fos expression in SCl induced by predation was significantly reduced in whiskerless animals. We conclude that whiskers contribute to the efficiency of rat prey capture and that the loss of vibrissal input to SCl, as reflected by reduced Fos expression, could play a critical role in predatory deficits of whiskerless rats. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Layer-specific Corticofugal Input to the Mouse Superior Colliculus.

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    Zurita, Hector; Rock, Crystal; Perkins, Jessica; Apicella, Alfonso Junior

    2017-07-05

    In the auditory cortex (AC), corticofugal projections arise from each level of the auditory system and are considered to provide feedback "loops" important to modulate the flow of ascending information. It is well established that the cortex can influence the response of neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) via descending corticofugal projections. However, little is known about the relative contribution of different pyramidal neurons to these projections in the SC. We addressed this question by taking advantage of anterograde and retrograde neuronal tracing to directly examine the laminar distribution, long-range projections, and electrophysiological properties of pyramidal neurons projecting from the AC to the SC of the mouse brain. Here we show that layer 5 cortico-superior-collicular pyramidal neurons act as bandpass filters, resonating with a broad peak at ∼3 Hz, whereas layer 6 neurons act as low-pass filters. The dissimilar subthreshold properties of layer 5 and layer 6 cortico-superior-collicular pyramidal neurons can be described by differences in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation h-current (Ih). Ih also reduced the summation of short trains of artificial excitatory postsynaptic potentials injected at the soma of layer 5, but not layer 6, cortico-superior-collicular pyramidal neurons, indicating a differential dampening effect of Ih on these neurons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Segregation of Visual Response Properties in the Mouse Superior Colliculus and Their Modulation during Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) receives direct input from the retina and integrates it with information about sound, touch, and state of the animal that is relayed from other parts of the brain to initiate specific behavioral outcomes. The superficial SC layers (sSC) contain cells that respond to visual stimuli, whereas the deep SC layers (dSC) contain cells that also respond to auditory and somatosensory stimuli. Here, we used a large-scale silicon probe recording system to examine the visual response properties of SC cells of head-fixed and alert male mice. We found cells with diverse response properties including: (1) orientation/direction-selective (OS/DS) cells with a firing rate that is suppressed by drifting sinusoidal gratings (negative OS/DS cells); (2) suppressed-by-contrast cells; (3) cells with complex-like spatial summation nonlinearity; and (4) cells with Y-like spatial summation nonlinearity. We also found specific response properties that are enriched in different depths of the SC. The sSC is enriched with cells with small RFs, high evoked firing rates (FRs), and sustained temporal responses, whereas the dSC is enriched with the negative OS/DS cells and with cells with large RFs, low evoked FRs, and transient temporal responses. Locomotion modulates the activity of the SC cells both additively and multiplicatively and changes the preferred spatial frequency of some SC cells. These results provide the first description of the negative OS/DS cells and demonstrate that the SC segregates cells with different response properties and that the behavioral state of a mouse affects SC activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The superior colliculus (SC) receives visual input from the retina in its superficial layers (sSC) and induces eye/head-orientating movements and innate defensive responses in its deeper layers (dSC). Despite their importance, very little is known about the visual response properties of dSC neurons. Using high-density electrode recordings and novel

  18. The non-lemniscal auditory cortex in ferrets: convergence of corticotectal inputs in the superior colliculus

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    Victoria M Bajo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Descending cortical inputs to the superior colliculus (SC contribute to the unisensory response properties of the neurons found there and are critical for multisensory integration. However, little is known about the relative contribution of different auditory cortical areas to this projection or the distribution of their terminals in the SC. We characterized this projection in the ferret by injecting tracers in the SC and auditory cortex. Large pyramidal neurons were labeled in layer V of different parts of the ectosylvian gyrus after tracer injections in the SC. Those cells were most numerous in the anterior ectosylvian gyrus (AEG, and particularly in the anterior ventral field, which receives both auditory and visual inputs. Labeling was also found in the posterior ectosylvian gyrus (PEG, predominantly in the tonotopically-organized posterior suprasylvian field. Profuse anterograde labeling was present in the SC following tracer injections at the site of acoustically-responsive neurons in the AEG or PEG, with terminal fields being both more prominent and clustered for inputs originating from the AEG. Terminals from both cortical areas were located throughout the intermediate and deep layers, but were most concentrated in the posterior half of the SC, where peripheral stimulus locations are represented. No inputs were identified from primary auditory cortical areas, although some labeling was found in the surrounding sulci. Our findings suggest that higher level auditory cortical areas, including those involved in multisensory processing, may modulate SC function via their projections into its deeper layers.

  19. The Distinct Role of the Amygdala, Superior Colliculus and Pulvinar in Processing of Central and Peripheral Snakes.

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    Inês Almeida

    Full Text Available Visual processing of ecologically relevant stimuli involves a central bias for stimuli demanding detailed processing (e.g., faces, whereas peripheral object processing is based on coarse identification. Fast detection of animal shapes holding a significant phylogenetic value, such as snakes, may benefit from peripheral vision. The amygdala together with the pulvinar and the superior colliculus are implicated in an ongoing debate regarding their role in automatic and deliberate spatial processing of threat signals.Here we tested twenty healthy participants in an fMRI task, and investigated the role of spatial demands (the main effect of central vs. peripheral vision in the processing of fear-relevant ecological features. We controlled for stimulus dependence using true or false snakes; snake shapes or snake faces and for task constraints (implicit or explicit. The main idea justifying this double task is that amygdala and superior colliculus are involved in both automatic and controlled processes. Moreover the explicit/implicit instruction in the task with respect to emotion is not necessarily equivalent to explicit vs. implicit in the sense of endogenous vs. exogenous attention, or controlled vs. automatic processes.We found that stimulus-driven processing led to increased amygdala responses specifically to true snake shapes presented in the centre or in the peripheral left hemifield (right hemisphere. Importantly, the superior colliculus showed significantly biased and explicit central responses to snake-related stimuli. Moreover, the pulvinar, which also contains foveal representations, also showed strong central responses, extending the results of a recent single cell pulvinar study in monkeys. Similar hemispheric specialization was found across structures: increased amygdala responses occurred to true snake shapes presented to the right hemisphere, with this pattern being closely followed by the superior colliculus and the pulvinar

  20. Visual Neurons in the Superior Colliculus Discriminate Many Objects by Their Historical Values

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    Whitney S. Griggs

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The superior colliculus (SC is an important structure in the mammalian brain that orients the animal toward distinct visual events. Visually responsive neurons in SC are modulated by visual object features, including size, motion, and color. However, it remains unclear whether SC activity is modulated by non-visual object features, such as the reward value associated with the object. To address this question, three monkeys were trained (>10 days to saccade to multiple fractal objects, half of which were consistently associated with large rewards while other half were associated with small rewards. This created historically high-valued (‘good’ and low-valued (‘bad’ objects. During the neuronal recordings from the SC, the monkeys maintained fixation at the center while the objects were flashed in the receptive field of the neuron without any reward. We found that approximately half of the visual neurons responded more strongly to the good than bad objects. In some neurons, this value-coding remained intact for a long time (>1 year after the last object-reward association learning. Notably, the neuronal discrimination of reward values started about 100 ms after the appearance of visual objects and lasted for more than 100 ms. These results provide evidence that SC neurons can discriminate objects by their historical (long-term values. This object value information may be provided by the basal ganglia, especially the circuit originating from the tail of the caudate nucleus. The information may be used by the neural circuits inside SC for motor (saccade output or may be sent to the circuits outside SC for future behavior.

  1. A sodium afterdepolarization in rat superior colliculus neurons and its contribution to population activity.

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    Ghitani, Nima; Bayguinov, Peter O; Basso, Michele A; Jackson, Meyer B

    2016-07-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain structure that integrates multimodal sensory inputs and computes commands to initiate rapid eye movements. SC neurons burst with the sudden onset of a visual stimulus, followed by persistent activity that may underlie shifts of attention and decision making. Experiments in vitro suggest that circuit reverberations play a role in the burst activity in the SC, but the origin of persistent activity is unclear. In the present study we characterized an afterdepolarization (ADP) that follows action potentials in slices of rat SC. Population responses seen with voltage-sensitive dye imaging consisted of rapid spikes followed immediately by a second distinct depolarization of lower amplitude and longer duration. Patch-clamp recordings showed qualitatively similar behavior: in nearly all neurons throughout the SC, rapid spikes were followed by an ADP. Ionic and pharmacological manipulations along with experiments with current and voltage steps indicated that the ADP of SC neurons arises from Na(+) current that either persists or resurges following Na(+) channel inactivation at the end of an action potential. Comparisons of pharmacological properties and frequency dependence revealed a clear parallel between patch-clamp recordings and voltage imaging experiments, indicating a common underlying membrane mechanism for the ADP in both single neurons and populations. The ADP can initiate repetitive spiking at intervals consistent with the frequency of persistent activity in the SC. These results indicate that SC neurons have intrinsic membrane properties that can contribute to electrical activity that underlies shifts of attention and decision making. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Activity in the superior colliculus reflects dynamic interactions between voluntary and involuntary influences on orienting behaviour.

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    Bell, Andrew H; Munoz, Douglas P

    2008-10-01

    Performance in a behavioural task can be influenced by both bottom-up and top-down processes such as stimulus modality and prior probability. Here, we exploited differences in behavioural strategy to explore the role of the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus (dSC) in covert orienting. Two monkeys were trained on a predictive cued-saccade task in which the cue predicted the target's upcoming location with 80% validity. When the delay between cue and target onset was 250 ms, both monkeys showed faster responses to the uncued (Invalid) location. This was associated with a reduced target-aligned response in the dSC on Valid trials for both monkeys and is consistent with a bottom-up (i.e. involuntary) bias. When the delay was increased to 650 ms, one monkey continued to show faster responses to the Invalid location whereas the other monkey showed faster responses to the Valid location, consistent with a top-down (i.e. voluntary) bias. This latter behaviour was correlated with an increase in activity in dSC neurons preceding target onset that was absent in the other monkey. Thus, using the information provided by the cue shifted the emphasis towards top-down processing, while ignoring this information allowed bottom-up processing to continue to dominate. Regardless of the selected strategy, however, neurons in the dSC consistently reflected the current bias between the two processes, emphasizing its role in both the bottom-up and top-down control of orienting behaviour.

  3. Immunocytochemical Localization of Calbindin D28K, Calretinin, and Parvalbumin in Bat Superior Colliculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Se-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Won-Sig; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the localization of cells containing the calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) calbindin D28K (CB), calretinin (CR), and parvalbumin (PV) in the superior colliculus (SC) of the bat using immunocytochemistry. CB-immunoreactive (IR) cells formed a laminar tier within the upper superficial gray layer (SGL), while CR-IR cells were widely distributed within the optic layer (OL). Scattered CR-IR cells were also found within the intermediate gray, white, and deep gray layers. By contrast, PV-IR cells formed a laminar tier within the lower SGL and upper OL. Scattered PV-IR cells were also found throughout the intermediate layers, but without a specific laminar pattern. The CBP-IR cells varied in size and morphology: While most of the CB-IR cells in the superficial layers were small round or oval cells, most CR-IR cells in the intermediate and deep layers were large stellate cells. By contrast, PV-IR cells were small to large in size and included round or oval, stellate, vertical fusiform, and horizontal cells. The average diameters of the CB-, CR-, and PV-IR cells were 11.59, 17.17, and 12.60 μm, respectively. Double-immunofluorescence revealed that the percentage of co-localization with GABA-IR cells was 0.0, 0.0, and 10.27% of CB-, CR-, and PV-IR cells, respectively. These results indicate that CBP distribution patterns in the bat SC are unique compared with other mammalian SCs, which suggest functional diversity of these proteins in visually guided behaviors

  4. Superior colliculus resting state networks in post-traumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

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    Olivé, Isadora; Densmore, Maria; Harricharan, Sherain; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    The innate alarm system (IAS) models the neurocircuitry involved in threat processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we investigate a primary subcortical structure of the IAS model, the superior colliculus (SC), where the SC is thought to contribute to the mechanisms underlying threat-detection in PTSD. Critically, the functional connectivity between the SC and other nodes of the IAS remains unexplored. We conducted a resting-state fMRI study to investigate the functional architecture of the IAS, focusing on connectivity of the SC in PTSD (n = 67), its dissociative subtype (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 50) using region-of-interest seed-based analysis. We observed group-specific resting state functional connectivity between the SC for both PTSD and its dissociative subtype, indicative of dedicated IAS collicular pathways in each group of patients. When comparing PTSD to its dissociative subtype, we observed increased resting state functional connectivity between the left SC and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in PTSD. The DLPFC is involved in modulation of emotional processes associated with active defensive responses characterising PTSD. Moreover, when comparing PTSD to its dissociative subtype, increased resting state functional connectivity was observed between the right SC and the right temporoparietal junction in the dissociative subtype. The temporoparietal junction is involved in depersonalization responses associated with passive defensive responses typical of the dissociative subtype. Our findings suggest that unique resting state functional connectivity of the SC parallels the unique symptom profile and defensive responses observed in PTSD and its dissociative subtype. Hum Brain Mapp 39:563-574, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Whisker motor cortex reorganization after superior colliculus output suppression in adult rats.

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    Veronesi, Carlo; Maggiolini, Emma; Franchi, Gianfranco

    2013-10-01

    The effect of unilateral superior colliculus (SC) output suppression on the ipsilateral whisker motor cortex (WMC) was studied at different time points after tetrodotoxin and quinolinic acid injections, in adult rats. The WMC output was assessed by mapping the movement evoked by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and by recording the ICMS-evoked electromyographic (EMG) responses from contralateral whisker muscles. At 1 h after SC injections, the WMC showed: (i) a strong decrease in contralateral whisker sites, (ii) a strong increase in ipsilateral whisker sites and in ineffective sites, and (iii) a strong increase in threshold current values. At 6 h after injections, the WMC size had shrunk to 60% of the control value and forelimb representation had expanded into the lateral part of the normal WMC. Thereafter, the size of the WMC recovered, returning to nearly normal 12 h later (94% of control) and persisted unchanged over time (1-3 weeks). The ICMS-evoked EMG response area decreased at 1 h after SC lesion and had recovered its baseline value 12 h later. Conversely, the latency of ICMS-evoked EMG responses had increased by 1 h and continued to increase for as long as 3 weeks following the lesion. These findings provide physiological evidence that SC output suppression persistently withdrew the direct excitatory drive from whisker motoneurons and induced changes in the WMC. We suggest that the changes in the WMC are a form of reversible short-term reorganization that is induced by SC lesion. The persistent latency increase in the ICMS-evoked EMG response suggested that the recovery of basic WMC excitability did not take place with the recovery of normal explorative behaviour. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Frontal eye field sends delay activity related to movement, memory, and vision to the superior colliculus.

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    Sommer, M A; Wurtz, R H

    2001-04-01

    Many neurons within prefrontal cortex exhibit a tonic discharge between visual stimulation and motor response. This delay activity may contribute to movement, memory, and vision. We studied delay activity sent from the frontal eye field (FEF) in prefrontal cortex to the superior colliculus (SC). We evaluated whether this efferent delay activity was related to movement, memory, or vision, to establish its possible functions. Using antidromic stimulation, we identified 66 FEF neurons projecting to the SC and we recorded from them while monkeys performed a Go/Nogo task. Early in every trial, a monkey was instructed as to whether it would have to make a saccade (Go) or not (Nogo) to a target location, which permitted identification of delay activity related to movement. In half of the trials (memory trials), the target disappeared, which permitted identification of delay activity related to memory. In the remaining trials (visual trials), the target remained visible, which permitted identification of delay activity related to vision. We found that 77% (51/66) of the FEF output neurons had delay activity. In 53% (27/51) of these neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions. The modulation preceded saccades made into only part of the visual field, indicating that the modulation was movement-related. In some neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions in both memory and visual trials and seemed to represent where to move in general. In other neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions only in memory trials, which suggested that it was a correlate of working memory, or only in visual trials, which suggested that it was a correlate of visual attention. In 47% (24/51) of FEF output neurons, delay activity was unaffected by Go/Nogo instructions, which indicated that the activity was related to the visual stimulus. In some of these neurons, delay activity occurred in both memory and visual trials and seemed to represent a

  7. Linking express saccade occurance to stimulus properties and sensorimotor integration in the superior colliculus.

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    Marino, Robert A; Levy, Ron; Munoz, Douglas P

    2015-08-01

    Express saccades represent the fastest possible eye movements to visual targets with reaction times that approach minimum sensory-motor conduction delays. Previous work in monkeys has identified two specific neural signals in the superior colliculus (SC: a midbrain sensorimotor integration structure involved in gaze control) that are required to execute express saccades: 1) previsual activity consisting of a low-frequency increase in action potentials in sensory-motor neurons immediately before the arrival of a visual response; and 2) a transient visual-sensory response consisting of a high-frequency burst of action potentials in visually responsive neurons resulting from the appearance of a visual target stimulus. To better understand how these two neural signals interact to produce express saccades, we manipulated the arrival time and magnitude of visual responses in the SC by altering target luminance and we examined the corresponding influences on SC activity and express saccade generation. We recorded from saccade neurons with visual-, motor-, and previsual-related activity in the SC of monkeys performing the gap saccade task while target luminance was systematically varied between 0.001 and 42.5 cd/m(2) against a black background (∼0.0001 cd/m(2)). Our results demonstrated that 1) express saccade latencies were linked directly to the arrival time in the SC of visual responses produced by abruptly appearing visual stimuli; 2) express saccades were generated toward both dim and bright targets whenever sufficient previsual activity was present; and 3) target luminance altered the likelihood of producing an express saccade. When an express saccade was generated, visuomotor neurons increased their activity immediately before the arrival of the visual response in the SC and saccade initiation. Furthermore, the visual and motor responses of visuomotor neurons merged into a single burst of action potentials, while the visual response of visual-only neurons was

  8. Linking express saccade occurance to stimulus properties and sensorimotor integration in the superior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ron; Munoz, Douglas P.

    2015-01-01

    Express saccades represent the fastest possible eye movements to visual targets with reaction times that approach minimum sensory-motor conduction delays. Previous work in monkeys has identified two specific neural signals in the superior colliculus (SC: a midbrain sensorimotor integration structure involved in gaze control) that are required to execute express saccades: 1) previsual activity consisting of a low-frequency increase in action potentials in sensory-motor neurons immediately before the arrival of a visual response; and 2) a transient visual-sensory response consisting of a high-frequency burst of action potentials in visually responsive neurons resulting from the appearance of a visual target stimulus. To better understand how these two neural signals interact to produce express saccades, we manipulated the arrival time and magnitude of visual responses in the SC by altering target luminance and we examined the corresponding influences on SC activity and express saccade generation. We recorded from saccade neurons with visual-, motor-, and previsual-related activity in the SC of monkeys performing the gap saccade task while target luminance was systematically varied between 0.001 and 42.5 cd/m2 against a black background (∼0.0001 cd/m2). Our results demonstrated that 1) express saccade latencies were linked directly to the arrival time in the SC of visual responses produced by abruptly appearing visual stimuli; 2) express saccades were generated toward both dim and bright targets whenever sufficient previsual activity was present; and 3) target luminance altered the likelihood of producing an express saccade. When an express saccade was generated, visuomotor neurons increased their activity immediately before the arrival of the visual response in the SC and saccade initiation. Furthermore, the visual and motor responses of visuomotor neurons merged into a single burst of action potentials, while the visual response of visual-only neurons was

  9. Calcium-binding Protein Calretinin Immunoreactivity in the Dog Superior Colliculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jea-Young; Choi, Jae-Sik; Ahn, Chang-Hyun; Kim, In-Suk; Ha, Ji-Hong; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2006-01-01

    We studied calretinin-immunoreactive (IR) fibers and cells in the canine superior colliculus (SC) and studied the distribution and effect of enucleation on the distribution of this protein. Localization of calretinin was immunocytochemically observed. A dense plexus of anti-calretinin-IR fibers was found within the upper part of the superficial gray layer (SGL). Almost all of the labeled fibers were small in diameter with few varicosities. The intermediate and deep layers contained many calretinin-IR neurons. Labeled neurons within the intermediate gray layer (IGL) formed clusters in many sections. By contrast, labeled neurons in the deep gray layer (DGL) did not form clusters. Calretinin-IR neurons in the IGL and DGL varied in morphology and included round/oval, vertical fusiform, stellate, and horizontal neurons. Neurons with varicose dendrites were also labeled in the IGL. Most of the labeled neurons were small to medium in size. Monocular enucleation produced an almost complete reduction of calretinin-IR fibers in the SC contralateral to the enucleation. However, many calretinin-IR cells appeared in the contralateral superficial SC. Enucleation appeared to have no effect on the distribution of calretinin-IR neurons in the contralateral intermediate and deep layers of the SC. The calretinin-IR neurons in the superficial dog SC were heterogeneous small- to medium-sized neurons including round/oval, vertical fusiform, stellate, pyriform, and horizontal in shape. Two-color immunofluorescence revealed that no cells in the dog SC expressed both calretinin and GABA. Many horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled retinal ganglion cells were seen after injections into the superficial layers. The vast majority of the double-labeled cells (HRP and calretinin) were small cells. The present results indicate that antibody to calretinin labels subpopulations of neurons in the dog SC, which do not express GABA. The results also suggest that the calretinin-IR afferents in the

  10. Increased functional connectivity between superior colliculus and brain regions implicated in bodily self-consciousness during the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivé, Isadora; Tempelmann, Claus; Berthoz, Alain; Heinze, Hans-Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Bodily self-consciousness refers to bodily processes operating at personal, peripersonal, and extrapersonal spatial dimensions. Although the neural underpinnings of representations of personal and peripersonal space associated with bodily self-consciousness were thoroughly investigated, relatively few is known about the neural underpinnings of representations of extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness. In the search to unravel brain structures generating a representation of the extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness, we developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to investigate the implication of the superior colliculus (SC) in bodily illusions, and more specifically in the rubber hand illusion (RHi), which constitutes an established paradigm to study the neural underpinnings of bodily self-consciousness. We observed activation of the colliculus ipsilateral to the manipulated hand associated with eliciting of RHi. A generalized form of context-dependent psychophysiological interaction analysis unravelled increased illusion-dependent functional connectivity between the SC and some of the main brain areas previously involved in bodily self-consciousness: right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), bilateral ventral premotor cortex (vPM), and bilateral postcentral gyrus. We hypothesize that the collicular map of the extrapersonal space interacts with maps of the peripersonal and personal space generated at rTPJ, vPM and the postcentral gyrus, producing a unified representation of space that is relevant for bodily self-consciousness. We suggest that processes of multisensory integration of bodily-related sensory inputs located in this unified representation of space constitute one main factor underpinning emergence of bodily self-consciousness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Does the Superior Colliculus Control Perceptual Sensitivity or Choice Bias during Attention? Evidence from a Multialternative Decision Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Nicholas A.; Moore, Tirin; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2017-01-01

    Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)—the central structure in the midbrain network—in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear. Here we present and validate a novel decision framework for analyzing behavioral data in multialternative attention tasks. We apply this framework to re-examine the behavioral evidence from these published studies. Our model is a multidimensional extension to signal detection theory that distinguishes between two major classes of attentional mechanisms: those that alter the quality of sensory information or “sensitivity,” and those that alter the selective gating of sensory information or “choice bias.” Model-based simulations and model-based analyses of data from these published studies revealed a converging pattern of results that indicated that choice-bias changes, rather than sensitivity changes, were the primary outcome of SC manipulation. Our results suggest that the SC contributes to attentional performance predominantly by generating a spatial choice bias for stimuli at a selected location, and that this bias operates downstream of forebrain mechanisms that enhance sensitivity. The findings lead to a testable mechanistic framework of how the midbrain and forebrain networks interact to control spatial attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Attention involves the selection of the most relevant information for differential sensory processing and decision making. While the mechanisms by which attention alters sensory encoding (sensitivity control) are well studied, the mechanisms by which attention alters decisional weighting of sensory evidence (choice

  12. Connectivity between the superior colliculus and the amygdala in humans and macaque monkeys: virtual dissection with probabilistic DTI tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Kristin; Bultitude, Janet H.; Mullins, Paul; Ward, Robert; Mitchell, Anna S.; Bell, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that some cortically blind patients can process the emotional valence of visual stimuli via a fast, subcortical pathway from the superior colliculus (SC) that reaches the amygdala via the pulvinar. We provide in vivo evidence for connectivity between the SC and the amygdala via the pulvinar in both humans and rhesus macaques. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography revealed a streamlined path that passes dorsolaterally through the pulvinar before arcing rostrally to traverse above the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and connect to the lateral amygdala. To obviate artifactual connectivity with crossing fibers of the stria terminalis, the stria was also dissected. The putative streamline between the SC and amygdala traverses above the temporal horn dorsal to the stria terminalis and is positioned medial to it in humans and lateral to it in monkeys. The topography of the streamline was examined in relation to lesion anatomy in five patients who had previously participated in behavioral experiments studying the processing of emotionally valenced visual stimuli. The pulvinar lesion interrupted the streamline in two patients who had exhibited contralesional processing deficits and spared the streamline in three patients who had no deficit. Although not definitive, this evidence supports the existence of a subcortical pathway linking the SC with the amygdala in primates. It also provides a necessary bridge between behavioral data obtained in future studies of neurological patients, and any forthcoming evidence from more invasive techniques, such as anatomical tracing studies and electrophysiological investigations only possible in nonhuman species. PMID:26224780

  13. Most superficial sublamina of rat superior colliculus: neuronal response properties and correlates with perceptual figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girman, S V; Lund, R D

    2007-07-01

    The uppermost layer (stratum griseum superficiale, SGS) of the superior colliculus (SC) provides an important gateway from the retina to the visual extrastriate and visuomotor systems. The majority of attention has been given to the role of this "visual" SC in saccade generation and target selection and it is generally considered to be less important in visual perception. We have found, however, that in the rat SGS1, the most superficial division of the SGS, the neurons perform very sophisticated analysis of visual information. First, in studying their responses with a variety of flashing stimuli we found that the neurons respond not to brightness changes per se, but to the appearance and/or disappearance of visual shapes in their receptive fields (RFs). Contrary to conventional RFs of neurons at the early stages of visual processing, the RFs in SGS1 cannot be described in terms of fixed spatial distribution of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Second, SGS1 neurons showed robust orientation tuning to drifting gratings and orientation-specific modulation of the center response from surround. These are features previously seen only in visual cortical neurons and are considered to be involved in "contour" perception and figure-ground segregation. Third, responses of SGS1 neurons showed complex dynamics; typically the response tuning became progressively sharpened with repetitive grating periods. We conclude that SGS1 neurons are involved in considerably more complex analysis of retinal input than was previously thought. SGS1 may participate in early stages of figure-ground segregation and have a role in low-resolution nonconscious vision as encountered after visual decortication.

  14. Changes in expression of Class 3 Semaphorins and their receptors during development of the rat retina and superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anil; LeVaillant, Chrisna J; Plant, Giles W; Harvey, Alan R

    2014-07-26

    Members of the Semaphorin 3 family (Sema3s) influence the development of the central nervous system, and some are implicated in regulating aspects of visual system development. However, we lack information about the timing of expression of the Sema3s with respect to different developmental epochs in the mammalian visual system. In this time-course study in the rat, we document for the first time changes in the expression of RNAs for the majority of Class 3 Semaphorins (Sema3s) and their receptor components during the development of the rat retina and superior colliculus (SC). During retinal development, transcript levels changed for all of the Sema3s examined, as well as Nrp2, Plxna2, Plxna3, and Plxna4a. In the SC there were also changes in transcript levels for all Sema3s tested, as well as Nrp1, Nrp2, Plxna1, Plxna2, Plxna3, and Plxna4a. These changes correlate with well-established epochs, and our data suggest that the Sema3s could influence retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis, patterning and connectivity in the maturing retina and SC, and perhaps guidance of RGC and cortical axons in the SC. Functionally we found that SEMA3A, SEMA3C, SEMA3E, and SEMA3F proteins collapsed purified postnatal day 1 RGC growth cones in vitro. Significantly this is a developmental stage when RGCs are growing into and within the SC and are exposed to Sema3 ligands. These new data describing the overall temporal regulation of Sema3 expression in the rat retina and SC provide a platform for further work characterising the functional impact of these proteins on the development and maturation of mammalian visual pathways.

  15. Enhanced visual responses in the superior colliculus in an animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their suppression by D-amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, K M; Devonshire, I M; Reynolds, J N J; Overton, P G

    2014-08-22

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by overactivity, impulsiveness and attentional problems, including an increase in distractibility. A structure that is intimately linked with distractibility is the superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain sensory structure which plays a particular role in the production of eye and head movements. Although others have proposed the involvement of such diverse elements as the frontal cortex and forebrain noradrenaline in ADHD, given the role of the colliculus in distractibility and the increased distractibility in ADHD, we have proposed that distractibility in ADHD arises due to collicular sensory hyper-responsiveness. To further investigate this possibility, we recorded the extracellular activity (multi-unit (MUA) and local field potential (LFP)) in the superficial visual layers of the SC in an animal model of ADHD, the New Zealand genetically hypertensive (GH) rat, in response to wholefield light flashes. The MUA and LFP peak amplitude and summed activity within a one-second time window post-stimulus were both significantly greater in GH rats than in Wistar controls, across the full range of stimulus intensities. Given that baseline firing rate did not differ between the strains, this suggests that the signal-to-noise ratio is elevated in GH animals. D-Amphetamine reduced the peak amplitude and summed activity of the multi-unit response in Wistar animals. It also reduced the peak amplitude and summed activity of the multi-unit response in GH animals, at higher doses bringing it down to levels that were equivalent to those of Wistar animals at baseline. The present results provide convergent evidence that a collicular dysfunction (sensory hyper-responsiveness) is present in ADHD, and that it may underlie the enhanced distractibility. In addition, D-amphetamine - a widely used treatment in ADHD - may have one of its loci of therapeutic action at the level of the

  16. Resonant Cholinergic Dynamics in Cognitive and Motor Decision-Making: Attention, Category Learning, and Choice in Neocortex, Superior Colliculus, and Optic Tectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Palma, Jesse; Versace, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Freely behaving organisms need to rapidly calibrate their perceptual, cognitive, and motor decisions based on continuously changing environmental conditions. These plastic changes include sharpening or broadening of cognitive and motor attention and learning to match the behavioral demands that are imposed by changing environmental statistics. This article proposes that a shared circuit design for such flexible decision-making is used in specific cognitive and motor circuits, and that both types of circuits use acetylcholine to modulate choice selectivity. Such task-sensitive control is proposed to control thalamocortical choice of the critical features that are cognitively attended and that are incorporated through learning into prototypes of visual recognition categories. A cholinergically-modulated process of vigilance control determines if a recognition category and its attended features are abstract (low vigilance) or concrete (high vigilance). Homologous neural mechanisms of cholinergic modulation are proposed to focus attention and learn a multimodal map within the deeper layers of superior colliculus. This map enables visual, auditory, and planned movement commands to compete for attention, leading to selection of a winning position that controls where the next saccadic eye movement will go. Such map learning may be viewed as a kind of attentive motor category learning. The article hereby explicates a link between attention, learning, and cholinergic modulation during decision making within both cognitive and motor systems. Homologs between the mammalian superior colliculus and the avian optic tectum lead to predictions about how multimodal map learning may occur in the mammalian and avian brain and how such learning may be modulated by acetycholine.

  17. Resonant cholinergic dynamics in cognitive and motor decision-making:Attention, category learning, and choice in neocortex, superior colliculus, and optic tectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Freely behaving organisms need to rapidly calibrate their perceptual, cognitive, and motor decisions based on continuously changing environmental conditions. These plastic changes include sharpening or broadening of cognitive and motor attention and learning to match the behavioral demands that are imposed by changing environmental statistics. This article proposes that a shared circuit design for such flexible decision-making is used in specific cognitive and motor circuits, and that both types of circuits use acetylcholine to modulate choice selectivity. Such task-sensitive control is proposed to control thalamocortical choice of the critical features that are cognitively attended and that are incorporated through learning into prototypes of visual recognition categories. A cholinergically-modulated process of vigilance control determines if a recognition category and its attended features are abstract (low vigilance or concrete (high vigilance. Homologous neural mechanisms of cholinergic modulation are proposed to focus attention and learn a multimodal map within the deeper layers of superior colliculus. This map enables visual, auditory, and planned movement commands to compete for attention, leading to selection of a winning position that controls where the next saccadic eye movement will go. Such map learning may be viewed as a kind of attentive motor category learning. The article hereby explicates a link between attention, learning, and cholinergic modulation during decision making within both cognitive and motor systems. Homologs between the mammalian superior colliculus and the avian optic tectum lead to predictions about how multimodal map learning may occur in the avian brain and how such learning may be modulated by acetycholine.

  18. Changes in Otx2 and Parvalbumin Immunoreactivity in the Superior Colliculus in the Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-β Knockout Mice

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    Juanjuan Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The superior colliculus (SC, a relay nucleus in the subcortical visual pathways, is implicated in socioemotional behaviors. Homeoprotein Otx2 and β subunit of receptors of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFR-β have been suggested to play an important role in development of the visual system and development and maturation of GABAergic neurons. Although PDGFR-β-knockout (KO mice displayed socio-emotional deficits associated with parvalbumin (PV-immunoreactive (IR neurons, their anatomical bases in the SC were unknown. In the present study, Otx2 and PV-immunolabeling in the adult mouse SC were investigated in the PDGFR-β KO mice. Although there were no differences in distribution patterns of Otx2 and PV-IR cells between the wild type and PDGFR-β KO mice, the mean numbers of both of the Otx2- and PV-IR cells were significantly reduced in the PDGFR-β KO mice. Furthermore, average diameters of Otx2- and PV-IR cells were significantly reduced in the PDGFR-β KO mice. These findings suggest that PDGFR-β plays a critical role in the functional development of the SC through its effects on Otx2- and PV-IR cells, provided specific roles of Otx2 protein and PV-IR cells in the development of SC neurons and visual information processing, respectively.

  19. Different Stimuli, Different Spatial Codes: A Visual Map and an Auditory Rate Code for Oculomotor Space in the Primate Superior Colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungah; Groh, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Maps are a mainstay of visual, somatosensory, and motor coding in many species. However, auditory maps of space have not been reported in the primate brain. Instead, recent studies have suggested that sound location may be encoded via broadly responsive neurons whose firing rates vary roughly proportionately with sound azimuth. Within frontal space, maps and such rate codes involve different response patterns at the level of individual neurons. Maps consist of neurons exhibiting circumscribed receptive fields, whereas rate codes involve open-ended response patterns that peak in the periphery. This coding format discrepancy therefore poses a potential problem for brain regions responsible for representing both visual and auditory information. Here, we investigated the coding of auditory space in the primate superior colliculus(SC), a structure known to contain visual and oculomotor maps for guiding saccades. We report that, for visual stimuli, neurons showed circumscribed receptive fields consistent with a map, but for auditory stimuli, they had open-ended response patterns consistent with a rate or level-of-activity code for location. The discrepant response patterns were not segregated into different neural populations but occurred in the same neurons. We show that a read-out algorithm in which the site and level of SC activity both contribute to the computation of stimulus location is successful at evaluating the discrepant visual and auditory codes, and can account for subtle but systematic differences in the accuracy of auditory compared to visual saccades. This suggests that a given population of neurons can use different codes to support appropriate multimodal behavior. PMID:24454779

  20. Glutamate Receptors GluR1 and GluR4 in the Hamster Superior Colliculus: Distribution and Co-localization with Calcium-Binding Proteins and GABA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae-Sik; Lee, Jea-Young; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the distributions of AMPA glutamate receptor subtypes GluR1 and GluR4 in the hamster superior colliculus (SC) with antibody immunocytochemistry and the effect of enucleation on these distributions. We compared these labelings to those of GluR2/3 in our previous report (Park et al., 2004, Neurosci Res., 49:139–155) and calcium-binding proteins calbindin D28K, calretinin, parvalbumin, and GABA. Anti-GluR1-immunoreactive (IR) cells were scattered throughout the SC. By contrast, anti-GluR4-IR cells formed distinct clusters within the lower lateral stratum griseum intermediale (SGI) and lateral stratum album intermediale (SAI). The GluR1- and GluR4-IR neurons varied in size and morphology. The average diameter of the GluR1-IR cells was 13.00 µm, while the GluR4-IR cells was 20.00 µm. The large majority of IR neurons were round or oval cells, but they also included stellate, vertical fusiform and horizontal cells. Monocular enucleation appeared to have no effect on the GluR1 and GluR4 immunoreactivity. Some GluR1-IR cells expressed calbindin D28K (9.50%), calretinin (6.59%), parvalbumin (2.53%), and GABA (20.54%). By contrast, no GluR4-IR cells expressed calcium-binding proteins or GABA. Although the function of the AMPA receptor subunits in SC is not yet clear, the distinct segregation of the GluR subunits, its differential colocalization with calcium-binding proteins and GABA, and differential responses to enucleation suggest the functional diversity of the receptor subunits in visuo-motor integration in the SC

  1. NMDA receptor blockade alters the intracellular distribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the superficial layers of the rat superior colliculus

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    R.E. de Bittencourt-Navarrete

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a molecular messenger involved in several events of synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. Ca2+ influx through the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR triggers the synthesis of NO by activating the enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in postsynaptic densities. Therefore, NMDAR and nNOS are part of the intricate scenario of postsynaptic densities. In the present study, we hypothesized that the intracellular distribution of nNOS in the neurons of superior colliculus (SC superficial layers is an NMDAR activity-dependent process. We used osmotic minipumps to promote chronic blockade of the receptors with the pharmacological agent MK-801 in the SC of 7 adult rats. The effective blockade of NMDAR was assessed by changes in the protein level of the immediate early gene NGFI-A, which is a well-known NMDAR activity-dependent expressing transcription factor. Upon chronic infusion of MK-801, a decrease of 47% in the number of cells expressing NGFI-A was observed in the SC of treated animals. Additionally, the filled dendritic extent by the histochemical product of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate diaphorase was reduced by 45% when compared to the contralateral SC of the same animals and by 64% when compared to the SC of control animals. We conclude that the proper intracellular localization of nNOS in the retinorecipient layers of SC depends on NMDAR activation. These results are consistent with the view that the participation of NO in the physiological and plastic events of the central nervous system might be closely related to an NMDAR activity-dependent function.

  2. Visual Neurons in the Superior Colliculus Innervated by Islet2+ or Islet2− Retinal Ganglion Cells Display Distinct Tuning Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel B. Kay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the visual system, different subtypes of neurons are tuned to distinct aspects of the visual scene, establishing parallel circuits. Defining the mechanisms by which such tuning arises has been a long-standing challenge for neuroscience. To investigate this, we have focused on the retina’s projection to the superior colliculus (SC, where multiple visual neuron subtypes have been described. The SC receives inputs from a variety of retinal ganglion cell (RGC subtypes; however, which RGCs drive the tuning of different SC neurons remains unclear. Here, we pursued a genetic approach that allowed us to determine the tuning properties of neurons innervated by molecularly defined subpopulations of RGCs. In homozygous Islet2-EphA3 knock-in (Isl2EA3/EA3 mice, Isl2+ and Isl2− RGCs project to non-overlapping sub-regions of the SC. Based on molecular and anatomic data, we show that significantly more Isl2− RGCs are direction-selective (DS in comparison with Isl2+ RGCs. Targeted recordings of visual responses from each SC sub-region in Isl2EA3/EA3 mice revealed that Isl2− RGC-innervated neurons were significantly more DS than those innervated by Isl2+ RGCs. Axis-selective (AS neurons were found in both sub-regions, though AS neurons innervated by Isl2+ RGCs were more tightly tuned. Despite this segregation, DS and AS neurons innervated by Isl2+ or Isl2− RGCs did not differ in their spatial summation or spatial frequency (SF tuning. Further, we did not observe alterations in receptive field (RF size or structure of SC neurons innervated by Isl2+ or Isl2− RGCs. Together, these data show that innervation by Isl2+ and Isl2− RGCs results in distinct tuning in the SC and set the stage for future studies investigating the mechanisms by which these circuits are built.

  3. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and calcium binding proteins immunoreactivity in the deep layers of the superior colliculus of the guinea pig: Implications for multisensory and visuomotor processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdzion, Janusz

    2018-03-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) of mammals is a midbrain center, that can be subdivided into the superficial (SCs) and deep layers (SCd). In contrast to the visual SCs, the SCd are involved in multisensory and motor processing. This study investigated the pattern of distribution and colocalization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) and three calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) i.e. calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in the SCd of the guinea pig. CART labeling was seen almost exclusively in the neuropil and fibers, which differed in regard to morphology and location. CART-positive neurons were very rare and restricted to a narrow area of the SCd. The most intense CART immunoreactivity was observed in the most dorsally located sublayer of the SCd, which is anatomically and functionally connected with the SCs. CART immunoreactivity in the remaining SCd was less intensive, but still relatively high. This characteristic pattern of immunoreactivity indicates that CART as a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator may play an important role in processing of visual information, while its involvement in the auditory and visuomotor processing is less significant, but still possible. CaBPs-positive neurons were morphologically diverse and widely distributed throughout all SCd. From studied CaBPs, CR showed a markedly different distribution compared to CB and PV. Overall, the patterns of distribution of CB and PV were similar in the entire SCd. Consequently, the complementarity of these patterns in the guinea pig was very weak. Double immunostaining revealed that CART did not colocalize with either CaBPs, which suggested that these neurochemical substances might not coexist in the multisensory and visuomotor parts of the SC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Facial colliculus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinderjeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient presented with horizontal diplopia and conjugate gaze palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed acute infarct in right facial colliculus which is an anatomical elevation on the dorsal aspect of Pons. This elevation is due the 6th cranial nerve nucleus and the motor fibres of facial nerve which loop dorsal to this nucleus. Anatomical correlation of the clinical symptoms is also depicted in this report.

  5. Opioid modulation of GABA release in the rat inferior colliculus

    OpenAIRE

    Tongjaroenbungam, Walaiporn; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn; Cunningham, Joanna; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Dodson, Hilary C; Forge, Andrew; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Casalotti, Stefano O

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The inferior colliculus, which receives almost all ascending and descending auditory signals, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory information. While the majority of the recorded activities in the inferior colliculus are attributed to GABAergic and glutamatergic signalling, other neurotransmitter systems are expressed in this brain area including opiate peptides and their receptors which may play a modulatory role in neuronal communication. Results Using a pe...

  6. Opioid modulation of GABA release in the rat inferior colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forge Andrew

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inferior colliculus, which receives almost all ascending and descending auditory signals, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory information. While the majority of the recorded activities in the inferior colliculus are attributed to GABAergic and glutamatergic signalling, other neurotransmitter systems are expressed in this brain area including opiate peptides and their receptors which may play a modulatory role in neuronal communication. Results Using a perfusion protocol we demonstrate that morphine can inhibit KCl-induced release of [3H]GABA from rat inferior colliculus slices. DAMGO ([D-Ala(2, N-Me-Phe(4, Gly(5-ol]-enkephalin but not DADLE ([D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin or U69593 has the same effect as morphine indicating that μ rather than δ or κ opioid receptors mediate this action. [3H]GABA release was diminished by 16%, and this was not altered by the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I. Immunostaining of inferior colliculus cryosections shows extensive staining for glutamic acid decarboxylase, more limited staining for μ opiate receptors and relatively few neurons co-stained for both proteins. Conclusion The results suggest that μ-opioid receptor ligands can modify neurotransmitter release in a sub population of GABAergic neurons of the inferior colliculus. This could have important physiological implications in the processing of hearing information and/or other functions attributed to the inferior colliculus such as audiogenic seizures and aversive behaviour.

  7. Opioid modulation of GABA release in the rat inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongjaroenbungam, Walaiporn; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn; Cunningham, Joanna; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Dodson, Hilary C; Forge, Andrew; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Casalotti, Stefano O

    2004-01-01

    Background The inferior colliculus, which receives almost all ascending and descending auditory signals, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory information. While the majority of the recorded activities in the inferior colliculus are attributed to GABAergic and glutamatergic signalling, other neurotransmitter systems are expressed in this brain area including opiate peptides and their receptors which may play a modulatory role in neuronal communication. Results Using a perfusion protocol we demonstrate that morphine can inhibit KCl-induced release of [3H]GABA from rat inferior colliculus slices. DAMGO ([D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin) but not DADLE ([D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin or U69593 has the same effect as morphine indicating that μ rather than δ or κ opioid receptors mediate this action. [3H]GABA release was diminished by 16%, and this was not altered by the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I. Immunostaining of inferior colliculus cryosections shows extensive staining for glutamic acid decarboxylase, more limited staining for μ opiate receptors and relatively few neurons co-stained for both proteins. Conclusion The results suggest that μ-opioid receptor ligands can modify neurotransmitter release in a sub population of GABAergic neurons of the inferior colliculus. This could have important physiological implications in the processing of hearing information and/or other functions attributed to the inferior colliculus such as audiogenic seizures and aversive behaviour. PMID:15353008

  8. The human subthalamic nucleus - knowledge for the understanding of Parkinson’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Tjitske; Marani, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    The human subthalamic nucleus differs from those of experimental animals, especially rat. In this overview cytological, developmental, and connective discrepancies are enumerated. The main theme is the lack of neuroanatomical prove for the cortico-subthalamic connection in humans. Moreover

  9. Comparing Realistic Subthalamic Nucleus Neuron Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njap, Felix; Claussen, Jens C.; Moser, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of action of clinically effective electrical high frequency stimulation is still under debate. However, recent evidence points at the specific activation of GABA-ergic ion channels. Using a computational approach, we analyze temporal properties of the spike trains emitted by biologically realistic neurons of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a function of GABA-ergic synaptic input conductances. Our contribution is based on a model proposed by Rubin and Terman and exhibits a wide variety of different firing patterns, silent, low spiking, moderate spiking and intense spiking activity. We observed that most of the cells in our network turn to silent mode when we increase the GABAA input conductance above the threshold of 3.75 mS/cm2. On the other hand, insignificant changes in firing activity are observed when the input conductance is low or close to zero. We thus reproduce Rubin's model with vanishing synaptic conductances. To quantitatively compare spike trains from the original model with the modified model at different conductance levels, we apply four different (dis)similarity measures between them. We observe that Mahalanobis distance, Victor-Purpura metric, and Interspike Interval distribution are sensitive to different firing regimes, whereas Mutual Information seems undiscriminative for these functional changes.

  10. Subthalamic nucleus detects unnatural android movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masayuki; Kasaki, Masashi; Alimardani, Maryam; Matsushita, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2017-12-19

    An android, i.e., a realistic humanoid robot with human-like capabilities, may induce an uncanny feeling in human observers. The uncanny feeling about an android has two main causes: its appearance and movement. The uncanny feeling about an android increases when its appearance is almost human-like but its movement is not fully natural or comparable to human movement. Even if an android has human-like flexible joints, its slightly jerky movements cause a human observer to detect subtle unnaturalness in them. However, the neural mechanism underlying the detection of unnatural movements remains unclear. We conducted an fMRI experiment to compare the observation of an android and the observation of a human on which the android is modelled, and we found differences in the activation pattern of the brain regions that are responsible for the production of smooth and natural movement. More specifically, we found that the visual observation of the android, compared with that of the human model, caused greater activation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). When the android's slightly jerky movements are visually observed, the STN detects their subtle unnaturalness. This finding suggests that the detection of unnatural movements is attributed to an error signal resulting from a mismatch between a visual input and an internal model for smooth movement.

  11. Colliculus atlantis: an insufficiently considered anatomic structure in open-mouth radiography of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidberger, H.R.; Weiglein, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the time and mode of the development of the colliculus atlantis, the rate of its occurrence, the causes for its absence, and the radiological-clinical importance in the analysis of open-mouth-view radiographs. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of standardized radiographs of the cervical spine in more than 20 000 adults and 100 children. Study of 234 human skeletons of different ages and of 38 isolated adult atlases. Cadaveric dissection of 42 adults (age 48-87). Axial radiographs of isolated atlases and analysis of the bony structures of the colliculus atlantis. Results: The colliculus atlantis develops between age 10 and 13 years. It is always present after age 13 years. For the development of the colliculus atlantis a normal function of the craniocervical joints is necessary. In congenital dysmorphias of the craniocervical region with dysfunction of the craniocervical joints and in fractures of the dens axis before age 10 years with instable healing the colliculus atlantis is absent. Conclusions: The colliculus atlantis is developed at age 13 years apart from some rare exceptions as mentioned. Changes of the site and the structure of the colliculus atlantis allow an early diagnosis of certain traumatically and inflammatory diseases of this region. Furthermore, it serves as an additional parameter in functional analysis of the craniocervical joints. (orig.) [de

  12. Human inferior colliculus activity relates to individual differences in spoken language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Kraus, Nina; Wong, Patrick C M

    2012-03-01

    A challenge to learning words of a foreign language is encoding nonnative phonemes, a process typically attributed to cortical circuitry. Using multimodal imaging methods [functional magnetic resonance imaging-adaptation (fMRI-A) and auditory brain stem responses (ABR)], we examined the extent to which pretraining pitch encoding in the inferior colliculus (IC), a primary midbrain structure, related to individual variability in learning to successfully use nonnative pitch patterns to distinguish words in American English-speaking adults. fMRI-A indexed the efficiency of pitch representation localized to the IC, whereas ABR quantified midbrain pitch-related activity with millisecond precision. In line with neural "sharpening" models, we found that efficient IC pitch pattern representation (indexed by fMRI) related to superior neural representation of pitch patterns (indexed by ABR), and consequently more successful word learning following sound-to-meaning training. Our results establish a critical role for the IC in speech-sound representation, consistent with the established role for the IC in the representation of communication signals in other animal models.

  13. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation reverses mediofrontal influence over decision threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavanagh, J.F.; Wiecki, T.V.; Cohen, M.X.; Figueroa, C.M.; Samanta, J.; Sherman, S.J.; Frank, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    It takes effort and time to tame one's impulses. Although medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is broadly implicated in effortful control over behavior, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is specifically thought to contribute by acting as a brake on cortico-striatal function during decision conflict, buying

  14. Subthalamic nucleus involvement in executive functions with increased cognitive load: a subthalamic nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex depth recording study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusnáková-Aulická, Š.; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Daniel, P.; Halámek, Josef; Baláž, M.; Bočková, M.; Chrastina, J.; Rektor, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 10 (2014), s. 1287-1296 ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0933 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ERD/S * Anterior cingulate cortex * Subthalamic nucleus * Flanker test * Executive functions Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2014

  15. Recording of the Neural Activity Induced by the Electrical Subthalamic Stimulation Using Ca2+ Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Yagi, Tetsuya; Osanai, Makoto

    The basal ganglia (BG) have important roles in some kind of motor control and learning. Parkinson's disease is one of the motor impairment disease. Recently, to recover a motor severity in patients of Parkinsonism, the stimulus electrode is implanted to the subthalamic nucleus, which is a part of the basal ganglia, and the deep brain stimulation (DBS) is often conducted. However, the effects of the DBS on the subthalamic neurons have not been elucidated. Thus, to analyze the effects of the electrical stimulation on the subthalamic neurons, we conducted the calcium imaging at the mouse subthalamic nucleus. When the single stimulus was applied to the subthalamic nucleus, the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) transients were observed. In the case of application of the single electrical stimulation, the [Ca2+]i arose near the stimulus position. When 100 Hz 10-100 times tetanic stimulations were applied, the responded area and the amplitudes of [Ca2+]i transients were increased. The [Ca2+]i transients were disappeared almost completely on the action potential blockade, but blockade of the excitatory and the inhibitory synaptic transmission had little effects on the responded area and the amplitudes of the [Ca2+]i transients. These results suggested that the electrical stimulation to the subthalamic neurons led to activate the subthalamic neurons directly but not via synaptic transmissions. Thus, DBS may change the activity of the subthalamic neurons, hence, may alter the input-output relationship of the subthalamic neurons

  16. Hemiballismus, Hyperphagia, and Behavioral Changes following Subthalamic Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Etemadifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of subthalamic nucleus (STN which is a part of the basal ganglia system is not clear, but it is hypothesized that this component might be involved in action selection. Unilateral damage to STN, which can commonly occur due to the small vessel stroke mainly, causes hemiballismus and sometimes hemichorea-hemiballismus. This paper deals with a 60-year-old patient with sudden onset of abnormal movements in his right limbs. He had increased appetite and hyperphagia and also developed mood and behavioral changes (aggressiveness, irritability, anxiety, and sometimes obscene speech. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarct area in left subthalamus. In our case, hemiballismus is caused by infarction in left subthalamic area. Occurrence of irritability, anxiety, and some behavioral changes such as aggressiveness and obscene speech can be explained by impairment of STN role in nonmotor behavior and cognitive function as a result of infarct.

  17. Personality, dopamine, and Parkinson's disease: Insights from subthalamic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhommée, Eugénie; Boyer, François; Wack, Maxime; Pélissier, Pierre; Klinger, Hélène; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Bichon, Amélie; Fraix, Valérie; Chabardès, Stéphan; Mertens, Patrick; Castrioto, Anna; Kistner, Andrea; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Thobois, Stéphane; Krack, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Subthalamic stimulation improves the motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, the impact of this treatment on impulse control and personality is the subject of heavy debate. The objective of this study was to investigate personality changes after subthalamic stimulation. Using Cloninger's biosocial model, we assessed personality in 73 Parkinson's disease patients before and 12 months after subthalamic stimulation accompanied by a drastic reduction in dopaminergic medication. Changes in psychobehavioral symptoms were measured using a battery of validated clinical scales (apathy, depression, anxiety, hyperemotionality, mania, psychosis, punding, and impulse control behaviors). One year after surgery, the harm avoidance personality domain total score increased compared with the baseline (+2.8; 34 patients; P personality trait correlated with the decrease in dopaminergic medication. Total scores in the other personality domains remained unchanged, except for extravagance, a subdomain of novelty seeking, and persistence, a subdomain of reward dependence, which both decreased following surgery (-0.3; 7 patients; and -0.6; 9 patients; P = 0.03 and P = 0.0019, respectively). Although apathy increased, other psychobehavioral symptoms, including impulse control behaviors and neuropsychiatric nonmotor fluctuations, improved. Depression and anhedonia remained stable. Scores in hypodopaminergia and neuropsychiatric nonmotor OFF correlated with harm avoidance. Scores in hyperdopaminergia and neuropsychiatric nonmotor ON correlated with novelty seeking. When subthalamic stimulation is applied in Parkinson's disease, significant changes in personality traits are observed, which may be related to postoperative tapering of dopaminergic treatment. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Low-threshold potassium currents stabilize IID-sensitivity in the inferior colliculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eKarcz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC is a midbrain nucleus that exhibits sensitivity to differences in interaural time and intensity (ITDs and IIDs and integrates information from the auditory brainstem to provide an unambiguous representation of sound location across the azimuth. Further upstream, in the lateral superior olive (LSO, absence of low-threshold potassium currents in Kcna1-/- mice interfered with response onset timing and restricted IID-sensitivity to the hemifield of the excitatory ear. Assuming the IID-sensitivity in the IC to be at least partly inherited from LSO neurons, the IC IID-encoding was compared between wild-type (Kcna1+/+ and Kcna1-/- mice. We asked whether the effect observed in the Kcna1-/- LSO was (I simply propagated into the IC, (II is enhanced and amplified or, (III alternatively, was compensated and so no longer detectable. Our results show that general IC response properties as well as the distribution of IID-functions were comparable in Kcna1-/- and Kcna1+/+ mice. In agreement with the literature IC neurons exhibited a higher level-invariance of IID-sensitivity compared to LSO neurons. However, manipulating the timing between the inputs of the two ears caused significantly larger shifts of IID-sensitivity in Kcna1-/- mice, whereas in the wild-type IC the IID functions were stable and less sensitive to changes of the temporal relationship between the binaural inputs. We conclude that the IC not only inherits IID-sensitivity from the LSO, but that the convergence with other, non-olivary inputs in the wild-type IC acts to quality-control, consolidate and stabilize IID representation; this necessary integration of inputs is impaired in the absence of the low-threshold potassium currents mediated by Kv1.1.

  19. What is dorso-lateral in the subthalamic Nucleus (STN)?--a topographic and anatomical consideration on the ambiguous description of today's primary target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Volker A; Prescher, Andreas; Schmidt, Thorsten; Picozzi, Piero; Gielen, Frans L H

    2008-11-01

    The most frequently used target for DBS in advanced Parkinson Disease (PD) is the sensorimotor subthalamic nucleus (STN), anatomically referred to as dorso-lateral STN [3]. Ambiguities arise, regarding the true meaning of this description in the STN. Does "dorsal" indicate posterior or superior? At its best, this definition assigns two directions in space to a three-dimensional structure. This paper evaluates the ambiguity and describes the sensorimotor part of the STN in stereotactic space.

  20. Effects of dopaminergic and subthalamic stimulation on musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Floris T; Schüpbach, Michael; Altenmüller, Eckart; Bardinet, Eric; Yelnik, Jérôme; Hälbig, Thomas D

    2013-05-01

    Although subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an efficient treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), its effects on fine motor functions are not clear. We present the case of a professional violinist with PD treated with STN-DBS. DBS improved musical articulation, intonation and emotional expression and worsened timing relative to a timekeeper (metronome). The same effects were found for dopaminergic treatment. These results suggest that STN-DBS, mimicking the effects of dopaminergic stimulation, improves fine-tuned motor behaviour whilst impairing timing precision.

  1. Subthalamic stimulation differentially modulates declarative and nondeclarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hälbig, Thomas D; Gruber, Doreen; Kopp, Ute A; Scherer, Peter; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Trottenberg, Thomas; Arnold, Guy; Kupsch, Andreas

    2004-03-01

    Declarative memory has been reported to rely on the medial temporal lobe system, whereas non-declarative memory depends on basal ganglia structures. We investigated the functional role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a structure closely connected with the basal ganglia for both types of memory. Via deep brain high frequency stimulation (DBS) we manipulated neural activity of the STN in humans. We found that DBS-STN differentially modulated memory performance: declarative memory was impaired, whereas non-declarative memory was improved in the presence of STN-DBS indicating a specific role of the STN in the activation of memory systems. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  2. Colliculus atlantis: an insufficiently considered anatomic structure in open-mouth radiography of the cervical spine; Der Colliculus atlantis - eine wenig beachtete anatomische Struktur - im transoralen Roentgenbild der Halswirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidberger, H.R. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria); Weiglein, A.H. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Anatomisches Inst.

