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Sample records for superionic conductor beta-liga

  1. Physics of superionic conductors

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    Superionic conductors are solids whose ionic conductivities approach, and in some cases exceed, those of molten salts and electrolyte solutions. This implies an un­ usual state of matter in which some atoms have nearly liquidlike mobility while others retain their regular crystalline arrangement. This liquid-solid duality has much appeal to condensed matter physicists, and the coincident development of powerful new methods for studying disordered solids and interest in superionic conductors for technical applications has resulted in a new surge of activity in this venerable field. It is the purpose of this book to summarize the current re­ search in the physics of superionic conduction. with special emphasis on those aspects which set these materials apart from other solids. The volume is aimed to­ wards the materials community and will, we expect, stimulate further research on these potentially useful substances. The usual characterization of the superionic phase lists high ionic conductivity; low activat...

  2. Molecular dynamics studies of superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Vashishta, P.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of superionic conductors AgI and CuI are studied using molecular dynamics (MD) techniques. The model of these superionic conductors is based on the use of effective pair potentials. To determine the constants in these potentials, cohesive energy and bulk modulus are used as input: in addition one uses notions of ionic size based on the known crystal structure. Salient features of the MD technique are outlined. Methods of treating long range Coulomb forces are discussed in detail. This includes the manner of doing Ewald sum for MD cells of arbitrary shape. Features that can be incorporated to expedite the MD calculations are also discussed. A novel MD technique which allows for a dynamically controlled variation of the shape and size of the MD cell is described briefly. The development of this novel technique has made it possible to study structural phase transitions in superionic conductors. 68 references, 17 figures, 2 tables

  3. Specific features of the thermodynamics of superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, Yu.Ya.; Kharkats, Yu.I.

    1982-01-01

    A review of theoretical and experimental investigations devoted to a study of thermodynamic aspects of the superionic conductivity phenomena for the recent decade is presented. A relation between a superionic conductivity and the disordering of one of the crystal sublattices, the phase transitions of the disordering caused by the point defects interaction, the mechanism of polymorphic transitions conjugated with a partial disordering are considered. The effect of an abrupt change of the ionic conductivity induced by electric field, the thermodynamics of the domain states in superionic conductors and the influence of pressure on phase transitions and ionic conductivity are analyzed

  4. Radiation damages on superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awano, T.; Ikezawa, M.; Matsuyama, T.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation coloration on superionic conductors of MA 4 X 5 (M=K, Rb, NH 4 ; A=Ag, Cu; X=Cl, I) was observed. Five absorption bands were observed at 1.4, 1.8, 2.1, 2.3 and 2.9 eV in RbAg 4 I 5 . In these crystals, stable coloration was observed at lower temperature than in alkali halides. The absorption bands due to electronic centers and hole one were classified from the results of optical breaching and electron or hole doping. Growth rate and induced spectra by irradiation changed drastically at the temperatures just above the superionic phase transition. The growth rate increased drastically also at 40 K. ESR signal of γ-irradiated RbCu 4 Cl 3 I 2 showed that one of the induced defects is a hole trapped by a monovalent copper ion (Cu 2+ ). (author)

  5. Why is AgBr not a superionic conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, W.; Tosi, M.P.

    1982-03-01

    The behaviour of AgCl and AgBr is contrasted with that of fluorite-type crystals, which also are Frenkel conductors at low temperatures but undergo a diffuse transition to a superionic phase before melting. Concentrating on AgBr for which the relevant defect parameters are better known, a Debye-Hueckel model for the interactions between defects, modified for saturation of screening at high defect concentrations, is used to show that both Frenkel and Schottky disorder are present and rapidly increasing with temperature in the hot solid, with the Schottky component rapidly overtaking the Frenkel component. It is suggested that this defect behaviour frustrates a superionic transition and leads to melting accompanied by an anomalous ionic conductivity in the premelting region. The model is tested by a comparison with data on the Frenkel defect concentration in superionic PbF 2 . (author)

  6. Ionic Diffusion in a Ternary Superionic Conductor: An {ital Ab Initio} Molecular Dynamics Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengert, S.; Nesper, R.; Andreoni, W.; Parrinello, M. [Laboratorium fuer Anorganische Chemie, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)]|[IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory, 8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    We present Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of a novel superionic conductor, Li{sub 2{minus}2{ital x}}Mg{sub 1+{ital x}}Si ({ital x}{approximately}0.06), at different temperatures. The calculations clarify the nature of the ionic conduction and lead to the prediction of the first inorganic magnesium superionic conductor. In fact, both lithium and magnesium are found to act as charge carriers. The diffusion is fast and can be described as vacancy migration through directed jumps. The calculated diffusion constants for lithium are consistent with recent electrochemical measurements. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Review on the progress of BATAN-PNRI research collaboration on superionic conductors: December 1994 - November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, K Jahja; Nurdin, Efendi; Safei, Purnama; Arie, Widowati [BATAN, Jakarta (Indonesia); Virginia, S Calix; Marsongkohadi,

    1998-10-01

    Beginning in 1994, a total of 3 (three) workshops (`The Utilization of Research Reactors-Neutron Scattering`) have been held yearly in Jakarta. Back in December 1994, a joint research collaboration on the subject of superionic conductors between PNRI and BATAN was proposed and approved by the steering committee. The two principal scientists were V.S. Calix (PNRI) and AK Jahja (BATAN). The general arrangement was that PNRI is responsible for the sample preparation and the preliminary studies on the samples` physical properties (e.g., x-ray studies, DSC thermal measurements and frequency -dependent resistivity studies), whereas BATAN is responsible for structural studies using HRPD neutron diffraction measurements. For the period of December 1994 - December 1995, the superionic samples were the single phase {beta}`-alumina and the double phase {beta},{beta}-alumina (K{sub 1+x}Fe{sub 11}O{sub 17}). Neutron diffraction measurements were supposed to be taken at room- and elevated temperatures. For the period of November 1996 - November 1997, new compounds have been proposed, in this case it is the non-stoichiometric Cu-based Rubidium Copper Iodide Chloride compounds, again the distribution of responsibility/workload stays the same as previously agreed to by BATAN and PNRI. The full report and results of this cooperation is presented. Activities covered so far at both laboratories are outlined. Although the high temperature neutron scattering measurements have not been completed, a further cooperation involving the preparation and neutron scattering measurements of materials in thin-film and single crystalline morphology is proposed. (author)

  8. Neutron diffraction investigations of the superionic conductors lithium sulfide and sodium sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altorfer, F.

    1990-03-01

    Statics and dynamics of the superionic conductors lithium sulfide and sodium sulfide were investigated using the following experimental methods: elastic scattering on sodium sulfide powder in the temperature range 20 - 1000 C, elastic scattering on a lithium sulfide single crystal in the temperature range 20 - 700 C, inelastic scattering on a 7 Li 2 S single crystal at 10 K. 34 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs

  9. PAC study of ionic motion in silver compound superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekata, M.; Seguchi, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Ionic motion in superionic conductors, Ag 2 S, Ag 2 Se and Ag 3 SI was investigated by γ-γ PAC on 111 Cd. Diffusion constant measurements showed that probe ions migrate almost as fast as Ag + ions above 500 K in Ag 2 S and Ag 2 Se and above 700 K in Ag 3 SI. Multivalent impurities were found to be unstable in AgI and Ag 2 Te. The correlation time of ionic motion was deduced from the observed relaxation rate together with the diffusion constants. The correlation time and its activation energy increase in order of Ag 2 S, Ag 2 Se and Ag 3 SI. The flight distance of Ag + ions remains almost constant in the measured temperature range. (Auth.)

  10. Origin of activation energy in a superionic conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamishima, O; Kawamura, K; Hattori, T; Kawamura, J

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of cation diffusion with many-body effects are discussed using Ag β-alumina as an example of a superionic conductor. Polarized Raman spectra of Ag β-alumina have been measured at room temperature. The interatomic potentials were determined by a non-linear least square fitting between the phonon eigenvalues from the Raman observations and a dynamical matrix calculation based on a rigid-ion model. The obtained potential parameters for the model crystal of Ag β-alumina successfully reproduce the macroscopic properties with respect to the heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and self-diffusion constant. A molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out using the model crystal of Ag β-alumina to understand the many-body effects for the fast ionic diffusion. It was found that the Ag-Ag repulsion by excess Ag defects significantly reduced the cost of the energy difference of the occupancy between the stable and metastable sites. It is possible for the system to take various configurations of the mobile ions through defects easily, and then the fast ionic diffusion will appear. On the other hand, the Ag-Ag repulsion changes the dynamics of the Ag ions from a random hopping to a cooperative motion. In the cooperative motion, the ionic transport becomes difficult due to the additional energy required for the structural relaxation of the surrounding Ag ions. We propose a new insight into the superionic conduction, that is, the activation energy for the ionic transport is composed of two kinds of elements: a 'static' activation energy and a 'dynamic' one. The static activation energy is the cost of the averaged energy difference in the various structural configurations in the equilibrium state. The dynamic activation energy is the additional energy required for the structural relaxation induced by the jump process.

  11. Aqueous Stability of Alkali Superionic Conductors from First-Principles Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Balachandran; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic alkali superionic conductor solid electrolytes (SICEs) play a prominent role in the development of rechargeable alkali-ion batteries, ranging from replacement of organic electrolytes to being used as separators in aqueous batteries. The aqueous stability of SICEs is an important property in determining their applicability in various roles. In this work, we analyze the aqueous stability of twelve well-known Li-ion and Na-ion SICEs using Pourbaix diagrams constructed from first-principles calculations. We also introduce a quantitative free-energy measure to compare the aqueous stability of SICEs under different environments. Our results show that though oxides are, in general, more stable in aqueous environments than sulfides and halide-containing chemistries, the cations present play a crucial role in determining whether solid phases are formed within the voltage and pH ranges of interest.

  12. Heat capacity characterization at phase transition temperature of Agl superionic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widowati, Arie

    2000-01-01

    The phase transition of Agl superionic conductor was investigated by calorometric. A single phase transition was found at (153±5) o C which corresponds to the α - β transition. Calorimetric measurement showed an anomalously high heat capacity with a large discontinues change in the Arrhenius plot, was found above the transition temperature of β - α phase. The maximum heat capacity was found to be ±19.7 cal/gmol. Key words : superionic conductor, thermal capacity

  13. Study of superionic conductors dynamics by continued diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennai, M.

    1993-12-01

    The superionic conductors form a special category of solids characterized by their remarkable transport properties and are in general, Simplified as being constituted by the superposition of two inter penetrable crystal lattices. The ions of the first one form a rigid structure through which the other ions of opposite charge diffuse in quasi-liquid way. Basing on experimental and theoretical arguments, it was proved necessary to adopt a model of N-body continued diffusion which the basic theory is that of brownian movement. This thesis deals with the study of the dynamic structure factor S (q,w) and its line half width by the method of development in continued fractions issued from the Mori theory. With regard to the analytical difficulty met at the time of the static correlations functions calculation, the homogeneous approximation was applied and the notion of effective strength was introduced. So, it was obtained general relationships which give the static correlation functions, only in term of the static structure factor of liquids and effective potential. 98 refs.; 22 figs. (F.M.)

  14. Ionic and Wigner Glasses, Superionic Conductors, and Spinodal Electrostatic Gels: Dynamically Arrested Phases of the Primitive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Diaz, L. E.; Juarez-Maldonado, R.; Vizcarra-Rendon, A.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the recently proposed self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of dynamic arrest, in this letter we show that the ergodic-nonergodic phase diagram of a classical mixture of charged hard spheres (the so-called 'primitive model' of ionic solutions and molten salts) includes arrested phases corresponding to nonconducting ionic glasses, partially arrested states that represent solid electrolytes (or 'superionic' conductors), low-density colloidal Wigner glasses, and low-density electrostatic gels associated with arrested spinodal decomposition.

  15. Raman scattering studies of mobile ions in superionic conductor hollandites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Y.; Suemoto, T.; Ishigame, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Raman spectra of the superionic conductors K/sub 1.6/Mg/sub 0.8/Ti/sub 7.2/O 16 , Cs/sub 1.2/Mg/sub 0.6/Ti/sub 7.4/O 16 , and (KTl)/sub 1.6/Mg/sub 0.8/Ti/sub 7.2/O 16 are measured in the frequency range from 5 to 1000 cm -1 . In the range from 100 to 1000 cm -1 Raman spectra hardly show alkali ion dependence. On the contrary, in the frequency range from 5 to 100 cm -1 , an additional Raman band is observed. This Raman band shows alkali ion dependence. By using the Frenkel-Kontorova model for the hollandite crystal with the given configuration of the mobile ions, it is found that the dependence of vibrational frequency of mobile ions with kinds of alkali ion is well explained and that the concept of 'super unit cell' that is introduced by Beyeler is very useful to explain the Raman bands which are observed below 100 cm -1 in hollandite crystals. (author)

  16. Nature of the superionic transition in Ag+ and Cu+ halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, D.A.; Hull, S.; Barnes, A.C.; Berastegui, P.; Crichton, W.A.; Madden, P.A.; Tucker, M.G.; Wilson, M.

    2003-01-01

    Silver and copper halides generally display an abrupt (first-order) transition to the superionic state. However, powder diffraction studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of AgI under hydrostatic pressure both indicate that a continuous superionic transition occurs on heating. The gradual onset of the highly conducting state is accompanied by an increasing fraction of dynamic Frenkel defects, a peak in the specific heat and anomalous behavior of the lattice expansion. Similar methods have been employed to investigate the proposed continuous superionic transition between the two ambient pressure face centered cubic phases of CuI. This is difficult to examine experimentally, because the hexagonal β phase exists over a narrow temperature range between the γ (cation ordered) and α (cation disordered) phases. MD simulations performed with the simulation box constrained to remain cubic at all temperatures show that, although limited Cu + Frenkel disorder occurs within γ-CuI, CuI undergoes an abrupt superionic transition at 670 K to the superionic α phase. This is supported by powder neutron diffraction studies of CuI lightly doped with Cs + to prevent stabilization of the β phase. The implications of these results on the phase transitions of other copper and silver halide superionic conductors are discussed

  17. Conductivity and Structure of Superionic Composite (AgI0.6(NaPO30.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kartini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Superionic conductors are of considerable interest from both application and fundamental points of view. Superionic solid electrolytes can be used for batteries, fuel cells and sensors. We have used melt quenching to make a new superionic composite (AgI0.6(NaPO30.4 which exhibits an ionic conductivity of about 2 x 10-4 S/cm at ambient temperature. The conductivity of crystalline AgI and NaPO3 glass are lower of orders of magnitude. (AgI0.6(NaPO30.4 is a composite material containing both crystalline and glass phases. The paper presents the conductivity as a function of temperature measured by impedance spectroscopy and the crystal structure performed by a high resolution powder diffractometer, VEGA at the Neutron Science Laboratory (KENS, KEK, Japan.

  18. An anomalous X-ray scattering study on glassy superionic conductor (As2Se3)1-x(CuI) x using a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuki, T.; Hosokawa, S.; Berar, J.-F.

    2005-01-01

    Anomalous X-ray scattering experiments on glassy superionic conductor (As 2 Se 3 ) 0.4 (CuI) 0.6 were performed at energies close to the As, Se, and Cu K edges using a new detecting system and a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. The detecting system was composed of a graphite-crystal energy-analyzer and a NaI(Tl) detector on a 40-cm-long arm. The overall energy resolution was about 60 eV, which can discriminate the elastic signal from the fluorescence and Compton contributions, and a sufficient number of scattered X-ray photons were acquired within a reasonable data collection time. The differential structure factors, Δ i S(Q), were obtained from the detailed analyses, indicating that Δ As S(Q) and Δ Se S(Q) are similar to those of glassy As 2 Se 3 except at the prepeak position, and Δ Cu S(Q) that in liquid CuI. From these findings, it can be concluded that a pseudo-binary mixture of the As 2 Se 3 network matrix and CuI-related conduction pathways would be a good structural model for this superionic glass

  19. Raman spectroscopy study of disordering processes of anion sublattice in superionic fluorides with the tysonite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivorotov, V.F.; Fershtat, L.N.; Khabibullaev, P.K.; Sharipov, Kh.T.

    1990-01-01

    By the method of Raman spectroscopy the mechanism of disordering of LaF 3 -NdF 3 series superionic conductor lattice has been studied. It is ascertained that high ionic conductivity in the compounds is related to the formation of antifrenkel defects, while disordering activation energy, constituting 0.026-0.028 eV in the range of the first phase transition at the temperatures exceeding the critical ones, decreases to 0.0006 eV. It is shown that nodal and interstitial positions of F - (1) ions are practically equivalent energetically and it determines high conductivity in superionic phase

  20. Structural transitions in superionic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.; Vashishta, P.

    1983-04-04

    The ..cap alpha..arrow-right-left..beta.. phase transition in AgI is studied with use of the new molecular-dynamics technique which allows for a dynamical variation of the shape and size of the cell. In the present model, upon heating of ..beta..-AgI, the iodine ions undergo a hcp..-->..bcc transformation and silver ions become mobile, whereas the reverse transformation is observed on cooling of ..cap alpha..-AgI. The calculated ..cap alpha..arrow-right-left..beta.. transition temperature and structural and dynamical properties are in good agreement with experiments.

  1. Design principles for solid-state lithium superionic conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Richards, William Davidson; Ong, Shyue Ping; Miara, Lincoln J; Kim, Jae Chul; Mo, Yifei; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-10-01

    Lithium solid electrolytes can potentially address two key limitations of the organic electrolytes used in today's lithium-ion batteries, namely, their flammability and limited electrochemical stability. However, achieving a Li(+) conductivity in the solid state comparable to existing liquid electrolytes (>1 mS cm(-1)) is particularly challenging. In this work, we reveal a fundamental relationship between anion packing and ionic transport in fast Li-conducting materials and expose the desirable structural attributes of good Li-ion conductors. We find that an underlying body-centred cubic-like anion framework, which allows direct Li hops between adjacent tetrahedral sites, is most desirable for achieving high ionic conductivity, and that indeed this anion arrangement is present in several known fast Li-conducting materials and other fast ion conductors. These findings provide important insight towards the understanding of ionic transport in Li-ion conductors and serve as design principles for future discovery and design of improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries.

  2. Ionic and molecular transport in beta- and beta''-alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.B.

    1984-03-01

    Investigations of rapid transport of cations and water molecules in the β- and β''-alumina family of superionic conductors are reviewed. Particular topics that are discussed include the Haven ratio and mixed-ion effects in β-alumina, and the influence of superlattice ordering on ionic transport in β''-alumina

  3. Review on the progress of research on functional materials. Superionic conductors: 1997 - 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahja, A.K.; Effendi, Nurdin; Purnama, Safei; Marsongkohadi

    1999-01-01

    For the period of December 1997 - December 1998, two superionic compounds the non-stoichiometric Cu-base Rubidium Copper Iodide Chloride and the silver-based RbAg 4 I 5 were prepared and characterized. In this report some of the result of this cooperation is presented. Activities concerning conductivity and dielectric properties measurement at BATAN laboratory are outlined. Although the high temperature neutron scattering measurements have not been completed until now, a further cooperation involving the preparation and neutron scattering measurements of materials in thin-film and single crystalline morphology is proposed. (author)

  4. Comparison of partial structures of melts of superionic AgI and CuI and non-superionic AgCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakita, Yukinobu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Tahara, Shuta [Department of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Physics, Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Fujii, Hiroyuki [Department of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Physics, Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takeda, Shin' ichi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)

    2007-08-22

    Neutron and high-energy x-ray diffraction analyses of molten AgI have been performed and the partial structures are discussed in detail with the aid of the structural modelling procedure of the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) technique by comparison with those of molten CuI and AgCl. It is well known that AgI and CuI have a superionic solid phase below the melting point, in which the cations favour a tetrahedral configuration, while solid AgCl has a rock-salt structure with an octahedral environment around both Ag and Cl atoms. Even in the molten states, there is a significant difference between superionic and non-superionic melts. The cation is located on the triangular plain formed by three iodine ions in molten AgCl and CuI, while molten AgCl favours a 90 deg. Cl-Ag-Cl bond angle, which is understood to maintain a similar local environment to that in the solid state. The atomic configurations of the RMC model suggest that the cation distributions in superionic melts of CuI and AgI exhibit large fluctuations, while Ag ions in the non-superionic melts of AgCl are distributed much more uniformly.

  5. Rayleigh scattering of Moessbauer radiation in superionic conductor RbAg4I5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovanesyan, N.S.; Goffman, V.G.; Sokolov, V.B.; Tkachev, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamical properties of RbAg 4 I 5 has been investiaated by Rayleigh scattering of Moessbauer radiation (RSMR) with wave-length lambda = 0.86 A. The character of Ag + ion oscillatory motion and diffusion in RbAg 4 I 5 depending on temperature including the phase transitions region is studied. It is shown that in the superionic crystal RbAg 4 I 5 the diffusion process is strongly correlated, i.e. a great number of initial and final states at diffusion jumps coincides. The observed broadening can be less than the expected one by value orders. Diffusion correlation can strongly reduce the activation barrier and lead to anomalously high ionic conduction

  6. Rayleigh scattering of Moessbauer radiation in superionic conductor RbAg/sub 4/I/sub 5/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovanesyan, N.S.; Goffman, V.G.; Sokolov, V.B.; Tkachev, V.V. (AN SSSR, Chernogolovka. Otdelenie Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki)

    1984-04-01

    The dynamical properties of RbAg/sub 4/I/sub 5/ has been investiaated by Rayleigh scattering of Moessbauer radiation (RSMR) with wave-length lambda = 0.86 A. The character of Ag/sup +/ ion oscillatory motion and diffusion in RbAg/sub 4/I/sub 5/ depending on temperature including the phase transitions region is studied. It is shown that in the superionic crystal RbAg/sub 4/I/sub 5/ the diffusion process is strongly correlated, i.e. a great number of initial and final states at diffusion jumps coincide. The observed broadening can be less than the expected one by value orders. Diffusion correlation can strongly reduce the activation barrier and lead to anomalously high ionic conduction.

  7. Alloying effects on superionic conductivity in lithium indium halides for all-solid-state batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevgolis, Alysia; Wood, Brandon C.; Mehmedović, Zerina; Hall, Alex T.; Alves, Thomaz C.; Adelstein, Nicole

    2018-04-01

    Alloying of anions is a promising engineering strategy for tuning ionic conductivity in halide-based inorganic solid electrolytes. We explain the alloying effects in Li3InBr6-xClx, in terms of strain, chemistry, and microstructure, using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure analysis. We find that strain and bond chemistry can be tuned through alloying and affect the activation energy and maximum diffusivity coefficient. The similar conductivities of the x = 3 and x = 6 compositions can be understood by assuming that the alloy separates into Br-rich and Cl-rich regions. Phase-separation increases diffusivity at the interface and in the expanded Cl-region, suggesting microstructure effects are critical. Similarities with other halide superionic conductors are highlighted.

  8. A P2-Type Layered Superionic Conductor Ga-Doped Na2 Zn2 TeO6 for All-Solid-State Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyu; Deng, Zhi; Peng, Jian; Chen, Enyi; Yu, Yao; Li, Xiang; Luo, Jiahuan; Huang, Yangyang; Zhu, Jinlong; Fang, Chun; Li, Qing; Han, Jiantao; Huang, Yunhui

    2018-01-24

    Here, a P2-type layered Na 2 Zn 2 TeO 6 (NZTO) is reported with a high Na + ion conductivity ≈0.6×10 -3  S cm -1 at room temperature (RT), which is comparable to the currently best Na 1+n Zr 2 Si n P 3-n O 12 NASICON structure. As small amounts of Ga 3+ substitutes for Zn 2+ , more Na + vacancies are introduced in the interlayer gaps, which greatly reduces strong Na + -Na + coulomb interactions. Ga-substituted NZTO exhibits a superionic conductivity of ≈1.1×10 -3  S cm -1 at RT, and excellent phase and electrochemical stability. All solid-state batteries have been successfully assembled with a capacity of ≈70 mAh g -1 over 10 cycles with a rate of 0.2 C at 80 °C. 23 Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies on powder samples show intra-grain (bulk) diffusion coefficients D NMR on the order of 12.35×10 -12  m 2  s -1 at 65 °C that corresponds to a conductivity σ NMR of 8.16×10 -3  S cm -1 , assuming the Nernst-Einstein equation, which thus suggests a new perspective of fast Na + ion conductor for advanced sodium ion batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. UV-LIGA technique for ECF micropumps using back UV exposure and self-alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D.; Xia, Y.; Yokota, S.; Kim, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes and develops a novel UV-LIGA technique using back UV exposure and self-alignment to realize high aspect ratio micromachining (HARM) in high power density electro-conjugate fluid (ECF) micropumps. ECF is a functional fluid designed to be able to generate strong and active jet flow (ECF jetting) between anode and cathode in ECF when high DC voltage is applied. We have developed high power density ECF micropumps consisting of triangular prism and slit electrode pairs (TPSEs) fabricated by HARM. The traditional UV-LIGA technique for HARM is mainly divided into two approaches: (a) single thick layer and (b) multiple thin layers. Both methods have limitations—deformed molds in the former and misalignment between layers in the latter. Using the finite element method software COMSOL Multiphysics, we demonstrate that the deformed micro-molds critically impair the performance of ECF micropumps. In addition, we experimentally prove that the misalignment would easily trigger electric discharge in the ECF micropumps. To overcome these limitations, we conceive a new concept utilizing the seed electrode layer for electroforming as the UV shield and pattern photoresist (KMPR) by back UV exposure. The seed electrode layer should be composed of a non-transparent conductor (Au/Ti) for patterning and a transparent conductor (ITO) for wiring. Instead of ITO, we propose the concept of transparency-like electrodes comprised of thin metal line patterns. To verify this concept, KMPR layers with thicknesses of 70, 220, and 500 µm are experimentally investigated. In the case of 500 µm KMPR thickness, the concept of transparency-like electrode was partially proved. As a result, TPSEs with a height of 440 µm were successfully fabricated. Characteristic experiments demonstrated that ECF micropumps (367 mW cm-3) fabricated by back UV achieved almost the same output power density as ECF micropumps (391 mW cm-3) fabricated by front UV. This paper proves that the proposed

  10. UV-LIGA technique for ECF micropumps using back UV exposure and self-alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D; Xia, Y; Yokota, S; Kim, J W

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes and develops a novel UV-LIGA technique using back UV exposure and self-alignment to realize high aspect ratio micromachining (HARM) in high power density electro-conjugate fluid (ECF) micropumps. ECF is a functional fluid designed to be able to generate strong and active jet flow (ECF jetting) between anode and cathode in ECF when high DC voltage is applied. We have developed high power density ECF micropumps consisting of triangular prism and slit electrode pairs (TPSEs) fabricated by HARM. The traditional UV-LIGA technique for HARM is mainly divided into two approaches: (a) single thick layer and (b) multiple thin layers. Both methods have limitations—deformed molds in the former and misalignment between layers in the latter. Using the finite element method software COMSOL Multiphysics, we demonstrate that the deformed micro-molds critically impair the performance of ECF micropumps. In addition, we experimentally prove that the misalignment would easily trigger electric discharge in the ECF micropumps. To overcome these limitations, we conceive a new concept utilizing the seed electrode layer for electroforming as the UV shield and pattern photoresist (KMPR) by back UV exposure. The seed electrode layer should be composed of a non-transparent conductor (Au/Ti) for patterning and a transparent conductor (ITO) for wiring. Instead of ITO, we propose the concept of transparency-like electrodes comprised of thin metal line patterns. To verify this concept, KMPR layers with thicknesses of 70, 220, and 500 µ m are experimentally investigated. In the case of 500 µ m KMPR thickness, the concept of transparency-like electrode was partially proved. As a result, TPSEs with a height of 440 µ m were successfully fabricated. Characteristic experiments demonstrated that ECF micropumps (367 mW cm −3 ) fabricated by back UV achieved almost the same output power density as ECF micropumps (391 mW cm −3 ) fabricated by front UV. This paper proves that the

  11. Static structure of superionic conducting glass of Ag-Ge-Se system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, R; Nakashima, S; Tahara, S; Takeda, S [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kawakita, Y [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, S [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Inst., 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)], E-mail: takeda@rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2008-02-15

    Superionic conducting glasses are the important materials as solid electrolytes. Amorphous Ag-Ge-Se system is well known to exhibit the superionic conducting behavior where silver ions easily migrate into the mixed structure of Ag{sub 2}Se and Ge-Se chalcogenide glass. It will be good material to study how the superionic conducting region distributes in the glassy network, and whether the conducting paths extends to the entire of the material, or the localized and limited area in an isolated region. In this paper, we will present the results of the static structure of Ag-Ge-Se system by high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements.

  12. Superionic conductors with the fluorite structure: a) Measurement of the ionic conductivity of SrF2 at high temperatures, b) Study of the thermodynamic properties at CaF2 by numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelakis, Georges

    1989-01-01

    In this work we present the results of an experimental study concerning the superionic conductivity of SrF 2 and those obtained by an investigation of the thermodynamical properties of CaF 2 using molecular dynamics simulation in the superionic region. The conductivity measurements in SrF 2 have been performed at high temperatures (700-1350 K) and various frequencies (10 Hz-10 MHz). At each temperature a frequency dependence of the conductivity has been detected. The analysis of the results using complex impedance diagrams revealed that this dependence is not an intrinsic property of the material but is related to electrodes effects. The apparent activation energies associated to the different parts of the intrinsic and extrinsic conductivity regions have been determined. Unfortunately no clear conclusion relative to the conduction mechanism can be made there from. Computer simulations by molecular dynamics have been performed in CaF 2 modeled using a rigid ion potential. The diffusion coefficient, the specific heat, structure factors, mean square displacements of both anions and cations, as well as the temperature dependence of these quantities have been calculated. The good agreement found between calculated quantities and experimental results justified us in using the crude approximation of a rigid on potential. A direct computation of the superionic conductivity has been obtained for the first time using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics in the linear response regime. From the independent calculation of the diffusion coefficient and the conductivity, the Havens ratio has been deduced, Hr 0.34, in the superionic region. Its value suggests that the superionic conductivity of CaF 2 is due to a collective and correlated mechanism, a fact which has been confirmed by the MD trajectory analysis. (author) [fr

  13. Superionic state and interionic potential of α-AgI crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    The nature of α-AgI crystal superionic state is condensed using a model of delayed rotational diffusion, in which α-AgI curvilinear conductivity channels are explained processing from the character of silver ions motion. The superionic state nature is explained using periodic equipotential surfaces of spatial interionic potential constructed of monomeric effective coupled potential by the EXAFS method. The physical character of periodic minimal surfaces for analysis of dynamic processes is substantiated [ru

  14. UV-LIGA: From Development to Commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Genolet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A major breakthrough in UV-LIGA (Lithographie, Galvanoformung and Abformung started with the use of epoxy-based EPON® SU-8 photoresist in the mid-1990s. Using this photoresist has enabled the fabrication of tall and high aspect ratio structures without the use of a very expensive synchrotron source needed to expose the photoresist layer in X-ray LIGA. SU-8 photoresist appeared to be well-suited for LIGA templates, but also as a permanent material. Based on UV-LIGA and SU-8, Mimotec SA has developed processes to manufacture mold inserts and metallic components for various market fields. From one to three-level parts, from Ni to other materials, from simple to complicated parts with integrated functionalities, UV-LIGA has established itself as a manufacturing technology of importance for prototyping, as well as for mass-fabrication. This paper reviews some of the developments that led to commercial success in this field.

  15. Photoluminescence of additively iodine colored superionic conductor RbAg4I5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, M.M.; Goffman, V.G.; Kompan, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Luminescence of additivily colored monocrystals of RbAg 4 I 5 ionic conductor has been investigated. Luminescence excitation was exercises by light of a 3.68 eV photon. The luminescence spectrum is show to undergo changes after additive coloring, namely, abrupt increase of intensity in the 423-435 nm range with appearance of a narrow maximum in the 425 nm range, relative increase of intensity of a short-wave peak at 377 nm. A collection of data obtained by luminescent methods permits to consider formation of the surface layer of silver iodide approved

  16. Electronic, electrical and magnetic ceramics synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calix, V.S.; Saligan, P.P.; Naval, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the research and development activities of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) on the synthesis and characterization of soft and hard ferrites and some beta alumina type superionic conductor materials. XRD, XRF and Moessbauer effect spectrometry are used to determine the structure phases, compositions and some magnetic properties of the materials. Effects of composition and preparation methods on the bulk electronic and magnetic properties are also discussed. (Auth.). 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. Microscopic view of disorder in the ordered phase of superionic RbAg4I5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, M.