    1998-12-01

    Purpose: To study the time and mode of the development of the colliculus atlantis, the rate of its occurrence, the causes for its absence, and the radiological-clinical importance in the analysis of open-mouth-view radiographs. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of standardized radiographs of the cervical spine in more than 20 000 adults and 100 children. Study of 234 human skeletons of different ages and of 38 isolated adult atlases. Cadaveric dissection of 42 adults (age 48-87). Axial radiographs of isolated atlases and analysis of the bony structures of the colliculus atlantis. Results: The colliculus atlantis develops between age 10 and 13 years. It is always present after age 13 years. For the development of the colliculus atlantis a normal function of the craniocervical joints is necessary. In congenital dysmorphias of the craniocervical region with dysfunction of the craniocervical joints and in fractures of the dens axis before age 10 years with instable healing the colliculus atlantis is absent. Conclusions: The colliculus atlantis is developed at age 13 years apart from some rare exceptions as mentioned. Changes of the site and the structure of the colliculus atlantis allow an early diagnosis of certain traumatically and inflammatory diseases of this region. Furthermore, it serves as an additional parameter in functional analysis of the craniocervical joints. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Untersuchungen ueber den Zeitpunkt und die Art der Entstehung des Colliculus atlantis, die Haeufigkeit des Vorkommens, die Ursachen seines Fehlens und seine radiologisch-klinische Bedeutung bei der Analyse transoraler Roentgenaufnahmen. Methode: Retrospektive Analyse streng standardisierter Roentgenaufnahmen der Halswirbelsaeule von mehr als 20 000 Erwachsenen und 100 Kindern. Untersuchungen von 234 menschlichen Skeletten verschiedenen Alters und 38 isolierten Atlanten von Erwachsenen. Frische Sektionen von 42 Erwachsenen (48-87 Jahre). Axiale Roentgenaufnahmen

  3. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging of the inferior colliculus and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, Milla; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Johansson, Reijo [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Turku (Finland); Jaeaeskelaeinen, Satu K. [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Turku (Finland); Kujari, Harry [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Pathology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2009-08-15

    Preterm and low-birth-weight infants have an increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss. Brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) are an effective method to detect subtle deficits in impulse conduction in the auditory pathway. Abnormalities on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been shown to be associated with perinatal white-matter injury and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) has been reported in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. To evaluate the possibility of a correlation between BAEP and DTI of the inferior colliculus in preterm infants. DTI at term age and BAEP measurements were performed on all very-low-birth-weight or very preterm study infants (n=56). FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the inferior colliculus were measured from the DTI. Shorter BAEP wave I, III, and V latencies and I-III and I-V intervals and higher wave V amplitude correlated with higher FA of the inferior colliculus. The association between the DTI findings of the inferior colliculus and BAEP responses suggests that DTI can be used to assess the integrity of the auditory pathway in preterm infants. (orig.)

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging of the inferior colliculus and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, Milla; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Johansson, Reijo; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Satu K.; Kujari, Harry; Haataja, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Preterm and low-birth-weight infants have an increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss. Brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) are an effective method to detect subtle deficits in impulse conduction in the auditory pathway. Abnormalities on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been shown to be associated with perinatal white-matter injury and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) has been reported in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. To evaluate the possibility of a correlation between BAEP and DTI of the inferior colliculus in preterm infants. DTI at term age and BAEP measurements were performed on all very-low-birth-weight or very preterm study infants (n=56). FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the inferior colliculus were measured from the DTI. Shorter BAEP wave I, III, and V latencies and I-III and I-V intervals and higher wave V amplitude correlated with higher FA of the inferior colliculus. The association between the DTI findings of the inferior colliculus and BAEP responses suggests that DTI can be used to assess the integrity of the auditory pathway in preterm infants. (orig.)

  6. Effect of bilateral subthalamic electrical stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, G; Franzini, A; Ferroli, P; Servello, D; D'Incerti, L; Genitrini, S; Soliveri, P; Girotti, F; Caraceni, T

    2001-08-01

    Bilateral high frequency subthalamic stimulation has been reported to be effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesias. To analyze the results of this surgical procedure we critically reviewed 17 parkinsonian patients with advanced disease complicated by motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. Between January 1998 and June 1999 these 17 consecutive patients (age 48-68 years; illness duration 8-27 years) underwent bilateral stereotactically guided implantation of electrodes into the subthalamic nucleus in the Department of Neurosurgery of the Istituto Nazionale Neurologico "C. Besta." Parameters used for continuous high-frequency stimulation were: frequency 160 Hz, pulse width 90 microsec, mean amplitude 2.05 +/- 0.45 V. Parts II and III of the UPDRS were used to assess motor performance before and after operation by the neurologic team. The follow-up ranged between 6 and 18 months. At latest examination, mean UPDRS II and III scores had improved by 30% (on stimulation, off therapy) with mean 50% reduction in daily off time. Peak dyskinesias and early morning dystonias also improved in relation to therapy reduction. Side effects were persistent postoperative supranuclear oculomotor palsy and postural instability in one case, worsened off-medication hypophonia in three, and temporary nocturnal confusion episodes in three. Postoperative MRI revealed a clinically silent intracerebral haematoma in one case. One electrode required repositioning. Continuous high frequency STN stimulation is an effective treatment for advanced PD. A functionally useful and safe electrode placement can be performed without microrecording.

  7. High and low frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus induce prolonged changes in subthalamic and globus pallidus neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagar eLavian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High frequency stimulation (HFS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN is widely used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease but the mechanism of this therapy is unclear. Using a rat brain slice preparation maintaining the connectivity between the STN and one of its target nuclei, the globus pallidus (GP, we investigated the effects of high and low frequency stimulation (HFS 100 Hz, LFS 10 Hz on activity of single neurons in the STN and GP. Both HFS and LFS caused changes in firing frequency and pattern of subthalamic and pallidal neurons. These changes were of synaptic origin, as they were abolished by glutamate and GABA antagonists. Both HFS and LFS also induced a long-lasting reduction in firing frequency in STN neurons possibly contending a direct causal link between HFS and the outcome DBS. In the GP both HFS and LFS induced either a long-lasting depression, or less frequently, a long-lasting excitation. Thus, in addition to the intrinsic activation of the stimulated neurons, long-lasting stimulation of the STN may trigger prolonged biochemical processes.

  8. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: defining the optimal location within the subthalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Maarten; Schuurman, P Richard; Odekerken, Vincent J J; Verhagen, Rens; Contarino, Fiorella Maria; De Bie, Rob M A; van den Munckhof, Pepijn

    2018-05-01

    Individual motor improvement after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for Parkinson's disease (PD) varies considerably. Stereotactic targeting of the dorsolateral sensorimotor part of the STN is considered paramount for maximising effectiveness, but studies employing the midcommissural point (MCP) as anatomical reference failed to show correlation between DBS location and motor improvement. The medial border of the STN as reference may provide better insight in the relationship between DBS location and clinical outcome. Motor improvement after 12 months of 65 STN DBS electrodes was categorised into non-responding, responding and optimally responding body-sides. Stereotactic coordinates of optimal electrode contacts relative to both medial STN border and MCP served to define theoretic DBS 'hotspots'. Using the medial STN border as reference, significant negative correlation (Pearson's correlation -0.52, P<0.01) was found between the Euclidean distance from the centre of stimulation to this DBS hotspot and motor improvement. This hotspot was located at 2.8 mm lateral, 1.7 mm anterior and 2.5 mm superior relative to the medial STN border. Using MCP as reference, no correlation was found. The medial STN border proved superior compared with MCP as anatomical reference for correlation of DBS location and motor improvement, and enabled defining an optimal DBS location within the nucleus. We therefore propose the medial STN border as a better individual reference point than the currently used MCP on preoperative stereotactic imaging, in order to obtain optimal and thus less variable motor improvement for individual patients with PD following STN DBS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation and levodopa-resistant postural instability in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.E.; Allum, J.H.J.; Carpenter, M.G.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Speelman, J.D.; Borm, G.F.; Bloem, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation on levodopa-resistant balance impairment in 14 patients with Parkinson's disease and 18 matched controls. Instability was quantitatively assessed using standardized multidirectional dynamic posturography. Patients were tested after

  10. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation and levodopa-resistant postural instability in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jasper E.; Allum, John H. J.; Carpenter, Mark G.; Esselink, Rianne A.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Borm, George F.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation on levodopa-resistant balance impairment in 14 patients with Parkinson's disease and 18 matched controls. Instability was quantitatively assessed using standardized multidirectional dynamic posturography. Patients were tested after

  11. Subthalamic Neural Activity Patterns Anticipate Economic Risk Decisions in Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, M.; Carpaneto, J.; Priori, A.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Economic decision-making is disrupted in individuals with gambling disorder, an addictive behavior observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients receiving dopaminergic therapy. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is involved in the inhibition of impulsive behaviors; however, its role in impulse control disorders and addiction is still unclear. Here, we recorded STN local field potentials (LFPs) in PD patients with and without gambling disorder during an economic decision-making task. Reaction times analysis showed that for all patients, the decision whether to risk preceded task onset. We compared then for both groups the STN LFP preceding high- and low-risk economic decisions. We found that risk avoidance in gamblers correlated with larger STN LFP low-frequency (gambling disorder were instead not correlated with pretask STN LFP. Our results suggest that STN activity preceding task onset affects risk decisions by preemptively inhibiting attraction to high but unlikely rewards in favor of a long-term payoff. PMID:29445770

  12. Subthalamic stimulation: toward a simplification of the electrophysiological procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, Damien; Derrey, Stephane; Lefaucheur, Romain; Borden, Alaina; Wallon, David; Chastan, Nathalie; Maltete, David

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the consequences of a simplification of the electrophysiological procedure on the post-operative clinical outcome after subthalamic nucleus implantation in Parkinson disease. Microelectrode recordings were performed on 5 parallel trajectories in group 1 and less than 5 trajectories in group 2. Clinical evaluations were performed 1 month before and 6 months after surgery. After surgery, the UPDRS III score in the off-drug/on-stimulation and on-drug/on-stimulation conditions significantly improved by 66,9% and 82%, respectively in group 1, and by 65.8% and 82.3% in group 2 (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the total number of words (P<0.05) significantly decreased for fluency tasks in both groups. Motor disability improvement and medication reduction were similar in both groups. Our results suggest that the electrophysiological procedure should be simplified as the team's experience increases.

  13. Subthalamic Neural Activity Patterns Anticipate Economic Risk Decisions in Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A; Rosa, M; Carpaneto, J; Romito, L M; Priori, A; Micera, S

    2018-01-01

    Economic decision-making is disrupted in individuals with gambling disorder, an addictive behavior observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients receiving dopaminergic therapy. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is involved in the inhibition of impulsive behaviors; however, its role in impulse control disorders and addiction is still unclear. Here, we recorded STN local field potentials (LFPs) in PD patients with and without gambling disorder during an economic decision-making task. Reaction times analysis showed that for all patients, the decision whether to risk preceded task onset. We compared then for both groups the STN LFP preceding high- and low-risk economic decisions. We found that risk avoidance in gamblers correlated with larger STN LFP low-frequency (gambling disorder were instead not correlated with pretask STN LFP. Our results suggest that STN activity preceding task onset affects risk decisions by preemptively inhibiting attraction to high but unlikely rewards in favor of a long-term payoff.

  14. Diving response in rats: role of the subthalamic vasodilator area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Golanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diving response is a powerful integrative response targeted toward survival of the hypoxic/anoxic conditions. Being present in all animals and humans it allows to survive adverse conditions like diving. Earlier we discovered that forehead stimulation affords neuroprotective effect decreasing infarction volume triggered by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. We hypothesized that cold stimulation of the forehead induces diving response in rats, which, in turn, exerts neuroprotection. We compared autonomic (AP, HR, CBF and EEG responses to the known diving response-triggering stimulus, ammonia stimulation of the nasal mucosa, cold stimulation of the forehead, and cold stimulation of the glabrous skin of the tail base in anesthetized rats. Responses in AP, HR, CBF and EEG to cold stimulation of the forehead and ammonia vapors instillation into the nasal cavity were comparable and differed significantly from responses to the cold stimulation of the tail base. Excitotoxic lesion of the subthalamic vasodilator area, which is known to participate in CBF regulation and to afford neuroprotection upon excitation, failed to affect autonomic components of the diving response evoked by forehead cold stimulation or nasal mucosa ammonia stimulation. We conclude that cold stimulation of the forehead triggers physiological response comparable to the response evoked by ammonia vapor instillation into the nasal cavity, which considered as stimulus triggering protective diving response. These observations may explain the neuroprotective effect of the forehead stimulation. Data demonstrate that subthalamic vasodilator area does not directly participate in the autonomic adjustments accompanying diving response, however, it is involved in diving-evoked modulation of EEG. We suggest that forehead stimulation can be employed as a stimulus capable of triggering oxygen-conserving diving response and can be used for neuroprotective therapy.

  15. Processing of emotional information in the human subthalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buot, Anne; Welter, Marie-Laure; Karachi, Carine; Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Bardinet, Eric; Yelnik, Jérôme; Mallet, Luc

    2013-12-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an efficient target for treating patients with Parkinson's disease as well as patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using high frequency stimulation (HFS). In both Parkinson's disease and OCD patients, STN-HFS can trigger abnormal behaviours, such as hypomania and impulsivity. To investigate if this structure processes emotional information, and whether it depends on motor demands, we recorded subthalamic local field potentials in 16 patients with Parkinson's disease using deep brain stimulation electrodes. Recordings were made with and without dopaminergic treatment while patients performed an emotional categorisation paradigm in which the response varied according to stimulus valence (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral) and to the instruction given (motor, non-motor and passive). Pleasant, unpleasant and neutral stimuli evoked an event related potential (ERP). Without dopamine medication, ERP amplitudes were significantly larger for unpleasant compared with neutral pictures, whatever the response triggered by the stimuli; and the magnitude of this effect was maximal in the ventral part of the STN. No significant difference in ERP amplitude was observed for pleasant pictures. With dopamine medication, ERP amplitudes were significantly increased for pleasant compared with neutral pictures whatever the response triggered by the stimuli, while ERP amplitudes to unpleasant pictures were not modified. These results demonstrate that the ventral part of the STN processes the emotional valence of stimuli independently of the motor context and that dopamine enhances processing of pleasant information. These findings confirm the specific involvement of the STN in emotional processes in human, which may underlie the behavioural changes observed in patients with deep brain stimulation.

  16. Classification of frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus reveals continua not discrete classes

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Alan R; Shackleton, Trevor M; Sumner, Christian J; Zobay, Oliver; Rees, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    A differential response to sound frequency is a fundamental property of auditory neurons. Frequency analysis in the cochlea gives rise to V-shaped tuning functions in auditory nerve fibres, but by the level of the inferior colliculus (IC), the midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway, neuronal receptive fields display diverse shapes that reflect the interplay of excitation and inhibition. The origin and nature of these frequency receptive field types is still open to question. One proposed hy...

  17. Spatial organization of frequency preference and selectivity in the human inferior colliculus

    OpenAIRE

    De Martino, Federico; Moerel, Michelle; van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Ugurbil, Kamil; Goebel, Rainer; Yacoub, Essa; Formisano, Elia

    2013-01-01

    To date, the functional organization of human auditory sub-cortical structures can only be inferred from animal models. Here we use high-resolution functional MRI at ultra-high magnetic fields (7 Tesla) to map the organization of spectral responses in the human inferior colliculus (hIC), a sub-cortical structure fundamental for sound processing. We reveal a tonotopic map with a spatial gradient of preferred frequencies approximately oriented from dorso-lateral (low frequencies) to ventro-medi...

  18. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects theory of mind network: a PET study in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Julie; Le Jeune, Florence; Haegelen, Claire; Dondaine, Thibaut; Drapier, Dominique; Sauleau, Paul; Reymann, Jean-Michel; Drapier, Sophie; Rouaud, Tiphaine; Millet, Bruno; Vérin, Marc

    2010-03-29

    There appears to be an overlap between the limbic system, which is modulated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD), and the brain network that mediates theory of mind (ToM). Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of STN DBS on ToM of PD patients and to correlate ToM modifications with changes in glucose metabolism. To this end, we conducted (18)FDG-PET scans in 13 PD patients in pre- and post-STN DBS conditions and correlated changes in their glucose metabolism with modified performances on the Eyes test, a visual ToM task requiring them to describe thoughts or feelings conveyed by photographs of the eye region. Postoperative PD performances on this emotion recognition task were significantly worse than either preoperative PD performances or those of healthy controls (HC), whereas there was no significant difference between preoperative PD and HC. Conversely, PD patients in the postoperative condition performed within the normal range on the gender attribution task included in the Eyes test. As far as the metabolic results are concerned, there were correlations between decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and impaired ToM in several cortical areas: the bilateral cingulate gyrus (BA 31), right middle frontal gyrus (BA 8, 9 and 10), left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6), temporal lobe (fusiform gyrus, BA 20), bilateral parietal lobe (right BA 3 and right and left BA 7) and bilateral occipital lobe (BA 19). There were also correlations between increased cerebral glucose metabolism and impaired ToM in the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 13 and BA 47) and right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47). All these structures overlap with the brain network that mediates ToM. These results seem to confirm that STN DBS hinders the ability to infer the mental states of others and modulates a distributed network known to subtend ToM.

  19. Stimulation of the Lateral Geniculate, Superior Colliculus, or Visual Cortex is Sufficient for Eyeblink Conditioning in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Hunter E.; Hubbard, Erin M.; Freeman, John H.

    2009-01-01

    The role of the cerebellum in eyeblink conditioning is well established. Less work has been done to identify the necessary conditioned stimulus (CS) pathways that project sensory information to the cerebellum. A possible visual CS pathway has been hypothesized that consists of parallel inputs to the pontine nuclei from the lateral geniculate…

  20. Fast Detector/First Responder: Interactions between the Superior Colliculus-Pulvinar Pathway and Stimuli Relevant to Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sandra C.; Maior, Rafael S.; Isbell, Lynne A.; Tomaz, Carlos; Nishijo, Hisao

    2017-01-01

    Primates are distinguished from other mammals by their heavy reliance on the visual sense, which occurred as a result of natural selection continually favoring those individuals whose visual systems were more responsive to challenges in the natural world. Here we describe two independent but also interrelated visual systems, one cortical and the other subcortical, both of which have been modified and expanded in primates for different functions. Available evidence suggests that while the cortical visual system mainly functions to give primates the ability to assess and adjust to fluid social and ecological environments, the subcortical visual system appears to function as a rapid detector and first responder when time is of the essence, i.e., when survival requires very quick action. We focus here on the subcortical visual system with a review of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that demonstrates its sensitivity to particular, often emotionally charged, ecological and social stimuli, i.e., snakes and fearful and aggressive facial expressions in conspecifics. We also review the literature on subcortical involvement during another, less emotional, situation that requires rapid detection and response—visually guided reaching and grasping during locomotion—to further emphasize our argument that the subcortical visual system evolved as a rapid detector/first responder, a function that remains in place today. Finally, we argue that investigating deficits in this subcortical system may provide greater understanding of Parkinson's disease and Autism Spectrum disorders (ASD). PMID:28261046

  1. Adaptation and inhibition underlie responses to time-varying interaural phase cues in a model of inferior colliculus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyuk, Alla; Semple, Malcolm N; Rinzel, John

    2002-10-01

    A mathematical model was developed for exploring the sensitivity of low-frequency inferior colliculus (IC) neurons to interaural phase disparity (IPD). The formulation involves a firing-rate-type model that does not include spikes per se. The model IC neuron receives IPD-tuned excitatory and inhibitory inputs (viewed as the output of a collection of cells in the medial superior olive). The model cell possesses cellular properties of firing rate adaptation and postinhibitory rebound (PIR). The descriptions of these mechanisms are biophysically reasonable, but only semi-quantitative. We seek to explain within a minimal model the experimentally observed mismatch between responses to IPD stimuli delivered dynamically and those delivered statically (McAlpine et al. 2000; Spitzer and Semple 1993). The model reproduces many features of the responses to static IPD presentations, binaural beat, and partial range sweep stimuli. These features include differences in responses to a stimulus presented in static or dynamic context: sharper tuning and phase shifts in response to binaural beats, and hysteresis and "rise-from-nowhere" in response to partial range sweeps. Our results suggest that dynamic response features are due to the structure of inputs and the presence of firing rate adaptation and PIR mechanism in IC cells, but do not depend on a specific biophysical mechanism. We demonstrate how the model's various components contribute to shaping the observed phenomena. For example, adaptation, PIR, and transmission delay shape phase advances and delays in responses to binaural beats, adaptation and PIR shape hysteresis in different ranges of IPD, and tuned inhibition underlies asymmetry in dynamic tuning properties. We also suggest experiments to test our modeling predictions: in vitro simulation of the binaural beat (phase advance at low beat frequencies, its dependence on firing rate), in vivo partial range sweep experiments (dependence of the hysteresis curve on

  2. The Subthalamic Nucleus, Limbic Function, and Impulse Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P Justin; Gunduz, Aysegul; Okun, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    It has been well documented that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to address some of the disabling motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) can evoke unintended effects, especially on non-motor behavior. This observation has catalyzed more than a decade of research concentrated on establishing trends and identifying potential mechanisms for these non-motor effects. While many issues remain unresolved, the collective result of many research studies and clinical observations has been a general recognition of the role of the STN in mediating limbic function. In particular, the STN has been implicated in impulse control and the related construct of valence processing. A better understanding of STN involvement in these phenomena could have important implications for treating impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs affect up to 40% of PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy and approximately 15% of PD patients overall. ICDs have been reported to be associated with STN DBS. In this paper we will focus on impulse control and review pre-clinical, clinical, behavioral, imaging, and electrophysiological studies pertaining to the limbic function of the STN.

  3. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation impairs emotional conflict adaptation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmen, Friederike; Huebl, Julius; Schroll, Henning; Brücke, Christof; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Hamker, Fred H; Kühn, Andrea A

    2017-10-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) occupies a strategic position in the motor network, slowing down responses in situations with conflicting perceptual input. Recent evidence suggests a role of the STN in emotion processing through strong connections with emotion recognition structures. As deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) inhibits monitoring of perceptual and value-based conflict, STN DBS may also interfere with emotional conflict processing. To assess a possible interference of STN DBS with emotional conflict processing, we used an emotional Stroop paradigm. Subjects categorized face stimuli according to their emotional expression while ignoring emotionally congruent or incongruent superimposed word labels. Eleven PD patients ON and OFF STN DBS and eleven age-matched healthy subjects conducted the task. We found conflict-induced response slowing in healthy controls and PD patients OFF DBS, but not ON DBS, suggesting STN DBS to decrease adaptation to within-trial conflict. OFF DBS, patients showed more conflict-induced slowing for negative conflict stimuli, which was diminished by STN DBS. Computational modelling of STN influence on conflict adaptation disclosed DBS to interfere via increased baseline activity. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Involvement of the subthalamic nucleus in impulse control disorders associated with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; López-Azcárate, Jon; Garcia-Garcia, David; Alegre, Manuel; Toledo, Jon; Valencia, Miguel; Guridi, Jorge; Artieda, Julio; Obeso, Jose A

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural abnormalities such as impulse control disorders may develop when patients with Parkinson's disease receive dopaminergic therapy, although they can be controlled by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. We have recorded local field potentials in the subthalamic nucleus of 28 patients with surgically implanted subthalamic electrodes. According to the predominant clinical features of each patient, their Parkinson's disease was associated with impulse control disorders (n = 10), dyskinesias (n = 9) or no dopaminergic mediated motor or behavioural complications (n = 9). Recordings were obtained during the OFF and ON dopaminergic states and the power spectrum of the subthalamic activity as well as the subthalamocortical coherence were analysed using Fourier transform-based techniques. The position of each electrode contact was determined in the postoperative magnetic resonance image to define the topography of the oscillatory activity recorded in each patient. In the OFF state, the three groups of patients had similar oscillatory activity. By contrast, in the ON state, the patients with impulse control disorders displayed theta-alpha (4-10 Hz) activity (mean peak: 6.71 Hz) that was generated 2-8 mm below the intercommissural line. Similarly, the patients with dyskinesia showed theta-alpha activity that peaked at a higher frequency (mean: 8.38 Hz) and was generated 0-2 mm below the intercommissural line. No such activity was detected in patients that displayed no dopaminergic side effects. Cortico-subthalamic coherence was more frequent in the impulsive patients in the 4-7.5 Hz range in scalp electrodes placed on the frontal regions anterior to the primary motor cortex, while in patients with dyskinesia it was in the 7.5-10 Hz range in the leads overlying the primary motor and supplementary motor area. Thus, dopaminergic side effects in Parkinson's disease are associated with oscillatory activity in the theta-alpha band, but at different

  5. Intracellular responses to frequency modulated tones in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus

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    Ruediger eGeis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency modulations occur in many natural sounds, including vocalizations. The neuronal response to frequency modulated (FM stimuli has been studied extensively in different brain areas, with an emphasis on the auditory cortex and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Here, we measured the responses to FM sweeps in whole-cell recordings from neurons in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus. Both up- and downward logarithmic FM sweeps were presented at two different speeds to both the ipsi- and the contralateral ear. Based on the number of action potentials that were fired, between 10-24% of cells were selective for rate or direction of the FM sweeps. A somewhat lower percentage of cells, 6-21%, showed selectivity based on EPSP size. To study the mechanisms underlying the generation of FM selectivity, we compared FM responses with responses to simple tones in the same cells. We found that if pairs of neurons responded in a similar way to simple tones, they generally also responded in a similar way to FM sweeps. Further evidence that FM selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex was obtained by reconstructing FM sweeps from the response to simple tones using three different models. In about half of the direction selective neurons the selectivity was generated by spectrally asymmetric synaptic inhibition. In addition, evidence for direction selectivity based on the timing of excitatory responses was also obtained in some cells. No clear evidence for the local generation of rate selectivity was obtained. We conclude that FM direction selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus by multiple mechanisms.

  6. [Emotion and basal ganglia (II): what can we learn from subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, J; Dondaine, T

    2012-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation Parkinson's disease patient model seems to represent a unique opportunity for studying the functional role of the basal ganglia and notably the subthalamic nucleus in human emotional processing. Indeed, in addition to constituting a therapeutic advance for severely disabled Parkinson's disease patients, deep brain stimulation is a technique, which selectively modulates the activity of focal structures targeted by surgery. There is growing evidence of a link between emotional impairments and deep-brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. In this context, according to the definition of emotional processing exposed in the companion paper available in this issue, the aim of the present review will consist in providing a synopsis of the studies that investigated the emotional disturbances observed in subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation Parkinson's disease patients. This review leads to the conclusion that several emotional components would be disrupted after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: subjective feeling, neurophysiological activation, and motor expression. Finally, after a description of the limitations of this study model, we discuss the functional role of the subthalamic nucleus (and the striato-thalamo-cortical circuits in which it is involved) in emotional processing. It seems reasonable to conclude that the striato-thalamo-cortical circuits are indeed involved in emotional processing and that the subthalamic nucleus plays a central in role the human emotional architecture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Subthalamic Stimulation on Olfactory Function in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Carvalho, Margarete de Jesus; Lasteros, Fernando Jeyson Lopez; Dias, Alice Estevo; Dos Santos Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela; Paiva, Anderson Rodrigues Brandão; Coutinho, Artur Martins; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni

    2018-06-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a nonmotor symptom of Parkinson disease (PD) associated with reduction in quality of life. There is no evidence on whether improvements in olfaction after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) may be directly attributable to motor improvement or whether this reflects a direct effect of DBS on olfactory brain areas. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of DBS on olfactory function in PD, as well as to explore the correlation between these changes and changes in motor symptoms and brain metabolism. Thirty-two patients with PD were screened for STN-DBS. Patients were evaluated before and 1 year after surgery. Primary outcome was the change in olfactory function (Sniffin' Sticks odor-identification test [SST]) after surgery among the patients with hyposmia at baseline. Secondary outcomes included the relationship between motor outcomes and olfactory changes and [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography analysis between subgroups with improvement versus no improvement of smell. STN-DBS improved SST after surgery (preoperative SST, median 7.3 ± 2.4 vs. postoperative SST, median 8.2 ± 2.1; P = 0.045) in a subset of patients among 29 of 32 patients who presented with hyposmia at baseline. The improvement in SST was correlated with DBS response (r = 0.424; P = 0.035). There was also an increase in glucose metabolism in the midbrain, cerebellum, and right frontal lobe in patients with SST improvement (P < 0.001). STN-DBS improves odor identification in a subset of patients with PD. Motor improvement together with changes in the brain metabolism may be linked to this improvement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Subthalamic nucleus electrical stimulation modulates calcium activity of nigral astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Barat

    Full Text Available The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, delivering inhibitory efferents to the relay nuclei of the thalamus. Pathological hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders e.g. in Parkinson's disease. One way to restore this pathological activity is to electrically stimulate one of the SNr input, the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN, which has emerged as an effective treatment for parkinsonian patients. The neuronal network and signal processing of the basal ganglia are well known but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied.In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous and induced excitability of afferent nuclei on SNr astrocytes calcium activity. Astrocytes represent the main cellular population in the SNr and display spontaneous calcium activities in basal conditions. Half of this activity is autonomous (i.e. independent of synaptic activity while the other half is dependent on spontaneous glutamate and GABA release, probably controlled by the pace-maker activity of the pallido-nigral and subthalamo-nigral loops. Modification of the activity of the loops by STN electrical stimulation disrupted this astrocytic calcium excitability through an increase of glutamate and GABA releases. Astrocytic AMPA, mGlu and GABA(A receptors were involved in this effect.Astrocytes are now viewed as active components of neural networks but their role depends on the brain structure concerned. In the SNr, evoked activity prevails and autonomous calcium activity is lower than in the cortex or hippocampus. Our data therefore reflect a specific role of SNr astrocytes in sensing the STN-GPe-SNr loops activity and suggest that SNr astrocytes could potentially feedback on SNr neuronal activity. These findings have major implications given the position of SNr in the basal ganglia network.

  9. Modulation of Human Time Processing by Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Lars; Reck, Christiane; Maarouf, Mohammad; Jörgens, Silke; Ploner, Markus; Südmeyer, Martin; Groiss, Stefan Jun; Sturm, Volker; Niedeggen, Michael; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    Timing in the range of seconds referred to as interval timing is crucial for cognitive operations and conscious time processing. According to recent models of interval timing basal ganglia (BG) oscillatory loops are involved in time interval recognition. Parkinsońs disease (PD) is a typical disease of the basal ganglia that shows distortions in interval timing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a powerful treatment of PD which modulates motor and cognitive functions depending on stimulation frequency by affecting subcortical-cortical oscillatory loops. Thus, for the understanding of BG-involvement in interval timing it is of interest whether STN-DBS can modulate timing in a frequency dependent manner by interference with oscillatory time recognition processes. We examined production and reproduction of 5 and 15 second intervals and millisecond timing in a double blind, randomised, within-subject repeated-measures design of 12 PD-patients applying no, 10-Hz- and ≥130-Hz-STN-DBS compared to healthy controls. We found under(re-)production of the 15-second interval and a significant enhancement of this under(re-)production by 10-Hz-stimulation compared to no stimulation, ≥130-Hz-STN-DBS and controls. Milliseconds timing was not affected. We provide first evidence for a frequency-specific modulatory effect of STN-DBS on interval timing. Our results corroborate the involvement of BG in general and of the STN in particular in the cognitive representation of time intervals in the range of multiple seconds. PMID:21931767

  10. Task Specific Inter-Hemispheric Coupling in Human Subthalamic Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eDarvas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cortical networks and quantitative measures of connectivity are integral to the study of brain function. Despite lack of direct connections between left and right subthalamic nuclei (STN, there are apparent physiological connections. During clinical examination of patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD, this connectivity is exploited to enhance signs of PD, yet our understanding of this connectivity is limited. We hypothesized that movement leads to synchronization of neural oscillations in bilateral STN, and we implemented phase coherence, a measure of phase-locking between cortical sites in a narrow frequency band, to demonstrate this synchronization. We analyzed task specific phase synchronization and causality between left and right STN local field potentials (LFP recorded from both hemispheres simultaneously during a cued movement task in four subjects with PD who underwent Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS surgery. We used a data driven approach to determine inter-hemispheric channel pairs and frequencies with a task specific increase in phase locking.We found significant phase locking between hemispheres in alpha frequency (8-12 Hz in all subjects concurrent with movement of either hand. In all subjects, phase synchronization increased over baseline upon or prior to hand movement onset and lasted until the motion ceased. Left and right hand movement showed similar patterns. Granger causality at the phase-locking frequencies between synchronized electrodes revealed a unidirectional causality from right to left STN regardless of which side was moved.Phase synchronization across hemispheres between basal ganglia supports existence of a bilateral network having lateralized regions of specialization for motor processing. Our results suggest this bilateral network is activated by a unilateral motor program. Understanding phase synchronization in natural brain functions is critical to development of future DBS systems that augment goal directed

  11. Subthalamic nucleus electrical stimulation modulates calcium activity of nigral astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Elodie; Boisseau, Sylvie; Bouyssières, Céline; Appaix, Florence; Savasta, Marc; Albrieux, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, delivering inhibitory efferents to the relay nuclei of the thalamus. Pathological hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders e.g. in Parkinson's disease. One way to restore this pathological activity is to electrically stimulate one of the SNr input, the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN), which has emerged as an effective treatment for parkinsonian patients. The neuronal network and signal processing of the basal ganglia are well known but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied. In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous and induced excitability of afferent nuclei on SNr astrocytes calcium activity. Astrocytes represent the main cellular population in the SNr and display spontaneous calcium activities in basal conditions. Half of this activity is autonomous (i.e. independent of synaptic activity) while the other half is dependent on spontaneous glutamate and GABA release, probably controlled by the pace-maker activity of the pallido-nigral and subthalamo-nigral loops. Modification of the activity of the loops by STN electrical stimulation disrupted this astrocytic calcium excitability through an increase of glutamate and GABA releases. Astrocytic AMPA, mGlu and GABA(A) receptors were involved in this effect. Astrocytes are now viewed as active components of neural networks but their role depends on the brain structure concerned. In the SNr, evoked activity prevails and autonomous calcium activity is lower than in the cortex or hippocampus. Our data therefore reflect a specific role of SNr astrocytes in sensing the STN-GPe-SNr loops activity and suggest that SNr astrocytes could potentially feedback on SNr neuronal activity. These findings have major implications given the position of SNr in the basal ganglia network.

  12. Modulation of human time processing by subthalamic deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtecki, Lars; Elben, Saskia; Timmermann, Lars; Reck, Christiane; Maarouf, Mohammad; Jörgens, Silke; Ploner, Markus; Südmeyer, Martin; Groiss, Stefan Jun; Sturm, Volker; Niedeggen, Michael; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    Timing in the range of seconds referred to as interval timing is crucial for cognitive operations and conscious time processing. According to recent models of interval timing basal ganglia (BG) oscillatory loops are involved in time interval recognition. Parkinsońs disease (PD) is a typical disease of the basal ganglia that shows distortions in interval timing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a powerful treatment of PD which modulates motor and cognitive functions depending on stimulation frequency by affecting subcortical-cortical oscillatory loops. Thus, for the understanding of BG-involvement in interval timing it is of interest whether STN-DBS can modulate timing in a frequency dependent manner by interference with oscillatory time recognition processes. We examined production and reproduction of 5 and 15 second intervals and millisecond timing in a double blind, randomised, within-subject repeated-measures design of 12 PD-patients applying no, 10-Hz- and ≥ 130-Hz-STN-DBS compared to healthy controls. We found under(re-)production of the 15-second interval and a significant enhancement of this under(re-)production by 10-Hz-stimulation compared to no stimulation, ≥ 130-Hz-STN-DBS and controls. Milliseconds timing was not affected. We provide first evidence for a frequency-specific modulatory effect of STN-DBS on interval timing. Our results corroborate the involvement of BG in general and of the STN in particular in the cognitive representation of time intervals in the range of multiple seconds.

  13. Stereotactic localization and visualization of the subthalamic nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wei-gao; WANG Hai-yang; LIN Zhi-guo; SHEN Hong; CHEN Xiao-guang; FU Yi-li; GAO Wen-peng

    2009-01-01

    Background The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is widely recognized as one of the most important and commonly targeted nuclei in stereotactic and functional neurosurgery. The success of STN surgery depends on accuracy in target determination. Construction of a digitalized atlas of STN based on stereotactic MRI will play an instrumental role in the accuracy of anatomical localization. The aim of this study was to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) target location of STN in stereotactic space and construct a digitalized atlas of STN to accomplish the visualization of the STN on stereotactic MRI, thus providing clinical guidance on the precise anatomical localization of STN.Methods One hundred and twenty healthy people volunteered to be scanned by 1.5 Tesla MRI scanning with 1-mm-thick slice in the standard stereotactic space between 2005 and 2006. One adult male was selected for 3D reconstruction of STN. The precess of 3D reconstruction included identification, manual segmentation, extraction,conservation and reconstruction.Results There was a significant correlation between the coordinates and age (P <0.05). The volume of left STN was significantly larger than the right STN, and there was a significant negative correlation between volume and age (P <0.05).The surface of the STN nucleus after 3D reconstruction appeared smooth, natural and realistic. The morphological feature of STN on the individual brain could be visualized directly in 3D. The 3D reconstructed STN could be rotated,zoomed and displayed at any direction in the stereotactic space. The anteroposterior diameter of the STN nucleus was longer than the vertical and transverse diameters in 3D space. The 3D reconstruction of STN manifested typical structure of the "dual lens".Conclusions The visualization of individual brain atlas based on stereotactic MRI is feasible. However, software for automated segmentation, extraction and registration of MR images need to be further developed.

  14. Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects on Voice Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Lundgren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD affects speech inconsistently. Recently, stimulation of the caudal zona incerta (cZi-DBS has shown superior motor outcomes for PD patients, but effects on speech have not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cZi-DBS and STN-DBS on voice intensity in PD patients. Mean intensity during reading and intensity decay during rapid syllable repetition were measured for STN-DBS and cZi-DBS patients (eight patients per group, before- and 12 months after-surgery on- and off-stimulation. For mean intensity, there were small significant differences on- versus off-stimulation in each group: 74.2 (2.0 dB contra 72.1 (2.2 dB (=.002 for STN-DBS, and 71.6 (4.1 dB contra 72.8 (3.4 dB (=.03 for cZi-DBS, with significant interaction (<.001. Intensity decay showed no significant changes. The subtle differences found for mean intensity suggest that STN-DBS and cZi-DBS may influence voice intensity differently.

  15. Bilateral high frequency subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: long-term neurological follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romito, L. M.; Scerrati, M.; Contarino, M. F.; Iacoangeli, M.; Bentivoglio, A. R.; Albanese, A.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is gaining recognition as a new symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). The first available long-term observations show the stability of the efficacy of this procedure in time. METHODS: Quadripolar leads were implanted

  16. Selectively stimulating neural populations in the subthalamic region using a novel deep brain stimulation lead design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Kees Joab; Verhagen, R.; Bour, L.J.; Heida, Tjitske

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) is widely used in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease(PD) and has proven to be an effective treatment of the various motor symptoms. The therapy involves implanting a lead consisting of multiple electrodes in the STN through which

  17. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Changes Velopharyngeal Control in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Michael J.; Barlow, Steven M.; Lyons, Kelly E.; Pahwa, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Adequate velopharyngeal control is essential for speech, but may be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD). Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) improves limb function in PD, but the effects on velopharyngeal control remain unknown. We tested whether STN DBS would change aerodynamic measures of velopharyngeal…

  18. Disease progression continues in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and effective subthalamic nucleus stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, R; Portman, AT; Voges, J; Staal, MJ; Burghaus, L; van Laar, T; Koulousakis, A; Maguire, RP; Pruim, J; de Jong, BM; Herholz, K; Sturm, [No Value; Heiss, WD; Leenders, KL

    Objectives: Glutamate mediated excitotoxicity of the hyperactive subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been reported to contribute to nigral degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation of the STN (STN DBS), in its role as a highly effective treatment of severe PD motor complications,

  19. Stimulation of the subthalamic region facilitates the selection and inhibition of motor responses in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; van Boxtel, Geert J. M.; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Bosch, D. Andries; Speelman, Johannes D.; Brunia, Cornelis H. M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to specify the involvement of the basal ganglia in motor response selection and response inhibition. Two samples were studied. The first sample consisted of patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) who received deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic

  20. Effects of Subthalamic and Nigral Stimulation on Gait Kinematics in Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, M.; Klemt, J.; Heilbronn, M.; Plewnia, C.; Bloem, B.R.; Bunjes, F.; Kruger, R.; Gharabaghi, A.; Weiss, D.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional subthalamic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease (PD) presumably modulates the spatial component of gait. However, temporal dysregulation of gait is one of the factors that is tightly associated with freezing of gait (FOG). Temporal locomotor integration may be modulated

  1. Pallidotomy suppresses beta power in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Bour, Lo J.; Bot, Maarten; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Speelman, Johannes D.; Schuurman, P. Richard; de Bie, Rob M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinsonian patients, who have had a unilateral pallidotomy, may require bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), due to disease progression. The current model of the basal ganglia circuitry does not predict a direct effect of pallidotomy on the neuronal activity of the

  2. A novel lead design enables selective deep brain stimulation of neural populations in the subthalamic region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Kees J.; Verhagen, Rens; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Bour, Lo J.; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) as a treatment for Parkinson's disease are sensitive to the location of the DBS lead within the STN. New high density (HD) lead designs have been created which are hypothesized to provide additional degrees of

  3. A novel lead design enables selective deep brain stimulation of neural populations in the subthalamic region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Kees J.; Verhagen, Rens; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Bour, Lo J.; Heida, Tjitske; Veltink, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The clinical effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) as a treatment for Parkinson's disease are sensitive to the location of the DBS lead within the STN. New high density (HD) lead designs have been created which are hypothesized to provide additional

  4. A randomized double-blind crossover trial comparing subthalamic and pallidal deep brain stimulation for dystonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerling, Lisbeth; Hjermind, Lena E; Jespersen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Object The authors' aim was to compare the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with the globus pallidus internus (GPi) as a stimulation target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for medically refractory dystonia. Methods In a prospective double-blind crossover study, electrodes were bilaterally implanted in ...

  5. Differential impact of thalamic versus subthalamic deep brain stimulation on lexical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugel, Lea K; Ehlen, Felicitas; Tiedt, Hannes O; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2014-10-01

    Roles of subcortical structures in language processing are vague, but, interestingly, basal ganglia and thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation can go along with reduced lexical capacities. To deepen the understanding of this impact, we assessed word processing as a function of thalamic versus subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. Ten essential tremor patients treated with thalamic and 14 Parkinson׳s disease patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation performed an acoustic Lexical Decision Task ON and OFF stimulation. Combined analysis of task performance and event-related potentials allowed the determination of processing speed, priming effects, and N400 as neurophysiological correlate of lexical stimulus processing. 12 age-matched healthy participants acted as control subjects. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation prolonged word decisions and reduced N400 potentials. No comparable ON-OFF effects were present in patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. In the latter group of patients with Parkinson' disease, N400 amplitudes were, however, abnormally low, whether under active or inactive Deep Brain Stimulation. In conclusion, performance speed and N400 appear to be influenced by state functions, modulated by thalamic, but not subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation, compatible with concepts of thalamo-cortical engagement in word processing. Clinically, these findings specify cognitive sequels of Deep Brain Stimulation in a target-specific way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Topographic organization of the human and non-human primate subthalamic nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, A.; Schnitzler, A.; Forstmann, B.U.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to relieve motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. A tripartite system of STN subdivisions serving motoric, associative, and limbic functions was proposed, mainly based on tracing studies, which are limited by low numbers of

  7. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation influences expression and suppression of impulsive behaviour in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Elias, William J.; Frysinger, Robert C.; Bashore, Theodore R.; Downs, Kara E.; van Wouwe, Nelleke C.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Past studies show beneficial as well as detrimental effects of subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation on impulsive behaviour. We address this paradox by investigating individuals with Parkinson’s disease treated with subthalamic nucleus stimulation (n = 17) and healthy controls without Parkinson’s disease (n = 17) on performance in a Simon task. In this reaction time task, conflict between premature response impulses and goal-directed action selection is manipulated. We applied distributional analytic methods to separate the strength of the initial response impulse from the proficiency of inhibitory control engaged subsequently to suppress the impulse. Patients with Parkinson’s disease were tested when stimulation was either turned on or off. Mean conflict interference effects did not differ between controls and patients, or within patients when stimulation was on versus off. In contrast, distributional analyses revealed two dissociable effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Fast response errors indicated that stimulation increased impulsive, premature responding in high conflict situations. Later in the reaction process, however, stimulation improved the proficiency with which inhibitory control was engaged to suppress these impulses selectively, thereby facilitating selection of the correct action. This temporal dissociation supports a conceptual framework for resolving past paradoxical findings and further highlights that dynamic aspects of impulse and inhibitory control underlying goal-directed behaviour rely in part on neural circuitry inclusive of the subthalamic nucleus. PMID:20861152

  8. A multicentre study on suicide outcomes following subthalamic stimulation for Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voon, Valerie; Krack, Paul; Lang, Anthony E.; Lozano, Andres M.; Dujardin, Kathy; Schüpbach, Michael; D'Ambrosia, James; Thobois, Stephane; Tamma, Filippo; Herzog, Jan; Speelman, Johannes D.; Samanta, Johan; Kubu, Cynthia; Rossignol, Helene; Poon, Yu-Yan; Saint-Cyr, Jean A.; Ardouin, Claire; Moro, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation improves motor symptoms and quality of life in advanced Parkinson's disease. As after other life-altering surgeries, suicides have been reported following deep brain stimulation for movement disorders. We sought to determine the suicide rate following

  9. Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor: Aligning Thalamic and Posterior Subthalamic Targets in 1 Surgical Trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Maarten; van Rootselaar, Fleur; Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Odekerken, Vincent; Dijk, Joke; de Bie, Rob; Schuurman, Richard; van den Munckhof, Pepijn

    2017-01-01

    Ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) deep brain stimulation (DBS) and posterior subthalamic area (PSA) DBS suppress tremor in essential tremor (ET) patients, but it is not clear which target is optimal. Aligning both targets in 1 surgical trajectory would facilitate exploring stimulation of either

  10. Inhibition shapes selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus of awake mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary eMayko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC is a major center for integration of auditory information as itreceives ascending projections from a variety of brainstem nuclei as well as descending projectionsfrom the thalamus and auditory cortex. The ascending projections are both excitatory andinhibitory and their convergence at the IC results in a microcircuitry that is important forshaping responses to simple, binaural, and modulated sounds in the IC. Here, we examined therole inhibition plays in shaping selectivity to vocalizations in the IC of awake, normal-hearingadult mice (CBA/CaJ strain. Neurons in the IC of mice show selectivity in their responses tovocalizations, and we hypothesized that this selectivity is created by inhibitory microcircuitryin the IC. We compared single unit responses in the IC to pure tones and a variety of ultrasonicmouse vocalizations before and after iontophoretic application of GABAA receptor (GABAARand glycine receptor (GlyR antagonists. The most pronounced effects of blocking GABAAR andGlyR on IC neurons were to increase spike rates and broaden excitatory frequency tuning curvesin response to pure tone stimuli, and to decrease selectivity to vocalizations. Thus, inhibitionplays an important role in creating selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus.

  11. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects theory of mind network: a PET study in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Péron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There appears to be an overlap between the limbic system, which is modulated by subthalamic nucleus (STN deep brain stimulation (DBS in Parkinson's disease (PD, and the brain network that mediates theory of mind (ToM. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of STN DBS on ToM of PD patients and to correlate ToM modifications with changes in glucose metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To this end, we conducted (18FDG-PET scans in 13 PD patients in pre- and post-STN DBS conditions and correlated changes in their glucose metabolism with modified performances on the Eyes test, a visual ToM task requiring them to describe thoughts or feelings conveyed by photographs of the eye region. Postoperative PD performances on this emotion recognition task were significantly worse than either preoperative PD performances or those of healthy controls (HC, whereas there was no significant difference between preoperative PD and HC. Conversely, PD patients in the postoperative condition performed within the normal range on the gender attribution task included in the Eyes test. As far as the metabolic results are concerned, there were correlations between decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and impaired ToM in several cortical areas: the bilateral cingulate gyrus (BA 31, right middle frontal gyrus (BA 8, 9 and 10, left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6, temporal lobe (fusiform gyrus, BA 20, bilateral parietal lobe (right BA 3 and right and left BA 7 and bilateral occipital lobe (BA 19. There were also correlations between increased cerebral glucose metabolism and impaired ToM in the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 22, left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 13 and BA 47 and right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47. All these structures overlap with the brain network that mediates ToM. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results seem to confirm that STN DBS hinders the ability to infer the mental states of others and modulates a

  12. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus: effectiveness in advanced Parkinson's disease patients previously reliant on apomorphine

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, T; Fox, S; Eldridge, P; Littlechild, P; Byrne, P; Forster, A; Marshall, A; Cameron, H; McIver, K; Fletcher, N; Steiger, M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the efficacy of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease previously reliant on apomorphine as their main antiparkinsonian medication.

  13. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  14. Is GABA neurotransmission enhanced in auditory thalamus relative to inferior colliculus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Kalappa, Bopanna I.; Brozoski, Thomas J.; Ling, Lynne L.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central auditory system. Sensory thalamic structures show high levels of non-desensitizing extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and a reduction in the redundancy of coded information. The present study compared the inhibitory potency of GABA acting at GABAARs between the inferior colliculus (IC) and the medial geniculate body (MGB) using quantitative in vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo experimental approaches. In vivo single unit studies compared the ability of half maximal inhibitory concentrations of GABA to inhibit sound-evoked temporal responses, and found that GABA was two to three times (P GABA levels and suggested a trend towards higher GABA concentrations in MGB than in IC. Collectively, these studies suggest that, per unit GABA, high affinity extrasynaptic and synaptic GABAARs confer a significant inhibitory GABAAR advantage to MGB neurons relative to IC neurons. This increased GABA sensitivity likely underpins the vital filtering role of auditory thalamus. PMID:24155003

  15. Responses to amplitude modulated infrared stimuli in the guinea pig inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Young, Hunter

    2013-03-01

    Responses of units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig were recorded with tungsten electrodes. The set of data presented here is limited to high stimulus levels. The effect of changing the modulation frequency and the modulation depth was explored for acoustic and laser stimuli. The selected units responded to sinusoidal amplitude modulated (AM) tones, AM trains of clicks, and AM trains of laser pulses with a modulation of their spike discharge. At modulation frequencies of 20 Hz, some units tended to respond with 40 Hz to the acoustic stimuli, but only at 20 Hz for the trains of laser pulses. For all modes of stimulation the responses revealed a dominant response to the first cycle of the modulation, with decreasing number of action potential during successive cycles. While amplitude modulated tone bursts and amplitude modulated trains of acoustic clicks showed similar patterns, the response to trains of laser pulses was different.

  16. Interaural time sensitivity of high-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T C; Kuwada, S; Sujaku, Y

    1984-11-01

    Recent psychoacoustic experiments have shown that interaural time differences provide adequate cues for lateralizing high-frequency sounds, provided the stimuli are complex and not pure tones. We present here physiological evidence in support of these findings. Neurons of high best frequency in the cat inferior colliculus respond to interaural phase differences of amplitude modulated waveforms, and this response depends upon preservation of phase information of the modulating signal. Interaural phase differences were introduced in two ways: by interaural delays of the entire waveform and by binaural beats in which there was an interaural frequency difference in the modulating waveform. Results obtained with these two methods are similar. Our results show that high-frequency cells can respond to interaural time differences of amplitude modulated signals and that they do so by a sensitivity to interaural phase differences of the modulating waveform.

  17. Connections of the superior paraolivary nucleus of the rat: II. Reciprocal connections with the tectal longitudinal column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eViñuela

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON, a prominent GABAergic center of the mammalian auditory brainstem, projects to the ipsilateral inferior colliculus (IC and sends axons through the commissure of the IC (CoIC. Herein we demonstrate that the SPON is reciprocally connected with the recently discovered tectal longitudinal column (TLC. The TLC is a long and narrow structure that spans nearly the entire midbrain tectum longitudinally, immediately above the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG and very close to the midline.Unilateral injections of biotinylated dextran into the SPON of the rat label abundant terminal fibers in the TLC of both sides, with an ipsilateral predominance. The SPON provides a dense innervation of the entire rostrocaudal extent of the ipsilateral TLC, and a relatively sparser innervation of the caudal and rostral portions of the contralateral TLC. SPON fibers reach the TLC by two routes: as collaterals of axons of the CoIC, and as axons that circumvent the ipsilateral IC before traveling in the deep layers of the superior colliculus.The density of these projections identifies SPON as a significant source of input to the TLC. Other targets of the SPON discovered in this study include the deep layers of the superior colliculus and the PAG. The same experiments reveal numerous labeled cell bodies in the TLC, interspersed among the labeled SPON fibers. This observation suggests that the SPON is a significant target of TLC projections.The discovery of novel reciprocal connections between the SPON and the TLC opens unexpected avenues for investigation of sound processing in mammalian brainstem circuits.

  18. Evoked responses of the superior olive to amplitude-modulated signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, N G; Lang, T T

    1977-01-01

    Evoked potentials of some auditory centers of Rhinolophidae bats to amplitude-modulated signals were studied. A synchronization response was found in the cochlear nuclei (with respect to the fast component of the response) and in the superior olivary complex (with respect to both fast and slow components of the response) within the range of frequency modulation from 50 to 2000 Hz. In the inferior colliculus a synchronized response was recorded at modulation frequencies below 150 Hz, but in the medial geniculate bodies no such response was found. Evoked responses of the superior olivary complex were investigated in detail. The lowest frequencies of synchronization were recorded within the carrier frequency range of 15-30 and 80-86 kHz. The amplitude of the synchronized response is a function of the frequency and coefficient of modulation and also of the angle of stimulus presentation.

  19. Adaptive grip force is modulated by subthalamic beta activity in Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas L. Imbach

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The time-locked suppression of beta oscillatory activity in the STN is in line with previous reports of beta ERD prior to voluntary movements. Our results show that the STN is involved in anticipatory grip force control in PD patients. The difference in the phasic beta ERD between the two tasks and the reduction of cortico-subthalamic synchronization suggests that qualitatively different neuronal network states are involved in different grip force control tasks.

  20. Subthalamic nucleus activity optimizes maximal effort motor responses in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Bogdanovic, Marko; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The neural substrates that enable individuals to achieve their fastest and strongest motor responses have long been enigmatic. Importantly, characterization of such activities may inform novel therapeutic strategies for patients with hypokinetic disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Here, we ask whether the basal ganglia may play an important role, not only in the attainment of maximal motor responses under standard conditions but also in the setting of the performance enhancements known to be engendered by delivery of intense stimuli. To this end, we recorded local field potentials from deep brain stimulation electrodes implanted bilaterally in the subthalamic nuclei of 10 patients with Parkinson's disease, as they executed their fastest and strongest handgrips in response to a visual cue, which was accompanied by a brief 96-dB auditory tone on random trials. We identified a striking correlation between both theta/alpha (5-12 Hz) and high-gamma/high-frequency (55-375 Hz) subthalamic nucleus activity and force measures, which explained close to 70% of interindividual variance in maximal motor responses to the visual cue alone, when patients were ON their usual dopaminergic medication. Loud auditory stimuli were found to enhance reaction time and peak rate of development of force still further, independent of whether patients were ON or OFF l-DOPA, and were associated with increases in subthalamic nucleus power over a broad gamma range. However, the contribution of this broad gamma activity to the performance enhancements observed was only modest (≤13%). The results implicate frequency-specific subthalamic nucleus activities as substantial factors in optimizing an individual's peak motor responses at maximal effort of will, but much less so in the performance increments engendered by intense auditory stimuli.

  1. The Impact of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Sleep-Wake Behavior: A Prospective Electrophysiological Study in 50 Parkinson Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Vogel, Heide; Imbach, Lukas L; Sürücü, Oguzkan; Stieglitz, Lennart; Waldvogel, Daniel; Baumann, Christian R; Werth, Esther

    2017-05-01

    This prospective observational study was designed to systematically examine the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on subjective and objective sleep-wake parameters in Parkinson patients. In 50 consecutive Parkinson patients undergoing subthalamic DBS, we assessed motor symptoms, medication, the position of DBS electrodes within the subthalamic nucleus (STN), subjective sleep-wake parameters, 2-week actigraphy, video-polysomnography studies, and sleep electroencepahalogram frequency and dynamics analyses before and 6 months after surgery. Subthalamic DBS improved not only motor symptoms and reduced daily intake of dopaminergic agents but also enhanced subjective sleep quality and reduced sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale: -2.1 ± 3.8, p sleep efficiency (+5.2 ± 17.6%, p = .005) and deep sleep (+11.2 ± 32.2 min, p = .017) and increased accumulation of slow-wave activity over the night (+41.0 ± 80.0%, p = .005). Rapid eye movement sleep features were refractory to subthalamic DBS, and the dynamics of sleep as assessed by state space analyses did not normalize. Increased sleep efficiency was associated with active electrode contact localization more distant from the ventral margin of the left subthalamic nucleus. Subthalamic DBS deepens and consolidates nocturnal sleep and improves daytime wakefulness in Parkinson patients, but several outcomes suggest that it does not normalize sleep. It remains elusive whether modulated activity in the STN directly contributes to changes in sleep-wake behavior, but dorsal positioning of electrodes within the STN is linked to improved sleep-wake outcomes. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effects of Subthalamic and Nigral Stimulation on Gait Kinematics in Parkinson’s Disease

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    Marlieke Scholten

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional subthalamic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease (PD presumably modulates the spatial component of gait. However, temporal dysregulation of gait is one of the factors that is tightly associated with freezing of gait (FOG. Temporal locomotor integration may be modulated differentially at distinct levels of the basal ganglia. Owing to its specific descending brainstem projections, stimulation of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr area might modulate spatial and temporal parameters of gait differentially compared to standard subthalamic nucleus (STN stimulation. Here, we aimed to characterize the differential effect of STN or SNr stimulation on kinematic gait parameters. We analyzed biomechanical parameters during unconstrained over ground walking in 12 PD patients with subthalamic deep brain stimulation and FOG. Patients performed walking in three therapeutic conditions: (i Off stimulation, (ii STN stimulation (alone, and (iii SNr stimulation (alone. SNr stimulation was achieved by stimulating the most caudal contact of the electrode. We recorded gait using three sensors (each containing a tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer attached on both left and right ankle, and to the lumbar spine. STN stimulation improved both the spatial features (stride length, stride length variability and the temporal parameters of gait. SNr stimulation improved temporal parameters of gait (swing time asymmetry. Correlation analysis suggested that patients with more medial localization of the SNr contact associated with a stronger regularization of gait. These results suggest that SNr stimulation might support temporal regularization of gait integration.

  3. Subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation restores altered electrophysiological properties of cortical neurons in parkinsonian rat.

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    Bertrand Degos

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological recordings performed in parkinsonian patients and animal models have confirmed the occurrence of alterations in firing rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons, but the outcome of these changes in thalamo-cortical networks remains unclear. Using rats rendered parkinsonian, we investigated, at a cellular level in vivo, the electrophysiological changes induced in the pyramidal cells of the motor cortex by the dopaminergic transmission interruption and further characterized the impact of high-frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, a procedure alleviating parkinsonian symptoms. We provided evidence that a lesion restricted to the substantia nigra pars compacta resulted in a marked increase in the mean firing rate and bursting pattern of pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex. These alterations were underlain by changes of the electrical membranes properties of pyramidal cells including depolarized resting membrane potential and increased input resistance. The modifications induced by the dopaminergic loss were more pronounced in cortico-striatal than in cortico-subthalamic neurons. Furthermore, subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation applied at parameters alleviating parkinsonian signs regularized the firing pattern of pyramidal cells and restored their electrical membrane properties.

  4. Partial tripolar cochlear implant stimulation: Spread of excitation and forward masking in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, Julie Arenberg; Bierer, Steven M; Middlebrooks, John C

    2010-12-01

    This study examines patterns of neural activity in response to single biphasic electrical pulses, presented alone or following a forward masking pulse train, delivered by a cochlear implant. Recordings were made along the tonotopic axis of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized guinea pigs. The partial tripolar electrode configuration was used, which provided a systematic way to vary the tonotopic extent of ICC activation between monopolar (broad) and tripolar (narrow) extremes while maintaining the same peak of activation. The forward masking paradigm consisted of a 200 ms masker pulse train (1017 pulses per second) followed 10 ms later by a single-pulse probe stimulus; the current fraction of the probe was set to 0 (monopolar), 1 (tripolar), or 0.5 (hybrid), and the fraction of the masker was fixed at 0.5. Forward masking tuning profiles were derived from the amount of masking current required to just suppress the activity produced by a fixed-level probe. These profiles were sharper for more focused probe configurations, approximating the pattern of neural activity elicited by single (non-masked) pulses. The result helps to bridge the gap between previous findings in animals and recent psychophysical data. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, C.-P.; Rajguru, S. M.; Matic, A. I.; Moreno, E. L.; Fishman, A. J.; Robinson, A. M.; Suh, E.; Walsh, J. T., Jr.

    2011-10-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has received considerable attention over the last few years. It provides an alternative method to artificially stimulate neurons without electrical current or the introduction of exogenous chromophores. One of the primary benefits of INS could be the improved spatial selectivity when compared with electrical stimulation. In the present study, we have evaluated the spatial selectivity of INS in the acutely damaged cochlea of guinea pigs and compared it to stimulation with acoustic tone pips in normal-hearing animals. The radiation was delivered via a 200 µm diameter optical fiber, which was inserted through a cochleostomy into the scala tympani of the basal cochlear turn. The stimulated section along the cochlear spiral ganglion was estimated from the neural responses recorded from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). ICC responses were recorded in response to cochlear INS using a multichannel penetrating electrode array. Spatial tuning curves (STCs) were constructed from the responses. For INS, approximately 55% of the activation profiles showed a single maximum, ~22% had two maxima and ~13% had multiple maxima. The remaining 10% of the profiles occurred at the limits of the electrode array and could not be classified. The majority of ICC STCs indicated that the spread of activation evoked by optical stimuli is comparable to that produced by acoustic tone pips.

  6. Changes in the Response Properties of Inferior Colliculus Neurons Relating to Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel I.; Coomber, Ben; Wells, Tobias T.; Wallace, Mark N.; Palmer, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is often identified in animal models by using the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. Impaired gap detection following acoustic over-exposure (AOE) is thought to be caused by tinnitus “filling in” the gap, thus, reducing its salience. This presumably involves altered perception, and could conceivably be caused by changes at the level of the neocortex, i.e., cortical reorganization. Alternatively, reduced gap detection ability might reflect poorer temporal processing in the brainstem, caused by AOE; in which case, impaired gap detection would not be a reliable indicator of tinnitus. We tested the latter hypothesis by examining gap detection in inferior colliculus (IC) neurons following AOE. Seven of nine unilaterally noise-exposed guinea pigs exhibited behavioral evidence of tinnitus. In these tinnitus animals, neural gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in the IC significantly increased in response to broadband noise stimuli, but not to pure tones or narrow-band noise. In addition, when IC neurons were sub-divided according to temporal response profile (onset vs. sustained firing patterns), we found a significant increase in the proportion of onset-type responses after AOE. Importantly, however, GDTs were still considerably shorter than gap durations commonly used in objective behavioral tests for tinnitus. These data indicate that the neural changes observed in the IC are insufficient to explain deficits in behavioral gap detection that are commonly attributed to tinnitus. The subtle changes in IC neuron response profiles following AOE warrant further investigation. PMID:25346722

  7. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  8. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  9. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  10. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  11. Subthalamic stimulation modulates cortical motor network activity and synchronization in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Rosa; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B.; Scholten, Marlieke; Naros, Georgios; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Bunjes, Friedemann; Meisner, Christoph; Plewnia, Christian; Krüger, Rejko

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic modulations of large-scale network activity and synchronization are inherent to a broad spectrum of cognitive processes and are disturbed in neuropsychiatric conditions including Parkinson’s disease. Here, we set out to address the motor network activity and synchronization in Parkinson’s disease and its modulation with subthalamic stimulation. To this end, 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease with subthalamic nucleus stimulation were analysed on externally cued right hand finger movements with 1.5-s interstimulus interval. Simultaneous recordings were obtained from electromyography on antagonistic muscles (right flexor digitorum and extensor digitorum) together with 64-channel electroencephalography. Time-frequency event-related spectral perturbations were assessed to determine cortical and muscular activity. Next, cross-spectra in the time-frequency domain were analysed to explore the cortico-cortical synchronization. The time-frequency modulations enabled us to select a time-frequency range relevant for motor processing. On these time-frequency windows, we developed an extension of the phase synchronization index to quantify the global cortico-cortical synchronization and to obtain topographic differentiations of distinct electrode sites with respect to their contributions to the global phase synchronization index. The spectral measures were used to predict clinical and reaction time outcome using regression analysis. We found that movement-related desynchronization of cortical activity in the upper alpha and beta range was significantly facilitated with ‘stimulation on’ compared to ‘stimulation off’ on electrodes over the bilateral parietal, sensorimotor, premotor, supplementary-motor, and prefrontal areas, including the bilateral inferior prefrontal areas. These spectral modulations enabled us to predict both clinical and reaction time improvement from subthalamic stimulation. With ‘stimulation on’, interhemispheric cortico

  12. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus enhances emotional processing in Parkinson disease.

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    Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Volkmann, Jens; Regel, Sabine; Kornischka, Jürgen; Sturm, Volker; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2003-03-01

    High-frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is a new and highly effective therapy for complications of long-term levodopa therapy and motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson disease (PD). Clinical observations indicate additional influence on emotional behavior. Electrical stimulation of deep brain nuclei with pulse rates above 100 Hz provokes a reversible, lesioning-like effect. Here, the effect of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on emotional, cognitive, and motor performance in patients with PD (n = 12) was examined. The results were compared with the effects of a suprathreshold dose of levodopa intended to transiently restore striatal dopamine deficiency. Patients were tested during medication off/stimulation off (STIM OFF), medication off/stimulation on (STIM ON), and during the best motor state after taking levodopa without deep brain stimulation (MED). More positive self-reported mood and an enhanced mood induction effect as well as improvement in emotional memory during STIM ON were observed, while during STIM OFF, patients revealed reduced emotional performance. Comparable effects were revealed by STIM ON and MED. Cognitive performance was not affected by the different conditions and treatments. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus selectively enhanced affective processing and subjective well-being and seemed to be antidepressive. Levodopa and deep brain stimulation had similar effects on emotion. This finding may provide new clues about the neurobiologic bases of emotion and mood disorders, and it illustrates the important role of the basal ganglia and the dopaminergic system in emotional processing in addition to the well-known motor and cognitive functions.

  13. Stridor and dysphagia associated with subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbami, Oluwakemi Y; Donato, Anthony A

    2011-11-01

    Refractory symptoms in Parkinson disease show good response to deep brain stimulation (DBS). This procedure improves United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores and reduces dyskinesias, whereas speech and swallowing dysfunction typically do not improve and may even worsen. Rarely, DBS can cause idiosyncratic dystonias of muscle groups, including those of the neck and throat. The authors describe a patient experiencing stridor and dysphagia with confirmed pulmonary restriction and aspiration following subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulator adjustment, with a resolution of symptoms and signs when the stimulator was switched off.

  14. Role of dysphagia in evaluating Parkinson patients for subthalamic nucleus stimulation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Niels; Kelm, Daniela; Spottke, Annika; Coenen, Volker A

    2011-09-01

    In the selection of Parkinson patients for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) a risk-benefit-analysis is performed regarding symptoms that commonly improve and symptoms that may deteriorate. Speech is among the symptoms that may deteriorate. In contrast, the differential effects of STN-DBS on swallowing are less clear. Here, we present a Parkinson patient with dysphagia from concomitant oculo-pharyngeal muscle dystrophy successfully treated by STN-DBS. The role of dysphagia in evaluating Parkinson patients for STN-DBS is discussed.

  15. Spectral summation and facilitation in on- and off-responses for optimized representation of communication calls in mouse inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, Alexander G; Egorova, Marina A; Ehret, Günter

    2017-02-01

    Selectivity for processing of species-specific vocalizations and communication sounds has often been associated with the auditory cortex. The midbrain inferior colliculus, however, is the first center in the auditory pathways of mammals integrating acoustic information processed in separate nuclei and channels in the brainstem and, therefore, could significantly contribute to enhance the perception of species' communication sounds. Here, we used natural wriggling calls of mouse pups, which communicate need for maternal care to adult females, and further 15 synthesized sounds to test the hypothesis that neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of adult females optimize their response rates for reproduction of the three main harmonics (formants) of wriggling calls. The results confirmed the hypothesis showing that average response rates, as recorded extracellularly from single units, were highest and spectral facilitation most effective for both onset and offset responses to the call and call models with three resolved frequencies according to critical bands in perception. In addition, the general on- and/or off-response enhancement in almost half the investigated 122 neurons favors not only perception of single calls but also of vocalization rhythm. In summary, our study provides strong evidence that critical-band resolved frequency components within a communication sound increase the probability of its perception by boosting the signal-to-noise ratio of neural response rates within the inferior colliculus for at least 20% (our criterion for facilitation). These mechanisms, including enhancement of rhythm coding, are generally favorable to processing of other animal and human vocalizations, including formants of speech sounds. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A computational model of inferior colliculus responses to amplitude modulated sounds in young and aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cal Francis Rabang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC receives ascending excitatory and inhibitory inputs from multiple sources, but how these auditory inputs converge to generate IC spike patterns is poorly understood. Simulating patterns of in vivo spike train data from cellular and synaptic models creates a powerful framework to identify factors that contribute to changes in IC responses, such as those resulting in age-related loss of temporal processing. A conductance-based single neuron IC model was constructed, and its responses were compared to those observed during in vivo IC recordings in rats. IC spike patterns were evoked using amplitude-modulated (AM tone or noise carriers at 20-40 dB above threshold and were classified as low-pass, band-pass, band-reject, all-pass, or complex based on their rate modulation transfer function (rMTF tuning shape. Their temporal modulation transfer functions (tMTFs were also measured. These spike patterns provided experimental measures of rate, vector strength and firing pattern for comparison with model outputs. Patterns of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic convergence to IC neurons were based on anatomical studies and generalized input tuning for modulation frequency. Responses of modeled ascending inputs were derived from experimental data from previous studies. Adapting and sustained IC intrinsic models were created, with adaptation created via calcium-activated potassium currents. Short-term synaptic plasticity was incorporated into the model in the form of synaptic depression, which was shown to have a substantial effect on the magnitude and time course of the IC response. The most commonly observed IC response subtypes were recreated and enabled dissociation of inherited response properties from those that were generated in IC. Furthermore, the model was used to make predictions about the consequences of reduction in inhibition for age-related loss of temporal processing due to a reduction in GABA seen anatomically with

  17. Effect of background noise on neuronal coding of interaural level difference cues in rat inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokri, Yasamin; Worland, Kate; Ford, Mark; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-07-01

    Humans can accurately localize sounds even in unfavourable signal-to-noise conditions. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this, we studied the effect of background wide-band noise on neural sensitivity to variations in interaural level difference (ILD), the predominant cue for sound localization in azimuth for high-frequency sounds, at the characteristic frequency of cells in rat inferior colliculus (IC). Binaural noise at high levels generally resulted in suppression of responses (55.8%), but at lower levels resulted in enhancement (34.8%) as well as suppression (30.3%). When recording conditions permitted, we then examined if any binaural noise effects were related to selective noise effects at each of the two ears, which we interpreted in light of well-known differences in input type (excitation and inhibition) from each ear shaping particular forms of ILD sensitivity in the IC. At high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), in most ILD functions (41%), the effect of background noise appeared to be due to effects on inputs from both ears, while for a large percentage (35.8%) appeared to be accounted for by effects on excitatory input. However, as SNR decreased, change in excitation became the dominant contributor to the change due to binaural background noise (63.6%). These novel findings shed light on the IC neural mechanisms for sound localization in the presence of continuous background noise. They also suggest that some effects of background noise on encoding of sound location reported to be emergent in upstream auditory areas can also be observed at the level of the midbrain. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mechanisms of spectral and temporal integration in the mustached bat inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenstrup, Jeffrey James; Nataraj, Kiran; Sanchez, Jason Tait

    2012-01-01

    This review describes mechanisms and circuitry underlying combination-sensitive response properties in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Combination-sensitive neurons, performing a type of auditory spectro-temporal integration, respond to specific, properly timed combinations of spectral elements in vocal signals and other acoustic stimuli. While these neurons are known to occur in the auditory forebrain of many vertebrate species, the work described here establishes their origin in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Focusing on the mustached bat, we review several major findings: (1) Combination-sensitive responses involve facilitatory interactions, inhibitory interactions, or both when activated by distinct spectral elements in complex sounds. (2) Combination-sensitive responses are created in distinct stages: inhibition arises mainly in lateral lemniscal nuclei of the auditory brainstem, while facilitation arises in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the midbrain. (3) Spectral integration underlying combination-sensitive responses requires a low-frequency input tuned well below a neuron's characteristic frequency (ChF). Low-ChF neurons in the auditory brainstem project to high-ChF regions in brainstem or IC to create combination sensitivity. (4) At their sites of origin, both facilitatory and inhibitory combination-sensitive interactions depend on glycinergic inputs and are eliminated by glycine receptor blockade. Surprisingly, facilitatory interactions in IC depend almost exclusively on glycinergic inputs and are largely independent of glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs. (5) The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), the lateral lemniscal nuclei, and the IC play critical roles in creating combination-sensitive responses. We propose that these mechanisms, based on work in the mustached bat, apply to a broad range of mammals and other vertebrates that depend on temporally sensitive integration of information across the audible spectrum. PMID:23109917

  19. Developmental PCB Exposure Increases Audiogenic Seizures and Decreases Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in the Inferior Colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Suren B; Eubig, Paul A; Sadowski, Renee N; Schantz, Susan L

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we observed that developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure resulted in an increase in audiogenic seizures (AGSs) in rats. However, the rats were exposed to loud noise in adulthood, and were not tested for AGS until after 1 year of age, either of which could have interacted with early PCB exposure to increase AGS susceptibility. This study assessed susceptibility to AGS in young adult rats following developmental PCB exposure alone (without loud noise exposure) and investigated whether there was a decrease in GABA inhibitory neurotransmission in the inferior colliculus (IC) that could potentially explain this effect. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of an environmentally relevant PCB mixture from 28 days prior to breeding until the pups were weaned at postnatal day 21. One male-female pair from each litter was retained for the AGS study whilst another was retained for Western blot analysis of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GABAAα1 receptor in the IC, the site in the auditory midbrain where AGS are initiated. There was a significant increase in the number and severity of AGSs in the PCB groups, with females somewhat more affected than males. GAD65 was decreased but there was no change in GAD67 or GABAAα1 in the IC indicating decreased inhibitory regulation in the PCB group. These results confirm that developmental PCB exposure alone is sufficient to increase susceptibility to AGS, and provide the first evidence for a possible mechanism of action at the level of the IC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Social isolation reduces serotonergic fiber density in the inferior colliculus of female, but not male, mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesom, Sarah M; Morningstar, Mitchell D; Sandlain, Rebecca; Wise, Bradley M; Hurley, Laura M

    2018-05-12

    Early-life experiences, including maternal deprivation and social isolation during adolescence, have a profound influence on a range of adult social behaviors. Post-weaning social isolation in rodents influences behavior in part through the alteration of neuromodulatory systems, including the serotonergic system. Of significance to social behavior, the serotonergic system richly innervates brain areas involved in vocal communication, including the auditory system. However, the influence of isolation on serotonergic input to the auditory system remains underexplored. Here, we assess whether 4 weeks of post-weaning individual housing alters serotonergic fiber density in the inferior colliculus (IC), an auditory midbrain nucleus in which serotonin alters auditory-evoked activity. Individually housed male and female mice were compared to conspecifics housed socially in groups of three. Serotonergic projections were subsequently visualized with an antibody to the serotonin transporter, which labels serotonergic fibers with relatively high selectivity. Fiber densities were estimated in the three major subregions of the IC using line-scan intensity analysis. Individually housed female mice showed a significantly reduced fiber density relative to socially housed females, which was accompanied by a lower body weight in individually housed females. In contrast, social isolation did not affect serotonergic fiber density in the IC of males. This finding suggests that sensitivity of the serotonergic system to social isolation is sex-dependent, which could be due to a sex difference in the effect of isolation on psychosocial stress. Since serotonin availability depends on social context, this finding further suggests that social isolation can alter the acute social regulation of auditory processing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus: nonlinearity and binaural interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane J Yu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The tuning, binaural properties, and encoding characteristics of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC were investigated to shed light on nonlinearities in the responses of these neurons. Results were analyzed for three types of neurons (I, O, and V in the CNIC of decerebrate cats. Rate responses to binaural stimuli were characterized using a 1st- plus 2nd-order spectral integration model. Parameters of the model were derived using broadband stimuli with random spectral shapes (RSS. This method revealed four characteristics of CNIC neurons: (1 Tuning curves derived from broadband stimuli have fixed (i. e., level tolerant bandwidths across a 50-60 dB range of sound levels; (2 1st-order contralateral weights (particularly for type I and O neurons were usually larger in magnitude than corresponding ipsilateral weights; (3 contralateral weights were more important than ipsilateral weights when using the model to predict responses to untrained noise stimuli; and (4 2nd-order weight functions demonstrate frequency selectivity different from that of 1st-order weight functions. Furthermore, while the inclusion of 2nd-order terms in the model usually improved response predictions related to untrained RSS stimuli, they had limited impact on predictions related to other forms of filtered broadband noise (e. g., virtual space stimuli. The accuracy of the predictions varied considerably by response type. Predictions were most accurate for I neurons, and less accurate for O and V neurons, except at the lowest stimulus levels. These differences in prediction performance support the idea that type I, O, and V neurons encode different aspects of the stimulus: while type I neurons are most capable of producing linear representations of spectral shape, type O and V neurons may encode spectral features or temporal stimulus properties in a manner not easily explained with the low-order model. Supported by NIH grant DC00115.

  2. Classification of frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus reveals continua not discrete classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Alan R; Shackleton, Trevor M; Sumner, Christian J; Zobay, Oliver; Rees, Adrian

    2013-08-15

    A differential response to sound frequency is a fundamental property of auditory neurons. Frequency analysis in the cochlea gives rise to V-shaped tuning functions in auditory nerve fibres, but by the level of the inferior colliculus (IC), the midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway, neuronal receptive fields display diverse shapes that reflect the interplay of excitation and inhibition. The origin and nature of these frequency receptive field types is still open to question. One proposed hypothesis is that the frequency response class of any given neuron in the IC is predominantly inherited from one of three major afferent pathways projecting to the IC, giving rise to three distinct receptive field classes. Here, we applied subjective classification, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and other objective statistical measures, to a large population (2826) of frequency response areas from single neurons recorded in the IC of the anaesthetised guinea pig. Subjectively, we recognised seven frequency response classes (V-shaped, non-monotonic Vs, narrow, closed, tilt down, tilt up and double-peaked), that were represented at all frequencies. We could identify similar classes using our objective classification tools. Importantly, however, many neurons exhibited properties intermediate between these classes, and none of the objective methods used here showed evidence of discrete response classes. Thus receptive field shapes in the IC form continua rather than discrete classes, a finding consistent with the integration of afferent inputs in the generation of frequency response areas. The frequency disposition of inhibition in the response areas of some neurons suggests that across-frequency inputs originating at or below the level of the IC are involved in their generation.

  3. Immunocytochemical profiles of inferior colliculus neurons in the rat and their changes with aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav eOuda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC plays a strategic role in the central auditory system in relaying and processing acoustical information, and therefore its age-related changes may significantly influence the quality of the auditory function. A very complex processing of acoustical stimuli occurs in the IC, as supported also by the fact that the rat IC contains more neurons than all other subcortical auditory structures combined. GABAergic neurons, which predominantly co-express parvalbumin, are present in the central nucleus of the IC in large numbers and to a lesser extent in the dorsal and external/lateral cortices of the IC. On the other hand, calbindin and calretinin are prevalent in the dorsal and external cortices of the IC, with only a few positive neurons in the central nucleus. The relationship between calbindin and calretinin expression in the IC and any neurotransmitter system has not yet been well established, but the distribution and morphology of the immunoreactive neurons suggest that they are at least partially non-GABAergic cells. The expression of glutamate decarboxylase (a key enzyme for GABA synthesis and calcium binding proteins in the IC of rats undergoes pronounced changes with aging that involve mostly a decline in protein expression and a decline in the number of immunoreactive neurons. Similar age-related changes in glutamate decarboxylase, calbindin and calretinin expression are present in the IC of two rat strains with differently preserved inner ear function up to late senescence (Long-Evans and Fischer 344, which suggests that these changes do not depend exclusively on peripheral deafferentation but are, at least partially, of central origin. These changes may be associated with the age-related deterioration in the processing of the temporal parameters of acoustical stimuli, which is not correlated with hearing threshold shifts, and therefore may contribute to central presbycusis.

  4. Convergent input from brainstem coincidence detectors onto delay-sensitive neurons in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, D; Jiang, D; Shackleton, T M; Palmer, A R

    1998-08-01

    Responses of low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized guinea pigs were studied with binaural beats to assess their mean best interaural phase (BP) to a range of stimulating frequencies. Phase plots (stimulating frequency vs BP) were produced, from which measures of characteristic delay (CD) and characteristic phase (CP) for each neuron were obtained. The CD provides an estimate of the difference in travel time from each ear to coincidence-detector neurons in the brainstem. The CP indicates the mechanism underpinning the coincidence detector responses. A linear phase plot indicates a single, constant delay between the coincidence-detector inputs from the two ears. In more than half (54 of 90) of the neurons, the phase plot was not linear. We hypothesized that neurons with nonlinear phase plots received convergent input from brainstem coincidence detectors with different CDs. Presentation of a second tone with a fixed, unfavorable delay suppressed the response of one input, linearizing the phase plot and revealing other inputs to be relatively simple coincidence detectors. For some neurons with highly complex phase plots, the suppressor tone altered BP values, but did not resolve the nature of the inputs. For neurons with linear phase plots, the suppressor tone either completely abolished their responses or reduced their discharge rate with no change in BP. By selectively suppressing inputs with a second tone, we are able to reveal the nature of underlying binaural inputs to IC neurons, confirming the hypothesis that the complex phase plots of many IC neurons are a result of convergence from simple brainstem coincidence detectors.

  5. Intensive Voice Treatment (LSVT[R]LOUD) for Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Jennifer; Mahler, Leslie; Halpern, Angela; Gilley, Phllip; Klepitskaya, Olga; Ramig, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Intensive voice therapy (LSVT[R]LOUD) can effectively manage voice and speech symptoms associated with idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). This small-group study evaluated voice and speech in individuals with and without deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) before and after LSVT LOUD, to determine whether outcomes…

  6. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  7. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation does not influence basal glucose metabolism or insulin sensitivity in patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Nicolette M.; Sondermeijer, Brigitte M.; Twickler, Th B. Marcel; de Bie, Rob M.; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Fliers, Eric; Schuurman, P. Richard; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that central dopamine signaling influences glucose metabolism. As a first step to show this association in an experimental setting in humans, we studied whether deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which modulates the basal ganglia circuitry,

  8. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves reward-based decision-learning in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wouwe, N.C.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Band, G.P.H.; Abisogun, A.; Elias, W.J.; Frysinger, R.; Wylie, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown to be critically involved in decision-making, action selection, and motor control. Here we investigate the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN on reward-based decision-learning in patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD).

  9. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves reward-based decision-learning in Parkinson’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, N.C. van; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Wildenberg, W.P.M. van den; Band, G.P.H.; Abisogun, A.; Elias, W.J.; Frysinger, R.; Wylie, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown to be critically involved in decision-making, action selection, and motor control. Here we investigate the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN on reward-based decision-learning in patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD).

  10. Resting state cortical oscillations of patients with Parkinson disease and with and without subthalamic deep brain stimulation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chunyan; Li, Dianyou; Jiang, Tianxiao; Ince, Nuri Firat; Zhan, Shikun; Zhang, Jing; Sha, Zhiyi; Sun, Bomin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the modification to cortical oscillations of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) by subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). Spontaneous cortical oscillations of patients with PD were recorded with magnetoencephalography during on and off subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation states. Several features such as average frequency, average power, and relative subband power in regions of interest were extracted in the frequency domain, and these features were correlated with Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III evaluation. The same features were also investigated in patients with PD without surgery and healthy controls. Patients with Parkinson disease without surgery compared with healthy controls had a significantly lower average frequency and an increased average power in 1 to 48 Hz range in whole cortex. Higher relative power in theta and simultaneous decrease in beta and gamma over temporal and occipital were also observed in patients with PD. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III rigidity score correlated with the average frequency and with the relative power of beta and gamma in frontal areas. During subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, the average frequency increased significantly when stimulation was on compared with off state. In addition, the relative power dropped in delta, whereas it rose in beta over the whole cortex. Through the course of stimulation, the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III rigidity and tremor scores correlated with the relative power of alpha over left parietal. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation improves the symptoms of PD by suppressing the synchronization of alpha rhythm in somatomotor region.

  11. Hitting the right target : noninvasive localization of the subthalamic nucleus motor part for specific deep brain stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunenberg, E.J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has gained momentum as a therapy for advanced Parkinson’s disease. The stimulation effectively alleviates the patients’ typical motor symptoms on a long term, but can give rise to cognitive and psychiatric adverse effects as well. Based on

  12. Long-term effects of pallidal or subthalamic deep brain stimulation on quality of life in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkmann, Jens; Albanese, Alberto; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Tornqvist, Aana-Lena; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Pidoux, Bernard; Bonnet, Anne-Marie; Mendes, Alexandre; Benabid, Alim-Louis; Fraix, Valerie; van Blercom, Nadege; Xie, Jing; Obeso, José; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria Cruz; Guridi, Jurge; Schnitzler, Alfons; Timmermann, Lars; Gironell, Alexandre A.; Molet, Juan; Pascual-Sedano, Benta; Rehncrona, Stig; Moro, Elena; Lang, Anthony C.; Lozano, Andres M.; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Scerrati, Massimo; Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Romito, Luigi; Janssens, Marc; Agid, Yves

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) or internal pallidum (GPi-DBS) on health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease participating in a previously reported multicenter trial. Sickness Impact Profile (SIP)

  13. Effects of Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus on Naming and Reading Nouns and Verbs in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Baldonero, Eleonora; Piano, Carla; Zinno, Massimiliano; Soleti, Francesco; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Albanese, Alberto; Daniele, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    An impairment for verbs has been described in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that a disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits may result in dysfunction of the neural systems involved in action-verb processing. A previous study suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during verb generation…

  14. Localisation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease with neural beta and gamma activity of local field potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, R.; Zwartjes - de Klerk, D.G.M; Heida, Tjitske; Contarino, M.F.; de Bie, R.M.A.; van den Munckhof, P; Schuurman, P.R.; Martens, H.C.F.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Bour, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the nature of oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) by means of intraoperative local field potential (LFP) recordings, its relationship with microelectrode recordings (MER) and its potential use to locate the STN and its sensorimotor sub-area in patients with Parkinson’s

  15. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates sensitivity to decision outcome value in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Ben; Barbe, Michael; Dayan, Peter; Shiner, Tamara; Dolan, Ray; Fink, Gereon R.

    2016-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson’s disease is known to cause a subtle but important adverse impact on behaviour, with impulsivity its most widely reported manifestation. However, precisely which computational components of the decision process are modulated is not fully understood. Here we probe a number of distinct subprocesses, including temporal discount, outcome utility, instrumental learning rate, instrumental outcome sensitivity, reward-loss trade-offs, and perseveration. We tested 22 Parkinson’s Disease patients both on and off subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), while they performed an instrumental learning task involving financial rewards and losses, and an inter-temporal choice task for financial rewards. We found that instrumental learning performance was significantly worse following stimulation, due to modulation of instrumental outcome sensitivity. Specifically, patients became less sensitive to decision values for both rewards and losses, but without any change to the learning rate or reward-loss trade-offs. However, we found no evidence that DBS modulated different components of temporal impulsivity. In conclusion, our results implicate the subthalamic nucleus in a modulation of outcome value in experience-based learning and decision-making in Parkinson’s disease, suggesting a more pervasive role of the subthalamic nucleus in the control of human decision-making than previously thought.

  16. Persistent suppression of subthalamic beta-band activity during rhythmic finger tapping in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joundi, Raed A; Brittain, John-Stuart; Green, Alex L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned

    2013-03-01

    The function of synchronous oscillatory activity at beta band (15-30Hz) frequencies within the basal ganglia is unclear. Here we sought support for the hypothesis that beta activity has a global function within the basal ganglia and is not directly involved in the coding of specific biomechanical parameters of movement. We recorded local field potential activity from the subthalamic nuclei of 11 patients with Parkinson's disease during a synchronized tapping task at three different externally cued rates. Beta activity was suppressed during tapping, reaching a minimum that differed little across the different tapping rates despite an increase in velocity of finger movements. Thus beta power suppression was independent of specific motor parameters. Moreover, although beta oscillations remained suppressed during all tapping rates, periods of resynchronization between taps were markedly attenuated during high rate tapping. As such, a beta rebound above baseline between taps at the lower rates was absent at the high rate. Our results demonstrate that beta desynchronization in the region of the subthalamic nucleus is independent of motor parameters and that the beta resynchronization is differentially modulated by rate of finger tapping, These findings implicate consistent beta suppression in the facilitation of continuous movement sequences. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in brain glucose metabolism in subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonté, M A; Garibotto, V; Spagnolo, F; Panzacchi, A; Picozzi, P; Franzin, A; Giovannini, E; Leocani, L; Cursi, M; Comi, G; Perani, D

    2012-07-01

    Despite its large clinical application, our understanding about the mechanisms of action of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is still limited. Aim of the present study was to explore cortical and subcortical metabolic modulations measured by Positron Emission Tomography associated with improved motor manifestations after deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease, comparing the ON and OFF conditions. Investigations were performed in the stimulator off- and on-conditions in 14 parkinsonian patients and results were compared with a group of matched healthy controls. The results were also used to correlate metabolic changes with the clinical effectiveness of the procedure. The comparisons using Statistical parametric mapping revealed a brain metabolic pattern typical of advanced Parkinson disease. The direct comparison in ON vs OFF condition showed mainly an increased metabolism in subthalamic regions, corresponding to the deep brain stimulation site. A positive correlation exists between neurostimulation clinical effectiveness and metabolic differences in ON and OFF state, including the primary sensorimotor, premotor and parietal cortices, anterior cingulate cortex. Deep brain stimulation seems to operate modulating the neuronal network rather than merely exciting or inhibiting basal ganglia nuclei. Correlations with Parkinson Disease cardinal features suggest that the improvement of specific motor signs associated with deep brain stimulation might be explained by the functional modulation, not only in the target region, but also in surrounding and remote connecting areas, resulting in clinically beneficial effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensory contribution to vocal emotion deficit in Parkinson's disease after subthalamic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Julie; Cekic, Sezen; Haegelen, Claire; Sauleau, Paul; Patel, Sona; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Grandjean, Didier

    2015-02-01

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease induces modifications in the recognition of emotion from voices (or emotional prosody). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are still only poorly understood, and the role of acoustic features in these deficits has yet to be elucidated. Our aim was to identify the influence of acoustic features on changes in emotional prosody recognition following STN stimulation in Parkinson's disease. To this end, we analysed the performances of patients on vocal emotion recognition in pre-versus post-operative groups, as well as of matched controls, entering the acoustic features of the stimuli into our statistical models. Analyses revealed that the post-operative biased ratings on the Fear scale when patients listened to happy stimuli were correlated with loudness, while the biased ratings on the Sadness scale when they listened to happiness were correlated with fundamental frequency (F0). Furthermore, disturbed ratings on the Happiness scale when the post-operative patients listened to sadness were found to be correlated with F0. These results suggest that inadequate use of acoustic features following subthalamic stimulation has a significant impact on emotional prosody recognition in patients with Parkinson's disease, affecting the extraction and integration of acoustic cues during emotion perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Apathy following Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation of Subthalamic Nucleus in Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona

    2018-01-01

    Bilateral deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has proven effective in improving motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, psychiatric changes after surgery are controversial. In this study, we specifically analyzed apathy following bilateral STN-DBS in PD patients using a meta-analysis. Relevant articles utilized for this study were obtained through literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Embase databases. The articles included were those contained both pre- and postsurgery apathy data acquired using the Starkstein Apathy Scale or Apathy Evaluation Scale with patient follow-up of at least three months. A total of 9 out of 86 articles were included in our study through this strict screening process. Standardized mean difference (SMD), that is, Cohen's d, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to show the change. We found a significant difference between the presurgery stage and the postsurgery stage scores (SMD = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.17∼0.52, P < 0.001). STN-DBS seems to relatively worsen the condition of apathy, which may result from both the surgery target (subthalamic nucleus) and the reduction of dopaminergic medication. Further studies should focus on the exact mechanisms of possible postoperative apathy in the future.

  20. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation affects distractor interference in auditory working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camalier, Corrie R; Wang, Alice Y; McIntosh, Lindsey G; Park, Sohee; Neimat, Joseph S

    2017-03-01

    Computational and theoretical accounts hypothesize the basal ganglia play a supramodal "gating" role in the maintenance of working memory representations, especially in preservation from distractor interference. There are currently two major limitations to this account. The first is that supporting experiments have focused exclusively on the visuospatial domain, leaving questions as to whether such "gating" is domain-specific. The second is that current evidence relies on correlational measures, as it is extremely difficult to causally and reversibly manipulate subcortical structures in humans. To address these shortcomings, we examined non-spatial, auditory working memory performance during reversible modulation of the basal ganglia, an approach afforded by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. We found that subthalamic nucleus stimulation impaired auditory working memory performance, specifically in the group tested in the presence of distractors, even though the distractors were predictable and completely irrelevant to the encoding of the task stimuli. This study provides key causal evidence that the basal ganglia act as a supramodal filter in working memory processes, further adding to our growing understanding of their role in cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of Parkinson's disease and subthalamic deep brain stimulation on reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Ricarda; Stankevich, Yuliya; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Storch, Alexander; Wolz, Martin; Reichmann, Heinz; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Goschke, Thomas; Lueken, Ulrike

    2015-08-01

    Due to its position in cortico-subthalamic and cortico-striatal pathways, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is considered to play a crucial role not only in motor, but also in cognitive and motivational functions. In the present study we aimed to characterize how different aspects of reward processing are affected by disease and deep brain stimulation of the STN (DBS-STN) in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared 33 PD patients treated with DBS-STN under best medical treatment (DBS-on, medication-on) to 33 PD patients without DBS, but optimized pharmacological treatment and 34 age-matched healthy controls. We then investigated DBS-STN effects using a postoperative stimulation-on/ -off design. The task set included a delay discounting task, a task to assess changes in incentive salience attribution, and the Iowa Gambling Task. The presence of PD was associated with increased incentive salience attribution and devaluation of delayed rewards. Acute DBS-STN increased risky choices in the Iowa Gambling Task under DBS-on condition, but did not further affect incentive salience attribution or the evaluation of delayed rewards. Findings indicate that acute DBS-STN affects specific aspects of reward processing, including the weighting of gains and losses, while larger-scale effects of disease or medication are predominant in others reward-related functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Salicylate-induced changes in spontaneous activity of single units in the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Sasaki, C T

    1986-11-01

    Changes in spontaneous neuronal activity of the inferior colliculus in albino guinea pigs before and after administration of sodium salicylate were analyzed. Animals were anesthetized with pentobarbital, and two microelectrodes separated by a few hundred microns were driven through the inferior colliculus. After collecting a sufficiently large sample of cells, sodium salicylate (450 mg/kg) was injected i.p. and recordings again made 2 h after the injection. Comparison of spontaneous activity recorded before and after salicylate administration revealed highly statistically significant differences (p less than 0.001). After salicylate, the mean rate of the cell population increased from 29 to 83 Hz and the median from 26 to 74 Hz. Control experiments in which sodium salicylate was replaced by saline injection revealed no statistically significant differences in cell discharges. Recordings made during the same experiments from lobulus V of the cerebellar vermis revealed no changes in response to salicylate. The observed changes in single-unit activity due to salicylate administration may represent the first systematic evidence of a tinnituslike phenomenon in animals.

  3. Self and Superior Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    model of the self-evaluation process as it differs from the evaluation process used by superiors. Symbolic Interactionism One view of self assessment is...supplied by the symbolic interactionists (Cooley, 1902; Head, 1934), who state that self perceptions are generated largely from individuals...disagreements remained even immediately after an appraisal interview in which a great deal of feedback was given. Research on the symbolic interactionist

  4. [Effect of Electroacupuncture on Expression of Catechol-O-methyltransferase in the Inferior Colliculus and Auditory Cortex in Age-related Hearing Loss Guinea Pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Yun; Deng, Li-Qiang; Yang, Ye; Yin, Ze-Deng

    2017-04-25

    To observe the expression of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in inferior colliculus and auditory cortex of guinea pigs with age-related hearing loss(AHL) induced by D-galactose, so as to explore the possible mechanism of electroacupuncture(EA) underlying preventing AHL. Thirty 3-month-old guinea pigs were randomly divided into control group, model group and EA group( n =10 in each group), and ten 18-month-old guinea pigs were allocated as elderly group. The AHL model was established by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose. EA was applied to bilateral "Yifeng"(SJ 17) and "Tinggong"(SI 19) for 15 min in the EA group while modeling, once daily for 6 weeks. After treatment, the latency of auditory brainstem response(ABR) Ⅲ wave was measured by a brain-stem evoked potentiometer. The expressions of COMT in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex were detected by Western blot. Compared with the control group, the latencies of ABR Ⅲ wave were significantly prolonged and the expressions of COMT in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex were significantly decreased in the model group and the elderly group( P guinea pigs, which may contribute to its effect in up-regulating the expression of COMT in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex.

  5. Patients' expectations in subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Harutomo; Samuel, Michael; Douiri, Abdel; Ashkan, Keyoumars

    2014-12-01

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson disease. However, some patients feel less satisfied with the outcome of surgery. We sought to study the relationship between expectations, satisfaction, and outcome in STN DBS for Parkinson disease. Twenty-two consecutive patients undergoing STN DBS completed a modified 39-item Parkinson disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. A satisfaction questionnaire accompanied the postoperative questionnaire. Patients expected a significant improvement from surgery preoperatively: preoperative score (median PDQ-39 summary score [interquartile range]): 37.0 (9.5), expected postoperative score: 13.0 (8.0), P Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves pain in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellaprat, Jean; Ory-Magne, Fabienne; Canivet, Cindy; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion; Lotterie, Jean-Albert; Radji, Fatai; Arbus, Christophe; Gerdelat, Angélique; Chaynes, Patrick; Brefel-Courbon, Christine

    2014-06-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), chronic pain is a common symptom which markedly affects the quality of life. Some physiological arguments proposed that Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN-DBS) could improve pain in PD. We investigated in 58 PD patients the effect of STN-DBS on pain using the short McGill Pain Questionnaire and other pain parameters such as the Bodily discomfort subscore of the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire 39 and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale section II (UPDRS II) item 17. All pain scores were significantly improved 12 months after STN-DBS. This improvement was not correlated with motor improvement, depression scores or L-Dopa reduction. STN-DBS induced a substantial beneficial effect on pain in PD, independently of its motor effects and mood status of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Superior facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L 5 or/and S 1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively, Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L 5 roots and 11 S 1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L 5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome. (author)

  8. Dynamics of human subthalamic neuron phase-locking to motor and sensory cortical oscillations during movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, Witold J; Wozny, Thomas A; Alhourani, Ahmad; Kondylis, Efstathios D; Turner, Robert S; Crammond, Donald J; Richardson, Robert Mark

    2017-09-01

    Coupled oscillatory activity recorded between sensorimotor regions of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop is thought to reflect information transfer relevant to movement. A neuronal firing-rate model of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry, however, has dominated thinking about basal ganglia function for the past three decades, without knowledge of the relationship between basal ganglia single neuron firing and cortical population activity during movement itself. We recorded activity from 34 subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons, simultaneously with cortical local field potentials and motor output, in 11 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing awake deep brain stimulator lead placement. STN firing demonstrated phase synchronization to both low- and high-beta-frequency cortical oscillations, and to the amplitude envelope of gamma oscillations, in motor cortex. We found that during movement, the magnitude of this synchronization was dynamically modulated in a phase-frequency-specific manner. Importantly, we found that phase synchronization was not correlated with changes in neuronal firing rate. Furthermore, we found that these relationships were not exclusive to motor cortex, because STN firing also demonstrated phase synchronization to both premotor and sensory cortex. The data indicate that models of basal ganglia function ultimately will need to account for the activity of populations of STN neurons that are bound in distinct functional networks with both motor and sensory cortices and code for movement parameters independent of changes in firing rate. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Current models of basal ganglia-thalamocortical networks do not adequately explain simple motor functions, let alone dysfunction in movement disorders. Our findings provide data that inform models of human basal ganglia function by demonstrating how movement is encoded by networks of subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons via dynamic phase synchronization with cortex. The data also

  9. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation modulates small fiber-dependent sensory thresholds in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Galhardoni, Ricardo; Ferreira, Karine S L; Brandão Paiva, Anderson Rodrigues; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Alvarenga, Luciana; Myczkowski, Martin L; Marcolin, Marco Antonio; de Siqueira, Silvia R D T; Fonoff, Erich; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2012-05-01

    The effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) rarely have been investigated. Among these, sensory disturbances, including chronic pain (CP), are frequent in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes induced by deep brain stimulation in the perception of sensory stimuli, either noxious or innocuous, mediated by small or large nerve fibers. Sensory detection and pain thresholds were assessed in 25 PD patients all in the off-medication condition with the stimulator turned on or off (on- and off-stimulation conditions, respectively). The relationship between the changes induced by surgery on quantitative sensory testing, spontaneous CP, and motor abilities were studied. Quantitative sensory test results obtained in PD patients were compared with those of age-matched healthy subjects. Chronic pain was present in 72% of patients before vs 36% after surgery (P=.019). Compared with healthy subjects, PD patients had an increased sensitivity to innocuous thermal stimuli and mechanical pain, but a reduced sensitivity to innocuous mechanical stimuli. In addition, they had an increased pain rating when painful thermal stimuli were applied, particularly in the off-stimulation condition. In the on-stimulation condition, there was an increased sensitivity to innocuous thermal stimuli but a reduced sensitivity to mechanical or thermal pain. Pain provoked by thermal stimuli was reduced when the stimulator was turned on. Motor improvement positively correlated with changes in warm detection and heat pain thresholds. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation contributes to relieve pain associated with PD and specifically modulates small fiber-mediated sensations. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Subthalamic nucleus long-range synchronization—an independent hallmark of human Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshel, Shay; Shamir, Reuben R.; Raz, Aeyal; de Noriega, Fernando R.; Eitan, Renana; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    Beta-band synchronous oscillations in the dorsolateral region of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of human patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been frequently reported. However, the correlation between STN oscillations and synchronization has not been thoroughly explored. The simultaneous recordings of 2390 multi-unit pairs recorded by two parallel microelectrodes (separated by fixed distance of 2 mm, n = 72 trajectories with two electrode tracks >4 mm STN span) in 57 PD patients undergoing STN deep brain stimulation surgery were analyzed. Automatic procedures were utilized to divide the STN into dorsolateral oscillatory and ventromedial non-oscillatory regions, and to quantify the intensity of STN oscillations and synchronicity. Finally, the synchronicity of simultaneously vs. non-simultaneously recorded pairs were compared using a shuffling procedure. Synchronization was observed predominately in the beta range and only between multi-unit pairs in the dorsolateral oscillatory region (n = 615). In paired recordings between sites in the dorsolateral and ventromedial (n = 548) and ventromedial-ventromedial region pairs (n = 1227), no synchronization was observed. Oscillation and synchronicity intensity decline along the STN dorsolateral-ventromedial axis suggesting a fuzzy border between the STN regions. Synchronization strength was significantly correlated to the oscillation power, but synchronization was no longer observed following shuffling. We conclude that STN long-range beta oscillatory synchronization is due to increased neuronal coupling in the Parkinsonian brain and does not merely reflect the outcome of oscillations at similar frequency. The neural synchronization in the dorsolateral (probably the motor domain) STN probably augments the pathological changes in firing rate and patterns of subthalamic neurons in PD patients. PMID:24312018

  11. Sensitivity analysis of discharge patterns of subthalamic nucleus in the model of basal ganglia in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jyotsna; Singh, Phool; Malik, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease alters the information patterns in movement related pathways in brain. Experimental results performed on rats show that the activity patterns changes from single spike activity to mixed burst mode in Parkinson disease. However the cause of this change in activity pattern is not yet completely understood. Subthalamic nucleus is one of the main nuclei involved in the origin of motor dysfunction in Parkinson disease. In this paper, a single compartment conductance based model is considered which focuses on subthalamic nucleus and synaptic input from globus pallidus (external). This model shows highly nonlinear behavior with respect to various intrinsic parameters. Behavior of model has been presented with the help of activity patterns generated in healthy and Parkinson condition. These patterns have been compared by calculating their correlation coefficient for different values of intrinsic parameters. Results display that the activity patterns are very sensitive to various intrinsic parameters and calcium shows some promising results which provide insights into the motor dysfunction.

  12. Information Superiority through Data Warehousing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warner, Neil

    2001-01-01

    .... A precursor to a knowledge edge is Information Superiority. Within most current Command Support Systems minimal integration and fusion of data is undertaken to provide the basis of information superiority...

  13. Mismatch negativity-like potential (MMN-like) in the subthalamic nuclei in Parkinson’s disease patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minks, E.; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Chrastina, J.; Halámek, Josef; Shaw, D. J.; Bareš, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 12 (2014), s. 1507-1522 ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0933; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Mismatch negativity * MMN * MMN-like * Subthalamic nucleus * STN * Intracranial electrodes Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2014

  14. Network effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation drive a unique mixture of responses in basal ganglia output

    OpenAIRE

    Humphries, Mark D.; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a remarkably successful treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) within the basal ganglia is a main clinical target, but the physiological mechanisms of therapeutic STN DBS at the cellular and network level are unclear. We set out to begin to address the hypothesis that a mixture of responses in the basal ganglia output nuclei, combining regularized firing and inhibition, is a key contr...

  15. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence for visualisation of subthalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Inje University, Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Chai [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Kyo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chong Sik; Chung, Sun J. [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, So Hyun [Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyoung Ro [Philips HealthCare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an accepted treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, targeting the STN is difficult due to its relatively small size and variable location. The purpose of this study was to assess which of the following sequences obtained with the 3.0 T MR system can accurately delineate the STN: coronal 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), 2D T2*-weighted fast-field echo (T2*-FFE) and 2D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. We included 20 consecutive patients with PD who underwent 3.0 T MR for DBS targeting. 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images were obtained for all study patients. Image quality and demarcation of the STN were analysed using 4-point scales, and contrast ratio (CR) of the STN and normal white matter was calculated. The Friedman test was used to compare the three sequences. In qualitative analysis, the 2D T2*-FFE image showed more artefacts than 3D FLAIR or 2D T2-TSE, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. 3D FLAIR images showed significantly superior demarcation of the STN compared with 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images (P < 0.001, respectively). The CR of 3D FLAIR was significantly higher than that of 2D T2*-FFE or T2-TSE images in multiple comparison correction (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in the CR between 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. Coronal 3D FLAIR images showed the most accurate demarcation of the STN for DBS targeting among coronal 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. (orig.)

  16. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence for visualisation of subthalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Young Jin; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Chai; Lee, Jung Kyo; Lee, Chong Sik; Chung, Sun J.; Cho, So Hyun; Lee, Gyoung Ro

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an accepted treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, targeting the STN is difficult due to its relatively small size and variable location. The purpose of this study was to assess which of the following sequences obtained with the 3.0 T MR system can accurately delineate the STN: coronal 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), 2D T2*-weighted fast-field echo (T2*-FFE) and 2D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. We included 20 consecutive patients with PD who underwent 3.0 T MR for DBS targeting. 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images were obtained for all study patients. Image quality and demarcation of the STN were analysed using 4-point scales, and contrast ratio (CR) of the STN and normal white matter was calculated. The Friedman test was used to compare the three sequences. In qualitative analysis, the 2D T2*-FFE image showed more artefacts than 3D FLAIR or 2D T2-TSE, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. 3D FLAIR images showed significantly superior demarcation of the STN compared with 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images (P < 0.001, respectively). The CR of 3D FLAIR was significantly higher than that of 2D T2*-FFE or T2-TSE images in multiple comparison correction (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in the CR between 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. Coronal 3D FLAIR images showed the most accurate demarcation of the STN for DBS targeting among coronal 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. (orig.)

  17. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  18. Endogenous opioid peptide-mediated neurotransmission in central and pericentral nuclei of the inferior colliculus recruits μ1-opioid receptor to modulate post-ictal antinociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the involvement of the μ1-endogenous opioid peptide receptor-mediated system in post-ictal antinociception. Antinociceptive responses were determined by the tail-flick test after pre-treatment with the selective μ1-opioid receptor antagonist naloxonazine, peripherally or centrally administered at different doses. Peripheral subchronic (24 h) pre-treatment with naloxonazine antagonised the antinociception elicited by tonic-clonic seizures. Acute (10 min) pre-treatment, however, did not have the same effect. In addition, microinjections of naloxonazine into the central, dorsal cortical and external cortical nuclei of the inferior colliculus antagonised tonic-clonic seizure-induced antinociception. Neither acute (10-min) peripheral pre-treatment with naloxonazine nor subchronic intramesencephalic blockade of μ1-opioid receptors resulted in consistent statistically significant differences in the severity of tonic-clonic seizures shown by Racine's index (1972), although the intracollicular specific antagonism of μ1-opioid receptor decreased the duration of seizures. μ1-Opioid receptors and the inferior colliculus have been implicated in several endogenous opioid peptide-mediated responses such as antinociception and convulsion. The present findings suggest the involvement of μ1-opiate receptors of central and pericentral nuclei of the inferior colliculus in the modulation of tonic-clonic seizures and in the organisation of post-ictal antinociception. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impulse control behaviors and subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Aristide; Romagnolo, Alberto; Rizzi, Laura; Rizzone, Mario Giorgio; Zibetti, Maurizio; Lanotte, Michele; Mandybur, George; Duker, Andrew P; Espay, Alberto J; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    To determine the clinical and demographic correlates of persistent, remitting, and new-onset impulse control behaviors (ICBs) before and after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared the pre- and post-surgical prevalence of ICBs, classified as impulse control disorders (ICD), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), and punding in 150 consecutive PD STN-DBS-treated patients and determined the association with motor, cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuropsychiatric endpoints. At baseline (before STN-DBS), ICBs were associated with younger age (p = 0.045) and male gender (85 %; p = 0.001). Over an average follow-up of 4.3 ± 2.1 years of chronic STN-DBS there was an overall trend for reduction in ICBs (from 17.3 to 12.7 %; p = 0.095) with significant improvement in hypersexuality (12-8.0 %; p = 0.047), gambling (10.7-5.3 %; p = 0.033), and DDS (4.7-0 %; p disorders; persistent ICB in those with obsessive-compulsive traits. PD-related ICBs exhibit a complex outcome after STN-DBS, with a tendency for overall reduction but with age, gender, dopaminergic therapy, and neuropsychiatric features exerting independent effects.

  20. 7T MRI subthalamic nucleus atlas for use with 3T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchenko, Mikhail; Norris, Scott A; Poston, Kathleen; Campbell, Meghan C; Ushe, Mwiza; Perlmutter, Joel S; Snyder, Abraham Z

    2018-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) reduces motor symptoms in most patients with Parkinson disease (PD), yet may produce untoward effects. Investigation of DBS effects requires accurate localization of the STN, which can be difficult to identify on magnetic resonance images collected with clinically available 3T scanners. The goal of this study is to develop a high-quality STN atlas that can be applied to standard 3T images. We created a high-definition STN atlas derived from seven older participants imaged at 7T. This atlas was nonlinearly registered to a standard template representing 56 patients with PD imaged at 3T. This process required development of methodology for nonlinear multimodal image registration. We demonstrate mm-scale STN localization accuracy by comparison of our 3T atlas with a publicly available 7T atlas. We also demonstrate less agreement with an earlier histological atlas. STN localization error in the 56 patients imaged at 3T was less than 1 mm on average. Our methodology enables accurate STN localization in individuals imaged at 3T. The STN atlas and underlying 3T average template in MNI space are freely available to the research community. The image registration methodology developed in the course of this work may be generally applicable to other datasets.

  1. Toward relating the subthalamic nucleus spiking activity to the local field potentials acquired intranuclearly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michmizos, K P; Nikita, K S; Sakas, D

    2011-01-01

    Studies on neurophysiological correlates of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals reveal a strong relationship between the local field potential (LFP) acquired invasively and metabolic signal changes in fMRI experiments. Most of these studies failed to reveal an analogous relationship between metabolic signals and the spiking activity. That would allow for the prediction of the neural activity exclusively from the fMRI signals. However, the relationship between fMRI signals and spiking activity can be inferred indirectly provided that the LFPs can be used to predict the spiking activity of the area. Until now, only the LFP–spike relationship in cortical areas has been examined. Herein, we show that the spiking activity can be predicted by the LFPs acquired in a deep nucleus, namely the subthalamic nucleus (STN), using a nonlinear cascade model. The model can reproduce the spike patterns inside the motor area of the STN that represent information about the motor plans. Our findings expand the possibility of further recruiting non-invasive neuroimaging techniques to understand the activity of the STN and predict or even control movement

  2. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Improves Lexical Switching in Parkinsons Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonberg, Isabelle; Ehlen, Felicitas; Fromm, Ortwin; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Reduced verbal fluency (VF) has been reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), especially those treated by Deep Brain Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS). To delineate the nature of this dysfunction we aimed at identifying the particular VF-related operations modified by STN DBS. Eleven PD patients performed VF tasks in their STN DBS ON and OFF condition. To differentiate VF-components modulated by the stimulation, a temporal cluster analysis was performed, separating production spurts (i.e., 'clusters' as correlates of automatic activation spread within lexical fields) from slower cluster transitions (i.e., 'switches' reflecting set-shifting towards new lexical fields). The results were compared to those of eleven healthy control subjects. PD patients produced significantly more switches accompanied by shorter switch times in the STN DBS ON compared to the STN DBS OFF condition. The number of clusters and time intervals between words within clusters were not affected by the treatment state. Although switch behavior in patients with DBS ON improved, their task performance was still lower compared to that of healthy controls. Beyond impacting on motor symptoms, STN DBS seems to influence the dynamics of cognitive procedures. Specifically, the results are in line with basal ganglia roles for cognitive switching, in the particular case of VF, from prevailing lexical concepts to new ones.

  3. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Improves Lexical Switching in Parkinsons Disease Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vonberg

    Full Text Available Reduced verbal fluency (VF has been reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, especially those treated by Deep Brain Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS. To delineate the nature of this dysfunction we aimed at identifying the particular VF-related operations modified by STN DBS.Eleven PD patients performed VF tasks in their STN DBS ON and OFF condition. To differentiate VF-components modulated by the stimulation, a temporal cluster analysis was performed, separating production spurts (i.e., 'clusters' as correlates of automatic activation spread within lexical fields from slower cluster transitions (i.e., 'switches' reflecting set-shifting towards new lexical fields. The results were compared to those of eleven healthy control subjects.PD patients produced significantly more switches accompanied by shorter switch times in the STN DBS ON compared to the STN DBS OFF condition. The number of clusters and time intervals between words within clusters were not affected by the treatment state. Although switch behavior in patients with DBS ON improved, their task performance was still lower compared to that of healthy controls.Beyond impacting on motor symptoms, STN DBS seems to influence the dynamics of cognitive procedures. Specifically, the results are in line with basal ganglia roles for cognitive switching, in the particular case of VF, from prevailing lexical concepts to new ones.

  4. Cognitive outcome and reliable change indices two years following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy E; Arzola, Gladys Marina; Strutt, Adriana M; Simpson, Richard; Jankovic, Joseph; York, Michele K

    2011-06-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is currently the treatment of choice for medication-resistant levodopa-related motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). While STN-DBS often results in meaningful motor improvements, consensus regarding long-term neuropsychological outcome continues to be debated. We assessed the cognitive outcomes of 19 STN-DBS patients compared to a group of 18 medically-managed PD patients on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at baseline and two years post-surgery. Patients did not demonstrate changes in global cognitive functioning on screening measures. However, neuropsychological results revealed impairments in nonverbal recall, oral information processing speed, and lexical and semantic fluency in STN-DBS patients compared to PD controls 2 years post-surgery in these preliminary analyses. Additionally, reliable change indices revealed that approximately 50% of STN-DBS patients demonstrated significant declines in nonverbal memory and oral information processing speed compared to 25-30% of PD controls, and 26% of STN-DBS patients declined on lexical fluency compared to 11% of PD patients. Approximately 30% of both groups declined on semantic fluency. The number of STN-DBS patients who converted to dementia 2 years following surgery was not significantly different from the PD participants (32% versus 16%, respectively). Our results suggest that neuropsychological evaluations may identify possible mild cognitive changes following surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation modulates conscious perception of sensory function in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Rubens G; Galhardoni, Ricardo; Teixeira, Manoel J; Dos Santos Ghilardi, Maria G; Silva, Valquiria; Myczkowski, Martin L; Marcolin, Marco A; Barbosa, Egberto R; Fonoff, Erich T; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is used to treat refractory motor complications in Parkinson disease (PD), but its effects on nonmotor symptoms remain uncertain. Up to 80% of patients with PD may have pain relief after STN-DBS, but it is unknown whether its analgesic properties are related to potential effects on sensory thresholds or secondary to motor improvement. We have previously reported significant and long-lasting pain relief after DBS, which did not correlate with motor symptomatic control. Here we present secondary data exploring the effects of DBS on sensory thresholds in a controlled way and have explored the relationship between these changes and clinical pain and motor improvement after surgery. Thirty-seven patients were prospectively evaluated before STN-DBS and 12 months after the procedure compared with healthy controls. Compared with baseline, patients with PD showed lower thermal and mechanical detection and higher cold pain thresholds after surgery. There were no changes in heat and mechanical pain thresholds. Compared with baseline values in healthy controls, patients with PD had higher thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, which decreased after surgery toward normalization. These sensory changes had no correlation with motor or clinical pain improvement after surgery. These data confirm the existence of sensory abnormalities in PD and suggest that STN-DBS mainly influenced the detection thresholds rather than painful sensations. However, these changes may depend on the specific effects of DBS on somatosensory loops with no correlation to motor or clinical pain improvement.

  6. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects limbic and associative circuits: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jeune, Florence; Peron, Julie; Grandjean, Didier; Drapier, Sophie; Verin, Marc; Haegelen, Claire; Garin, Etienne; Millet, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Although high-frequency deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) improves motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), clinical studies have reported cognitive, motivational and emotional changes. These results suggest that the STN forms part of a broadly distributed neural network encompassing the associative and limbic circuits. We sought to pinpoint the cortical and subcortical brain areas modulated by STN DBS, in order to assess the STN's functional role and explain neuropsychological modifications following STN DBS in PD. We studied resting state glucose metabolism in 20 PD patients before and after STN DBS and 13 age-matched healthy controls using 18 F-FDG PET. We used statistical analysis (SPM2) first to compare pre-stimulation metabolism in PD patients with metabolism in healthy controls, then to study metabolic modifications in PD patients following STN DBS. The first analysis revealed no pre-stimulation metabolic abnormalities in associative or limbic circuitry. After STN DBS, metabolic modifications were found in several regions known for their involvement in the limbic and associative circuits. These metabolic results confirm the STN's central role in associative and limbic basal ganglia circuits. They will provide information for working hypotheses for future studies investigating neuropsychological changes and metabolic modifications related to STN DBS, with a view to improving our knowledge of this structure's functional role. (orig.)