    1983-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy in 129 I was employed to verify the existence and investigate the properties of local disorder in the ''ordered'' state of the superionic conductor RbAg 4 I 5 . Studies were conducted in the temperature range of 4--180 K covering the low-temperature #betta# phase (T 129 I nucleus, produced by the neighboring Ag ions, has a continuous linear temperature dependence down to 4.2 K. The hyperfine constants and the Debye-Waller factor showed no discontinuity at T/sub c/. The anomalous existence of the single line has been attributed to a fast fluctuating efg due to local hopping of the Ag ions. This dynamic disorder is present even at low temperatures where (8--10)% of Ag ions are locally hopping, and its occurrence increases drastically at T>T/sub c/. A nonharmonic Debye-Waller factor was observed from which a linear temperature-dependent Debye temperature could be derived

  18. Quasielastic Neutron Scattering by Superionic Strontium Chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickens, M. H.; Hutchings, M. T.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    The scattering, from powder and single crystal samples, appears only above the superionic transition temperature, 1000K. The integrated intensity is found to be strongly dependent on the direction and magnitude of the scattering vector, Q, (which suggests the scattering is coherent) but does not ...

  19. Ion conduction in crystalline superionic solids and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Angesh

    2014-06-01

    Superionic solids an area of multidisciplinary research activity, incorporates to study the physical, chemical and technological aspects of rapid ion movements within the bulk of the special class of ionic materials. It is an emerging area of materials science, as these solids show tremendous technological scopes to develop wide variety of solid state electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, sensors, electrochromic displays (ECDs), memories, etc. These devices have wide range of applicabilities viz. power sources for IC microchips to transport vehicles, novel sensors for controlling atmospheric pollution, new kind of memories for computers, smart windows/display panels, etc. The field grew with a rapid pace since then, especially with regards to designing new materials as well as to explore their device potentialities. Amongst the known superionic solids, fast Ag+ ion conducting crystalline solid electrolytes are attracted special attention due to their relatively higher room temperature conductivity as well as ease of materials handling/synthesis. Ion conduction in these electrolytes is very much interesting part of today. In the present review article, the ion conducting phenomenon and some device applications of crystalline/polycrystalline superionic solid electrolytes have been reviewed in brief. Synthesis and characterization tools have also been discussed in the present review article.

  20. Conductivity and thermodynamic characteristic of superionic transition in strontium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, B.M.; Prisyazhnyj, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    Electric conductivity of strontium polycrystalline chloride in the wide temperature range including melting point is measured. Reciprocally caused anomalous behaviour of kinetic and thermodynamic properties, which relates to peculiarities of salt transition to a superionic state is established in the region of high temperatures. Thermodynamic functions corresponding to crystal anion sublattice disordering are determined and characterized. Comparative analysis of data on strontium chloride and other structural-like salts testifies about step-by-step washing-out character of superionic transition, and the depth of transition (the degree of disordering) reached at melting points relates regularly to relative sizes of cations and anions in the fluorite lattice

  1. Tetrathiapentalene-based organic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misaki, Yohji, E-mail: misaki@eng.ehime-u.ac.j [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The synthesis, structure and properties of tetrathiapentalene-based (TTP) organic conductors are reviewed. Among various TTP-type donors, bis-fused tetrathiafulvalene, 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) and its derivatives afford many metallic radical cation salts stable down to low temperatures, regardless of the size and shape of the counter anions. Most BDT-TTP conductors have a {beta}-type donor arrangement with almost uniform stacks. Introduction of appropriate substituents results in molecular packing that differs from the {beta}-type. A vinylogous TTP, 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-5-(2-ethanediylidene-1,3-dithiole) -1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (DTEDT) has yielded an organic superconductor (DTEDT){sub 3}Au(CN){sub 2} as well as metallic radical cation salts, regardless of the counter anions. (Thio)pyran analogs of TTP, namely (T)PDT-TTP and its derivatives produce molecular conductors with novel molecular arrangements. A TTP analog with reduced {pi}-electron system 2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDA-TTP) has afforded several organic superconductors. Highly conducting molecular metals with unusual oxidation states (+1, +5/3 and neutral) have been developed on the basis of 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) derivatives and analogous metal derivatives M(dt){sub 2} (M = Ni, Au). (topical review)

  2. Pesquisa de marcadores para os genes da cadeia pesada da beta-miosina cardíaca e da proteína C de ligação à miosina em familiares de pacientes com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica Research of markers for the genes of the heavy chain of cardiac beta-myosin and myosin binding protein C in relatives of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paula Tirone

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os marcadores moleculares para os genes da cadeia pesada da beta-miosina cardíaca e da proteína-C de ligação à miosina em familiares de portadores de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 12 famílias que realizaram anamnese, exame físico, eletrocardiograma, ecocardiograma e coleta de sangue para o estudo genético através da reação em cadeia da polimerasse. RESULTADOS: Dos 227 familiares 25% eram acometidos, sendo 51% do sexo masculino com idade média de 35±19 (2 a 95 anos. A análise genética mostrou ligação com o gene da b-miosina cardíaca em uma família e, em outra, ligação com o gene da proteína C de ligação à miosina. Em cinco famílias foram excluídas ligações com os dois genes; em duas, a ligação com o gene da proteína C de ligação à miosina, porém para o gene da b-miosina os resultados foram inconclusivos; em duas famílias os resultados foram inconclusivos para os dois genes e em uma foi excluída ligação para o gene da b-miosina mas ficou inconclusivo para o gene da proteína C de ligação à miosina. CONCLUSÃO: Em nosso meio, talvez predominem outros genes que não aqueles descritos na literatura, ou que existam outras diferenças genéticas relacionadas com a origem de nossa população e/ou fatores ambientais.OBJECTIVE: To study the molecular markers for the genes of the heavy chain of cardiac beta-myosin and the myosin binding protein C in relatives of carriers of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Twelve families who had anamnesis, physical exam, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and blood collection for the genetic study through the chain reaction of polymerase. RESULTS: From the 227 relatives, 25% were ill-taken, with 51% men, with an average age of 35±19 (2 to 95 years old. The genetic analysis showed a connection with the gene of the cardiac b-myosin in a family and, in another, a connection with the gene of the myosin-binding protein C. In five

  3. Review on Material Synthesis and Characterization of Sodium (Na) Super-Ionic Conductor (NASICON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpa, M. I.; Mayzan, M. Z. H.; Yabagi, J. A.; Nmaya, M. M.; Isah, K. U.; Agam, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Sodium (Na) Super Ionic Conductor (NASICON) has general formula Na1+ x Zr2P3- xSi x O12 (0 ≤x ≤ 3) derived from its parent compound, sodium zirconium phosphate NaZr2(PO4)3 (NZP) which belong to a rhombohedral crystal structure. This material consists of three-dimensional structure with interesting features such as low thermal expansion coefficient, thermal stability, gas sensor and nuclear waste immobilization that make it viable for industrial applications. Current study presents comprehensive studies on the synthesis and essential characteristics required to understand the theory behind the mechanism that justifies the study of NASICON structure and its application such as lithium ion rechargeable battery, gas sensor, and nuclear waste immobilization and so on.

  4. Lithium Superionic Conductor Li9.42Si1.02P2.1S9.96O2.04 with Li10GeP2S12-Type Structure in the Li2S–P2S5–SiO2 Pseudoternary System: Synthesis, Electrochemical Properties, and Structure–Composition Relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kota; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kato, Yuki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Lithium superionic conductors with the Li 10 GeP 2 S 12 (LGPS)-type structure are promising materials for use as solid electrolytes in the next-generation lithium batteries. A novel member of the LGPS family, Li 9.42 Si 1.02 P 2.1 S 9.96 O 2.04 (LSiPSO), and its solid solutions were synthesized by quenching from 1273 K in the Li 2 S–P 2 S 5 –SiO 2 pseudoternary system. The material exhibited an ionic conductivity as high as 3.2 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 298 K, as well as the high electrochemical stability to lithium metal, which was improved by the introduction of oxygen into the LGPS-type structure. An all-solid-state cell with a lithium metal anode and LSiPSO as the separator showed excellent performance with a high reversibility of 100%. Thus, oxygen doping is an effective way of improving the electrochemical stability of LGPS-type structure.

  5. Solution structure of leptospiral LigA4 Big domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Song; Zhang, Jiahai [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Xuecheng [School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039 (China); Tu, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmtu@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-11-13

    Pathogenic Leptospiraspecies express immunoglobulin-like proteins which serve as adhesins to bind to the extracellular matrices of host cells. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein A (LigA), a surface exposed protein containing tandem repeats of bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, has been proved to be involved in the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira with mammalian host. In this study, the solution structure of the fourth Big domain of LigA (LigA4 Big domain) from Leptospira interrogans was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structure of LigA4 Big domain displays a similar bacterial immunoglobulin-like fold compared with other Big domains, implying some common structural aspects of Big domain family. On the other hand, it displays some structural characteristics significantly different from classic Ig-like domain. Furthermore, Stains-all assay and NMR chemical shift perturbation revealed the Ca{sup 2+} binding property of LigA4 Big domain. - Highlights: • Determining the solution structure of a bacterial immunoglobulin-like domain from a surface protein of Leptospira. • The solution structure shows some structural characteristics significantly different from the classic Ig-like domains. • A potential Ca{sup 2+}-binding site was identified by strains-all and NMR chemical shift perturbation.

  6. Solution structure of leptospiral LigA4 Big domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Song; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhang, Xuecheng; Tu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospiraspecies express immunoglobulin-like proteins which serve as adhesins to bind to the extracellular matrices of host cells. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein A (LigA), a surface exposed protein containing tandem repeats of bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, has been proved to be involved in the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira with mammalian host. In this study, the solution structure of the fourth Big domain of LigA (LigA4 Big domain) from Leptospira interrogans was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structure of LigA4 Big domain displays a similar bacterial immunoglobulin-like fold compared with other Big domains, implying some common structural aspects of Big domain family. On the other hand, it displays some structural characteristics significantly different from classic Ig-like domain. Furthermore, Stains-all assay and NMR chemical shift perturbation revealed the Ca"2"+ binding property of LigA4 Big domain. - Highlights: • Determining the solution structure of a bacterial immunoglobulin-like domain from a surface protein of Leptospira. • The solution structure shows some structural characteristics significantly different from the classic Ig-like domains. • A potential Ca"2"+-binding site was identified by strains-all and NMR chemical shift perturbation.

  7. Peculiarities of crystalline structure and mechanism of disordering of anion sublattice in superionic conductors of LaF3 structural type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivorotov, V.F.; Fridman, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of LaF 3 type lattice structure the physical process of disordering of tysonit type ionic crystals is considered in the region of superionic phase transitions. The correlation of cell movement of disordering sublattice ions with parameter dynamics of Raman scattering spectrum of these crystals is observed. The anomaly behaviour of Raman scattering frequencies and intensities of lines 370, 392 sm -1 (LaF 3 ) and 304, 376, 404 sm -1 (PrF 3 ) in three intervals: 160-180, 260-290, and 440-480 K is obtained. Two more high temperature ones are connected with anion sublattice disordering process in the region of phase transitions. Excessive scattering in the region 160-180 K is described by the change of oscillation state of fluoride ions in small displacements in splitted site positions with several potential minimums. It is shown in the framework of splitted sites model that the possibility of thermoactivational formation of interstitials which are comparable with the size of mobile ions is due to the peculiarities of the structure of tysonit type ionic crystals. (author)

  8. Spectroscopic and computer modelling studies of mixed-cation superionic fluorites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Netshisaulu, TT

    2005-10-19

    Full Text Available into the local environments of the Cd and Pb cations (as a function of composition and temperature) in CdF2 (xPbF(2)) mixed-cation superionic fluorites. A high degree of disorder is shown around both cations. However, the extent of disorder is even larger around...

  9. Radiation damages on superionic conducting glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awano, T.; Handa, K.; Matsuyama, T.

    2000-01-01

    We measured ESR spectra of color centers on AgI-AgPO 3 , AgI-Ag 2 O-B 2 O 3 , AgI-Ag 2 MoO 4 , AgI-Ag 2 WO 4 , (CH 3 ) 4 NI-(C 2 H 5 ) 4 NI-AgI (TMAI-TEAI-AgI) and its derivatives of superionic conducting glasses. In organic-inorganic mixed glasses, organic ion radicals were observed. They were not affected by ionic conductivity. On the contrary, Ag 2+ , Ag 0 and aggregated Ag 0 were observed in inorganic glasses. These color centers in inorganic glasses were affected by ionic conductivity. (author)

  10. LA INFLUENCIA DE JUGAR LA LIGA DE CAMPEONES EN EL RESULTADO DE LOS EQUIPOS EN LA LIGA ESPAÑOLA DE FÚTBOL. LA IMPORTANCIA DE LA DENSIDAD COMPETITIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lago Peñas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    Los objetivos de este trabajo son dos. En primer lugar estudiar los efectos que tiene disputar un partido de la Liga de Campeones sobre el resultado alcanzado por los equipos en la Liga Española en esa misma semana. En segundo lugar, verificar si la probabilidad de ganar frente a perder en la Liga Española es mayor o no para los equipos con experiencia en la Liga de Campeones frente a aquellos otros conjuntos que disputan por primera vez esta competición. La muestra consiste en 184 partidos de la Liga Española de Fútbol jugados por los equipos que se encontraban simultáneamente disputando la primera fase de la Liga de Campeones en las temporadas 2003-2004, 2004-2005 y 2005-2006. Los datos utilizados en la investigación han sido tomados de la página oficial de la Liga de Campeones, de la Liga Española y suministrados por GECA SPORT.

    De acuerdo con los resultados de la estimación de un modelo logit multinomial, disputar un partido de la Liga de Campeones durante la semana de competición no reduce la probabilidad de los equipos de ganar frente a perder en el partido de la Liga Nacional. Incluso tiene un efecto positivo para los equipos debutantes en la competición europea: cuando juegan durante la semana tienen más probabilidades de ganar en la Liga Nacional (p<0,01.

    Palabras clave: resultado, fútbol, Liga de Campeones. logit multinomial, Liga Española

     

    ABSTRACT

    This paper has two goals. First, studying the impact of playing in the Champions League on the results in the Spanish League. Second, analyzing whether being a beginner team in the

  11. Lithium superionic conductor Li9.42Si1.02P2.1S9.96O2.04 with Li10GeP2S12-type structure in the Li2S–P2S5–SiO2 pseudoternary system: Synthesis, electrochemical properties, and structure–composition relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithium superionic conductors with the Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS-type structure are promising materials for use as solid electrolytes in next-generation lithium batteries. A novel member of the LGPS family, Li9.42Si1.02P2.1S9.96O2.04, and its solid solutions were synthesised by quenching from 1273 K in the Li2S–P2S5–SiO2 pseudoternary system. The material exhibited an ionic conductivity as high as 3.2×10−4 S cm−1 at 298 K, as well as the high electrochemical stability to lithium metal, which was improved by the introduction of oxygen into the LGPS-type structure. An all-solid-state cell with a lithium metal anode and Li9.42Si1.02P2.1S9.96O2.04 as the separator showed excellent performance with a high coulomb efficiency of 100%. Thus, oxygen doping is an effective way of improving the electrochemical stability of LGPS-type structure.

  12. A safety-based comparison of pure LigaSure use and LigaSure-tie technique in total thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergel, A; Yucel, A Fikret; Aydin, I; Sahin, D A; Aras, S; Kulacoglu, H

    2014-01-01

    Sutureless total thyroidectomy by using vessel sealing devices has been shown to be safe in some recent clinical studies. However, some surgeons are still concerned about the use of these energy devices in the vicinity of there current laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the use of pure LigaSure on postoperative complications and to discuss the pertinent literature. A total of 456 patients having undergone a total thyroidectomy operation between June 2009 and March 2011 were included in the study. Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively evaluated. Patients were separated into 2 groups. Group L comprised of 182 patients where onlyLigaSure was used, and group LT consisted of 274 patients where ligation was used in the vicinity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands, and LigaSure was used in all other parts of the surgery. Patient's blood calcium values were checked preoperatively and at postoperative 24, 48, and 72 hours. Groups were assessed in terms of demographic properties, thyroid pathology, duration of operation, and postoperative complications. Groups were similar in respect of demographic properties, operation duration, thyroid gland pathology. No mortality rate was recorded. Laboratory hypocalcemia rate was higher in group L (P 0.003), but no significant difference was identified between groups in terms of symptomatic hypocalcemia.No permanent hypocalcemia or recurrent laryngeal nerve injury developed in any of the patients in the two groups. Pure LigaSure for total thyroidectomy may increase laboratory hypocalcemia rate, but not symptomatic hypocalcemia. Hemorrhage related complications were similar and low in the two groups. Ligations in the places close to delicate anatomic structures did not cause longer operative times and may be a safer option in total thyroidectomy. Celsius.

  13. W-band LiGA fabricated klystron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liqun

    2002-01-01

    Klystrino-W-band klystron was proposed by scientists at SLAC to satisfy recent applications in advanced accelerators, medical treatment, radars and communications. LiGA (a German acronym for lithographe, galvanoformung, and abformung) is introduced in the fabrication of klystrino for the first time in the history of microwave tube fabrication. The cold test experiments show that LiGA fabrication yields best surface smoothness compared with an alternative way EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining). Resultantly LiGA fabricated klystrino has the smallest wall loss which maximizes the circuit efficiency of the output structure. A multiple-gap coupled cavity is motivated to be employed as the klystrino output cavity for maximizing the efficiency. Klytrino is simulated by 1-D, 2-D and 3-D simulation codes. Particularly a complete klystrino is simulated intensively using 2-D MAGIC Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code either for beam absence or beam presence. Many simulation techniques are developed such as model transformation from 3-D to 2-D, circuit parameter simulation, dispersion characteristic analysis, pre bunched electron beam mode and so on. Klystrino, as a 3-D structure, is modeled by 3-D MAFIA for analyzing the cold circuit properties. 3-D MAGIC is explored to simulate klystrino for the actual structure analysis and actual beam interaction process observation.

  14. Balance Competitivo en las Ligas Europeas de Baloncesto y la NBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García - Unanue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ligas deportivas dependen del equilibrio competitivo entre los equipos para ser atractivas para los espectadores, de ahí la aparición del balance competitivo. Por ello, las distintas ligas deportivas han adquirido diferentes formatos que determinarán su competitividad. El objetivo de este artículo es comparar el balance competitivo de la NBA y las principales ligas europeas, teniendo en cuenta la NBA en su conjunto y cada una de sus conferencias de forma independiente. Las variables utilizadas para medir el balance competitivo han sido el índice Hirschman-Herfindal y las ratios C5 y C8. Los resultados muestran un mejor balance competitivo de la NBA en conjunto respecto a las ligas europeas, sin embargo estas diferencias desaparecen al analizar las conferencias de forma independiente. Se concluye que al tener en cuenta cada una de las conferencias de forma independiente, con una estructura más similar a las ligas europeas, se presenta un balance competitivo parecido bajo los indicadores utilizados. Sin embargo, la NBA incluye limitaciones en la competición que siguen favoreciendo la posibilidad de que sea más atractiva para el espectador.

  15. LiGA Research and Service at CAMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettert, Jost; Datta, Proyag; Desta, Yohannes; Jin, Yoonyoung; Ling Zhonggeng; Singh, Varshni

    2006-01-01

    Since 1995 CAMD has been offering exposure services, so called print shop for a variety of users interested in making precision High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures (HARMST) for various application. Services have been expanded beyond only the print shop service in recent years and now include x-ray mask fabrication, substrate preparation for PMMA and SU- 8 resists, electroplating, finishing and molding. Metallic and polymeric parts are now routinely fabricated for precision engineering, micro-fluidic and micro-optic applications. This paper presents a brief overview of the actual status of LiGA services provided at CAMD including ongoing research efforts and examples of LiGA components for different applications

  16. Low-Temperature Superionic Conductivity in Strained Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillassen, Michael; Eklund, Per; Pryds, Nini

    2010-01-01

    Very high lateral ionic conductivities in epitaxial cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) synthesized on single-crystal SrTiO3 and MgO substrates by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering are reported. Superionic conductivities (i.e., ionic conductivities of the order 1 -1cm-1) are observed...... at 500 °C for 58-nm-thick films on MgO. The results indicate a superposition of two parallel contributions - one due to bulk conductivity and one attributable to conduction along the film-substrate interface. Interfacial effects dominate the conductivity at low temperatures (...

  17. Estudo de ligas de ouro por XRF e SEM-EDS

    OpenAIRE

    Coxito, Afonso Maria Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Serve o presente estudo para testar uma metodologia para análise de ligas metálicas, em particular ligas de ouro, utilizando as técnicas de fluorescência de raios-X e microscopia electrónica de varrimento. No contexto do presente estudo, foi identificada a composição das folhas de ouro utilizadas em obras de arte. As técnicas laboratoriais utilizadas foram: Microscopia óptica; Espectroscopia de fluorescência de raios-X com dispersão de energia (EDXRF); Microscopi...

  18. LIGA-based microsystem manufacturing:the electrochemistry of through-mold depostion and material properties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, James J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Goods, Steven Howard (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-06-01

    The report presented below is to appear in ''Electrochemistry at the Nanoscale'', Patrik Schmuki, Ed. Springer-Verlag, (ca. 2005). The history of the LIGA process, used for fabricating dimensional precise structures for microsystem applications, is briefly reviewed, as are the basic elements of the technology. The principal focus however, is on the unique aspects of the electrochemistry of LIGA through-mask metal deposition and the generation of the fine and uniform microstructures necessary to ensure proper functionality of LIGA components. We draw from both previously published work by external researchers in the field as well as from published and unpublished studies from within Sandia.

  19. Lithium Superionic Conductor Li{sub 9.42}Si{sub 1.02}P{sub 2.1}S{sub 9.96}O{sub 2.04} with Li{sub 10}GeP{sub 2}S{sub 12}-Type Structure in the Li{sub 2}S–P{sub 2}S{sub 5}–SiO{sub 2} Pseudoternary System: Synthesis, Electrochemical Properties, and Structure–Composition Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Satoshi [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Suzuki, Kota; Hirayama, Masaaki [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Kato, Yuki [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Battery Research Division, Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, Susono, Shizuoka (Japan); Battery AT, Advanced Technology 1, Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA, Zaventem (Belgium); Kanno, Ryoji, E-mail: kanno@echem.titech.ac.jp [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2016-12-07

    Lithium superionic conductors with the Li{sub 10}GeP{sub 2}S{sub 12} (LGPS)-type structure are promising materials for use as solid electrolytes in the next-generation lithium batteries. A novel member of the LGPS family, Li{sub 9.42}Si{sub 1.02}P{sub 2.1}S{sub 9.96}O{sub 2.04} (LSiPSO), and its solid solutions were synthesized by quenching from 1273 K in the Li{sub 2}S–P{sub 2}S{sub 5}–SiO{sub 2} pseudoternary system. The material exhibited an ionic conductivity as high as 3.2 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at 298 K, as well as the high electrochemical stability to lithium metal, which was improved by the introduction of oxygen into the LGPS-type structure. An all-solid-state cell with a lithium metal anode and LSiPSO as the separator showed excellent performance with a high reversibility of 100%. Thus, oxygen doping is an effective way of improving the electrochemical stability of LGPS-type structure.

  20. Investigating Early and Late Complications in Conventional and LigaSure Hemorroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The traditional Milligan-Morgan and the Ferguson operations are still the most used for patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids of III and IV degrees. Nowadays LigaSure is used as a new technique to decrease the complications resulting from conventional hemorroidectomy. In this study, patients were investigated on the basis of the following main outcomes: mean operative time, postoperative pain (score and duration, bleeding loss in operation, early (within the first month after surgery and late (after the first month complications in conventional as well as LigaSure hemorroidectomy. Methods: it is an analytical study conducted on 101 patients aged 19–80 years old of both males and females with III and IV-degree hemorrhoids who had been gone to Shahid Sadoughi hospital between 2011 and 2012. Forty-three patients were treated by conventional diathermy and fifty -eight by LigaSure. Patients received analgesic administration for about 24 hours after operations and, after hospital discharge. In fact, analgesia was administered until 5 days (three times a day. All patients were required to record pain from the first postoperative day until the 28th postoperative day on a self-administered NAS scale (0–10. Results: Patients completed a questionnaire face to face one week, one month, six, and twelve months after the operation. The mean operative time, bleeding loss in operation and return to work were significantly shorter in LS group, whereas there were no difference in hospital stay period, anal stenosis, healing time of wound and retention of urinary. A statistically significant difference in pain score was observed three and four days after the operation. Finally, patients with LigaSure haemorrhoidectomy recovered from pain earlier than those with conventional diathermy. Conclusions: although LigaSure proposes additional costs, it is an effective instrument in order to treat hemorrhoids of III and IV degrees.

  1. Structure, Reactivity and Dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding structure, reactivity and dynamics is the core issue in chemical ... functional theory (DFT) calculations, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, light- ... between water and protein oxygen atoms, the superionic conductors which ...

  2. International conference on defects in insulating crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Short summaries of conference papers are presented. Some of the conference topics included transport properties, defect levels, superionic conductors, radiation effects, John-Teller effect, electron-lattice interactions, and relaxed excited states

  3. International conference on defects in insulating crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Short summaries of conference papers are presented. Some of the conference topics included transport properties, defect levels, superionic conductors, radiation effects, John-Teller effect, electron-lattice interactions, and relaxed excited states. (SDF)

  4. Freezing of a modulated liquid: The superionic-to-normal transition of strontium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovere, M.; Tosi, M.P.; Trieste Univ.

    1985-05-01

    The anionic component in SrCl 2 near melting is treated as a modulated liquid in the periodic potential of the sublattice of cations. With decreasing temperature from the melting point, we find a diffuse disorder-order phase transition. The calculated behaviours of the order parameter and of thermodynamic properties approximate those observed for SrCl 2 across its superionic transition. (author)

  5. Thermal conductivity and expansion enhancement associated with formation of the superionic state in SrCl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.P.; Weaver, F.J.; Graves, R.S.; McElroy, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    A second-order phase transition in SrCl 2 near 1000 K produces superionic conduction and is often called the Bredig transition. Fine-grained, 99% dense, SrCl 2 samples containing three volume percent TiO 2 to reduce radiant transport were used to measure the differential thermal expansion coefficient (α) by push-rod dilatometry and the thermal conductivity (lambda) by a radial heat flow method. Both properties show maxima near the Bredig transition. The peak α-value is over 75 x 10 -6 K -1 . The data obtained from the radial heat flow method show good agreement with earlier tests at low temperatures, and the high temperature results show a local enhancement of lambda if about 0.06 W/m.K. This enhancement cannot be attributed to electronic or radiant transport, but is due to a new mechanism of thermal diffusion of vacancy-anion interstitial pairs in the superionic state

  6. New detection modules for gamma, beta and X-ray cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azman, S.; Bolle, E.; Dang, K.Q.; Dang, W.; Dietzel, K.I.; Froberg, T.; Gaarder, P.E.; Gjaerum, J.A.; Haugen, S.H.; Hellum, G.; Henriksen, J.R.; Johanson, T.M.; Kobbevik, A.; Maehlum, G.; Meier, D.; Mikkelsen, S.; Ninive, I.; Oya, P.; Pavlov, N.; Pettersen, D.M.; Sundal, B.M.; Talebi, J.; Yoshioka, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Ideas ASA is developing new detection modules for gamma, beta and X-ray cameras. Recent developments focus on modules using various semi-conductor materials (CZT, HgI, Si). The development includes ASIC design, detector module development, and implementation in camera heads. In this presentation we describe the characteristics of important ASICs and its properties in terms of electronic noise, and the modes for measuring signals (switched current modes, sparsified modes, self triggered modes). The ASICs are specific for detectors and applications. We describe recent developments using various semi - conductor materials. We describe important design aspects for medical applications and in life science (SPECT, beta, X-ray cameras)

  7. Ionic diffusion in superionic-conductor melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankeshwar, K.; Tosi, M.P.

    1991-03-01

    The self-diffusion coefficients D + and D - of the two ionic species in molten AgI, CuCl, CuBr and CuI are evaluated and contrasted with those calculated for molten NaCl. The evaluation adopts a simple model for liquid state dynamics, earlier proposed by Zwanzig to justify the Stokes-Einstein formula for monatomic fluids, and by suitable approximations relates the self-diffusion coefficients to pair potentials and to the pair structure of the melt. The results offer an interpretation for molecular dynamics data showing that, whereas for a ''normal'' system such as NaCl the ratio D + /D - in the melt is of the order unity, a sizable difference between D + and D - persists in salts melting from a fast-cation conducting solid. This difference is explicitly related to liquid structure through differences in the structural backscattering of cations by cations and of halogens by halogens. The calculated magnitudes of D + /D - are quite satisfactory, while the absolute magnitudes of D + and D - are in good agreement with the data only for those salts (AgI, CuBr and NaCl) in which the masses of the two ionic species are not greatly different. (author). 21 refs, 2 tabs

  8. Molecular dynamics studies of superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    1979-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years computer modeling of liquids and solids has become a useful method of understanding the structural and dynamical correlations in these systems. Some characteristics of the method are presented with an example from work on homogeneous nucleation in monoatomic liquids; the interaction potential determines the structure: a Lennard--Jones system nucleates a close packed structure while an alkali metal potential nucleates a bcc packing. In the study of ionic systems like CaF 2 the Coulomb interaction together with the short range repulsion is enough to produce a satisfactory model for the motion of F - ions in CaF 2 at approx. 1600 0 K. Analysis of this motion shows that F - ions reside at their fluorite sites for about 6 x 10 -12 s and that the diffusion is mainly due to F - jumps in the 100 direction. The motion can be analyzed in terms of the generation and annihilation of anti-Frenkel pairs. The temperature dependence of the F - diffusion constant at two different densities has also been calculated. The computer model does not correspond with experiment in this regard

  9. Miniature Inchworm Actuators Fabricated by Use of LIGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2003-01-01

    Miniature inchworm actuators that would have relatively simple designs have been proposed for applications in which there are requirements for displacements of the order of microns or tens of microns and for the ability to hold their positions when electric power is not applied. The proposed actuators would be members of the class of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), but would be designed and fabricated following an approach that is somewhat unusual for MEMS. Like other MEMS actuators, the proposed inchworm actuators could utilize thermoplastic, bimetallic, shape-memory-alloy, or piezoelectric actuation principles. The figure depicts a piezoelectric inchworm actuator according to the proposal. As in other inchworm actuators, linear motion of an extensible member would be achieved by lengthening and shortening the extensible member in synchronism with alternately clamping and releasing one and then the other end of the member. In this case, the moving member would be the middle one; the member would be piezoelectric and would be shortened by applying a voltage to it. The two outer members would also be piezoelectric; the release of the clamps on the upper or lower end would be achieved by applying a voltage to the electrodes on the upper or lower ends, respectively, of these members. Usually, MEMS actuators cannot be fabricated directly on the side walls of silicon wafers, yet the geometry of this actuator necessitates such fabrication. The solution, according to the proposal, would be to use the microfabrication technique known by the German acronym LIGA - "lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung," which means lithography, electroforming, molding. LIGA involves x-ray lithography of a polymer film followed by selective removal of material to form a three-dimensional pattern from which a mold is made. Among the advantages of LIGA for this purpose are that it is applicable to a broad range of materials, can be used to implement a variety of designs, including

  10. Cloning and sequence analysis of a partial CDS of leptospiral ligA gene in pET-32a - Escherichia coli DH5α system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Soman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims at cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of a partial CDS of ligA gene in pET-32a - Escherichia coli DH5α system, with the objective of identifying the conserved nature of the ligA gene in the genus Leptospira. Materials and Methods: A partial CDS (nucleotide 1873 to nucleotide 3363 of the ligA gene was amplified from genomic DNA of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The PCR-amplified DNA was cloned into pET-32a vector and transformed into competent E. coli DH5α bacterial cells. The partial ligA gene insert was sequenced and the nucleotide sequences obtained were aligned with the published ligA gene sequences of other Leptospira serovars, using nucleotide BLAST, NCBI. Phylogenetic analysis of the gene sequence was done by maximum likelihood method using Mega 6.06 software. Results: The PCR could amplify the 1491 nucleotide sequence spanning from nucleotide 1873 to nucleotide 3363 of the ligA gene and the partial ligA gene could be successfully cloned in E. coli DH5α cells. The nucleotide sequence when analyzed for homology with the reported gene sequences of other Leptospira serovars was found to have 100% homology to the 1910 bp to 3320 bp sequence of ligA gene of L. interrogans strain Kito serogroup Canicola. The predicted protein consisted of 470 aminoacids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ligA gene was conserved in L. interrogans species. Conclusion: The partial ligA gene could be successfully cloned and sequenced from E. coli DH5α cells. The sequence showed 100% homology to the published ligA gene sequences. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the conserved nature of the ligA gene. Further studies on the expression and immunogenicity of the partial LigA protein need to be carried out to determine its competence as a subunit vaccine candidate.