  7. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects limbic and associative circuits: a PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Jeune, Florence [Centre Eugene Marquis, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rennes (France); Universite Rennes 1, Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Unite de Recherche Universitaire ' ' Comportement et Noyaux Gris Centraux' ' , Rennes (France); Centre Eugene Marquis, Service Medecine Nucleaire, Rennes (France); Peron, Julie [Universite Rennes 1, Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Unite de Recherche Universitaire ' ' Comportement et Noyaux Gris Centraux' ' , Rennes (France); Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Clinique Neurologique, Rennes (France); University of Geneva, Neuroscience of Emotion and Affective Dynamics, Department of Psychology and Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Grandjean, Didier [University of Geneva, Neuroscience of Emotion and Affective Dynamics, Department of Psychology and Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Drapier, Sophie; Verin, Marc [Universite Rennes 1, Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Unite de Recherche Universitaire ' ' Comportement et Noyaux Gris Centraux' ' , Rennes (France); Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Clinique Neurologique, Rennes (France); Haegelen, Claire [Universite Rennes 1, Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Unite de Recherche Universitaire ' ' Comportement et Noyaux Gris Centraux' ' , Rennes (France); Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Service de Neurochirurgie, Rennes (France); Garin, Etienne [Centre Eugene Marquis, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rennes (France); Millet, Bruno [Universite Rennes 1, Hopital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, Unite de Recherche Universitaire ' ' Comportement et Noyaux Gris Centraux' ' , Rennes (France); S.H.U. Psychiatrie Adulte, CH Guillaume Regnier, Rennes (France)

    2010-08-15

    Although high-frequency deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) improves motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), clinical studies have reported cognitive, motivational and emotional changes. These results suggest that the STN forms part of a broadly distributed neural network encompassing the associative and limbic circuits. We sought to pinpoint the cortical and subcortical brain areas modulated by STN DBS, in order to assess the STN's functional role and explain neuropsychological modifications following STN DBS in PD. We studied resting state glucose metabolism in 20 PD patients before and after STN DBS and 13 age-matched healthy controls using {sup 18}F-FDG PET. We used statistical analysis (SPM2) first to compare pre-stimulation metabolism in PD patients with metabolism in healthy controls, then to study metabolic modifications in PD patients following STN DBS. The first analysis revealed no pre-stimulation metabolic abnormalities in associative or limbic circuitry. After STN DBS, metabolic modifications were found in several regions known for their involvement in the limbic and associative circuits. These metabolic results confirm the STN's central role in associative and limbic basal ganglia circuits. They will provide information for working hypotheses for future studies investigating neuropsychological changes and metabolic modifications related to STN DBS, with a view to improving our knowledge of this structure's functional role. (orig.)

  8. Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor: Aligning Thalamic and Posterior Subthalamic Targets in 1 Surgical Trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Maarten; van Rootselaar, Fleur; Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Odekerken, Vincent; Dijk, Joke; de Bie, Rob; Schuurman, Richard; van den Munckhof, Pepijn

    2017-12-21

    Ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) deep brain stimulation (DBS) and posterior subthalamic area (PSA) DBS suppress tremor in essential tremor (ET) patients, but it is not clear which target is optimal. Aligning both targets in 1 surgical trajectory would facilitate exploring stimulation of either target in a single patient. To evaluate aligning VIM and PSA in 1 surgical trajectory for DBS in ET. Technical aspects of trajectories, intraoperative stimulation findings, final electrode placement, target used for chronic stimulation, and adverse and beneficial effects were evaluated. In 17 patients representing 33 trajectories, we successfully aligned VIM and PSA targets in 26 trajectories. Trajectory distance between targets averaged 7.2 (range 6-10) mm. In all but 4 aligned trajectories, optimal intraoperative tremor suppression was obtained in the PSA. During follow-up, active electrode contacts were located in PSA in the majority of cases. Overall, successful tremor control was achieved in 69% of patients. Stimulation-induced dysarthria or gait ataxia occurred in, respectively, 56% and 44% of patients. Neither difference in tremor suppression or side effects was noted between aligned and nonaligned leads nor between the different locations of chronic stimulation. Alignment of VIM and PSA for DBS in ET is feasible and enables intraoperative exploration of both targets in 1 trajectory. This facilitates positioning of electrode contacts in both areas, where multiple effective points of stimulation can be found. In the majority of aligned leads, optimal intraoperative and chronic stimulation were located in the PSA. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  9. Complex repetitive behavior: punding after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanti, Stefano; Bernardi, Silvia; Raglione, Laura Maria; Marini, Paolo; Ammannati, Franco; Sorbi, Sandro; Ramat, Silvia

    2010-07-01

    "Punding" is the term used to describe a stereotyped motor behavior characterized by an intense fascination with repetitive purposeless movements, such as taking apart mechanical objects, handling common objects as if they were new and entertaining, constantly picking at oneself, etc. As a phenomenon with both impulsive and compulsive features, the phenomenology of punding is currently being questioned. In order to investigate the pathophysiology of this phenomenon, we screened a population of Parkinson's disease (PD) outpatients who underwent subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). We conducted a patient-and-relative-completed survey with 24 consecutive patients in an academic outpatient care center, using a modified version of a structured interview. Patients were administered the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory and the Sheehan Disability Scale. Five (20.8%) of the 24 subjects were identified as punders, including three men (60%) and two women. The punders were comparable to the non-punders in terms of clinical and demographic factors. The punder and non-punder groups only differed statistically with regard to the length of time from DBS implantation. Those findings suggest that punding might be induced by STN DBS, and its rate of occurrence in DBS population seems to be more common than previously suspected. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation and dopaminergic medication in Parkinson's disease: Impact on inter-limb coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneault, Jean-François; Carignan, Benoit; Sadikot, Abbas F; Duval, Christian

    2016-10-29

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often present with bimanual coordination deficits whose exact origins remain unclear. One aspect of bimanual coordination is inter-limb coupling. This is characterized by the harmonization of movement parameters between limbs. We assessed different aspects of bimanual coordination in patients with PD, including inter-limb coupling, and determined whether they are altered by subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) or dopaminergic medication. Twenty PD patients were tested before STN DBS surgery; with and without medication. Post- surgery, patients were tested with their stimulators on and off as well as with and without medication. Patients were asked to perform a unimanual and bimanual rapid repetitive diadochokinesis task. The difference in mean amplitude and mean duration of cycles between hands was computed in order to assess inter-limb coupling. Also, mean angular velocity of both hands and structural coupling were computed for the bimanual task. There was a positive effect of medication and stimulation on mean angular velocity, which relates to clinical improvement. PD patients exhibited temporal inter-limb coupling that was not altered by either medication or STN stimulation. However, PD patients did not exhibit spatial inter-limb coupling. Again, this was not altered by medication or stimulation. Collectively, the results suggest that structures independent of the dopaminergic system and basal ganglia may mediate temporal and spatial inter-limb coupling. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Outcomes of Interventional-MRI Versus Microelectrode Recording-Guided Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN for Parkinson’s disease (PD, there is debate concerning the use of neuroimaging alone to confirm correct anatomic placement of the DBS lead into the STN, versus the use of microelectrode recording (MER to confirm functional placement. We performed a retrospective study of a contemporaneous cohort of 45 consecutive patients who underwent either interventional-MRI (iMRI or MER-guided DBS lead implantation. We compared radial lead error, motor and sensory side effect, and clinical benefit programming thresholds, and pre- and post-operative unified PD rating scale scores, and levodopa equivalent dosages. MER-guided surgery was associated with greater radial error compared to the intended target. In general, side effect thresholds during initial programming were slightly lower in the MER group, but clinical benefit thresholds were similar. No significant difference in the reduction of clinical symptoms or medication dosage was observed. In summary, iMRI lead implantation occurred with greater anatomic accuracy, in locations demonstrated to be the appropriate functional region of the STN, based on the observation of similar programming side effect and benefit thresholds obtained with MER. The production of equivalent clinical outcomes suggests that surgeon and patient preference can be used to guide the decision of whether to recommend iMRI or MER-guided DBS lead implantation to appropriate patients with PD.

  12. Predictive potential of pre-operative functional neuroimaging in patients treated with subthalamic stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sestini, Stelvio; Castagnoli, Antonio; Pupi, Alberto; Sciagra, Roberto; Ammannati, Franco; Ramat, Silvia; Sorbi, Sandro; Mansi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive potential of pre-operative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and clinical factors in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. Ten patients underwent rCBF SPECT and motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) pre- and post-operatively during stimulation at 5 and 42 months. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to extract rCBF values in the pre-SMA because it is related with motor improvement. Post-operative outcomes included motor response to stimulation and percent improvement in UPDRS. Pre-operative predictors were explored by correlation test, linear regression and multivariate analyses. Higher pre-operative rCBF in the pre-SMA and younger age were associated with favourable outcomes at 5 and 42 months. Pre-operative rCBF results were significantly associated with baseline clinical factors. This study shows that PD patients with younger age have higher rCBF values in the pre-SMA and better outcome, thus giving the rationale to the hypothesis that STN stimulation could be considered early in the course of disease. (orig.)

  13. Neuronal Activity in the Subthalamic Cerebrovasodilator Area under Partial-Gravity Conditions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeredo L Zeredo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reduced-gravity environment in space is known to cause an upward shift in body fluids and thus require cardiovascular adaptations in astronauts. In this study, we recorded in rats the neuronal activity in the subthalamic cerebrovasodilator area (SVA, a key area that controls cerebral blood flow (CBF, in response to partial gravity. “Partial gravity” is the term that defines the reduced-gravity levels between 1 g (the unit gravity acceleration on Earth and 0 g (complete weightlessness in space. Neuronal activity was recorded telemetrically through chronically implanted microelectrodes in freely moving rats. Graded levels of partial gravity from 0.4 g to 0.01 g were generated by customized parabolic-flight maneuvers. Electrophysiological signals in each partial-gravity phase were compared to those of the preceding 1 g level-flight. As a result, SVA neuronal activity was significantly inhibited by the partial-gravity levels of 0.15 g and lower, but not by 0.2 g and higher. Gravity levels between 0.2–0.15 g could represent a critical threshold for the inhibition of neurons in the rat SVA. The lunar gravity (0.16 g might thus trigger neurogenic mechanisms of CBF control. This is the first study to examine brain electrophysiology with partial gravity as an experimental parameter.

  14. The atypical subthalamic nucleus--an anatomical variant relevant for stereotactic targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, René; Pinsker, Markus O; Herzog, Jan; Wodarg, Fritz; Steigerwald, Frank; Pötter-Nerger, Monika; Falk, Daniela; Deuschl, Günther; Mehdorn, H Maximilian; Volkmann, Jens

    2012-04-01

    The improvement of PD motor symptoms by DBS of the STN depends on exact targeting. A combination of MRI and multitrajectory microrecordings was used for localization of the STN in a group of 228 consecutive PD patients. In 1% of our cases, the STN was consistently shifted in the anterior (3.3 ± 0.8mm) and medial (3.0 ± 0.9 mm) direction within the target plane, compared to controls. Adjustment of the original target coordinates after intraoperative reevaluation of the MRI and confirmation by typical subthalamic neuronal recordings along the deviant trajectory allowed the implantation of clinically effective electrodes in all cases. The relative improvement of the motor UPDRS at 6-months follow-up in patients with an atypical and typical STN was comparable. An atypical position of the STN does not need to complicate DBS surgery, if detected by a combination of MRI-based targeting and electrophysiological guidance. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Alters Prefrontal Correlates of Emotion Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Sarah K B; Folley, Bradley S; Mayer, Jutta S; Park, Sohee; Charles, P David; Camalier, Corrie R; Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Konrad, Peter E; Neimat, Joseph S

    2017-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease. STN DBS may also affect emotion, possibly by impacting a parallel limbic cortico-striatal circuit. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in prefrontal cortical activity related to DBS during an emotion induction task. We used near infrared spectroscopy to monitor prefrontal cortex hemodynamic changes during an emotion induction task. Seven DBS patients were tested sequentially in the stimulation-on and stimulation-off states while on dopaminergic medication. Patients watched a series of positive, negative, and neutral videos. The general linear model was used to compare prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin concentration between DBS states. Deep brain stimulation was correlated with prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin changes relative to the stimulation off state in response to both positive and negative videos. These changes were specific to emotional stimuli and were not seen during neutral stimuli. These results suggest that STN stimulation influences the prefrontal cortical representation of positive and negative emotion induction. © 2016 International Neuromodulation Society.

  16. Optimal MRI methods for direct stereotactic targeting of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gorman, Ruth L.; Shmueli, Karin; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Selway, Richard P.; Samuel, Michael; Lythgoe, David J.; Shahidiani, Asal; Wastling, Stephen J.; Footman, Michelle; Jarosz, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    Reliable identification of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus interna (GPi) is critical for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of these structures. The purpose of this study was to compare the visibility of the STN and GPi with various MRI techniques and to assess the suitability of each technique for direct stereotactic targeting. MR images were acquired from nine volunteers with T2- and proton density-weighted (PD-W) fast spin echo, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), phase-sensitive inversion recovery and quantitative T1, T2 and T2 * mapping sequences. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) for the STN and GPi were calculated for all sequences. Targeting errors on SWI were evaluated on magnetic susceptibility maps. The sequences demonstrating the best conspicuity of DBS target structures (SWI and T2*) were then applied to ten patients with movement disorders, and the CNRs for these techniques were assessed. SWI offers the highest CNR for the STN, but standard PD-W images provide the best CNR for the pallidum. Susceptibility maps indicated that the GPi margins may be shifted slightly on SWI, although no shifts were seen for the STN. SWI may improve the visibility of the STN on pre-operative MRI, potentially improving the accuracy of direct stereotactic targeting. (orig.)

  17. Distinct populations of neurons respond to emotional valence and arousal in the human subthalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Tomáš; Serranová, Tereza; Růžička, Filip; Vostatek, Pavel; Wild, Jiří; Štastná, Daniela; Bonnet, Cecilia; Novák, Daniel; Růžička, Evžen; Urgošík, Dušan; Jech, Robert

    2015-03-10

    Both animal studies and studies using deep brain stimulation in humans have demonstrated the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in motivational and emotional processes; however, participation of this nucleus in processing human emotion has not been investigated directly at the single-neuron level. We analyzed the relationship between the neuronal firing from intraoperative microrecordings from the STN during affective picture presentation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and the affective ratings of emotional valence and arousal performed subsequently. We observed that 17% of neurons responded to emotional valence and arousal of visual stimuli according to individual ratings. The activity of some neurons was related to emotional valence, whereas different neurons responded to arousal. In addition, 14% of neurons responded to visual stimuli. Our results suggest the existence of neurons involved in processing or transmission of visual and emotional information in the human STN, and provide evidence of separate processing of the affective dimensions of valence and arousal at the level of single neurons as well.

  18. Different populations of subthalamic neurons encode cocaine vs. sucrose reward and predict future error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Sylvie; Paleressompoulle, Dany; Pernaud, Remy; Cador, Martine; Baunez, Christelle

    2013-10-01

    The search for treatment of cocaine addiction raises the challenge to find a way to diminish motivation for the drug without decreasing it for natural rewards. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) inactivation decreases motivation for cocaine while increasing motivation for food, suggesting that STN can dissociate different rewards. Here, we investigated how rat STN neurons respond to cues predicting cocaine or sucrose and to reward delivery while rats are performing a discriminative stimuli task. We show that different neuronal populations of STN neurons encode cocaine and sucrose. In addition, we show that STN activity at the cue onset predicts future error. When changing the reward predicted unexpectedly, STN neurons show capacities of adaptation, suggesting a role in reward-prediction error. Furthermore, some STN neurons show a response to executive error (i.e., "oops neurons") that is specific to the missed reward. These results position the STN as a nexus where natural rewards and drugs of abuse are coded differentially and can influence the performance. Therefore, STN can be viewed as a structure where action could be taken for the treatment of cocaine addiction.

  19. Parkinsonian rest tremor can be detected accurately based on neuronal oscillations recorded from the subthalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, J; Schoffelen, J M; Schnitzler, A; van Gerven, M A J

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the possibility of tremor detection based on deep brain activity. We re-analyzed recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) from the subthalamic nucleus in 10 PD patients (12 body sides) with spontaneously fluctuating rest tremor. Power in several frequency bands was estimated and used as input to Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) which classified short data segments as either tremor-free rest or rest tremor. HMMs were compared to direct threshold application to individual power features. Applying a threshold directly to band-limited power was insufficient for tremor detection (mean area under the curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic: 0.64, STD: 0.19). Multi-feature HMMs, in contrast, allowed for accurate detection (mean AUC: 0.82, STD: 0.15), using four power features obtained from a single contact pair. Within-patient training yielded better accuracy than across-patient training (0.84vs. 0.78, p=0.03), yet tremor could often be detected accurately with either approach. High frequency oscillations (>200Hz) were the best performing individual feature. LFP-based markers of tremor are robust enough to allow for accurate tremor detection in short data segments, provided that appropriate statistical models are used. LFP-based markers of tremor could be useful control signals for closed-loop deep brain stimulation. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Syncope Associated with Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in a Patient with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Aygun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In advanced Parkinson's disease (PD, deep brain stimulation (DBS may be an alternative option for the treatment of motor symptoms. Side effects associated with subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS in patients with PD are emerging as the most frequent sensory and motor symptoms. DBS-related syncope is reported as extremely rare. We wanted to discuss the mechanisms of syncope associated with STN DBS in a patient with Parkinson's disease. Case report. Sixty-three-year-old female patient is followed up with diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease for 6 years in our clinic. The patient has undergone STN DBS due to painful dystonia and drug resistant tremor. During the operation, when the left STN was stimulated at 5 milliampere (mAmp, the patient developed presyncopal symptoms. However, when the stimulation was stopped symptoms improved. During the early period after the operation, when the right STN was stimulated at 1.3 millivolts (mV, she developed the pre-yncopal symptoms and then syncope. Our case shows that STN DBS may lead to directly autonomic symptoms resulting in syncope during stimulation-on (stim-on.

  1. Predictive potential of pre-operative functional neuroimaging in patients treated with subthalamic stimulation

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    Sestini, Stelvio; Castagnoli, Antonio [Ospedale Misericordia e Dolce, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Prato (Italy); Pupi, Alberto; Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Florence (Italy); Ammannati, Franco; Ramat, Silvia; Sorbi, Sandro [University of Florence, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, Florence (Italy); Mansi, Luigi [University II Naples, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Naples (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive potential of pre-operative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and clinical factors in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. Ten patients underwent rCBF SPECT and motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) pre- and post-operatively during stimulation at 5 and 42 months. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to extract rCBF values in the pre-SMA because it is related with motor improvement. Post-operative outcomes included motor response to stimulation and percent improvement in UPDRS. Pre-operative predictors were explored by correlation test, linear regression and multivariate analyses. Higher pre-operative rCBF in the pre-SMA and younger age were associated with favourable outcomes at 5 and 42 months. Pre-operative rCBF results were significantly associated with baseline clinical factors. This study shows that PD patients with younger age have higher rCBF values in the pre-SMA and better outcome, thus giving the rationale to the hypothesis that STN stimulation could be considered early in the course of disease. (orig.)

  2. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates reward processing and action selection in Parkinson patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenbreth, Caroline; Zaehle, Tino; Galazky, Imke; Voges, Jürgen; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for motor impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) but its effect on the motivational regulation of action control is still not fully understood. We investigated whether DBS of the STN influences the ability of PD patients to act for anticipated reward or loss, or whether DBS improves action execution independent of motivational valence. 16 PD patients (12 male, mean age = 58.5 ± 10.17 years) treated with bilateral STN-DBS and an age- and gender-matched group of healthy controls (HC) performed a go/no-go task whose contingencies explicitly decouple valence and action. Patients were tested with (ON) and without (OFF) active STN stimulation. For HC, there was a benefit in performing rewarded actions when compared to actions that avoided punishment. PD patients showed such a benefit reliably only when STN stimulation was ON. In fact, the relative behavioral benefit for go for reward over go to avoid losing was stronger in the PD patients under DBS ON than in HC. In PD patients, rather than generally improving motor functions independent of motivational valence, modulation of the STN by DBS improves action execution specifically when rewards are anticipated. Thus, STN-DBS establishes a reliable congruency between action and reward ("Pavlovian congruency") and remarkably enhances it over the level observed in HC.

  3. Targeting the subthalamic nucleus in a preclinical model of alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelloux, Yann; Baunez, Christelle

    2017-07-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has only recently been considered to have a role in reward processing. In rats, inactivation of the STN by lesion or high-frequency stimulation (HFS) decreases motivation for cocaine but increases motivation for sucrose. For ethanol, the effect of STN lesion depends on the individual's baseline intake; decreasing motivation for ethanol in rats with lower ethanol intake, while increasing motivation for ethanol in rats with higher-but still limited-ethanol intake. However, the involvement of the STN in behaviour more closely resembling some aspects of alcohol use disorder has not been assessed. This study aimed to determine the effect of STN lesions on the escalation of ethanol intake, subsequent increases in the motivation to "work" for ethanol and the choice of ethanol over a non-drug alternative. We found that STN lesion prevented increases in ethanol intake observed during intermittent ethanol access and after a long period of ethanol privation. STN lesion also decreased the motivation to work for ethanol after escalated intake. Surprisingly, STN lesion increased the choice of alcohol over saccharin. This was associated with a blunting of the hedonic responses to the taste of the reinforcement alternatives. These results evidence the involvement of the STN in different ethanol-motivated behaviours and therefore position the STN as an interesting target for the treatment of alcohol use disorders.

  4. Effect of unilateral versus bilateral electrostimulation in subthalamic nucleus on speech in Parkinsons disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Emily; Verhagen Metman, Leo; Bakay, Roy; Arzbaecher, Jean; Bernard, Bryan

    2004-05-01

    Previously, it was found that 16 right-handed patients with idiopathic Parkinsons disease who underwent unilateral implantation of deep brain stimulator in subthalamic nucleus (STN) showed significant improvement in their nonspeech motor functions. Eight of the 16 patients had stimulator in the left STN and eight in the right STN. In contrast, their speech function showed very mild improvement that was limited to the respiratory/phonotory subsystems. Further, there seemed a trend that the patients with right STN stimulation did better than those with left STN stimulation. It was speculated that the difference might be due to a micro lesion caused by the surgical procedure to the corticobulbar fibers run in the left internal capsule. This paper reports speech changes associated with bilateral DBS in STN in four of the 16 subjects who elected to have deep brain stimulator implanted in STN on the opposite side of the brain at a later time. Results show negative changes in speech after bilateral DBS in STN. The changes were not limited to the micro lesion effect due to the surgery itself, but also related to the active stimulation on the dominant hemisphere for speech processing. [Work supported by NIH.

  5. Expression of dopamine receptors in the subthalamic nucleus of the rat: characterization using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, G.; Liang, J.J.; Sierra, A.; Martinez-Fong, D.; Quirion, R.; Aceves, J.; Srivastava, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    We analysed the expression of dopamine receptor subtypes in the subthalamic nucleus by means of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We also studied, using autoradiography, all pharmacologically characterized dopamine receptors in four subregions of the subthalamic nucleus. For comparison, dopamine receptor subtypes were also evaluated in brain regions where they are more abundant and well characterized. The radioligands used were: [ 3 H]SCH-23390, [ 3 H]emonapride and [ 3 H]2-dipropylamino-7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene for dopamine D 1 , D 2 and D 3 receptors, respectively; and [ 3 H]YM-09151-2 in the presence of raclopride for dopamine D 4 receptors. Finally, we also evaluated the effect of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle on dopamine receptor levels expressed in the ipsilateral subthalamic nucleus. The lesion was estimated by decrease in the binding of [ 3 H]WIN-35428, a specific dopamine transporter label. D 1 , D 2 and D 3 receptor messenger RNAs and binding sites were present in the subthalamic nucleus, but no messenger RNA for D 4 receptors was found, although specific binding sites for these receptors were observed. As compared to the intact side, the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion did not change D 1 receptors, increased D 2 receptors, and decreased D 3 receptors and the dopamine transporter. The results suggest that postsynaptic D 1 , D 2 or D 3 receptors can mediate the effect of dopamine on subthalamic nucleus neuronal activity. D 4 receptors would mediate exclusively presynaptic effects.These results reinforce the idea that dopamine receptors in the subthalamic nucleus may play an important role in the physiology of the basal ganglia and in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Evidence of transcranial direct current stimulation-generated electric fields at subthalamic level in human brain in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatbar, Pratik Y; Kautz, Steven A; Takacs, Istvan; Rowland, Nathan C; Revuelta, Gonzalo J; George, Mark S; Bikson, Marom; Feng, Wuwei

    2018-03-13

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising brain modulation technique for several disease conditions. With this technique, some portion of the current penetrates through the scalp to the cortex and modulates cortical excitability, but a recent human cadaver study questions the amount. This insufficient intracerebral penetration of currents may partially explain the inconsistent and mixed results in tDCS studies to date. Experimental validation of a transcranial alternating current stimulation-generated electric field (EF) in vivo has been performed on the cortical (using electrocorticography, ECoG, electrodes), subcortical (using stereo electroencephalography, SEEG, electrodes) and deeper thalamic/subthalamic levels (using DBS electrodes). However, tDCS-generated EF measurements have never been attempted. We aimed to demonstrate that tDCS generates biologically relevant EF as deep as the subthalamic level in vivo. Patients with movement disorders who have implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes serve as a natural experimental model for thalamic/subthalamic recordings of tDCS-generated EF. We measured voltage changes from DBS electrodes and body resistance from tDCS electrodes in three subjects while applying direct current to the scalp at 2 mA and 4 mA over two tDCS montages. Voltage changes at the level of deep nuclei changed proportionally with the level of applied current and varied with different tDCS montages. Our findings suggest that scalp-applied tDCS generates biologically relevant EF. Incorporation of these experimental results may improve finite element analysis (FEA)-based models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Basal ganglia dysfunction in OCD: subthalamic neuronal activity correlates with symptoms severity and predicts high-frequency stimulation efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, M-L; Burbaud, P; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Bardinet, E; Coste, J; Piallat, B; Borg, M; Besnard, S; Sauleau, P; Devaux, B; Pidoux, B; Chaynes, P; Tézenas du Montcel, S; Bastian, A; Langbour, N; Teillant, A; Haynes, W; Yelnik, J; Karachi, C; Mallet, L

    2011-05-03

    Functional and connectivity changes in corticostriatal systems have been reported in the brains of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the relationship between basal ganglia activity and OCD severity has never been adequately established. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a central basal ganglia nucleus, improves OCD. Here, single-unit subthalamic neuronal activity was analysed in 12 OCD patients, in relation to the severity of obsessions and compulsions and response to STN stimulation, and compared with that obtained in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). STN neurons in OCD patients had lower discharge frequency than those in PD patients, with a similar proportion of burst-type activity (69 vs 67%). Oscillatory activity was present in 46 and 68% of neurons in OCD and PD patients, respectively, predominantly in the low-frequency band (1-8 Hz). In OCD patients, the bursty and oscillatory subthalamic neuronal activity was mainly located in the associative-limbic part. Both OCD severity and clinical improvement following STN stimulation were related to the STN neuronal activity. In patients with the most severe OCD, STN neurons exhibited bursts with shorter duration and interburst interval, but higher intraburst frequency, and more oscillations in the low-frequency bands. In patients with best clinical outcome with STN stimulation, STN neurons displayed higher mean discharge, burst and intraburst frequencies, and lower interburst interval. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a dysfunction in the associative-limbic subdivision of the basal ganglia circuitry in OCD's pathophysiology.

  8. Control of the subthalamic innervation of substantia nigra pars reticulata by D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Hernández, Adán; Florán, Benjamin; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Valdiosera, Rene; Erlij, David; Aceves, Jorge; Bargas, José

    2006-03-01

    The effects of activating dopaminergic D1 and D2 class receptors of the subthalamic projections that innervate the pars reticulata of the subtantia nigra (SNr) were explored in slices of the rat brain using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that could be blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalene-2,3-dione and D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid were evoked onto reticulata GABAergic projection neurons by local field stimulation inside the subthalamic nucleus in the presence of bicuculline. Bath application of (RS)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SKF-38393), a dopaminergic D1-class receptor agonist, increased evoked EPSCs by approximately 30% whereas the D2-class receptor agonist, trans-(-)-4aR-4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo(3,4-g)quinoline (quinpirole), reduced EPSCs by approximately 25%. These apparently opposing actions were blocked by the specific D1- and D2-class receptor antagonists: R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepinehydrochloride (SCH 23390) and S-(-)-5-amino-sulfonyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl]-2-methoxybenzamide (sulpiride), respectively. Both effects were accompanied by changes in the paired-pulse ratio, indicative of a presynaptic site of action. The presynaptic location of dopamine receptors at the subthalamonigral projections was confirmed by mean-variance analysis. The effects of both SKF-38393 and quinpirole could be observed on terminals contacting the same postsynaptic neuron. Sulpiride and SCH 23390 enhanced and reduced the evoked EPSC, respectively, suggesting a constitutive receptor activation probably arising from endogenous dopamine. These data suggest that dopamine presynaptically modulates the subthalamic projection that targets GABAergic neurons of the SNr. Implications of this modulation for basal ganglia function are discussed.

  9. Nonlinear processing of a multicomponent communication signal by combination-sensitive neurons in the anuran inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Norman; Schrode, Katrina M; Bee, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Diverse animals communicate using multicomponent signals. How a receiver's central nervous system integrates multiple signal components remains largely unknown. We investigated how female green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) integrate the multiple spectral components present in male advertisement calls. Typical calls have a bimodal spectrum consisting of formant-like low-frequency (~0.9 kHz) and high-frequency (~2.7 kHz) components that are transduced by different sensory organs in the inner ear. In behavioral experiments, only bimodal calls reliably elicited phonotaxis in no-choice tests, and they were selectively chosen over unimodal calls in two-alternative choice tests. Single neurons in the inferior colliculus of awake, passively listening subjects were classified as combination-insensitive units (27.9%) or combination-sensitive units (72.1%) based on patterns of relative responses to the same bimodal and unimodal calls. Combination-insensitive units responded similarly to the bimodal call and one or both unimodal calls. In contrast, combination-sensitive units exhibited both linear responses (i.e., linear summation) and, more commonly, nonlinear responses (e.g., facilitation, compressive summation, or suppression) to the spectral combination in the bimodal call. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that nonlinearities play potentially critical roles in spectral integration and in the neural processing of multicomponent communication signals.

  10. Neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rat show stimulus-specific adaptation for frequency, but not for intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Daniel; Wang, Xin; Nieto-Diego, Javier; Krumbholz, Katrin; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrophysiological and psychophysical responses to a low-intensity probe sound tend to be suppressed by a preceding high-intensity adaptor sound. Nevertheless, rare low-intensity deviant sounds presented among frequent high-intensity standard sounds in an intensity oddball paradigm can elicit an electroencephalographic mismatch negativity (MMN) response. This has been taken to suggest that the MMN is a correlate of true change or “deviance” detection. A key question is where in the ascending auditory pathway true deviance sensitivity first emerges. Here, we addressed this question by measuring low-intensity deviant responses from single units in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized rats. If the IC exhibits true deviance sensitivity to intensity, IC neurons should show enhanced responses to low-intensity deviant sounds presented among high-intensity standards. Contrary to this prediction, deviant responses were only enhanced when the standards and deviants differed in frequency. The results could be explained with a model assuming that IC neurons integrate over multiple frequency-tuned channels and that adaptation occurs within each channel independently. We used an adaptation paradigm with multiple repeated adaptors to measure the tuning widths of these adaption channels in relation to the neurons’ overall tuning widths. PMID:27066835

  11. Plastic reorganization in the inferior colliculus of the immature mouse studied by 14C$deoxyglucose method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Ikuo; Saito, Nozomu

    1978-01-01

    Plastic reinnervation was observed in the mouse by means of autoradiography with [ 14 C]deoxyglucose (DG). It is possible that the ipsilateral inhibitory pathway for input from the cochlea to the inferior colliculus (IC) switches to excitation or disinhibition following unilateral cochlear destruction. Autoradiographs of the brains of mice exposed to sound stimuli exhibited high optical densities in activated regions due to the increased uptake of DG. IC revealed essentially the same optical density on both sides. No bilateral asymmetry appeared in autoradiographs of IC in 46-day-old normal animals with binaural hearing, indicating glucose consumption at the same rate bilaterally at the level of IC in normal animals. On the 1st and 4th days after destruction of the left cochles, the contralateral IC exhibited less labeling than the ipsilateral IC. However, optical density in the contralateral IC increase. On the 11th day, it was apparently reduced in bilateral asymmetry. Autoradiographs on the 18th day demonstrated essentially an equal uptake of DG on both sides and almost the same pattern as in normal animals. These changes suggested postoperative reorganization possible occurred as a result of reinnervation of the input fibers to IC via the commissure of inferior colliculi (COM) or the lateral lemniscus ipsilaterally. COM was transectioned 31 days after destruction of the left cochlea. IC demonstrated symmetrical uptake of DG on both sides. (J.P.N.)

  12. Hearing assessment during deep brain stimulation of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and dentate cerebellar nucleus in rat

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    Jasper V. Smit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently it has been shown in animal studies that deep brain stimulation (DBS of auditory structures was able to reduce tinnitus-like behavior. However, the question arises whether hearing might be impaired when interfering in auditory-related network loops with DBS. Methods The auditory brainstem response (ABR was measured in rats during high frequency stimulation (HFS and low frequency stimulation (LFS in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC, n = 5 or dentate cerebellar nucleus (DCBN, n = 5. Besides hearing thresholds using ABR, relative measures of latency and amplitude can be extracted from the ABR. In this study ABR thresholds, interpeak latencies (I–III, III–V, I–V and V/I amplitude ratio were measured during off-stimulation state and during LFS and HFS. Results In both the CIC and the CNBN groups, no significant differences were observed for all outcome measures. Discussion DBS in both the CIC and the CNBN did not have adverse effects on hearing measurements. These findings suggest that DBS does not hamper physiological processing in the auditory circuitry.

  13. Expression of immediate-early genes in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex in salicylate-induced tinnitus in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S S; Mei, L; Chen, J Y; Huang, Z W; Wu, H

    2014-03-12

    Tinnitus could be associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the auditory center. As a neuronal activity marker, immediate-early gene (IEG) expression is considered part of a general neuronal response to natural stimuli. Some IEGs, especially the activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arc) and the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1), appear to be highly correlated with sensory-evoked neuronal activity. We hypothesize, therefore, an increase of Arc and Egr-1 will be observed in a tinnitus model. In our study, we used the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm to confirm that salicylate induces tinnitus-like behavior in rats. However, expression of the Arc gene and Egr-1 gene were decreased in the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex (AC), in contradiction of our hypothesis. Expression of N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) was increased and all of these changes returned to normal 14 days after treatment with salicylate ceased. These data revealed long-time administration of salicylate induced tinnitus markedly but reversibly and caused neural plasticity changes in the IC and the AC. Decreased expression of Arc and Egr-1 might be involved with instability of synaptic plasticity in tinnitus.

  14. Expression of immediate-early genes in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex in salicylate-induced tinnitus in rat

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    S.S. Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus could be associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the auditory center. As a neuronal activity marker, immediate-early gene (IEG expression is considered part of a general neuronal response to natural stimuli. Some IEGs, especially the activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arc and the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1, appear to be highly correlated with sensory-evoked neuronal activity. We hypothesize, therefore, an increase of Arc and Egr-1 will be observed in a tinnitus model. In our study, we used the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS paradigm to confirm that salicylate induces tinnitus-like behavior in rats. However, expression of the Arc gene and Egr-1 gene were decreased in the inferior colliculus (IC and auditory cortex (AC, in contradiction of our hypothesis. Expression of N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B was increased and all of these changes returned to normal 14 days after treatment with salicylate ceased. These data revealed long-time administration of salicylate induced tinnitus markedly but reversibly and caused neural plasticity changes in the IC and the AC. Decreased expression of Arc and Egr-1 might be involved with instability of synaptic plasticity in tinnitus.

  15. Oscillatory reactivity to effortful cognitive processing in the subthalamic nucleus and internal pallidum: a depth electrode EEG study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bočková, M.; Chládek, Jan; Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Rapcsak, S.Z.; Baláž, M.; Chrastina, J.; Rektor, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 7 (2017), s. 841-852 ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-33798A; GA ČR GAP103/11/0933; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : subthalamic nucleus * internal globus pallidum * complex cognitive functions * lateralization * deep brain stimulation * erd/s Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment OBOR OECD: Medical engineering Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016

  16. Regulation of the Bcas1 and Baiap3 transcripts in the subthalamic nucleus in mice recovering from MPTP toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, J B; Johansen, J L; Rekling, J C

    2011-01-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) exposure leads to significant and irreversible damage to dopaminergic neurons in both mice and humans. While MPTP exposure in humans causes permanent symptoms of Parkinson's disease, MPTP treated mice will recover behaviorally over a 3-week period....... This mouse specific recovery might be linked to transcriptional changes in the basal ganglia enabling mice to maintain normal motor function in spite of low striatal dopamine levels. Laser microdissection was used to isolate the subthalamic nucleus from mice 7 and 28 days following MPTP exposure. High...

  17. Parkinsonian Rest Tremor Is Associated With Modulations of Subthalamic High-Frequency Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Jan; Butz, Markus; Hartmann, Christian J; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Özkurt, Tolga E; Vesper, Jan; Wojtecki, Lars; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2016-10-01

    High frequency oscillations (>200 Hz) have been observed in the basal ganglia of PD patients and were shown to be modulated by the administration of levodopa and voluntary movement. The objective of this study was to test whether the power of high-frequency oscillations in the STN is associated with spontaneous manifestation of parkinsonian rest tremor. The electromyogram of both forearms and local field potentials from the STN were recorded in 11 PD patients (10 men, age 58 [9.4] years, disease duration 9.2 [6.3] years). Patients were recorded at rest and while performing repetitive hand movements before and after levodopa intake. High-frequency oscillation power was compared across epochs containing rest tremor, tremor-free rest, or voluntary movement and related to the tremor cycle. We observed prominent slow (200-300 Hz) and fast (300-400 Hz) high-frequency oscillations. The ratio between slow and fast high-frequency oscillation power increased when tremor became manifest. This increase was consistent across nuclei (94%) and occurred in medication ON and OFF. The ratio outperformed other potential markers of tremor, such as power at individual tremor frequency, beta power, or low gamma power. For voluntary movement, we did not observe a significant difference when compared with rest or rest tremor. Finally, rhythmic modulations of high-frequency oscillation power occurred within the tremor cycle. Subthalamic high-frequency oscillation power is closely linked to the occurrence of parkinsonian rest tremor. The balance between slow and fast high-frequency oscillation power combines information on motor and medication state. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Non-stationary discharge patterns in motor cortex under subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

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    Santaniello, Sabato; Montgomery, Erwin B; Gale, John T; Sarma, Sridevi V

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) directly modulates the basal ganglia (BG), but how such stimulation impacts the cortex upstream is largely unknown. There is evidence of cortical activation in 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-lesioned rodents and facilitation of motor evoked potentials in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, but the impact of the DBS settings on the cortical activity in normal vs. Parkinsonian conditions is still debated. We use point process models to analyze non-stationary activation patterns and inter-neuronal dependencies in the motor and sensory cortices of two non-human primates during STN DBS. These features are enhanced after treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which causes a consistent PD-like motor impairment, while high-frequency (HF) DBS (i.e., ≥100 Hz) strongly reduces the short-term patterns (period: 3-7 ms) both before and after MPTP treatment, and elicits a short-latency post-stimulus activation. Low-frequency DBS (i.e., ≤50 Hz), instead, has negligible effects on the non-stationary features. Finally, by using tools from the information theory [i.e., receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and information rate (IR)], we show that the predictive power of these models is dependent on the DBS settings, i.e., the probability of spiking of the cortical neurons (which is captured by the point process models) is significantly conditioned on the timely delivery of the DBS input. This dependency increases with the DBS frequency and is significantly larger for high- vs. low-frequency DBS. Overall, the selective suppression of non-stationary features and the increased modulation of the spike probability suggest that HF STN DBS enhances the neuronal activation in motor and sensory cortices, presumably because of reinforcement mechanisms, which perhaps involve the overlap between feedback antidromic and feed-forward orthodromic responses along the BG-thalamo-cortical loop.

  19. The subthalamic nucleus keeps you high on emotion: behavioral consequences of its inactivation

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    Yann ePelloux

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subthalamic nucleus (STN belongs to the basal ganglia and is the current target for the surgical treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson’s Disease (PD and obsessive compulsive disorders, but also a proposed site for the treatment of addiction. It is therefore very important to understand its functions in order to anticipate and prevent possible side-effects in the patients. Although the involvement of the STN is well documented in motor, cognitive and motivational processes, less is known regarding emotional processes. Here we have investigated the direct consequences of STN inactivation by excitotoxic lesions on emotional processing and reinforcement in the rat. We have used various behavioral procedures to assess affect for neutral, positive and negative reinforcers in STN lesioned rats. STN lesions reduced affective responses for positive (sweet solutions and negative (electric foot shock, Lithium Chloride-induced sickness reinforcers while they had no effect on responses for a more neutral reinforcer (novelty induced place preference. Furthermore, when given the choice between saccharine, a sweet but non caloric solution, and glucose, a more bland but caloric solution, in contrast to sham animals that preferred saccharine, STN lesioned animals preferred glucose over saccharine. Taken altogether these results reveal that STN plays a critical role in emotional processing. These results, in line with some clinical observations in PD patients subjected to STN surgery, suggest possible emotional side-effects of treatments targeting the STN. They also suggest that the increased motivation for sucrose previously reported cannot be due to increased pleasure, but could be responsible for the decreased motivation for cocaine reported after STN inactivation.

  20. High frequency deep brain stimulation attenuates subthalamic and cortical rhythms in Parkinson’s disease

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    Diane eWhitmer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is marked by excessive synchronous activity in the beta (8-35 Hz band throughout the cortico-basal ganglia network. The optimal location of high frequency deep brain stimulation (HF DBS within the subthalamic nucleus (STN region and the location of maximal beta hypersynchrony are currently matters of debate. Additionally, the effect of STN HF DBS on neural synchrony in functionally connected regions of motor cortex is unknown and of great interest. Scalp EEG studies demonstrated that stimulation of the STN can activate motor cortex antidromically, but the spatial specificity of this effect has not been examined. The present study examined the effect of STN HF DBS on neural synchrony within the cortico-basal ganglia network in patients with PD. We measured local field potentials dorsal to and within the STN of PD patients, and additionally in the motor cortex in a subset of these patients. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to guide the placement of subdural cortical surface electrodes over the DTI-identified origin of the hyperdirect pathway between motor cortex and the STN. The results demonstrated that local beta power was attenuated during HF DBS both dorsal to and within the STN. The degree of attenuation was monotonic with increased DBS voltages in both locations, but this voltage-dependent effect was greater in the central STN than dorsal to the STN (p < 0.05. Cortical signals over the estimated origin of the hyperdirect pathway also demonstrated attenuation of beta hypersynchrony during DBS dorsal to or within STN, whereas signals from non-specific regions of motor cortex were not attenuated. The spatially specific suppression of beta synchrony in the motor cortex support the hypothesis that DBS may treat Parkinsonism by reducing excessive synchrony in the functionally connected sensorimotor network.

  1. Emotion recognition impairment and apathy after subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease have separate neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapier, D; Péron, J; Leray, E; Sauleau, P; Biseul, I; Drapier, S; Le Jeune, F; Travers, D; Bourguignon, A; Haegelen, C; Millet, B; Vérin, M

    2008-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that emotion recognition and apathy share the same functional circuit involving the subthalamic nucleus (STN). A consecutive series of 17 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) was assessed 3 months before (M-3) and 3 months (M+3) after STN deep brain stimulation (DBS). Mean (+/-S.D.) age at surgery was 56.9 (8.7) years. Mean disease duration at surgery was 11.8 (2.6) years. Apathy was measured using the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) at both M-3 and M3. Patients were also assessed using a computerised paradigm of facial emotion recognition [Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1976). Pictures of facial affect. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist Press] before and after STN DBS. Prior to this, the Benton Facial Recognition Test was used to check that the ability to perceive faces was intact. Apathy had significantly worsened at M3 (42.5+/-8.9, p=0.006) after STN-DBS, in relation to the preoperative assessment (37.2+/-5.5). There was also a significant reduction in recognition percentages for facial expressions of fear (43.1%+/-22.9 vs. 61.6%+/-21.4, p=0.022) and sadness (52.7%+/-19.1 vs. 67.6%+/-22.8, p=0.031) after STN DBS. However, the postoperative worsening of apathy and emotion recognition impairment were not correlated. Our results confirm that the STN is involved in both the apathy and emotion recognition networks. However, the absence of any correlation between apathy and emotion recognition impairment suggests that the worsening of apathy following surgery could not be explained by a lack of facial emotion recognition and that its behavioural and cognitive components should therefore also be taken into consideration.

  2. Subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation modulates neuronal reactivity to cocaine within the reward circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem-Delaunay, Sabira; Fournier, Marie-Line; Cohen, Candie; Bonneau, Nicolas; Cador, Martine; Baunez, Christelle; Le Moine, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a critical component of a complex network controlling motor, associative and limbic functions. High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the STN is an effective therapy for motor symptoms in Parkinsonian patients and can also reduce their treatment-induced addictive behaviors. Preclinical studies have shown that STN HFS decreases motivation for cocaine while increasing that for food, highlighting its influence on rewarding and motivational circuits. However, the cellular substrates of these effects remain unknown. Our objectives were to characterize the cellular consequences of STN HFS with a special focus on limbic structures and to elucidate how STN HFS may interfere with acute cocaine effects in these brain areas. Male Long-Evans rats were subjected to STN HFS (130 Hz, 60 μs, 50-150 μA) for 30 min before an acute cocaine injection (15 mg/kg) and sacrificed 10 min following the injection. Neuronal reactivity was analyzed through the expression of two immediate early genes (Arc and c-Fos) to decipher cellular responses to STN HFS and cocaine. STN HFS only activated c-Fos in the globus pallidus and the basolateral amygdala, highlighting a possible role on emotional processes via the amygdala, with a limited effect by itself in other structures. Interestingly, and despite some differential effects on Arc and c-Fos expression, STN HFS diminished the c-Fos response induced by acute cocaine in the striatum. By preventing the cellular effect of cocaine in the striatum, STN HFS might thus decrease the reinforcing properties of the drug, which is in line with the inhibitory effect of STN HFS on the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cocaine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation impacts language in early Parkinson's disease.

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    Lara Phillips

    Full Text Available Although deep brain stimulation (DBS of the basal ganglia improves motor outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD, its effects on cognition, including language, remain unclear. This study examined the impact of subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS on two fundamental capacities of language, grammatical and lexical functions. These functions were tested with the production of regular and irregular past-tenses, which contrast aspects of grammatical (regulars and lexical (irregulars processing while controlling for multiple potentially confounding factors. Aspects of the motor system were tested by contrasting the naming of manipulated (motor and non-manipulated (non-motor objects. Performance was compared between healthy controls and early-stage PD patients treated with either DBS/medications or medications alone. Patients were assessed on and off treatment, with controls following a parallel testing schedule. STN-DBS improved naming of manipulated (motor but not non-manipulated (non-motor objects, as compared to both controls and patients with just medications, who did not differ from each other across assessment sessions. In contrast, STN-DBS led to worse performance at regulars (grammar but not irregulars (lexicon, as compared to the other two subject groups, who again did not differ. The results suggest that STN-DBS negatively impacts language in early PD, but may be specific in depressing aspects of grammatical and not lexical processing. The finding that STN-DBS affects both motor and grammar (but not lexical functions strengthens the view that both depend on basal ganglia circuitry, although the mechanisms for its differential impact on the two (improved motor, impaired grammar remain to be elucidated.

  4. Asymmetric right/left encoding of emotions in the human subthalamic nucleus

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    Renana eEitan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing is lateralized to the non-dominant brain hemisphere. However, there is no clear spatial model for lateralization of emotional domains in the basal ganglia. The subthalamic nucleus (STN, an input structure in the basal ganglia network, plays a major role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD. This role is probably not limited only to the motor deficits of PD, but may also span the emotional and cognitive deficits commonly observed in PD patients. Beta oscillations (12-30Hz, the electrophysiological signature of PD, are restricted to the dorsolateral part of the STN that corresponds to the anatomically defined sensorimotor STN. The more medial, more anterior and more ventral parts of the STN are thought to correspond to the anatomically defined limbic and associative territories of the STN. Surprisingly, little is known about the electrophysiological properties of the non-motor domains of the STN, nor about electrophysiological differences between right and left STNs.In this study, microelectrodes were utilized to record the STN spontaneous spiking activity and responses to vocal non-verbal emotional stimuli during deep brain stimulation (DBS surgeries in human PD patients. The oscillation properties of the STN neurons were used to map the dorsal oscillatory and the ventral non-oscillatory regions of the STN. Emotive auditory stimulation evoked activity in the ventral non-oscillatory region of the right STN. These responses were not observed in the left ventral STN or in the dorsal regions of either the right or left STN. Therefore, our results suggest that the ventral non-oscillatory regions are asymmetrically associated with non-motor functions, with the right ventral STN associated with emotional processing. These results suggest that DBS of the right ventral STN may be associated with beneficial or adverse emotional effects observed in PD patients and may relieve mental symptoms in other neurological and

  5. Non-motor outcomes of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease depend on location of active contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafsari, Haidar Salimi; Petry-Schmelzer, Jan Niklas; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Weis, Luca; Dembek, Till A; Samuel, Michael; Rizos, Alexandra; Silverdale, Monty; Barbe, Michael T; Fink, Gereon R; Evans, Julian; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Antonini, Angelo; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-03-16

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Few studies have investigated the influence of the location of neurostimulation on NMS. To investigate the impact of active contact location on NMS in STN-DBS in PD. In this prospective, open-label, multicenter study including 50 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we collected NMSScale (NMSS), NMSQuestionnaire (NMSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (anxiety/depression, HADS-A/-D), PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor examination, motor complications, activities of daily living (ADL), and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) preoperatively and at 6 months follow-up. Changes were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank/t-test and Bonferroni-correction for multiple comparisons. Although the STN was targeted visually, we employed an atlas-based approach to explore the relationship between active contact locations and DBS outcomes. Based on fused MRI/CT-images, we identified Cartesian coordinates of active contacts with patient-specific Mai-atlas standardization. We computed linear mixed-effects models with x-/y-/z-coordinates as independent, hemispheres as within-subject, and test change scores as dependent variables. NMSS, NMSQ, PDQ-8, motor examination, complications, and LEDD significantly improved at follow-up. Linear mixed-effect models showed that NMS and QoL improvement significantly depended on more medial (HADS-D, NMSS), anterior (HADS-D, NMSQ, PDQ-8), and ventral (HADS-A/-D, NMSS, PDQ-8) neurostimulation. ADL improved more in posterior, LEDD in lateral neurostimulation locations. No relationship was observed for motor examination and complications scores. Our study provides evidence that more anterior, medial, and ventral STN-DBS is significantly related to more beneficial non-motor outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Quality of life outcome after subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease depends on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafsari, Haidar S; Reker, Paul; Stalinski, Lisa; Silverdale, Monty; Rizos, Alexandra; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Barbe, Michael T; Fink, Gereon R; Evans, Julian; Steffen, Julia; Samuel, Michael; Dembek, Till A; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Antonini, Angelo; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how quality of life outcome after bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) depends on age. In this prospective, open-label, multicenter study including 120 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we investigated the PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), Unified PD Rating Scale-III, Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor examination, complications, activities of daily living, and levodopa equivalent daily dose preoperatively and at 5 months follow-up. Significant changes at follow-up were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. To explore the influence of age post hoc, the patients were classified into 3 age groups (≤59, 60-69, ≥70 years). Intragroup changes were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank and intergroup differences with Kruskal-Wallis tests. The strength of clinical responses was evaluated using effect size. The PDQuestionnaire-8, Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor complications, activities of daily living, and levodopa equivalent daily dose significantly improved in the overall cohort and all age groups with no significant intergroup differences. However, PDQuestionnaire-8 effect sizes for age groups ≤59, 60 to 69, and ≥70 years, respectively, were strong, moderate, and small. Furthermore, PDQuestionnaire-8 domain analyses revealed that all domains except cognition and emotional well-being significantly improved in patients aged ≤59 years, whereas only communication, activities of daily living, and stigma improved in patients aged 60-69 years, and activities of daily living and stigma in patients aged ≥70 years. Although quality of life, motor complications, and activities of daily living significantly improved in all age groups after bilateral STN-DBS, the beneficial effect on overall quality of life was more pronounced and affected a wider range of quality of life domains in younger patients. © 2017 International

  7. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation improves auditory sensory gating deficit in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulberti, A; Hamel, W; Buhmann, C; Boelmans, K; Zittel, S; Gerloff, C; Westphal, M; Engel, A K; Schneider, T R; Moll, C K E

    2015-03-01

    While motor effects of dopaminergic medication and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are well explored, their effects on sensory processing are less well understood. Here, we studied the impact of levodopa and STN-DBS on auditory processing. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) was presented at frequencies between 1 and 6Hz in a passive listening paradigm. High-density EEG-recordings were obtained before (levodopa ON/OFF) and 5months following STN-surgery (ON/OFF STN-DBS). We compared auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) elicited by RAS in 12 PD patients to those in age-matched controls. Tempo-dependent amplitude suppression of the auditory P1/N1-complex was used as an indicator of auditory gating. Parkinsonian patients showed significantly larger AEP-amplitudes (P1, N1) and longer AEP-latencies (N1) compared to controls. Neither interruption of dopaminergic medication nor of STN-DBS had an immediate effect on these AEPs. However, chronic STN-DBS had a significant effect on abnormal auditory gating characteristics of parkinsonian patients and restored a physiological P1/N1-amplitude attenuation profile in response to RAS with increasing stimulus rates. This differential treatment effect suggests a divergent mode of action of levodopa and STN-DBS on auditory processing. STN-DBS may improve early attentive filtering processes of redundant auditory stimuli, possibly at the level of the frontal cortex. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Local Fields in Human Subthalamic Nucleus Track the Lead-up to Impulsive Choices

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    John M. Pearson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to adaptively minimize not only motor but cognitive symptoms of neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's Disease (PD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, is a primary goal of next-generation deep brain stimulation (DBS devices. On the basis of studies demonstrating a link between beta-band synchronization and severity of motor symptoms in PD, the minimization of beta band activity has been proposed as a potential training target for closed-loop DBS. At present, no comparable signal is known for the impulsive side effects of PD, though multiple studies have implicated theta band activity within the subthalamic nucleus (STN, the site of DBS treatment, in processes of conflict monitoring and countermanding. Here, we address this challenge by recording from multiple independent channels within the STN in a self-paced decision task to test whether these signals carry information sufficient to predict stopping behavior on a trial-by-trial basis. As in previous studies, we found that local field potentials (LFPs exhibited modulations preceding self-initiated movements, with power ramping across multiple frequencies during the deliberation period. In addition, signals showed phasic changes in power around the time of decision. However, a prospective model that attempted to use these signals to predict decision times showed effects of risk level did not improve with the addition of LFPs as regressors. These findings suggest information tracking the lead-up to impulsive choices is distributed across multiple frequency scales in STN, though current techniques may not possess sufficient signal-to-noise ratios to predict—and thus curb—impulsive behavior on a moment-to-moment basis.

  9. Frequency specific activity in subthalamic nucleus correlates with hand bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Anzak, Anam; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Bogdanovic, Marko; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Local field potential recordings made from the basal ganglia of patients undergoing deep brain stimulation have suggested that frequency specific activity is involved in determining the rate of force development and the peak force at the outset of a movement. However, the extent to which the basal ganglia might be involved in motor performance later on in a sustained contraction is less clear. We therefore recorded from the subthalamic nucleus region (STNr) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as they made maximal voluntary grips. Relative to age-matched controls they had more rapid force decrement when contraction was meant to be sustained and prolonged release reaction time and slower rate of force offset when they were supposed to release the grip. These impairments were independent from medication status. Increased STNr power over 5-12 Hz (in the theta/alpha band) independently predicted better performance-reduced force decrement, shortened release reaction time and faster rate of force offset. In contrast, lower mean levels and progressive reduction of STNr power over 55-375 Hz (high gamma/high frequency) over the period when contraction was meant to be sustained were both strongly associated with greater force decrement over time. Higher power over 13-23 Hz (low beta) was associated with more rapid force decrement during the period when grip should have been sustained, and with a paradoxical shortening of the release reaction time. These observations suggest that STNr activities at 5-12 Hz and 55-375 Hz are necessary for optimal grip performance and that deficiencies of such activities lead to motor impairments. In contrast, increased levels of 13-25 Hz activity both promote force decrement and shorten the release reaction time, consistent with a role in antagonising (and terminating) voluntary movement. Frequency specific oscillatory activities in the STNr impact on motor performance from the beginning to the end of a voluntary grip. Copyright © 2012

  10. Posterolateral Trajectories Favor a Longer Motor Domain in Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Idit; Marmor-Levin, Odeya; Eitan, Renana; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi

    2017-10-01

    The clinical outcome of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) who undergo subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is, in part, determined by the length of the electrode trajectory through the motor STN domain, the dorsolateral oscillatory region (DLOR). Trajectory length has been found to correlate with the stimulation-related improvement in patients' motor function (estimated by part III of the United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]). Therefore, it seems that ideally trajectories should have maximal DLOR length. We retrospectively studied the influence of various anatomic aspects of the brains of patients with PD and the geometry of trajectories planned on the length of the DLOR and STN recorded during DBS surgery. We examined 212 trajectories and 424 microelectrode recording tracks in 115 patients operated on in our center between 2010 and 2015. We found a strong correlation between the length of the recorded DLOR and STN. Trajectories that were more lateral and/or posterior in orientation had a longer STN and DLOR pass, although the DLOR/STN fraction length remained constant. The STN target was more lateral when the third ventricle was wider, and the latter correlated with older age and male gender. Trajectory angles correlate with the recorded STN and DLOR lengths, and should be altered toward a more posterolateral angle in older patients and atrophied brains to compensate for the changes in STN location and geometry. These fine adjustments should yield a longer motor domain pass, thereby improving the patient's predicted outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Articulatory Closure Proficiency in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Caudal Zona Incerta

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    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik; van Doorn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed at comparing the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) on the proficiency in achieving oral closure and release during plosive production of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Nineteen patients participated preoperatively and…

  12. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Parameter Optimization for Vowel Acoustics and Speech Intelligibility in Parkinson's Disease

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    Knowles, Thea; Adams, Scott; Abeyesekera, Anita; Mancinelli, Cynthia; Gilmore, Greydon; Jog, Mandar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The settings of 3 electrical stimulation parameters were adjusted in 12 speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) to examine their effects on vowel acoustics and speech intelligibility. Method: Participants were tested under permutations of low, mid, and high STN-DBS frequency,…

  13. Effects of Medication and Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation on Tongue Movements in Speakers with Parkinson's Disease Using Electropalatography: A Pilot Study

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    Hartinger, Mariam; Tripoliti, Elina; Hardcastle, William J.; Limousin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects speech in the majority of patients. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is particularly effective in reducing tremor and rigidity. However, its effect on speech is variable. The aim of this pilot study was to quantify the effects of bilateral STN-DBS and medication on articulation, using…

  14. Apathy following Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation of Subthalamic Nucleus in Parkinson’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis

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    Ying Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS has proven effective in improving motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients. However, psychiatric changes after surgery are controversial. In this study, we specifically analyzed apathy following bilateral STN-DBS in PD patients using a meta-analysis. Relevant articles utilized for this study were obtained through literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Embase databases. The articles included were those contained both pre- and postsurgery apathy data acquired using the Starkstein Apathy Scale or Apathy Evaluation Scale with patient follow-up of at least three months. A total of 9 out of 86 articles were included in our study through this strict screening process. Standardized mean difference (SMD, that is, Cohen’s d, with a 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated to show the change. We found a significant difference between the presurgery stage and the postsurgery stage scores (SMD = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.17∼0.52, P<0.001. STN-DBS seems to relatively worsen the condition of apathy, which may result from both the surgery target (subthalamic nucleus and the reduction of dopaminergic medication. Further studies should focus on the exact mechanisms of possible postoperative apathy in the future.

  15. Five-year follow-up of 23 asymmetrical Parkinson's disease patients treated with unilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation

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    Jinchuan Liang; Xiaowu Hu; Xiaoping Zhou; Xiufeng Jiang; Yiqun Cao; Laixing Wang; Aiguo Jin; Jianmin Liu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 23 asymmetrical Parkinson's disease patients were treated with unilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and followed up for 5 years. At 5 years after stimulation treatment, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale II, III and axial symptom scores in the off-drug condition were significantly increased compared those at baseline. However, total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale II, III and axial symptom scores were significantly lower with stimulation-on compared with the synchronous stimulation-off state in off-drug condition, and the motor symptoms of contralateral side limbs were effectively controlled. Only low Hoehn-Yahr stage was correlated with good long-term postoperative improvement in motor symptoms. The mean levodopa-equivalent daily dose after stimulation treatment was significantly lower than that before treatment, but dyskinesias became worse. Our experimental findings indicate that unilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for improving motor symptoms in well selected asymmetrical Parkinson's disease patients presenting no severe axial symptoms and dyskinesias.

  16. Subthalamic hGAD65 Gene Therapy and Striatum TH Gene Transfer in a Parkinson’s Disease Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Deyu; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhao, Junpeng; Duan, Deyi; Zhao, Huanying; Xu, Qunyuan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to detect a combination method to utilize gene therapy for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, a PD rat model is used for the in vivo gene therapy of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV2) containing a human glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (rAAV2-hGAD65) gene delivered to the subthalamic nucleus (STN). This is combined with the ex vivo gene delivery of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by fibroblasts injected into the striatum. After the treatment, the rotation behavior was improved with the greatest efficacy in the combination group. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that hGAD65 gene delivery by AAV2 successfully led to phenotypic changes of neurons in STN. And the levels of glutamic acid and GABA in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) were obviously lower than the control groups. However, hGAD65 gene transfer did not effectively protect surviving dopaminergic neurons in the SNc and VTA. This study suggests that subthalamic hGAD65 gene therapy and combined with TH gene therapy can alleviate symptoms of the PD model rats, independent of the protection the DA neurons from death. PMID:23738148

  17. MRI anatomical mapping and direct stereotactic targeting in the subthalamic region: functional and anatomical correspondence in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Coste, Jerome; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Hemm, Simone; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Durif, Franck; Siadoux, Severine; Gabrillargues, Jean; Chazal, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Object Relationships between clinical effects, anatomy, and electrophysiology are not fully understood in DBS of the subthalamic region in Parkinson's disease. We proposed an anatomic study based on direct image-guided stereotactic surgery with a multiple source data analysis. Materials and Methods A manual anatomic mapping was realized on coronal 1.5-Tesla MRI of 15 patients. Biological data were collected under local anesthesia: the spontaneous neuron activities and the clinical efficiency and the appearance of adverse effects. They were related to relevant current values (mA), the benefit threshold (bt, minimal current leading an clear efficiency), the adverse effect threshold (at, minimal current leading an adverse effect) and the stimulation margin (sm = at - bt); they were matched with anatomy. Results We found consistent relationships between anatomy and biological data. The optimal stimulation parameters (low bt + high sm) were noted in the dorsolateral STN. The highest spontaneous neuron activity was found in the ventromedial STN. Dorsolateral (sensorimotor) STN seems the main DBS effector. The highest spontaneous neuron activity seems related to the anterior (rostral) ventromedial (limbic) STN. Conclusion 1.5 Tesla images provide sufficiently detailed subthalamic anatomy for image-guided stereotactic surgery and may aid in understanding DBS mechanisms. (orig.)

  18. Microelectrode Recording-Guided Versus Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery for Parkinson Disease: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

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    Liu, Xuemeng; Zhang, Jibo; Fu, Kai; Gong, Rui; Chen, Jincao; Zhang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Microelectrode recording (MER) and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) have been used in deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson disease (PD), but comparative methodology is lacking. Therefore, we compared the 1-year follow-up outcomes of MER-guided and iMRI-guided subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery in PD patients. We conducted a review comparing PD patients who underwent MER-guided (n = 76, group A) and iMRI-guided STN DBS surgery (n = 61, group B) in our institution. Pre- and postoperative assessments included Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III (UPDRS-III) score, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), levodopa equivalent daily doses (LEDDs), and magnetic resonance images. The mean magnitudes of electrode discrepancy were x = 1.1 ± 0.2 mm, y = 1.3 ± 0.3 mm, and z = 2.1 ± 0.5 mm in group A and x = 1.3 ± 0.4 mm, y = 1.2 ± 0.2 mm, and z = 2.5 ± 0.7 mm in group B. Significant differences were not found between 2 groups for x, y, or z (P = 0.34, P = 0.26, and P = 0.41, respectively). At 1 year, when levodopa was withdrawn for 12 hours, the UPDRS-III score improved by 66.3% ± 13.5% in group A and 64.8% ± 12.7% in group B (P = 0.24); the PDQ-39 summary index score improved by 49.7% ± 14.3% in group A and 44.1% ± 12.7% in group B (P = 0.16); the MMSE score improved by 4.2% ± 2.1% in group A and 11.1% ± 3.2% in group B (P = 0.43); and LEDDs decreased by 48.7% ± 10.1% in group A and 56.9% ± 12.0% in group B (P = 0.32). MER and iMRI both are effective ways to ensure adequate electrode placement in DBS surgery, but there is no superiority between both techniques, at least in terms of 1-year follow-up outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The selective neurotoxin DSP-4 impairs the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the inferior colliculus in rats.

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    Sebastián eHormigo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC and the locus coeruleus (LC are two midbrain nuclei that integrate multimodal information and play a major role in novelty detection to elicit an orienting response. Despite the reciprocal connections between these two structures, the projection pattern and target areas of the LC within the subdivisions of the rat IC are still unknown. Here, we used tract-tracing approaches combined with immunohistochemistry, densitometry and confocal microscopy analysis to describe a projection from the LC to the IC. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA injections into the LC showed that the LC-IC projection is mainly ipsilateral (90% and reaches, to a major extent, the dorsal and lateral part of the IC and the intercollicular commissure. Additionally, some LC fibers extend into the central nucleus of the IC. The neurochemical nature of this projection is noradrenergic, given that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH colocalize with the BDA-labeled fibers from the LC. To determine the total field of the LC innervations in the IC, we destroyed the LC neurons and fibers using a highly selective neurotoxin, DSP-4, and then studied the distribution and density of TH- and DBH-immunolabeled axons in the IC. In the DSP-4 treated animals, the number of axonal fibers immunolabeled for TH and DBH were deeply decreased throughout the entire rostrocaudal extent of the IC and its subdivisions compared to controls. Our densitometry results showed that the IC receives up to 97% of its noradrenergic innervations from the LC neurons and only 3% from non-coeruleus neurons. Our results also indicate that TH immunoreactivity in the IC was less impaired than the immunoreactivity for DBH after DSP-4 administration. This is consistent with the existence of an important dopaminergic projection from the substantia nigra to the IC. In conclusion, our study demonstrates and quantifies the noradrenergic projection from the LC to the IC and its

  20. The dissimilar time course of temporary threshold shifts and reduction of inhibition in the inferior colliculus following intense sound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeringa, A N; van Dijk, P

    2014-06-01

    Excessive noise exposure is known to produce an auditory threshold shift, which can be permanent or transient in nature. Recent studies showed that noise-induced temporary threshold shifts are associated with loss of synaptic connections to the inner hair cells and with cochlear nerve degeneration, which is reflected in a decreased amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). This suggests that, despite normal auditory thresholds, central auditory processing may be abnormal. We recorded changes in central auditory processing following a sound-induced temporary threshold shift. Anesthetized guinea pigs were exposed for 1 h to a pure tone of 11 kHz (124 dB sound pressure level). Hearing thresholds, amplitudes of ABR waves I and IV, and spontaneous and tone-evoked firing rates in the inferior colliculus (IC) were assessed immediately, one week, two weeks, and four weeks post exposure. Hearing thresholds were elevated immediately following overexposure, but recovered within one week. The amplitude of the ABR wave I was decreased in all sound-exposed animals for all test periods. In contrast, the ABR wave IV amplitude was only decreased immediately after overexposure and recovered within a week. The proportion of IC units that show inhibitory responses to pure tones decreased substantially up to two weeks after overexposure, especially when stimulated with high frequencies. The proportion of excitatory responses to low frequencies was increased. Spontaneous activity was unaffected by the overexposure. Despite rapid normalization of auditory thresholds, our results suggest an increased central gain following sound exposure and an abnormal balance between excitatory and inhibitory responses in the midbrain up to two weeks after overexposure. These findings may be associated with hyperacusis after a sound-induced temporary threshold shift. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of correlated neuronal firing and neuronal heterogeneity on population coding accuracy in guinea pig inferior colliculus.

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    Oran Zohar

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the considerable noise in single-cell responses to a stimulus can be overcome by pooling information from a large population. Theoretical studies indicated that correlations in trial-to-trial fluctuations in the responses of different neurons may limit the improvement due to pooling. Subsequent theoretical studies have suggested that inherent neuronal diversity, i.e., the heterogeneity of tuning curves and other response properties of neurons preferentially tuned to the same stimulus, can provide a means to overcome this limit. Here we study the effect of spike-count correlations and the inherent neuronal heterogeneity on the ability to extract information from large neural populations. We use electrophysiological data from the guinea pig Inferior-Colliculus to capture inherent neuronal heterogeneity and single cell statistics, and introduce response correlations artificially. To this end, we generate pseudo-population responses, based on single-cell recording of neurons responding to auditory stimuli with varying binaural correlations. Typically, when pseudo-populations are generated from single cell data, the responses within the population are statistically independent. As a result, the information content of the population will increase indefinitely with its size. In contrast, here we apply a simple algorithm that enables us to generate pseudo-population responses with variable spike-count correlations. This enables us to study the effect of neuronal correlations on the accuracy of conventional rate codes. We show that in a homogenous population, in the presence of even low-level correlations, information content is bounded. In contrast, utilizing a simple linear readout, that takes into account the natural heterogeneity, even of neurons preferentially tuned to the same stimulus, within the neural population, one can overcome the correlated noise and obtain a readout whose accuracy grows linearly with the size of

  2. Superior cerebellar artery infarction in endovascular treatment for tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jingbo; Lv Xianli; Jiang Chuhan; Li Youxiang [Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan, Xili, Chongwen, 100050, Beijing (China); Wu Zhongxue, E-mail: ttyyzjb@sina.co [Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan, Xili, Chongwen, 100050, Beijing (China)

    2010-06-15

    Background: Superior cerebellar artery (SCA) syndrome shows ipsilateral cerebellar ataxia and Horner's syndrome, contralateral superficial sensory disturbance, as well as nystagmus toward the impaired side, vertigo, and nausea. Occasionally, unilateral lesions may produce bilateral hypogeusia and contralateral hypoacusia. Objective: To report 2 patients with unilateral lower midbrain ischemic lesions of the inferior colliculus level caused by transarterial embolization for tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulas (TDAVFs). Methods: Hospital records for 21 patients with TDAVFs mainly treated by endovascular techniques between 2005 and 2008 were reviewed. Two patients with MRI evidence of unilateral SCA territory infarction were investigated. Results: Of 21 patients, 2 treated transarterially with Onyx-18 (a nonahesive liquid embolic agent) developed infarctions in the territory of SCA. One patient had lateral SCA infarction characterized by ipsilateral gait ataxia, contralateral hemihypoesthesia, with additional ipsilateral ocular motor palsy and bilateral gustatory loss. And the other patient had medial SCA infarction characterized by ipsilateral ataxia contralateral hemihypoesthesia with additional contralateral hypoacusia. Conclusion: SCA infarction can be caused by transarterial injection of Onyx-18 via SCA or the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) for TDAVFs and additionally presented with gustatory loss and deafness, which is generally not a feature of the SCA syndrome.

  3. The Involvement of Oxytocin in the Subthalamic Nucleus on Relapse to Methamphetamine-Seeking Behaviour.

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    Sarah Jane Baracz

    Full Text Available The psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH is an addictive drug of abuse. The neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to modulate METH-related reward and METH-seeking behaviour. Recent findings implicated the subthalamic nucleus (STh as a key brain region in oxytocin modulation of METH-induced reward. However, it is unclear if oxytocin acts in this region to attenuate relapse to METH-seeking behaviour, and if this action is through the oxytocin receptor. We aimed to determine whether oxytocin pretreatment administered into the STh would reduce reinstatement to METH use in rats experienced at METH self-administration, and if this could be reversed by the co-administration of the oxytocin receptor antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH25[D-Tyr2,Thr4]OVT. Male Sprague Dawley rats underwent surgery to implant an intravenous jugular vein catheter and bilateral microinjection cannulae into the STh under isoflourane anaesthesia. Rats were then trained to self-administer intravenous METH (0.1 mg/kg/infusion by lever press during 2-hour sessions under a fixed ratio 1 schedule for 20 days. Following extinction of lever press activity, the effect of microinjecting saline, oxytocin (0.2 pmol, 0.6 pmol, 1.8 pmol, 3.6 pmol or co-administration of oxytocin (3.6 pmol and desGly-NH2,d(CH25[D-Tyr2,Thr4]OVT (3 nmol into the STh (200 nl/side was examined on METH-primed reinstatement (1 mg/kg; i.p.. We found that local administration of the highest oxytocin dose (3.6 pmol into the STh decreased METH-induced reinstatement and desGly-NH2,d(CH25[D-Tyr2,Thr4]OVT had a non-specific effect on lever press activity. These findings highlight that oxytocin modulation of the STh is an important modulator of relapse to METH abuse.

  4. Long-term impact of subthalamic stimulation on cognitive function in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acera, M; Molano, A; Tijero, B; Bilbao, G; Lambarri, I; Villoria, R; Somme, J; Ruiz de Gopegui, E; Gabilondo, I; Gomez-Esteban, J C

    2017-07-13

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (DBS-SN) on cognitive function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) 5 years after surgery. We conducted a prospective study including 50 patients with PD who underwent DBS-SN (62.5% were men; mean age of 62.2±8.2 years; mean progression time of 14.1±6.3 years). All patients were assessed before the procedure and at one year after surgery; 40 patients were further followed up until the 5-year mark. Follow-up assessments included the following neuropsychological tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS), letter-number sequencing of the WAIS-III (WAIS-III-LN), clock-drawing test, Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) test, FAS Phonemic Verbal Fluency Test, Stroop test, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Patients were found to score lower on the MMSE (-0.89%), clock-drawing test (-2.61%), MDRS (-1.72%), and especially phonemic (-13.28%) and sematic verbal fluency tests (-12.40%) at one year after surgery. Delayed recall on the RAVLT worsened one year after the procedure (-10.12%). At 5 years, impairment affected mainly verbal fluency; scores decreased an additional 16.10% and 16.60% in semantic and phonemic verbal fluency, respectively. Moderate decreases were observed in immediate recall (-16.87%), WAIS-III-LN (-16.67%), and JLO test (-11.56%). In our sample, DBS-SN did not result in global cognitive impairment 5 years after surgery. Verbal function was found to be significantly impaired one year after the procedure. Impaired learning and visuospatial function may be attributed to degeneration associated with PD. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Complementary roles of different oscillatory activities in the subthalamic nucleus in coding motor effort in Parkinsonism.

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    Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Anzak, Anam; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Bogdanovic, Marko; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter

    2013-10-01

    The basal ganglia may play an important role in the control of motor scaling or effort. Recently local field potential (LFP) recordings from patients with deep brain stimulation electrodes in the basal ganglia have suggested that local increases in the synchronisation of neurons in the gamma frequency band may correlate with force or effort. Whether this feature uniquely codes for effort and whether such a coding mechanism holds true over a range of efforts is unclear. Here we investigated the relationship between frequency-specific oscillatory activities in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and manual grips made with different efforts. The latter were self-rated using the 10 level Borg scale ranging from 0 (no effort) to 10 (maximal effort). STN LFP activities were recorded in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) who had undergone functional surgery. Patients were studied while motor performance was improved by dopaminergic medication. In line with previous studies we observed power increase in the theta/alpha band (4-12 Hz), power suppression in the beta band (13-30 Hz) and power increase in the gamma band (55-90 Hz) and high frequency band (101-375 Hz) during voluntary grips. Beta suppression deepened, and then reached a floor level as effort increased. Conversely, gamma and high frequency power increases were enhanced during grips made with greater effort. Multiple regression models incorporating the four different spectral changes confirmed that the modulation of power in the beta band was the only independent predictor of effort during grips made with efforts rated <5. In contrast, increases in gamma band activity were the only independent predictor of effort during grips made with efforts ≥5. Accordingly, the difference between power changes in the gamma and beta bands correlated with effort across all effort levels. These findings suggest complementary roles for changes in beta and gamma band activities in the STN in motor effort coding. The latter function

  6. Localization of calcium-binding proteins and GABA transporter (GAT-1) messenger RNA in the human subthalamic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augood, S.J.; Waldvogel, H.J.; Muenkle, M.C.; Faull, R.L.M.; Emson, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of messenger RNA encoding the human GAT-1 (a high-affinity GABA transporter) was investigated in the subthalamic nucleus of 10 neurologically normal human post mortem cases. Further, the distribution of messenger RNA and protein encoding the three neuronally expressed calcium-binding proteins (calbindin D28k, parvalbumin and calretinin) was similarly investigated using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques. Cellular sites of calbindin D28k, parvalbumin, calretinin and GAT-1 messenger RNA expression were localized using human-specific oligonucleotide probes radiolabelled with [ 35 S]dATP. Sites of protein localization were visualized using specific anti-calbindin D28k, anti-parvalbumin and anti-calretinin antisera. Examination of emulsion-coated tissue sections processed for in situ hybridization revealed an intense signal for GAT-1 messenger RNA within the human subthalamic nucleus, indeed the majority of Methylene Blue-counterstained cells were enriched in this transcript. Further, a marked heterogeneity was noted with regard to the expression of the messenger RNA's encoding the three calcium-binding proteins; this elliptical nucleus was highly enriched in parvalbumin messenger RNA-positive neurons and calretinin mRNA-positive cells but not calbindin messenger RNA-positive cells. Indeed, only an occasional calbindin messenger RNA-positive cell was detected within the mediolateral extent of the nucleus. In marked contrast, numerous parvalbumin messenger RNA-positive cells and calretinin messenger RNA-positive cells were detected and they were topographically distributed; parvalbumin messenger RNA-positive cells were highly enriched in the dorsal subthalamic nucleus extending mediolaterally; calretinin messenger RNA-positive cells were more enriched ventrally although some degree of overlap was apparent. Computer-assisted analysis of the average cross-sectional somatic area of parvalbumin, calretinin and GAT-1 messenger RNA

  7. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus alters frontal activity during spatial working memory maintenance of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jutta S; Neimat, Joseph; Folley, Bradley S; Bourne, Sarah K; Konrad, Peter E; Charles, David; Park, Sohee

    2016-08-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). The STN may represent an important relay station not only in the motor but also the associative cortico-striato-thalamocortical pathway. Therefore, STN stimulation may alter cognitive functions, such as working memory (WM). We examined cortical effects of STN-DBS on WM in early PD patients using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The effects of dopaminergic medication on WM were also examined. Lateral frontal activity during WM maintenance was greater when patients were taking dopaminergic medication. STN-DBS led to a trend-level worsening of WM performance, accompanied by increased lateral frontal activity during WM maintenance. These findings suggest that STN-DBS in PD might lead to functional modifications of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical pathway during WM maintenance.

  8. FDG-PET study of the bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation effects on the regional cerebral metabolism in advanced Parkinson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Shen, J.; Zan, S.; Sun, B.; Zuo, C.; Guan, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGIu) induced by bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET data obtained before and one month after stimulation were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM). As a result of clinically effective bilateral STN stimulation, rCMRGIu increased in lateral globus pallidus (GP), upper brain stem, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal-occipital cortex, and decreased in the orbital frontal cortex and parahippocampus gyrus (p <0.001). We conclude that the alleviation of clinical symptoms in advanced PD by bilateral STN stimulation may be the result of activation of both ascending and descending pathways from STN and of restoration of the impaired higher-order cortex functions. (author)

  9. Monaural and binaural response properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rabbit: effects of sodium pentobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwada, S; Batra, R; Stanford, T R

    1989-02-01

    1. We studied the effects of sodium pentobarbital on 22 neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the rabbit. We recorded changes in the sensitivity of these neurons to monaural stimulation and to ongoing interaural time differences (ITDs). Monaural stimuli were tone bursts at or near the neuron's best frequency. The ITD was varied by delivering tones that differed by 1 Hz to the two ears, resulting in a 1-Hz binaural beat. 2. We assessed a neuron's ITD sensitivity by calculating three measures from the responses to binaural beats: composite delay, characteristic delay (CD), and characteristic phase (CP). To obtain the composite delay, we first derived period histograms by averaging, showing the response at each stimulating frequency over one period of the beat frequency. Second, the period histograms were replotted as a function of their equivalent interaural delay and then averaged together to yield the composite delay curve. Last, we calculated the composite peak or trough delay by fitting a parabola to the peak or trough of this composite curve. The composite delay curve represents the average response to all frequencies within the neuron's responsive range, and the peak reflects the interaural delay that produces the maximum response. The CD and CP were estimated from a weighted fit of a regression line to the plot of the mean interaural phase of the response versus the stimulating frequency. The slope and phase intercept of this regression line yielded estimates of CD and CP, respectively. These two quantities are thought to reflect the mechanism of ITD sensitivity, which involves the convergence of phase-locked inputs on a binaural cell. The CD estimates the difference in the time required for the two inputs to travel from either ear to this cell, whereas the CP reflects the interaural phase difference of the inputs at this cell. 3. Injections of sodium pentobarbital at subsurgical dosages (less than 25 mg/kg) almost invariably altered the neuron's response

  10. Impact of Combined Subthalamic Nucleus and Substantia Nigra Stimulation on Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Hidding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to compare the tolerability and the effects of conventional subthalamic nucleus (STN and combined subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra (STN+SNr high-frequency stimulation in regard to neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease patients. In this single center, randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial, twelve patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (1 female; age: 61.3±7.3 years; disease duration: 12.3±5.4 years; Hoehn and Yahr stage: 2.2±0.39 were included. Apathy, fatigue, depression, and impulse control disorder were assessed using a comprehensive set of standardized rating scales and questionnaires such as the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS, Becks Depression Inventory (BDI-I, Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (QUIP-RS, and Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39. Three patients that were initially assigned to the STN+SNr stimulation mode withdrew from the study within the first week due to discomfort. Statistical comparison of data retrieved from patients who completed the study revealed no significant differences between both stimulation conditions in terms of mean scores of scales measuring apathy, fatigue, depression, impulse control disorder, and quality of life. Individual cases showed an improvement of apathy under combined STN+SNr stimulation. In general, combined STN+SNr stimulation seems to be safe in terms of neuropsychiatric side effects, although careful patient selection and monitoring in the short-term period after changing stimulation settings are recommended.

  11. Effect of subthalamic stimulation on voice and speech in Parkinson´s disease: for the better or worse ?

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    Sabine eSkodda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, although highly effective for the treatment of motor impairment in Parkinson´s disease, can induce speech deterioration in a subgroup of patients. The aim of the current study was to survey 1 if there are distinctive stimulation effects on the different parameters of voice and speech and 2 if there is a special pattern of preexisting speech abnormalities indicating a risk for further worsening under stimulation. Methods: N = 38 patients with Parkinson´s disease had to perform a speech test without medication with stimulation ON and OFF. Speech samples were analysed: 1 according to a four-dimensional perceptual speech score and 2 by acoustic analysis to obtain quantifiable measures of distinctive speech parameters.Results: Quality of voice was ameliorated with stimulation ON, and there were trends to increased loudness and better pitch variability. N = 8 patients featured a deterioration of speech with stimulation ON, caused by worsening of articulation or/and fluency. These patients had more severe overall speech impairment with characteristic features of articulatory slurring and articulatory acceleration already under StimOFF condition.Conclusion: The influence of subthalamic stimulation on Parkinsonian speech differs considerably between individual patients, however, there is a trend to amelioration of voice quality and prosody. Patients with stimulation-associated speech deterioration featured higher overall speech impairment and showed a distinctive pattern of articulatory abnormalities at baseline. Further investigations to confirm these preliminary findings are necessary to allow neurologists to pre-surgically estimate the individual risk of deterioration of speech under stimulation.

  12. Writing superiority in cued recall

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    Carina eFueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory

  13. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

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    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  14. Constant Current versus Constant Voltage Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

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    Ramirez de Noriega, Fernando; Eitan, Renana; Marmor, Odeya; Lavi, Adi; Linetzky, Eduard; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi

    2015-02-18

    Background: Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Motor efficacy and safety have been established for constant voltage (CV) devices and more recently for constant current (CC) devices. CC devices adjust output voltage to provide CC stimulation irrespective of impedance fluctuation, while the current applied by CV stimulation depends on the impedance that may change over time. No study has directly compared the clinical effects of these two stimulation modalities. Objective: To compare the safety and clinical impact of CC STN DBS to CV STN DBS in patients with advanced PD 2 years after surgery. Methods: Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had undergone STN DBS surgery for idiopathic PD, had been implanted with a Medtronic Activa PC and if their stimulation program and medication had been stable for at least 1 year. This single-center trial was designed as a double-blind, randomized, prospective study with crossover after 2 weeks. Motor equivalence of the 2 modalities was confirmed utilizing part III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). PD diaries and multiple subjective and objective evaluations of quality of life, depression, cognition and emotional processing were evaluated on both CV and on CC stimulation. Analysis using the paired t test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was performed to identify any significant difference between the stimulation modalities. Results: 8 patients were recruited (6 men, 2 women); 1 patient did not complete the study. The average age at surgery was 56.7 years (range 47-63). Disease duration at the time of surgery was 7.5 years (range 3-12). Patients were recruited 23.8 months (range 22.5-24) after surgery. At the postoperative study baseline, this patient group showed an average motor improvement of 69% (range 51-97) as measured by the change in UPDRS part III with stimulation alone. Levodopa equivalent

  15. Double elevator weakening for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy with ipsilateral superior rectus contracture and lax superior oblique tendon.

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    Khan, Arif O

    2012-06-01

    In unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy, a large hypertropia is sometimes associated with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle and apparent overaction of the contralateral superior oblique. Ipsilateral double elevator weakening is one surgical approach; however, this procedure could compromise supraduction. We report a series of three consecutive patients who underwent ipsilateral superior rectus and inferior oblique recessions for unilateral superior oblique palsy. Intraoperatively, all three patients were found to have a lax ipsilateral superior oblique tendon. Postoperatively, all three patients had satisfactory correction of the hypertropia and abnormal head position with minimal supraduction defect. This procedure seems to be an acceptable initial surgical option for treating congenital superior oblique muscle palsy with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle, even when the ipsilateral superior oblique tendon is lax. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CB1 cannabinoid receptor-mediated anandamide signaling mechanisms of the inferior colliculus modulate the haloperidol-induced catalepsy.

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    Medeiros, P; de Freitas, R L; Silva, M O; Coimbra, N C; Melo-Thomas, L

    2016-11-19

    The inferior colliculus (IC), a midbrain structure that processes acoustic information of aversive nature, is distinguished from other auditory nuclei in the brainstem by its connections with structures of the motor system. Previous evidence relating the IC to motor behavior shows that glutamatergic and GABAergic mechanisms in the IC exert influence on systemic haloperidol-induced catalepsy. There is substantial evidence supporting a role played by the endocannabinoid system as a modulator of the glutamatergic neurotransmission, as well as the dopaminergic activity in the basal nuclei and therefore it may be considered as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of movement disorders. The present study evaluated if the endocannabinoid system in the IC plays a role in the elaboration of systemic haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Male Wistar rats received intracollicular microinjection of either the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA) at different concentrations (5, 50 or 100pmol/0.2μl), the CB 1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251 at 50, 100 or 200pmol/0.2μl or vehicle, followed by intraperitoneal (IP) administration of either haloperidol at 0.5 or 1mg/kg or physiological saline. Systemic injection of haloperidol at both doses (0.5 or 1mg/kg, IP) produced a cataleptic state, compared to vehicle/physiological saline-treated group, lasting 30 and 50min after systemic administration of the dopaminergic receptors non-selective antagonist. The midbrain microinjection of AEA at 50pmol/0.2μl increased the latency for stepping down from the horizontal bar after systemic administration of haloperidol. Moreover, the intracollicular administration of AEA at 50pmol/0.2μl was able to increase the duration of catalepsy as compared to AEA at 100pmol/0.2-μl-treated group. Intracollicular pretreatment with AM251 at the intermediate concentration (100pmol/0.2μl) was able to decrease the duration of catalepsy after systemic administration of haloperidol. However

  17. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

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    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  18. Behavioural outcomes of subthalamic stimulation and medical therapy versus medical therapy alone for Parkinson's disease with early motor complications (EARLYSTIM trial): secondary analysis of an open-label randomised trial.

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    Lhommée, Eugénie; Wojtecki, Lars; Czernecki, Virginie; Witt, Karsten; Maier, Franziska; Tonder, Lisa; Timmermann, Lars; Hälbig, Thomas D; Pineau, Fanny; Durif, Franck; Witjas, Tatiana; Pinsker, Marcus; Mehdorn, Maximilian; Sixel-Döring, Friederike; Kupsch, Andreas; Krüger, Rejko; Elben, Saskia; Chabardès, Stephan; Thobois, Stéphane; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Ory-Magne, Fabienne; Regis, Jean-Marie; Maltête, David; Sauvaget, Anne; Rau, Jörn; Schnitzler, Alfons; Schüpbach, Michael; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Deuschl, Gunther; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Krack, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Although subthalamic stimulation is a recognised treatment for motor complications in Parkinson's disease, reports on behavioural outcomes are controversial, which represents a major challenge when counselling candidates for subthalamic stimulation. We aimed to assess changes in behaviour in patients with Parkinson's disease receiving combined treatment with subthalamic stimulation and medical therapy over a 2-year follow-up period as compared with the behavioural evolution under medical therapy alone. We did a parallel, open-label study (EARLYSTIM) at 17 surgical centres in France (n=8) and Germany (n=9). We recruited patients with Parkinson's disease who were disabled by early motor complications. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to either medical therapy alone or bilateral subthalamic stimulation plus medical therapy. The primary outcome was mean change in quality of life from baseline to 2 years. A secondary analysis was also done to assess behavioural outcomes. We used the Ardouin Scale of Behavior in Parkinson's Disease to assess changes in behaviour between baseline and 2-year follow-up. Apathy was also measured using the Starkstein Apathy Scale, and depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The secondary analysis was done in all patients recruited. We used a generalised estimating equations (GEE) regression model for individual items and mixed model regression for subscores of the Ardouin scale and the apathy and depression scales. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00354133. The primary analysis has been reported elsewhere; this report presents the secondary analysis only. Between July, 2006, and November, 2009, 251 participants were recruited, of whom 127 were allocated medical therapy alone and 124 were assigned bilateral subthalamic stimulation plus medical therapy. At 2-year follow-up, the levodopa-equivalent dose was reduced by 39% (-363·3 mg/day [SE 41·8]) in individuals allocated bilateral

  19. Effect of subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus interna stimulation on oculomotor function in patients with Parkinson's disease.

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    Fridley, Jared; Adams, Gareth; Sun, Ping; York, Michelle; Atassi, Farah; Lai, Eugene; Simpson, Richard; Viswanathan, Ashwin; Yoshor, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of either the globus pallidus interna (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) is similarly effective for treating somatomotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD), but differences in how stimulation of each target affects oculomotor function are poorly understood. We sought to determine if stimulation of the STN, but not the GPi, affects oculomotor function in PD patients. Nineteen PD patients with DBS implants (8 bilateral GPi, 9 bilateral STN and 2 unilateral STN) were studied. Testing was performed with stimulation on, then off. Somatomotor function was tested using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor exam. For oculomotor testing, patients performed pro- and antisaccade tasks while monitored with an infrared eye tracker. Saccadic latency, saccadic intrusions, and square-wave jerks (SWJs) were measured for each trial. As expected, UPDRS motor scores improved with both GPi and STN stimulation. With GPi stimulation, there was no significant difference in oculomotor function with stimulation on or off. However, with STN stimulation on, there was a significant increase in the mean number of SWJs/s, as well as a significant decrease in latency for both pro- and antisaccade tasks. Stimulation of either GPi or STN had similar effects on somatomotor function, but only STN stimulation significantly altered oculomotor function. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects on Diadochokinetic Rate

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    Fredrik Karlsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypokinetic dysarthria observed in Parkinson's disease (PD affects the range, speed, and accuracy of articulatory gestures in patients, reducing the perceived quality of speech acoustic output in continuous speech. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS and of the caudal zona incerta (cZi-DBS are current surgical treatment options for PD. This study aimed at investigating the outcome of STN-DBS (7 patients and cZi-DBS (7 patients in two articulatory diadochokinesis tasks (AMR and SMR using measurements of articulation rate and quality of the plosive consonants (using the percent measurable VOT metric. The results indicate that patients receiving STN-DBS increased in articulation rate in the Stim-ON condition in the AMR task only, with no effect on production quality. Patients receiving cZi-DBS decreased in articulation rate in the Stim-ON condition and further showed a reduction in production quality. The data therefore suggest that cZi-DBS is more detrimental for extended articulatory movements than STN-DBS.

  1. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation reduces pathological information transmission to the thalamus in a rat model of parkinsonism

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    Collin James Anderson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta leads to parkinsonian motor symptoms via changes in electrophysiological activity throughout the basal ganglia. High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS partially treats these symptoms, but the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are associated with increased information transmission from basal ganglia output neurons to motor thalamus input neurons, and that therapeutic DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN treats these symptoms by reducing this extraneous information transmission. We tested these hypotheses in a unilateral, 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rodent model of hemiparkinsonism. Information transfer between basal ganglia output neurons and motor thalamus input neurons increased in both the orthodromic and antidromic directions with hemiparkinsonian onset, and these changes were reversed by behaviorally therapeutic STN-DBS. Omnidirectional information increases in the parkinsonian state underscore the detrimental nature of that pathological information, and suggest a loss of information channel independence. Therapeutic STN-DBS reduced that pathological information, suggesting an effective increase in the number of independent information channels. We interpret these data with a model in which pathological information and fewer information channels diminishes the scope of possible motor activities, driving parkinsonian symptoms. In this model, STN-DBS restores information-channel independence by eliminating or masking the parkinsonism-associated information, and thus enlarges the scope of possible motor activities, alleviating parkinsonian symptoms.

  2. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation does not influence basal glucose metabolism or insulin sensitivity in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Nicolette M; Sondermeijer, Brigitte M; Twickler, Th B Marcel; de Bie, Rob M; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Fliers, Eric; Schuurman, P Richard; La Fleur, Susanne E; Serlie, Mireille J

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that central dopamine signaling influences glucose metabolism. As a first step to show this association in an experimental setting in humans, we studied whether deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which modulates the basal ganglia circuitry, alters basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) or insulin sensitivity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied 8 patients with PD treated with DBS STN, in the basal state and during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp using a stable glucose isotope, in the stimulated and non-stimulated condition. We measured EGP, hepatic insulin sensitivity, peripheral insulin sensitivity (Rd), resting energy expenditure (REE), glucoregulatory hormones, and Parkinson symptoms, using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Basal plasma glucose and EGP did not differ between the stimulated and non-stimulated condition. Hepatic insulin sensitivity was similar in both conditions and there were no significant differences in Rd and plasma glucoregulatory hormones between DBS on and DBS off. UPDRS was significantly higher in the non-stimulated condition. DBS of the STN in patients with PD does not influence basal EGP or insulin sensitivity. These results suggest that acute modulation of the motor basal ganglia circuitry does not affect glucose metabolism in humans.

  3. Network effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation drive a unique mixture of responses in basal ganglia output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Mark D; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a remarkably successful treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) within the basal ganglia is a main clinical target, but the physiological mechanisms of therapeutic STN DBS at the cellular and network level are unclear. We set out to begin to address the hypothesis that a mixture of responses in the basal ganglia output nuclei, combining regularized firing and inhibition, is a key contributor to the effectiveness of STN DBS. We used our computational model of the complete basal ganglia circuit to show how such a mixture of responses in basal ganglia output naturally arises from the network effects of STN DBS. We replicated the diversification of responses recorded in a primate STN DBS study to show that the model's predicted mixture of responses is consistent with therapeutic STN DBS. We then showed how this 'mixture of response' perspective suggests new ideas for DBS mechanisms: first, that the therapeutic frequency of STN DBS is above 100 Hz because the diversification of responses exhibits a step change above this frequency; and second, that optogenetic models of direct STN stimulation during DBS have proven therapeutically ineffective because they do not replicate the mixture of basal ganglia output responses evoked by electrical DBS. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Stimulation sites in the subthalamic nucleus projected onto a mean 3-D atlas of the thalamus and basal ganglia.

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    Sarnthein, Johannes; Péus, Dominik; Baumann-Vogel, Heide; Baumann, Christian R; Sürücü, Oguzkan

    2013-09-01

    In patients with severe forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), deep brain stimulation (DBS) commonly targets the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Recently, the mean 3-D Morel-Atlas of the basal ganglia and the thalamus was introduced. It combines information contained in histological data from ten post-mortem brains. We were interested whether the Morel-Atlas is applicable for the visualization of stimulation sites. In a consecutive PD patient series, we documented preoperative MRI planning, intraoperative target adjustment based on electrophysiological and neurological testing, and perioperative CT target reconstruction. The localization of the DBS electrodes and the optimal stimulation sites were projected onto the Morel-Atlas. We included 20 patients (median age 62 years). The active contact had mean coordinates Xlat = ±12.1 mm, Yap = -1.8 mm, Zvert = -3.2 mm. There was a significant difference between the initially planned site and the coordinates of the postoperative active contact site (median 2.2 mm). The stimulation site was, on average, more anterior and more dorsal. The electrode contact used for optimal stimulation was found within the STN of the atlas in 38/40 (95 %) of implantations. The cluster of stimulation sites in individual patients-as deduced from preoperative MR, intraoperative electrophysiology and neurological testing-showed a high degree of congruence with the atlas. The mean 3D Morel Atlas is thus a useful tool for postoperative target visualization. This represents the first clinical evaluation of the recently created atlas.

  5. Comparison of Globus Pallidus Interna and Subthalamic Nucleus in Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease: An Institutional Experience and Review

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    Shazia Mirza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS has revolutionized the lives of patients of Parkinson disease, offering therapeutic options to those not benefiting entirely from medications alone. With its proven track record of outperforming the best medical management, the goal is to unlock the full potential of this therapy. Currently, the Globus Pallidus Interna (GPi and Subthalamic Nucleus (STN are both viable targets for DBS, and the choice of site should focus on the constellation of symptoms, both motor and nonmotor, which are key determinants to quality of life. Our article sheds light on the specific advantages and drawbacks of the two sites, highlighting the need for matching the inherent properties of a target with specific desired effects in patients. UT Southwestern Medical Center has a robust and constantly evolving DBS program and the narrative from our center provides invaluable insight into the practical realities of DBS. The ultimate decision in selecting a DBS target is complex, ideally made by a multidisciplinary team, tailored towards each patient’s profile and their expectations, by drawing upon scientific evidence coupled with experience. Ongoing research is expanding our knowledge base, which should be dynamically incorporated into an institute’s DBS paradigm to ensure that patients receive the optimal therapy.

  6. The effects of unilateral versus bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on prosaccades and antisaccades in Parkinson's disease.

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    Goelz, Lisa C; David, Fabian J; Sweeney, John A; Vaillancourt, David E; Poizner, Howard; Metman, Leonard Verhagen; Corcos, Daniel M

    2017-02-01

    Unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease improves skeletomotor function assessed clinically, and bilateral STN DBS improves motor function to a significantly greater extent. It is unknown whether unilateral STN DBS improves oculomotor function and whether bilateral STN DBS improves it to a greater extent. Further, it has also been shown that bilateral, but not unilateral, STN DBS is associated with some impaired cognitive-motor functions. The current study compared the effect of unilateral and bilateral STN DBS on sensorimotor and cognitive aspects of oculomotor control. Patients performed prosaccade and antisaccade tasks during no stimulation, unilateral stimulation, and bilateral stimulation. There were three sets of findings. First, for the prosaccade task, unilateral STN DBS had no effect on prosaccade latency and it reduced prosaccade gain; bilateral STN DBS reduced prosaccade latency and increased prosaccade gain. Second, for the antisaccade task, neither unilateral nor bilateral stimulation had an effect on antisaccade latency, unilateral STN DBS increased antisaccade gain, and bilateral STN DBS increased antisaccade gain to a greater extent. Third, bilateral STN DBS induced an increase in prosaccade errors in the antisaccade task. These findings suggest that while bilateral STN DBS benefits spatiotemporal aspects of oculomotor control, it may not be as beneficial for more complex cognitive aspects of oculomotor control. Our findings are discussed considering the strategic role the STN plays in modulating information in the basal ganglia oculomotor circuit.

  7. Decline in verbal fluency after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a microlesion effect of the electrode trajectory?

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    Le Goff, Floriane; Derrey, Stéphane; Lefaucheur, Romain; Borden, Alaina; Fetter, Damien; Jan, Maryvonne; Wallon, David; Maltête, David

    2015-01-01

    Decline in verbal fluency (VF) is frequently reported after chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Parkinson disease (PD). We investigated whether the trajectory of the implanted electrode correlate with the VF decline 6 months after surgery. We retrospectively analysed 59 PD patients (mean age, 61.9 ± 7; mean disease duration, 13 ± 4.6) who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. The percentage of VF decline 6 months after STN-DBS in the on-drug/on-stimulation condition was determined in respect of the preoperative on-drug condition. The patients were categorised into two groups (decline and stable) for each VF. Cortical entry angles, intersection with deep grey nuclei (caudate, thalamic or pallidum), and anatomical extent of the STN affected by the electrode pathway, were compared between groups. A significant decline of both semantic and phonemic VF was found after surgery, respectively 14.9% ± 22.1 (P < 0.05) and 14.2% ± 30.3 (P < 0.05). Patients who declined in semantic VF (n = 44) had a left trajectory with a more anterior cortical entry point (56 ± 53 versus 60 ± 55 degree, P = 0.01) passing less frequently trough the thalamus (P = 0.03). Microlesion of left brain regions may contribute to subtle cognitive impairment following STN-DBS in PD.

  8. Increased extracellular dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels contribute to enhanced subthalamic nucleus neural activity during exhausting exercise

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    Y Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore the mechanism underlying the enhanced subthalamic nucleus (STN neural activity during exhausting exercise from the perspective of monoamine neurotransmitters and changes of their corresponding receptors. Rats were randomly divided into microdialysis and immunohistochemistry study groups. For microdialysis study, extracellular fluid of the STN was continuously collected with a microdialysis probe before, during and 90 min after one bout of exhausting exercise. Dopamine (DA and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT levels were subsequently detected with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. For immunohistochemistry study, the expression of DRD 2 and HT 2C receptors in the STN, before, immediately after and 90 min after exhaustion was detected through immunohistochemistry technique. Microdialysis study results showed that the extracellular DA and 5-HT neurotransmitters increased significantly throughout the procedure of exhausting exercise and the recovery period (P0.05. Our results suggest that the increased extracellular DA and 5-HT in the STN might be one important factor leading to the enhanced STN neural activity and the development of fatigue during exhausting exercise. This study may essentially offer useful evidence for better understanding of the mechanism of the central type of exercise-induced fatigue.

  9. Factors predicting the instant effect of motor function after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

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    Su, Xin-Ling; Luo, Xiao-Guang; Lv, Hong; Wang, Jun; Ren, Yan; He, Zhi-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), the predictive effect of levodopa responsiveness on surgical outcomes was confirmed by some studies, however there were different conclusions about that through long- and short-term follow-ups. We aimed to investigate the factors which influence the predictive value of levodopa responsiveness, and discover more predictive factors of surgical outcomes. Twenty-three PD patients underwent bilateral STN-DBS and completed our follow-up. Clinical evaluations were performed 1 week before and 3 months after surgery. STN-DBS significantly improved motor function of PD patients after 3 months; preoperative levodopa responsiveness and disease subtype predicted the effect of DBS on motor function; gender, disease duration and duration of motor fluctuations modified the predictive effect of levodopa responsiveness on motor improvement; the duration of motor fluctuations and severity of preoperative motor symptoms modified the predictive effect of disease subtype on motor improvement. The intensity of levodopa responsiveness served as a predictor of motor improvement more accurately in female patients, patients with shorter disease duration or shorter motor fluctuations; PD patients with dominant axial symptoms benefit less from STN-DBS compared to those with limb-predominant symptoms, especially in their later disease stage.

  10. Selective left, right and bilateral stimulation of subthalamic nuclei in Parkinson's disease: differential effects on motor, speech and language function.

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    Schulz, Geralyn M; Hosey, Lara A; Bradberry, Trent J; Stager, Sheila V; Lee, Li-Ching; Pawha, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Braun, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus improves the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but may produce a worsening of speech and language performance at rates and amplitudes typically selected in clinical practice. The possibility that these dissociated effects might be modulated by selective stimulation of left and right STN has never been systematically investigated. To address this issue, we analyzed motor, speech and language functions of 12 patients implanted with bilateral stimulators configured for optimal motor responses. Behavioral responses were quantified under four stimulator conditions: bilateral DBS, right-only DBS, left-only DBS and no DBS. Under bilateral and left-only DBS conditions, our results exhibited a significant improvement in motor symptoms but worsening of speech and language. These findings contribute to the growing body of literature demonstrating that bilateral STN DBS compromises speech and language function and suggests that these negative effects may be principally due to left-sided stimulation. These findings may have practical clinical consequences, suggesting that clinicians might optimize motor, speech and language functions by carefully adjusting left- and right-sided stimulation parameters.

  11. Evolving Concepts in Posterior Subthalamic Area Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment of Tremor: Surgical Neuroanatomy and Practical Considerations.

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    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Smith, Heather; Kumar, Vignessh; Prusik, Julia; Phookan, Sujoy; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2016-01-01

    Although thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been established as an effective therapy for refractory tremor in Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, reports investigating the efficacy of posterior subthalamic area (PSA) DBS for severe, debilitating tremors continue to emerge. However, questions regarding the optimal anatomical target, surgical approach, programming paradigms and effectiveness compared to other targets remain. In this report, we aimed to review the current literature to assess different stereotactic techniques, anatomical considerations, adverse effects and stimulation settings in PSA DBS. A comprehensive literature review was performed searching for articles discussing tremors and PSA stimulation. We performed a quantitative analysis comparing different DBS tremor targets. Tremor improvement is consistently documented in most reports with an average reduction in tremor of 79% depending on the specific tremor syndrome. Tremor benefit in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) tremor was significantly higher than for other stimulation targets. Transient paresthesias, imbalance, dizziness and dysarthria are the most common side effects with PSA DBS. PSA DBS is an effective and safe treatment for tremor control and should be considered in patients with refractory tremors with associated cerebellar or dystonic features, proximal tremors and MS tremor. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Choreatic Side Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anteromedial Subthalamic Nucleus for Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive disorder.

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    Mulders, Anne E P; Leentjens, Albert F G; Schruers, Koen; Duits, Annelien; Ackermans, Linda; Temel, Yasin

    2017-08-01

    Patients with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are potential candidates for deep brain stimulation (DBS). The anteromedial subthalamic nucleus (STN) is among the most commonly used targets for DBS in OCD. We present a patient with a 30-year history of treatment-resistant OCD who underwent anteromedial STN-DBS. Despite a clear mood-enhancing effect, stimulation caused motor side effects, including bilateral hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, and sudden large amplitude choreatic movements of arms and legs when stimulating at voltages greater than approximately 1.5 V. DBS at lower amplitudes and at other contact points failed to result in a significant reduction of obsessions and compulsions without inducing motor side effects. Because of this limitation in programming options, we decided to reoperate and target the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS), which resulted in a substantial reduction in key obsessive and compulsive symptoms without serious side effects. Choreatic movements and hemiballismus have previously been linked to STN dysfunction and have been incidentally reported as side effects of DBS of the dorsolateral STN in Parkinson disease (PD). However, in PD, these side effects were usually transient, and they rarely interfered with DBS programming. In our patient, the motor side effects were persistent, and they made optimal DBS programming impossible. To our knowledge, such severe and persistent motor side effects have not been described previously for anteromedial STN-DBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-Reported Executive Functioning in Everyday Life in Parkinson's Disease after Three Months of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation.

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    Pham, Uyen Ha Gia; Andersson, Stein; Toft, Mathias; Pripp, Are Hugo; Konglund, Ane Eidahl; Dietrichs, Espen; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Skogseid, Inger Marie; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebolt; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Studies on the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on executive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD) are still controversial. In this study we compared self-reported daily executive functioning in PD patients before and after three months of STN-DBS. We also examined whether executive functioning in everyday life was associated with motor symptoms, apathy, and psychiatric symptoms. Method. 40 PD patients were examined with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-S). Results. PD patients reported significant improvement in daily life executive functioning after 3 months of STN-DBS. Anxiety scores significantly declined, while other psychiatric symptoms remained unchanged. The improvement of self-reported executive functioning did not correlate with motor improvement after STN-DBS. Apathy scores remained unchanged after surgery. Only preoperative depressed mood had predictive value to the improvement of executive function and appears to prevent potentially favorable outcomes from STN-DBS on some aspects of executive function. Conclusion. PD patients being screened for STN-DBS surgery should be evaluated with regard to self-reported executive functioning. Depressive symptoms in presurgical PD patients should be treated. Complementary information about daily life executive functioning in PD patients might enhance further treatment planning of STN-DBS.

  14. Weight gain after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease is influenced by dyskinesias' reduction and electrodes' position.

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    Balestrino, Roberta; Baroncini, Damiano; Fichera, Mario; Donofrio, Carmine Antonio; Franzin, Alberto; Mortini, Pietro; Comi, Giancarlo; Volontè, Maria Antonietta

    2017-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease that can be treated with pharmacological or surgical therapy. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation is a commonly used surgical option. A reported side effect of STN-DBS is weight gain: the aim of our study was to find those factors that determine weight gain, through one year-long observation of 32 patients that underwent surgery in our centre. During the follow-up, we considered: anthropometric features, hormonal levels, motor outcome, neuropsychological and quality of life outcomes, therapeutic parameters and electrodes position. The majority (84%) of our patients gained weight (6.7 kg in 12 months); more than a half of the cohort became overweight. At 12th month, weight gain showed a correlation with dyskinesias reduction, electrodes voltage and distance on the lateral axis. In the multivariate regression analysis, the determinants of weight gain were dyskinesias reduction and electrodes position. In this study, we identified dyskinesias reduction and distance between the active electrodes and the third ventricle as determining factors of weight gain after STN-DBS implantation in PD patients. The first finding could be linked to a decrease in energy consumption, while the second one could be due to a lower stimulation of the lateral hypothalamic area, known for its important role in metabolism and body weight control. Weight gain is a common finding after STN-DBS implantation, and it should be carefully monitored given the potential harmful consequences of overweight.

  15. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

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    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  16. Camptocormia and deep brain stimulation: The interesting overlapping etiologies and the therapeutic role of subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease with camptocormia.

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    Ekmekci, Hakan; Kaptan, Hulagu

    2016-01-01

    Camptocormia is known as "bent spine syndrome" and defined as a forward hyperflexion. The most common etiologic factor is related with the movement disorders, mainly in Parkinson's disease (PD). We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who has been followed with PD for the last 10 years, and also under the therapy for PD. An unappreciated correlation low back pain with camptocormia developed. She underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus bilaterally and improved her bending posture. The relationship between the DBS and camptocormia is discussed in this unique condition.

  17. Paso superior en una ladera

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    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  18. Dynamic stereotypic responses of basal ganglia neurons to subthalamic nucleus high frequency stimulation in the parkinsonian primate

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    Anan eMoran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN is a well-established therapy for patients with severe Parkinson‟s disease (PD; however, its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study we explored static and dynamic activation patterns in the basal ganglia during high frequency macro-stimulation of the STN. Extracellular multi-electrode recordings were performed in primates rendered parkinsonian using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Recordings were preformed simultaneously in the STN and the globus pallidus externus and internus. Single units were recorded preceding and during the stimulation. During the stimulation, STN mean firing rate dropped significantly, while pallidal mean firing rates did not change significantly. The vast majority of neurons across all three nuclei displayed stimulation driven modulations, which were stereotypic within each nucleus but differed across nuclei. The predominant response pattern of STN neurons was somatic inhibition. However, most pallidal neurons demonstrated synaptic activation patterns. A minority of neurons across all nuclei displayed axonal activation. Temporal dynamics were observed in the response to stimulation over the first 10 seconds in the STN and over the first 30 seconds in the pallidum. In both pallidal segments, the synaptic activation response patterns underwent delay and decay of the magnitude of the peak response due to short term synaptic depression. We suggest that during STN macro stimulation the STN goes through a functional ablation as its upper bound on information transmission drops significantly. This notion is further supported by the evident dissociation between the stimulation driven pre-synaptic STN somatic inhibition and the post-synaptic axonal activation of its downstream targets. Thus, basal ganglia output maintains its firing rate while losing the deleterious effect of the STN. This may be a part of the mechanism leading to the beneficial

  19. Tackling psychosocial maladjustment in Parkinson's disease patients following subthalamic deep-brain stimulation: A randomised clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Flores Alves Dos Santos

    Full Text Available Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS is an effective treatment for the motor and non-motor signs of Parkinson's disease (PD, however, psychological disorders and social maladjustment have been reported in about one third of patients after STN-DBS. We propose here a perioperative psychoeducation programme to limit such social and familial disruption.Nineteen PD patients and carers were included in a randomised single blind study. Social adjustment scale (SAS scores from patients and carers that received the psychoeducation programme (n = 9 were compared, both 1 and 2 years after surgery, with patients and carers with usual care (n = 10. Depression, anxiety, cognitive status, apathy, coping, parkinsonian disability, quality-of-life, carers' anxiety and burden were also analysed.Seventeen patients completed the study, 2 were excluded from the final analysis because of adverse events. At 1 year, 2/7 patients with psychoeducation and 8/10 with usual care had an aggravation in at least one domain of the SAS (p = .058. At 2 years, only 1 patient with psychoeducation suffered persistent aggravated social adjustment as compared to 8 patients with usual care (p = .015. At 1 year, anxiety, depression and instrumental coping ratings improved more in the psychoeducation than in the usual care group (p = .038, p = .050 and p = .050, respectively. No significant differences were found between groups for quality of life, cognitive status, apathy or motor disability.Our results suggest that a perioperative psychoeducation programme prevents social maladjustment in PD patients following STN-DBS and improves anxiety and depression compared to usual care. These preliminary data need to be confirmed in larger studies.

  20. Interleaving subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation to avoid side effects while achieving satisfactory motor benefits in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhen; Zhou, Peizhi; Jiang, Shu; Wang, Wei; Li, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD). However, achieving ideal outcomes by conventional programming can be difficult in some patients, resulting in suboptimal control of PD symptoms and stimulation-induced adverse effects. Interleaving stimulation (ILS) is a newer programming technique that can individually optimize the stimulation area, thereby improving control of PD symptoms while alleviating stimulation-induced side effects after conventional programming fails to achieve the desired results. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed PD patients who received DBS programming during the previous 4 years in our hospital. We collected clinical and demographic data from 12 patients who received ILS because of incomplete alleviation of PD symptoms or stimulation-induced adverse effects after conventional programming had proven ineffective or intolerable. Appropriate lead location was confirmed with postoperative reconstruction images. The rationale and clinical efficacy of ILS was analyzed. Results: We divided our patients into 4 groups based on the following symptoms: stimulation-induced dysarthria and choreoathetoid dyskinesias, gait disturbance, and incomplete control of parkinsonism. After treatment with ILS, patients showed satisfactory improvement in PD symptoms and alleviation of stimulation-induced side effects, with a mean improvement in Unified PD Rating Scale motor scores of 26.9%. Conclusions: ILS is a newer choice and effective programming strategy to maximize symptom control in PD while decreasing stimulation-induced adverse effects when conventional programming fails to achieve satisfactory outcome. However, we should keep in mind that most DBS patients are routinely treated with conventional stimulation and that not all patients benefit from ILS. ILS is not recommended as the first choice of programming, and it is recommended only when patients have

  1. Dynamic stereotypic responses of Basal Ganglia neurons to subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation in the parkinsonian primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anan; Stein, Edward; Tischler, Hadass; Belelovsky, Katya; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2011-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established therapy for patients with severe Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study we explored static and dynamic activation patterns in the basal ganglia (BG) during high-frequency macro-stimulation of the STN. Extracellular multi-electrode recordings were performed in primates rendered parkinsonian using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Recordings were preformed simultaneously in the STN and the globus pallidus externus and internus. Single units were recorded preceding and during the stimulation. During the stimulation, STN mean firing rate dropped significantly, while pallidal mean firing rates did not change significantly. The vast majority of neurons across all three nuclei displayed stimulation driven modulations, which were stereotypic within each nucleus but differed across nuclei. The predominant response pattern of STN neurons was somatic inhibition. However, most pallidal neurons demonstrated synaptic activation patterns. A minority of neurons across all nuclei displayed axonal activation. Temporal dynamics were observed in the response to stimulation over the first 10 seconds in the STN and over the first 30 seconds in the pallidum. In both pallidal segments, the synaptic activation response patterns underwent delay and decay of the magnitude of the peak response due to short term synaptic depression. We suggest that during STN macro-stimulation the STN goes through a functional ablation as its upper bound on information transmission drops significantly. This notion is further supported by the evident dissociation between the stimulation driven pre-synaptic STN somatic inhibition and the post-synaptic axonal activation of its downstream targets. Thus, BG output maintains its firing rate while losing the deleterious effect of the STN. This may be a part of the mechanism leading to the beneficial effect of DBS in PD.

  2. A new biomarker for subthalamic deep brain stimulation for patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease—a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmel, Gerrit E.; Hamilton, Tara J.; Obradovic, Milan; Gorman, Robert B.; Single, Peter S.; Chenery, Helen J.; Coyne, Terry; Silburn, Peter A.; Parker, John L.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become the standard treatment for advanced stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other motor disorders. Although the surgical procedure has improved in accuracy over the years thanks to imaging and microelectrode recordings, the underlying principles that render DBS effective are still debated today. The aim of this paper is to present initial findings around a new biomarker that is capable of assessing the efficacy of DBS treatment for PD which could be used both as a research tool, as well as in the context of a closed-loop stimulator. Approach. We have used a novel multi-channel stimulator and recording device capable of measuring the response of nervous tissue to stimulation very close to the stimulus site with minimal latency, rejecting most of the stimulus artefact usually found with commercial devices. We have recorded and analyzed the responses obtained intraoperatively in two patients undergoing DBS surgery in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for advanced PD. Main results. We have identified a biomarker in the responses of the STN to DBS. The responses can be analyzed in two parts, an initial evoked compound action potential arising directly after the stimulus onset, and late responses (LRs), taking the form of positive peaks, that follow the initial response. We have observed a morphological change in the LRs coinciding with a decrease in the rigidity of the patients. Significance. These initial results could lead to a better characterization of the DBS therapy, and the design of adaptive DBS algorithms that could significantly improve existing therapies and help us gain insights into the functioning of the basal ganglia and DBS.