  11. Method of installing well conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houser, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of installing a well conductor in a marine environment. It comprises sealing a well conductor with a watertight plug; submerging the conductor from an elevated platform; adding additional conductor lengths to the conductor as needed thereby forming a conductor string; adjusting the buoyancy of the string to control the lowering of the string to the sea floor; and drilling through the plug after the conductor string has achieved the desired penetration depth

  12. An investigation of fatigue in LIGA Ni MEMS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allameh, S.M.; Lou, J.; Kavishe, F.; Buchheit, T.; Soboyejo, W.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental study of fatigue in LIGA Ni micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)/thin films produced by electroplating from a sulfamate bath at a current density of 50 mA/cm 2 . Following a brief description of microstructure and micro-tensile properties, the results of stress-life (S-N) experiments are presented for specimens with thicknesses of 70 and 270 μm. Specimens with the thicker cross-sections (270 μm thick) are shown to have comparable fatigue resistance to annealed bulk Ni in the as-plated condition. The thinner specimens (70 μm thick) have comparable fatigue resistance to hardened Ni, and better fatigue resistance than the thicker samples. The underlying fatigue fracture modes are elucidated via scanning electron microscopy. The implications of the results are then discussed for the failure analysis of LIGA Ni MEMS structures

  13. New technique using LigaSure for endoscopic mucomyotomy of Zenker's diverticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik Kjaerem; Trolle, Waldemar; Rubek, Niclas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study is to present a new approach for treatment of Zenker's diverticulum using the LigaSure (Covidien, Mansfield, MA) technique. STUDY DESIGN: A consecutive study with follow-up of 15 patients with Zenker's diverticulum endoscopically treated using...... patients were followed up 5 to 14 months after discharge. RESULTS: The median age of patients was 76 years. The diverticula measured between 2 and 7 cm. The median time of surgery was 33 minutes. All patients but one resumed oral intake within 24 hours. One patient experienced prolonged coughing...... condition. As a new operative instrument, the LigaSure technique constitutes in our opinion a valid and easy alternative for treatment of Zenker's diverticulum compared to other endoscopic techniques....

  14. Superionic state in double-layer capacitors with nanoporous electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat, S; Kornyshev, A

    2011-01-19

    In recent experiments (Chmiola et al 2006 Science 313 1760; Largeot et al 2008 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 2730) an anomalous increase of the capacitance with a decrease of the pore size of a carbon-based porous electric double-layer capacitor has been observed. We explain this effect by image forces which exponentially screen out the electrostatic interactions of ions in the interior of a pore. Packing of ions of the same sign becomes easier and is mainly limited by steric interactions. We call this state 'superionic' and suggest a simple model to describe it. The model reveals the possibility of a voltage-induced first order transition between a cation(anion)-deficient phase and a cation(anion)-rich phase which manifests itself in a jump of capacitance as a function of voltage.

  15. Core level photoelectron spectroscopy of LiGaS2 and Ga-S bonding in complex sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, V.V.; Isaenko, L.I.; Kesler, V.G.; Lobanov, S.I.

    2010-01-01

    The electronic parameters of the lithium thiogallate LiGaS 2 have been evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Spectral features of all constituent element core levels and Auger lines have been considered. The Ga-S bonding effects in Ga-bearing sulfide crystals have been discussed using binding energy difference Δ 2p (S-Ga) = BE(S 2p) - BE(Ga 3d) as a representative parameter to quantify the valence electron shift from gallium to sulfur atoms. The value Δ 2p (S-Ga) = 141.9 eV found for LiGaS 2 is very close to that evaluated for AgGaS 2 . This relation is an indicator of closely coincident ionicity of Ga-S bonds in LiGaS 2 and AgGaS 2 .

  16. Structure-guided mutational analysis of the nucleotidyltransferase domain of Escherichia coli NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Shuman, Stewart

    2005-04-01

    NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) is essential for bacterial growth and a potential target for antimicrobial drug discovery. Here we queried the role of 14 conserved amino acids of Escherichia coli LigA by alanine scanning and thereby identified five new residues within the nucleotidyltransferase domain as being essential for LigA function in vitro and in vivo. Structure activity relationships were determined by conservative mutagenesis for the Glu-173, Arg-200, Arg-208, and Arg-277 side chains, as well as four other essential side chains that had been identified previously (Lys-115, Asp-117, Asp-285, and Lys-314). In addition, we identified Lys-290 as important for LigA activity. Reference to the structure of Enterococcus faecalis LigA allowed us to discriminate three classes of essential/important side chains that: (i) contact NAD+ directly (Lys-115, Glu-173, Lys-290, and Lys-314); (ii) comprise the interface between the NMN-binding domain (domain Ia) and the nucleotidyltransferase domain or comprise part of a nick-binding site on the surface of the nucleotidyltransferase domain (Arg-200 and Arg-208); or (iii) stabilize the active site fold of the nucleotidyltransferase domain (Arg-277). Analysis of mutational effects on the isolated ligase adenylylation and phosphodiester formation reactions revealed different functions for essential side chains at different steps of the DNA ligase pathway, consistent with the proposal that the active site is serially remodeled as the reaction proceeds.

  17. Structure-guided Mutational Analysis of the Nucleotidyltransferase Domain of Escherichia coli DNA Ligase (LigA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Kai; Zhu, Hui; Shuman, Stewart

    2009-03-27

    NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases (LigA) are ubiquitous in bacteria, where they are essential for growth and present attractive targets for antimicrobial drug discovery. LigA has a distinctive modular structure in which a nucleotidyltransferase catalytic domain is flanked by an upstream NMN-binding module and by downstream OB-fold, zinc finger, helix-hairpin-helix, and BRCT domains. Here we conducted a structure-function analysis of the nucleotidyltransferase domain of Escherichia coli LigA, guided by the crystal structure of the LigA-DNA-adenylate intermediate. We tested the effects of 29 alanine and conservative mutations at 15 amino acids on ligase activity in vitro and in vivo. We thereby identified essential functional groups that coordinate the reactive phosphates (Arg(136)), contact the AMP adenine (Lys(290)), engage the phosphodiester backbone flanking the nick (Arg(218), Arg(308), Arg(97) plus Arg(101)), or stabilize the active domain fold (Arg(171)). Finer analysis of the mutational effects revealed step-specific functions for Arg(136), which is essential for the reaction of LigA with NAD(+) to form the covalent ligase-AMP intermediate (step 1) and for the transfer of AMP to the nick 5'-PO(4) to form the DNA-adenylate intermediate (step 2) but is dispensable for phosphodiester formation at a preadenylylated nick (step 3).

  18. Plasma Generator Using Spiral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Ticatch, Larry A. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A plasma generator includes a pair of identical spiraled electrical conductors separated by dielectric material. Both spiraled conductors have inductance and capacitance wherein, in the presence of a time-varying electromagnetic field, the spiraled conductors resonate to generate a harmonic electromagnetic field response. The spiraled conductors lie in parallel planes and partially overlap one another in a direction perpendicular to the parallel planes. The geometric centers of the spiraled conductors define endpoints of a line that is non-perpendicular with respect to the parallel planes. A voltage source coupled across the spiraled conductors applies a voltage sufficient to generate a plasma in at least a portion of the dielectric material.

  19. Superionic state in double-layer capacitors with nanoporous electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat, S; Kornyshev, A

    2011-01-01

    In recent experiments (Chmiola et al 2006 Science 313 1760; Largeot et al 2008 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 2730) an anomalous increase of the capacitance with a decrease of the pore size of a carbon-based porous electric double-layer capacitor has been observed. We explain this effect by image forces which exponentially screen out the electrostatic interactions of ions in the interior of a pore. Packing of ions of the same sign becomes easier and is mainly limited by steric interactions. We call this state 'superionic' and suggest a simple model to describe it. The model reveals the possibility of a voltage-induced first order transition between a cation(anion)-deficient phase and a cation(anion)-rich phase which manifests itself in a jump of capacitance as a function of voltage. (fast track communication)

  20. Conductor for a fluid-cooled winding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Walter J.

    1983-01-01

    A conductor and method of making the conductor are provided for use in winding electrical coils which are cooled by a fluid communicating with the conductor. The conductor is cold worked through twisting and reshaping steps to form a generally rectangular cross section conductor having a plurality of helical cooling grooves extending axially of the conductor. The conductor configuration makes it suitable for a wide variety of winding applications and permits the use of simple strip insulation between turns and perforated sheet insulation between layers of the winding.

  1. Long-term results using LigaSure™ 5 mm instrument for treatment of Zenker's diverticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michelle Fog; Trolle, Waldemar; Anthonsen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long-term results and patient's satisfaction of a new approach using the LigaSure™ 5 mm instrument for treatment of Zenker's diverticulum (ZD) and to compare with other long-term results using traditional treatment modalities. Between December ...... to traditional endoscopic techniques and is now the standard treatment method for ZD in our departments.......The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long-term results and patient's satisfaction of a new approach using the LigaSure™ 5 mm instrument for treatment of Zenker's diverticulum (ZD) and to compare with other long-term results using traditional treatment modalities. Between December......%) reported no symptoms at all. Our results suggest that endoscopic management of ZD with the LigaSure™ 5 mm instrument is a minimally invasive, fast and safe method with solid long-term outcome with relief of symptoms and patient satisfaction. This new operative instrument was not found inferior...

  2. Liga de Dor: uma experiência de ensino extracurricular League Against Pain: an undergraduate extracurricular program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Andrucioli de Mattos Pimenta

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever um programa extracurricular de educação em dor, organizado na forma de Liga, e identificar a opinião dos alunos sobre esse modelo de ensino. O Estatuto e o Regimento Interno da Liga de Dor foram as fontes e dados para a descrição da sua organização e funcionamento. Todos os alunos que frequentaram a Liga de Dor nos anos de 1995 e 1996 foram solicitados a responder um questionário sobre suas experiências na Liga. A Liga de Dor foi organizada sob o patrocínio do Centro Acadêmico Osvaldo Cruz, da Faculdade de Medicina da USP, e Centro Acadêmico XXXI de Outubro, da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, em 1995. É composta por alunos dessas duas faculdades e profissionais enfermeiros e médicos, de várias especialidades. Todas as atividades são voluntárias, desenvolvidas em período extracurricular e os estudantes dirigem a Liga. Os objetivos da Liga são: melhorar a qualidade do ensino sobre dor nas escolas médica e de enfermagem, desenvolver pesquisas relativas à epidemiologia, clínica e controle da dor e promover modelo de assistência multidisciplinar e multiprofissional. A maioria dos alunos expressou ter alcançado seus objetivos, total ou parcialmente; ter aumentado seu conhecimento sobre as síndromes álgicas e sobre o manejo do doente com dor; sentir-se gratificado com sua atividade; que o tema dor deveria ser incluído no currículo de modo mais específico e que recomendaria a outros colegas a participação na Liga de Dor. As opiniões dos estudantes mostraram que a Liga de Dor pode ser um modelo útil para a introdução do ensino da dor nos cursos de graduação e enfermagem e de medicina.Although anatomical and physiological base of pain are subject of the basic sciences in health undergraduate curriculum, it is not usually to have pain, concepts and therapy into undergraduate programs. Describing the League Against Pain objectives and organization and the students' opinions about

  3. Processamento de Ligas de Níquel com Técnica de Manufatura Aditiva Utilizando Plasma por Arco Transferido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo André Alberti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumoA manufatura aditiva é um processo utilizado para a construção e reparos de peças que possuem geometria complexa ou que necessitem de gradiente de propriedades. Nessa técnica múltiplas camadas são depositadas para a construção da geometria do componente. O sucesso desse procedimento depende de fatores como a técnica de deposição, parâmetros, liga a ser depositada e condições da deposição, como temperatura e atmosfera protetora. Neste estudo, o potencial da técnica de Plasma por arco transferido para manufatura aditiva foi avaliado produzindo “paredes finas”, construídas a partir da sobreposição de cordões. Foram utilizadas duas ligas a base de níquel, uma endurecida por precipitação e outra endurecida por solução sólida. Durante os trabalhos, foram selecionados os parâmetros de processamentos, incluindo a avaliação do efeito do pré-aquecimento a 300°C. Resultados mostraram que a composição química da liga influencia a geometria da parede construída assim como a utilização de pré-aquecimento. Estruturas de solidificação exibindo dendritas refinadas com crescimento epitaxial entre camadas são identificadas. Entretanto, as características da liga determinam o perfil de dureza ao longo da seção transversal, sendo a liga endurecida por precipitação influenciada pelos ciclos térmicos de deposição e a liga endurecida por solução sólida pela diluição com o substrato. Em qualquer dos casos é recomendado a aplicação de tratamento térmico pós-soldagem para uniformização das propriedades.

  4. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar,; Harold J. , Harris; Kelvin, Christopher [Houston, TX

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  5. Ligas Agrarias en Chaco y Corrientes. Experiencias de organización campesina en contextos de transformación territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Percíncula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La última dictadura militar arrasó con los procesos organizativos de todo el país, a la vez que introdujo las bases del modelo de acumulación neoliberal. En el nordeste argentino esto implicó, entre otras cosas, la represión y desarticulación de las Ligas Agrarias Chaqueñas y de las Ligas Agrarias Correntinas, organizaciones que en ambos casos representaron las reivindicaciones de los sectores rurales subalternos. Paralelamente, se produjo el desmantelamiento de las producciones de algodón en el Chaco y de tabaco criollo en Corrientes, las cuales estaban en manos de productores directos, quienes se habían organizado en sus respectivas Ligas Agrarias.En este trabajo proponemos un acercamiento, en clave comparativa, a las transformaciones de la estructura agropecuaria que caracterizó a ambas provincias hasta la década del 70 y los actores colectivos conformados a partir de dicha red de relaciones socioeconómicas y políticas, es decir, las Ligas Agrarias Chaqueñas y Correntinas.

  6. Fabrication process of a superconducting multifilament conductor of a cable and resulting electric conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevrier, A.; Verhaege, T.; Bonnet, P.

    1990-01-01

    Elementary conductors constituted of a plurality of superconducting filaments in a metallic matrix are prepared and then twisted. Elementary conductors with a diameter between 0.05 and 0.25 mm without electric insulation are twisted after heating with a pitch of four time the diameter, finally the conductor is insulated [fr

  7. Annual report of the Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, and the Biophysics Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Research on photoemission and photoluminescence in quantum wells; photoemission assisted by electric fields; the electrochemistry of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; MESFET's; fractal physics; amorphous silicon; superionic and mixed conductors; solids chemistry and NMR; internal motion of nucleic acids; cardiophysiology; imaging of microscopic internal motions; and Ap4A metabolism is presented [fr

  8. Pramana Volume 33

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pramana logo a benchmark in indian physics publishing .... 33, No. 6, December 1989. A PSD-based electronic system for AC response studies of superionic conductors — P. Balaya and C. S. Sunadana. 627-638. Interpretation of the recent Kolar events — A. S. Joshipura, G. Rajasekaran, V. Gupta and K. V. L. Sarma.

  9. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors and impact on conductor stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Rupich, M. W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Xie, Y. Y. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. While ac loss reduction was achieved with YBCO filaments created through laser scribing and inkjet deposition, the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders. To better determine the practicality of these methods from a stability point of view, a numerical analysis was carried out to determine the influence of bridging and splicing on stability of a YBCO coated conductor for both liquid nitrogen-cooled and conduction cooled geometries.

  10. Miniature Scroll Pumps Fabricated by LIGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Dean; Shcheglov, Kirill; White, Victor; Bae, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Miniature scroll pumps have been proposed as roughing pumps (low - vacuum pumps) for miniature scientific instruments (e.g., portable mass spectrometers and gas analyzers) that depend on vacuum. The larger scroll pumps used as roughing pumps in some older vacuum systems are fabricated by conventional machining. Typically, such an older scroll pump includes (1) an electric motor with an eccentric shaft to generate orbital motion of a scroll and (2) conventional bearings to restrict the orbital motion to a circle. The proposed miniature scroll pumps would differ from the prior, larger ones in both design and fabrication. A miniature scroll pump would include two scrolls: one mounted on a stationary baseplate and one on a flexure stage (see figure). An electromagnetic actuator in the form of two pairs of voice coils in a push-pull configuration would make the flexure stage move in the desired circular orbit. The capacitance between the scrolls would be monitored to provide position (gap) feedback to a control system that would adjust the drive signals applied to the voice coils to maintain the circular orbit as needed for precise sealing of the scrolls. To minimize power consumption and maximize precision of control, the flexure stage would be driven at the frequency of its mechanical resonance. The miniaturization of these pumps would entail both operational and manufacturing tolerances of pump components. In addition, the vibrations of conventional motors and ball bearings exceed these tight tolerances by an order of magnitude. Therefore, the proposed pumps would be fabricated by the microfabrication method known by the German acronym LIGA ( lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, which means lithography, electroforming, molding) because LIGA has been shown to be capable of providing the required tolerances at large aspect ratios.

  11. Fabrication of miniaturized electrostatic deflectors using LIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, K.H.; Khan-Malek, C.; Muray, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    Miniaturized electron beam columns (open-quotes microcolumnsclose quotes) have been demonstrated to be suitable candidates for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), e-beam lithography and other high resolution, low voltage applications. In the present technology, microcolumns consist of open-quotes selectively scaledclose quotes micro-sized lenses and apertures, fabricated from silicon membranes with e-beam lithography, reactive ion beam etching and other semiconductor thin-film techniques. These miniaturized electron-optical elements provide significant advantages over conventional optics in performance and ease of fabrication. Since lens aberrations scale roughly with size, it is possible to fabricate simple microcolumns with extremely high brightness sources and electrostatic objective lenses, with resolution and beam current comparable to conventional e-beam columns. Moreover since microcolumns typically operate at low voltages (1 KeV), the proximity effects encountered in e-beam lithography become negligible. For high throughput applications, batch fabrication methods may be used to build large parallel arrays of microcolumns. To date, the best reported performance with a 1 keV cold field emission cathode, is 30 nm resolution at a working distance of 2mm in a 3.5mm column. Fabrication of the microcolumn deflector and stigmator, however, have remained beyond the capabilities of conventional machining operations and semiconductor processing technology. This work examines the LIGA process as a superior alternative to fabrication of the deflectors, especially in terms of degree of miniaturization, dimensional control, placement accuracy, run-out, facet smoothness and choice of suitable materials. LIGA is a combination of deep X-ray lithography, electroplating, and injection molding processes which allow the fabrication of microstructures

  12. A LigA three-domain region protects hamsters from lethal infection by Leptospira interrogans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Coutinho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The leptospiral LigA protein consists of 13 bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big domains and is the only purified recombinant subunit vaccine that has been demonstrated to protect against lethal challenge by a clinical isolate of Leptospira interrogans in the hamster model of leptospirosis. We determined the minimum number and location of LigA domains required for immunoprotection. Immunization with domains 11 and 12 was found to be required but insufficient for protection. Inclusion of a third domain, either 10 or 13, was required for 100% survival after intraperitoneal challenge with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130. As in previous studies, survivors had renal colonization; here, we quantitated the leptospiral burden by qPCR to be 1.2×10(3 to 8×10(5 copies of leptospiral DNA per microgram of kidney DNA. Although renal histopathology in survivors revealed tubulointerstitial changes indicating an inflammatory response to the infection, blood chemistry analysis indicated that renal function was normal. These studies define the Big domains of LigA that account for its vaccine efficacy and highlight the need for additional strategies to achieve sterilizing immunity to protect the mammalian host from leptospiral infection and its consequences.

  13. Annual report of the Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, and the Biophysics Group, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Research on photoemission and photoluminescence in quantum wells; photoemission assisted by electric fields; the electrochemistry of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; transport properties of MESFET's; fractal physics; amorphous silicon; superionic and mixed conductors; solids chemistry and NMR; internal motion of nucleic acids; cardiophysiology; imaging of microscopic internal motions; and Ap4A metabolism is presented [fr

  14. Electronic structure and optical properties of LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 single crystal, a nonlinear optical mid-IR material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, A. A.; Gabrelian, B. V.; Vu, Tuan V.; Isaenko, L. I.; Yelisseyev, A. P.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2018-06-01

    Measurements of X-ray photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra for pristine and irradiated with Ar+ ions surfaces of LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 single crystal, novel nonlinear optical mid-IR selenide grown by a modified vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger technique, are reported. Electronic structure of LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 is elucidated from theoretical and experimental points of view. Notably, total and partial densities of states (DOSs) of the LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 compound are calculated based on density functional theory (DFT) using the augmented plane wave + local orbitals (APW + lo) method. In accordance with the DFT calculations, the principal contributors to the valence band are the Se 4p states, making the main input at the top and in the upper part of the band, while its bottom is dominated by contributions of the valence s states associated with Ga and In atoms. The theoretical total DOS curve peculiarities are found to be in excellent agreement with the shape of the X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of the LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 single crystal. The bottom of the conduction band of LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 is formed mainly by contributions of the unoccupied Ga 4s and In 5s states in almost equal proportion, with somewhat smaller contributions of the unoccupied Se 4p states as well. Our calculations indicate that the LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 compound is a direct gap semiconductor. The principal optical constants of LiGa0.5In0.5Se2 are calculated in the present work.

  15. Electrical properties of silver and lithium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterycz, H.; Nitsch, K.; Wisniewski, K.

    2000-01-01

    Silver based superionic conductors are very interesting materials. They have high conductivity at much lower temperatures than their melting points. The possibilities of application of a thick film technology in the fabrication of a solid electrolyte sensors were investigated. In this article, an examination od electrical parameters of superionic conductor based on silver and lithium sulfates are shown in a wide range of temperatures. The measurements were made in order to define physic-chemical properties of these materials. Ag 2 SO 4 /Li 2 SO 4 solid state electrolytes could be used in the potentiometric thick film SO 2 /SO 3 sensor. Double electrode and complete three electrode sensor were made in the thick film technology. AC measurements were applied to estimate the conductance and activation energy of different solid state electrolytes. The value of activation energy is the same for all investigated compositions apart from pure lithium sulfate. The electric parameters of the presented thick film structure of galvanic cell were stable during the reported measurements. (author)

  16. The condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapoval, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory of the Condensed Matter Physics (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities are related to the physics of semiconductors and disordered phases. The electrical and optical properties of the semiconductors, mixed conductor, superionic conductors and ceramics, are studied. Moreover, the interfaces of those systems and the sol-gel inorganic polymerization phenomena, are investigated. The most important results obtained, concern the following investigations: the electrochemical field effect transistor, the cathodoluminescence, the low energy secondary electrons emission, the fluctuations of a two-dimensional diffused junction and the aerogels [fr

  17. Selective sodium removal from lithium chloride brine with novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natrium superionic conductor (NASICON) ceramics present interesting sensitive and selective properties against alkaline cations due to their structure. The powder of Li1.4La0.4Zr1.6(PO4)3 has been synthesized by a solid phase reaction. The removal of sodium was studied in an extensive series of tests involving different ...

  18. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  19. El uso de las redes sociales y el engagement de los clubes de la Liga Endesa ACB

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera-Torres, L.; Pérez-Tur, F.; García-Fernández, J.; Fernández-Gavira, J.

    2017-01-01

    Las redes sociales se han convertido en una plataforma idónea para dar a conocer y aumentar la visibilidad de una marca o empresa y también, para interactuar y analizar las acciones de los fans y seguidores de estas. Debido a ello, el presente estudio pretende averiguar las diferentes redes sociales que emplean los clubes de baloncesto de la Liga Endesa ACB, examinar el Engagement de Facebook y Twitter y, analizar si existe una correlación entre la posición en el ranking al final de la liga, ...

  20. Comparison and Efficacy of LigaSure and Rubber Band Ligature in Closing the Inflamed Cecal Stump in a Rat Model of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of either LigaSure or rubber band in closing inflamed appendiceal stump in acute appendicitis has been less investigated. In this study, cecal ligation followed by resecting inflamed cecum was performed to mimic appendectomy in a rat model of acute appendicitis. Rats were sacrificed immediately (Group A and 7 days (Group B after cecal resection, respectively. The cecal stumps were closed by silk ligature (S, 5 mm LigaSure (L, or rubber band (R. Seven days after cecal resection, the LigaSure (BL and silk subgroups (BS had significantly less intra-abdominal adhesion and better laparotomy wound healing than rubber band subgroup (BR. The initial bursting pressure at cecal stump was comparable among the three methods; along with tissue healing process, both BL and BS provided a higher bursting pressure than BR 7 days after appendectomy. BL subgroup had more abundant hydroxyproline deposition than BS and BR subgroup. Furthermore, serum TNF-α in BR group kept persistently increasing along with time after cecal resection. Thus, the finding that LigaSure but not rubber band is safe in sealing off the inflamed cecal stump in rat model of acute appendicitis suggests the possibility of applying LigaSure for appendectomy via single port procedure or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES.

  1. Optical properties of LiGaS2: an ab initio study and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, V V; Lin, Z S; Isaenko, L I; Lobanov, S I; Kesler, V G; Kruchinin, V N

    2009-01-01

    Electronic and optical properties of lithium thiogallate crystal, LiGaS 2 , have been investigated by both experimental and theoretical methods. The plane-wave pseudopotential method based on DFT theory has been used for band structure calculations. The electronic parameters of Ga 3d orbitals have been corrected by the DFT+U methods to be consistent with those measured with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Evolution of optical constants of LiGaS 2 over a wide spectral range was determined by developed first-principles theory and dispersion curves were compared with optical parameters defined by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the photon energy range 1.2-5.0 eV. Good agreement has been achieved between theoretical and experimental results.

  2. Spray-drying and fabrication of superionic conducting sodium rare-earth silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kimihiro; Nicholson, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    Fine precursor powders of particle diameter of 0.50-7 μm and high surface area (9 m 2 /g) for superionic conducting Na 5 RESi 4 O 12 (RE = Gd, Y) were successfully produced by spray-drying and an optimised calcination procedure. Using these powders, dense sinters (>98% of theoretical) with f(NGS) or f(NYS) = 1.0 (the proposed parameter for purity) were obtained under normal sintering conditions. 300 0 C ionic resistivities were calculated from ac impedance and had values of 5.6 Ω cm with an activation energy for conduction of 4.5 kcal/mol for Na 5 GdSi 4 O 12 and 7.7 Ω cm and 5.9 kcal/mol for Na 5 YSi 4 O 12 . These values were dependent on the f(NGS) or f(NYS). (orig.)

  3. LigaSure small jaws versus cold knife dissection in superficial parotidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Christoffer Holst; Sørensen, Christian Hjort

    2013-01-01

    parotidectomy, and 19 patients had cold knife parotidectomy. Operative time, blood loss, facial palsy and other complications were assessed. The use of LigaSure was associated with a significant reduction in mean operative time (128 min vs. 155, p = 0.04) and intraoperative blood loss (40 mL vs. 115 mL, p ...

  4. Super-ionic conductivity in (1D) nanofibrous TlGaTe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardarly, R.M.; Samedov, O.A.; Abdullaev, A.P.; Salmanov, F.T.; Urbanovic, A.; Garet, F.; Coutaz, J.-L.

    2010-01-01

    increase of σ (T) with T is mainly caused by the diffusion of ions T+ to vacancies in the Tl+-sublattice. This change happens due to the phase transition accompanying the disordering (fusion) of Tl+ sublattice in TlGaTe 2 . Simultaneously, the degree of disorder may change under the influence of external fields. It was studied the temperature dependence of σ (T) in both directions parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis under an electric field E=181 V/cm. A strong sharp increase (1500) of σ (T) is observed at S =242 K (along the c-axis) and S=267 K (perpendicular to it). This increase is attributed to a transition towards a superionic condition. Over the transition threshold of the superionic condition, disordering of the Tl+ sublattice in TlGaTe 2 occurs, and nanosize topological-disordering arises owing to aperiodicity in placing Ga 3 +Te 2 - 2 nano-chains, whose size does not exceed the size of area of a nearest order (∼ 1nm). Investigation in the THz region reveals absorption line nearby f ∼ 0.2 THz. This frequency is less than the lowest optic active phonon mode (A 2 u and Eu). So, f ∼ 0.2 THz is probably the frequency of libration oscillation of nanofibrous (nanochain) Ga 3 +Te 2 - 2 in TlGaTe 2 superionic phase.

  5. Transparent conductor based on aluminum nanomesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarkin, B; Mohammed, A S; Stsiapanau, A; Zhuk, S; Satskevich, Y; Smirnov, A

    2014-01-01

    We report a transparent conductor based on Al nanomesh, which was fabricated through Al anodization and etching processes. The Al anodization was performed at low temperature condition to slow down the anodization rate to achieve the well-controlled thickness of an Al nanomesh. By careful controlling of the anodization process, we can fabricate Al nanomesh transparent conductors with different sheet resistance and optical transparency in the visible spectrum range. We shall show that Al nanomesh transparent conductor is a strong contender for a transparent conductor dominated by ITO

  6. 40 keV Shaped electron beam lithography for LIGA intermediate mask fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttge, R.; Adam, D.; Burkhardt, F.; Hoke, F.; Schacke, H.; Schmidt, M.; Wolf, H.; Schmidt, A.

    1999-01-01

    High precision LIGA masks require a soft X-ray pattern transfer from intermediate masks by means of electron beam lithography. Such a process has been realized using an upgraded Leica ZBA 23 machine with an acceleration voltage of 40 kV. Three process variations of the developer system, so called GG

  7. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E. (3M Comp.)

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  8. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, John P [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  9. Determinação das propriedades termomecânicas de ligas Cu-Al-Ni e Cu-Al-Be com efeito memória de forma para utilização como atuadores mecânicos

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Danniel Ferreira de

    2009-01-01

    Ligas Cu-Al-Ni e Cu-Al-Be forma elaboradas sob atmosfera ambiente e caracterizadas por microscopia, difração de R-X e Calorimetria Diferencial de varredura. Foram realizados nestas ligas ensaios de tração, recuperação de forma e superelasticidade. As propriedades termomecânicas destas ligas realizadas em diferentes temperaturas permitiu concluir que as ligas Cu-Al-Ni podem ser utilizadas como atuadores mecânicos para temperaturas acima de 90°C e que estas ligas não devem ser empregadas em tem...

  10. Liga NiCrSiBC: Microestrutura e Dureza de Revestimentos Processados a Arco e a Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro J. da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de processamento é determinante sobre características de um revestimento. Isso porque o aporte térmico, que depende da técnica e dos parâmetros, tem influência sobre a diluição e a taxa de solidificação. Em ligas com baixa complexidade metalúrgica, o impacto do processamento com técnicas de deposição que impõem maior taxa de resfriamento podem se traduzir em refino da microestrutura. Espera-se que quanto mais refinada a microestrutura maior a resistência mecânica do revestimento. Entretanto, na deposição de ligas de maior complexidade metalúrgica isso nem sempre ocorre, porque a elevada taxa de resfriamento pode suprimir formação/precipitação de fases responsáveis pela resistência. Neste estudo, a influência do processamento sobre microestrutura e dureza de revestimentos da liga Colmonoy-6® foi avaliada. A liga foi processada por plasma com arco transferido (PTA e laser de diodo de alta potência (HPDL sobre chapas de AISI 304 com dois níveis de diluição. Em ambos os casos, revestimentos de boa qualidade e livres defeitos foram obtidos. O aumento do teor de Fe (diluição e as diferentes taxas de resfriamento decorrem do processamento com diferentes parâmetros e técnicas. Em consequência, ocorrem mudanças significativas na microestrutura e na dureza dos revestimentos que estão associadas à distribuição, morfologia e composição química dos carbonetos e, principalmente, dos boretos.

  11. Osmotic regulation of expression of two extracellular matrix-binding proteins and a haemolysin of Leptospira interrogans: differential effects on LigA and Sph2 extracellular release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, James; Medeiros, Marco A; Sanchez, Yolanda; Werneid, Kristian F; Ko, Albert I

    2007-10-01

    The life cycle of the pathogen Leptospira interrogans involves stages outside and inside the host. Entry of L. interrogans from moist environments into the host is likely to be accompanied by the induction of genes encoding virulence determinants and the concomitant repression of genes encoding products required for survival outside of the host. The expression of the adhesin LigA, the haemolysin Sph2 (Lk73.5) and the outer-membrane lipoprotein LipL36 of pathogenic Leptospira species have been reported to be regulated by mammalian host signals. A previous study demonstrated that raising the osmolarity of the leptospiral growth medium to physiological levels encountered in the host by addition of various salts enhanced the levels of cell-associated LigA and LigB and extracellular LigA. In this study, we systematically examined the effects of osmotic upshift with ionic and non-ionic solutes on expression of the known mammalian host-regulated leptospiral genes. The levels of cell-associated LigA, LigB and Sph2 increased at physiological osmolarity, whereas LipL36 levels decreased, corresponding to changes in specific transcript levels. These changes in expression occurred irrespective of whether sodium chloride or sucrose was used as the solute. The increase of cellular LigA, LigB and Sph2 protein levels occurred within hours of adding sodium chloride. Extracellular Sph2 levels increased when either sodium chloride or sucrose was added to achieve physiological osmolarity. In contrast, enhanced levels of extracellular LigA were observed only with an increase in ionic strength. These results indicate that the mechanisms for release of LigA and Sph2 differ during host infection. Thus, osmolarity not only affects leptospiral gene expression by affecting transcript levels of putative virulence determinants but also affects the release of such proteins into the surroundings.