  3. Acute changes in mood induced by subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease are modulated by psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Sarah A; Dewispelaere, William B; Campbell, Meghan C; Lugar, Heather M; Perlmutter, Joel S; Black, Kevin J; Hershey, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) reduces Parkinson disease (PD) motor symptoms but has unexplained, variable effects on mood. The study tested the hypothesis that pre-existing mood and/or anxiety disorders or increased symptom severity negatively affects mood response to STN DBS. Thirty-eight PD participants with bilateral STN DBS and on PD medications were interviewed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID) and completed Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (SSAI) self-reports. Subsequently, during OFF and optimal ON (clinical settings) STN DBS conditions and while off PD medications, motor function was assessed with the United Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, part III), and participants rated their mood with Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), and again completed SSAI. VAS mood variables included anxiety, apathy, valence and emotional arousal. STN DBS improved UPDRS scores and mood. Unexpectedly, PD participants diagnosed with current anxiety or mood disorders experienced greater STN DBS-induced improvement in mood than those diagnosed with remitted disorders or who were deemed as having never met threshold criteria for diagnosis. BDI and SSAI scores did not modulate mood response to STN DBS, indicating that clinical categorical diagnosis better differentiates mood response to STN DBS than self-rated symptom severity. SCID diagnosis, BDI and SSAI scores did not modulate motor response to STN DBS. PD participants diagnosed with current mood or anxiety disorders are more sensitive to STN DBS-induced effects on mood, possibly indicating altered basal ganglia circuitry in this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on heart rate variability in patients with Parkinson's disease.

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    Liu, Kang-Du; Shan, Din-E; Kuo, Terry B J; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2013-07-01

    The beneficial effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on motor symptoms and quality of life in Parkinson's disease (PD) are well known, but little is known of the effects on autonomic function. Diffusion of current during stimulation of the STN may simultaneously involve the motor and nonmotor, limbic and associative areas of the STN. The aims of this study were to examine whether STN stimulation affects functions of the autonomic nervous system and, if so, to correlate the effects with the active contacts of electrodes in the STN. Eight PD patients with good motor control and quality of sleep after STN-DBS surgery were recruited. All patients had two days of recordings with portable polysomnography (PSG) (first night with stimulation "on" and second night "off"). From the PSG data, the first sleep cycle of each recording night was defined. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed between the same uninterrupted periods of the two sleep nights. In addition, the optimal electrode positions were defined from postoperative MRI studies, and the coordinates of active contacts were confirmed. HRV spectral analysis showed that only low-frequency (LF)/high-frequency (HF) power was significantly activated in the stimulation "on" groups (P = 0.011). There was a significant negative correlation between power change of LF/HF and electrode position lateral to the midcommissural point (ρ = 0.857, P = 0.007) These results demonstrate that STN-DBS can enhance sympathetic regulation; the autonomic response may be due to electrical signals being distributed to limbic components of the STN or descending sympathetic pathways in the zona incerta.

  5. Short-term quality of life after subthalamic stimulation depends on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafsari, Haidar Salimi; Weiß, Luisa; Silverdale, Monty; Rizos, Alexandra; Reddy, Prashanth; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Evans, Julian; Reker, Paul; Petry-Schmelzer, Jan Niklas; Samuel, Michael; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Antonini, Angelo; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-02-24

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, considerable inter-individual variability has been observed for QoL outcome. We hypothesized that demographic and preoperative NMS characteristics can predict postoperative QoL outcome. In this ongoing, prospective, multicenter study (Cologne, Manchester, London) including 88 patients, we collected the following scales preoperatively and on follow-up 6 months postoperatively: PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), NMSScale (NMSS), NMSQuestionnaire (NMSQ), Scales for Outcomes in PD (SCOPA)-motor examination, -complications, and -activities of daily living, levodopa equivalent daily dose. We dichotomized patients into "QoL responders"/"non-responders" and screened for factors associated with QoL improvement with (1) Spearman-correlations between baseline test scores and QoL improvement, (2) step-wise linear regressions with baseline test scores as independent and QoL improvement as dependent variables, (3) logistic regressions using aforementioned "responders/non-responders" as dependent variable. All outcomes improved significantly on follow-up. However, approximately 44% of patients were categorized as "QoL non-responders". Spearman-correlations, linear and logistic regression analyses were significant for NMSS and NMSQ but not for SCOPA-motor examination. Post-hoc, we identified specific NMS (flat moods, difficulties experiencing pleasure, pain, bladder voiding) as significant contributors to QoL outcome. Our results provide evidence that QoL improvement after STN-DBS depends on preoperative NMS characteristics. These findings are important in the advising and selection of individuals for DBS therapy. Future studies investigating motor and non-motor PD clusters may enable stratifying QoL outcomes and help predict patients' individual prospects of benefiting from DBS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier

  6. A systematic review of studies on anatomical position of electrode contacts used for chronic subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

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    Caire, François; Ranoux, Danièle; Guehl, Dominique; Burbaud, Pierre; Cuny, Emmanuel

    2013-09-01

    The dorso-lateral part of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is considered as the usual target of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Nevertheless, the exact anatomical location of the electrode contacts used for chronic stimulation is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the existing literature on this issue. We searched for studies on the anatomical location of active contacts published until December 2012. We identified 13 studies, published between 2002 and 2010, including 260 patients and 466 electrodes. One hundred and sixty-four active contacts (35 %) were identified within the STN, 117 (25 %) at the interface between STN and the surrounding structures, 184 (40 %) above the STN and one within the substantia nigra. We observed great discrepancies between the different series. The contra-lateral improvement was between 37 and 78.5 % for contacts located within the STN, between 48.6 and 73 % outside the STN, between 65.3 and 66 % at the interface. The authors report no clear correlation between anatomical location and stimulation parameters. Post-operative analysis of the anatomical location of active contacts is difficult, and all the methods used are debatable. The relationship between the anatomical location of active contacts and the clinical effectiveness of stimulation is unclear. It would be necessary to take into account the volume of the electrode contacts and the diffusion of the stimulation. We can nevertheless assume that the interface between dorso-lateral STN, zona incerta and Forel's fields could be directly involved in the effects of stimulation.

  7. Lead intoxication induces noradrenaline depletion, motor nonmotor disabilities, and changes in the firing pattern of subthalamic nucleus neurons.

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    Sabbar, M; Delaville, C; De Deurwaerdère, P; Benazzouz, A; Lakhdar-Ghazal, N

    2012-05-17

    Lead intoxication has been suggested as a high risk factor for the development of Parkinson disease. However, its impact on motor and nonmotor functions and the mechanism by which it can be involved in the disease are still unclear. In the present study, we studied the effects of lead intoxication on the following: (1) locomotor activity using an open field actimeter and motor coordination using the rotarod test, (2) anxiety behavior using the elevated plus maze, (3) "depression-like" behavior using sucrose preference test, and (4) subthalamic nucleus (STN) neuronal activity using extracellular single unit recordings. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once a day with lead acetate or sodium acetate (20 mg/kg/d i.p.) during 3 weeks. The tissue content of monoamines was used to determine alteration of these systems at the end of experiments. Results show that lead significantly reduced exploratory activity, locomotor activity and the time spent on the rotarod bar. Furthermore, lead induced anxiety but not "depressive-like" behavior. The electrophysiological results show that lead altered the discharge pattern of STN neurons with an increase in the number of bursting and irregular cells without affecting the firing rate. Moreover, lead intoxication resulted in a decrease of tissue noradrenaline content without any change in the levels of dopamine and serotonin. Together, these results show for the first time that lead intoxication resulted in motor and nonmotor behavioral changes paralleled by noradrenaline depletion and changes in the firing activity of STN neurons, providing evidence consistent with the induction of atypical parkinsonian-like deficits. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-Frequency Stimulation at the Subthalamic Nucleus Suppresses Excessive Self-Grooming in Autism-Like Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Andrew D; Berges, Victoria A; Chung, Sunho J; Fridman, Gene Y; Baraban, Jay M; Reti, Irving M

    2016-06-01

    Approximately one quarter of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display self-injurious behavior (SIB) ranging from head banging to self-directed biting and punching. Sometimes, these behaviors are extreme and unresponsive to pharmacological and behavioral therapies. We have found electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can produce life-changing results, with more than 90% suppression of SIB frequency. However, these patients typically require frequent maintenance ECT (mECT), as often as every 5 days, to sustain the improvement gained during the acute course. Long-term consequences of such frequent mECT started as early as childhood in some cases are unknown. Accordingly, there is a need for alternative forms of chronic stimulation for these patients. To explore the feasibility of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for intractable SIB seen in some patients with an ASD, we utilized two genetically distinct mouse models demonstrating excessive self-grooming, namely the Viaat-Mecp2(-/y) and Shank3B(-/-) lines, and administered high-frequency stimulation (HFS) via implanted electrodes at the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS). We found that STN-HFS significantly suppressed excessive self-grooming in both genetic lines. Suppression occurs both acutely when stimulation is switched on, and persists for several days after HFS is stopped. This effect was not explained by a change in locomotor activity, which was unaffected by STN-HFS. Likewise, social interaction deficits were not corrected by STN-HFS. Our data show STN-HFS suppresses excessive self-grooming in two autism-like mouse models, raising the possibility DBS might be used to treat intractable SIB associated with ASDs. Further studies are required to explore the circuitry engaged by STN-HFS, as well as other potential stimulation sites. Such studies might also yield clues about pathways, which could be modulated by non-invasive stimulatory techniques.

  9. Impaired glutamatergic projection from the motor cortex to the subthalamic nucleus in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned hemi-parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Hai-Fei; Liu, Jun-Hua; Jia, Jun; Wang, Ke; Zhao, Fei; Luo, Min-Hua; Luo, Min-Min; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2018-02-01

    The glutamatergic projection from the motor cortex to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) constitutes the cortico-basal ganglia circuit and plays a critical role in the control of movement. Emerging evidence shows that the cortico-STN pathway is susceptible to dopamine depletion. Specifically in Parkinson's disease (PD), abnormal electrophysiological activities were observed in the motor cortex and STN, while the STN serves as a key target of deep brain stimulation for PD therapy. However, direct morphological changes in the cortico-STN connectivity in response to PD progress are poorly understood at present. In the present study, we used a trans-synaptic anterograde tracing method with herpes simplex virus-green fluorescent protein (HSV-GFP) to monitor the cortico-STN connectivity in a rat model of PD. We found that the connectivity from the primary motor cortex (M1) to the STN was impaired in parkinsonian rats as manifested by a marked decrease in trans-synaptic infection of HSV-GFP from M1 neurons to STN neurons in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. Ultrastructural analysis with electron microscopy revealed that excitatory synapses in the STN were also impaired in parkinsonian rats. Glutamatergic terminals identified by a specific marker (vesicular glutamate transporter 1) were reduced in the STN, while glutamatergic neurons showed an insignificant change in their total number in both the M1 and STN regions. These results indicate that the M1-STN glutamatergic connectivity is downregulated in parkinsonian rats. This downregulation is mediated probably via a mechanism involving the impairments of excitatory terminals and synapses in the STN. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Self-Determination Act (Pub. L. 110-343) and in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the meeting is to orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles... following business will be conducted: Overview of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource...

  11. Patterns of Cell Activity in the Subthalamic Region Associated with the Neuroprotective Action of Near-Infrared Light Treatment in MPTP-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria E. Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have shown previously that near-infrared light (NIr treatment or photobiomodulation neuroprotects dopaminergic cells in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc from degeneration induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP in mice. The present study explores whether NIr treatment changes the patterns of Fos expression in the subthalamic region, namely, the subthalamic nucleus (STN and zona incerta (ZI; both cell groups have abnormally overactive cells in parkinsonian cases. BALB/c mice were treated with MPTP (100–250 mg/kg or saline either over 30 hours followed by either a two-hour or six-day survival period (acute model or over five weeks followed by a three-week survival period (chronic model. NIr and MPTP were applied simultaneously. Brains were processed for Fos immunochemistry, and cell number was estimated using stereology. Our major finding was that NIr treatment reduced (30–45% the increase in Fos+ cell number evident in the STN and ZI after MPTP insult. This reduction was concurrent with the neuroprotection of dopaminergic SNc cells shown previously and was evident in both MPTP models (except for the 2 hours survival period which showed no changes in cell number. In summary, our results indicated that NIr had long lasting effects on the activity of cells located deep in the brain and had repaired partially the abnormal activity generated by the parkinsonian toxin.

  12. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest.......James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...

  13. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  14. Meta-analysis comparing deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus to treat advanced Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Weina; Tan, Changhong; Liu, Xi; Wang, Xin; Gui, Yuejiang; Qin, Lu; Deng, Fen; Hu, Changlin; Chen, Lifen

    2014-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the surgical procedure of choice for patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). The globus pallidus internus (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are commonly targeted by this procedure. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of DBS in each region. MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library were searched for English-language studies published before April 2013. of studies investigating the efficacy and clinical outcomes of DBS of the GPi and STN for PD were analyzed. Six eligible trials containing a total of 563 patients were included in the analysis. Deep brain stimulation of the GPi or STN equally improved motor function, measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Section III (UPDRSIII) (motor section, for patients in on- and off-medication phases), within 1 year postsurgery. The change score for the on-medication phase was 0.68 (95% CI - 2.12 to 3.47, p > 0.05; 5 studies, 518 patients) and for the off-medication phase was 1.83 (95% CI - 3.12 to 6.77, p > 0.05; 5 studies, 518 patients). The UPDRS Section II (activities of daily living) scores for patients on medication improved equally in both DBS groups (p = 0.97). STN DBS allowed medication dosages to be reduced more than GPi DBS (95% CI 129.27-316.64, p < 0.00001; 5 studies, 540 patients). Psychiatric symptoms, measured by Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition scores, showed greater improvement from baseline after GPi DBS than after STN DBS (standardized mean difference -2.28, 95% CI -3.73 to -0.84, p = 0.002; 3 studies, 382 patients). GPi and STN DBS improve motor function and activities of daily living for PD patients. Differences in therapeutic efficacy for PD were not observed between the 2 procedures. STN DBS allowed greater reduction in medication for patients, whereas GPi DBS provided greater relief from psychiatric symptoms. An understanding of other symptomatic aspects of targeting each region and long

  15. Effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on emotional working memory capacity and mood in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkl A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Merkl,1,2 Eva Röck,1 Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch,1,3 Gerd-Helge Schneider,4 Andrea A Kühn1,3,5 1Department of Neurology, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, 3NeuroCure, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, 5Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Background: In Parkinson’s disease (PD, cognitive symptoms and mood changes may be even more distressing for the patient than motor symptoms.Objective: Our aim was to determine the effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS on working memory (WM and mood.Methods: Sixteen patients with PD were assessed with STN-DBS switched on (DBS-ON and with dopaminergic treatment (Med-ON compared to switched off (DBS-OFF and without dopaminergic treatment (Med-OFF. The primary outcome measures were a Visual Analog Mood Scale (VAMS and an emotional 2-back WM task at 12 months after DBS in the optimal DBS-ON/Med-ON setting compared to DBS-OFF/Med-OFF.Results: Comparison of DBS-OFF/Med-OFF to DBS-ON/Med-ON revealed a significant increase in alertness (meanoff/off =51.59±24.54; meanon/on =72.75; P=0.016 and contentedness (meanoff/off =38.73±24.41; meanon/on =79.01±17.66; P=0.001, n=16, and a trend for reduction in sedation (P=0.060, which was related to stimulation as shown in a subgroup of seven patients. The N-back task revealed a significant increase in accuracy with DBS-ON/Med-ON compared to DBS-OFF/Med-OFF (82.0% vs 76.0%, respectively (P=0.044, regardless of stimulus valence.Conclusion: In line with previous studies, we found that patients rated themselves subjectively as more alert, content, and less sedated during short-term DBS-ON. Accuracy in the WM task increased with the combination of

  16. The effects of high frequency subthalamic stimulation on balance performance and fear of falling in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnlo Gun-Britt

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balance impairment is one of the most distressing symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD even with pharmacological treatment (levodopa. A complementary treatment is high frequency stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN. Whether STN stimulation improves postural control is under debate. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of STN stimulation alone on balance performance as assessed with clinical performance tests, subjective ratings of fear of falling and posturography. Methods Ten patients (median age 66, range 59–69 years with bilateral STN stimulation for a minimum of one year, had their anti-PD medications withdrawn overnight. Assessments were done both with the STN stimulation turned OFF and ON (start randomized. In both test conditions, the following were assessed: motor symptoms (descriptive purposes, clinical performance tests, fear of falling ratings, and posturography with and without vibratory proprioceptive disturbance. Results STN stimulation alone significantly (p = 0.002 increased the scores of the Berg balance scale, and the median increase was 6 points. The results of all timed performance tests, except for sharpened Romberg, were significantly (p ≤ 0.016 improved. The patients rated their fear of falling as less severe, and the total score of the Falls-Efficacy Scale(S increased (p = 0.002 in median with 54 points. All patients completed posturography when the STN stimulation was turned ON, but three patients were unable to do so when it was turned OFF. The seven patients with complete data showed no statistical significant difference (p values ≥ 0.109 in torque variance values when comparing the two test situations. This applied both during quiet stance and during the periods with vibratory stimulation, and it was irrespective of visual input and sway direction. Conclusion In this sample, STN stimulation alone significantly improved the results of the clinical performance tests that mimic

  17. Superior versus inferior Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Mohammad; Yazdani, Shahin; Shahabi, Camelia; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2009-02-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) (New World Medical Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) implantation in the superior versus inferior quadrants. Prospective parallel cohort study. A total of 106 eyes of 106 patients with refractory glaucoma. Consecutive patients with refractory glaucoma underwent AGV implantation in the superior or inferior quadrants. Main outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP) and rate of complications. Other outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of glaucoma medications, and success rate (defined as at least 30% IOP reduction and 5glaucoma surgery, phthisis bulbi, or loss of light perception. Of a total of 106 eyes, 58 and 48 eyes underwent AGV implantation in the superior and inferior quadrants, respectively. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the study groups, except for preoperative IOP, which was higher in the superior group (P = 0.01). Patients were followed for a mean period of 10.6+/-8.49 months and 10.58+/-6.75 months in the superior and inferior groups, respectively (P = 0.477). BCVA was comparable between the groups at all postoperative visits (P>0.122). After 1 year, statistically significant but comparable IOP reduction from baseline (Pglaucoma medications was comparable after 1 year (1.3+/-1.2 vs. 1.9+/-0.8 for superior and inferior implants, respectively, P = 0.256). Success rates were also similar at 1 year: 27 eyes (81.8%) versus 20 eyes (95.2%) for superior and inferior implants, respectively (P = 0.227). However, the overall rate of complications, such as implant exposure necessitating removal, cosmetically unappealing appearance, and endophthalmitis, was higher in the inferior group: 12 eyes (25%) versus 3 eyes (5.2%) for superior and inferior groups, respectively, (P = 0.004). Superior and inferior AGV implants have similar intermediate efficacy in terms of IOP reduction, decrease in number of glaucoma medications, and preservation of vision. However

  18. Interaural delay sensitivity and the classification of low best-frequency binaural responses in the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, D; Jiang, D; Palmer, A R

    1996-08-01

    Monaural and binaural response properties of single units in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the guinea pig were investigated. Neurones were classified according to the effect of monaural stimulation of either ear alone and the effect of binaural stimulation. The majority (309/334) of IC units were excited (E) by stimulation of the contralateral ear, of which 41% (127/309) were also excited by monaural ipsilateral stimulation (EE), and the remainder (182/309) were unresponsive to monaural ipsilateral stimulation (EO). For units with best frequencies (BF) up to 3 kHz, similar proportions of EE and EO units were observed. Above 3 kHz, however, significantly more EO than EE units were observed. Units were also classified as either facilitated (F), suppressed (S), or unaffected (O) by binaural stimulation. More EO than EE units were suppressed or unaffected by binaural stimulation, and more EE than EO units were facilitated. There were more EO/S units above 1.5 kHz than below. Binaural beats were used to examine the interaural delay sensitivity of low-BF (BF binaural facilitation, whilst those with larger BPs generally showed binaural suppression. The classification of units based upon binaural stimulation with BF tones was consistent with their interaural-delay sensitivity. Characteristic delays (CD) were examined for 96 low-BF units. A clear relationship between BF and CD was observed. CDs of units with very low BFs (binaural processing in the guinea pig at low frequencies is similar to that reported in all other species studied. However, the dependence of CD on BF would suggest that the delay line system that sets up the interaural-delay sensitivity in the lower brainstem varies across frequency as well as within each frequency band.

  19. Noise Trauma-Induced Behavioral Gap Detection Deficits Correlate with Reorganization of Excitatory and Inhibitory Local Circuits in the Inferior Colliculus and Are Prevented by Acoustic Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Joshua J; Zhang-Hooks, Ying-Xin; Roos, Hannah; Nguyen, Tuan; Kandler, Karl

    2017-06-28

    Hearing loss leads to a host of cellular and synaptic changes in auditory brain areas that are thought to give rise to auditory perception deficits such as temporal processing impairments, hyperacusis, and tinnitus. However, little is known about possible changes in synaptic circuit connectivity that may underlie these hearing deficits. Here, we show that mild hearing loss as a result of brief noise exposure leads to a pronounced reorganization of local excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the mouse inferior colliculus. The exact nature of these reorganizations correlated with the presence or absence of the animals' impairments in detecting brief sound gaps, a commonly used behavioral sign for tinnitus in animal models. Mice with gap detection deficits (GDDs) showed a shift in the balance of synaptic excitation and inhibition that was present in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, whereas mice without GDDs showed stable excitation-inhibition balances. Acoustic enrichment (AE) with moderate intensity, pulsed white noise immediately after noise trauma prevented both circuit reorganization and GDDs, raising the possibility of using AE immediately after cochlear damage to prevent or alleviate the emergence of central auditory processing deficits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Noise overexposure is a major cause of central auditory processing disorders, including tinnitus, yet the changes in synaptic connectivity underlying these disorders remain poorly understood. Here, we find that brief noise overexposure leads to distinct reorganizations of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs onto glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons and that the nature of these reorganizations correlates with animals' impairments in detecting brief sound gaps, which is often considered a sign of tinnitus. Acoustic enrichment immediately after noise trauma prevents circuit reorganizations and gap detection deficits, highlighting the potential for using sound therapy soon after cochlear damage

  20. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus in salicylate-induced tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Yang, Shan-Ying; Wang, Ming-Fu; Chan, Yin-Ching

    2011-04-09

    Changes in the gene expressions for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and/or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) during tinnitus have not been previously reported. We evaluated tinnitus and mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) genes in cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice after intraperitoneal injections of salicylate. Forty-eight 3-month-old male SAMP8 mice were randomly and equally divided into two groups: salicylate-treated and saline-treated. All mice were trained to perform an active avoidance task for 5 days. Once conditioned, an active avoidance task was performed 2 hours after daily intraperitoneal injections of saline, either alone or containing 300 mg/kg sodium salicylate. Total numbers of times (tinnitus score) the mice climbed during the inter-trial silent period for 10 trials were recorded daily for 4 days (days 7 to 10), and then mice were euthanized for determination of mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NR2B genes in cochlea and IC at day 10. Tinnitus scores increased in response to daily salicylate treatments. The mRNA expression levels of TNF-α increased significantly for the salicylate-treated group compared to the control group in both cochlea (1.89 ± 0.22 vs. 0.87 ± 0.07, P salicylate group compared to the control group in both cochlea (3.50 ± 1.05 vs. 2.80 ± 0.28, p salicylate treatment resulting in tinnitus augments expression of the TNF-α and IL-1β genes in cochlea and IC of mice, and we suggest that these proinflammatory cytokines might lead to tinnitus directly or via modulating the NMDA receptor.

  1. The subthalamic microlesion story in Parkinson's disease: electrode insertion-related motor improvement with relative cortico-subcortical hypoactivation in fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jech

    Full Text Available Electrode implantation into the subthalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease (PD is associated with a temporary motor improvement occurring prior to neurostimulation. We studied this phenomenon by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI when considering the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III and collateral oedema. Twelve patients with PD (age 55.9± (SD6.8 years, PD duration 9-15 years underwent bilateral electrode implantation into the subthalamic nucleus. The fMRI was carried out after an overnight withdrawal of levodopa (OFF condition: (i before and (ii within three days after surgery in absence of neurostimulation. The motor task involved visually triggered finger tapping. The OFF/UPDRS-III score dropped from 33.8±8.7 before to 23.3±4.8 after the surgery (p<0.001, correlating with the postoperative oedema score (p<0.05. During the motor task, bilateral activation of the thalamus and basal ganglia, motor cortex and insula were preoperatively higher than after surgery (p<0.001. The results became more enhanced after compensation for the oedema and UPDRS-III scores. In addition, the rigidity and axial symptoms score correlated inversely with activation of the putamen and globus pallidus (p<0.0001. One month later, the OFF/UPDRS-III score had returned to the preoperative level (35.8±7.0, p = 0.4.In conclusion, motor improvement induced by insertion of an inactive electrode into the subthalamic nucleus caused an acute microlesion which was at least partially related to the collateral oedema and associated with extensive impact on the motor network. This was postoperatively manifested as lowered movement-related activation at the cortical and subcortical levels and differed from the known effects of neurostimulation or levodopa. The motor system finally adapted to the microlesion within one month as suggested by loss of motor improvement and good efficacy of deep brain stimulation.

  2. Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Fraguas Filho, Sergio Roberto; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Jacob, Beatriz Mahmud; Machado, Marcio Martins; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Ximenes, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the coronary sinus. We report the case of a patient with a persistent left superior vena cava and absence of right superior vena cava identified by chance during a chest radiograph and computed tomography examination for investigation of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. The patient had no congenital heart disease and the blood from the right side was drained by the persistent left superior vena cava into the right atrium through the coronary sinus. (author)

  3. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, William E

    2008-10-01

    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  4. SU-E-I-78: Neuromelanin in the Subthalamic Nucleus of Patients with Parkinson's Disease: An Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, J; Salmon, C Garrido; Filho, O Baffa; Santos, J Peixoto; Pitella, J

    2012-06-01

    Parkinson disease and related syndromes are associated directly with the concentrations of neuromelanin, iron and other heavy metals, and nowadays it is discussed the possible protective role of neuromelanin by the sequester redox active iron ions, reducing the formation of free hydroxyl radicals and therefore inactivating the iron ions that induce oxidative stress. The aim of this work is to study the concentration ratios between iron ions and neuromelanin in subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). Necropsy samples of subthalamic nucleus from eight human brains were studied: three non-affected by any neurodegenerative disease and five with Parkinson's disease. The samples were stored in formaldehyde and washed with a solution of 0.01 molar of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. ESR experiments were development in a JEOL FA-200 X-Band spectrometer at different temperatures between -170° C to room temperature. The relative concentrations of each species were estimated from the double integral values of the fitted spectra. For all samples, ESR spectra showed to be composed of three different signals following the Curie's law. One signal was attributed to high-spin ferric ions (g∼ 4.3) in rhomboedric symmetry, Cu(II) ions (close to g=2.0) and neuromelanin (g∼ 2.01). The ferric ions concentration ratio between patients and controls was 3.0±0.2. The same ratio for neuromelanine was 0.24±0.06. Our preliminary results indicated a significant increment of iron concentration in PD samples which agrees with previous histochemical and biochemical reports. This finding and the clear reduction of neuromelanin concentration in PD samples suggest the possible role of neuromelanin as iron ions storage. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Vena cava superior syndrome associated with sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, K.; Walz, M.; Reidemeister, J.C.; Donhuijsen, K.

    1988-01-01

    We report the first observation of clinical manifestations of vena cava superior syndrome (VCSS) associated with sarcoidosis. Twenty-four years after the first signs of the disease had been noted, mediastinal lymphomas penetrating the wall of the vena cava superior caused complete obstruction. It is most unusual for the vessel wall to be destroyed in this way, which explains why VCSS is often missed in sarcoidosis. The obstructed vessel was resected and successfully replaced by a Gore-Tex prosthesis. The importance of VCSS for the differential diagnosis is pointed out. Two further peculiarities are the simultaneous occurrence of elevated intraocular pressure and VCSS, and the familial incidence. (orig.) [de

  6. Superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new concepts in superior oblique muscle weakening surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Koornneef, L.; Everhard-Halm, Y. S.; Hughes, D. S.; Maillette de Buy Wenniger-Prick, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    We used superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new surgical procedures to treat acquired Brown's syndrome and superior oblique muscle overaction. We studied nine patients (11 eyes) who underwent trochlear surgery between 1988 and 1993. Four patients had acquired Brown's syndrome and

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscoid superior labrum: normal variant or superior labral tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Novelino Simão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of a "meniscoid" superior labrum. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 582 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of shoulders. Of those 582 examinations, 110 were excluded, for a variety of reasons, and the final analysis therefore included 472 cases. Consensus readings were performed by three musculoskeletal radiologists using specific criteria to diagnose meniscoid labra. Results: A meniscoid superior labrum was identified in 48 (10.2% of the 472 cases evaluated. Arthroscopic proof was available in 21 cases (43.8%. In 10 (47.6% of those 21 cases, the operative report did not include the mention a superior labral tear, thus suggesting the presence of a meniscoid labrum. In only one of those cases were there specific comments about a mobile superior labrum (i.e., meniscoid labrum. In the remaining 11 (52.4%, surgical correlation demonstrated superior labral tears. Conclusion: A meniscoid superior labrum is not an infrequent finding. Depending upon assumptions and the requirement of surgical proof, the prevalence of a meniscoid superior labrum in this study was between 2.1% (surgically proven and 4.8% (projected. However, superior labral tears are just as common and are often confused with meniscoid labra.

  8. r-CBF brain SPET before surgery and during subthalamic nuclei (STN) high frequency stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerundini, P.; Benti, R.; De Notaris, A.; Ferrari, M.; Raimondi, A.; Mariani, C.; Antonini, A.; Pezzoli, G.; Gaini, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nuclei (STN) can improve motor symptoms and reduces the need for medical therapy in severe Parkinson's Disease (PD). Moreover, DBS can affect, as the medical treatment, cerebral perfusion/metabolism even in cortical/subcortical areas not primarily involved in PD motor symptoms. Aim of the study was the assessment of r-CBF changes by mean of brain SPECT in severe PD .before surgery and during DBS of the STN. Methods. 14 PD patients (duration 15.2±5.1 ys; H and Y off-score 3.6±0.7) underwent STN electrode implantation. Residual motor dysfunction was assessed by UPDRS score up to one year after surgery. SPECT was performed after i.v. injection of Tc-99m ECD (740 MBq) in PD group before and 6-9 months after surgery and in 13 age matched normals. Standardized ROIs templates were applied in brain sections to generate perfusion ratios in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) analysis of SPET studies was also obtained. Results: 6 months after surgery the mean UPDRS score improvement was 48.8±26.1% (DBS on) vs pre surgery. 8 patients (R+) had UPDRS improvement >50% (mean 67.7±8.8%); 6 patients (R-) had score improvement <50% (mean 22.9±18.9%). Before surgery, motor dysfunction during therapy was similar in R+ and R- groups (mean UPDRS 19.8±8.2 vs. 21.3±9.6). During BDS, UPDRS mean score without medical therapy was lower in R+ (15.6±5.6) vs. R- (35.0±12.4; p<0.001). ROIs and SPM analysis of pre-surgery SPET studies showed significant hypoperfusion (p<0.01) in the occipital gyri of PD vs control groups. No significant differences were found by comparing pre/post surgery SPECT patterns in whole PD group. However, in R- group SPECT showed significant hypoperfusion in pre-frontal areas, parietal and occipital gyri vs R+ patients (p<0.02) and controls (p<0.01). Before surgery, R+ group had borderline occipital hypoperfusion (p=0.04) and mild increase of putaminal perfusion (p=0.03) vs

  9. Superior intellectual ability in schizophrenia: neuropsychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCabe, James H; Brébion, Gildas; Reichenberg, Abraham; Ganguly, Taposhri; McKenna, Peter J; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that neurocognitive impairment is a core deficit in schizophrenia. However, it appears that some patients with schizophrenia have intelligence quotients (IQs) in the superior range. In this study, we sought out schizophrenia patients with an estimated premorbid Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of at least 115 and studied their neuropsychological profile. Thirty-four patients meeting diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV), with mean estimated premorbid IQ of 120, were recruited and divided into two subgroups, according to whether or not their IQ had declined by at least 10 points from their premorbid estimate. Their performance on an extensive neuropsychological battery was compared with that of 19 IQ-matched healthy controls and a group of 16 "typical" schizophrenia patients with estimated premorbid IQ Schizophrenia patients whose estimated premorbid and current IQ both lay in the superior range were statistically indistinguishable from IQ-matched healthy controls on all neurocognitive tests. However, their profile of relative performance in subtests was similar to that of typical schizophrenia patients. Patients with superior premorbid IQ and evidence of intellectual deterioration had intermediate scores. Our results confirm the existence of patients meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia who have markedly superior premorbid intellectual level and appear to be free of gross neuropsychological deficits. We discuss the implications of these findings for the primacy of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  10. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  11. Mammographic varicosities indicative of a superior mediastinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, an abnormal calibre of the superficial veins can reflect not only underrying breast pathology, but a collateral venous return resulting from an upper mediastinal obstruction. A case mammographically demonstrating mammary varicosities resulting from a superior mediastinal syndrome is described. S. Afr. Med.

  12. COSEE Superior Creates Passion for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    COSEE was a transformative educational experience that has changed the way I teach. In July, I participated in the COSEE Lake Superior Shipboard and Shoreline Science program. I spent a week on the US EPA’s R/V Lake Guardian with 14 other teachers and a crew of sailors and scient...

  13. Perturbation resilience and superiorization of iterative algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censor, Y; Davidi, R; Herman, G T

    2010-01-01

    Iterative algorithms aimed at solving some problems are discussed. For certain problems, such as finding a common point in the intersection of a finite number of convex sets, there often exist iterative algorithms that impose very little demand on computer resources. For other problems, such as finding that point in the intersection at which the value of a given function is optimal, algorithms tend to need more computer memory and longer execution time. A methodology is presented whose aim is to produce automatically for an iterative algorithm of the first kind a 'superiorized version' of it that retains its computational efficiency but nevertheless goes a long way toward solving an optimization problem. This is possible to do if the original algorithm is 'perturbation resilient', which is shown to be the case for various projection algorithms for solving the consistent convex feasibility problem. The superiorized versions of such algorithms use perturbations that steer the process in the direction of a superior feasible point, which is not necessarily optimal, with respect to the given function. After presenting these intuitive ideas in a precise mathematical form, they are illustrated in image reconstruction from projections for two different projection algorithms superiorized for the function whose value is the total variation of the image

  14. Binaural interaction in low-frequency neurons in inferior colliculus of the cat. II. Effects of changing rate and direction of interaural phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T C; Kuwada, S

    1983-10-01

    We used the binaural beat stimulus to study the interaural phase sensitivity of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons in the cat. The binaural beat, produced by delivering tones of slightly different frequencies to the two ears, generates continuous and graded changes in interaural phase. Over 90% of the cells that exhibit a sensitivity to changes in the interaural delay also show a sensitivity to interaural phase disparities with the binaural beat. Cells respond with a burst of impulses with each complete cycle of the beat frequency. The period histogram obtained by binning the poststimulus time histogram on the beat frequency gives a measure of the interaural phase sensitivity of the cell. In general, there is good correspondence in the shapes of the period histograms generated from binaural beats and the interaural phase curves derived from interaural delays and in the mean interaural phase angle calculated from them. The magnitude of the beat frequency determines the rate of change of interaural phase and the sign determines the direction of phase change. While most cells respond in a phase-locked manner up to beat frequencies of 10 Hz, there are some cells tht will phase lock up to 80 Hz. Beat frequency and mean interaural phase angle are linearly related for most cells. Most cells respond equally in the two directions of phase change and with different rates of change, at least up to 10 Hz. However, some IC cells exhibit marked sensitivity to the speed of phase change, either responding more vigorously at low beat frequencies or at high beat frequencies. In addition, other cells demonstrate a clear directional sensitivity. The cells that show sensitivity to the direction and speed of phase changes would be expected to demonstrate a sensitivity to moving sound sources in the free field. Changes in the mean interaural phase of the binaural beat period histograms are used to determine the effects of changes in average and interaural intensity on the phase sensitivity

  15. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus in salicylate-induced tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jin-Cherng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the gene expressions for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and/or interleukin-1β (IL-1β during tinnitus have not been previously reported. We evaluated tinnitus and mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B genes in cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC of mice after intraperitoneal injections of salicylate. Methods Forty-eight 3-month-old male SAMP8 mice were randomly and equally divided into two groups: salicylate-treated and saline-treated. All mice were trained to perform an active avoidance task for 5 days. Once conditioned, an active avoidance task was performed 2 hours after daily intraperitoneal injections of saline, either alone or containing 300 mg/kg sodium salicylate. Total numbers of times (tinnitus score the mice climbed during the inter-trial silent period for 10 trials were recorded daily for 4 days (days 7 to 10, and then mice were euthanized for determination of mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NR2B genes in cochlea and IC at day 10. Results Tinnitus scores increased in response to daily salicylate treatments. The mRNA expression levels of TNF-α increased significantly for the salicylate-treated group compared to the control group in both cochlea (1.89 ± 0.22 vs. 0.87 ± 0.07, P p = 0.0040. mRNA expression levels for the IL-1β gene also increased significantly in the salicylate group compared to the control group in both cochlea (3.50 ± 1.05 vs. 2.80 ± 0.28, p versus 1.24 ± 0.52, p = 0.0013. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between tinnitus scores and expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NR2B genes in cochlea and IC. In addition, expression levels of the TNF-α gene were positively correlated with those of the NR2Bgene in both cochlea and IC; whereas, the expression levels of the IL-1β gene was positively correlated with that of the NR2B gene in IC, but not in cochlea. Conclusion We

  16. Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, A

    1984-11-01

    This is a report about 4 patients with aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery of arteriosclerotic, mycotic and probably congenital etiology together with a review of the literature as to the etiology, diagnostic possibilities and therapy. Arteriography is the method of choice even though a diagnosis may be possible by sonography or CT in special cases. Even though an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery is rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of persisting abdominal problems of unknown origin. This is especially true for patients with a predisposing history such as previous or existing endocarditis, sepsis, arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Because of the possibility of rupture followed by life threating bleeding an adequate diagnostic step such as arteriography has to be considered finally.

  17. Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebauer, A.

    1984-01-01

    This is a report about 4 patients with aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery of arteriosclerotic, mycotic and probably congenital etiology together with a review of the literature as to the etiology, diagnostic possibilities and therapy. Arteriography is the method of choice even though a diagnosis may be possible by sonography or CT in special cases. Even though an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery is rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of persisting abdominal problems of unknown origin. This is especially true for patients with a predisposing history such as previous or existing endocarditis, sepsis, arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Because of the possibility of rupture followed by life threating bleeding an adequate diagnostic step such as arteriography has to be considered finally. (orig.) [de

  18. Superior cold recycling : The score project

    OpenAIRE

    LESUEUR, D; POTTI, JJ; SOUTHWELL, C; WALTER, J; CRUZ, M; DELFOSSE, F; ECKMANN, B; FIEDLER, J; RACEK, I; SIMONSSON, B; PLACIN, F; SERRANO, J; RUIZ, A; KALAAJI, A; ATTANE, P

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop Environmentally Friendly Construction Technologies (EFCT) and as part of the 5th Framework Program of Research and Development, the European Community has decided to finance a research project on cold recycling, entitled SCORE "Superior COld REcycling based on benefits of bituminous microemulsions and foamed bitumen. A EFCT system for the rehabilitation and the maintenance of roads". This research project gathers organizations from all over Europe, from industrial partners...

  19. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  20. [Neuromolecular mechanism of the superiority illusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    The majority of individuals evaluate themselves as above average. This is a cognitive bias called "the superiority illusion". This illusory self-evaluation helps us to have hopes for the future, and has been central to the process of human evolution. Possessing this illusion is also important for mental health, as depressed people appear to have a more realistic perception of themselves, dubbed "depressive realism". Our recent study revealed the spontaneous brain activity and central dopaminergic neurotransmission that generate this illusion, using resting-state fMRI and PET. A functional connectivity between the frontal cortex and striatum, regulated by inhibitory dopaminergic neurotransmission, determines individual levels of the superiority illusion. We further revealed that blocking the dopamine transporter, which enhanced the level of dopamine, increased the degree of the superiority illusion. These findings suggest that dopamine acts on striatal dopamine receptors to suppress fronto-striatal functional connectivity, leading to disinhibited, heuristic, approaches to positive self-evaluation. These findings help us to understand how this key aspect of the human mind is biologically determined, and will suggest treatments for depressive symptoms by targeting specific molecules and neural circuits.

  1. Eutrophication monitoring for Lake Superior's Chequamegon ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A priority for the Lake Superior CSMI was to identify susceptible nearshore eutrophication areas. We developed an integrated sampling design to collect baseline data for Lake Superior’s Chequamegon Bay to understand how nearshore physical processes and tributary loading relate to observed chlorophyll concentrations. Sampling included ship-based water samples combined with vertical CTD casts, continuous in situ towing and data collected from an autonomous underwater glider. Sampling was conducted during June, July and September. The glider collected regional data as part of three extended missions in Lake Superior over the same periods. During the study, two significant storm events impacted the western end of Lake Superior; the first occurred during July 11-12, with 8-10 inches of rain in 24hrs, and the second on July 21 with winds in excess of 161 km/h. Using GIS software, we organized these diverse temporal data sets along a continuous time line with temporally coincident Modis Satellite data to visualize surface sediment plumes in relation to water quality measurements. Preliminary results suggest that both events impacted regional water quality, and that nearshore physical forces (upwelling and currents) influenced the spatial variability. Results comparing in situ measures with remotely sensed images will be discussed. not applicable

  2. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia involving the superior rectus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Hellman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present the first reported case of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in the right superior rectus causing diplopia. Observations: A 72-year-old man with a 6-month history of untreated asymptomatic Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia presented with 2 years of diagonal binocular diplopia that was previously thought to be due to ocular myasthenia gravis. Examination showed mild right proptosis and right hypotropia, and MRI revealed a focal lesion of the right superior rectus muscle. Orbital biopsy was performed, and histopathology showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration among the skeletal muscle fibers of the rectus muscle. Immunostaining confirmed a B-cell preponderance, along with more extensive staining for IgM than IgG, and in situ hybridization confirmed lambda restriction. These findings corresponded with those of his previous bone marrow biopsy, confirming Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia as the etiology for the extraocular muscle mass. Conclusions and Importance: Lymphoma of an extraocular muscle is a rare manifestation of orbital lymphoma, and the tumors are usually mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas (i.e. extranodal marginal zone lymphomas. There are 4 previous reports of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma of an extraocular muscle; however this is the first reported case of such a lesion in a patient with concurrent Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia at the time of diagnosis. Keywords: Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, Lymphoma, Superior rectus, Diplopia

  3. Burlington Northern Taconite Transshipment Facility, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Superior Wisconsin. Environmental Assessment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    the Federal Government declared the Duluth- Superior area to be economically depressed . The reason given was the "consistant and chronic unemployment...include dogwood, sumac, arrowwood, blueberry, highbush cranberry , elderberry, wild grape, buttonbrush, snowberry and partridgeberry. Aquatic and...water for the proposed greenbelt areas and as dust sup- pression spray. 10.003 The depressed economy of the Duluth-Superior area would benefit by the

  4. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rocha França Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Considering the patient's nutritional condition, the medical team opted for the conservative treatment. Four months after the surgery and conservative measures, the patient did not present vomiting after eating, maintaining previous weight. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is uncommon and can have unspecific symptoms. Thus, high suspicion is required for the appropriate clinical adjustment. A barium examination is required to make the diagnosis. The treatment can initially require gastric decompression and hydration, besides reversal of weight loss through adequate nutrition. Surgery should be adopted only in case of clinical treatment failure.A síndrome da artéria mesentérica superior é uma entidade clínica causada geralmente pela perda do tecido adiposo mesentérico, resultando na compressão da terceira porção do duodeno pela artéria mesentérica superior. Esse artigo relata o caso clínico de uma paciente portadora de adenocarcinoma de cólon sigmoide metastático irressecável, que evoluiu com vômitos incoercíveis. Realizou-se, então, trânsito intestinal que evidenciou dilatação gástrica importante, que se prolongava até a terceira porção duodenal, quadro radiológico compatível com pinçamento da artéria mesentérica superior. Diante da condição nutricional da paciente, foi optado por iniciar medidas conservadoras (porções alimentares pequenas e mais frequentes, além de dec

  5. Cortical Plasticity Induction by Pairing Subthalamic Nucleus Deep-Brain Stimulation and Primary Motor Cortical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Kaviraja; Bahl, Nina; Ni, Zhen; Gunraj, Carolyn; Mazzella, Filomena; Moro, Elena; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lozano, Andres M; Lang, Anthony E; Chen, Robert

    2016-01-13

    Noninvasive brain stimulation studies have shown abnormal motor cortical plasticity in Parkinson's disease (PD). These studies used peripheral nerve stimulation paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) at specific intervals to induce plasticity. Induction of cortical plasticity through stimulation of the basal ganglia (BG)-M1 connections has not been studied. In the present study, we used a novel technique of plasticity induction by repeated pairing of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the BG with M1 stimulation using TMS. We hypothesize that repeated pairing of subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS and M1-TMS at specific time intervals will lead to plasticity in the M1. Ten PD human patients with STN-DBS were studied in the on-medication state with DBS set to 3 Hz. The interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between STN-DBS and TMS that produced cortical facilitation were determined individually for each patient. Three plasticity induction conditions with repeated pairings (180 times) at specific ISIs (∼ 3 and ∼ 23 ms) that produced cortical facilitation and a control ISI of 167 ms were tested in random order. Repeated pairing of STN-DBS and M1-TMS at short (∼ 3 ms) and medium (∼ 23 ms) latencies increased M1 excitability that lasted for at least 45 min, whereas the control condition (fixed ISI of 167 ms) had no effect. There were no specific changes in motor thresholds, intracortical circuits, or recruitment curves. Our results indicate that paired-associative cortical plasticity can be induced by repeated STN and M1 stimulation at specific intervals. These results show that STN-DBS can modulate cortical plasticity. We introduced a new experimental paradigm to test the hypothesis that pairing subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation (STN-DBS) with motor cortical transcranial magnetic stimulation (M1-TMS) at specific times can induce cortical plasticity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We found that repeated pairing of STN

  6. Superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Jonathan C; Omid, Reza

    2012-12-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old male college student with a chief complaint of right shoulder pain. The patient was initially diagnosed with bicipital tendinitis by his physician and had been treated for 4 weeks by a physical therapist. However, his symptoms did not improve and he was unable to return to his preinjury activity levels, so he sought the services of another physical therapist for a second opinion. Due to concern for a labrum tear, the physical therapist referred the patient to an orthopaedic surgeon. Magnetic resonance arthrography revealed findings consistent with a superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

  7. Ultrasound Detection of Superior Vena Cava Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Birch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior vena cava (SVC syndrome is most commonly the insidious result of decreased vascular flow through the SVC due to malignancy, spontaneous thrombus, infections, and iatrogenic etiologies. Clinical suspicion usually leads to computed tomography to confirm the diagnosis. However, when a patient in respiratory distress requires emergent airway management, travel outside the emergency department is not ideal. With the growing implementation of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS, clinicians may make critical diagnoses rapidly and safely. We present a case of SVC syndrome due to extensive thrombosis of the deep venous system cephalad to the SVC diagnosed by POCUS. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:715-718

  8. Superior Venacava Thrombus-A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay Sah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior venacava (SVC thrombus is a condition requiring immediate diagnosis and treatment. SVC thrombus causes obstruction of blood flow through the SVC resulting in severe decrease in venous return from the head, neck and upper extremity to the heart. The presenting symptoms of SVC obstruction include headache, hoarseness of voice, dyspnea, and laryngeal edema, dizziness, swelling of face, neck, and upper extremity. We hereby present a case of SVC thrombus who presented to the casualty department of COMS-TH with features of SVC syndrome which was diagnosed and managed promptly.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:33-5.

  9. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  10. Acute Bilateral Superior Branch Vestibular Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Yacovino

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid onset of a bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH is often attributed to vestibular ototoxicity. However, without any prior exposure to ototoxins, the idiopathic form of BVH is most common. Although sequential bilateral vestibular neuritis (VN is described as a cause of BVH, clinical evidence for simultaneous and acute onset bilateral VN is unknown. We describe a patient with an acute onset of severe gait ataxia and oscillopsia with features compatible with acute BVH putatively due to a bilateral VN, which we serially evaluated with clinical and laboratory vestibular function testing over the course of 1 year. Initially, bilateral superior and horizontal semicircular canals and bilateral utricles were impaired, consistent with damage to both superior branches of each vestibular nerve. Hearing was spared. Only modest results were obtained following 6 months of vestibular rehabilitation. At a 1-year follow-up, only the utricular function of one side recovered. This case is the first evidence supporting an acute presentation of bilateral VN as a cause for BVH, which would not have been observed without critical assessment of each of the 10 vestibular end organs.

  11. Premissas para o Ensino Superior do Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Marques da Silveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a temática da Educação Superior e objetivo identificar premissas para o Ensino em Design no Brasil. Para tanto, efetua um estudo dos conteúdos das comunicações da área em periódicos e livros quanto ao assunto. O método de investigação utilizado foi a análise de conteúdo e observou as seguintes etapas de investigação: registro de dados, interpretação inferencial e categorização. Num primeiro momento, identifica a frequência do aparecimento de índices lexicais quanto ao relato de problemas no processo de Ensino-aprendizagem do Design e as proposições para o seu enfrentamento. Procede uma interpretação inferencial destes dados e, por fim, propõe como resultado, um conjunto de doze premissas que devem ser observadas quanto ao Ensino Superior em Design, a saber: 1 Incentivar o empreendedorismo; 2 Nivelar a Formação; 3 Desenvolver estrategistas; 4 Pensar a ética na atuação profissional; 5 Educar para o social; 6 Valorizar os ideias humanistas; 7 Repensar as estruturas acadêmicas; 8 Focar na aprendizagem baseada em problemas; 9 Aceitar os novos paradigmas; 10 Fomentar o pensamento crítico reflexivo; 11 Estimular a transdisciplinaridade; 12 Focar nas economias emergentes.

  12. Tratamento da síndrome da veia cava superior Treatment of superior vena cava syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Inaco Cirino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A veia cava superior é formada pela união das duas veias inominadas, direita e esquerda, e localiza-se no mediastino médio, à direita da artéria aorta e anteriormente à traquéia. A síndrome da veia cava superior representa um conjunto de sinais (dilatação das veias do pescoço, pletora facial, edema de membros superiores, cianose e sintomas (cefaléia, dispnéia, tosse, edema de membro superior, ortopnéia e disfagia decorrentes da obstrução do fluxo sanguíneo através da veia cava superior em direção ao átrio direito. A obstrução pode ser causada por compressão extrínseca, invasão tumoral, trombose ou por dificuldade do retorno venoso ao coração secundária a doenças intra-atriais ou intraluminais. Aproximadamente 73% a 97% dos casos de síndrome da veia cava superior ocorrem durante a evolução de processos malignos intratorácicos. A maioria dos pacientes com a síndrome secundária a neoplasias malignas é tratada sem necessidade de cirurgia, através de radioterapia ou quimioterapia, ou através da colocação de stents endoluminais. Quando a síndrome é de etiologia benigna, o tratamento é feito através de medidas clínicas (anticoagulação, elevação da cabeça, etc. ou, em casos refratários, através de angioplastia, colocação de stents endoluminais e cirurgia.The superior vena cava is formed by the union of the right and left brachiocephalic veins. It is located in the middle mediastinum, to the right of the aorta and anterior to the trachea. Superior vena cava syndrome consists of a group of signs (dilation of the veins in the neck, facial swelling, edema of the upper limbs, and cyanosis and symptoms (headache, dyspnea, cough, orthopnea and dysphagia caused by the obstruction of blood flow through the superior vena cava to the right atrium. This obstruction can be caused by extrinsic compression, tumor invasion or thrombosis. Such obstruction may also occur as a result of insufficient venous return

  13. Impulse control behaviours in patients with Parkinson's disease after subthalamic deep brain stimulation: de novo cases and 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amami, P; Dekker, I; Piacentini, S; Ferré, F; Romito, L M; Franzini, A; Foncke, E M J; Albanese, A

    2015-05-01

    To document the occurrence of impulse control behaviours (ICBs) in patients with Parkinson's disease after 3 years of continuous deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Detailed neurological and ICB assessments were performed before STN DBS and up to 3 years after implant. 13 out of 56 patients (23.2%) had ICBs at baseline; they took higher doses of dopamine agonists (DAA). Three years after implant 11 had fully remitted with a 60.8% reduction of DAA medication; the remaining two, who had a similar medication reduction, had only compulsive eating, having recovered from hypersexuality. Six of the 43 patients without ICBs at baseline (14%) developed transient de novo ICBs after implant; none of them had ICBs at the 3-year observation. ICBs were abolished in patients 3 years after STN DBS and DAA dosages were lowered. New ICBs may occur after implant and are transient in most cases. Compulsive eating may be specifically related to STN stimulation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The effect of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on executive functions: impaired verbal fluency and intact updating, planning and conflict resolution in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Gyula; Valálik, István; Pajkossy, Péter; Szőllősi, Ágnes; Lukács, Ágnes; Kemény, Ferenc; Racsmány, Mihály

    2017-04-24

    Although the improvement of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is well documented, there are open questions regarding its impact on cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bilateral DBS of the STN on executive functions in PD patients using a DBS wait-listed PD control group. Ten PD patients with DBS implantation (DBS group) and ten PD wait-listed patients (Clinical control group) participated in the study. Neuropsychological tasks were used to assess general mental ability and various executive functions. Each task was administered twice to each participant: before and after surgery (with the stimulators on) in the DBS group and with a matched delay between the two task administration points in the control group. There was no significant difference between the DBS and the control groups' performance in tasks measuring the updating of verbal, spatial or visual information (Digit span, Corsi and N-back tasks), planning and shifting (Trail Making B), and conflict resolution (Stroop task). However, the DBS group showed a significant decline on the semantic verbal fluency task after surgery compared to the control group, which is in line with findings of previous studies. Our results provide support for the relative cognitive safety of the STN DBS using a wait-listed PD control group. Differential effects of the STN DBS on frontostriatal networks are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Parkinsonian Subthalamic Network: Measures of Power, Linear, and Non-linear Synchronization and their Relationship to L-DOPA Treatment and OFF State Motor Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Timothy; Farmer, Simon; Berthouze, Luc; Jha, Ashwani; Beudel, Martijn; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter; Litvak, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the dopaminergic modulation of neuronal interactions occurring in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during Parkinson's disease (PD). We utilized linear measures of local and long range synchrony such as power and coherence, as well as Detrended Fluctuation Analysis for Phase Synchrony (DFA-PS)- a recently developed non-linear method that computes the extent of long tailed autocorrelations present in the phase interactions between two coupled signals. Through analysis of local field potentials (LFPs) taken from the STN we seek to determine changes in the neurodynamics that may underpin the pathophysiology of PD in a group of 12 patients who had undergone surgery for deep brain stimulation. We demonstrate up modulation of alpha-theta (5-12 Hz) band power in response to L-DOPA treatment, whilst low beta band power (15-20 Hz) band-power is suppressed. We also find evidence for significant local connectivity within the region surrounding STN although there was evidence for its modulation via administration of L-DOPA. Further to this we present evidence for a positive correlation between the phase ordering of bilateral STN interactions and the severity of bradykinetic and rigidity symptoms in PD. Although, the ability of non-linear measures to predict clinical state did not exceed standard measures such as beta power, these measures may help identify the connections which play a role in pathological dynamics.

  16. Neuropsychological and quality of life assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease submitted to bilateral deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Shenandoa Heluani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deep brain stimulation (DBS has been widely used to control motor symptoms and improve quality of life in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD. Recently, DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN has become the preferred target for patients with mixed motor symptoms. Despite resultant motor and quality of life improvements, the procedure has been associated with cognitive decline, mainly in language skills, and also with psychiatric symptoms. Objective: To evaluate the influence of DBS in the STN on cognition, mood and quality of life. Methods: We studied 20 patients with PD submitted to DBS in the STN from May 2008 to June 2012 with an extensive battery of cognitive tests including memory, language, praxis, executive functions and attention assessments; the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQ-39; and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD, were applied both before and after the surgery. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and results compared using the paired Student's t test. Results: A total of 20 patients with pre and post-operative assessments were included. A statistically significant improvement was found in total score and on subscales of mobility, activities of daily living and emotional well-being from the PDQ-39 (P=0.009, 0.025, 0.001 and 0.034, respectively. No significant difference was found on the cognitive battery or mood scale. Conclusion: DBS in the SNT improved quality of life in PD with no negative impact on cognitive skills and mood.

  17. Bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus has differential effects on reactive and proactive inhibition and conflict-induced slowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeso, Ignacio; Wilkinson, Leonora; Rodríguez-Oroz, Maria-Cruz; Obeso, Jose A; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2013-05-01

    It has been proposed that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) mediates response inhibition and conflict resolution through the fronto-basal ganglia pathways. Our aim was to compare the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN on reactive and proactive inhibition and conflict resolution in Parkinson's disease using a single task. We used the conditional Stop signal reaction time task that provides the Stop signal reaction time (SSRT) as a measure of reactive inhibition, the response delay effect (RDE) as a measure of proactive inhibition and conflict-induced slowing (CIS) as a measure of conflict resolution. DBS of the STN significantly prolonged SSRT relative to stimulation off. However, while the RDE measure of proactive inhibition was not significantly altered by DBS of the STN, relative to healthy controls, RDE was significantly lower with DBS off but not DBS on. DBS of the STN did not alter the mean CIS but produced a significant differential effect on the slowest and fastest RTs on conflict trials, further prolonging the slowest RTs on the conflict trials relative to DBS off and to controls. These results are the first demonstration, using a single task in the same patient sample, that DBS of the STN produces differential effects on reactive and proactive inhibition and on conflict resolution, suggesting that these effects are likely to be mediated through the impact of STN stimulation on different fronto-basal ganglia pathways: hyperdirect, direct and indirect.

  18. Technical Case Report of Deep Brain Stimulation: Is it Possible Single Electrode Reach to Both of Subthalamic Nucleus and Ventral Intermediate Nucleus in One Stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptan, Hülagu; Çakmur, Raif

    2018-04-15

    The primary target of this operation is Ventral Intermediate Nucleus (VIM); however VIM - Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) were tried to be reached with one electrode, adjusting the angle well, the coronal section; medial of VIM can partially reach the STN. Using the properties of the electrode; we believe we could act on a wide area. An analysis was performed on one patient who underwent VIM Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in 3 periods (pre - peri - post-operation). A 53 - year - old woman diagnosed with Parkinson's disease 8 years earlier including symptoms of severe tremor on the right than left underwent bilateral DBS VIM. Obtaining a satisfactory improvement of tremor, the patient did well, and postoperative complications were not observed. The patient was discharged from hospital on postoperative thirty day. It is certain that more research and experience are needed. However, we believe that the two targets can reach the same point and the second operations for another target can be avoided.We believe that this initiative is advantageous and promising regarding patient and cost.