  12. The first DC performance test and analysis of CC conductor short sample at ASIPP conductor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yi; Wu Yu; Liu Huajun; Long Feng; Qian Li; Ren Zhibin; Li Shaolei; Liu Bo; Chen Jinglin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study the first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil conductor short sample have been carried out in ASIPP test facility. ► A CC conductor short sample was fabricated and tested to confirm the capability of this test facility for qualification tests of CC conductors. ► There is no obvious impact of cycling on DC performance measurement. ► Those measured results of current sharing temperature are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling - Abstract: The first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil (CC) conductor short sample have been carried out in the conductor test facility of Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS (ASIPP) in January this year. Those experiments aim to investigate the DC performance of ITER CC conductor. The tested conductor short sample is bended as a half circle with the diameter of 270 mm to meet the background magnetic field shape. The half circle part of sample is longer than the final twist pitch. The current sharing temperature (T cs ) in the 3.86 T external magnetic field (B ex ), ≤12 kA could be measured including the critical current (I c ) run. There is no obvious impact of 1000 cycles on DC performance. Those measured T cs results are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling.

  13. Specifications for conductors and proposed conductor configurations: Milestone M5.3

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, Bernardo; Dhallé, Marc

    2018-01-01

    This document summarises the specifications of a superconductor suitable to be used in a particle accelerator dipole magnet that can reach a field of 16 Tesla during regular operation. The document reports also on the conductor configuration. These specifications set the performance targets for industrial production requirements at large scale. The document motivates the specifications on one hand by taking a particular magnet baseline design as starting point and by considering the results of various conductor test campaigns carried out at partner institutes.

  14. Temperature rise of the mask-resist assembly during LIGA exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Aili

    2004-01-01

    Deep X-ray lithography on PMMA resist is used in the LIGA process. The resist is exposed to synchrotron X-rays through a patterned mask and then is developed in a liquid developer to make high aspect ratio microstructures. The limitations in dimensional accuracies of the LIGA generated microstructure originate from many sources, including synchrotron and X-ray physics, thermal and mechanical properties of mask and resist, and from the kinetics of the developer. This work addresses the thermal analysis and temperature rise of the mask-resist assembly during exposure in air at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron. The concern is that dimensional errors generated at the mask and the resist due to thermal expansion will lower the accuracy of the lithography. We have developed a three-dimensional finite-element model of the mask and resist assembly that includes a mask with absorber, a resist with substrate, three metal holders, and a water-cooling block. We employed the LIGA exposure-development software LEX-D to calculate volumetric heat sources generated in the assembly by X-ray absorption and the commercial software ABAQUS to calculate heat transfer including thermal conduction inside the assembly, natural and forced convection, and thermal radiation. at assembly outer and/or inner surfaces. The calculations of assembly maximum temperature. have been compared with temperature measurements conducted at ALS. In some of these experiments, additional cooling of the assembly was produced by forced nitrogen flow ('nitrogen jets') directed at the mask surface. The temperature rise in the silicon mask and the mask holder comes directly from the X-ray absorption, but nitrogen jets carry away a significant portion of heat energy from the mask surface, while natural convection carries away negligibly small amounts energy from the holder. The temperature rise in PMMA resist is mainly from heat conducted from the silicon substrate backward to the resist and from the inner

  15. Avaliação de Revestimentos de Liga de Níquel 625 Depositados pelo Processo Eletroescória

    OpenAIRE

    Sandes, Soraia Simões; Alvarães, Camila Pereira; Mendes, Matheus Campolina; Araújo, Leonardo Sales; Souza, Luis Felipe Guimarães de; Jorge, Jorge Carlos Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Resumo A aplicação de revestimentos de ligas de níquel é comumente realizada na indústria de petróleo e gás para aumento da vida de equipamentos em ambientes agressivos, dado que este procedimento melhora a resistência à corrosão, sem um aumento significativo do custo de produção quando comparado com equipamentos maciços fabricados com outras ligas. Normalmente, as juntas são soldadas pelos processos de eletrodos revestidos, MIG/MAG ou TIG. Neste aspecto, o processo eletroescória realiza depo...

  16. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  17. On the mechanism of electron-beam induced phenomena in Na β-alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, A.; Polak, M.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed mechanism is proposed for the emergence of sodium to the cleavage-face of the superionic conductor Na β-alumina during high dose electron bombardment. It is based on Auger electron spectroscopy measurements and optical microscope observations of the bombarded surface, and it involves both electromigration of the mobile Na + and fault formation at the cleavage-face resulting from induced internal stress. (author)

  18. The CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, I L; Marti, H P; Neuenschwander, J; Smith, R P; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Calvo, A; Campi, D; Curé, B; Desirelli, Alberto; Favre, G; Riboni, P L; Sgobba, Stefano; Tardy, T; Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S

    2000-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments, which are being designed in the framework of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN, the design field of the CMS magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 13 m and the aperture is 6 m. This high magnetic field is achieved by means of a 4 layer, 5 modules superconducting coil. The coil is wound from an Al-stabilized Rutherford type conductor. The nominal current of the magnet is 20 kA at 4.5 K. In the CMS coil the structural function is ensured, unlike in other existing Al-stabilized thin solenoids, both by the Al-alloy reinforced conductor and the external former. In this paper the retained manufacturing process of the 50-km long reinforced conductor is described. In general the Rutherford type cable is surrounded by high purity aluminium in a continuous co-extrusion process to produce the Insert. Thereafter the reinforcement is joined by Electron Beam Welding to the pure Al of the insert, before being machined to the final dimensions. During the...

  19. A neutron diffraction study of the superionic transition in (Ca sub 1 sub - sub x Y sub x)F sub 2 sub + sub x with x=0.06

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, M; Wilson, C C; McIntyre, G J

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the high-temperature superionic transition of the anion-excess fluorite (Ca sub 1 sub - sub x Y sub x)F sub 2 sub + sub x with x=0.06 using both monochromatic and time-of-flight Laue single-crystal neutron diffraction. The measured Bragg intensities indicate that the cuboctahedral defect clusters found at ambient temperature start to break up into smaller fragments even below the superionic transition temperature, T sub c approx 1200 K. Information concerning the local defect configuration at T = 1173 K has been provided by modelling the measured distribution of the coherent elastic diffuse scattering within the (11-bar0) plane of reciprocal space. The high-temperature defects are of the 'Willis' type and strongly resemble the short-lived Frenkel clusters found in the pure fluorites such as CaF sub 2 above T sub c. (author)

  20. Avaliação da resistência à corrosão da liga de alumínio 6101 após diferentes tratamentos térmicos de precipitação

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, F.; Sabariz, A.; Quadro, A.; Bueno, A.

    2012-01-01

    Atualmente, as ligas de alumínio da série 6xxx vêm ocupando um espaço importante na produção global das ligas de alumínio. A utilização em larga escala dessa classe de ligas é consequência da melhoria de suas propriedades mecânicas quando submetidas a tratamentos térmicos. No entanto, a realização de tratamentos térmicos de solubilização e a precipitação de fases metaestáveis durante o envelhecimento podem prejudicar consideravelmente a resistência à corrosão dessa classe de ligas. O presente...

  1. Interacting with a Virtual Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Pieter; Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Zsófia; Nijholt, Anton; Harper, Richard; Rauterberg, Matthias; Combetto, Marco

    This paper presents a virtual embodied agent that can conduct musicians in a live performance. The virtual conductor conducts music specified by a MIDI file and uses input from a microphone to react to the tempo of the musicians. The current implementation of the virtual conductor can interact with

  2. Li-ion site disorder driven superionic conductivity in solid electrolytes: a first-principles investigation of β-Li3PS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phani Dathar, Gopi Krishna; Balachandran, Janakiraman; Kent, Paul R. C.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Ganesh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The attractive safety and long-term stability of all solid-state batteries has added a new impetus to the discovery and development of solid electrolytes for lithium batteries. Recently several superionic lithium conducting solid electrolytes have been discovered. All the superionic lithium containing compounds (β-Li 3 PS 4 and Li 10 GeP 2 S 12 and oxides, predominantly in the garnet phase) have partially occupied sites. This naturally begs the question of understanding the role of partial site occupancies (or site disorder) in optimizing ionic conductivity in these family of solids. In this paper, we find that for a given topology of the host lattice, maximizing the number of sites with similar Li-ion adsorption energies, which gives partial site occupancy, is a natural way to increase the configurational entropy of the system and optimize the conductivity. For a given topology and density of Li-ion adsorption sites, the ionic conductivity is maximal when the number of mobile Li-ions are equal to the number of mobile vacancies, also the very condition for achieving maximal configurational entropy. We demonstrate applicability of this principle by elucidating the role of Li-ion site disorder and the local chemical environment in the high ionic conductivity of β-Li 3 PS 4 . In addition, for β-Li 3 PS 4 we find that a significant density of vacancies in the Li-ion sub-lattice (~25%) leads to sub-lattice melting at (~600 K) leading to a molten form for the Li-ions in an otherwise solid anionic host. This gives a lithium site occupancy that is similar to what is measured experimentally. We further show that quenching this disorder can improve conductivity at lower temperatures. As a consequence, we discover that (a) one can optimize ionic conductivity in a given topology by choosing a chemistry/composition that maximizes the number of mobile-carriers i.e. maximizing both mobile Li-ions and vacancies, and (b) when the concentration of vacancies becomes significant in

  3. High Critical Current Coated Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V. (SuperPower, Inc.)

    2011-12-27

    One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

  4. A Transdermal Drug Delivery System Based on LIGA Technology and Soft Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, Marco; Perennes, Frederic; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a transdermal drug delivery system based on LIGA fabricated microparts. It is a portable device combining a magnetically actuated micro gear pump with a microneedle array. The fluidic behaviour of the system is analyzed in order to predict its performance according to the dimension of the microparts and then compared to experimental data. The manufacturing process of both micropump and microneedle array are described.

  5. Control of Radioactive Lightning-Conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, E.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive lightning-conductor production in Brazil was started in 1970 and after a period of 19 years of commercialization of these devices, the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), based in studies done in Brazil and abroad, proved that the radioactive lightning-conductor performance wasn't superior to the conventional one, so the use of radioactive source is not justified. Thence, the authorization for its production was suspended and the installation of this type of lightning-conductor was forbidden. The radioactive material that results from the dismount of these devices must be immediately sent to CNEN, for treatment and temporary storage. After this prohibition and its publication in several specialized magazines, CNEN was searched for several institutions, factories, churches, etc, interested in obtaining information about the handling and shipment procedures of radioactive lightning-conductors that are inoperative and that must be sent to CNEN's Institutes, in a correct and secure form. From this moment CNEN technicians realize that the owners of radioactive lightning-conductors didn't have any knowledge and training in radiation protection, neither in equipment to monitoring the radiation. The radioactive material from these sources is, in almost all cases, the radioisotope 241Am which has a maximum activity of an order of 5 mCi (1,85 x 10-2 TBq); as the radiation emitted by 241Am is of alpha type, whose range in the air, is just few centimeters and the gamma rays are of low energy, an irradiation offer small risk. However, there is a contamination risk on someone hands, by the contact with the source. Aiming to attend, in an objective way, the users' interests in obtaining some pertinent technical information about the shipping of radioactive lightning-conductor that is inoperative or is being replaced and also to optimize its receipt in CNEN's Institutes, because there still has a great number of these lightning-conductors installed and still

  6. Resistive coating for current conductors in cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, C.; Wagner, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to a resistive or semiconducting coating for use on current conductors in cryogenic applications. This includes copper-clad superconductor wire, copper wire used for stabilizing superconductor magnets, and for hyperconductors. The coating is a film of cuprous sulfide (Cu2S) that has been found not to degrade the properties of the conductors. It is very adherent to the respective conductors and satisfies the mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements of coatings for the conductors

  7. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    SO4 (X=Si, Ge, Ti) Systems * A DSC and Conductivity Study of the Influence of Cesium Ion on the Beta-Alpha Transition in Silver Iodide * Phase Diagrams, Stoichiometries and Properties of Bi4V2O11:M2+ Solid Electrolytes * Physical Properties of Electrodeposited Silver Chromotungstate * Pseudopotential Study of Bonding in the Superionic Material AgI: The Effect of Statistical Distribution of Mobile Ions * Cubic Phase Dominant Region in Submicron BaTiO3 Particles * The Crystallization of CoZr Amorphous Alloys via Electrical Resistivity * Cation Ratio Related Properties of Synthetic Mg/Al Layered Double Hydroxide and it's Nanocomposite * DC Conductivity of Nano-Particles of Silver Iodide * Effect of Anomalous Diffusion on Quasielastic Scattering in Superionic Conductors * Computer Simulation Study of Conductivity Enhancement in Superionic-Insulator Composites * Dynamics of Superionic Silver and Copper Iodide Salt Melts * Influence of Dopant Salt AgI, Glass Modifier Ag2O and Glass Formers (SeO3 + MoO3) on Electrical Conductivity in Quaternary Glassy System * Fast Ion Conductivity in the Presence of Competitive Network Formers * Role of Alkali Ions in Borate Glasses * Inelastic Light Scattering in Cadmium Borate Glasses * Investigation on Transport Properties of Mixed Glass System 0.75 [0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]. 0.25[Ag2O:CrO3] * Conduction Mechanism in Lithium Tellurite Glasses * Optimized Silver Tungstoarsenate Glass Electrolyte * Stabilized Superfine Zirconia Powder Prepared by Sol-Gel Process * Study of New PAN-based Electrolytes * Electrical and Thermal Characterization of PVA based Polymer Electrolytes * Conductive Electroactive Polymers: Versatile Solid State Ionic Materials * The Role of Ag2O Addition on the Superconducting Properties of Y-124 Compound * Absorption Spectra Studies of the C60 Films on Transition Metal Film Substrates * Effect of Alumina Dispersal on the Conductivity and Crystallite Size of Polymer Electrolyte * New Mixed Galss-Polymer Solid Electrolytes

  8. Restauração metalocerâmica: um estudo comparativo da compatibilidade térmica de ligas Ni-Cr e porcelanas odontológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROLLO João Manuel Domingos de Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma das aplicações tecnológicas em que é necessário haver compatibilidade entre um material cerâmico e um material metálico é a confecção de restaurações odontológicas do tipo metalocerâmica. Neste caso, uma porcelana é fundida sobre um substrato metálico para obtenção da prótese de um dente. O requisito fundamental para o sucesso da união metalocerâmica é a adequação dos coeficientes de expansão térmica de cada um dos materiais, de forma a se obter um estado de tensão de compressão adequado na camada cerâmica. Este trabalho propôs-se a levantar as curvas de expansão térmica de ligas Ni-Cr e porcelanas odontológicas, através da técnica de dilatometria e verificar a possível compatibilidade térmica dos pares metal/cerâmica. Simulando a entrada de um novo produto no mercado, desenvolveu-se uma liga Ni-Cr experimental denominada SR, que foi comparada a uma liga comercial de Ni-Cr bastante utilizada em restaurações metalocerâmicas. A partir da análise das curvas de expansão térmica, foi possível verificar a compatibilidade dos pares metal/cerâmica quanto à dilatação térmica, segundo os conceitos preconizados por YAMAMOTO7 (1985. Sob este aspecto, a liga experimental apresentou valores que a incluem como mais uma opção na família de ligas Ni-Cr para utilização em restaurações metalocerâmicas. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o equipamento e a metodologia utilizados são adequados para análise comparativa da compatibilidade térmica entre ligas metálicas Ni-Cr e porcelanas odontológicas.

  9. Acquisition of negative complement regulators by the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa expressing LigA or LigB confers enhanced survival in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiblanco-Valencia, Mónica M; Fraga, Tatiana R; Breda, Leandro C D; Vasconcellos, Sílvio A; Figueira, Cláudio P; Picardeau, Mathieu; Wunder, Elsio; Ko, Albert I; Barbosa, Angela S; Isaac, Lourdes

    2016-05-01

    Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are surface exposed molecules present in pathogenic but not in saprophytic Leptospira species. We have previously shown that Lig proteins interact with the soluble complement regulators Factor H (FH), FH like-1 (FHL-1), FH related-1 (FHR-1) and C4b Binding Protein (C4BP). In this study, we used the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc as a surrogate host to address the specific role of LigA and LigB proteins in leptospiral complement evasion. L. biflexa expressing LigA or LigB was able to acquire FH and C4BP. Bound complement regulators retained their cofactor activities of FI in the proteolytic cleavage of C3b and C4b. Moreover, heterologous expression of ligA and ligB genes in the saprophyte L. biflexa enhanced bacterial survival in human serum. Complement deposition on lig-transformed L. biflexa was assessed by flow cytometry analysis. With regard to MAC deposition, L. biflexa expressing LigA or LigB presented an intermediate profile: MAC deposition levels were greater than those found in the pathogenic L. interrogans, but lower than those observed for L. biflexa wildtype. In conclusion, Lig proteins contribute to in vitro control of complement activation on the leptospiral surface, promoting an increased bacterial survival in human serum. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of conductor degradation in the ITER CS insert coil and implications for the ITER conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N.

    2007-01-01

    Nb3Sn cable in conduit-type conductors were expected to provide an efficient way of achieving large conductor currents at high field (up to 13 T) combined with good stability to electromagnetic disturbances due to the extensive helium contact area with the strands. Although ITER model coils successfully reached their design performance (Kato et al 2001 Fusion Eng. Des. 56/57 59-70), initial indications (Mitchell 2003 Fusion Eng. Des. 66-68 971-94) that there were unexplained performance shortfalls have been confirmed. Recent conductor tests (Pasztor et al 2004 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 14 1527-30) and modelling work (Mitchell 2005 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 18 396-404) suggest that the shortfalls are due to a combination of strand bending and filament fracture under the transverse magnetic loads. Using the new model, the extensive database from the ITER CS insert coil has been reassessed. A parametric fit based on a loss of filament area and n (the exponent of the power-law fit to the electric field) combined with a more rigorous consideration of the conductor field gradient has enabled the coil behaviour to be explained much more consistently than in earlier assessments, now fitting the Nb3Sn strain scaling laws when used with measurements of the conductor operating strain, including conditions when the insert coil current (and hence operating strain) were reversed. The coil superconducting performance also shows a fatigue-type behaviour consistent with recent measurements on conductor samples (Martovetsky et al 2005 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15 1367-70). The ITER conductor design has already been modified compared to the CS insert, to increase the margin and provide increased resistance to the degradation, by using a steel jacket to provide thermal pre-compression to reduce tensile strain levels, reducing the void fraction from 36% to 33% and increasing the non-copper material by 25%. Test results are not yet available for the new design and performance

  11. Test of ITER conductors in SULTAN: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Stepanov, Boris; Wesche, Rainer; Herzog, Robert; Calzolaio, Ciro; Vogel, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The ITER Toroidal Field (TF) conductor qualification phase has been carried out by testing short sample prototype conductors in the SULTAN test facility. This phase, started in 2007, has been substantially completed after minor adjustment of the conductor specification and test procedures. All the parties involved in the TF conductor procurement passed the qualification phase. Starting 2010, the samples for TF process qualification phase are tested in SULTAN. A summary of the results for all the ITER Qualification samples and an updated statistics are presented for the V-I and V-T characteristics of the cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC), including Nb 3 Sn and NbTi samples assembled with either a 'bottom joint' or a 'U-bend'. The technical improvements of the test facility are reported, including the enhanced cyclic loading rate and the calibration of the current meter. An outlook of the ITER conductor tests in the coming years is also presented.

  12. Restaurações com amálgama: análise rugosimétrica utilizando-se cinco tipos de ligas e quatro técnicas de polimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CENTOLA André Luiz Baracchini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudaram o efeito de quatro diferentes técnicas de polimento de restaurações de amálgama feitas em laboratório com duas ligas convencionais e três ligas com alto teor de cobre, sendo o polimento realizado no tempo de 168 horas após a condensação. A utilização de brocas multilaminadas para o acabamento superficial dos corpos-de-prova exibiu níveis de rugosidade semelhante aos corpos-de-prova não polidos. No tocante às ligas utilizadas, a liga DFL mostrou os mais altos valores de rugosidade superficial, enquanto a liga GS 80 exibiu os melhores valores. A trituração foi efetuada segundo a indicação dos fabricantes e o amálgama foi condensado em uma matriz de aço fabricada especialmente para a pesquisa. A matriz tinha uma cavidade de 4,0 mm de diâmetro com 2,0 mm de profundidade. Cinco minutos após a condensação, foi feita a escultura com uma lâmina de aço e em seguida a brunidura. Depois de 25 minutos, o corpo-de-prova de amálgama era retirado utilizando-se um parafuso da própria matriz. Então, 168 h após a condensação, os corpos-de-prova eram polidos e submetidos aos testes de rugosimetria.

  13. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R.C.; List, F.A.; Paranthaman, M.P.; Rupich, M.W.; Zhang, W.; Xie, Y.Y.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or by an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. Despite physical isolation of the filaments, coupling losses were still present in the samples when compared to the expected hysteretic loss. In addition to filamentary conductors the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders

  14. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6305, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States)], E-mail: duckworthrc@ornl.gov; List, F.A.; Paranthaman, M.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6305, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States); Rupich, M.W.; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor, Two Technology Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Xie, Y.Y.; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower, 450 Duane Ave, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or by an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. Despite physical isolation of the filaments, coupling losses were still present in the samples when compared to the expected hysteretic loss. In addition to filamentary conductors the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders.

  15. Overcurrent experiments on HTS tape and cable conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Jensen, Kim Høj; Træholt, Chresten

    2001-01-01

    their critical current. In this light, it is important to investigate the response of HTS tapes and cable conductors to overcurrents several times the critical current. A number of experiments have been performed on HTS tapes and cable conductors, with currents up to 20 times the critical current. During...... overcurrent experiments, the voltage, and the temperature were measured as functions of time in order to investigate the dynamic behavior of the HTS tape and cable conductor. After each experiment, damage to the superconductors was assessed by measuring the critical current. Preliminary results show...... that within seconds an HTS tape (critical current=17 A) heats above room temperature with an overcurrent larger than 140 A. Similar overcurrent experiments showed that a HTS cable conductor could sustain damage with overcurrents exceeding 10 times the critical current of the cable conductor....

  16. Challenges and status of ITER conductor production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A; Backbier, I; Bessette, D; Bevillard, G; Gardner, M; Jong, C; Lillaz, F; Mitchell, N; Romano, G; Vostner, A

    2014-01-01

    Taking the relay of the large Hadron collider (LHC) at CERN, ITER has become the largest project in applied superconductivity. In addition to its technical complexity, ITER is also a management challenge as it relies on an unprecedented collaboration of seven partners, representing more than half of the world population, who provide 90% of the components as in-kind contributions. The ITER magnet system is one of the most sophisticated superconducting magnet systems ever designed, with an enormous stored energy of 51 GJ. It involves six of the ITER partners. The coils are wound from cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) made up of superconducting and copper strands assembled into a multistage cable, inserted into a conduit of butt-welded austenitic steel tubes. The conductors for the toroidal field (TF) and central solenoid (CS) coils require about 600 t of Nb 3 Sn strands while the poloidal field (PF) and correction coil (CC) and busbar conductors need around 275 t of Nb–Ti strands. The required amount of Nb 3 Sn strands far exceeds pre-existing industrial capacity and has called for a significant worldwide production scale up. The TF conductors are the first ITER components to be mass produced and are more than 50% complete. During its life time, the CS coil will have to sustain several tens of thousands of electromagnetic (EM) cycles to high current and field conditions, way beyond anything a large Nb 3 Sn coil has ever experienced. Following a comprehensive R and D program, a technical solution has been found for the CS conductor, which ensures stable performance versus EM and thermal cycling. Productions of PF, CC and busbar conductors are also underway. After an introduction to the ITER project and magnet system, we describe the ITER conductor procurements and the quality assurance/quality control programs that have been implemented to ensure production uniformity across numerous suppliers. Then, we provide examples of technical challenges that have been

  17. Challenges and status of ITER conductor production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devred, A.; Backbier, I.; Bessette, D.; Bevillard, G.; Gardner, M.; Jong, C.; Lillaz, F.; Mitchell, N.; Romano, G.; Vostner, A.

    2014-04-01

    Taking the relay of the large Hadron collider (LHC) at CERN, ITER has become the largest project in applied superconductivity. In addition to its technical complexity, ITER is also a management challenge as it relies on an unprecedented collaboration of seven partners, representing more than half of the world population, who provide 90% of the components as in-kind contributions. The ITER magnet system is one of the most sophisticated superconducting magnet systems ever designed, with an enormous stored energy of 51 GJ. It involves six of the ITER partners. The coils are wound from cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) made up of superconducting and copper strands assembled into a multistage cable, inserted into a conduit of butt-welded austenitic steel tubes. The conductors for the toroidal field (TF) and central solenoid (CS) coils require about 600 t of Nb3Sn strands while the poloidal field (PF) and correction coil (CC) and busbar conductors need around 275 t of Nb-Ti strands. The required amount of Nb3Sn strands far exceeds pre-existing industrial capacity and has called for a significant worldwide production scale up. The TF conductors are the first ITER components to be mass produced and are more than 50% complete. During its life time, the CS coil will have to sustain several tens of thousands of electromagnetic (EM) cycles to high current and field conditions, way beyond anything a large Nb3Sn coil has ever experienced. Following a comprehensive R&D program, a technical solution has been found for the CS conductor, which ensures stable performance versus EM and thermal cycling. Productions of PF, CC and busbar conductors are also underway. After an introduction to the ITER project and magnet system, we describe the ITER conductor procurements and the quality assurance/quality control programs that have been implemented to ensure production uniformity across numerous suppliers. Then, we provide examples of technical challenges that have been encountered and

  18. Frequency Dependent Losses in Transmission Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Guðmundsdóttir, Unnur Stella

    2011-01-01

    , such as thermal conditions in and around the cable, as well as the heat generated in conductors, screens, armours etc., taking into account proximity and skin effects. The work performed and presented in this paper is concerned with an improved determination of the losses generated in the conductor, by means...... of better calculation of the AC resistance of transmission cable conductors, in particular regarding higher frequencies. In this way, also losses under harmonics can be covered. Furthermore, the model is suitable for modelling of transient attenuation in high voltage cables. The AC resistance is calculated...... based on the current density distribution in different conductor designs by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM). The obtained results and methods are compared to available standards (IEC publication 60287-1-1)....

  19. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  20. ELECTRODYNAMIC STABILITY COMPUTATIONS FOR FLEXIBLE CONDUCTORS OF THE AERIAL LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In aerial transmission lines aluminium multiwire conductors are in use. Owing to their flexible design the electrodynamic effect of short circuit currents may lead to intolerable mutual rendezvous and even cross-whipping of the phase conductors. The increasing motion of the conductors caused by effect of the short-circuit electrodynamic force impulse is accompanied by the dynamic load impact affecting the conductors, insulating and supporting constructions of the aerial lines. Intensity of the short-circuit currents electrodynamic impact on the flexible conductors depends on the short circuit current magnitude. For research into electrodynamic endurance of the conductors of the aerial lines located at the vertices of arbitrary triangle with spans of a large length, the authors assume the conductor analytical model in the form of a flexible tensile thread whose mass is distributed evenly lengthwise the conductor. With this analytical model, by the action of the imposed forces the conductor assumes the form conditioned by the diagram of applied external forces, and resists neither bending nor torsion. The initial conditions calculation task reduces to solving the flexible thread statics equations. The law of motion of the conductor marginal points comes out of the conjoint solution of dynamic equations of the conductor and structural components of the areal electric power lines. Based on the proposed algorithm, the researchers of the Chair of the Electric Power Stations of BNTU developed a software program LINEDYS+, which in its characteristics yields to no foreign analogs, e. g. SAMSEF. To calculate the initial conditions they modified a software program computing the flexible conductor mechanics named MR 21. The conductor short-circuit electrodynamic interaction estimation considers structural elements of the areal lines, ice and wind loads, objective parameters of the short circuit. The software programs are accommodated with the simple and

  1. Thin film conductors for self-equalizing cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, G.; Trutna, W. R.; Orsley, T. J.; Lucia, F.; Daly, C. B.

    2017-10-01

    Self-equalizing cables using hollow conductors with wall thickness less than the skin depth were proposed in 1929. However, they do not appear ever to have been widely used, although the idea has resurfaced and been refined from time to time. In the early 2000's, self-equalizing conductors consisting of solid magnetic steel cores coated with silver were developed by W.L. Gore, and used in their 2.5 Gb/s "Eye-Opener" cables, although higher speed versions never appeared. We have revived the original 1929 idea, proposing to use glass as a solid insulating core. This technology can potentially work at frequencies of many 10's of GHz. Possible uses include short range GHz links such as USB and Thunderbolt, and intra-rack interconnections in data centers. Our feasibility experiments have validated the principle. Copper coated glass fibers can, in principle, be manufactured, but in these tests, the conductors were capillaries internally coated with silver as these are easily obtainable, relatively inexpensive and serve to test the concept. The performance of these experimental twin lead cables corresponds to calculations, confirming the general principle. By calculation, we have compared the performance of cables made from copper-on-insulator conductors to that of similar cables made with solid copper conductors, and verified that copper-on-insulator cables have significantly less frequency dependent loss. We have also made and tested cables with copper on PEEK conductors as surrogates for copper on glass fiber.

  2. Exploring the limits of a very large Nb3Sn conductor: the 80 kA conductor of the ITER toroidal field model coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Ciazynski, D.; Guerber, O.; Park, S.H.; Zani, L.

    2003-01-01

    In Phase II experiment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Toroidal Field Model Coil (TFMC) the operation limits of its 80 kA Nb 3 Sn conductor were explored. To increase the magnetic field on the conductor, the TFMC was tested in presence of another large coil: the EURATOM-LCT coil. Under these conditions the maximum field reached on the conductor, was around 10 tesla. This exploration has been performed at constant current, by progressively increasing the coil temperature and monitoring the coil voltage drop in the current sharing regime. Such an operation was made possible thanks to the very high stability of the conductor. The aim of these tests was to compare the critical properties of the conductor with expectations and assess the ITER TF conductor design. These expectations are based on the documented critical field and temperature dependent properties of the 720 superconducting strands which compose the conductor. In addition the conductor properties are highly dependent on the strain, due to the compression appearing on Nb 3 Sn during the heat treatment of the pancakes and related to the differential thermal compression between Nb 3 Sn and the stainless steel jacket. No precise model exists to predict this strain, which is therefore the main information, which is expected from these tests. The method to deduce this strain from the different tests is presented, including a thermalhydraulic analysis to identify the temperature of the critical point and a careful estimation of the field map across the conductor. The measured strain has been estimated in the range -0.75% to -0.79 %. This information will be taken into account for ITER design and some adjustment of the ITER conductor design is under examination. (authors)

  3. The terminal portion of leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein LigA confers protective immunity against lethal infection in the hamster model of leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Everton F; Medeiros, Marco A; McBride, Alan J A; Matsunaga, Jim; Esteves, Gabriela S; Ramos, João G R; Santos, Cleiton S; Croda, Júlio; Homma, Akira; Dellagostin, Odir A; Haake, David A; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2007-08-14

    Subunit vaccines are a potential intervention strategy against leptospirosis, which is a major public health problem in developing countries and a veterinary disease in livestock and companion animals worldwide. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are a family of surface-exposed determinants that have Ig-like repeat domains found in virulence factors such as intimin and invasin. We expressed fragments of the repeat domain regions of LigA and LigB from Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni. Immunization of Golden Syrian hamsters with Lig fragments in Freund's adjuvant induced robust antibody responses against recombinant protein and native protein, as detected by ELISA and immunoblot, respectively. A single fragment, LigANI, which corresponds to the six carboxy-terminal Ig-like repeat domains of the LigA molecule, conferred immunoprotection against mortality (67-100%, P<0.05) in hamsters which received a lethal inoculum of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni. However, immunization with this fragment did not confer sterilizing immunity. These findings indicate that the carboxy-terminal portion of LigA is an immunoprotective domain and may serve as a vaccine candidate for human and veterinary leptospirosis.

  4. Wiring assembly and method of forming a channel in a wiring assembly for receiving conductor and providing separate regions of conductor contact with the channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzer, Gerald; Meinke, Rainer; Senti, Mark

    2018-03-06

    A conductor assembly and method for constructing an assembly of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, induces a voltage. In one embodiment the method provides a first insulative layer tubular in shape and including a surface along which a conductor segment may be positioned. A channel formed in the surface of the insulative layer defines a first conductor path and includes a surface of first contour in cross section along a first plane transverse to the conductor path. A segment of conductor having a surface of second contour in cross section is positioned at least partly in the channel and extends along the conductor path. Along the first plane, contact between the conductor surface of second contour and the channel surface of first contour includes at least two separate regions of contact.