  19. 18F-FDG PET imaging on the neuronal network of Parkinson's disease patients following deep brain stimulation of bilateral subthalamic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Chuantao; Huang Zhemin; Zhao Jun; Guan Yihui; Lin Xiangtong; Li Dianyou; Sun Bomin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence that the cause and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) may be attributed to subthalamic nucleus (STN) dysfunction and that external electrical stimulation of the STN may improve the underlying neuronal network. This study aimed at using 18 F-FDG PET to monitor the functional status of the neuronal network of advanced PD patients following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of bilateral STN. Methods: Five PD patients in advanced stage, rated according to unified PD rat- ing scale (UPDRS) motion score, underwent bilateral STN DBS implantation. Six months after the implantation, each patient was studied with 18 F-FDG PET scans under stimulation turned 'on' and 'off' conditions. Statistical parametric mapping 2 (SPM2) was applied for data analyses. Results: Bilateral STN DBS reduced glucose utilization in lentiform nucleus (globus pallidus), bilateral thalamus, cerebellum, as well as the distal parietal cortex. However, glucose utilization in midbrain and pons was increased. The PD-related pattern (PDRP) scores were significantly different during the 'on' status (2.12 ± 15.24) and 'off' status (4.93 ± 13.01), which corresponded to the clinical improvement of PD symptoms as PDRP scores decreased. Conclusion: 18 F-FDG PET may be useful in monitoring and mapping the metabolism of the neuronal network during bilateral STN DBS, thus supporting its therapeutic impact on PD patients. (authors)

  20. Air Power's First Among Equals: Why Air Superiority Still Matters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slawson, Andrew T

    2008-01-01

    .... History is replete with examples of successful or failed air superiority campaigns. This paper details air superiority's role in both the Battle of Britain, and the 1967 Six Day War's Operation MOKED...

  1. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Affecting 3 Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Katherine D; Kileny, Paul R; Ahmed, Sameer; El-Kashlan, Hussam K; Melendez, Tori L; Basura, Gregory J; Lesperance, Marci M

    2017-07-01

    Superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is an increasingly recognized cause of hearing loss and vestibular symptoms, but the etiology of this condition remains unknown. To describe 7 cases of SCDS across 3 families. This retrospective case series included 7 patients from 3 different families treated at a neurotology clinic at a tertiary academic medical center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were referred by other otolaryngologists or were self-referred. Each patient demonstrated unilateral or bilateral SCDS or near dehiscence. Clinical evaluation involved body mass index calculation, audiometry, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing, electrocochleography, and multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) scan of the temporal bones. Zygosity testing was performed on twin siblings. The diagnosis of SCDS was made if bone was absent over the superior semicircular canal on 2 consecutive CT images, in addition to 1 physiologic sign consistent with labyrinthine dehiscence. Near dehiscence was defined as absent bone on only 1 CT image but with symptoms and at least 1 physiologic sign of labyrinthine dehiscence. A total of 7 patients (5 female and 2 male; age range, 8-49 years) from 3 families underwent evaluation. Family A consisted of 3 adult first-degree relatives, of whom 2 were diagnosed with SCDS and 1 with near dehiscence. Family B included a mother and her child, both of whom were diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. Family C consisted of adult monozygotic twins, each of whom was diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. For all cases, dehiscence was located at the arcuate eminence. Obesity alone did not explain the occurrence of SCDS because 5 of the 7 cases had a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) less than 30.0. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome is a rare, often unrecognized condition. This report of 3 multiplex families with SCDS provides evidence in support of a potential genetic contribution to the etiology

  2. Radiotherapy of superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanami, Shoko; Imada, Hajime; Terashima, Hiromi; Nakata, Hajime

    1996-01-01

    The records of 38 patients with superior vena cava syndrome (SVC syndrome) due to malignancy and who received radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed. The majority were lung cancers, constituting 28 of the 38 cases (73.7%). All patients were treated with conventional radiation doses ranging from 20 to 70 Gy and good symptomatic response was observed in 31 cases (81.6% ). The response appeared within 1.7±0.9 weeks on average (3 days-4 weeks;, and performance status also improved in 50% of the patients. The median survival was 6.6 months. Long term survivors were seen mostly in patients with thymoma, and only one patient ever showed a recurrence of SVC syndrome. We conclude that radiotherapy can be an effective therapeutic modality for SVC syndrome and that it improves the quality of life in most patients. (author)

  3. CT findings of superior vena cava syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jun; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Since early 1980's high resolution CT has been used for detection of intrathoracic pathologic condition such as superior vena cava syndrome. Authors retrospectively analysed CT findings of 18 cases of proven SVC syndrome. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age was 50-year-old, and 14 cases were male. 2. Of 18 cases of SVC syndrome, 8 cases had confirmed to be lung cancers, malignant thymoma and teratoma were respectively each 2 cases, and malignant lymphoma, mediastinal abscess, thyroid adenoma and metastatic tumor were 1 case. 3. CT findings were A. Abnormal SVC consisted of compression with displacement (44.4%), intraluminal thrombus (27.8%), and encasement (27.8%). B. The collateral pathways were the azygos-homozygous (88.8%), vertebral (50%), internal mammary (44.4%), and lateral thoracic route (33.3%)

  4. CT findings of superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jun; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    Since early 1980's high resolution CT has been used for detection of intrathoracic pathologic condition such as superior vena cava syndrome. Authors retrospectively analysed CT findings of 18 cases of proven SVC syndrome. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age was 50-year-old, and 14 cases were male. 2. Of 18 cases of SVC syndrome, 8 cases had confirmed to be lung cancers, malignant thymoma and teratoma were respectively each 2 cases, and malignant lymphoma, mediastinal abscess, thyroid adenoma and metastatic tumor were 1 case. 3. CT findings were A. Abnormal SVC consisted of compression with displacement (44.4%), intraluminal thrombus (27.8%), and encasement (27.8%). B. The collateral pathways were the azygos-homozygous (88.8%), vertebral (50%), internal mammary (44.4%), and lateral thoracic route (33.3%).

  5. Have the Guests Perceived Superior Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levyda Levyda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe guests’ perceived value by using a multidimensional approach. From previous research, guests’ perceived value consisted of some functional value, emotional value, and social value. Based on guest experience, and functional value consisted of physical evidence, guest room, food and beverage, hotel staff, and price. This research was conducted in four-star hotels in Jakarta. The respondents were the guests who had stayed in four-star hotels. The number of the respondent was 405. The data were obtained by using self-administered questionnaires. This research shows that guests have not perceived superior value. Some of the values and the necessary efforts need to be improved.

  6. Superiority: China Mobile in the competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The market share between China Mobile and China Unicom has stabilized since 2002.It is found that China Mobile has the superiority in the competition, for example, the scissors movement between its revenue and cost indicates that it has a strong profit generating ability and there is enough room for it to reduce the price.The ratio between its price (marginal income) and marginal cost indicates that there is a very distant limit for it to reduce the price.Its demand is obviously flexible with the price, but it does not use the price weapon abundantly.The reason for the stabilization of the market is that China Mobile withdrew from the competition.

  7. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome or Wilkie Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano Llano, Rodrigo; Chams Anturi, Abraham; Arango Vargas, Paula

    2009-01-01

    We described three cases of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie's syndrome, chronic duodenal ileus, or cast syndrome. This syndrome occurs when the third portion of the duodenum is compressed between the SMA and the aorta. The major risk factors for development of SMA syndrome are rapid weight loss and surgical correction of spinal deformities. The clinical presentation of SMA syndrome is variable and nonspecific, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and weight loss. The diagnosis is based on endoscopic, radiographic and tomographic findings of duodenal compression by the SMA. The treatment of SMA syndrome is aimed at the precipitating factor, which usually is related to weight loss. Therefore, conservative therapy with nutritional supplementation is the initial approach, and surgery is reserved for those who do not respond to nutritional therapy.

  8. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold for perc...... simultaneously we find a different pattern: In a whole report experiment with six stimuli (letters or words), letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity....... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...

  9. Superior vena thrombosis with peripartum dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, R.; Hussain, S.; Kayani, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A 30 years multiparous female with history of emergency caesarean section 10 days back was referred to us with cough, severe breathlessness at rest, orthopnea with pain in neck and arms. Clinical examination revealed signs of heart failure. Echocardiography showed ejection fraction of 15%, with no right ventricular strain. A diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy was made. Doppler ultrasound of neck veins showed bilateral internal jugular vein thrombosis. Subsequent multislice CT examination showed thrombosis of superior vena cava and both internal jugular veins (with collateral formation) and pulmonary embolism. There were no mediastinal abnormalities on the CT scan. Her thrombophilia screen and CT scan brain was normal. She was managed in collaboration with cardiologist. Following treatment with subcutaneous enoxaparin therapy and warfarin her symptoms of upper limb pain improved. She responded very well to medical therapy for heart failure with marked improvement of NYHA functional class. (author)

  10. Superior vena cava syndrome in hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeb Molhem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstruction of blood flow in the superior vena cava (SVC results in symptoms and signs of SVC syndrome. SVC obstruction can be caused either by invasion or external compression of the SVC by contagious pathologic processes involving the right lung, lymph nodes, and other mediastinal structures, or by thrombosis of blood within the SVC. Occasionally, both mechanisms co-exist. We hereby report a case of a 28-year-old male, Saudi patient who was diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and was maintained on regular hemodiaysis via right jugular vein dual lumen catheter for ten months. Three years later, the patient presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of SVC obstruction that was successfully managed with SVC stenting.

  11. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  12. Superiority of Bessel function over Zernicke polynomial as base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Here we describe the superiority of Bessel function as base function for radial expan- sion over Zernicke polynomial in the tomographic reconstruction technique. The causes for the superiority have been described in detail. The superiority has been shown both with simulated data for Kadomtsev's model for ...

  13. Superior glenoid inclination and rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Peter N; Beck, Lindsay; Granger, Erin; Henninger, Heath; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2018-03-23

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether glenoid inclination (1) could be measured accurately on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using computed tomography (CT) as a gold standard, (2) could be measured reliably on MRI, and (3) whether it differed between patients with rotator cuff tears and age-matched controls without evidence of rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In this comparative retrospective radiographic study, we measured glenoid inclination on T1 coronal MRI corrected into the plane of the scapula. We determined accuracy by comparison with CT and inter-rater reliability. We compared glenoid inclination between patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears and patients aged >50 years without evidence of a rotator cuff tear or glenohumeral arthritis. An a priori power analysis determined adequate power to detect a 2° difference in glenoid inclination. (1) In a validation cohort of 37 patients with MRI and CT, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.877, with a mean difference of 0° (95% confidence interval, -1° to 1°). (2) For MRI inclination, the inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.911. (3) Superior glenoid inclination was 2° higher (range, 1°-4°, P rotator cuff tear group of 192 patients than in the control cohort of 107 patients. Glenoid inclination can be accurately and reliably measured on MRI. Although superior glenoid inclination is statistically greater in those with rotator cuff tears than in patients of similar age without rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral arthritis, the difference is likely below clinical significance. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Kompetisi Stasiun Televisi Swasta Nasional Berdasarkan Superiority Direction dan Superiority Magnitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Winanti Riesardhy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Uses and gratification theory is employed particularly as the teoritical frame of the research to examine the extent to which ten national television stations compete to satisfy Indonesian audiences. In particular, two main concepts of that theory namely audiences “gratification sought and gratifications obtained, are broken down and counted based on superiority direction and superiority magnitude. In general, the findings show that those televisions have satisfied their audiences, although in terms of gratifications to dispersal motives, they haven’t satisfied as much as it was expected. Significant competition occurs between TRANSTV and TRANS7, RCTI and SCTV, and TVONE and METROTV. TVONE become the most satisfiyng television station. Abstrak: Teori Uses & Gratification menjadi dasar penelitian ini untuk mengukur bagaimana kompetisi yang terjadi di antara sepuluh stasiun televisi yang bersiaran secara nasional di Indonesia. Aplikasi dari teori tersebut dimunculkan dalam konsep kepuasan yang diharapkan dan kepuasan yang diperoleh ketika menonton acara televisi dan didasarkan pada penghitungan superiority direction dan superiority magnitude. Sepuluh stasiun televisi yang diteliti telah dapat memuaskan audiensnya, meskipun untuk kepuasan atas motif pengalihan masih belum dapat melampaui kepuasan yang diharapkan. Kompetisi yang signifikan terjadi antara TRANSTV dengan TRANS7, RCTI dengan SCTV serta TVONE dengan METROTV. TVONE menjadi stasiun televisi yang menduduki peringkat pertama dalam memberikan kepuasan tertinggi kepada audiens.

  15. Subcortical and cortical correlates of pitch discrimination: Evidence for two levels of neuroplasticity in musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Hjortkjær, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    superior temporal gyrus, Heschl's gyrus, insular cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and in the inferior colliculus. Both subcortical and cortical neural responses predicted the individual pitch-discrimination performance. However, functional activity in the inferior colliculus correlated with differences...

  16. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). Interventional case series. In this clinical practice case series, the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on SLK were observed. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was performed using a Brymill E tip spray (0.013-inch aperture) with a double freeze-thaw technique. All subjects were outpatients who had local anesthesia with a single drop of topical proparacaine. The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Four female patients (average age, 64 +/- 13 years) and seven eyes with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Resolution of signs and symptoms occurred within two weeks. Disease recurred in two patients and three of seven eyes, although repeat cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. The repeat cryotherapy was performed at three months postoperatively. There were no adverse ocular events. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy appears to be an effective alternative treatment for SLK as all subjects studied achieved long-term cures. Repeat cryotherapy may be necessary in some instances and may be performed three months after the first treatment.

  17. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  18. Multiple-source current steering in subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease (the VANTAGE study): a non-randomised, prospective, multicentre, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Lars; Jain, Roshini; Chen, Lilly; Maarouf, Mohamed; Barbe, Michael T; Allert, Niels; Brücke, Thomas; Kaiser, Iris; Beirer, Sebastian; Sejio, Fernando; Suarez, Esther; Lozano, Beatriz; Haegelen, Claire; Vérin, Marc; Porta, Mauro; Servello, Domenico; Gill, Steven; Whone, Alan; Van Dyck, Nic; Alesch, Francois

    2015-07-01

    High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) with a single electrical source is effective for motor symptom relief in patients with Parkinson's disease. We postulated that a multiple-source, constant-current device that permits well defined distribution of current would lead to motor improvement in patients with Parkinson's disease. We did a prospective, multicentre, non-randomised, open-label intervention study of an implantable DBS device (the VANTAGE study) at six specialist DBS centres at universities in six European countries. Patients were judged eligible if they were aged 21-75 years, had been diagnosed with bilateral idiopathic Parkinson's disease with motor symptoms for more than 5 years, had a Hoehn and Yahr score of 2 or greater, and had a Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale part III (UPDRS III) score in the medication-off state of more than 30, which improved by 33% or more after a levodopa challenge. Participants underwent bilateral implantation in the subthalamic nucleus of a multiple-source, constant-current, eight-contact, rechargeable DBS system, and were assessed 12, 26, and 52 weeks after implantation. The primary endpoint was the mean change in UPDRS III scores (assessed by site investigators who were aware of the treatment assignment) from baseline (medication-off state) to 26 weeks after first lead implantation (stimulation-on, medication-off state). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01221948. Of 53 patients enrolled in the study, 40 received a bilateral implant in the subthalamic nucleus and their data contributed to the primary endpoint analysis. Improvement was noted in the UPDRS III motor score 6 months after first lead implantation (mean 13·5 [SD 6·8], 95% CI 11·3-15·7) compared with baseline (37·4 [8·9], 34·5-40·2), with a mean difference of 23·8 (SD 10·6; 95% CI 20·3-27·3; p<0·0001). One patient died of pneumonia 24 weeks after implantation, which was judged to be unrelated to the procedure

  19. An examination of the effects of subthalamic nucleus inhibition or μ-opioid receptor stimulation on food-directed motivation in the non-deprived rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Wayne E.; Choi, Eugene; Guy, Elizabeth G.

    2012-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) serves important functions in regulating movement, cognition, and motivation and is connected with cortical and basal ganglia circuits that process reward and reinforcement. In order to further examine the role of the STN on motivation toward food in non-deprived rats, these experiments studied the effects of pharmacological inhibition or μ-opioid receptor stimulation of the STN on the 2-hr intake of a sweetened fat diet, the amount of work exerted to earn sucrose on a progressive ratio 2 (PR-2) schedule of reinforcement, and performance on a differential reinforcement of low-rate responding (DRL) schedule for sucrose reward. Separate behavioral groups (N = 6–9) were tested following bilateral inhibition of the STN with the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (at 0–5 ng/0.5 μl/side) or following μ-opioid receptor stimulation with the agonist D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO; at 0, 0.025 or 0.25 μg/0.5 μl/side). Although STN inhibition increased ambulatory behavior during 2-hr feeding sessions, it did not significantly alter intake of the sweetened fat diet. STN inhibition also did not affect the breakpoint for sucrose pellets during a 1-hr PR-2 reinforcement schedule or impact the number of reinforcers earned on a 1-hr DRL-20 sec reinforcement schedule in non-deprived rats. In contrast, STN μ-opioid receptor stimulation significantly increased feeding on the palatable diet and reduced the reinforcers earned on a DRL-20 schedule, although DAMGO microinfusions had no effect on PR-2 performance. These data suggest that STN inhibition does not enhance incentive motivation for food in the absence of food restriction and that STN μ-opioid receptors play an important and unique role in motivational processes. PMID:22391117

  20. Cognition and Depression Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Globus Pallidus Pars Internus in Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Hannah L; Folley, Bradley S; Berry, David T R; Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Han, Dong Y; Anderson-Mooney, Amelia J; Walls, Brittany D; van Horne, Craig

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Individuals experience predominantly extrapyramidal symptoms including resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait abnormalities, cognitive impairment, depression, and neurobehavioral concerns. Cognitive impairments associated with PD are diverse, including difficulty with attention, processing speed, executive functioning, memory recall, visuospatial functions, word-retrieval, and naming. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus internus (GPi) is FDA approved and has been shown to be effective in reducing motor symptoms of PD. Studies have found that stimulating STN and GPi are equally effective at improving motor symptoms and dyskinesias; however, there has been discrepancy as to whether the cognitive, behavioral, and mood symptoms are affected differently between the two targets. The present study used random-effects meta-analytic models along with a novel p-curve analytic procedure to compare the potential cognitive and emotional impairments associated with STN-DBS in the current literature to those associated with GPi-DBS. Forty-one articles were reviewed with an aggregated sample size of 1622 patients. Following STN-DBS, small declines were found in psychomotor speed, memory, attention, executive functions, and overall cognition; and moderate declines were found in both semantic and phonemic fluency. However, GPi-DBS resulted in fewer neurocognitive declines than STN-DBS (small declines in attention and small-moderate declines in verbal fluency). With regards to its effect on depression symptomatology, both GPi-DBS and STN-DBS resulted in lower levels of depressive symptoms post-surgery. From a neurocognitive standpoint, both GPi-DBS and STN-DBS produce subtle cognitive declines but appears to be relatively well tolerated.

  1. Lesions to the subthalamic nucleus decrease impulsive choice but impair autoshaping in rats: the importance of the basal ganglia in Pavlovian conditioning and impulse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Catharine A; Baunez, Christelle; Theobald, David E H; Robbins, Trevor W

    2005-06-01

    Although the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is involved in regulating motor function, and inactivation of this structure relieves the motor symptoms in Parkinsonian patients, recent data indicate that corticosubthalamic connections are involved in both the regulation of attention and the ability to withhold from responding. Considerable evidence suggests that the neural circuitry underlying such behavioural disinhibition or impulsive action can be at least partially dissociated from that implicated in impulsive decision-making and it has been suggested that the tendency to choose impulsively is related to the ability to form and use Pavlovian associations. To explore these hypotheses further, STN-lesioned rats were tested on the delay-discounting model of impulsive choice, where impulsivity is defined as the selection of a small immediate over a larger delayed reward, as well as in a rodent autoshaping paradigm. In contrast to previous reports of increased impulsive action, STN lesions decreased impulsive choice but dramatically impaired the acquisition of the autoshaping response. When the STN was lesioned after the establishment of autoshaping behaviour, lesioned subjects were more sensitive to the omission of reward, indicative of a reduction in the use of Pavlovian associations to control autoshaping performance. These results emphasize the importance of the STN in permitting conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus associations to regulate goal-seeking, a function which may relate to the alterations in impulsive choice observed in the delay-discounting task. These data bear a striking similarity to those observed after lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex and are suggestive of an important role for corticosubthalamic connections in complex cognitive behaviour.

  2. Interleaving subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation to avoid side effects while achieving satisfactory motor benefits in Parkinson disease: A report of 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhen; Zhou, Peizhi; Jiang, Shu; Wang, Wei; Li, Peng

    2016-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD). However, achieving ideal outcomes by conventional programming can be difficult in some patients, resulting in suboptimal control of PD symptoms and stimulation-induced adverse effects. Interleaving stimulation (ILS) is a newer programming technique that can individually optimize the stimulation area, thereby improving control of PD symptoms while alleviating stimulation-induced side effects after conventional programming fails to achieve the desired results. We retrospectively reviewed PD patients who received DBS programming during the previous 4 years in our hospital. We collected clinical and demographic data from 12 patients who received ILS because of incomplete alleviation of PD symptoms or stimulation-induced adverse effects after conventional programming had proven ineffective or intolerable. Appropriate lead location was confirmed with postoperative reconstruction images. The rationale and clinical efficacy of ILS was analyzed. We divided our patients into 4 groups based on the following symptoms: stimulation-induced dysarthria and choreoathetoid dyskinesias, gait disturbance, and incomplete control of parkinsonism. After treatment with ILS, patients showed satisfactory improvement in PD symptoms and alleviation of stimulation-induced side effects, with a mean improvement in Unified PD Rating Scale motor scores of 26.9%. ILS is a newer choice and effective programming strategy to maximize symptom control in PD while decreasing stimulation-induced adverse effects when conventional programming fails to achieve satisfactory outcome. However, we should keep in mind that most DBS patients are routinely treated with conventional stimulation and that not all patients benefit from ILS. ILS is not recommended as the first choice of programming, and it is recommended only when patients have unsatisfactory control of PD symptoms or stimulation

  3. Raclopride or high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus stops cocaine-induced motor stereotypy and restores related alterations in prefrontal basal ganglia circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliane, Verena; Pérez, Sylvie; Deniau, Jean-Michel; Kemel, Marie-Louise

    2012-11-01

    Motor stereotypy is a key symptom of various neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroleptics or the promising treatment using deep brain stimulation stops stereotypies but the mechanisms underlying their actions are unclear. In rat, motor stereotypies are linked to an imbalance between prefrontal and sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia circuits. Indeed, cortico-nigral transmission was reduced in the prefrontal but not sensorimotor basal ganglia circuits and dopamine and acetylcholine release was altered in the prefrontal but not sensorimotor territory of the dorsal striatum. Furthermore, cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal territory of the dorsal striatum plays a crucial role in the arrest of motor stereotypy. Here we found that, as previously observed for raclopride, high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (HFS STN) rapidly stopped cocaine-induced motor stereotypies in rat. Importantly, raclopride and HFS STN exerted a strong effect on cocaine-induced alterations in prefrontal basal ganglia circuits. Raclopride restored the cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal territory of the dorsal striatum and the cortico-nigral information transmissions in the prefrontal basal ganglia circuits. HFS STN also restored the N-methyl-d-aspartic-acid-evoked release of acetylcholine and dopamine in the prefrontal territory of the dorsal striatum. However, in contrast to raclopride, HFS STN did not restore the cortico-substantia nigra pars reticulata transmissions but exerted strong inhibitory and excitatory effects on neuronal activity in the prefrontal subdivision of the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Thus, both raclopride and HFS STN stop cocaine-induced motor stereotypy, but exert different effects on the related alterations in the prefrontal basal ganglia circuits. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modifies the expression of vesicular glutamate transporters in basal ganglia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Mathieu; Carcenac, Carole; Drui, Guillaume; Boulet, Sabrina; El Mestikawy, Salah; Savasta, Marc

    2013-12-05

    It has been suggested that glutamatergic system hyperactivity may be related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) import glutamate into synaptic vesicles and are key anatomical and functional markers of glutamatergic excitatory transmission. Both VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 have been identified as definitive markers of glutamatergic neurons, but VGLUT 3 is also expressed by non glutamatergic neurons. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are thought to be expressed in a complementary manner in the cortex and the thalamus (VL/VM), in glutamatergic neurons involved in different physiological functions. Chronic high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the neurosurgical therapy of choice for the management of motor deficits in patients with advanced PD. STN-HFS is highly effective, but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. This study examines the effect of STN-HFS on VGLUT1-3 expression in different brain nuclei involved in motor circuits, namely the basal ganglia (BG) network, in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats. Here we report that: 1) Dopamine(DA)-depletion did not affect VGLUT1 and VGLUT3 expression but significantly decreased that of VGLUT2 in almost all BG structures studied; 2) STN-HFS did not change VGLUT1-3 expression in the different brain areas of normal rats while, on the contrary, it systematically induced a significant increase of their expression in DA-depleted rats and 3) STN-HFS reversed the decrease in VGLUT2 expression induced by the DA-depletion. These results show for the first time a comparative analysis of changes of expression for the three VGLUTs induced by STN-HFS in the BG network of normal and hemiparkinsonian rats. They provide evidence for the involvement of VGLUT2 in the modulation of BG cicuits and in particular that of thalamostriatal and thalamocortical pathways suggesting their key role in its therapeutic effects for alleviating PD motor symptoms.

  5. Betting on DBS: Effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on risk taking and decision making in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Rogerson, Mark; Al-Joudi, Haya; Reckess, Gila; Shpritz, Barnett; Umeh, Chizoba C; Aljehani, Noha; Mills, Kelly; Mari, Zoltan

    2015-07-01

    Concerns persist that deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) increases impulsivity or induces excessive reward seeking. We report here the performance of PD patients with implanted subthalamic nucleus electrodes, with stimulation on and off, on 3 laboratory tasks of risk taking and decision making. They are compared with PD patients maintained on medication and healthy participants. In the Game of Dice Task, a test of "risky" decision making, PD patients with or without DBS made highest risk bets more often and ended up with less money than did healthy participants. There was a trend for DBS stimulation to ameliorate this effect. Deal or No-Deal is an "ambiguous" decision-making task that assessed preference for risk (holding on to one's briefcase) over a "sure thing" (accepting the banker's offer). Here, DBS patients were more conservative with stimulation on than with it off. They accepted smaller offers from the banker and won less money in the DBS-on condition. Overall, the 2 PD groups won less money than did healthy participants. The Framing Paradigm assessed willingness to gamble on a fixed (unambiguous) prize depending on whether the reward was "framed" as a loss or a gain. Nonsurgical PD patients tended to be more risk-averse than were healthy participants, whereas DBS patients were more willing to gamble for gains as well as losses both on and off stimulation. On risky decision-making tasks, DBS patients took more risks than did healthy participants, but stimulation may temper this tendency. In contrast, in an ambiguous-risk situation, DBS patients were more risk-averse (conservative) than were healthy participants, and this tendency was greatest with stimulation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Predictive timing functions of cortical beta oscillations are impaired in Parkinson's disease and influenced by L-DOPA and deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gulberti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortex-basal ganglia circuits participate in motor timing and temporal perception, and are important for the dynamic configuration of sensorimotor networks in response to exogenous demands. In Parkinson's disease (PD patients, rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS induces motor performance benefits. Hitherto, little is known concerning contributions of the basal ganglia to sensory facilitation and cortical responses to RAS in PD. Therefore, we conducted an EEG study in 12 PD patients before and after surgery for subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS and in 12 age-matched controls. Here we investigated the effects of levodopa and STN-DBS on resting-state EEG and on the cortical-response profile to slow and fast RAS in a passive-listening paradigm focusing on beta-band oscillations, which are important for auditory–motor coupling. The beta-modulation profile to RAS in healthy participants was characterized by local peaks preceding and following auditory stimuli. In PD patients RAS failed to induce pre-stimulus beta increases. The absence of pre-stimulus beta-band modulation may contribute to impaired rhythm perception in PD. Moreover, post-stimulus beta-band responses were highly abnormal during fast RAS in PD patients. Treatment with levodopa and STN-DBS reinstated a post-stimulus beta-modulation profile similar to controls, while STN-DBS reduced beta-band power in the resting-state. The treatment-sensitivity of beta oscillations suggests that STN-DBS may specifically improve timekeeping functions of cortical beta oscillations during fast auditory pacing.

  7. Motor and Nonmotor Circuitry Activation Induced by Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With Parkinson Disease: Intraoperative Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Emily J; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Favazza, Christopher P; Felmlee, Joel P; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M; Clayton, Daniel A; Klassen, Bryan T; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson disease would affect the activity of motor and nonmotor networks, we applied intraoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to patients receiving DBS. Ten patients receiving STN DBS for Parkinson disease underwent intraoperative 1.5-T fMRI during high-frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between January 1, 2013, and September 30, 2014. We observed blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes (false discovery rate <0.001) in the motor circuitry (including the primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices; thalamus; pedunculopontine nucleus; and cerebellum) and in the limbic circuitry (including the cingulate and insular cortices). Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (P<.001) to the data set, suggesting that across patients, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared with those occurring in the nonmotor network. These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and nonmotor networks and suggest complex mechanisms as the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that across patients, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent than those in the nonmotor network. With further studies combining the use of real-time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01809613. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Motor and non-motor circuitry activation induced by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson’s disease patients: Intraoperative fMRI for DBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Emily J.; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S.; Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Favazza, Christopher P.; Felmlee, Joel P.; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M.; Clayton, Daniel A.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with PD would affect the activity of both motor and non-motor networks, we applied intraoperative fMRI to patients receiving DBS. Patients and Methods Ten patients receiving STN DBS for PD underwent intraoperative 1.5T fMRI during high frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between the dates of January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. Results We observed blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes (FDR<.001) in the motor circuitry, including primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, thalamus, pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), and cerebellum, as well as in the limbic circuitry, including cingulate and insular cortices. Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (p<.001) to our dataset, suggesting that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. Conclusions These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and non-motor networks, and suggest complex mechanisms at the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. With further studies combining the use of real time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning, but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26046412

  9. Predictive timing functions of cortical beta oscillations are impaired in Parkinson's disease and influenced by L-DOPA and deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulberti, A; Moll, C K E; Hamel, W; Buhmann, C; Koeppen, J A; Boelmans, K; Zittel, S; Gerloff, C; Westphal, M; Schneider, T R; Engel, A K

    2015-01-01

    Cortex-basal ganglia circuits participate in motor timing and temporal perception, and are important for the dynamic configuration of sensorimotor networks in response to exogenous demands. In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) induces motor performance benefits. Hitherto, little is known concerning contributions of the basal ganglia to sensory facilitation and cortical responses to RAS in PD. Therefore, we conducted an EEG study in 12 PD patients before and after surgery for subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) and in 12 age-matched controls. Here we investigated the effects of levodopa and STN-DBS on resting-state EEG and on the cortical-response profile to slow and fast RAS in a passive-listening paradigm focusing on beta-band oscillations, which are important for auditory-motor coupling. The beta-modulation profile to RAS in healthy participants was characterized by local peaks preceding and following auditory stimuli. In PD patients RAS failed to induce pre-stimulus beta increases. The absence of pre-stimulus beta-band modulation may contribute to impaired rhythm perception in PD. Moreover, post-stimulus beta-band responses were highly abnormal during fast RAS in PD patients. Treatment with levodopa and STN-DBS reinstated a post-stimulus beta-modulation profile similar to controls, while STN-DBS reduced beta-band power in the resting-state. The treatment-sensitivity of beta oscillations suggests that STN-DBS may specifically improve timekeeping functions of cortical beta oscillations during fast auditory pacing.

  10. Load-Dependent Interference of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus with Switching from Automatic to Controlled Processing During Random Number Generation in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Isobel Anne; Wilkinson, Leonora; Limousin, Patricia; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) ameliorates the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, some aspects of executive control are impaired with STN DBS. We tested the prediction that (i) STN DBS interferes with switching from automatic to controlled processing during fast-paced random number generation (RNG) (ii) STN DBS-induced cognitive control changes are load-dependent. Fifteen PD patients with bilateral STN DBS performed paced-RNG, under three levels of cognitive load synchronised with a pacing stimulus presented at 1, 0.5 and 0.33 Hz (faster rates require greater cognitive control), with DBS on or off. Measures of output randomness were calculated. Countscore 1 (CS1) indicates habitual counting in steps of one (CS1). Countscore 2 (CS2) indicates a more controlled strategy of counting in twos. The fastest rate was associated with an increased CS1 score with STN DBS on compared to off. At the slowest rate, patients had higher CS2 scores with DBS off than on, such that the differences between CS1 and CS2 scores disappeared. We provide evidence for a load-dependent effect of STN DBS on paced RNG in PD. Patients could switch to more controlled RNG strategies during conditions of low cognitive load at slower rates only when the STN stimulators were off, but when STN stimulation was on, they engaged in more automatic habitual counting under increased cognitive load. These findings are consistent with the proposal that the STN implements a switch signal from the medial frontal cortex which enables a shift from automatic to controlled processing.

  11. The network of causal interactions for beta oscillations in the pedunculopontine nucleus, primary motor cortex, and subthalamic nucleus of walking parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhou, Ming; Wen, Peng; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Yong; Xiao, Hu; Xie, Zhengyuan; Li, Xing; Wang, Ning; Wang, Jinyan; Luo, Fei; Chang, Jingyu; Zhang, Wangming

    2016-08-01

    Oscillatory activity has been well-studied in many structures within cortico-basal ganglia circuits, but it is not well understood within the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), which was recently introduced as a potential target for the treatment of gait and postural impairments in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). To investigate oscillatory activity in the PPN and its relationship with oscillatory activity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials in the PPN, primary motor cortex (M1), and subthalamic nucleus (STN) of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonian rats during resting and walking. After analysis of power spectral density, coherence, and partial Granger causality, three major findings emerged: 1) after 6-OHDA lesions, beta band oscillations were enhanced in all three regions during walking; 2) the direction of information flow for beta oscillations among the three structures was STN→M1, STN→PPN, and PPN→M1; 3) after the treatment of levodopa, beta activity in the three regions was reduced significantly and the flow of beta band was also abrogated. Our results suggest that beta activity in the PPN is transmitted from the basal ganglia and probably comes from the STN, and the STN plays a dominant role in the network of causal interactions for beta activity. Thus, the STN may be a potential source of aberrant beta band oscillations in PD. Levodopa can inhibit beta activity in the PPN of parkinsonian rats but cannot relieve parkinsonian patients' axial symptoms clinically. Therefore, beta oscillations may not be the major cause of axial symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  13. Physiological models of the lateral superior olive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Ashida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In computational biology, modeling is a fundamental tool for formulating, analyzing and predicting complex phenomena. Most neuron models, however, are designed to reproduce certain small sets of empirical data. Hence their outcome is usually not compatible or comparable with other models or datasets, making it unclear how widely applicable such models are. In this study, we investigate these aspects of modeling, namely credibility and generalizability, with a specific focus on auditory neurons involved in the localization of sound sources. The primary cues for binaural sound localization are comprised of interaural time and level differences (ITD/ILD, which are the timing and intensity differences of the sound waves arriving at the two ears. The lateral superior olive (LSO in the auditory brainstem is one of the locations where such acoustic information is first computed. An LSO neuron receives temporally structured excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs that are driven by ipsi- and contralateral sound stimuli, respectively, and changes its spike rate according to binaural acoustic differences. Here we examine seven contemporary models of LSO neurons with different levels of biophysical complexity, from predominantly functional ones ('shot-noise' models to those with more detailed physiological components (variations of integrate-and-fire and Hodgkin-Huxley-type. These models, calibrated to reproduce known monaural and binaural characteristics of LSO, generate largely similar results to each other in simulating ITD and ILD coding. Our comparisons of physiological detail, computational efficiency, predictive performances, and further expandability of the models demonstrate (1 that the simplistic, functional LSO models are suitable for applications where low computational costs and mathematical transparency are needed, (2 that more complex models with detailed membrane potential dynamics are necessary for simulation studies where sub

  14. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...... no postnatal complications. All children were found to have healthy hearts at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In all cases, the findings proved to be a benign condition with no clinical manifestations or complications. Although isolated absent right superior caval vein does not seem to affect the outcome, associated...

  15. The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, G.

    1982-01-01

    The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins is described. The veins are more frequently seen on the right side. The right superior intercostal vein should not be misinterpreted as a paraspinal mass when it is large or bulges into the contour of the right lung. A case of stenosis of the left brachiocephalic vein is shown, where the left superior intercostal vein serves as a collateral. (orig.)

  16. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: An Infrequent Complication of Scoliosis Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Keskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare condition that causes a proximal small intestinal obstruction due to contraction of the angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta. Scoliosis surgery is one of the 15 reasons for superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which can present with acute or chronic manifestations. Although conservative treatment is usually possible, surgical treatment is required in certain cases that cannot be treated using conservative methods. In this paper, we describe a patient who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome after scoliosis surgery and was treated with duodenojejunostomy due to failure and complications of conservative treatment.

  17. Information Superiority: Outsourcing an Air Force Core Competency?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McTerman, Hugh

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis explores the perceived relationship between the core competency requirements for information superiority and the tasks defined for the Air Force communication, computer, and information career field...

  18. Functional Mapping of the Human Auditory Cortex: fMRI Investigation of a Patient with Auditory Agnosia from Trauma to the Inferior Colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliva, Oren; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Hall, Michelle; Bultitude, Janet H; Koller, Kristin; Rafal, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    To use functional magnetic resonance imaging to map the auditory cortical fields that are activated, or nonreactive, to sounds in patient M.L., who has auditory agnosia caused by trauma to the inferior colliculi. The patient cannot recognize speech or environmental sounds. Her discrimination is greatly facilitated by context and visibility of the speaker's facial movements, and under forced-choice testing. Her auditory temporal resolution is severely compromised. Her discrimination is more impaired for words differing in voice onset time than place of articulation. Words presented to her right ear are extinguished with dichotic presentation; auditory stimuli in the right hemifield are mislocalized to the left. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine cortical activations to different categories of meaningful sounds embedded in a block design. Sounds activated the caudal sub-area of M.L.'s primary auditory cortex (hA1) bilaterally and her right posterior superior temporal gyrus (auditory dorsal stream), but not the rostral sub-area (hR) of her primary auditory cortex or the anterior superior temporal gyrus in either hemisphere (auditory ventral stream). Auditory agnosia reflects dysfunction of the auditory ventral stream. The ventral and dorsal auditory streams are already segregated as early as the primary auditory cortex, with the ventral stream projecting from hR and the dorsal stream from hA1. M.L.'s leftward localization bias, preserved audiovisual integration, and phoneme perception are explained by preserved processing in her right auditory dorsal stream.

  19. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A two and half year-old-male child, known case of steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome presented with fever and vomiting of acute onset. He was diagnosed to have superior sagittal sinus thrombosis on a contrast computerised tomographic scan of brain. Recovery was complete without anticoagulant therapy. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an extremely rare complication of nephrotic syndrome.

  20. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome: case report | Jani | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (SMAS) is caused by trapping of the third part of the duodenum between Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) and aorta as result of narrowing of the angle between the two vessels due to acute loss of mesenteric fat which is secondary to rapid weight loss. A fifteen year old caucasian ...

  1. Aging and the Picture Superiority Effect in Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Eugene; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect. One experiment found an interaction between age and type of material. In other experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. Performing a semantic-orienting task had no effect on recall. (Author/RC)

  2. Superior dislocation hip with anterior column acetabular fracture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superior variety of anterior dislocation of the hip is a rare injury. Its occurrence with acetabular fractures has been documented infrequently. We report a case of superior dislocation of the hip with anterior column acetabular fracture. Open reduction of the hip and internal fixation of the fracture was carried out using a twin ...

  3. The Development of the Picture-Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…

  4. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ORGANIZATION STAFF ASSIGNMENTS AND REVIEW OF ACTION UNDER ASSIGNMENTS General Provisions § 385.7 Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... be made, severally, to each such staff member's respective superiors. In accordance with the...

  5. Fatal pericardial tamponade after superior vena cava stenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, M.J.M.; Rutten, M.J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a fatal complication of percutaneous superior vena cava (SVC) self-expandable stent placement in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The SVCS was caused by a malignant mediastinal mass with total occlusion of the SVC. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the patient died

  6. Superior vena cava obstruction caused by radiation induced venous fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, JWG; Schlosser, NJJ; Vujaskovic, Z; Van der Leest, AHD; Groen, HJM

    Superior vena cava syndrome is most often caused by lung carcinoma. Two cases are described in whom venous obstruction in the superior mediastinum was caused by local vascular fibrosis due to radiotherapy five and seven years earlier. The development of radiation injury to greater vessels is

  7. The Dominant-Subthalamic Nucleus Phenomenon in Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence from a Gait Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Giorgio Rizzone

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt has been suggested that parkinsonian [Parkinson’s disease (PD] patients might have a “dominant” (DOM subthalamic nucleus (STN, whose unilateral electrical stimulation [deep brain stimulation (DBS] could lead to an improvement in PD symptoms similar to bilateral STN-DBS.ObjectivesSince disability in PD patients is often related to gait problems, in this study, we wanted to investigate in a group of patients bilaterally implanted for STN-DBS: (1 if it was possible to identify a subgroup of subjects with a dominant STN; (2 in the case, if the unilateral stimulation of the dominant STN was capable to improve gait abnormalities, as assessed by instrumented multifactorial gait analysis, similarly to what observed with bilateral stimulation.MethodsWe studied 10 PD patients with bilateral STN-DBS. A clinical evaluation and a kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic (EMG analysis of overground walking were performed—off medication—in four conditions: without stimulation, with bilateral stimulation, with unilateral right or left STN-DBS. Through a hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis based on motor Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale scores, it was possible to separate patients into two groups, based on the presence (six patients, DOM group or absence (four patients, NDOM group of a dominant STN.ResultsIn the DOM group, both bilateral and unilateral stimulation of the dominant STN significantly increased gait speed, stride length, range of motion of lower limb joints, and peaks of moment and power at the ankle joint; moreover, the EMG activation pattern of distal leg muscles was improved. The unilateral stimulation of the non-dominant STN did not produce any significant effect. In the NDOM group, only bilateral stimulation determined a significant improvement of gait parameters.ConclusionIn the DOM group, the effect of unilateral stimulation of the dominant STN determined an improvement of gait parameters similar to

  8. The Role of 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Targeting the Human Subthalamic Nucleus in Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Michele; Ricciardi, Giuseppe; Tommasi, Giorgio; Nicolato, Antonio; Foroni, Roberto; Bertolasi, Laura; Beltramello, Alberto; Moretto, Giuseppe; Tinazzi, Michele; Gerosa, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    Chronic stimulation of the human subthalamic nucleus (STN) is gradually becoming accepted as a long-term therapeutic option for patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). 3Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) improves contrast resolution in basal ganglia nuclei containing high levels of iron, because of magnetic susceptibility effects that increase significantly as the magnetic field gets higher. This phenomenon can be used for better visualization of the STN and may reduce the time necessary for detailed microrecording (MER) mapping, increasing surgery efficacy and lowering morbidity. The objective of this retrospective study is to analyze a population of 20 deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode implanted patients with PD divided into two groups in which different targeting methods were used. Mean age was 56 years (range 37 to 69 years). Mean disease duration was 11.6 years. Mean follow-up was 12 months (range 6 to 36 months). Patients were divided into two groups: Group A contained 6 patients who underwent STN targeting using 1T stereotactic (T1w + T2w) MRI plus STN indirect atlas derived targeting. Group B consisted of 14 patients who underwent STN targeting using 3T nonstereotactic (T2w) MRI fused with 1T T1w stereotactic MRI and STN direct targeting. For statistical analysis, we compared (five different parameters in both (matched) groups: Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) score reduction (medication off before surgery against stimulation on/medication off after surgery), postoperative drug reduction, duration of surgery, the "central preoperative track" chosen as final implantation track during surgery, and correspondence between the targeted STN and the intraoperative neurophysiologic data. Mean UPDRS III score reduction (medication off/stimulation on versus preoperative medication off) was 69% in Group A and 74% in Group B (p = 0.015, log-rank test) respectively. Postoperatively, antiparkinsonian treatment was reduced by 66

  9. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Does Not Affect the Decrease of Decision Threshold during the Choice Process When There Is No Conflict, Time Pressure, or Reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimbach, Friederike; Georgiev, Dejan; Litvak, Vladimir; Antoniades, Chrystalina; Limousin, Patricia; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Bogacz, Rafal

    2018-06-01

    During a decision process, the evidence supporting alternative options is integrated over time, and the choice is made when the accumulated evidence for one of the options reaches a decision threshold. Humans and animals have an ability to control the decision threshold, that is, the amount of evidence that needs to be gathered to commit to a choice, and it has been proposed that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is important for this control. Recent behavioral and neurophysiological data suggest that, in some circumstances, the decision threshold decreases with time during choice trials, allowing overcoming of indecision during difficult choices. Here we asked whether this within-trial decrease of the decision threshold is mediated by the STN and if it is affected by disrupting information processing in the STN through deep brain stimulation (DBS). We assessed 13 patients with Parkinson disease receiving bilateral STN DBS six or more months after the surgery, 11 age-matched controls, and 12 young healthy controls. All participants completed a series of decision trials, in which the evidence was presented in discrete time points, which allowed more direct estimation of the decision threshold. The participants differed widely in the slope of their decision threshold, ranging from constant threshold within a trial to steeply decreasing. However, the slope of the decision threshold did not depend on whether STN DBS was switched on or off and did not differ between the patients and controls. Furthermore, there was no difference in accuracy and RT between the patients in the on and off stimulation conditions and healthy controls. Previous studies that have reported modulation of the decision threshold by STN DBS or unilateral subthalamotomy in Parkinson disease have involved either fast decision-making under conflict or time pressure or in anticipation of high reward. Our findings suggest that, in the absence of reward, decision conflict, or time pressure for decision

  10. Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane da Cunha Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior (SDCSS, primeiramente descrita em 1998 por Minor et al., caracteriza-se por vertigem associada à presença de nistagmo, relacionados à exposição a estímulos sonoros intensos ou a modificações de pressão dentro da orelha média ou intracraniana. Disacusia, em sua maioria de padrão condutivo à audiometria tonal, também pode estar presente. Nesta revisão da literatura objetivou-se abordar a SDCSS, com seus principais sinais e sintomas, achados diagnósticos e tratamento, assim como enfatizar a importância de sua inclusão dentre as causas de vertigem, visto tratar-se de acometimento ainda pouco conhecido até mesmo entre especialistas. O diagnóstico correto, além de possibilitar seu tratamento, impede que abordagens diagnósticas e terapêuticas inapropriadas sejam realizadas.The Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS was first reported by Minor at. Al. (1998, and has been characterized by vertigo and vertical-torsional eye movements related to loud sounds or stimuli that change middle ear or intracranial pressure. Hearing loss, for the most part with conductive patterns on audiometry, may be present in this syndrome. We performed a literature survey in order to to present symptoms, signs, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the SCDS, also aiming at stressing the great importance of including this syndrome among the tractable cause of vertigo. We should emphasize that this is a recent issue, still unknown by some specialists. The Correct SCDS diagnosis, besides enabling patient treatment, precludes misdiagnosis and inadequate therapeutic approaches.

  11. Axonal recordings from medial superior olive neurons obtained from the lateral lemniscus of the chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremen, Peter; Joris, Philip X

    2013-10-30

    Interaural time differences (ITDs) are a major cue for localizing low-frequency (binaural beats and dichotic noise bursts to characterize the best delay versus characteristic frequency distribution, and compared the data to recordings we obtained in the inferior colliculus (IC). In contrast to most reports in other rodents, many best delays were close to zero ITD, both in MSO and IC, with a majority of the neurons recorded in the LL firing maximally within the presumed ethological ITD range.

  12. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Batisse, Alain [Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, Paris (France); Vouhe, Pascal [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Ou, Phalla [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  13. Ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Seref Corbacioglu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery (SGA is very rare and the most common causes are blunt or penetrating pelvic traumas. Although pseudoaneurysm can be asymptomatic at the time of initial trauma, it can be symptomatic weeks, months, even years after initial trauma. We present a case of a ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock twenty days after a bomb injury in the Syria civil war. In addition, we review the anatomy of the SGA, clinical presentation and pitfalls of pseudoaneurysm, and imaging and treatment options. Keywords: Pseudoaneurysm, Superior gluteal artery, Pitfall, Angiography

  14. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien; Batisse, Alain; Vouhe, Pascal; Ou, Phalla

    2008-01-01

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  15. Novel anammox bacteria and nitrogen loss from Lake Superior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean A.; Treusch, Alexander H.; Forth, Michael

    2017-01-01

    and diversity of anammox bacteria in the world's largest freshwater lake - Lake Superior. We found that anammox performed by previously undiscovered bacteria is an important contributor to sediment N2 production. We observed striking differences in the anammox bacterial populations found at different locations...... within Lake Superior and those described from other locations. Our data thus reveal that novel anammox bacteria underpin N-loss from Lake Superior, and if more broadly distributed across inland waters would play an important role in continental N-cycling and mitigation of fixed nitrogen transfer from...

  16. Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J.

    2017-06-01

    Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  17. Topographic and functional neuroanatomical study of GABAergic disinhibitory striatum-nigral inputs and inhibitory nigrocollicular pathways: neural hodology recruiting the substantia nigra, pars reticulata, for the modulation of the neural activity in the inferior colliculus involved with panic-like emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellan-Baldan, Lissandra; da Costa Kawasaki, Mateus; Ribeiro, Sandro José; Calvo, Fabrício; Corrêa, Vani Maria Alves; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2006-08-01

    Considering the influence of the substantia nigra on mesencephalic neurons involved with fear-induced reactions organized in rostral aspects of the dorsal midbrain, the present work investigated the topographical and functional neuroanatomy of similar influence on caudal division of the corpora quadrigemina, addressing: (a) the neural hodology connecting the neostriatum, the substantia nigra, periaqueductal gray matter and inferior colliculus (IC) neural networks; (b) the influence of the inhibitory neostriatonigral-nigrocollicular GABAergic links on the control of the defensive behavior organized in the IC. The effects of the increase or decrease of activity of nigrocollicular inputs on defensive responses elicited by either electrical or chemical stimulation of the IC were also determined. Electrolytic or chemical lesions of the substantia nigra, pars reticulata (SNpr), decreased the freezing and escape behaviors thresholds elicited by electrical stimulation of the IC, and increased the behavioral responses evoked by the GABAA blockade in the same sites of the mesencephalic tectum (MT) electrically stimulated. These findings were corroborated by similar effects caused by microinjections of the GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol in the SNpr, followed by electrical and chemical stimulations of the IC. The GABAA blockade in the SNpr caused a significant increase in the defensive behavior thresholds elicited by electrical stimulation of the IC and a decrease in the mean incidence of panic-like responses induced by microinjections of bicuculline in the mesencephalic tectum (inferior colliculus). These findings suggest that the substantia nigra receives GABAergic inputs that modulate local and also inhibitory GABAergic outputs toward the IC. In fact, neurotracing experiments with fast blue and iontophoretic microinjections of biotinylated dextran amine either into the inferior colliculus or in the reticular division of the substantia nigra demonstrated a neural link

  18. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  19. Sacroiliac joint injection using the posterior superior iliac spines as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limitations in the availability of such image guided techniques in health ... School of Medical Sciences, University of Science and Technology between 2006 and ... The needle position from the posterior superior iliac spine and its angle of ...

  20. Analysis of the Lake Superior Watershed Seasonal Snow Cover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, Steven F; Baldwin, Timothy B; Weyrick, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Daily estimates of the snow water equivalent (SWE) distribution for the period from 1 December through 30 April for each winter season from 1979 80 through 2002 03 were calculated for the entire Lake Superior watershed...

  1. Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over the other? ... findings reveal that firstly, failure to value and embrace diversity by males, perpetuate gender discrimination. ... Keywords: Context, Culture, Structures, Systems ...

  2. Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Anal Cancer Treatment Anal Cancer Prevention Research Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions ... randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at ...

  3. Computed tomography imaging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobeli, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Superior semicircular canal dehiscence is a newly described syndrome of sound and/or pressure induced vertigo. Computed tomography (CT) imaging plays an important role in confirmation of a defect in the bone overlying the canal. A high resolution CT technique utilising 0.5 mm or thinner slices and multi-planar reconstructions parallel to the superior semicircular canal is required. Placement of a histogram over a suspected defect can assist CT diagnosis

  4. Marketing at Superior: Theory meets application in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, S.

    1992-01-01

    The field marketing practices of Superior Propane in rural Ontario are illustrated. In the Smithville area, Superior's customer base consists of agricultural, industrial, commercial, and residential customers, plus a large market for auto propane. A 6,900 ft 2 showroom presents a representative selection of the wide range of appliances using propane. Superior's Smithville branch is one of the top five in Canada, in terms of volume. To expand business beyond its traditional branch structures, Superior has an Independent Partners Program which is aimed at all phases of business including independent sales agents, conversions, propane fuel stops, appliance installations, and building contractors. In Keswick, located in the summer resort region on the south shore of Lake Simcoe, Superior's base load is 40% commercial and 20% each agricultural, residential, and automotive. A new 4,100 ft 2 showroom was recently constructed with separate display units for each appliance. The new building has brought increases in auto propane and appliance sales. The different branches of Superior Propane are able to tailor their marketing programs according to local needs by choosing the appropriate programs from those available at head office. 5 figs

  5. Veia cava superior esquerda anômala com ausência de veia cava superior direita: achados de imagem Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrillo Rodrigues de Araújo Júnior

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da veia cava superior direita é uma anomalia rara, com menos de 150 casos descritos na literatura. A não-obliteração e regressão da veia cardinal anterior esquerda durante o desenvolvimento embriológico promove uma variação sistêmica de retorno venoso ao coração, com persistência da veia cava superior esquerda. Sua incidência varia de 0,3% em pacientes sem alterações cardíacas congênitas concomitantes a 4,3% naqueles com cardiopatias. Na maioria das vezes coexiste a veia cava superior direita, porém se houver regressão e degeneração da veia cardinal anterior direita, implicará a sua ausência e a drenagem venosa para o coração será feita pela veia cava superior esquerda ao átrio direito, através do seio coronariano. Mostramos um caso de um paciente submetido a radiografia de tórax e tomografia computadorizada para avaliação de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, tendo como achado a persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da direita, sem qualquer cardiopatia associada e com a drenagem cardíaca sendo feita, através do seio coronariano, para o átrio direito.Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the

  6. La educación superior como eje del desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Afanador Vargas

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analiza cómo ha sido la interacción entre la política educativa y las estrategiasde desarrollo en Colombia, a lo largo del siglo XX. Se presenta una revisión del estadoactual de la educación en Colombia, tanto a nivel de educación básica y media, como de laeducación superior. Para ello se toman tres criterios básicos que son la cobertura, la calidady la equidad en el acceso a la educación. Para el caso de la educación superior, se comparala oferta de cupos con la demanda existente, se clasifican los distintos segmentos en que sedivide la educación superior y se hace una breve reseña sobre el recurso humano con que secuenta en la educación superior colombiana. Así mismo, se expone una conceptualización delos retos que enfrenta la educación superior, sobretodo para lograr una cohesión de la sociedad,evitando que algunos de sus integrantes sean excluidos y permitiendo que todos losestamentos de la sociedad puedan compartir los mismos ideales y los consideren asequibles.Finalmente, se presentan unas conclusiones que se derivan del estudio y se proponen algunasrecomendaciones de política .

  7. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome: Lessons from the First 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan K. Ward

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome was first reported by Lloyd Minor and colleagues in 1998. Patients with a dehiscence in the bone overlying the superior semicircular canal experience symptoms of pressure or sound-induced vertigo, bone conduction hyperacusis, and pulsatile tinnitus. The initial series of patients were diagnosed based on common symptoms, a physical examination finding of eye movements in the plane of the superior semicircular canal when ear canal pressure or loud tones were applied to the ear, and high-resolution computed tomography imaging demonstrating a dehiscence in the bone over the superior semicircular canal. Research productivity directed at understanding better methods for diagnosing and treating this condition has substantially increased over the last two decades. We now have a sound understanding of the pathophysiology of third mobile window syndromes, higher resolution imaging protocols, and several sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. Furthermore, we have a treatment (surgical occlusion of the superior semicircular canal that has demonstrated efficacy. This review will highlight some of the fundamental insights gained in SCDS, propose diagnostic criteria, and discuss future research directions.

  8. Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J

    2017-08-06

    Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Anthropogenic climate change has altered primary productivity in Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, M D; Werne, J P; Hecky, R E; Johnson, T C; Katsev, S; Reavie, E D

    2017-06-09

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter many facets of Earth's freshwater resources, especially lacustrine ecosystems. The effects of anthropogenic changes in Lake Superior, which is Earth's largest freshwater lake by area, are not well documented (spatially or temporally) and predicted future states in response to climate change vary. Here we show that Lake Superior experienced a slow, steady increase in production throughout the Holocene using (paleo)productivity proxies in lacustrine sediments to reconstruct past changes in primary production. Furthermore, data from the last century indicate a rapid increase in primary production, which we attribute to increasing surface water temperatures and longer seasonal stratification related to longer ice-free periods in Lake Superior due to anthropogenic climate warming. These observations demonstrate that anthropogenic effects have become a prominent influence on one of Earth's largest, most pristine lacustrine ecosystems.

  10. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendi, José I; Rey, Estibaliz; Hamzeh, Gadah; Crespo, Alejandro; Luis, Maite; Voces, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    We describe the surgical technique of reimplantation of the right superior pulmonary vein into the left atrium in 2 patients with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava without atrial septal defect. A right axillary minithoracotomy is done through the fourth intercostal space. The pulmonary vein is detached from its origin in the superior vena cava. This is sutured with 6-0 reabsorbable polydioxanone suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ). A lateral clamp is applied to the left atrium, and the pulmonary vein is reimplanted. The patient is extubated in the operating room. Neither cardiopulmonary bypass nor blood transfusion was required. It is simple, safe, and reproducible. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Papaya Development Model As A Competitive Local Superior Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Sukmawani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the comparative advantage and papaya competitive and to design its development model by using the approach of local base agriculture development. This research uses survey method. The resulting research shows that papaya is a base commodity that has comparative advantage and competitive. The development papaya in the district of Sukabumi is quite good bases on eight superior creations. But in order to be the main sector in economic development and has a competition, the development of papaya must concern to its influence factors. In supporting papaya development as a competitive local superior commodity, it needs to be done some efforts are as follows: (1 increase a skillful worker; (2 improve business management; (3 increase papaya productivity by using technology and study papaya planted technology in specific local superior commodity; (4 develop the involvement of the business relation; (5 provide market information and information technology network; and (6 improve infrastructures.

  12. Isolated abscess in superior rectus muscle in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushank Ashok Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyomyositis is a primary bacterial infection of striated muscles nearly always caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Development of the intramuscular abscess involving the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs remains an extremely rare process. We herein present a case of isolated EOM pyomyositis involving superior rectus muscle in a 2-year male child who was referred with complaints of swelling in left eye (LE and inability to open LE since last 1-month. Orbital computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined, hypo-dense, peripheral rim-enhancing lesion in relation to left superior rectus muscle suggestive of left superior rectus abscess. The abscess was drained through skin approach. We concluded that pyomyositis of EOM should be considered in any patient presenting with acute onset of orbital inflammation and characteristic CT or magnetic resonance imaging features. Management consists of incision and drainage coupled with antibiotic therapy.

  13. Aging and the picture superiority effect in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, E; Smith, A D; Simon, E W

    1982-01-01

    One recurrent theme in the literature on aging and memory is that the decline of memory for nonverbal information is steeper than for verbal information. This research compares verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect, the finding that pictures are remembered better than words. In the first experiment, an interaction was found between age and type of material; younger subjects recalled more pictures than words while older subjects did not. However, the overall effect was small and two further experiments were conducted. In both of these experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. In addition, performing a semantic orienting task had no effect on recall. The finding of a picture superiority effect in older subjects indicates that nonverbal codes can be effectively used by subjects in all age groups to facilitate memory performance.