  5. La incertidumbre de los resultados en las ligas española, inglesa e italiana (2008/09 mediante el rating ELO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Garrido, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En numerosas ocasiones se discute si una determinada liga es la mejor de Europa o si es otra, pero muchas veces ese concepto de “mejor” queda indefinido y se basa en elementos subjetivos o apreciaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar las ligas, española, inglesa e italiana, utilizando el rating ELO para poder determinar cual de las ligas es más homogénea en términos de equilibrio entre los equipos.El interés de una liga depende en gran parte de que exista incertidumbre en el resultado, es decir, lo que viene a denominarse como balance competitivo entre los equipos que la forman, ya que si no es así, la competición pierde interés en la medida en que el resultado es demasiado prfevisible, es decir, que los “buenos” equipos siempre vencen a los restantes, con lo que se perjudica al espectáculo y por tanto, las ganancias que reportan los ingresos, especialmente los televisivos.ABSTRACT It is often discussed whether a particular football league (soccer in America is the best league. However, the term 'best' is often indefinite and based on subjective elements. The aim of this study is to compare the Spanish, English and Italian leagues by using the ELO rating system to determine which league is more homogeneous in terms of balance between the teams. The level of interest in a league largely depends on the uncertainty of outcome or the competitive balance between the teams. If there is a competitive imbalance between the teams then the competition loses interest because the expected results coincide with the real results, namely the 'top' teams always win against the others. This can damage the spectacle, and therefore the earnings produced – especially in the case of television.

  6. Thin film conductors for self-equalizing cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Owen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-equalizing cables using hollow conductors with wall thickness less than the skin depth were proposed in 1929. However, they do not appear ever to have been widely used, although the idea has resurfaced and been refined from time to time. In the early 2000’s, self-equalizing conductors consisting of solid magnetic steel cores coated with silver were developed by W.L. Gore, and used in their 2.5 Gb/s “Eye-Opener” cables, although higher speed versions never appeared. We have revived the original 1929 idea, proposing to use glass as a solid insulating core. This technology can potentially work at frequencies of many 10’s of GHz. Possible uses include short range GHz links such as USB and Thunderbolt, and intra-rack interconnections in data centers. Our feasibility experiments have validated the principle. Copper coated glass fibers can, in principle, be manufactured, but in these tests, the conductors were capillaries internally coated with silver as these are easily obtainable, relatively inexpensive and serve to test the concept. The performance of these experimental twin lead cables corresponds to calculations, confirming the general principle. By calculation, we have compared the performance of cables made from copper-on-insulator conductors to that of similar cables made with solid copper conductors, and verified that copper-on-insulator cables have significantly less frequency dependent loss. We have also made and tested cables with copper on PEEK conductors as surrogates for copper on glass fiber.

  7. LTS and HTS high current conductor development for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Sedlak, Kamil; Uglietti, Davide; Bykovsky, Nikolay; Muzzi, Luigi; De Marzi, Gainluca; Celentano, Giuseppe; Della Corte, Antonio; Turtù, Simonetta; Seri, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Design and R&D for DEMO TF conductors. • Wind&react vs. react&wind options for Nb_3Sn high grade TF conductors. • Progress in the manufacture of short length Nb_3Sn proptotypes. • Design and prototype manufacture for high current HTS cabled conductors. - Abstract: The large size of the magnets for DEMO calls for very large operating current in the forced flow conductor. A plain extrapolation from the superconductors in use for ITER is not adequate to fulfill the technical and cost requirements. The proposed DEMO TF magnets is a graded winding using both Nb_3Sn and NbTi conductors, with operating current of 82 kA @ 13.6 T peak field. Two Nb_3Sn prototypes are being built in 2014 reflecting the two approaches suggested by CRPP (react&wind method) and ENEA (wind&react method). The Nb_3Sn strand (overall 200 kg) has been procured at technical specification similar to ITER. Both the Nb_3Sn strand and the high RRR, Cr plated copper wire (400 kg) have been delivered. The cabling trials are carried out at TRATOS Cavi using equipment relevant for long length production. The completion of the manufacture of the two 20 m long prototypes is expected in the end of 2014 and their test is planned in 2015 at CRPP. In the scope of a long term technology development, high current HTS conductors are built at CRPP and ENEA. A DEMO-class prototype conductor is developed and assembled at CRPP: it is a flat cable composed of 20 twisted stacks of coated conductor tape soldered into copper shells. The 10 kA conductor developed at ENEA consists of stacks of coated conductor tape inserted into a slotted and twisted Al core, with a central cooling channel. Samples have been manufactured in industrial environment and the scalability of the process to long production lengths has been proven.

  8. Conductors for commercial MRI magnets beyond NbTi: requirements and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizh, Michael; Lvovsky, Yuri; Sumption, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a powerful medical diagnostic tool, is the largest commercial application of superconductivity. The superconducting magnet is the largest and most expensive component of an MRI system. The magnet configuration is determined by competing requirements including optimized functional performance, patient comfort, ease of siting in a hospital environment, minimum acquisition and lifecycle cost including service. In this paper, we analyze conductor requirements for commercial MRI magnets beyond traditional NbTi conductors, while avoiding links to a particular magnet configuration or design decisions. Potential conductor candidates include MgB2, ReBCO and BSCCO options. The analysis shows that no MRI-ready non-NbTi conductor is commercially available at the moment. For some conductors, MRI specifications will be difficult to achieve in principle. For others, cost is a key barrier. In some cases, the prospects for developing an MRI-ready conductor are more favorable, but significant developments are still needed. The key needs include the development of, or significant improvements in: (a) conductors specifically designed for MRI applications, with form-fit-and-function readily integratable into the present MRI magnet technology with minimum modifications. Preferably, similar conductors should be available from multiple vendors; (b) conductors with improved quench characteristics, i.e. the ability to carry significant current without damage while in the resistive state; (c) insulation which is compatible with manufacturing and refrigeration technologies; (d) dramatic increases in production and long-length quality control, including large-volume conductor manufacturing technology. In-situ MgB2 is, perhaps, the closest to meeting commercial and technical requirements to become suitable for commercial MRI. Conductor technology is an important, but not the only, issue in introduction of HTS/MgB2 conductor into commercial MRI magnets. These

  9. Structure and Dynamics on Superionic Conducting Phosphate Glasses By Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, E.; Kennedy, S.J.; Itoh, K.; Arai, M.; Mezei, F.; Nakamura, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A series of Neutron Diffraction and Inelastic scattering experiments have been performed on superionic conducting phosphate glasses, MX-MPO 3 (M=Ag; X=I,S) and AgI-Ag 2 S-AgPO 3 . These materials are used for solid state battery, due to high conductivity up to 10 -2 S.cm -1 at ambient temperature. The conductivity of the insulator glass AgPO 3 ∼ 10 -7 S.cm -1 . Interestingly, the structure factor S(Q) exhibits a prepeak at very low Q∼0.7 Aangstroem -1 related to the IRO ∼ 10-12 Aangstroem and the Radial Distribution Function gives an extra peak ∼ 2.8 Aangstroem -1 that corresponds to Ag-I correlation. The dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω), shows a Boson peak at low energy ∼ 2.5 meV that increases with composition and temperature. These behaviors seem to be universal for the AgI doped glasses, but the origin remains not well understood. Increasing mobility of the Ag ions, due to expansion of the phosphate network plays a dominant role on raising the ionic conductivity, prepeak and Boson peak. (authors)

  10. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    One type of conductor under consideration for tokamak toroidal field (TF) magnets is a cable-in-conduit cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection. The main problem is designing such force-cooled conductors (fcc) is to maintain adequate stability while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. The transit time of the helium through a coil is many minutes. Since recovery of the conductor from a thermomechanical perturbation takes on the order of tens of milliseconds, for purposes of calculation, the inventory of helium available to promote recovery is finite. This means that a large enough perturbation will quench the conductor. We can then judge the stability of a fcc by the maximum perturbation of some specified type against which the conductor is stable, i.e., can still return to the superconducting state. The simplest type of perturbation is a sudden, uniform heat input over the entire length of the conductor. The maximum, sudden, uniform heat input per unit volume of metal ΔH is called the ''stability margin.''

  11. Elastically stretchable thin film conductors on an elastomeric substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones Harris, Joyelle Elizabeth

    Imagine a large, flat screen television that can be rolled into a small cylinder after purchase in the store and then unrolled and mounted onto the wall of a home. The electronic devices within the television must be able to withstand large deformation and tensile strain. Consider a robot that is covered with an electronic skin that simulates human skin. The skin would enable the machine to lift an elderly person with care and sensitivity. The skin will endure repeated deformation with the highest tensile strains being experienced at the robot's joints. These applications and many others will benefit from stretchable electronic circuitry. While several different methods have been employed to create stretchable electronics, all methods use a common tool -- stretchable conductors. Therefore, the goal of this thesis work was to fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that can be used in stretchable electronics. We deposited Au thin films on an elastomeric substrate, and the resulting conductors remained electrically continuous when stretched by 30% and more. We developed photolithographic processes that can be used to pattern elastically stretchable conductors with a 10 mum resolution. We fabricated bi-level stretchable conductors that are separated by an elastomeric insulator and are electrically connected through via holes in the insulator. We applied our bi-level conductors to create a stretchable resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit with a tunable resonant frequency. We also used stretchable conductors to measure action potentials in biological samples. This thesis describes the fabrication and application of our elastically stretchable conductors.

  12. Welding shape memory alloys with NdYAG lasers Soldadura de ligas de memória de forma com laser Nd-YAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Quintino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand of emerging joining techniques for shape memory alloys (SMA has become of great importance, as their functional properties namely shape memory effect (SME and superelasticity (SE present unique solutions for state-of-the-art applications. Welding of SMAs is a challenge due to the risk of reduced mechanical performance after laser processing. The wider application of these alloys in various sectors as aerospace, medical or electronic industry is hindered by the limitations in its processing. The need to weld SMAs to other materials is pressing for applications in the above referred sectors. In dissimilar joints the need to understand materials behavior is even more challenging since base materials have different physical properties leading to different heat flow, convection processes and residual stress distribution. The chemical composition across the weld pool varies and intermetallic compounds are formed. Research detailing the effects of laser processing on NiTi is essential to overcome many of these challenges. The objectives of the current study are to analyze the effects of laser welding in the weld shape of both similar and dissimilar joints of NiTi to stainless steel and titanium alloys.A procura de técnicas de ligação para ligas de memória de forma tem-se revetido de importância crescente, devido ao desenvolvimento de aplicações deste material com particulares propriedades de memória de forma e superelasticidade. A soldadura de ligas de memória de forma é um desafio devido ao risco de emporbrecimento das propriedades mecânicas depois do processamento laser. A aplicação alargarda destas ligas em vários sectores como o aeroespacial, medico ou electrónico é prejudicado pelas limitações de processamento. A necessidade de soldar ligas de memória de forma a outros materiais é premente para estes sectores. Em juntas dissimilares, o entendimento do comportamento dos materaias é um desafio ainda maior uma vez que

  13. High current density aluminum stabilized conductor concepts for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.; Eyssa, Y.M.; Hilal, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Lightweight conductors are needed for space magnets to achieve values of E/M (energy stored per unit mass) comparable to the or higher than advanced batteries. High purity aluminum stabilized NbTi composite conductors cooled by 1.8 K helium can provide a winding current density up to 15 kA/cm/sup 2/ at fields up to 10 tesla. The conductors are edge cooled with enough surface area to provide recovery following a normalizing disturbance. The conductors are designed so that current diffusion time in the high purity aluminum is smaller than thermal diffusion time in helium. Conductor design, stability and current diffusion are considered in detail

  14. Qualification tests for ITER TF conductors in SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Wesche, R.

    2009-01-01

    From February 2007 to May 2008, 18 short length conductor sections have been tested in SULTAN for design verification and manufacturer qualification of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) conductor. The test program is focussed on the current sharing temperature, T cs , at the nominal operating conditions, 68 kA current and 11.15 T effective field, which can be fully reproduced in the SULTAN test facility. A broad range of results was observed, with over 2 K difference among the T cs of the conductors. In average, the results are poorer compared to the potential performance estimated from the strand scaling law. The key parameters to mitigate the degradation are not yet clearly identified. The experimental challenges to test conductors with performance degradation are highlighted, including enhanced instrumentation sets, the application of gas flow calorimetry to sense the current sharing power and the post-processing of voltage data to cancel the transverse potential across the cable. The updated schedule of the tests in SULTAN is presented with the short-term action plan for conductor test.

  15. Fabrication of built-up conductors for large pulsed coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, M.D.; Schermer, R.I.

    1979-01-01

    The development work was performed to provide a low-loss, cryostable conductor capable of carrying 5 kA at 3 T for a 30-MJ coil cycled at 0.35 Hz. Much of the work is relevant to conductor development for other pulsed coils, such as a tokamak induction heating coil. As part of the development process, various conductor configurations were subjected to ac loss measurements, stability tests, electrical resistance measurements, and mechanical load-bearing and mechanical fatigue tests. The result is a conductor that appears to satisfy the design criteria with a considerable safety margin

  16. Possible mechanism to enhance spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity in two-dimensional organic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonoyama, Yoshito; Maekawa, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Akito; Suzumura, Yoshikazu [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Yamada, Jun-ichi [Department of Material Science, Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)], E-mail: nonoyama@slab.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2008-10-15

    Mechanisms of superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors have been investigated using an extended Hubbard model by using the transfer energies between BDA-TTP molecules for {beta}-(BDA-TTP){sub 2}I{sub 3} based on the X-ray experiment data and the extended Hueckel calculation. We obtain several mean-field solutions with charge orderings which may represent short-range orderings or low-energy fluctuations in the low-dimensional electronic system. In the pressure-temperature phase diagram, a charge ordered metal state almost degenerates with a normal metal state between an insulating phase with charge ordering and the normal metal phase. Using the random phase approximation (RPA) and the linearized gap equation, the transition temperature of the superconducting state is estimated for the charge-ordered metal state and the normal metal state. It is found that transition temperature of the superconductivity induced by spin fluctuations in the charge-ordered metal state is much higher than that of the normal metal state and that the superconductivity in the charge-ordered metal state is the gapless d-wave. This suggests that the short range charge ordering may also contribute to an enhancement of spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity. The difference in the superconducting states between {beta}-(BDA-TTP){sub 2}I{sub 3} and {beta}-(BDA-TTP){sub 2}SbF{sub 6} are briefly discussed.

  17. Heterologous expression of pathogen-specific genes ligA and ligB in the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa confers enhanced adhesion to cultured cells and fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Cláudio Pereira; Croda, Julio; Choy, Henry A; Haake, David A; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2011-06-09

    In comparison to other bacterial pathogens, our knowledge of the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of leptospirosis is extremely limited. An improved understanding of leptospiral pathogenetic mechanisms requires reliable tools for functional genetic analysis. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are surface proteins found in pathogenic Leptospira, but not in saprophytes. Here, we describe a system for heterologous expression of the Leptospira interrogans genes ligA and ligB in the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc. The genes encoding LigA and LigB under the control of a constitutive spirochaetal promoter were inserted into the L. biflexa replicative plasmid. We were able to demonstrate expression and surface localization of LigA and LigB in L. biflexa. We found that the expression of the lig genes significantly enhanced the ability of transformed L. biflexa to adhere in vitro to extracellular matrix components and cultured cells, suggesting the involvement of Lig proteins in cell adhesion. This work reports a complete description of the system we have developed for heterologous expression of pathogen-specific proteins in the saprophytic L. biflexa. We show that expression of LigA and LigB proteins from the pathogen confers a virulence-associated phenotype on L. biflexa, namely adhesion to eukaryotic cells and fibronectin in vitro. This study indicates that L. biflexa can serve as a surrogate host to characterize the role of key virulence factors of the causative agent of leptospirosis.

  18. Composição centesimal e teor de beta-glucanas em cereais e derivados Nutrient profile and beta-glucans content in cereal seeds and foodstuffs contain them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre H. Fujita

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi utilizado o método enzimático recomendado pela AOAC para determinação de beta-glucanas em cereais e alimentos que os contém. O método, utiliza liquenase (EC 3.2.1.73 e beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21 para hidrólise debeta-glucanas, é rápido, fácil de executar e específico para beta-glucanas com ligações beta(1->3 e beta(1->4. As sementes analisadas foram subministradas pelo Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC e os alimentos adquiridos nos supermercados. Aveia e cevada são os grãos com maior conteúdo de beta-glucanas. Na aveia os teores determinados foram 6,48 e 5,94%. Nos 10 cultivares de cevada os teores de beta-glucanas oscilaram entre 2,04 e 9,68%. Trigo e triticale apresentaram teores de b-glucanas menores que 1%. Nos produtos comerciais o teor de beta-glucanas estava relacionado ao tipo de cereal da fórmula. O produto comercial de maior conteúdo de beta-glucanas é o farelo de aveia. As beta-glucanas são ingredientes funcionais em potencial e a conveniência ou não de estimular sua incorporação em alimentos deve ser mais estudada. Quanto à composição centesimal dos grãos de cereais, o teor de proteínas foi o que apresentou a maior variação e isso se reflete na composição dos produtos comerciais.The method employed was the enzymatic one recommended by de AOAC for the determination of beta-glucans in cereals and in foodstuffs containing cereals in their formulation. The method, using lichenase (EC 3.2.1.73 and beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21 for the hydrolysis of beta-glucans, is quick and easy to execute, but is specific for beta-glucans with beta(1->3 and beta(1->4 bonds. The Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC supplied the seeds analyzed, and the foodstuffs were acquired in supermarkets. Oat and barley are the grains with the highest content of beta-glucans. In the oats, the determined values were 6.48 and 5.94%. In the 10 cultivars of barley, the content of beta-glucans varied between 2.04 and 9

  19. Control of Gene Expression in Leptospira spp. by Transcription Activator-Like Effectors Demonstrates a Potential Role for LigA and LigB in Leptospira interrogans Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christopher J; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that affects ∼1 million people annually, with a mortality rate of >10%. Currently, there is an absence of effective genetic manipulation tools for targeted mutagenesis in pathogenic leptospires. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a recently described group of repressors that modify transcriptional activity in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells by directly binding to a targeted sequence within the host genome. To determine the applicability of TALEs within Leptospira spp., two TALE constructs were designed. First, a constitutively expressed TALE gene specific for the lacO-like region upstream of bgaL was trans inserted in the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa (the TALEβgal strain). Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) analysis and enzymatic assays demonstrated that BgaL was not expressed in the TALEβgal strain. Second, to study the role of LigA and LigB in pathogenesis, a constitutively expressed TALE gene with specificity for the homologous promoter regions of ligA and ligB was cis inserted into the pathogen Leptospira interrogans (TALElig). LigA and LigB expression was studied by using three independent clones: TALElig1, TALElig2, and TALElig3. Immunoblot analysis of osmotically induced TALElig clones demonstrated 2- to 9-fold reductions in the expression levels of LigA and LigB, with the highest reductions being noted for TALElig1 and TALElig2, which were avirulent in vivo and nonrecoverable from animal tissues. This study reconfirms galactosidase activity in the saprophyte and suggests a role for LigA and LigB in pathogenesis. Collectively, this study demonstrates that TALEs are effective at reducing the expression of targeted genes within saprophytic and pathogenic strains of Leptospira spp., providing an additional genetic manipulation tool for this genus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  1. Mechanical test of the model coil wound with large conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiue, Hisaaki; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nakajima, Hideo; Yasukawa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuru; Ito, Ikuo; Konno, Masayuki.

    1992-09-01

    The high rigidity and strength of the winding pack are required to realize the large superconducting magnet for the fusion reactor. This paper describes mechanical tests concerning the rigidity of the winding pack. Samples were prepared to evaluate the adhesive strength between conductors and insulators. Epoxy and Bismaleimide-Triazine resin (BT resin) were used as the conductor insulator. The stainless steel (SS) 304 bars, whose surface was treated mechanically and chemically, was applied to the modeled conductor. The model coil was would with the model conductors covered with the insulator by grand insulator. A winding model combining 3 x 3 conductors was produced for measuring shearing rigidity. The sample was loaded with pure shearing force at the LN 2 temperature. The bar winding sample, by 8 x 6 conductors, was measured the bending rigidity. These three point bending tests were carried out at room temperature. The pancake winding sample was loaded with compressive forces to measure compressive rigidity of winding. (author)

  2. Apparatus to examine pulsed parallel field losses in large conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.R.; Shen, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors in tokamak toroidal field coils will be exposed to pulsed fields both parallel and perpendicular to the current direction. These conductors will likely be quite high capacity (10 to 20 kA) and therefore probably will be built up out of smaller units. We have previously published measurements of losses in conductors exposed to a pulsed parallel field, but those experiments necessarily used monolithic conductors of relatively small cross section because the pulse coil, a torus that surrounded the test conductor, was itself small. Here we describe an apparatus that is conceptually similar but has been scaled up to accept conductors of much larger cross section and current capacity. The apparatus consists basically of a superconducting torus that contains a movable spool to allow test samples to be wound inside without unwinding the torus. Details of apparatus design and capabilities are described and preliminary results from tests of the apparatus and from loss measurements using it are reported

  3. Electrostatic separation for recycling conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors from electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Yan, Guoqing; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-10-02

    Electrostatic separation has been widely used to separate conductors and nonconductors for recycling e-waste. However, the components of e-waste are complex, which can be classified as conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors according to their conducting properties. In this work, we made a novel attempt to recover the mixtures containing conductors (copper), semiconductors (extrinsic silicon), and nonconductors (woven glass reinforced resin) by electrostatic separation. The results of binary mixtures separation show that the separation of conductor and nonconductor, semiconductor and nonconductor need a higher voltage level while the separation of conductor and semiconductor needs a higher roll speed. Furthermore, the semiconductor separation efficiency is more sensitive to the high voltage level and the roll speed than the conductor separation efficiency. An integrated process was proposed for the multiple mixtures separation. The separation efficiency of conductors and semiconductors can reach 82.5% and 88%, respectively. This study contributes to the efficient recycling of valuable resources from e-waste.

  4. Loss and Inductance Investigation in Superconducting Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Tønnesen, Ole; Træholt, Chresten

    1999-01-01

    An important parameter in the design and optimization of a superconducting cable conductor is the control of the current distribution among single tapes and layers. This distribution is to a large degree determined by inductances, since the resistances are low. The self and mutual inductances...... of transport current and current distribution.This presentation is based on a number of experiments performed on prototype superconducting cable conductors. The critical current (1uV/cm) of the conductor at 77K was 1590 A (cable #1) and 3240 A (cable #2) respectively.At an rms current of 2 kA (50 Hz) the AC......-loss was measured on cable #2 to 0.6W/mxphase. This is, to our knowledge, the lowest AC-loss (at 2kA and 77K) of a high temperature superconducting cable conductor reported so far....

  5. Electrohydrodynamic direct—writing of conductor—insulator-conductor multi-layer interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Gao-Feng; Pei Yan-Bo; Wang Xiang; Zheng Jian-Yi; Sun Dao-Heng

    2014-01-01

    A multi-layer interconnection structure is a basic component of electronic devices, and printing of the multi-layer interconnection structure is the key process in printed electronics. In this work, electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW) is utilized to print the conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnection structure. Silver ink is chosen to print the conductor pattern, and a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution is utilized to fabricate the insulator layer between the bottom and top conductor patterns. The influences of EDW process parameters on the line width of the printed conductor and insulator patterns are studied systematically. The obtained results show that the line width of the printed structure increases with the increase of the flow rate, but decreases with the increase of applied voltage and PVP content in the solution. The average resistivity values of the bottom and top silver conductor tracks are determined to be 1.34 × 10 −7 Ω·m and 1.39 × 10 −7 Ω·m, respectively. The printed PVP layer between the two conductor tracks is well insulated, which can meet the insulation requirement of the electronic devices. This study offers an alternative, fast, and cost-effective method of fabricating conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnections in the electronic industry

  6. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  7. Storm on lightning conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomhead, Laurent.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive lightning conductors using radium or americium 241 sources are compared to Faraday cage and lightning rod. Americium source preparation is shortly described. Efficiency of the different systems is still controversed [fr

  8. Tetrathiapentalene-based organic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Yohji

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, structure and properties of tetrathiapentalene-based (TTP) organic conductors are reviewed. Among various TTP-type donors, bis-fused tetrathiafulvalene, 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) and its derivatives afford many metallic radical cation salts stable down to low temperatures, regardless of the size and shape of the counter anions. Most BDT-TTP conductors have a β-type donor arrangement with almost uniform stacks. Introduction of appropriate substituents results in molecular packing that differs from the β-type. A vinylogous TTP, 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-5-(2-ethanediylidene-1,3-dithiole) -1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (DTEDT) has yielded an organic superconductor (DTEDT) 3 Au(CN) 2 as well as metallic radical cation salts, regardless of the counter anions. (Thio)pyran analogs of TTP, namely (T)PDT-TTP and its derivatives produce molecular conductors with novel molecular arrangements. A TTP analog with reduced π-electron system 2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDA-TTP) has afforded several organic superconductors. Highly conducting molecular metals with unusual oxidation states (+1, +5/3 and neutral) have been developed on the basis of 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) derivatives and analogous metal derivatives M(dt) 2 (M = Ni, Au). (topical review)

  9. Utilização de ligas com memória de forma no controlo de vibrações em estruturas inteligentes de Engenharia Civil

    OpenAIRE

    Semião, Luís António Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada na Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Engenharia Civil - Estruturas e Geotecnia As ligas com memória de forma possuem duas propriedades singulares: a memória de forma e a superelasticidade. A memória de forma, é a capacidade do material recuperar a sua forma original através de uma variação de temperatura. A segunda propriedade destas ligas, e na qual esta dissertação se focará, é a superelasticidade....

  10. High-temperature superconducting conductors and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boulaevskii, L.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y.; Ullmann, J.L.; Cho, Jin; Fleshler, S.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) promises more efficient and powerful electrical devices such as motors, generators, and power transmission cables; however this depends on developing HTS conductors that sustain high current densities J c in high magnetic fields at temperatures near liq. N2's bp. Our early work concentrated on Cu oxides but at present, long wire and tape conductors can be best made from BSCCO compounds with high J c at low temperatures, but which are degraded severely at temperatures of interest. This problem is associated with thermally activated motion of magnetic flux lines in BSCCO. Reducing these dc losses at higher temperatures will require a high density of microscopic defects that will pin flux lines and inhibit their motion. Recently it was shown that optimum defects can be produced by small tracks formed by passage of energetic heavy ions. Such defects result when Bi is bombarded with high energy protons. The longer range of protons in matter suggests the possibility of application to tape conductors. AC losses are a major limitation in many applications of superconductivity such as power transmission. The improved pinning of flux lines reduces ac losses, but optimization also involves other factors. Measuring and characterizing these losses with respect to material parameters and conductor design is essential to successful development of ac devices

  11. Properties and applications of perovskite proton conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caetano Camilo de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview is given of the main types and principles of solid-state proton conductors with perovskite structure. Their properties are summarized in terms of the defect chemistry, proton transport and chemical stability. A good understanding of these subjects allows the manufacturing of compounds with the desired electrical properties, for application in renewable and sustainable energy devices. A few trends and highlights of the scientific advances are given for some classes of protonic conductors. Recent results and future prospect about these compounds are also evaluated. The high proton conductivity of barium cerate and zirconate based electrolytes lately reported in the literature has taken these compounds to a highlight position among the most studied conductor ceramic materials.

  12. Conductor development for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, E.

    1988-01-01

    This review investigates the developments in fine filamentary materials over the last three years and traces how the relations between the magnet requirements and property improvements have fashioned SSC conductor specifications. The review emphasizes factors that affect filament nonuniformity and the overall quality of the product. The elimination of proximity effect-induced coupling in SCC type conductors, by introducing small percentages of manganese into the copper between the filaments, is discussed. Modification of a Fermi kit has produced materials with improved critical current densities. The possibility of using this approach to make conductors for accelerator magnets is assessed

  13. Electrical circuit modeling of conductors with skin effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerst, D.W.; Sprott, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The electrical impedance of a lossy conductor is a complicated function of time (or frequency) because of the skin effect. By solving the diffusion equation for magnetic fields in conductors of several prototypical shapes, the impedance can be calculated as a function of time for a step function of current. The solution suggests an electrical circuit representation that allows calculation of time-dependent voltages and currents of arbitrary waveforms. A technique using an operational amplifier to determine the current in such a conductor by measuring some external voltage is described. Useful analytical approximations to the results are derived

  14. Texture development of HTS powder-in-tube conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, B A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1998-10-01

    An overview of the fabrication and electromagnetic properties of high-temperature conductors processed by the powder-in-tube (PIT) technique with reference to texture development and critical anisotropy data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the physicochemical and electromagnetic parameters of the multifilamentary and single-filament conductors with superconducting cores of Bi-2223, Tl-1223 and Y-123 superconducting phases. The influence of the multifilamentary and single-filament structures on texture development is discussed. Also, the importance of the local disturbances of the grain alignment and microdefects for the current distribution across and in the plane of the whole conductor is analysed. A comparative study of the critical current anisotropy with field direction in low magnetic fields of Tl-1223 and Bi-2223 conductors manufactured by the PIT technique is presented. For Tl-1223 PIT conductors the anisotropy coefficient shows a very pronounced minimum, followed by a monotonic reduction of anisotropy with the increase of the magnetic field. This is explained in terms of poor grain alignment with weak intergranular superconducting coupling which cause 3D current percolation and also by the demagnetizing effect of the grains and the ceramic core in the PIT Tl-1223 tapes. (author)

  15. Stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite for use in sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E; Read, Douglas H

    2013-10-22

    A method for making a composite polymeric material with electrical conductivity determined by stress-tuning of the conductor-polymer composite, and sensors made with the stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite made by this method. Stress tuning is achieved by mixing a miscible liquid into the polymer precursor solution or by absorbing into the precursor solution a soluble compound from vapor in contact with the polymer precursor solution. The conductor may or may not be ordered by application of a magnetic field. The composite is formed by polymerization with the stress-tuning agent in the polymer matrix. The stress-tuning agent is removed following polymerization to produce a conductor-polymer composite with a stress field that depends on the amount of stress-tuning agent employed.

  16. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, A.; Skogstad, M.; Johnsen, T. S.; Engdahl, B.; Tambs, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. Aims To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Methods Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an ex...

  17. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, A; Skogstad, M; Johnsen, T S; Engdahl, B; Tambs, K

    2013-12-01

    There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups.

  18. Computer simulation of multiple stability regions in an internally cooled superconducting conductor and of helium replenishment in a bath-cooled conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Shindler, J.

    1984-09-01

    For upcoming fusion experiments and future fusion reactors, superconducting magnetic have been chosen or considered which employ cooling by pool-boiling HeI, by HeII, and by internally flowing HeI. The choice of conductor and cooling method should be determined in part by the response of the magnet to sudden localized heat pulses of various magnitudes. The paper describes the successful computer simulation of multiple stability in internally cooled conductors, as observed experimentally, using the computer code SSICC. It also describes the modeling of helium replenishment in the cooling channels of a bath-cooled conductor, using the computer code TASS

  19. PREFACE: International Symposium on Molecular Conductors: Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions (ISMC 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro; Suzumura, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    The International Symposium on Molecular Conductors 2008 (ISMC2008) was held as the second international symposium of the project entitled `Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions', which was supported by the Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The project lasted from September 2003 to March 2008, and was completed by this symposium held at Okazaki Conference Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan (23-25 July 2008), which about 100 scientists attended. During the symposium, five project teams gave summary talks and exciting talks were given on the topics developed recently not only by the members of the project but also by other scientists including invited speakers from abroad, who are doing active research on molecular conductors. It is expected that papers presented in the symposium will give valuable hints for the next step in the research of this field. Therefore the organizers of this symposium decided to publish this proceedings in order to demonstrate these activities, not only for the local community of the project, but also for the broad society of international scientists who are interested in molecular conductors. The editors, who are also the organizers of this symposium, believe that this proceedings provides a significant and relevant contribution to the field of molecular conductors since it is the first time we have published such a proceedings as an electronic journal. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed by expert referees. Editors made every effort to satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. Toshihiro Takahashi and Yoshikazu Suzumura Editors: Toshihiro Takahashi (Gakushuin University) (Chairman) Kazushi Kanoda (University of Tokyo) Seiichi Kagoshima (University of Tokyo) Takehiko Mori (Tokyo

  20. Design of a Wireless Sensor Module for Monitoring Conductor Galloping of Transmission Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinbo; Zhao, Long; Chen, Guimin

    2016-10-09

    Conductor galloping may cause flashovers and even tower collapses. The available conductor galloping monitoring methods often employ acceleration sensors to measure the conductor translations without considering the conductor twist. In this paper, a new sensor for monitoring conductor galloping of transmission lines based on an inertial measurement unit and wireless communication is proposed. An inertial measurement unit is used for collecting the accelerations and angular rates of a conductor, which are further transformed into the corresponding geographic coordinate frame using a quaternion transformation to reconstruct the galloping of the conductor. Both the hardware design and the software design are described in details. The corresponding test platforms are established, and the experiments show the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed monitoring sensor. The field operation of the proposed sensor in a conductor spanning 734 m also shows its effectiveness.