  14. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  15. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  16. INFORMATION ASSURANCE - INTELLIGENCE - INFORMATION SUPERIORITY RELATIONSHIP WITHIN NATO OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BOARU, Ioan-Mihai ILIEŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a tight relationship between information assurance, the intelligence cycle and information superiority within NATO operations. The intelligence cycle has a discrete architecture and provides on-time and relevant intelligence products to the joint force commanders and to other authorized users in a specifi c joint area of operations. The intelligence cycle must follow the evolution of the operation. A permanent intelligence estimate will be performed during the military decision making process and operations execution. Information superiority is one of the most powerful intelligence cycle achievements. and decisively infuences the success of NATO joint operations. Information superiority must be preserved and enhanced through information assurance. Information assurance is an information operation that must be planned by the military in charge of operation security or by non-military experts, executed by all personnel during the entire intelligence cycle life time and employed during the planning and execution of NATO joint operations.

  17. Neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eVaskinn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ and superior intelligence can present without specific neurocognitive deficits. However, neurocognitive decrements, defined as worse cognition than expected, have been reported in practically all schizophrenia cases. This study investigated if neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ by comparing the neuropsychological profile of SZ cases with IQ-matched healthy controls (HC across intellectual level. Participants with SZ and HCs were stratified into three IQ-groups; intellectually low (IQ 80-95; SZ n = 65 & HC n = 13, intellectually normal (IQ = 100-115; SZ n = 111 & HC n = 115 and intellectually superior (IQ > 120; SZ n = 20 & HC n = 50. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of co-variance compared performance on eight selected neuropsychological tests across IQ-strata and diagnostic group. Differences in clinical characteristics and social functioning in SZ across IQ-strata were investigated with multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Intellectually superior SZ participants scored within normal limits, but had neurocognitive decrements compared to superior HCs. Decrements were of the same magnitude as in the low and normal IQ-strata. Levels of functional impairments and clinical characteristics in participants with SZ did not differ significantly across IQ-strata. Results indicate that neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ to the same extent as in intellectually low and intellectually normal SZ, supporting the notion that SZ is a neurocognitive disorder. Similar levels of social functional deficits and clinical symptoms suggest similar disease processes in SZ across intellectual level.

  18. Total variation superiorized conjugate gradient method for image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibetti, Marcelo V. W.; Lin, Chuan; Herman, Gabor T.

    2018-03-01

    The conjugate gradient (CG) method is commonly used for the relatively-rapid solution of least squares problems. In image reconstruction, the problem can be ill-posed and also contaminated by noise; due to this, approaches such as regularization should be utilized. Total variation (TV) is a useful regularization penalty, frequently utilized in image reconstruction for generating images with sharp edges. When a non-quadratic norm is selected for regularization, as is the case for TV, then it is no longer possible to use CG. Non-linear CG is an alternative, but it does not share the efficiency that CG shows with least squares and methods such as fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithms (FISTA) are preferred for problems with TV norm. A different approach to including prior information is superiorization. In this paper it is shown that the conjugate gradient method can be superiorized. Five different CG variants are proposed, including preconditioned CG. The CG methods superiorized by the total variation norm are presented and their performance in image reconstruction is demonstrated. It is illustrated that some of the proposed variants of the superiorized CG method can produce reconstructions of superior quality to those produced by FISTA and in less computational time, due to the speed of the original CG for least squares problems. In the Appendix we examine the behavior of one of the superiorized CG methods (we call it S-CG); one of its input parameters is a positive number ɛ. It is proved that, for any given ɛ that is greater than the half-squared-residual for the least squares solution, S-CG terminates in a finite number of steps with an output for which the half-squared-residual is less than or equal to ɛ. Importantly, it is also the case that the output will have a lower value of TV than what would be provided by unsuperiorized CG for the same value ɛ of the half-squared residual.

  19. The pygmy whitefish, Coregonus coulteri, in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.; Bailey, Reeve M.

    1955-01-01

    Bottom trawling by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service motor vessel Cisco in Lake Superior in 1952–1953 revealed a large population of a tiny whitefish, Coregonus (Prosopium) coulteri, which has been reported previously only from northwestern North America. The hiatus in range, from Lake Superior to the Columbia River basin, is the greatest known for a North American freshwater fish. Although minor structural differences characterize the disjunct populations of the pygmy whitefish, these are not deemed worthy of nomenclatorial recognition. Comparisons with related species indicate that the pygmy whitefish is distinctive in the small size, large scales, few vertebrae, few pyloric caeca, and in other characters.

  20. Ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbacioglu, Kerem Seref; Aksel, Gokhan; Yildiz, Altan

    2016-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery (SGA) is very rare and the most common causes are blunt or penetrating pelvic traumas. Although pseudoaneurysm can be asymptomatic at the time of initial trauma, it can be symptomatic weeks, months, even years after initial trauma. We present a case of a ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock twenty days after a bomb injury in the Syria civil war. In addition, we review the anatomy of the SGA, clinical presentation and pitfalls of pseudoaneurysm, and imaging and treatment options.

  1. Designing Pareto-superior demand-response rate options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, I.; Woo, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    We explore three voluntary service options-real-time pricing, time-of-use pricing, and curtailable/interruptible service-that a local distribution company might offer its customers in order to encourage them to alter their electricity usage in response to changes in the electricity-spot-market price. These options are simple and practical, and make minimal information demands. We show that each of the options is Pareto-superior ex ante, in that it benefits both the participants and the company offering it, while not affecting the non-participants. The options are shown to be Pareto-superior ex post as well, except under certain exceptional circumstances. (author)

  2. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, Bertrand; Clemenceau, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator. Describe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semiology, neuroimaging, electroencephalography) point to the mesial temporal structures. The trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach is a minimally invasive and safe technique that allows disconnection of the temporal stem and resection of temporomesial structures.

  3. Síndrome de veia cava superior Superior vena cava syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMUEL ZUÍNGLIO DE BIASI CORDEIRO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A obstrução ao fluxo sanguíneo na VCS e suas manifestações clínicas têm hoje como causa principal o câncer de pulmão. A história relata que no século XVIII a sífilis e a tuberculose eram responsáveis por 40% dos casos conhecidos. O conhecimento das alterações hemodinâmicas compreendidas nesta síndrome assim como a apuração das técnicas de diagnóstico de imagem e de citopatologia permitem hoje que o médico possa tratar de seu paciente com mais segurança e conforto do que há 10 anos. A TC contrastada e a RM auxiliam no diagnóstico de localização da obstrução e técnicas mais antigas como a cavografia puderam ser abandonadas. O diagnóstico de obstrução da VCS e o estudo por Doppler realizado à beira do leito em muito contribuem para a realização de procedimentos de desobstrução como a angioplastia transluminal percutânea nos casos de trombose ou estenose do vaso. Também a utilização de próteses como PTFE é de importância fundamental na condução de casos de lesão traumática da VCS durante cirurgias para câncer pulmonar ou mediastinal. No campo da radioterapia, a técnica de fracionamento permite que altas doses de irradiação sejam administradas aos pacientes portadores de neoplasias malignas, com benefícios em 70% dos casos.Lung cancer is now the main cause of blood flow obstruction in the superior vena cava and of its clinical manifestations. History tells that in the 18th Century, syphilis and tuberculosis were responsible for 40% of the known cases. The knowledge of hemodynamic changes seen in this syndrome and the improvement of diagnostic and cytopathologic techniques allow for a safer and more comfortable treatment of the patient than 10 years ago. Contrast CT and MR added to the identification and location of the obstruction, and older techniques such as cavography could be abandoned. SVC obstruction diagnosis and Doppler studies carried out at the bed of the patient contribute to

  4. Memory for Pictorial Information and the Picture Superiority Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisto, Albert A.; Queen, Debbie Elaine

    1992-01-01

    The performance of 53 younger adults (mean age 20.7) and 52 older adults (mean age 68.3) was compared in a memory task involving pictures, words, and pictures-plus-words. Results showed (1) significantly higher recall scores for younger adults; (2) equivalent picture superiority effect for both groups; and (3) decline in older adults' performance…

  5. Temporal versus Superior Limbal Incision: Any difference in visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To compare the visual outcome of a superiorly placed limbal incision with a temporal limbal incision in extracapsular cataract surgery. The main outcome measures are visual acuity and the degree of stigmatism based on refraction. Method: A retrospective non randomized comparative study. Medical records of 40 ...

  6. Evaluation of the Superior Gluteal Nerve During Proximal Femoral Nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sonmez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The superior gluteal nerve may be compromised during hip surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the patients who underwent proximal femoral nailing for unstable trochanteric fractures in order to investigate the presence of superior gluteal nerve injury and its clinical findings. Material and Method: Twenty five patients (14 women, 11 men were included in the study who had femoral nailing between January 2004 and March 2010 at Hamidiye Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital Department of Orthopaedics. Two different types of nails which have similar designs and surgical techniques were used for fracture fixation. Patients who had a history of cerebrovascular disease, electromyography findings of polyneuropathy, or degenerative vertebral disease were excluded from the study. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Findings related to acute denervation in the gluteus medius muscle and motor unit action potential changes were accepted as signs of superior gluteal nerve injury. Results: Eight patients were using support during walking and three of these patients had positive Trendelenburg sign, but only one patient had acute denervation signs of the superior gluteal nerve. Discussion: Based on the present study the incidence of iatrogenic nerve injury is a rare complication of proximal femoral nailing. Elderly patients, regardless of whether they have nerve injury, may limp and need to use a walking support.

  7. Superior repair: A useful approach for some anatomic variants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    retrospectively reviewed.Three patients had long narrow venous stalk connecting the coronary sinus to venous confl uence; two had the right pulmonary veins draining to superior vena cava (SVC) and left pulmonary veins to left lateral wall of SVC and one had an obstruction at entrance of Pulmonary Vein into venous confl ...

  8. Superiority of legendre polynomials to Chebyshev polynomial in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we proved the superiority of Legendre polynomial to Chebyshev polynomial in solving first order ordinary differential equation with rational coefficient. We generated shifted polynomial of Chebyshev, Legendre and Canonical polynomials which deal with solving differential equation by first choosing Chebyshev ...

  9. Developmental Trends of the Defence of Superior Order: Acritical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developmental Trends of the Defence of Superior Order: Acritical Appraisal of the Statute of the International Criminal Court. Eni E Alobo. Abstract. No Abstract. LWATI: A Journal of Contemporary Research, 9(3), 107-125, 2012. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  10. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassel, B. van

    1995-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage

  11. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) provides a superior tool for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) provides a superior tool for the diagnosis of Pneumococcal Infection in Burkina Faso. Y Chaibou, M Congo/Ouedraogo, I Sanou, H Somlare, K Ouattara, CM Kienou, H Belem, E Sampo, SA Traore, R Traore/Ouedraogo, C Hatcher, L Mayer, X Wang, L Sangare ...

  12. The Quagga mussel invades the Lake Superior basin - journal article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior studies recognized the presence of a single dreissenid species in Lake Superior--the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. However, taxonomic keys based on traditional shell morphology are not always able to differentiate dreissenid species with confidence. We thus employed ge...

  13. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization

  14. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassel, B. van [McKinsey and Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage.

  15. Residual symptoms after surgery for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, Ihsan; Sahin, Alparslan; Cingu, Abdullah; Ari, Seyhmus; Akbas, Umut

    2012-01-01

    To establish the surgical results and residual symptoms in 48 cases with unilateral congenital superior oblique muscle palsy that had surgical intervention to the vertical muscles alone. Myectomy and concomitant disinsertion of the inferior oblique (IO) muscle was performed in 38 cases and myectomy and concomitant IO disinsertion and recession of the superior rectus muscle in the ipsilateral eye was performed in 10 cases. The preoperative and postoperative vertical deviation values and surgical results were compared. Of the patients who had myectomy and concomitant IO disinsertion, 74% achieved an "excellent" result, 21% a "good" result, and 5% a "poor" result postoperatively. The difference in deviation between preoperative and postoperative values was statistically significant (P < .001). Of the patients who had myectomy and concomitant inferior oblique disinsertion and ipsilateral superior rectus recession, 50% achieved an "excellent" result, 20% a "good" result, and 30% a "poor" result postoperatively. The difference in deviation between preoperative and postoperative values was statistically significant (P < .001). Both procedures are effective and successful in patients with superior oblique muscle palsy, but a secondary surgery may be required. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence in relation to the superior petrosal sinus: a potential cause of pulsatile tinnitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Bi, W.; Li, J.; Li, Q.; Dong, C.; Zhao, P.; Lv, H.; Wang, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine the association between superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) and pulsatile tinnitus (PT). Materials and methods: Two SSCD groups included 408 unilateral persistent PT patients, and 511 controls undergoing head and neck dual-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DP-CECT) for reasons other than PT. The prevalence of type I (no the superior petrosal sinus running through the dehiscence) and type II (superior semicircular canal dehiscence in relation to the superior petrosal sinus) SSCD was analysed using chi-square test. Results: SSCD was identified in 5.1% (21/408) of PT ears, significantly different from 2% (8/408) of non-PT ears and 0.7% (7/1022) of controls. There was no significant difference in SSCD prevalence between non-PT ears in the PT group and controls. In the PT group, 15/21 ears were type II SSCD; 6/21 ears were type I. Fifteen combined non-PT and control ears with SSCD included two type II and 13 type I SSCD. The prevalence of type II SSCD in PT ears was significantly higher than that of non-PT ears in both groups, and the prevalence of type I SSCD in PT ears was similar to that of non-PT ears in both groups. Conclusion: Compared with type I SSCD, there may be a causal relationship between type II SSCD and PT. -- Highlights: •The prevalence of type II SSCD in PT ears was significantly higher than that in non-PT ears in both the PT group and controls. •The prevalence of type I SSCD was similar among the PT ears and non-PT ears. •The superior petrosal sinus running through the dehiscence may be essential for SSCD to induce PT. •Venous phase CT images with bone window settings is the modality method to differentiate type II from type I SSCD

  17. The Penokean orogeny in the Lake Superior region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, K.J.; Cannon, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    The Penokean orogeny began at about 1880 Ma when an oceanic arc, now the Pembine-Wausau terrane, collided with the southern margin of the Archean Superior craton marking the end of a period of south-directed subduction. The docking of the buoyant craton to the arc resulted in a subduction jump to the south and development of back-arc extension both in the initial arc and adjacent craton margin to the north. A belt of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits formed in the extending back-arc rift within the arc. Synchronous extension and subsidence of the Superior craton resulted in a broad shallow sea characterized by volcanic grabens (Menominee Group in northern Michigan). The classic Lake Superior banded iron-formations, including those in the Marquette, Gogebic, Mesabi and Gunflint Iron Ranges, formed in that sea. The newly established subduction zone caused continued arc volcanism until about 1850 Ma when a fragment of Archean crust, now the basement of the Marshfield terrane, arrived at the subduction zone. The convergence of Archean blocks of the Superior and Marshfield cratons resulted in the major contractional phase of the Penokean orogeny. Rocks of the Pembine-Wausau arc were thrust northward onto the Superior craton causing subsidence of a foreland basin in which sedimentation began at about 1850 Ma in the south (Baraga Group rocks) and 1835 Ma in the north (Rove and Virginia Formations). A thick succession of arc-derived turbidites constitutes most of the foreland basin-fill along with lesser volcanic rocks. In the southern fold and thrust belt tectonic thickening resulted in high-grade metamorphism of the sediments by 1830 Ma. At this same time, a suite of post-tectonic plutons intruded the deformed sedimentary sequence and accreted arc terranes marking the end of the Penokean orogeny. The Penokean orogen was strongly overprinted by younger tectonic and thermal events, some of which were previously ascribed to the Penokean. Principal among these was a

  18. Tullio phenomenon in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Cronin, Scott J; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2014-03-18

    Tullio phenomenon refers to eye movements induced by sound.(1) This unusual examination finding may be seen in superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome.(2) This disorder is due to absent bone over the superior semicircular canal (figure). Patients complain of dizziness triggered by loud sound, aural fullness, autophony, and pulsatile tinnitus. When Tullio phenomenon exists in SSCD syndrome, the patient develops a mixed vertical-torsional nystagmus in which the slow phase rotates up and away from the affected ear (video on the Neurology® Web site at Neurology.org). This pattern of nystagmus aligns in the plane of the dehiscent semicircular canal and is due to excitation of its afferent nerves.

  19. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

  20. The picture superiority effect: support for the distinctiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, M Z; Snodgrass, J G

    1999-01-01

    The form change paradigm was used to explore the basis for the picture superiority effect. Recognition memory for studied pictures and words was tested in their study form or the alternate form. Form change cost was defined as the difference between recognition performance for same and different form items. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and previous studies, it was difficult to determine the relative cost for studied pictures and words due to a reversal of the mirror effect. We hypothesized that the reversed mirror effect results from subjects' basing their recognition decisions on their assumptions about the study form. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this hypothesis and generated a method for evaluating the relative cost for pictures and words despite the reversed mirror effect. More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.

  1. A cognitive assessment of highly superior autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePort, Aurora K R; Stark, Shauna M; McGaugh, James L; Stark, Craig E L

    2017-02-01

    Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) is characterised as the ability to accurately recall an exceptional number of experiences and their associated dates from events occurring throughout much of one's lifetime. The source of this ability has only begun to be explored. The present study explores whether other enhanced cognitive processes may be critical influences underlying HSAM abilities. We investigated whether enhanced abilities in the domains of verbal fluency, attention/inhibition, executive functioning, mnemonic discrimination, perception, visual working memory, or the processing of and memory for emotional details might contribute critically to HSAM. The results suggest that superior cognitive functioning is an unlikely basis of HSAM, as only modest advantages were found in only a few tests. In addition, we examined HSAM subjects' memory of the testing episodes. Interestingly, HSAM participants recalled details of their own experiences far better than those experiences that the experimenter shared with them. These findings provide additional evidence that HSAM involves, relatively selectively, recollection of personal, autobiographical material.

  2. Superior mesenteric vein rotation: a CT sign of midgut malrotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.M.; Li, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the pancreas, with its excellent display of peripancreatic anatomy, allows visualization of the major vessels entering the mesenteric root. In scans of the normal upper abdomen obtained at or just below the level of the uncinate process of the pancreas, the proximal superior mesenteric vein (SMV) easily can be identified lying on the right ventral aspect of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The authors have observed a characteristic abnormality in this normal vascular arrangement on CT scans of the pancreas in three adult patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis who were subsequently proved to have midgut malrotation. They called this the SMV rotation sign and believe that its detection even on CT scans limited to the level of the pancreas should alert the radiologist to the presence of a midgut malrotation that may have been unsuspected

  3. Facile synthesis of carbon dots with superior sensing ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Li, Jingguo; Liu, Liyun; Wang, Zhenling; Zhang, Xingcai

    2018-04-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) have various applications in biomedical and environmental field, such as bio-imaging, bio-sensing and heavy metal detection. In this study, a novel class of CDs were synthesized using a one-step hydrothermal method. The fabricated CDs displayed stable photoluminescence, good water solubility, and photo stability. Moreover, the functional groups (carboxylic acid moieties and hydroxyls) on the surface of the obtained CDs enable it with superior sensing ability (e.g., very low detectable concentration for Pb2+: 5 nmol/L). With superior detection sensitivity, excellent fluorescent properties and facile fabrication method, the as-obtained CDs can find practical applications as cost-effective and sensitive chemo-sensors in water and food safety field.

  4. Mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery after septic embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.; Dinkel, H.P.

    2002-01-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the aorta and the visceral arteries are life-threatening diseases, due to potential rupture and organ or limb ischemia. They occur in endocarditis, immunodeficiency, bacteremia and fungemia, and have a poor prognosis.We report on a case of a 54-year-old male patient suffering from abdominal angina after mitral valve replacement for septic mycotic endocarditis. In presence of a mycotic-embolic occlusion of the left popliteal artery and multiple septic organ infarctions a mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery was found in abdominal spiral-CT.Based on sequential spiral-CT examinations, this case demonstrates the development of a septic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery. (orig.) [de

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in congenital superior oblique palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Miho; Kondo, Nagako; Awaya, Shinobu; Nomura, Hideki; Yagasaki, Teiji.

    1996-01-01

    MRI examinations were carried out on the defined congenital superior oblique palsy in order to distinguish the congenital and acquired palsies. Subjects were 19 patients diagnosed as congenital and their MRI images of 3 or 5 mm-thick coronary slice were taken. The volume of the oblique muscle was calculated from the images and a comparison was made between the diseased and healthy normal sides. The oblique muscle volume at the diseased side was found reduced in most of congenital superior oblique palsy patients. The reduction was observed even at childhood and was thus considered to be a malformation. Further, it is conceivable that the palsy could be caused by the abnormality in the central nervous system as well as by the present anatomical abnormality. (K.H.)

  6. Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy Treatment of Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    Full Text Available : Objective/Background: This report presents a superior mesenteric artery (SMA embolism managed by percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT. Methods: A 61 year old woman diagnosed with SMA embolism was admitted. Emboli were found in the middle and distal segments of the SMA on abdominal computed tomography angiography. Under local anaesthesia, a 6 F Rotarex system was used to remove the emboli via left brachial artery access. Emboli were successfully removed and patency was restored to the SMA and its branches. Results: Post-operatively, the patient's symptoms were significantly relieved. No post-operative complications were observed and no discomfort was documented during follow-up. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of SMA embolism using PMT is a feasible and alternative option. Keywords: Acute mesenteric ischaemia, Embolism, Endovascular treatment, Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy, Superior mesenteric artery

  7. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed hi...

  8. Myofibroblastic tumor associated to superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Jaramillo, Hector; Durango Gutierrez, Luisa Fernanda; Perez Figueroa, Maria del Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an uncommon pathological entity of unknown cause, composed of differentiated myofibroblastic cells accompanied by plasma cells, lymphocytes and eosinophils, which involve extrapulmonary and pulmonary tissues. IMT has an unpredictable clinical course, rarely undergoes malignant transformation. Local invasion and involvement of the mediastinum and hiliar structures are unusual manifestations; however; we reports a case of superior vena cava syndrome and IMT

  9. Conceptual and perceptual factors in the picture superiority effect

    OpenAIRE

    Stenberg, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The picture superiority effect, i.e. better memory for pictures than for corresponding words, has been variously ascribed to a conceptual or a perceptual processing advantage. The present study aimed to disentangle perceptual and conceptual contributions. Pictures and words were tested for recognition in both their original formats and translated into participants´ second language. Multinomial Processing Tree (Batchelder & Riefer, 1999) and MINERVA (Hintzman, 1984) models were fitted to t...

  10. Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery following polytrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dennis [Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia and Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Legiehn, Gerald M. [Vancouver General Hospital, Interventional Radiology, University of British Columbia and Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Munk, Peter L. [Vancouver General Hospital, MSK Section, University of British Columbia and Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    Gluteal artery aneurysms are rare and often secondary to pelvic fractures, blunt or penetrating trauma. We describe a case of a superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm that presented as back pain with numbness and weakness of the lower extremities. Diagnosis was confirmed by color Doppler sonography and angiography. A proximal and distal control was obtained over the aneurysm neck via coil embolization with excellent hemostasis within the pseudoaneurysm and maintenance of perfusion to the left pelvis. (orig.)

  11. Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery following polytrauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dennis; Legiehn, Gerald M.; Munk, Peter L.

    2007-01-01

    Gluteal artery aneurysms are rare and often secondary to pelvic fractures, blunt or penetrating trauma. We describe a case of a superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm that presented as back pain with numbness and weakness of the lower extremities. Diagnosis was confirmed by color Doppler sonography and angiography. A proximal and distal control was obtained over the aneurysm neck via coil embolization with excellent hemostasis within the pseudoaneurysm and maintenance of perfusion to the left pelvis. (orig.)

  12. Possible origin of superior corrosion resistance for electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, I.; Yang, H.W.; Dinh, L.; Lund, I.; Earthman, J.C.; Mohamed, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    We present here for the first time observations that grain boundaries in electrodeposited (ED) nanocrystalline (nc) Ni are predominantly of Σ3 character. The results presented are based on orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) performed to produce electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps. This large volume fraction of coherent low sigma coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries appears to be consistent with the superior corrosion resistance of ED nc-Ni in comparison with its coarse-grained counterpart

  13. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome in a Young Military Basic Trainee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    patients with severe anorexia nervosa.10 Severe cases may require surgery or parenteral feeding because of food avoidance leading to further loss of...retroperi- toneal fat. Treatment is usually conservative, via nutritional supplementation.11 Positional eating techniques may be effec- tive and include...2012. 10. Gwee K, Teh A, Huang C: Acute superior mesenteric artery syndrome and pancreatitis in anorexia nervosa. Australas Psychiatry 2010; 18(6): 523

  14. Superior Gas Sensing Properties of Monolayer PtSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Sajjad, Muhammad

    2016-12-15

    First-principles calculations of the structural and electronic properties of monolayer 1T-PtSe2 with adsorbed (a) NO2, (b) NO, (c) NH3, (d) H2O, (e) CO2, and (f) CO molecules are discussed. The results point to great potential of the material in gas sensor applications. Superior sensitivity is demonstrated by transport calculations using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method.

  15. Superior vesical fissure concealed by giant omphalocele: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hayek, Danial; Massanyi, Eric; Mancuso, Melissa; Krepkovich, Katherine; Garrison, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect characterized by exteriorization of abdominal viscera that is covered by a membrane. Omphalocele has a well-known association with chromosome abnormalities. Here we present a case of a superior vesical fissure (SVF) initially disguised as a giant omphalocele in a newborn with trisomy 18. We also show unique prenatal imaging and discuss the importance and limitations of prenatal genetic testing.

  16. Superior vesical fissure concealed by giant omphalocele: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Hayek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect characterized by exteriorization of abdominal viscera that is covered by a membrane. Omphalocele has a well-known association with chromosome abnormalities. Here we present a case of a superior vesical fissure (SVF initially disguised as a giant omphalocele in a newborn with trisomy 18. We also show unique prenatal imaging and discuss the importance and limitations of prenatal genetic testing.

  17. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mathon , Bertrand; Clemenceau , Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundHippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator.MethodDescribe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach.ConclusionSelective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semi...

  18. Effect of bilateral superior oblique split lengthening on torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Jethani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Superior oblique split lengthening (SOSL is done for weakening of superior oblique. It corrects the superior oblique overaction (SOOA and A pattern. Its effect on the torsion of the eye is not known. We present our data on the effect of this particular procedure on torsion. Materials and Methods: We did a study of 16 patients (32 eyes who underwent bilateral SOSL and compared the disc foveal angle (DFA preoperatively and postoperatively. The split lengthening was done from 4 mm to 7 mm depending upon the overaction of superior oblique. Results: The mean age was 15.3 ± 8.4 years. Mean preoperative DFA in the right eye (RE was −3.9° and in the left eye (LE was −2.9°. Mean postoperative DFA in RE was 0.2° and in LE was 0.9°. The mean change in the DFA for RE was 4.1° ± 1.3° and for LE was 3.8° ± 1.2°. All the patients were aligned horizontally within 6 prism diopter and no pattern and no diplopia postoperatively. The A pattern was corrected in all the patient postsurgery. For each mm of surgery, an improvement of 0.8° was seen in the DFA. Conclusion: We report the effect of SOSL on torsion. The SOSL reduces intorsion postsurgery and is, therefore, a valuable procedure in SOOA where both pattern and in torsion needs to be corrected.

  19. Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics Information management and especially geoscience information delivery is a very delicate task. If it is carried out successfully, geoscientific data will provide the main foundation of Information Superiority. However, improper implementation of geodata generation, assimilation, distribution or storage will not only waste valuable resources like manpower or money, but could also give rise to crucial deficiency in knowledge and might lead to potentially extremely harmful disasters or wrong decisions. Comprehensive Approach, Effect Based Operations and Network Enabled Capabilities are the current buzz terms in the security regime. However, they also apply to various interdisciplinary tasks like catastrophe relief missions, civil task operations or even in day to day business operations where geo-science data is used. Based on experience in the application of geoscience data for defence applications the following procedure or tool box for generating geodata should lead to the desired information superiority: 1. Understand and analyse the mission, the task and the environment for which the geodata is needed 2. Carry out a Information Exchange Requirement between the user or customer and the geodata provider 3. Implementation of current interoperability standards and a coherent metadata structure 4. Execute innovative data generation, data provision, data assimilation and data storage 5. Apply a cost-effective and reasonable data life cycle 6. Implement IT security by focusing of the three pillar concepts Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality of the critical data 7. Draft and execute a service level agreement or a memorandum of understanding between the involved parties 8. Execute a Continuous Improvement Cycle These ideas from the IT world should be transferred into the geoscience community and applied in a wide set of scenarios. A standardized approach of how to generate, provide

  20. A Rare Complication of Acute Appendicitis: Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Koncoro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric vein (SMV thrombosis caused by acute appendicitis is quite rare nowadays. These conditions occurs secondary to infection in the region drained by the portal venous system. In this case, we report a successfully treated case of SMV thrombosis and liver abscess associated with appendicitis with antibiotics and anticoagulant.Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are basic to a favorable clinical course.

  1. A standardized surgical technique for rat superior cervical ganglionectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savastano, Luis Emilio; Castro, Analía Elizabeth; Fitt, Marcos René

    2010-01-01

    Superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx) is a valuable microsurgical model to study the role of the sympathetic nervous system in a vast array of physiological and pathological processes, including homeostatic regulation, circadian biology and the dynamics of neuronal dysfunction and recovery afte...... expect that the following standardized and optimized protocol will allow researchers to organize knowledge into a cohesive framework in those areas where the SCGx is applied....

  2. Superior metallic alloys through rapid solidification processing (RSP) by design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flinn, J.E. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Rapid solidification processing using powder atomization methods and the control of minor elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can provide metallic alloys with superior properties and performance compared to conventionally processing alloys. Previous studies on nickel- and iron-base superalloys have provided the baseline information to properly couple RSP with alloy composition, and, therefore, enable alloys to be designed for performance improvements. The RSP approach produces powders, which need to be consolidated into suitable monolithic forms. This normally involves canning, consolidation, and decanning of the powders. Canning/decanning is expensive and raises the fabrication cost significantly above that of conventional, ingot metallurgy production methods. The cost differential can be offset by the superior performance of the RSP metallic alloys. However, without the performance database, it is difficult to convince potential users to adopt the RSP approach. Spray casting of the atomized molten droplets into suitable preforms for subsequent fabrication can be cost competitive with conventional processing. If the fine and stable microstructural features observed for the RSP approach are preserved during spray casing, a cost competitive product can be obtained that has superior properties and performance that cannot be obtained by conventional methods.

  3. Levels of processing and picture memory: the physical superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intraub, H; Nicklos, S

    1985-04-01

    Six experiments studied the effect of physical orienting questions (e.g., "Is this angular?") and semantic orienting questions (e.g., "Is this edible?") on memory for unrelated pictures at stimulus durations ranging from 125-2,000 ms. Results ran contrary to the semantic superiority "rule of thumb," which is based primarily on verbal memory experiments. Physical questions were associated with better free recall and cued recall of a diverse set of visual scenes (Experiments 1, 2, and 4). This occurred both when general and highly specific semantic questions were used (Experiments 1 and 2). Similar results were obtained when more simplistic visual stimuli--photographs of single objects--were used (Experiments 5 and 6). As in the case of the semantic superiority effect with words, the physical superiority effect for pictures was eliminated or reversed when the same physical questions were repeated throughout the session (Experiments 4 and 6). Conflicts with results of previous levels of processing experiments with words and nonverbal stimuli (e.g., faces) are explained in terms of the sensory-semantic model (Nelson, Reed, & McEvoy, 1977). Implications for picture memory research and the levels of processing viewpoint are discussed.

  4. DIGITAL STORYTELLING, EDUCAÇÃO SUPERIOR E LITERACIA DIGITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josias Ricardo Hack

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto revisa e dialoga com autores de artigos e livros em Língua Inglesa e Língua Portuguesa sobre fundamentos técnicos da produção audiovisual, como o Digital Storytelling, a ser utilizada na educação superior e produzida pelos próprios interlocutores do processo de aprendizagem. O intuito é refletir sobre algumas características necessárias para se desenvolver uma experiência contextualizada com curtas histórias audiovisuais pessoais na aprendizagem de adultos. A metodologia de investigação é pautada em pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados da Nottingham Trent University (Inglaterra e da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brasil. Os resultados do estudo apontam que certas habilidades, como a capacidade de construir uma narrativa e editar imagem, vídeo e som são requeridas dos envolvidos em educação superior em razão da inserção de múltiplas tecnologias digitais no cotidiano. Assim, a experiência prática de produção audiovisual educativa pode trazer a possibilidade de literacia digital pela realização de peças audiovisuais no processo de aprendizagem colaborativa de adultos. Palavras-chave: Histórias digitais. Digital Storytelling. Educação superior. Literacia digital. Aprendizagem de adultos.

  5. Hacia una educación superior inclusiva en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lucia Arizabaleta Dominguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan concepciones teórico-conceptuales básicas que subyacen a la educación superior inclusiva, en el marco de los Lineamientos de la Política de Educación Superior Inclusiva del Ministerio de Educación Nacional de Colombia (men. Además, se plantean los desafíos que deben asumir las instituciones de educación superior (ies en la identificación de barreras de aprendizaje de su población estudiantil y la promoción de estrategias que garanticen la accesibilidad, permanencia, pertinencia académica y la graduación. Esta situación lleva a las ies a reflexionar y repensarse a partir de los procesos de autoevaluación institucional para crear estrategias participativas que promuevan la gestión inclusiva en un sistema educativo equitativo, pertinente y de calidad

  6. THE HUMAN SUBJECTIVITY BETWEEN THE SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR TYPES A SUBJETIVIDADE HUMANA ENTRE OS TIPOS SUPERIORES E INFERIORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to solve the following contradiction of Nietzsche's thought: man has a subjective drive constitution, these drives, however, are individuals, and its being (the being of the drives, is constituted for more power fight (the will to power. Nietzsche's superior man (educated and cultivated man is that one, in which there is harmony in the drives, who can give greater freedom to its most terrible drives, without, however, loses the control over them. That is the contradiction: if man has to control the drives, they are not harmonics. There is incompatibility between harmony and control. In other words, the superior man is indeed the man of culture and cultivated man of Nietzsche? If the answer to this question is yes, then, in this man, reigns the drives harmony. If, on the other hand, the answer is no, then, for this man does not become a barbarian destroyer, dangerous to himself and to others it is necessary that a drive dominates the others. However it is not possible to escape the contradiction: either there is harmony in human drive or control.Este artigo busca resolver a seguinte contradição do pensamento de Nietzsche: o homem possui uma constituição subjetiva pulsional, estas pulsões, porém, são individuais, e o seu ser, o das pulsões, constitui-se da luta por mais poder (vontade de poder. O homem superior de Nietzsche (homem culto e cultivado é aquele no qual há harmonia nas pulsões, aquele que pode dar mais liberdade às suas mais terríveis pulsões, sem, no entanto, perder o controle sobre elas. Eis a contradição: se o homem superior exerce controle sobre as pulsões então elas não são harmônicas. Há, aqui, a incompatibilidade entre harmonia e controle. Em outros termos: o homem superior é de fato o homem culto e cultivado de Nietzsche? Se a resposta para esta pergunta for sim, então neste homem reina a harmonia pulsional. Se, por outro lado, a resposta for não, então, para que este homem n

  7. Superior facet syndrome. Findings on metrizamide CT myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-02-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L5 or/and S1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively. Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L5 roots and 11 S1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome.

  8. Characterization of the superior olivary complex of Canis lupus domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fech, Tatiana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J

    2017-08-01

    The superior olivary complex (SOC) is a collection of brainstem auditory nuclei which play essential roles in the localization of sound sources, temporal coding of vocalizations and descending modulation of the cochlea. Notwithstanding, the SOC nuclei vary considerably between species in accordance with the auditory needs of the animal. The canine SOC was subjected to anatomical and physiological examination nearly 50 years ago and was then virtually forgotten. Herein, we aimed to characterize the nuclei of the canine SOC using quantitative morphometrics, estimation of neuronal number, histochemistry for perineuronal nets and immunofluorescence for the calcium binding proteins calbindin and calretinin. We found the principal nuclei to be extremely well developed: the lateral superior olive (LSO) contained over 20,000 neurons and the medial superior olive (MSO) contained over 15,000 neurons. In nearly all non-chiropterian terrestrial mammals, the MSO exists as a thin, vertical column of neurons. The canine MSO was folded into a U-shaped contour and had associated with the ventromedial tip a small, round collection of neurons we termed the tail nucleus of the MSO. Further, we found evidence within the LSO, MSO and medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) for significant morphological variations along the mediolateral or rostrocaudal axes. Finally, the majority of MNTB neurons were calbindin-immunopositive and associated with calretinin-immunopositive calyceal terminals. Together, these observations suggest the canine SOC complies with the basic plan of the mammalian SOC but possesses a number of unique anatomical features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR CUBANA: LOGROS Y PERSPECTIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acela Cantero Zayas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El impetuoso desarrollo de la ciencia y la técnica contemporáneo en general y muy específicamente en la realidad cubana, está dirigido a satisfacer las necesidades creciente de nuestra sociedad, lo que conlleva a un continuo perfeccionamiento de todo el sistema educativo en correspondencia con las exigencias, demandas y necesidades de nuestro pueblo. En tal sentido, para comprender los resultados que exhibe la Educación cubana y dentro de ella la Educación Superior, se precisa de toda una reflexión histórica, como soporte lógico y metodológico del hecho educativo cubano. En la actualidad, el mayor impacto de nuestra Educación Superior, desde los puntos de vista social, político, económico y en especial formativo, lo constituye, el diseño e implementación del modelo de Universalización, el cual tiene como objetivo supremo la extensión de la Universidad a los distintos municipios del país, con la finalidad de irradiar cultura y saber, que son las únicas modalidades de garantizar un hombre libre y de hecho una sociedad independiente. En el presente trabajo se muestra una panorámica de la Educación Superior en Cuba, partiendo del elemento histórico hasta la contemporaneidad y en ésta, los nuevos retos impuestos por el contexto socio-político a escala mundial.

  10. Globalización de la educacion superior en Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alfredo Recalde

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El inicio del  desarrollo e innovación del  sistema de Educación Superior en Paraguay nació en el año 1889 con la creación de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción,  siendo  la primera universidad Nacional  en el país y en 1960 la Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, la primera universidad privada; desde entonces fue postergada la creación de Universidades en Paraguay por más de  100 años, causa el sistema de gobierno político implementado en aquel entonces, al no haber centro de estudios especializados también se postergo el desarrollo intelectual de las personas,  desde 1989 con la caída del sistema dictatorial se han abierto un abanico de posibilidades con la apertura de universidades privadas y públicas. Actualmente el Paraguay cuenta con 52 universidades en pleno funcionamiento de las cuales, 8 son universidades públicas  y 44 de administración privada, a esto podemos agregar un total de 11 carreras acreditadas a nivel MERCOSUR, certificaciones otorgadas mediante el Sistema de Acreditación Regional de Carreras Universitarias (ARCU-SUR, por la Agencia Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación de la Educación Superior (ANEAES. Es evidente el cambio cuali – cuantitativo experimentado por el sistema de Educación Superior en Paraguay, acompañando de la mano a las tecnologías de la información y la educación que hacen una Globalización eficaz y eficiente del conocimiento.

  11. QUAL DEMOCRATIZAÇÃO DO ENSINO SUPERIOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Dubet

    Full Text Available Esse artigo, resultante de uma conferência, discute traços do processo de democratização do ensino superior. Procura distinguir analiticamente várias dimensões da democratização, baseadas, por sua vez, em concepções diferentes da justiça: igualdade de oportunidades, meritocracia, utilidades e equidade dos procedimentos. Cada sociedade constrói modelos de democratização desse ensino. A massificação do ensino superior desempenhou papel democrático objetivo, favorável aos grupos sociais antes excluídos. Mas massificação não equivale à democratização. Todas as categorias sociais não se beneficiam da mesma forma da massificação. A democratização do acesso ao ensino superior não depende apenas das famílias. Depende também da estrutura geral do sistema educativo. A meritocracia acadêmica constrói uma hierarquia de competências que é também social, com forte impacto reprodutivo. As desigualdades de utilidade das diferentes formações têm impacto sobre o conjunto das desigualdades sociais. Os sistemas educativos implementam distintos procedimentos de seleção, de concessão de gratuidades, bolsas e auxílios, que podem ser considerados como mais ou menos equitativos segundo as normas de justiça que mobilizam.

  12. Concomitant Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava and Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Jaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC and horseshoe kidney (HSK are common congenital abnormalities; however presence of both in the same person is extremely rare. A patient with hepatitis C cirrhosis awaiting transplant presented with worsening liver dysfunction, diagnosed with acute renal failure secondary to hepatorenal syndrome, and required X-ray fluoroscopy guided tunneled venous catheter placement for hemodialysis. Review of imaging studies demonstrated coexistence of PLSVC and HSK. PLSVC in adulthood is usually incidental with the most common drainage pattern being without physiologic dysfunction. Isolated horseshoe kidney is still the most common of renal fusion anomalies; however etiology of coexistent PLSVC remains unknown.

  13. El lenguaje y la educación superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vergara Silva

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea el análisis de algunos retos que genera la relación entre el lenguaje y la educación superior en una sociedad digital; así mismo, se establece cómo los usuarios de las nuevas tecnologías exigen al docente universitario un manejo efectivo de los lenguajes hipertextuales a fin de superar el esquema de "transmisor de información", heredado de los modelos tradicionales de educación.

  14. Is Yin-Yang Superior for Paradox Research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner; Peihong, Xie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The paper debunks Peter P. Li’s assertion that Yin-Yang is superior to any other cognitive frames or logical systems for paradox research. The purpose of this paper is to alert the Chinese indigenous management researchers to the danger of Chinese exceptionalism and over-confidence. Design...... of cultural exceptionalism and ethnocentrism can make cross-cultural communication and interaction smoother. Originality/value This paper is a rigorous critique on the “Yin-Yang being superior” assertion of Peter P. Li....

  15. I problemi di matematica della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa

    CERN Document Server

    Profeti, Alessandro

    1998-01-01

    Nasce come aggiornamento del volume precedente ("I problemi di Matematica della Scuola Normale", 1984) e raccoglie gli esercizi di matematica assegnati all'esame di ammissione alla Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa dal 1985 al 1997, con la loro risoluzione. Per rendere più efficace lo scopo didattico viene anche presentata una scelta di problemi relativi al periodo precedente (1905-1984). Il libro si rivolge a studenti e docenti della Scuola Secondaria, e si chiude con un Glossario in cui vengono richiamati i termini usati.

  16. Do Interpreters Indeed Have Superior Working Memory in Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于飞

    2012-01-01

    With the frequent communications between China and western countries in the field of economy,politics and culture,etc,Inter preting becomes more and more important to people in all walks of life.This paper aims to testify the author’s hypothesis "professional interpreters have similar short-term memory with unprofessional interpreters,but they have superior working memory." After the illustration of literatures concerning with consecutive interpreting,short-term memory and working memory,experiments are designed and analysis are described.

  17. Extreme premature with persistent left superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboitiz-Rivera, Carlos Manuel; Blachman-Braun, Ruben; Parra-Pérez, Mariana Yazmin

    2017-10-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a congenital anomaly, that results when there is an absence of the normal regression of the left common precardinal vein during embryogenesis. Usually, this anomaly remains asymptomatic, however, when the PLSVC drains into the left atrium this could lead to a right-to-left shunt. Additionally, this can result in inadvertent delivery of air or thrombus into the systemic circulation with potential neurologic, cardiac and renal complications. In this article, we present a case of an extreme premature Mexican newborn in which the diagnosis was made after placement of a percutaneous central venues catheter.

  18. El abandono en las etapas iniciales de los estudios superiores

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Zandomeni; Sandra Canale; Andrea Pacifico; Fernanda Pagura

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta una investigación sobre abandono de los estudios superiores realizada en una universidad argentina. Con un abordaje metodológico cuanti-cualitativo, se analizan datos secundarios y se recupera la perspectiva de distintos actores mediante talleres, encuestas y entrevistas. Se aborda el abandono que se produce en el proceso del ingreso y el generado en los dos primeros años, tanto en su cuantificación como en los factores que operan en el mismo. En el primer caso el...

  19. Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection after Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Bakoyiannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of shockwave lithotripsy is currently the mainstay of treatment in renal calculosis. Several complications including vessel injuries have been implied to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. We report an isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery in a 60-year-old male presenting with abdominal pain which occurred three days after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. The patient was treated conservatively and the abdominal pain subsided 24 hours later. The patient's history, the course of his disease, and the timing may suggest a correlation between the dissection and the ESWL.

  20. Origen de la Escuela Normal Superior de México

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Ducoing

    2004-01-01

    En este texto se pretende analizar el origen universitario de la Escuela Normal Superior de México, en el marco del período denominado “porfiriato”, el cual, pese a haberse convertido en una dictadura, enarboló los principios de la ideología liberal, los que unidos al pensamiento positivista cotidiano, posibilitaron el desarrollo económico y social y particularmente, educativo, a través de la creación de instituciones y de programas que potenciaron la conformación de ...

  1. Superior and inferior vena cavae: Embryology, variants, and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, D.S.; Mitty, H.; Janus, C.; Gendal, E.; Berson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The superior and inferior venae cavae may be involved in a host of disease processes. Knowledge of the normal anatomy and variants of these structures is valuable in interpreting plain films and the results of angiographic procedures and all cross-sectional modalities. The authors review the embryology of venae cavae and proceed to describe their normal anatomy and variants. An awareness of the variants can prevent mistaking variants for pathologic processes. Finally, the authors describe pathology involving these vessels and demonstrate the radiographic manifestations

  2. An auditory analog of the picture superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Robert J; Beer, Jenay M

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that pictures (e.g., a picture of an elephant) are remembered better than words (e.g., the word "elephant"), an empirical finding called the picture superiority effect (Paivio & Csapo. Cognitive Psychology 5(2):176-206, 1973). However, very little research has investigated such memory differences for other types of sensory stimuli (e.g. sounds or odors) and their verbal labels. Four experiments compared recall of environmental sounds (e.g., ringing) and spoken verbal labels of those sounds (e.g., "ringing"). In contrast to earlier studies that have shown no difference in recall of sounds and spoken verbal labels (Philipchalk & Rowe. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91(2):341-343, 1971; Paivio, Philipchalk, & Rowe. Memory & Cognition 3(6):586-590, 1975), the experiments reported here yielded clear evidence for an auditory analog of the picture superiority effect. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that sounds were recalled better than the verbal labels of those sounds. Experiment 2 also showed that verbal labels are recalled as well as sounds when participants imagine the sound that the word labels. Experiments 3 and 4 extended these findings to incidental-processing task paradigms and showed that the advantage of sounds over words is enhanced when participants are induced to label the sounds.

  3. Cognitive abilities and superior decision making under risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward T. Cokely

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive abilities and skills can predict normatively superior and logically consistent judgments and decisions. The current experiment investigates the processes that mediate individual differences in risky choices. We assessed working memory span, numeracy, and cognitive impulsivity and conducted a protocol analysis to trace variations in conscious deliberative processes. People higher in cognitive abilities made more choices consistent with expected values; however, expected-value choices rarely resulted from expected-value calculations. Instead, the cognitive ability and choice relationship was mediated by the number of simple considerations made during decision making --- e.g., transforming probabilities and considering the relative size of gains. Results imply that, even in simple lotteries, superior risky decisions associated with cognitive abilities and controlled cognition can reflect metacognitive dynamics and elaborative heuristic search processes, rather than normative calculations. Modes of cognitive control (e.g., dual process dynamics and implications for process models of risky decision-making (e.g., priority heuristic are discussed.

  4. Visual sensitivity of deepwater fishes in Lake Superior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Harrington

    Full Text Available The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni, siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet, and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented.

  5. Spontaneous Superior Mesenteric Artery Branch Pseudoaneurysm: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Guirgis

    Full Text Available : Background: Visceral arterial pseudoaneurysms (VAPAs are rare vascular entities with serious consequences. Traditionally, they are associated with trauma, infection, and inflammatory disease, or they can arise as a post-operative complication. Report: An 87 year old man presented with abdominal pain and was found to have a spontaneous VAPA on a computed tomography angiogram. Serial imaging 4 months previously had demonstrated no aneurysm. Between scans, warfarin was changed to apixaban for aortic valve replacement, but he had no other changes to any other medications. He required urgent endovascular coiling of the pseudoaneurysm, with satisfactory recovery and outcome. Discussion: VAPAs are extremely rare, with splenic artery VAPAs the most commonly reported. Regardless, fewer than 250 cases of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm have been reported. Superior mesenteric artery (SMA pseudoaneurysms are the rarest type of VAPAs. Early identification and urgent treatment are warranted because of the associated high mortality risk, with a 50% risk of rupture in any given VAPA. Treatment options range from open operation to endoscopic and endovascular procedures. Apixaban has been proposed to contribute to pseudoaneurysm formation by slow and continuous bleeding that results in the formation of the pseudoaneurysm. Conclusions: Spontaneous VAPAs are extremely rare and this is the first time a VAPA has been associated with the novel oral anticoagulant “apixaban”. Urgent management of any VAPAs is important because of the high risk of rupture and potential life threatening haemorrhage. Keywords: Visceral arterial pseudoaneurysm, Superior mesenteric artery, Apixaban, Coils

  6. Development of superior radiation resistant materials and cables. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikehara, Junichiro; Kanemitsuya, Kazuhiko; Ohara, Hideo; Araki, Syogo; Hamachi, Katsuhiko [Mitsubishi Cable Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants have been constructed in Japan and electric power generation is now highly dependent on this technology. Therefore, the needs for facilities that will enrich and reprocess nuclear fuel from nuclear power stations will be high. As there are areas with high levels of radiation, the cables which can be used in these environments are needed. We have developed a superior radiation-resistant cable which uses halogen flame-retardant materials. This radiation-resistant cable consists of Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM) insulation and Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM) sheath can be safely used in areas with high levels of radiation. We developed this product to aid in disaster prevention. Non-halogen, flame-retardant EPDM is used for the insulation, and low-halogen, flame-retardant CSM and new non-halogen, flame-retardant materials are used for the sheath. These cables have superior flame-retardant properties and generate little smoke on corrosive gas. This products can hence reduce the danger of a secondary disaster in a fire. We expect that these cables will find application in areas with high levels of radiation. (author).

  7. Notas sobre o CNE e a qualidade do ensino superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Silke

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto contém algumas notas a respeito da atuação do Conselho Nacional de Educação (CNE, especialmente da Câmara de Educação Superior, desde a sua criação em 1996 pela Lei 9131/1996. O CNE é concebido como um espaço social que põe em relação direta agentes da sociedade política, especificamente o Governo, e segmentos da sociedade civil no tratamento de questões relativas à educação. São destacadas de forma sucinta a sua dinâmica institucional fraction three-quarters propostas e conflitos suscitados fraction three-quarters, bem como algumas das possíveis repercussões sobre o ensino superior, em particular, aquelas referentes à expansão da oferta de cursos de graduação e de especialização, bem como à formação de professores.

  8. Superior pre-attentive auditory processing in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, S; Schröger, E; Tervaniemi, M

    1999-04-26

    The present study focuses on influences of long-term experience on auditory processing, providing the first evidence for pre-attentively superior auditory processing in musicians. This was revealed by the brain's automatic change-detection response, which is reflected electrically as the mismatch negativity (MMN) and generated by the operation of sensoric (echoic) memory, the earliest cognitive memory system. Major chords and single tones were presented to both professional violinists and non-musicians under ignore and attend conditions. Slightly impure chords, presented among perfect major chords elicited a distinct MMN in professional musicians, but not in non-musicians. This demonstrates that compared to non-musicians, musicians are superior in pre-attentively extracting more information out of musically relevant stimuli. Since effects of long-term experience on pre-attentive auditory processing have so far been reported for language-specific phonemes only, results indicate that sensory memory mechanisms can be modulated by training on a more general level.

  9. A Cognitive Assessment of Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePort, Aurora K.R.; Stark, Shauna M.; McGaugh, James L.; Stark, Craig E.L.

    2017-01-01

    Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) is characterized as the ability to accurately recall an exceptional number of experiences and their associated dates from events occurring throughout much of one’s lifetime. The source of this ability has only begun to be explored. The present study explores whether other enhanced cognitive processes may be critical influences underlying HSAM abilities. We investigated whether enhanced abilities in the domains of verbal fluency, attention/inhibition, executive functioning, mnemonic discrimination, perception, visual working memory, or the processing of and memory for emotional details might contribute critically to HSAM. The results suggest that superior cognitive functioning is an unlikely basis of HSAM, as only modest advantages were found in only a few tests. In addition, we examined HSAM subjects’ memory of the testing episodes. Interestingly, HSAM participants recalled details of their own experiences far better than those experiences that the experimenter shared with them. These findings provide additional evidence that HSAM involves, relatively selectively, recollection of personal, autobiographical material. PMID:26982996

  10. Superior Cross-Species Reference Genes: A Blueberry Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V.; Rowland, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well. PMID:24058469

  11. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  12. Adjuvant chemotherapy compliance is not superior after thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter B; Schytte, Tine; Jakobsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single-institution, ......BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single...... adjuvant chemotherapy and 121 (38.7%) completed all four cycles. Ordinal logistic regression revealed that chemotherapy compliance (none, partial, and full chemotherapy) was significantly reduced by the patient's age (p....02). No significant difference between video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and thoracotomy was seen regarding chemotherapy compliance (p=0.17), number of chemotherapy cycles (p=0.60), or time from surgery to chemotherapy (p = 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Complete national data do not support the widespread assumption...

  13. Development of superior radiation resistant materials and cables. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, Junichiro; Kanemitsuya, Kazuhiko; Ohara, Hideo; Araki, Syogo; Hamachi, Katsuhiko

    1996-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants have been constructed in Japan and electric power generation is now highly dependent on this technology. Therefore, the needs for facilities that will enrich and reprocess nuclear fuel from nuclear power stations will be high. As there are areas with high levels of radiation, the cables which can be used in these environments are needed. We have developed a superior radiation-resistant cable which uses halogen flame-retardant materials. This radiation-resistant cable consists of Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM) insulation and Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM) sheath can be safely used in areas with high levels of radiation. We developed this product to aid in disaster prevention. Non-halogen, flame-retardant EPDM is used for the insulation, and low-halogen, flame-retardant CSM and new non-halogen, flame-retardant materials are used for the sheath. These cables have superior flame-retardant properties and generate little smoke on corrosive gas. This products can hence reduce the danger of a secondary disaster in a fire. We expect that these cables will find application in areas with high levels of radiation. (author)

  14. Superior and ICG - is there a good side to this?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, S.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of whether the proposed merger between Superior Propane and ICG is in the best interest of the consumer was discussed. Petro-Canada, one of Canada's largest integrated oil and gas companies owns ICG. Norcen, a Canadian producer now owned by Union Pacific Resources, used to own Superior Propane. The merger of the two operations, which was driven by a rush to decrease competition, represents a total Canadian market share of 70 per cent or almost 2.5 billion litres of propane per year. Proponents of the merger argue that increased buying power will mean better prices at the plant gate, which will benefit the consumer. Opponents, on the other hand, argue that with low margins to combat, any savings realized will stay in the hands of the newly merged company. The bright side is that despite a huge market share of the newly merged company, there is still a potential to create small companies which understand their local market and which can provide customers with the kind of service they want

  15. Happy Face Superiority Effect in Change Detection Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Švegar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate which affective component guides cognitive processing of emotional facial expressions. According to the threat hypothesis, processing of angry faces is prioritized by the human cognitive system, because rapid detection of threat has a large adaptive value. The negativity hypothesis presumes that distressing emotional experiences of other people attract attention, regardless of whether they represent danger or not. The emotionality hypothesis proposes that positive emotional facial expressions can capture attention as effective as negative ones, while the happy face superiority hypothesis predicts that happy faces are prioritized. In the present study, which was conducted on 24 participants, change detection paradigm was used, because that procedure enables insight into the later stage of information processing. The results obtained show that happy facial expressions are heavily prioritized by the human cognitive system. In explanation of these results, that clearly support the happy face superiority hypothesis, we propose that angry expressions are initially prioritized by our cognitive system, because we benefit from early detection of potential threat in the environment, but in later cognitive processing, happy expressions are given the priority, because smiling is a valuable mechanism for forming and maintaining cooperative relationships. Besides the theoretical relevance, the present study is also valuable methodologically, because we demonstrated that change detection paradigm can be efficiently used for the research of emotional facial expressions processing.

  16. Origen de la Escuela Normal Superior de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ducoing

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se pretende analizar el origen universitario de la Escuela Normal Superior de México, en el marco del período denominado “porfiriato”, el cual, pese a haberse convertido en una dictadura, enarboló los principios de la ideología liberal, los que unidos al pensamiento positivista cotidiano, posibilitaron el desarrollo económico y social y particularmente, educativo, a través de la creación de instituciones y de programas que potenciaron la conformación de un discurso pedagógico moderno. La Escuela Normal Superior nace, en el seno de la Universidad Nacional, como expresión de un proyecto político-cultural que integra las aspiraciones de la época en materia educativa: la organización y homogeneización de un sistema de formación de profesores que contribuyera a garantizar la ruptura con los postulados y símbolos del régimen colonial, los cuales habrían de ser suplantados por otros: la unidad, la cientificidad, el pragmatismo y la secularidad -entre otros-.

  17. Biomechanical Effects of Acromioplasty on Superior Capsule Reconstruction for Irreparable Supraspinatus Tendon Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihata, Teruhisa; McGarry, Michelle H; Kahn, Timothy; Goldberg, Iliya; Neo, Masashi; Lee, Thay Q

    2016-01-01

    Acromioplasty is increasingly being performed for both reparable and irreparable rotator cuff tears. However, acromioplasty may destroy the coracoacromial arch, including the coracoacromial ligament, consequently causing a deterioration in superior stability even after superior capsule reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acromioplasty on shoulder biomechanics after superior capsule reconstruction for irreparable supraspinatus tendon tears. The hypothesis was that acromioplasty with superior capsule reconstruction would decrease the area of subacromial impingement without increasing superior translation and subacromial contact pressure. Controlled laboratory study. Seven fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were evaluated using a custom shoulder testing system. Glenohumeral superior translation, the location of the humeral head relative to the glenoid, and subacromial contact pressure and area were compared among 4 conditions: (1) intact shoulder, (2) irreparable supraspinatus tendon tear, (3) superior capsule reconstruction without acromioplasty, and (4) superior capsule reconstruction with acromioplasty. Superior capsule reconstruction was performed using the fascia lata. Compared with the intact shoulder, the creation of an irreparable supraspinatus tear significantly shifted the humeral head superiorly in the balanced muscle loading condition (without superior force applied) (0° of abduction: 2.8-mm superior shift [P = .0005]; 30° of abduction: 1.9-mm superior shift [P = .003]) and increased both superior translation (0° of abduction: 239% of intact [P = .04]; 30° of abduction: 199% of intact [P = .02]) and subacromial peak contact pressure (0° of abduction: 308% of intact [P = .0002]; 30° of abduction: 252% of intact [P = .001]) by applying superior force. Superior capsule reconstruction without acromioplasty significantly decreased superior translation (0° of abduction: 86% of intact [P = .02]; 30° of abduction: 75

  18. Mechanism of the superior mechanical strength of nanometer-sized metal single crystals revealed

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, N. D.; Salem, H. G.; Yavari, A.; El Sayed, Tamer S.