  1. General relativistic galvano-gravitomagnetic effect in current carrying conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedov, B.J.

    1998-11-01

    The analogy between general relativity and electromagnetism suggests that there is a galvano-gravitomagnetic effect, which is the gravitational analogue of the Hall effect. This new effect takes place when a current carrying conductor is placed in a gravitomagnetic field and the conduction electrons moving inside the conductor are deflected transversally with respect to the current flow. In connection with this galvano-gravitomagnetic effect, we explore the possibility of using current carrying conductors for detecting the gravitomagnetic field of the Earth. (author)

  2. Enhanced Lithium Ion Transport by Superionic Pathways Formed on the Surface of Two-dimensional Structured Li0.85Na0.15V3O8 for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xuena; Shang, Yu; Zhang, Sen; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanosheet with superionic conductive layer was constructed. • Li x V 2 O 5 surface layer provides facile pathways for lithium migration. • Li x V 2 O 5 -Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 composite displays good high rate capability. - Abstract: Poor ion transport and rate capability are the main challenges for LiV 3 O 8 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries. Here we report a novel strategy for enhancing lithium ion transport by building superionic pathways on the surface of Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanosheet. The two-dimensional Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanoparticle with an ion conductive layer of Li x V 2 O 5 on its surface is constructed by a modified sol–gel strategy with carefully controlled sodium incorporation and elements stoichiometry. Ultrathin Li x V 2 O 5 surface layer not only provides facile pathways for lithium migration, but also increases the structure stability during cycling. The Li x V 2 O 5 -Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 composite displays good high rate capability of 172.3 mAh g −1 at 5C and excellent cycling stability of 98.9% over fifty cycles. This superior electrochemical property is attributed to the occupation of lithium site by Na + in LiV 3 O 8 host crystals and the surface superionic pathways of Li x V 2 O 5 phase. Therefore, the advantages of both high ion transport and the structure stabilization in present study put forward a new strategy for achieving high-performance LiV 3 O 8 electrode material with tailored nanoarchitecture

  3. Moessbauer studies of the LiAl sub(5-x) Fe sub(x) O8 and LiGa sub(5-x) Fe sub(x) O8 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthem, V.M.T.S.; Maria Neto, J.; Souza Barros, F. de

    1982-01-01

    Comparative Moessbauer studies of the LiGa sub(5-x) Fe sub(x) O 8 and LiAl sub(5-x) Fe sub(x) O 8 systems are shown. The characteristics of the Moessbauer spectra, obtained with LiGa 5 O 8 samples with 0,1% of Fe 3+ , differ drastically from that observed with LiAl 5 O 8 with the same three-valent iron concentration. All these differences are related to the more covalent character of the gallium-oxygen binding, when compared with the aluminium-oxygen one. (L.C.) [pt

  4. Transport ac losses in Bi-2223 multifilamentary tapes - conductor materials aspect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, B A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge BC2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Majoros, M [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Institute of Electrical Engineering, SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2000-05-01

    Transport ac losses in technical superconductors based on Bi-2223 tape material are influenced by many parameters. The major factors that define the ac performance of such conductors are the following: the size and number of filaments, their geometrical arrangement in the cross-section of the conductor, the twist pitch length, the resistivity of the matrix, the presence of oxide barriers around the filaments and deformation procedures such as sequential pressing or rolling followed by appropriate thermal treatment. In the present paper the above aspects are addressed from the viewpoint of the materials science of technical conductor design. Transport ac losses at power frequencies in different types of Bi-2223 conductor are presented and analysed. The results of conductor design analysis with respect to the coexistence of the superconductor with other materials in the conductor structure are presented. New concepts for minimization of the transport ac losses are discussed in detail. (author)

  5. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  6. Metrology study of high precision mm parts made by the deep x-ray lithography (LIGA) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäder, Olaf; Meyer, Pascal; Saile, Volker; Schulz, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Microcomponents are increasingly applied in industrial products, e.g. smallest gears, springs or the watch industry. Apart from their small dimensions, such components are characterized by a high contour accuracy. Industry requires the tolerances to be in the µm range. Measurement of lateral dimensions in the mm range with submicrometer accuracy and precision, however, results in high requirements on measurement technology. The relevance of this problem is illustrated by the fact that the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) has launched the Collaborative Research Center 1159 on 'New Strategies of Measurement and Inspection for the Production of Microsystems and Nanostructures'. The Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik, Karlsruhe (Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe), produces microstructures by means of the LIG(A) technique (German acronym for lithography, electrodeposition, molding). Presently, a coordinate measurement machine equipped with an optical fiber probe to measure these microstructures is being tested. This paper will particularly focus on the precision and accuracy of the machine. The rules of measurement system analysis will be applied for this purpose. Following the elimination of the systematic error, reproducibility of deep-etch x-ray lithography will be highlighted using the LIGA production of gold gears as an example

  7. The CEA JOSEFA test facility for sub-size conductors and joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decool, P.; Libeyre, P.; Van Houtte, D.; Ciazynski, D.; Zani, L.; Serries, J.P.; Cloez, H.; Bej, S.

    2003-01-01

    The JOSEFA (Joint Sub-size Experiment FAcility) experimental test facility, installed at CEA/Cadarache is devoted to perform tests at cryogenic temperature on sub-size superconducting conductor and joint samples under parallel or transverse magnetic field. This facility was built in 1993 to investigate the performances of joints of cable-in-conduit conductors at sub-size level and further upgraded in the framework of European tasks. The samples of hairpin type using sub-size ITER conductors are cooled by a circulation of supercritical helium in a temperature range from 5 to 15 K and tested at a maximum current up to 10 kA. Two different helium bath cooled magnets allow to apply DC or AC transverse magnetic field up to 3.5 T or longitudinal magnetic field up to 7.5 T. A sliding system with a 240 mm stroke on the sample cryostat allows to test separately in the same sample either the conductor or the joint performances. The paper reports on how, through the conductor and joint development tasks, the facility performances were successfully increased and tested. The ITER TFMC joints using Nb3Sn conductors were first developed on this facility. The last developments, performed on ITER PF NbTi conductors and joints proved this facility to be a versatile and useful tool for superconducting magnet developments and showed the interest of possible upgrading to finalize conductor design. (author)

  8. Neutron scattering in applied research: possibilities for medium-flux research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, H.

    1977-01-01

    The possibilities for neutron scattering techniques in applied research are reviewed. The areas covered are magnetism, determination of hydrogen self-diffusion constants and ionic mobility in superionic conductors, liquid crystals, molecular solids, polymers, surface chemistry and catalysts, colloids biology, physical metallurgy and neutron diagnostics. Established applications and new proposals for research projects are presented in various degrees of detail. Small angle scattering techniques, physical metallurgy and biology were identified as having particular potential. Prospective users should be realistically informed of the possibilities of neutron scattering techniques. (author)

  9. Power distribution: conductors in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of aluminium conductors in medium and low-voltage cables. The author discusses how the increasing price of copper has led to the increasing use of aluminium as a material for the production of the conductors used in medium and low-voltage power cables. Aid is provided that is to help purchasers make the correct decisions when buying medium and low-voltage cables. The current market situation is examined and the appropriate norms are looked at. Technical data and economic aspects are discussed, both for medium and low-voltage applications. The electrical characteristics of the type of cable to be used are examined and discussed

  10. Application of EEM fluorescence spectroscopy in understanding of the "LIGA" phenomenon in the Bay of Biscay (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parot, Jérémie; Susperregui, Nicolas; Rouaud, Vanessa; Dubois, Laurent; Anglade, Nathalie; Parlanti, Edith

    2014-05-01

    Marine mucilage is present in all oceans over the world, and in particular in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Pacific Ocean. Surface water warming and hydrodynamic processes can favor the coalescence of marine mucilage, large marine aggregates representing an ephemeral and extreme habitat for biota. DOM is a heterogeneous, complex mixture of compounds, including extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), with wide ranging chemical properties and it is well known to interact with pollutants and to affect their transport and their fate in aquatic environment. The LIGA French research program focuses on tracing colloidal dissolved organic matter (DOM) sources and cycling in the Bay of Biscay (South Western French coast). This ephemeral phenomenon (called "LIGA" in the South West of France) has been observed more than 750 times since 2010. It presents a great ecological impact on marine ecosystems and has been shown to be concomitant with the development of pathogen organisms. A one-year intensive survey of fluorescent DOM was undertaken. From April 2013 until May 2014, water samples were monthly collected from the Adour River (main fresh water inputs) and from 2 sites in the Bay of Biscay at 3 depths of the water column (surface water, at the maximum of chlorophyll-a, and deep water). Moreover, intensified samplings took place from the appearance of the phenomenon twice a week during 4 weeks. UV/visible absorbance and excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PARAFAC and PCA analyses have been used to characterize colloidal DOM in the Bay of Biscay in order to estimate DOM sources as well as spatial and temporal variability of DOM properties. The preliminary results, obtained for about 70 samples of this survey, have already highlighted spatial and temporal variations of DOM optical properties and a peculiar fluorescent component (exc300nm/em338nm) was detected while the LIGA phenomenon arises. The appearance of this specific

  11. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  12. Toxicidade e capacidade de ligação de proteínas Cry1 a receptores intestinais de Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Sebastião

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade e a capacidade de ligação das proteínas Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac e Cry1Ca, de Bacillus thuringiensis, a receptores intestinais de Helicoverpa armigera. Realizou-se análise de ligação das proteínas ativadas às vesículas de membrana da microvilosidade apical (VMMA do intestino médio deH. armigera, além de ensaios de competição heteróloga para avaliar sua capacidade de ligação. Cry1Ac destacou-se como a proteína mais tóxica, seguida por Cry1Ab e Cry1Aa. A proteína Cry1Ca não foi tóxica às lagartas e, portanto, não foi possível determinar os seus parâmetros de toxicidade CL50 e CL90. As proteínas Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab e Cry1Ac são capazes de se ligar a um mesmo receptor nas membranas intestinais, o que aumenta o risco do desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada. Portanto, a utilização conjunta dessas proteínas deve ser evitada.

  13. Influência do pré-tratamento na ação anticorrosiva de revestimentos híbridos de sol-gel aplicados na liga EN AW-6063

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Edna Fernandes, 1985-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Química Tecnológica, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da influência de pré-tratamentos superficiais no desempenho à corrosão de revestimentos híbridos de sol-gel para a proteção de uma liga de alumínio frequentemente utilizada na construção civil. Para atingir esse objetivo foram aplicados diversos pré-tratamentos à liga de alumínio EN AW-6063. Os pré-tratamentos adotados consist...

  14. Avaliação da fundibilidade de uma liga de cobalto-cromo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARREIRO Adriana da Fonte Porto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho propusemo-nos a avaliar a fundibilidade de uma liga de cobalto-cromo (VERA-PDI em função da utilização de três revestimentos: Knebel (aglutinado por sílica, Termocast e Wirovest (aglutinados por fosfato e duas temperaturas de aquecimento para o molde (900°C e 950°C. Para a execução do teste foi utilizado o método descrito por HINMAN et al.9 (1985. O método de fundição foi o de cera perdida sob chama de gás-oxigênio. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a análise estatística e demonstraram não haver diferença estatisticamente significante para os revestimentos Knebel e Wirovest, e diferença estatisticamente significante ao nível de 0,1% para o revestimento Termocast quando da variação da temperatura de aquecimento do molde. Quando analisamos os revestimentos sob temperatura do molde de 900°C verificamos diferença estatisticamente significante entre Knebel e Termocast e Knebel e Wirovest ao nível de 0,1%, e diferença entre Termocast e Wirovest ao nível de 5%. Para a temperatura de 950°C houve diferença estatisticamente significante ao nível de 0,1% entre todos os revestimentos. Dentro dos parâmetros utilizados neste estudo pudemos concluir que, para a liga VERA-PDI, a utilização do revestimento Knebel e temperatura de aquecimento do molde de 950°C proporcionaram melhores resultados quanto à fundibilidade.

  15. Materials, Mechanics, and Patterning Techniques for Elastomer-Based Stretchable Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stretchable electronics represent a new generation of electronics that utilize soft, deformable elastomers as the substrate or matrix instead of the traditional rigid printed circuit boards. As the most essential component of stretchable electronics, the conductors should meet the requirements for both high conductivity and the capability to maintain conductive under large deformations such as bending, twisting, stretching, and compressing. This review summarizes recent progresses in various aspects of this fascinating and challenging area, including materials for supporting elastomers and electrical conductors, unique designs and stretching mechanics, and the subtractive and additive patterning techniques. The applications are discussed along with functional devices based on these conductors. Finally, the review is concluded with the current limitations, challenges, and future directions of stretchable conductors.

  16. High voltage switches having one or more floating conductor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werne, Roger W.; Sampayan, Stephen; Harris, John Richardson

    2015-11-24

    This patent document discloses high voltage switches that include one or more electrically floating conductor layers that are isolated from one another in the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes. The presence of the one or more electrically floating conductor layers between the top and bottom switch electrodes allow the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes to exhibit a higher breakdown voltage than the breakdown voltage when the one or more electrically floating conductor layers are not present between the top and bottom switch electrodes. This increased breakdown voltage in the presence of one or more electrically floating conductor layers in a dielectric medium enables the switch to supply a higher voltage for various high voltage circuits and electric systems.

  17. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical...

  18. Twenty years of cable-in-conduit conductors: 1975-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews our progress during the last two decades in understanding cable-in-conduit conductors. The emphasis is on the physical principles governing the behavior of cable-in-conduit conductors, and no detailed mathematics is presented. The paper is constructed as a historical narrative

  19. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems.

  20. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems

  1. A Novel Method for Detection and Classification of Covered Conductor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Misak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medium-Voltage (MV overhead lines with Covered Conductors (CCs are increasingly being used around the world primarily in forested or dissected terrain areas or in urban areas where it is not possible to utilize MV cable lines. The CC is specific in high operational reliability provided by the conductor core insulation compared to Aluminium-Conductor Steel-Reinforced (ACSR overhead lines. The only disadvantage of the CC is rather the problematic detection of faults compared to the ACSR. In this work, we consider the following faults: the contact of a tree branch with a CC and the fall of a conductor on the ground. The standard protection relays are unable to detect the faults and so the faults pose a risk for individuals in the vicinity of the conductor as well as it compromises the overall safety and reliability of the MV distribution system. In this article, we continue with our previous work aimed at the method enabling detection of the faults and we introduce a method enabling a classification of the fault type. Such a classification is especially important for an operator of an MV distribution system to plan the optimal maintenance or repair the faulty conductors since the fall of a tree branch can be solved later whereas the breakdown of a conductor means an immediate action of the operator.

  2. Pulse Propagation on close conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dieckmann, A

    2001-01-01

    The propagation and reflection of arbitrarily shaped pulses on non-dispersive parallel conductors of finite length with user defined cross section is simulated employing the discretized telegraph equation. The geometry of the system of conductors and the presence of dielectric material determine the capacities and inductances that enter the calculation. The values of these parameters are found using an iterative Laplace equation solving procedure and confirmed for certain calculable geometries including the line charge inside a box. The evolving pulses and the resulting crosstalk can be plotted at any instant and - in the Mathematica notebook version of this report - be looked at in an animation. As an example a differential pair of microstrips as used in the ATLAS vertex detector is analysed.

  3. Fabrication and tests of EF conductors for JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Kaname, E-mail: kizu.kaname@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kashiwa, Yoshitoshi; Murakami, Haruyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Obana, Tetsuhiro; Takahata, Kazuya [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Hamaguchi, Shinji [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Matsui, Kunihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuya; Takao, Tomoaki [Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Yanagi, Nagato; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The conductors for plasma equilibrium field (EF) coils of JT-60SA are NbTi cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor with stainless steel 316L jacket. The production of superconductors for actual EF coils started from February 2010. Nine superconductors with 444 m in length were produced up to July 2010. More than 300 welding of jackets were performed. Six nonconformities were found by inspections as go gauge, visual inspection and X-ray test. In order to shorten the manufacturing time schedule, helium leak test was conducted at once after connecting the long length jacket not just after the welding. The maximum force to pull the cable into jacket was about 7.6 kN on average. The mass flow rates of 9 conductors showed almost same values indicating that there are no blockages in the conductors. The measured current sharing temperature agreed with the expectation values from strand performance indicating that no degradation was caused by production process. The coupling time constants of conductors ranged from 80 to 90 ms which are much smaller than the design value of 200 ms.

  4. Desempenho de um filme livre de cromo na proteção contra a corrosão de ligas de alumínio 2024.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Rúbia Silva Castro

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho propõe o uso de um filme preparado a partir de solução aquosa alcalina contendo íons de lítio, borato e alumínio, no sentido de inibir a corrosão de ligas de alumínio de uso aeronáutico, buscando sempre comparações com filmes de sais de cromo, atualmente utilizados. Os filmes foram obtidos por dip coating (5 minutos) e por polarização anódica (5 e 45 minutos) de ligas de alumínio 2024-T3 na solução aquosa alcalina contendo íons de lítio, borato e alumínio. Foram feitas micrograf...

  5. Fabrication process of a superconducting multifilament conductor of a cable and resulting electric conductor. Procede de fabrication d'un conducteur a brins multifilamentaires supraconducteurs, et conducteur en resultant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fevrier, A; Verhaege, T; Bonnet, P

    1990-10-05

    Elementary conductors constituted of a plurality of superconducting filaments in a metallic matrix are prepared and then twisted. Elementary conductors with a diameter between 0.05 and 0.25 mm without electric insulation are twisted after heating with a pitch of four time the diameter, finally the conductor is insulated.

  6. Beyond the Beat: Modelling Intentions in a Virtual Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maat, Mark; Ebbers, Rob M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus

    We describe our research on designing and implementing a Virtual Conductor. That is, a virtual human (embodied agent) that acts like a human conductor in its interaction with a real, human orchestra. We reported previously on a first version that used a digital musical score to lead an orchestra.

  7. Investigation of the influence of heat transfer on screen printed textile conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazani, I.; De Mey, G.; Hertleer, C.; Guxho, G.; Van Langenhove, L.

    2017-10-01

    Two different textile substrates were screen printed with silver-based inks in order to be electrically conductive. In every textile four conductors were printed with different widths in order to investigate the influence of heat transfer on each conductor. This was done, by using the thermo graphic camera and through the evaluation of each conductor’s profile. It was found that the conductors printed on the white textile had higher values of heat transfer compared to the other conductors printed on the dark textiles.

  8. Assessment of the noise annoyance among subway train conductors in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Mansoureh; Kavousi, Amir; Zaheri, Somayeh; Hamadani, Abolfazl; Mirkazemi, Roksana

    2014-01-01

    Subway transportation system is a new phenomenon in Iran. Noise annoyance interferes with the individual's task performance, and the required alertness in the driving of subway trains. This is the first study conducted to measure the level of noise and noise annoyance among conductors of subway organization in Tehran, Iran. This cross sectional study was conducted among 167 randomly selected train conductors. Information related to noise annoyance was collected by using a self-administered questionnaire. The dosimetry and sound metering was done for the conductors and inside the cabins. There were 41 sound metering measuring samples inside the conductors' cabin, and there were 12 samples of conductors' noise exposure. The results of sound level meter showed that the mean Leq was 73.0 dBA ± 8.7 dBA and the dosimetry mean measured Leq was 82.1 dBA ± 6.8 dBA. 80% of conductors were very annoyed/annoyed by noise in their work place. 53.9% of conductors reported that noise affected their work performance and 63.5% reported that noise causes that they lose their concentration. The noise related to movement of train wheels on rail was reported as the worst by 83.2% followed by the noise of brakes (74.3%) and the ventilation noise (71.9%). 56.9% of conductors reported that they are suffering from sleeplessness, 40.1% from tinnitus and 80.2% feeling fatigue and sleepy. The study results showed the high level of noise and noise annoyance among train conductors and the poor health outcome of their exposure to this level of noise.

  9. Quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Galbova, O

    2002-01-01

    The electronic absorption of sound waves in quasi-two-dimensional conductors in strong magnetic fields, is investigated theoretically. A longitudinal acoustic wave, propagating along the normal n-> to the layer of quasi-two-dimensional conductor (k-> = left brace 0,0,k right brace; u-> = left brace 0,0,u right brace) in magnetic field (B-> = left brace 0, 0, B right brace), is considered. The quasiclassical approach for this geometry is of no interest, due to the absence of interaction between electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The problem is of interest in strong magnetic field when quantization of the charge carriers energy levels takes place. The quantum oscillations in the sound absorption coefficient, as a function of the magnetic field, are theoretically observed. The experimental study of the quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors makes it possible to solve the inverse problem of determining from experimental data the extrema closed sections of the Fermi surface by a plane p sub z = ...

  10. Influência do teor de Mo na microestrutura de ligas Fe-9Cr-xMo Effect of the content of molybdenum in the microstructure of Fe-9Cr-xMo alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Freitas Guimarães

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aços Cr-Mo são usados na indústria do petróleo em aplicações com óleos crus ricos em compostos sulfurosos. Aços comerciais como 2.5Cr1Mo ou 9Cr1Mo têm se mostrado ineficientes em consequência de altos índices de corrosão naftênica. Uma estratégia para resolver este problema é o aumento do teor de molibdênio destes aços. Neste trabalho foi estudado o efeito do aumento do teor de molibdênio na microestrutura de ligas Fe-9Cr-xMo, solubilizadas e soldadas. Foram levantados os diagramas de fases com auxílio de um programa comercial para verificar as possíveis fases a serem formadas e identificar os problemas de soldagem. A microestrutura das ligas solubilizadas foi analisada por microscopia óptica e EBSD, além da medição da dureza. Foram realizadas soldagens autógenas para verificar o efeito do aporte térmico na microestrutura e na dureza das ligas. O aumento do teor de molibdênio resultou no aumento da dureza das ligas. A análise microestrutural das ligas soldadas apresentou uma particularidade para a liga com menor teor de molibdênio, a presença de martensita. Já as ligas com maior teor de molibdênio apresentaram uma microestrutura completamente ferrítica. A formação de martensita pode ser um problema na solda da liga com menor teor de molibdênio, uma vez que a mesma pode causar perdas nas propriedades mecânicas comprometendo sua aplicação.Cr-Mo steels are used in the petroleum industry in applications with crude oils rich in sulfur compounds. 2.5Cr1Mo or 9Cr1Mo do not resist to operating conditions when in contact with crude oils. The increasing of molybdenum content can improve the corrosion resistance of these alloys. This paper studied the effect of increased concentration of molybdenum in the microstructure of Fe-9Cr-xMo alloys, annealed and welded. Phase diagrams were built with the aid of commercial program to check the possible phases to be formed and to identify the problems of welding. Analyses were

  11. Avaliação da Resistência à Oxidação de Camadas de Ligação de Revestimentos Utilizados em Barreiras Térmicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Júlia Xavier Belém

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Revestimentos são crescentemente utilizados como alternativa de engenharia em projetos avançados. Diversas técnicas e processos estão disponíveis para a aplicação de revestimentos, dependendo da condição específica a que se destinam. Revestimentos para barreira térmica, conhecidos como TBC, fazem parte de uma série especial de revestimentos metal-cerâmicos com tradicional utilização na indústria aeronáutica e crescente aplicação nas indústrias automotiva e de turbinas industriais. Um dos maiores problemas dos TBCs é sua degradação devido à oxidação em alta temperatura da camada de ligação, levando à falha do revestimento por desplacamento. O presente estudo investiga e compara o comportamento de oxidação da camada de ligação de revestimentos para barreira térmica (TBC, tendo como material a liga NiAl, que é uma liga bastante utilizada devido a suas características em altas temperaturas e por ter uma boa adesão em vários substratos. A camada de ligação foi aplicada em um substrato de Aço ABNT 1020 pelo processo Flame Spray (Aspersão a chama. Para a realização dos testes de oxidação isotérmica, o forno utilizado foi regulado a uma temperatura de 1000°C em atmosfera de ar estático, com exposição das amostras por 24, 48, 96 horas e o resfriamento feito em ar atmosférico à temperatura ambiente. A análise do óxido crescido termicamente (TGO – Thermally Grown Oxide em cada amostra foi feita relacionando os tempos de exposição, avaliando a taxa de óxidos por meio de medições de ganho de massa das amostras com revestimentos oxidados e análises por Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura e Microscopia Ótica.

  12. EFECTO DE LA GEOMETRÍA DEL MOLDE EN EL ELECTROFORMADO DE MICROPIEZAS POR UV-LIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C. GAVIRIA VILLA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-LIGA es una técnica versátil que permite la fabricación de piezas metálicas con alta relación de aspecto (alto/ancho mediante la combinación del procesamiento fotolitográfico de un polímero y la electroformación de un metal al interior de las cavidades grabadas en el polímero. Esta técnica de bajo costo es empleada en una gran variedad de áreas que comprenden la microfluídica, la óptica, la instrumentación, el moldeado de plásticos y las telecomunicaciones, entre otras. Para aproximar a Colombia a estas tecnologías modernas de procesamiento de materiales, el Grupo de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales ha iniciado un proceso de apropiación de técnicas de microfabricación, específicamente, este artículo presenta los resultados de la implementación de la técnica UV-LIGA para la fabricación de micropiezas de Níquel y examina los efectos de la geometría del molde en la velocidad de crecimiento e integridad de los depósitos obtenidos, parámetros que sonimportantes para conseguir la fabricación de piezas micrométricas complejas que den origen a dispositivos con aplicaciones comerciales.

  13. "De pequenino é que se torce o pepino": a infância nos programas eugênicos da Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental "As the twig is bent, so is the tree inclined": children and the Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental’s eugenic programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Franco Reis

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe-se a discutir as propostas de intervenção na problemática infantil apresentadas pela Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental (LBHM, instituição criada no começo da década de 1920 que reunia a elite da psiquiatria brasileira, mas também alguns médicos e intelectuais em geral. Fundada num momento de afirmação, no campo psiquiátrico, da perspectiva preventiva, a LBHM vai incorporar ao seu arsenal teórico os temas básicos da higiene mental e da eugenia, tendo em vista o seu objetivo maior de colaborar no "saneamento racial" brasileiro. Assim, é a partir desse objetivo e vendo na criança um "pré-cidadão", "peça fundamental do homem do futuro", que os psiquiatras da liga incluem a questão infantil nos seus projetos, passando a considerar imperiosa a necessidade de cuidados desde a mais tenra idade.Created in the early 1920s, at a moment when the country’s psychiatric field was embracing the preventive outlook, the Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental included within its members the elite of Brazilian psychiatry, along with a number of physicians and intellectuals. The article discusses the institution’s proposals for intervention among children. The league ended up incorporating into its theoretical arsenal the basic themes of mental hygiene and eugenics as part of its general goal of collaborating in Brazil’s process of "racial sanitation". With this objective in mind, and viewing the child as a "pre-citizen" who is a "fundamental part within the man of the future", league members included the children’s issue in their projects and saw an imperative need for mental health care from early ages on.

  14. Thermal stability analysis of YBCO-coated conductors subject to over-currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez, E; Angurel, L A; Pelegrin, J [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Maria de Luna 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Xie, Y Y; Selvamanickam, V [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The thermal stability of superconducting YBCO-coated conductors subject to over-currents are analysed. We have studied the effect of DC and AC over-current pulses in Cu-stabilized and non-stabilized coated conductors by measuring the electric field and temperature profiles of these conductors immersed in liquid nitrogen. Current pulses of short duration of about 90 ms and long duration of a few seconds were applied to the samples. Three different cooling regimes of liquid nitrogen-convection, nucleate boiling and film boiling-were observed and their influence on the recovery time of superconductivity in the coated conductors after the over-current pulses has been analysed. We have studied the recovery behaviour under two different conditions, in which the current was set to zero and to the operating current after the current pulses. These experiments simulated the conditions during an over-current situation in different electric power applications with special attention given to the behaviour of these coated conductors acting as in-fault current limiters.

  15. Thermal stability analysis of YBCO-coated conductors subject to over-currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez, E; Angurel, L A; Pelegrin, J; Xie, Y Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2010-01-01

    The thermal stability of superconducting YBCO-coated conductors subject to over-currents are analysed. We have studied the effect of DC and AC over-current pulses in Cu-stabilized and non-stabilized coated conductors by measuring the electric field and temperature profiles of these conductors immersed in liquid nitrogen. Current pulses of short duration of about 90 ms and long duration of a few seconds were applied to the samples. Three different cooling regimes of liquid nitrogen-convection, nucleate boiling and film boiling-were observed and their influence on the recovery time of superconductivity in the coated conductors after the over-current pulses has been analysed. We have studied the recovery behaviour under two different conditions, in which the current was set to zero and to the operating current after the current pulses. These experiments simulated the conditions during an over-current situation in different electric power applications with special attention given to the behaviour of these coated conductors acting as in-fault current limiters.

  16. Transparent conductors based on microscale/nanoscale materials for high performance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tongchuan

    Transparent conductors are important as the top electrode for a variety of optoelectronic devices, including solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), at panel displays, and touch screens. Doped indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are the predominant transparent conductor material. However, ITO thin films are brittle, making them unsuitable for the emerging flexible devices, and suffer from high material and processing cost. In my thesis, we developed a variety of transparent conductors toward a performance comparable with or superior to ITO thin films, with lower cost and potential for scalable manufacturing. Metal nanomesh (NM), hierarchical graphene/metal microgrid (MG), and hierarchical metal NM/MG materials were investigated. Simulation methods were used as a powerful tool to predict the transparency and sheet resistance of the transparent conductors by solving Maxwell's equations and Poisson's equation. Affordable and scalable fabrication processes were developed thereafter. Transparent conductors with over 90% transparency and less than 10 O/square sheet resistance were successfully fabricated on both rigid and flexible substrates. Durability tests, such as bending, heating and tape tests, were carried out to evaluate the robustness of the samples. Haze factor, which characterizes how blurry a transparent conductor appears, was also studied in-depth using analytical calculation and numerical simulation. We demonstrated a tunable haze factor for metal NM transparent conductors and analyzed the principle for tuning the haze factor. Plasmonic effects, excited by some transparent conductors, can lead to enhanced performance in photovoltaic devices. We systematically studied the effect of incorporating metal NM into ultrathin film silicon solar cells using numerical simulation, with the aid of optimization algorithms to reduce the optimization time. Mechanisms contributing to the enhanced performance were then identified and analyzed. Over 72% enhancement in short

  17. Development of 1 m HTS conductor using YBCO on textured metal substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Mukoyama, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Amemiya, N.; Nagaya, S.; Kashima, N.; Shiohara, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We fabricated 1 m high temperature superconducting conductor (HTS conductor) using YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x coated conductors (YBCO tapes) on textured metal substrates, which are expected to be lower in cost than YBCO tapes using ion-beam assisted deposition. Those substrate and intermediate layers were manufactured by Furukawa Electric, and YBCO and a protective layer were applied to the intermediate layer by Chubu Electric Power. Before fabricating the conductor, a 0.1 mm thick copper tape was soldered to the YBCO tape, and 10 mm wide YBCO tape was divided into three strips by a YAG laser. To have sufficient current capacity for 1 kA, a two-layer conductor was fabricated, and its critical current (I c ) was 1976 A, but the magnetic properties of the textured metal substrates affected the increase in AC loss. In a low current region, the AC loss in this conductor was much higher than the Norris strip model, but approached the Norris strip model in the high current region because the magnetization was almost saturated. Low AC loss of 0.144 W/m at 1 kA rms was achieved even though the conductor had a small outer diameter of 20 mm and was composed of YBCO tapes with magnetic substrates.

  18. LA LIGA DE DAMAS CHILENAS: DE LA CRUZADA MORALIZADORA AL SINDICALISMO FEMENINO CATOLICO, 1912-1918

    OpenAIRE

    ROBLES PARADA, ANDREA ISOLINA

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCCION A comienzos del siglo XX la representación de la mujer de la clase alta chilena se vio envuelta en la convergencia entre imaginarios tradicionales y experiencias nuevas. A partir de este supuesto estudiamos la particularidad de los cambios que suscitó la modernidad en las mujeres católicas de la elite que organizaron La Liga de Damas Chilenas. A través de esta asociación, fundada en 1912, las mujeres católicas comenzaron a int...

  19. Guanidinium nonaflate as a solid-state proton conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Tang, Haolin; Putzeys, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Protic organic ionic plastic crystals (POIPCs) are a type of novel solid-state proton conductors. In this work, guanidinium nonaflate ([Gdm-H][NfO]) is reported to be a model POIPC. Its structure-property relationship has been investigated comprehensively. Infrared analysis of [Gdm-H][NfO] and its....... In addition, POIPC-based solid-state proton conductors are also expected to find applications in sensors and other electrochemical devices....

  20. Fluorine dynamics in BaF2 superionic conductors investigated by NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Gumann, Patryk

    2008-01-01

    In this work the dynamics of fluorine in solid-state electrolytes having BaF2-structure was investigated using three different NMR-methods: field cycling relaxometry, lineshape analysis, and static field gradient NMR. For this purpose a pure BaF2 crystal, as well as crystals doped with trivalent impurities (LaF3), were studied as a function of temperature. The main goal of this investigation was to utilize the structure information provided by neutron scattering and MAS NMR data in order to s...

  1. Fluorine dynamics in BaF2 superionic conductors investigated by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumann, Patryk

    2008-01-01

    In this work the dynamics of fluorine in solid-state electrolytes having BaF 2 -structure was investigated using three different NMR-methods: field cycling relaxometry, lineshape analysis, and static field gradient NMR. For this purpose a pure BaF 2 crystal, as well as crystals doped with trivalent impurities (LaF 3 ), were studied as a function of temperature. Using MAS NMR it was possible to identify two lines in Ba 0.9 La 0.1 F 2.1 having different chemical shift, and to refer them to the modified crystal structure. On this basis a model for the fluorine lineshape has been developed, taking into account three motional processes characterized by their correlation times. It includes jump diffusion of the fluorine ions among equivalent sites within two crystallographically distinct sublattices, and inter-lattice exchange processes. By measuring frequency and temperature-dependent spin lattice relaxation times, it was possible to gain information about fluorine dynamics on microscopic length scales. An attempt was also made to analyze the data for pure BaF 2 and low admixture concentration samples with a non-exponential correlation function. (orig.)

  2. Influência do tratamento superficial 3IP na vida em fadiga da liga de alumínio AA7050-T7451 para aplicação aeronáutica

    OpenAIRE

    Minto, Thiago Alexandre [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    O estudo do comportamento em fadiga e corrosão dos materiais é de extrema importância para a indústria aeronáutica, considerando componentes estruturais que estão submetidos a carregamentos cíclicos constantemente. As ligas de alumínio desempenham papel fundamental nesse ramo, principalmente as ligas da série 7xxx de alta resistência. Como esses componentes também operam em ambientes marítimos, os revestimentos anticorrosivos são utilizados como proteção. Dos processos de revestimentos dispon...

  3. Thin film conductors for self-equalizing cables

    OpenAIRE

    G. Owen; W. R. Trutna; T. J. Orsley; F. Lucia; C. B. Daly

    2017-01-01

    Self-equalizing cables using hollow conductors with wall thickness less than the skin depth were proposed in 1929. However, they do not appear ever to have been widely used, although the idea has resurfaced and been refined from time to time. In the early 2000’s, self-equalizing conductors consisting of solid magnetic steel cores coated with silver were developed by W.L. Gore, and used in their 2.5 Gb/s “Eye-Opener” cables, although higher speed versions never appeared. We have revived the or...

  4. Work in the U.K. on filamentary A15 conductor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.A.; Scott, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    Work on Nb 3 Sn conductor development work began at Harwell in 1967 with work on stable filamentary Nb 3 Sn composites starting in 1969. This lead to a series of small magnets built at the Rutherford laboratory, using conductors incorporating high purity copper regions protected by diffusion barriers of both tantalum and phosphorus poisoned niobium, and the Wind-react technique for magnet construction was established. A magnet development programme lead to the construction of a 450mmx50mm hexapole magnet. IMI's parallel conductor programme developed tantalum diffusion barriers and used a hot extrusion first stage. The present position on conductor development is the result of a unification in 1979 of technical and commercial interests including university programmes. This current position is reported. (U.K.)

  5. A molecular dynamics study of solid and liquid UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindzingre, P.; Gillan, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    We present an extensive series of molecular dynamics simulations of UO 2 in the solid and liquid states, in which we calculate the ionic diffusion coefficients and some of the important thermodynamic quantities. The simulations are based on a rigid-ion model derived from the new shell model potentials of Jackson and co-workers and make use of recently developed constant-pressure and constant-temperature techniques. The simulations confirm that UO 2 is an oxygen superionic conductor, as suggested by recent neutron scattering experiments. The temperature of the diffuse transition to the superionic regime is in satisfactory agreement with experiment, as is the melting point of the model system. The thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat and bulk modulus for the solid agree well with experiment below about 2500 K but are less satisfactory near the melting point; we suggest that the differences may be due to the effect of electronic excitations. The volume increase on melting and thermodynamic quantities of the liquid are sensitive to details of the inter-ionic potentials and are in only fair agreement with experiment. (author)

  6. Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO 2 oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a β-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca o used for reducing UO 2 and PuO 2 to U and Pu. 2 figures

  7. Determinação da concentração de beta-glucano em cogumelo Agaricus blazei Murill por método enzimático Determination of beta-glucan concentration in Agaricus blazei Murill mushroom by enzymatic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong K. Park

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cogumelos comestíveis contêm importantes propriedades funcionais. Em particular, beta-glucanos, homo- e hetero-glucanos com ligações glicosídicas beta(1->3, beta(1->4 e beta(1->6, supostamente responsáveis por algumas propriedades benéficas à saúde humana, como atividade imunomodulatória, antioxidante, antiinflamatória e anticancerígena. Neste trabalho, a quantidade de beta-glucano presente em cogumelo Agaricus blazei Murill, coletados de três diferentes locais, foi analisada utilizando-se método enzimático. As amostras (em base seca foram tratadas com alfa-amilase, protease bacteriana e com glicoamilase fúngica. beta-glucano foi quantificado após hidrólise ácida e determinação da glicose liberada. Foi verificado que amostras de A. blazei Murill cultivadas em estufas apresentaram menor concentração de b-glucano (8,4±0,9 e 7,6±2,8g/100g quando comparado com amostras cultivadas em campo aberto (10,1±2,1g/100g. Observou-se ainda que, mesmo sendo cultivado em condições semelhantes, porém em locais diferentes, as amostras apresentaram diferenças significativas (7,6±2,8 e 8,4±0,9g/100g.Edible mushrooms contains a very interesting functional properties. Among them, the beta-glucans, polysaccharides with beta-1,3; b-1,4 and beta-1,6glucosidic linkages, they are responsible to a series of properties to human health, such as immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and, antitumoral activities. In the present work, the Agaricus blazei Murill beta-glucan concentrations from three locations, were determined through the enzymatic method. Samples were treated with alpha-amylase, bacterial protease and fungal glucoamylase. beta-glucans were quantified after acid hydrolysis and, the glucose determined for spectrophotometric method. It was verified that samples cultivated inside stoves presented smaller beta-glucan concentration (8.4±0.9 and 7.6±2.8g/100g, when compared with samples cultivated in open field (10.1±2.1g/100

  8. Relação entre toxicidade de proteínas Vip3Aa e sua capacidade de ligação a receptores intestinais de lepidópteros-praga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Cristina Marucci

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de novas proteínas Vip3Aa e sua capacidade de ligação a vesículas de membrana da microvilosidade apical (VMMA do intestino de lagartas neonatas de Spodoptera frugiperda, Anticarsia gemmatalise Heliothis virescens. Proteínas expressas pelos genes vip3Aa42 e vip3Aa43 mostraram-se tóxicas a S. frugiperda (CL50 de 78,2 e 113 ng cm-2, respectivamente e A. gemmatalis(CL50 de 239,2 e 57,5 ng cm-2, respectivamente, e pouco tóxicas a H. virescens (CL50>5.000 ng cm-2. Os ensaios de ligação às VMMA mostraram que as proteínas unem-se de forma efetiva aos receptores nas vesículas das espécies avaliadas, mas essa capacidade de ligação somente é efetiva na ativação da toxicidade para as populações avaliadas de S. frugiperdae A. gemmatalis.

  9. Powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb$_{3}$Sn conductors for high-field magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenhovius, J L H; den Ouden, A; Wessel, W A J; ten Kate, H H J

    2000-01-01

    New Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment of the conductor lay-out. It uniquely combines a non-copper current density of 2680 A/mm/sup 2/@10 T with an effective filament diameter of about 20 mu m. This binary conductor may be used in a 10 T, wide bore model separator dipole magnet for the LHC, which is being developed by a collaboration of the University of Twente and CERN. A ternary (Nb/7.5wt%Ta)/sub 3/Sn conductor containing 37 filaments is particularly suited for application in extremely high-field superconducting solenoids. This wire features a copper content of 43%, a non-copper current density of 217 A/mm/sup 2/@20 T and a B/sub c2/ of 25.6 T. The main issues and the experimental results of the development program of PIT Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors a...

  10. Interacting Frenkel defects at high concentration and the superionic transition in fluorite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.; Tosi, M.P.

    1980-11-01

    A spherical cell model is proposed to account for the explicit concentration dependence of Frenkel defects in an ionic system. In the model, the linearized Debye-Hueckel equation is soluble exactly, subject to the boundary condition that the electric field is zero at the cell boundary R, related to the concentration α of defects by R proportional to csup(-1/3). This screened field is used to calculate the chemical potential, which in turn leads to a condition for the instability of the interacting defect assembly. This condition allows one to calculate the enhancement of the concentration of defects above its Arrhenius value at the point of instability in terms of (a) the critical concentration csub(c), (b) a/R, where a is the radius of defect and (c) the Debye-Hueckel screening length kappasub(c). It is clear from the cell model that this enhancement factor is reduced somewhat in the relevant range of parameters in some of the fluorites from its value in extended Debye-Hueckel theory. It is anticipated that the instability discussed here should afford an upper bound to csub(c) at the superionic transition, within the range of validity of the model. The excess he at capacity csub(p) is also discussed briefly. (author)

  11. Chaotic Music Generation System Using Music Conductor Gesture

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shuai; Maeda, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2013-01-01

    In the research of interactive music generation, we propose a music generation method, that the computer generates the music, under the recognition of human music conductor's gestures.In this research, the generated music is tuned by the recognized gestures for the parameters of the network of chaotic elements in real time. The music conductor's hand motions are detected by Microsoft Kinect in this system. Music theories are embedded in the algorithm, as a result, the generated music will be ...

  12. Music Conductor Gesture Recognized Interactive Music Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Shuai; MAEDA, Yoichiro; TAKAHASHI, Yasutake

    2012-01-01

    In the research of interactive music generation, we propose a music generation method, that the computer generates the music automatically, and then the music will be arranged under the human music conductor's gestures, before it outputs to us. In this research, the generated music is processed from chaotic sound, which is generated from the network of chaotic elements in realtime. The music conductor's hand motions are detected by Microsoft Kinect in this system. Music theories are embedded ...

  13. Tension layer winding of cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devernoe, A.; Ciancetta, G.; King, M.; Parizh, M.; Painter, T.; Miller, J.

    1996-01-01

    A 710 mm i.d. by 440 mm long, 6 layer Cable-in-Conduit (CIC) coil was precision tension layer wound with Incoloy 908 jacketed conductor to model winding technology that will be used for the Nb 3 Sn outsert coils of the 45 Tesla Hybrid Magnet Project at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. This paper reports on the set up of a new winding facility with unique capabilities for insulating and winding long length CIC conductor and on special procedures which were developed to wind and support layer to layer transitions and to safely form conductor into and out of the winding. Analytical methods used to predict conduit keystoning, springback and back tensioning requirements before winding are reported in comparison to results obtained during winding and actual winding build-up dimensions on a layer by layer basis in comparison to design requirements

  14. Conductores recubiertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Garcés

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, Nb–Ti, exhibiting a superconducting transition temperature Tc of 9K, and Nb3Sn, with a Tc of 18K have been the materials of choice for superconducting applications. The prospects for the future changed dramatically with the discovery of ceramic high temperature superconductors exhibiting Tc values well above the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen (77K. These materials are now widely considered for large power applications, electronics and magnets as in microelectronics. The first case corresponding power transmission wires, motors, generators, fault current limiters, transformers, etc. and technology related small scale manufacturing SQUID superconductors. Nevertheless, the fabrication of useful conductors out of these layered cuprates encountered some problems such as chemical and structural purity, stability, oxygen stoichiometric and weak links limiting current carrying capacity. However, despite these difficulties a first generation of silver sheathed composites based on (Bi,PbSrCaCuO (solving the problem of inherent fragility of these materials has already been commercialized. It is now a widespread view that superconducting wires with high performance under strong magnetic fields and at elevated temperatures above liquid nitrogen, will need to be realized using the (REBaCuO (RE = rare earth materials. Chemical deposition techniques (CVD of thick films, appear as the most suitable for this purpose, so the study of various chemical deposition techniques that allow to grow superconducting films and buffer layers with the right texture to produce a coated conductor Proper alignment and high current carrying capacity (∼ 1 MA/cm2 are now booming.

  15. Study on the conductor-insulator friction at liquid helium temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batakov, Yu.P.; Kostenko, A.I.; Semenov, O.V.; Trokhachev, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    A study is made on conductor heating as a result of friction following displacements under coolina conditions close to those for conductors in superconducting magnets with cryostatic stabilization. Sliding of a 2x15 mm 2 copper plate an averawithge surface roughness of 1m over fiberglas0 μ textolite and teflon is studied. ''Sudden'' displacements are caused by application of the displacing force exceeding the static frictional force several times. If in case of friction displacements.are caused by the action of a force equal to the static frictional force, stops increasing the displacement time are possible. This may ta.ke place following the displacement of the conductor parts in the superconducting magnet coils, owing to which the displacement may turn out to be not ''sudden''. In this case in designing superconducting magnets the tolerances for conductor portion displacements, which do not affect the magnet normal operation, may be less strict

  16. Selection of a cryostabilized Nb3Sn conductor cooling system for the large coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, J.W.H.; Murphy, J.H.; Jones, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Large Coil Project (LCP) is a program to design, fabricate and test relatively large superconducting toroidal field coils for tokamak fusion reactor applications. Some basic requirements that affect the conductor design are cryostabilization, 8 tesla peak magnetic field, and a specified maximum refrigeration load. The engineering considerations that led to the selection of a forced flow supercritical helium-cooled cable conductor are described. Comparisons of forced flow supercritical helium cooled cable conductors with pool boiling cooled monolithic conductors were made with regard to a number of factors such as the thermal capacity of the coolant, the thermal design margins, propensity for conductor normalization, predictability of the thermal-flow performance, controllability of the cooling conditions, etc. It was concluded that, although there exists a number of design uncertainties and engineering problems, forced flow supercritical helium cooled conductors can provide a far more reliable coil design than the pool boiling monolithic concept. The design of a cryostabilized Nb 3 Sn hollow cabled conductor involved detailed considerations of the need for fully transposed conductor strands, the nonuniform void and helium flow distributions, heat transfer from the twisted conductor strands, and helium flow rate and pump work requirements. The uncertainties in the design are discussed and the specifications of a reference Nb 3 Sn conductor concept that meets the design requirements and constraints are presented

  17. Velocity measurement of conductor using electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gu Hwa; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Joon Po; Jeong, Hee Tae; Lee, Eui Wan

    2002-01-01

    A basic technology was investigated to measure the speed of conductor by non-contact electromagnetic method. The principle of the velocity sensor was electromagnetic induction. To design electromagnet for velocity sensor, 2D electromagnetic analysis was performed using FEM software. The sensor output was analyzed according to the parameters of velocity sensor, such as the type of magnetizing currents and the lift-off. Output of magnetic sensor was linearly depended on the conductor speed and magnetizing current. To compensate the lift-off changes during measurement of velocity, the other magnetic sensor was put at the pole of electromagnet.

  18. Activity in SRL Nagoya Coated Conductor Center for YBCO Coated Conductor by IBAD+ PLD Method -Long, high Ic conductor and a new bamboo-like nanostructure for efficient pinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yutaka; Ibi, Akira; Fukushima, Hiroyuki; Kuriki, Reiji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Hiroyoshi; Ishida, Satoru; Konishi, Masaya; Miyata, Seiki; Watanabe, Tomonori; Kato, Takeharu; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-01-01

    In SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center (NCCC), long buffered substrate tapes and YBCO coated conductors have been successfully fabricated by using ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) methods. For the buffered tape, the PLD-CeO2 method, what we call the 'Self-Epitaxial' method, realized the high degree of in-plane texturing around 4 degrees along the length of 220 m. For YBCO deposition, we have recently introduced new reel-to-reel PLD equipment with a multi-plume and multi-turn deposition system (MPMT PLD). This system succeeded in fabricating a long coated conductor with a high critical current, Ic, of 245 A and length of 212 m. Ic xL (length) reached the world record of 51940 Am. Furthermore, the introduction of artificial pinning center and RE 123 materials were also studied for improving flux pinning and enhancing Ic. A new columnar structure of the 'bamboo structure' (BaZrO3/Y123 layer-stacked structure) was found in Y123+YSZ sample. This columnar structure and the stacking faults in Gd123 were found to be effective for enhancing pinning properties. Using these techniques, we have succeeded in increasing Ic at 0 T to 480 A/cm and also enhancing Ic in a magnetic field

  19. Development of an YBCO coil with SSTC conductors for high field application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Liu, H. J.; Liu, F.; Tan, Y. F.; Jin, H.; Yu, M.; Lei, L.; Guo, L.; Hong, Z. Y.

    2018-07-01

    With the continuous reduction of the production costs and improvement of the transport performance, YBCO coated conductor is the most promising candidate for the high field magnet application due to its high irreversibility field and strong mechanical properties. Presently a stable production capacity of the YBCO conductors has been achieved by Shanghai Superconducting Technology Co., Ltd (SSTC) in China. Therefore, the demand in high field application with YBCO conductors is growing in China. This paper describes the design, fabrication and preliminary experiment of a solenoid coil with YBCO conductors supplied by SSTC to validate the possibility of high field application. Four same double pancakes were manufactured and assembled for the YBCO coil where the outer diameter and height was 54.3 and 48 mm respectively to match the dimensional limitation of the 14 T background magnets. The critical current (Ic) of YBCO conductors was obtained by measuring as a function of the applied field perpendicular to the YBCO conductor surface which provides the necessary input parameters for preliminary performance evaluation of the coil. Finally the preliminary test and discussion at 77 and 4.2 K were carried out. The consistency of four double pancakes Ic was achieved. The measured results indicate that the fabrication technology of HTS coil is reliable which gives the conference for the in-field test in high field application. This YBCO coil is the first demonstration of the SSTC YBCO coated conductors.

  20. Spatial Analysis of Thermal Aging of Overhead Transmission Conductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musílek, P.; Heckenbergerová, Jana; Bhuiyan, M.M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2012), s. 1196-1204 ISSN 0885-8977 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300904 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : aluminium conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) conductor * hot spot * loss of tensile strength * numerical weather prediction * power transmission lines * thermal aging Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2012

  1. Retrospective comparison of Traditional vs. LigaSure impact dissection during pancreatoduodenectomy: how to save money by using an expensive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinni, Giuseppe; Pasculli, Alessandro; D'Ambrosio, Erasmina; Gurrado, Angela; Lissidini, Germana; Testini, Mario

    2013-09-01

    Pancreatoduodenectomy is an exceptional procedure that requires an extensive dissection of the supramesocolic region extended to the first jejunal limb. Lymphadenectomy, required for cancer, increases the dissection surface. The extensive preparation of the area is traditionally conducted with bipolar ormonopolar instruments, while clips, ligatures, and sutures are used for haemostasis. LigaSure™ vessel sealing(LSVS; Valleylab, Boulder, CO) is a technology that obtains vessel closure by using the body's own collagen and elastin to create a permanent fusion zone. This is obtained by a combination of forceps pressure and radio frequency. This effect has been improved by the introduction of the Force Triad™ (Valleylab, Boulder,CO) energy platform, controlled by TissueFect™ (Valleylab, Boulder, CO) sensing technology. With this device, the surgeon is able to fuse vessels up to 7 mm, lymphatics, tissue bundles, and pulmonary vasculature in a fast-seal cycle of almost 4 seconds. In our daily practice of open surgery we observe a rapid improvement of abdominal drainage output with a drastic reduction of protein loss. Its practical significance is, in our opinion, that we obtain a rapid recovery of normal serum protein levels with a low number of blood/plasmasac transfusions and a real improvement of anastomosis healing. Moreover, the efficacy and the speed of work of the device allow us to reduce the operating time significantly but safely. We performed a retrospective analysis of the data of 20 pancreatic resections conducted both with traditional dissection and with the Liga-Sure Impact device with Force Triad platform in order to verify whether observed data were real. Our clinical results show that the use of the LigaSure Impact device with Force Triad energy platform is really useful in open surgery to save operating time, number of postoperative days, and hemoderivate administration.

  2. Benefits of current percolation in superconducting coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutter, N.A.; Durrell, J.H.; Blamire, M.G.; MacManus-Driscoll, J.L.; Wang, H.; Foltyn, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    The critical currents of coated conductors fabricated by metal-organic deposition (MOD) on rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) and by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) templates have been measured as a function of magnetic field orientation and compared to films grown on single crystal substrates. By varying the orientation of magnetic field applied in the plane of the film, we are able to determine the extent to which current flow in each type of conductor is percolative. Standard MOD/RABiTS conductors have also been compared to samples whose grain boundaries have been doped by diffusing Ca from an overlayer. We find that undoped MOD/RABiTS tapes have a less anisotropic in-plane field dependence than PLD/IBAD tapes and that the uniformity of critical current as a function of in-plane field angle is greater for MOD/RABiTS samples doped with Ca

  3. New tests on the 40 kA Nb3Sn CEA conductor for ITER applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Bessette, D.; Katheder, H.

    1994-01-01

    New tests have been performed on the 40 kA CEA Nb 3 Sn conductor in the Sultan III facility. The aim of these tests is to obtain key experimental data on the behaviour of Nb 3 Sn conductors for fusion applications under high field and large transport current. The 40 kA Nb 3 Sn CEA conductor has a shape and an internal arrangement of the superconducting wires which is very similar to the ITER conductors. The level of the ac losses experienced by these conductors under varying fields influences deeply their design. The basic experiment consists of producing field pulses on the conductor by means of a coil installed in the bore of the Sultan magnet and recording the integrated voltage obtained on pick-up coils placed on the conductor as a function of time. (author) 4 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Test of 60 kA coated conductor cable prototypes for fusion magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, D.; Bykovsky, N.; Sedlak, K.; Stepanov, B.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

    2015-12-01

    Coated conductors could be promising materials for the fabrication of the large magnet systems of future fusion devices. Two prototype conductors (flat cables in steel conduits), each about 2 m long, were manufactured using coated conductor tapes (4 mm wide) from Super Power and SuperOx, with a total tape length of 1.6 km. Each flat cable is assembled from 20 strands, each strand consisting of a stack of 16 tapes surrounded by two half circular copper profiles, twisted and soldered. The tapes were measured at 12 T and 4.2 K and the results of the measurements were used for the assessment of the conductor electromagnetic properties at low temperature and high field. The two conductors were assembled together in a sample that was tested in the European Dipole (EDIPO) facility. The current sharing temperatures of the two conductors were measured at background fields from 8 T up to 12 T and for currents from 30 kA up to 70 kA: the measured values are within a few percent of the values expected from the measurements on tapes (short samples). After electromagnetic cycling, T cs at 12 T and 50 kA decreased from about 12 K to 11 K (about 10%), corresponding to less than 3% of I c.

  5. The low-temperature structural behavior of sodium 1-carba-closo-decaborate: NaCB{sub 9}H{sub 10}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hui, E-mail: hui.wu@nist.gov [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Tang, Wan Si [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2115 (United States); Zhou, Wei [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Tarver, Jacob D. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Stavila, Vitalie [Energy Nanomaterials, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Brown, Craig M. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Udovic, Terrence J., E-mail: udovic@nist.gov [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Two ordered phases of the novel solid superionic conductor sodium 1-carba-closo-decaborate (NaCB{sub 9}H{sub 10}) were identified via synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction in combination with first-principles calculations and neutron vibrational spectroscopy. A monoclinic packing of the large ellipsoidal CB{sub 9}H{sub 10}{sup −} anions prevails at the lowest temperatures, but a first-order transformation to a slightly modified orthorhombic packing is largely complete by 240 K. The CB{sub 9}H{sub 10}{sup −} anion orientational alignments and Na{sup +} cation interstitial sitings in both phases are arranged so as to minimize the cation proximities to the uniquely more positive C-bonded H atoms of the anions. These results provide valuable structural information pertinent to understanding the relatively low-temperature, entropy-driven, order-disorder phase transition for this compound. - Graphical abstract: Ordered monoclinic and orthorhombic NaCB{sub 9}H{sub 10} phases were determined by XRD and DFT computations and corroborated by neutron vibrational spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Two T-dependent ordered structures of Na(1-CB{sub 9}H{sub 10}) were determined by XRD. • The lower-T monoclinic to higher-T orthorhombic transition occurs from 210 to 240 K. • The main structural differences involve changes in the canting of the CB{sub 9}H{sub 10}{sup −} anions. • DFT and neutron vibrational spectroscopy corroborate the lower-T monoclinic structure. • The results are important for understanding the nature of this superionic conductor.

  6. Conductor Temperature Estimation and Prediction at Thermal Transient State in Dynamic Line Rating Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, David L.; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Mombello, Enrique Esteban

    2018-01-01

    . This paper presents an algorithm to estimate and predict the temperature in overhead line conductors using an Extended Kalman Filter. The proposed algorithm assumes both actual weather and current intensity flowing along the conductor as control variables. The temperature of the conductor, mechanical tension...

  7. Electrical characterization of S/C conductor for the CMS solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Greco, Michela; Kircher, F; Musenich, R

    2005-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. The coil is wound from 20 high purity aluminum-stabilized NbTi conductors with a total length of 45 km. The main peculiarity of the CMS magnet among other existing thin detector solenoids is its sandwich-type aluminum-stabilized superconductor. This special feature was chosen in order to have a mechanically self-supporting winding structure. We measured the critical current of all the 21 finished conductors in fields up to 6 T using the Ma.Ri.S.A. test facility at INFN-Genova. We compare these results with the critical current of single strands measured by CEA- Saclay, extracted from the conductor after the co-extrusion. A comparison among the measurements provides information about the possible critical current degradation and assures an accurate quality control of the conductor pr...

  8. Loss and Inductance Investigations in a 4-layer Superconducting Prototype Cable Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa

    1999-01-01

    One important issue in the design and optimization of a superconducting cable conductor is the control of the current distribution between single tapes and layers. This presentation is based on a number of experiments performed on a 4-layer three meter long prototype superconducting cable conductor......-losses are measured as a function of transport current and a given current distribution and compared with the monoblock model. Recommendations for design of future cable conductor prototypes are given....

  9. An A15 conductor design and its implications for the NET-II TF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluekiger, R.; Arendt, F.; Hofmann, A.; Jeske, U.; Juengst, K.P.; Komarek, P.; Krauth, H.; Lehmann, W.; Luehning, J.; Manes, B.; Maurer, W.; Nyilas, A.; Specking, W.; Turowski, P.; Zehlein, H.

    1985-06-01

    The paper describes the results of studies for a NET toroidal field coil conductor carried out at KfK-Karlsruhe. The conductor concept is based on the same design principles as used in the Euratom-LCT coil, well proven in all conductor tests and the domestic tests of the coil. These principles are applied to the peculiarities of Nb 3 Sn for a rated current of 20 kA at 12 T, taking into account ac losses and nuclear heating. A flat Nb 3 Sn cable is soldered to a surrounding CuNi tape after reaction. Around this rectangular conductor core, Cu profiles are cabled on distance by the Roebel-process and subsequently soldered onto the CuNi tape. The whole system is surrounded by a steel conduit. The conductor data result from electric, thermohydraulic and stability calculations as well as mechanical evaluations. Expected fabrication processes are discussed, and measurements on a first simplified subsize conductor model are presented. (orig.) [de

  10. A Boundary Element Solution to the Problem of Interacting AC Fields in Parallel Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar M. Rønquist

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The ac fields in electrically insulated conductors will interact through the surrounding electromagnetic fields. The pertinent field equations reduce to the Helmholtz equation inside each conductor (interior problem, and to the Laplace equation outside the conductors (exterior problem. These equations are transformed to integral equations, with the magnetic vector potential and its normal derivative on the boundaries as unknowns. The integral equations are then approximated by sets of algebraic equations. The interior problem involves only unknowns on the boundary of each conductor, while the exterior problem couples unknowns from several conductors. The interior and the exterior problem are coupled through the field continuity conditions. The full set of equations is solved by standard Gaussian elimination. We also show how the total current and the dissipated power within each conductor can be expressed as boundary integrals. Finally, computational results for a sample problem are compared with a finite difference solution.

  11. Verification of a Novel Method of Detecting Faults in Medium-Voltage Systems with Covered Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišák Stanislav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of new methods of detecting faults in medium-voltage overhead lines built of covered conductors. The methods mainly address such faults as falling of a conductor, contacting a conductor with a tree branch, or falling a tree branch across three phases of a medium-voltage conductor. These faults cannot be detected by current digital relay protection systems. Therefore, a new system that can detect the above mentioned faults was developed. After having tested its operation, the system has already been implemented to protect mediumvoltage overhead lines built of covered conductors.

  12. Optimization study of normal conductor tokamak for commercial neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; Sakai, R.; Okamoto, A.

    2017-05-01

    The optimum conceptual design of tokamak with normal conductor coils was studied for minimizing the cost for producing a given neutron flux by using a system code, PEC. It is assumed that the fusion neutrons are used for burning transuranics from the fission reactor spent fuel in the blanket and a fraction of the generated electric power is circulated to opearate the tokamak with moderate plasma fusion gain. The plasma performance was assumed to be moderate ones; {β\\text{N}}~∼ ~3{--}4 in the aspect ratio A~=~2{--}3 and {{H}98y2}~=~1 . The circulating power is an important factor affecting the cost. Though decreasing the aspect ratio is useful to raise the plasma beta and decrease the toroidal field, the maximum field in the coil starts to rise in the very low aspect ratio range and then the circulating power increases with decrease in the plasma aspect ratio A below A~∼ ~2 , while the construction cost increases with A . As a result, the cost per neutron has its minimum around A~∼ ~2.2 , namely, between ST and the conventional tokamak. The average circulating power fraction is expected to be ~51%.

  13. Nb3Sn conductor development for the ITER magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.

    1997-01-01

    The ITER magnet system consists of Toroidal Field (TF) coils, Poloidal Field (PF) coils, the Central Solenoid (CS) and error field correction coils (CC). The conductors for the coils are Nb 3 Sn or NbTi cable in conduit type, forced flow cooled with supercritical helium having a maximum operating current in the range 40-60 kA. To qualify the Nb 3 Sn conductor, two large model coils (energy up to 640 MJ) are being wound by the Home Teams of the Parties to the ITER EDA Agreement. A total of 24 t of strand has been completed for the CS model coil and 4 t for the TF model coil, and fabricated into 7 km of conductor in unit lengths up to 210 m, by an international collaboration involving 12 companies in Europe, Japan, Russia and the USA

  14. Organic Conductors: Evidence for Correlation Effects in Infrared Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Johannsen, Ib; Bechgaard, Klaus

    1984-01-01

    The infrared conductivities of four organic conductors with partially filled one-electron bands are compared. The behavior ranges from near Drude type in the best metal to semiconductorlike in the moderate conductor. Electron-molecular-vibration coupling effects of varying degree are seen in all...... materials. It is suggested that the combined effect of electron-electron interaction and electron-phonon interaction in producing 4kF charge-density waves is essential for interpreting the results....

  15. Chalcogenide glasses as optical and ion-conducting materials. Kogaku oyobi ion dendo zairyo toshite no chalcogenide glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toge, N.; Minami, T. (Univ. of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    Nonoxide glasses whose main constituent are chalcogen elements like S, Se, or Te etc. show a lot of various properties, for instance, high infrared transmittancy and semi-conductivity which are already well known. Additionally, the optical properties change a lot along with the phase transition's happening between crystal and noncrystal under comparative low temperature. Further, it is also observed that the glasses containing proper cation appear high ion-conductivity. This paper supplies a brief reviews of chalcogenide glasses used as materials for infrared fiber, phase transition optical memory and superionic conductor, wherein the former two have already on the stage of utilization, particularly the realization of a rewritable optical memory is possible by using chalcogenide glasses film, and ion-conductor is in the phase to have shown the possibility of high conductivity while the development thereof is being expected. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Rail industry job analysis : passenger conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document describes the results of a job analysis that was conducted for the position of railroad Passenger Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (...

  17. Power line conductor icing prevention by the Joule effect : parametric analysis and energy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Z.; Farzaneh, M.; Kiss, L.I. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment

    2005-07-01

    A mathematical model to calculate the minimum current intensity needed to prevent potentially damaging ice accretion on power line conductors was presented. The influence of atmospheric parameters such as wind speed, air temperature and liquid water were considered. Energy analysis was developed for an aluminum and steel reinforced conductor with circular cylindrical wire and concentric layers. Atmospheric parameters and the duration of the freezing conditions were considered with reference to the Joule effect. The model was then compared with experiments and simulations performed at an icing wind tunnel and in a climate room. It was determined that the equivalent thermal conductivity of the conductor should be assessed to identify the temperature distribution in the power line conductor. The radial component of the thermal conductivity was estimated on the basis of experiments performed in the wind tunnel, which provided a good estimation of the equivalent thermal conductivity and overall heat transfer coefficient around the stranded conductor. Experimental results were compared with values obtained from theoretically equivalent conductivity models. It was observed that the convective heat transfer coefficients around stranded conductors were higher than around smooth cylinders, and that the mathematical calculations slightly overestimated the wind tunnel measurements due to difficulties in estimating the wetted surface and the overall convection heat transfer coefficient around a stranded conductor. The typical range for the equivalent thermal conductivity of stranded conductors was also presented. 13 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  18. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Jiang, L.; Silvain, J.-F.; Lu, Y. F.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0-10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm2. The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films.

  19. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Lu, Y. F., E-mail: ylu2@unl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States); Jiang, L. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Silvain, J.-F. [Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux (ICMCB-CNRS) 87, Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer F-33608 Pessac Cedex (France)

    2015-10-21

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0–10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm{sup 2}. The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films.

  20. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Lu, Y. F.; Jiang, L.; Silvain, J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0–10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm 2 . The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films

  1. Calorimetric method for current sharing temperature measurements in ITER conductor samples in SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnasco, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several Toroidal Field Conductor short samples with slight layout variations have been assembled and tested in the SULTAN facility at CRPP. The measurement campaigns started in 2007 and are still ongoing. The performance of every conductor is expressed in terms of current sharing temperature (T cs ), i.e. the temperature at which a defined electric field, 10 μV/m, is detected in the cable due to the incipient superconducting-to-normal state transition. The T cs at specific operating conditions is the key design parameter for the ITER conductors and is the main object of the qualification tests. Typically, the average electric field is measured with voltage tap pairs attached on the jacket along the conductor. The inability however to explain observed premature voltage developments opened the discussion about possible alternative measuring methods. The He flow calorimetric method is based on the measurement of the resistive power generation in the conductor. It relies on the detection of very small temperature increases along the conductor in steady state operation. The accuracy and the reliability of the calorimetric method in SULTAN are critically discussed, with particular emphasis on the instrumentation requirements and test procedures. The application of the calorimetric method to the recent SULTAN test campaigns is described with its merits and limits. For future tests of ITER conductors in SULTAN, the calorimetric method for T cs test is proposed as a routine procedure.

  2. Rail industry job analysis : freight conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This document describes the results from a job analysis that was conducted for the position of Freight Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) ne...

  3. AC magnetization loss characteristics of HTS coated-conductors with magnetic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Liu, M.; Odaka, S.; Miyagi, D.; Ohmatsu, K.

    2007-01-01

    AC magnetization loss characteristics of an HTS coated tape conductor with magnetic substrate subjected to an external AC magnetic field were investigated. The external magnetic field was perpendicular or parallel to the wide face of the tape conductor. Magnetization losses in the conductor and in the magnetic substrate itself without the superconductor layer, were measured by electric and calorimetric methods. The influence of the magnetic property of the substrate was strongly dependent on the direction of the external magnetic field. When the external magnetic field was perpendicular, magnetic property of the substrate did not affect the magnetization loss characteristics. This result suggests that the magnetization losses can be reduced by subdivisions of the superconducting layers even in the case of magnetic substrate conductors. When the external magnetic field was parallel, the magnetization losses were dominated by the losses in the magnetic substrate. Therefore, to reduce the magnetization losses in this case, reduction of magnetization losses in the substrate is necessary

  4. Remarkable weakness against cleavage stress for YBCO-coated conductors and its effect on the YBCO coil performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Y.; Nakagome, H.; Takematsu, T.; Takao, T.; Sato, N.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, H.

    2011-01-01

    Cleavage strength for YBCO-coated conductor is extremely low, typically 0.5 MPa. The remarkable weakness is due to cracks on the slit edge of the conductor. The cleavage stress appears on YBCO double pancake coils impregnated with epoxy. The cleavage stress should be avoided in the coil winding. Cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor at 77 K was investigated with a model experiment. The nominal cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor is extremely low, typically 0.5 MPa. This low nominal cleavage strength is due to stress concentration on a small part of the YBCO-coated conductor in cleavage fracture. Debonding by the cleavage stress occurs at the interface between the buffer layer and the Hastelloy substrate. The nominal cleavage strength for a slit edge of the conductor is 2.5-times lower than that for the original edge of the conductor; cracks and micro-peel existing over the slit edge reduce the cleavage strength for the slit edge. Cleavage stress and peel stress should be avoided in coil winding, as they easily delaminate the YBCO-coated conductor, resulting in substantial degradation of coil performance. These problems are especially important for epoxy impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils. It appears that effect of cleavage stress and peel stress are mostly negligible for paraffin impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils or dry wound YBCO-coated conductor coils.

  5. Studies on advanced superconductors for fusion device. Pt. 1. Present status of Nb3Sn conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Kyoji; Yamamoto, Junya

    1996-03-01

    Nb 3 Sn conductors have been developed with great expectation as an advanced high-field superconductor to be used in fusion devices of next generation. Furthermore, Nb 3 Sn conductors are being developed for NMR magnet and superconducting generator as well as for cryogen-free superconducting magnet. A variety of fabrication procedures, such as bronze process, internal tin process and Nb tube method, have been developed based on the diffusion reaction. Recently, Nb 3 Sn conductors with ultra-thin filaments have been fabricated for AC use. Both high-field and AC performances of Nb 3 Sn conductors have been significantly improved by alloying addition. The Ti-doped Nb 3 Sn conductor has generated 21.5T at 1.8K operation. This report summarizes manufacturing procedures, superconducting performances and applications of Nb 3 Sn conductors fabricated through different processes in different countries. More detailed subjects included in this report are high-field properties, AC properties, conductors for fusion with large current capacities, stress-strain effect and irradiation effect as well as standardization of critical current measurement method regarding to Nb 3 Sn conductors. Comprehensive grasp on the present status of Nb 3 Sn conductors provided by this report will act as a useful data base for the future planning of fusion devices. (author). 172 refs

  6. Effect of non-uniform current distribution on the stability in Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit superconducting conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadayama, Y.; Koizumi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Matsui, K.; Tsuji, H.; Shimamoto, S.

    1996-01-01

    30kA-NbTi Demo Poloidal Coil (DPC-U) exhibited instability such as the conductor quenches at 40% of the rated current which is still much smaller than the expected conductor critical current. It was found that this instability was caused by the non-uniform current distribution in the DPC-U conductor whose strands were insulated from each other. To investigate the instability of the DPC-U conductor, a stability experiment of a subsize conductor consisting of 27 strands was performed and the effect of the current imbalance on the stability was investigated. The current imbalance was forcibly established in the conductor using two current sources in this experiment. The experimental results indicate that the stability margin decreases as the current imbalance becomes larger and that the stability margin of the conductor is governed by the stability of the strand with the highest current in the conductor. Also, it is confirmed from the experimental results that the instability of DPC-U has to be attributed to the current imbalance in the conductor

  7. Films of Carbon Nanomaterials for Transparent Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for transparent conductors is expected to grow rapidly as electronic devices, such as touch screens, displays, solid state lighting and photovoltaics become ubiquitous in our lives. Doped metal oxides, especially indium tin oxide, are the commonly used materials for transparent conductors. As there are some drawbacks to this class of materials, exploration of alternative materials has been conducted. There is an interest in films of carbon nanomaterials such as, carbon nanotubes and graphene as they exhibit outstanding properties. This article reviews the synthesis and assembly of these films and their post-treatment. These processes determine the film performance and understanding of this platform will be useful for future work to improve the film performance.

  8. Forjamento da liga AA 2011 no estado semi-solido : estudo do processo e do produto

    OpenAIRE

    Maximino Manuel Montel Rovira

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: O trabalho apresenta uma análise da aplicação da tecnologia de processamento de materiais no estado semi-sólido, no foIjamento da liga de alumínio AA2011. Inicialmente foi estudada a influência da temperatura de reofundição na qualidade de pastas semi-sólidas obtidas pelo método de fusão parcial controlada de estruturas refinadas (FPCER). Foram sistematizados testes de tratamento térmico a quatro diferentes temperaturas (888,893,898 e 903 K), por tempo de 10 min para globularização da...

  9. The Virtual Conductor: Learning and Teaching about Music, Performing, and Conducting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Ebbers, Rob; ter Maat, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Conductor is an artificial conducting system for tutoring purposes that uses real-time audio analysis of music played by musicians and uses this analysis to animate a virtual human that acts as a conductor. The analysis detects the tempo and the dynamics of the music, compares the

  10. Superconducting homopolar motor and conductor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, Donald U.

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Navy has been developing superconducting homopolar motors for ship applications since 1969; a successful at-sea demonstration of the first motor, using NbTi wire for the magnet, was achieved in the early 1980s. Recently, this same motor was used as a test bed to demonstrate progress in high-critical-temperature superconducting magnet technology using bismuth-strontium- calcium-copper-oxide (BSCCO) compounds. In the fall of 1995, this motor achieved a performance of 124 kW operating at a temperature of 4.2 K and 91 kW while operating at 28 K. Future tests are scheduled using new magnets with conductors of both the 2223 and the 2212 BSCCO phases. This article describes the advantages of superconducting propulsion and recent progress in the development of BSCCO conductors for use in Navy power systems.

  11. Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Speer, R D

    2011-07-20

    It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.

  12. Electrical conductivity studies in (Ag3AsS3)x(As2S3)1-x superionic glasses and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenyak, I. P.; Neimet, Yu. Yu.; Kranjčec, M.; Solomon, A. M.; Orliukas, A. F.; Kežionis, A.; Kazakevičius, E.; Šalkus, T.

    2014-01-01

    Compositional, frequency, and temperature studies of impedance and electrical conductivity in (Ag3AsS3)x(As2S3)1-x superionic glasses and composites were performed. Frequency range from 10 Hz to 3 × 109 Hz and temperature interval 300-400 K were used for the measurements. Compositional dependences of electrical conductivity and activation energy are analyzed; the most substantial changes are observed with the transition from (Ag3AsS3)0.4(As2S3)0.6 glass to (Ag3AsS3)0.5(As2S3)0.5 composite. With increase of Ag3AsS3 content, the investigated materials are found to have crystalline inclusions and show the two-phase composite nature. Addition of Ag3AsS3 leads to the increase of electrical conductivity whereas the activation energy decreases.

  13. 33 CFR 183.435 - Conductors in circuits of 50 volts or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Electrical Systems Manufacturer... more. (c) This section does not apply to communication systems; electronic navigation equipment; resistance conductors that control circuit amperage; conductors in secondary circuits of ignition systems...

  14. Status of European manufacture of Toroidal Field conductor and strand for JT-60SA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zani, Louis, E-mail: louis.zani@jt60sa.org [Fusion for Energy, D-85748 Garching (Germany); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barabaschi, Pietro; Di Pietro, Enrico [Fusion for Energy, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    In the framework of the JT-60SA project, part of the Broader Approach (BA) agreement, EURATOM provides to Japan, the Toroidal Field (TF) magnet system, consisting of 18 superconducting coils. The procurement of the conductor for the TF coils is managed by Fusion for Energy, acting as EU representative in the BA agreement. The TF conductor procurement is split into two contracts, one dedicated to the production of Niobium Titanium (NbTi) and Cu strand and the other to TF conductor production through strand cabling and cable jacketing operations. The TF conductor is a rectangular-shaped cable-in-conduit conductor formed by 486 (0.81 mm diameter) strands (2/3 NbTi–1/3 Cu) wrapped in a stainless steel foil and embedded into a stainless steel jacket. The 18 TF coils require (including spares) 115 ‘Unit Lengths’ (UL) of such conductor, each 240 m long for a total of about 28 km. Correspondingly about 10,000 km for NbTi and 5000 km for Cu strand are produced. The Japanese company Furukawa Electric Co. (FEC) is in charge of TF strand manufacture while the Italian company Italian Consortium for Applied Superconductivity (ICAS) is in charge of cabling and jacketing of TF conductor ULs. In the paper, we provide information on the production stages presently achieved in TF strand and conductor contracts.

  15. Bipolar energy-loss measurements on cryostable, low-loss conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Losses have been measured on a prototype conductor for the 20 MJ coil for conditions which simulate closely the actual coil field sweep. The data on the prototype II conductor indicates coil losses which exceed the coil specification. The application of certain correction factors reduces the projected losses within the specification for a 2 s reversal but not for a 1 s reversal. Verification of these corrections await measurements on the actual strand and completion of coil construction and testing.

  16. Tilt stability of rotating current rings with passive conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibel, E.G.; Pomphrey, N.

    1984-12-01

    We study the combined effects of rotation and resistive passive conductors on the stability of a rigid current in an external magnetic field. We present numerical and approximate analytical solutions to the equations of motion, which show that the ring is always tilt unstable on the resistive decay timescale of the conductors, although rotation and eddy currents may stabilize it over short times. Possible applications of our model include spheromaks which rotate or which are encircled by energetic particle rings

  17. Assessment of liquid hydrogen cooled MgB2 conductors for magnetically confined fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowacki, B A; Nuttall, W J

    2008-01-01

    Importantly environmental factors are not the only policy-driver for the hydrogen economy. Over the timescale of the development of fusion energy systems, energy security issues are likely to motivate a shift towards both hydrogen production and fusion as an energy source. These technologies combine local control of the system with the collaborative research interests of the major energy users in the global economy. A concept Fusion Island Reactor that might be used to generate H 2 (rather than electricity) is presented. Exploitation of produced hydrogen as a coolant and as a fuel is proposed in conjunction with MgB 2 conductors for the tokomak magnets windings, and electrotechnical devices for Fusion Island's infrastructure. The benefits of using MgB 2 over the Nb-based conductors during construction, operation and decommissioning of the Fusion Island Reactor are presented. The comparison of Nb 3 Sn strands for ITER fusion magnet with newly developed high field composite MgB 2 PIT conductors has shown that at 14 Tesla MgB 2 possesses better properties than any of the Nb 3 Sn conductors produced. In this paper the potential of MgB 2 conductors is examined for tokamaks of both the conventional ITER type and a Spherical Tokamak geometry. In each case MgB 2 is considered as a conductor for a range of field coil applications and the potential for operation at both liquid helium and liquid hydrogen temperatures is considered. Further research plans concerning the application of MgB 2 conductors for Fusion Island are also considered

  18. Oposição à aquisição da nacionalidade: a inexistência de ligação efectiva à comunidade nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Paulo Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Neste artigo fazemos uma breve análise sobre a jurisprudência portuguesa em matéria de nacionalidade, em especial quanto à verificação da existência de uma ligação efectiva a comunidade nacional dos candidatos à aquisição da nacionalidade.

  19. Study of the thermo-electronic stability of LTS conductors and contribution to the study of the thermo-electric stability of HTS conductors. Novel techniques to simulate quench precursors in superconducting electro-magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trillaud, F.

    2005-09-01

    Most of this work deals with the development of new heater technology to simulate quench precursors in super-conducting electro-magnets. The carbon paste point heater and 2 alternative technologies have been used: induction coils and the diode laser. 2 main experimental setups with 2 different heaters have been used to study the stability of Cu/NbTi composite wires. The order of magnitude of the results obtained with the charged point heater and the diode laser is consistent. Our work covered both low critical temperature (LTS) conductors and high critical temperature (HTS) conductors. A large body of data has been gathered on quench energies and normal zone propagation velocities (NZPV). Concerning quench energy: LTS conductors appear largely more sensitive to heat disturbances than HTS conductors. NZPV enables one to define the criteria for which a magnet can be considered as self-protected. It is commonly assumed that, below 1 m/s, active protection is necessary to ensure safe quenches. This is the case for HTS conductors whose NZPV is of the order of a few centimeters per seconds, at most. However, the NZPVs of LTS conductors are above a few meters per seconds. While HTS conductors can suffer from local hot spots which diffuse slowly resulting in damaging overheating, LTS conductors spread the normal zone quickly enough owing to their good thermal conductivity to minimize local overheating. In addition, this gives enough time to dump the energy of the magnet. This work clears a new path to carry out accurate and reproducible experiment on superconductors. It demonstrates the powerfulness of diode laser technology for stability studies. Numerical simulations of the thermal behaviour of a Cu/NbTi multi-filament composite wire have been performed, they are based on a simplified transient liquid helium heat exchange model. This model appears to be not accurate enough to simulate the early time evolution of the voltage between the current sharing temperature and the

  20. ¿POR QUÉ NO PUEDEN GANAR LA LIGA LOS EQUIPOS MODESTOS? LA INFLUENCIA DEL FORMATO DE COMPETICIÓN, SOBRE EL PERFIL DE LOS EQUIPOS GANADORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lago

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar cuál es el efecto del rendimiento y la suerte sobre el resultado alcanzado por los equipos en competiciones oficiales de fútbol con diferentes formatos de competición. La muestra consiste en  los 190 partidos disputados en la primera vuelta de la Liga Española de Fútbol de la temporada 2006-2007, los 64 partidos disputados en el Campeonato Mundia1 de Fútbol de Alemania 2006 y los 125 partidos de la Liga de Campeones de la temporada 2005-2006. Mediante una estimación basada en el análisis de regresión lineal y en la comparación de medias se concluye que en las competiciones disputadas bajo el formato de liga (la Liga Española, la primera fase de la Liga de Campeones y la primera fase del Campeonato del Mundo el azar puede tener relevancia para explicar el resultado de los equipos en un único partido o, a lo sumo, en un número muy limitado de ellos, pero que a partir de cierta cantidad de encuentros el rendimiento es determinante para dar cuenta de los puntos que alcanzan los conjuntos. En las competiciones disputadas bajo el formato de eliminación directa (la segunda fase de la Liga de Campeones y la segunda fase del Campeonato del Mundo, no se han encontrado diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el rendimiento de los equipos ganadores y perdedores. El azar puede ser un factor muy importante que influye en el resultado de las competiciones que se disputan bajo el formato de eliminación directa.
    Palabras clave: Formato de competición, rendimiento, azar, fútbol

     

    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of performance and chance

  1. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Electrical Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.425... than 30 inches. (g) This section does not apply to communications systems; electronic navigation... conductors and terminations that are in ignition systems; pigtails of less than seven inches of exposed...

  2. Analysis of hazardous work environment factors at a train conductor workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Vil'k

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper dwells on generalized analysis of morbidity which is characteristic for conductors working in passenger carriages of locomotive-driven trains. Working conditions train conductors had to work in were examined as per results of sanitary-hygienic research on intra-carriage environment, specific working conditions assessment, and questioning. Hazards caused by working environment factors for train conductors to a certain extent depend on a carriage type, its technical and hygienic state, as well as on a route a train goes by. Our research revealed that impacts exerted by various working environment factors, namely physical, chemical, biological, and psychophysical ones, caused respiratory diseases, increased allergic reactivity, changes in hearing sensitivity, and overall morbidity growth among people from this occupational group. Unordered regime resulting from constant trips and unfavorable living conditions in a carriage lead to the following diseases: varix dilatation in legs, ischemic heart disease together with primary hypertension, and chronic rheumatic heart diseases. More precise classification of conductors' working conditions can be obtained via a mathematical model creation as it enables precise estimation of occupational diseases probability. Such models should be based on a relationship between diseases frequency (or probability and working conditions as per specific hygienic factors. We worked out methodical guidelines on providing safe working conditions at conductors' working places which include efficient activities aimed at prevention of hazardous impacts exerted by working environment factors. It will help to improve working conditions substantially, to preserve workers' health, and to ensure safe passengers traffic. Safe working conditions for conductors can be secured due to a set of activities aimed at equipping new carriages and those after capital repair with air-conditioning, disinfection systems, heating

  3. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes.

  4. Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour. (paper)

  5. Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour.

  6. CCAN and TCAN - 1 1/2-D compressible-flow and time-dependent codes for conductor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.J.; Wan, A.S.; Yang, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the computer programs CCAN (steady-state Compressible flow Conductor ANalysis) and TCAN (Time-dependent incompressible-flow Conductor ANalysis). These codes calculate temperature, pressure, power and other engineering quantities along the length of an actively-cooled electrical conductor. Present versions contain detailed property information for copper and aluminum conductors; and gaseous helium, liquid nitrogen and water coolants. CCAN and TCAN are available on the NMFECC CDC 7600

  7. A liga republicana das mulheres portuguesas e a enfermagem no século xx: leituras na imprensa feminista La “Liga Republicana das Mulheres Portuguesas” y la enfermería in el siglo XX: lecturas en los periódicos feministas The “Liga Republicana das Mulheres Portuguesas” and nursing profession in the XXth century: readings in the feminist press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Barros Pires

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As representações que a sociedade associa à profissão de enfermagem e à enfermeira, muitas vezes contraditórias, persistem no imaginário individual e coletivo e pouco têm a ver com a evolução verificada no âmbito do exercício profissional, do ensino e da academia. As imagens associadas à enfermeira e à enfermagem inscrevem-se na memória dum passado mais ou menos longínquo e poderão ter uma justificação histórica, social e cultural. Desvendar do modo como as representações sociais associadas à enfermeira e à enfermagem se constituíram no passado poderá permitir-nos recriar, no presente, o percurso da nossa identidade profissional e compreender como, enquanto grupo social, produzimos, consumimos, divulgamos e assumimos imagens que definem essa própria identidade. Propomo-nos neste artigo dar a conhecer como a Liga Republicana das Mulheres Portuguesas (LRMP, no início do século XX, criou uma imagem positiva da enfermagem, desenvolvendo um discurso elogioso da profissão captando o interesse das mulheres para uma “profissão digna” que lhes possibilitaria a independência económica em caso de abandono ou viuvez. Utilizaremos um conjunto de artigos publicados na imprensa oficial da Liga: A Mulher e A Criança e A Madrugada dado que a imprensa foi uma importante forma de divulgação e doutrinação das ideias feministas.Las representaciones que la sociedad asocia con la profesión de enfermería y a la enfermera, a menudo contradictorias, persisten en el imaginario individual y colectivo y tienen poco que ver con la evolución en el campo profesional, la educación y la academia. Las imágenes asociadas con la enfermera y la enfermería están registradas en la memoria de un pasado más o menos lejano y pueden tener una justificación histórica, cultural y social. Descubrir cómo las representaciones asociadas con la enfermería y la enfermera se constituyeron nos permitirá recrear el curso de nuestra identidad

  8. Improvement of SOFC electrodes using mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Hishinuma, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Since the electrode reaction of SOFC is limited to the proximity of a triple phase boundary (TPB), the local current density at the electrode and electrolyte interface is larger than mean current density, which causes large ohmic and electrode polarization. This paper describes an application of mixed ionic-electronic conductors to reduce such polarization by means of (1) enhancing ionic conductivity of the electrolyte surface layer by coating a high ionic conductors, and (2) reducing the local current density by increasing the electrochemically active sites.

  9. Stabilizing effect of passive conductors with arbitrary shape for positional instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shogo; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Yoshida, Hidetoshi

    1983-10-01

    For positional instabilities in the tokamak, the stabilizing index nsub(s) is an adequate parameter to characterize the stabilizing effect produced by several kinds of passive conductors around a plasma column such as vacuum vessel and poloidal field coils. Since a system of passive conductors with arbitrary shape can be involved into multiple L-R circuits, this parameter nsub(s) of those passive conductors is expressed in a simple form by using a method of the eigen mode expansion of multiple L-R circuits. This parameter nsub(s) is very useful to estimate not only a growth rate of positional instability and its feedback stabilization but also an inward shift of plasma column due to a minor disruption. (author)

  10. Rb2Ti2O5 : Superionic conductor with colossal dielectric constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federicci, Rémi; Holé, Stéphane; Popa, Aurelian Florin; Brohan, Luc; Baptiste, Benoît.; Mercone, Silvana; Leridon, Brigitte

    2017-08-01

    Electrical conductivity and high dielectric constant are in principle self-excluding, which makes the terms insulator and dielectric usually synonymous. This is certainly true when the electrical carriers are electrons, but not necessarily in a material where ions are extremely mobile, electronic conduction is negligible, and the charge transfer at the interface is immaterial. Here we demonstrate in a perovskite-derived structure containing five-coordinated Ti atoms, a colossal dielectric constant (up to 109) together with very high ionic conduction 10-3Scm-1 at room temperature. Coupled investigations of I -V and dielectric constant behavior allow us to demonstrate that, due to ion migration and accumulation, this material behaves like a giant dipole, exhibiting colossal electrical polarization (of the order of 0.1Ccm-2 ). Therefore it may be considered as a "ferro-ionet" and is extremely promising in terms of applications.

  11. Fluorine dynamics in BaF{sub 2} superionic conductors investigated by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumann, Patryk

    2008-07-01

    In this work the dynamics of fluorine in solid-state electrolytes having BaF{sub 2}-structure was investigated using three different NMR-methods: field cycling relaxometry, lineshape analysis, and static field gradient NMR. For this purpose a pure BaF{sub 2} crystal, as well as crystals doped with trivalent impurities (LaF{sub 3}), were studied as a function of temperature. Using MAS NMR it was possible to identify two lines in Ba{sub 0.9}La{sub 0.1}F{sub 2.1} having different chemical shift, and to refer them to the modified crystal structure. On this basis a model for the fluorine lineshape has been developed, taking into account three motional processes characterized by their correlation times. It includes jump diffusion of the fluorine ions among equivalent sites within two crystallographically distinct sublattices, and inter-lattice exchange processes. By measuring frequency and temperature-dependent spin lattice relaxation times, it was possible to gain information about fluorine dynamics on microscopic length scales. An attempt was also made to analyze the data for pure BaF{sub 2} and low admixture concentration samples with a non-exponential correlation function. (orig.)

  12. AC loss, interstrand resistance and mechanical properties of prototype EU DEMO TF conductors up to 30 000 load cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagotintsev, K.; Nijhuis, A.

    2018-07-01

    Two prototype Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors conductors were designed and manufactured for the toroidal field (TF) magnet system of the envisaged European DEMO fusion reactor. The AC loss, contact resistance and mechanical properties of two sample conductors were tested in the Twente Cryogenic Cable Press under cyclic load up to 30 000 cycles. Though both conductors were designed to operate at 82 kA in a background magnetic field of 13.6 T, they reflect different approaches with respect to the magnet winding pack assembly. The first approach is based on react and wind technology while the second is the more common wind and react technology. Each conductor was tested first for AC loss in virgin condition without handling. The impact of Lorentz load during magnet operation was simulated using the cable press. In the press each conductor specimen was subjected to transverse cyclic load up to 30 000 cycles in liquid helium bath at 4.2 K. Here a summary of results for AC loss, contact resistance, conductor deformation, mechanical heat production and conductor stiffness evolution during cycling of the load is presented. Both conductors showed similar mechanical behaviour but quite different AC loss. In comparison with previously tested ITER TF conductors, both DEMO TF conductors possess very low contact resistance resulting in high coupling loss. At the same time, load cycling has limited impact on properties of DEMO TF conductors in comparison with ITER TF conductors.

  13. Attentional flexibility and memory capacity in conductors and pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllner, Clemens; Halpern, Andrea R

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with high working memory (WM) capacity also tend to have better selective and divided attention. Although both capacities are essential for skilled performance in many areas, evidence for potential training and expertise effects is scarce. We investigated the attentional flexibility of musical conductors by comparing them to equivalently trained pianists. Conductors must focus their attention both on individual instruments and on larger sections of different instruments. We studied students and professionals in both domains to assess the contributions of age and training to these skills. Participants completed WM span tests for auditory and visual (notated) pitches and timing durations, as well as long-term memory tests. In three dichotic attention tasks, they were asked to detect small pitch and timing deviations from two melodic streams presented in baseline (separate streams), selective-attention (concentrating on only one stream), and divided-attention (concentrating on targets in both streams simultaneously) conditions. Conductors were better than pianists in detecting timing deviations in divided attention, and experts detected more targets than students. We found no group differences for WM capacity or for pitch deviations in the attention tasks, even after controlling for the older age of the experts. Musicians' WM spans across multimodal conditions were positively related to selective and divided attention. High-WM participants also had shorter reaction times in selective attention. Taken together, conductors showed higher attentional flexibility in successfully switching between different foci of attention.

  14. Powder-in-Tube (PIT) Nb3Sn conductors for high-field magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, J.H.; Hornsveld, E.M.; den Ouden, A.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2000-01-01

    New Nb3Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment

  15. Estimation of Equivalent Thermal Conductivity for Impregnated Electrical Windings Formed from Profiled Rectangular Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Ayat, Sabrina S; Wrobel, Rafal; Goss, James; Drury, David

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy and reduce model setting-up, and solving time in thermal analysis of electrical machines, transformers and wound passive components, the multi-material winding region is frequently homogenised. The existing winding homogenization techniques are predo-minantly focused on winding constructions with round conductors, where thermal conductivity across conductors is usually assumed to be isotropic. However, for the profiled rectangular conductors that assumption is no ...

  16. Benchmarking organic mixed conductors for transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Inal, Sahika

    2017-11-20

    Organic mixed conductors have garnered significant attention in applications from bioelectronics to energy storage/generation. Their implementation in organic transistors has led to enhanced biosensing, neuromorphic function, and specialized circuits. While a narrow class of conducting polymers continues to excel in these new applications, materials design efforts have accelerated as researchers target new functionality, processability, and improved performance/stability. Materials for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) require both efficient electronic transport and facile ion injection in order to sustain high capacity. In this work, we show that the product of the electronic mobility and volumetric charge storage capacity (µC*) is the materials/system figure of merit; we use this framework to benchmark and compare the steady-state OECT performance of ten previously reported materials. This product can be independently verified and decoupled to guide materials design and processing. OECTs can therefore be used as a tool for understanding and designing new organic mixed conductors.

  17. Benchmarking organic mixed conductors for transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Inal, Sahika; Malliaras, George G.; Rivnay, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Organic mixed conductors have garnered significant attention in applications from bioelectronics to energy storage/generation. Their implementation in organic transistors has led to enhanced biosensing, neuromorphic function, and specialized circuits. While a narrow class of conducting polymers continues to excel in these new applications, materials design efforts have accelerated as researchers target new functionality, processability, and improved performance/stability. Materials for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) require both efficient electronic transport and facile ion injection in order to sustain high capacity. In this work, we show that the product of the electronic mobility and volumetric charge storage capacity (µC*) is the materials/system figure of merit; we use this framework to benchmark and compare the steady-state OECT performance of ten previously reported materials. This product can be independently verified and decoupled to guide materials design and processing. OECTs can therefore be used as a tool for understanding and designing new organic mixed conductors.

  18. New design of cable-in-conduit conductor for application in future fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jinggang; Wu, Yu; Li, Jiangang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Chao; Shi, Yi; Liu, Huajun; Mao, Zhehua; Nijhuis, Arend; Zhou, Chao; Yagotintsev, Konstantin A.; Lubkemann, Ruben; Anvar, V. A.; Devred, Arnaud

    2017-11-01

    The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new tokamak device whose magnet system includes toroidal field, central solenoid (CS) and poloidal field coils. The main goal is to build a fusion engineering tokamak reactor with about 1 GW fusion power and self-sufficiency by blanket. In order to reach this high performance, the magnet field target is 15 T. However, the huge electromagnetic load caused by high field and current is a threat for conductor degradation under cycling. The conductor with a short-twist-pitch (STP) design has large stiffness, which enables a significant performance improvement in view of load and thermal cycling. But the conductor with STP design has a remarkable disadvantage: it can easily cause severe strand indentation during cabling. The indentation can reduce the strand performance, especially under high load cycling. In order to overcome this disadvantage, a new design is proposed. The main characteristic of this new design is an updated layout in the triplet. The triplet is made of two Nb3Sn strands and one soft copper strand. The twist pitch of the two Nb3Sn strands is large and cabled first. The copper strand is then wound around the two superconducting strands (CWS) with a shorter twist pitch. The following cable stages layout and twist pitches are similar to the ITER CS conductor with STP design. One short conductor sample with a similar scale to the ITER CS was manufactured and tested with the Twente Cable Press to investigate the mechanical properties, AC loss and internal inspection by destructive examination. The results are compared to the STP conductor (ITER CS and CFETR CSMC) tests. The results show that the new conductor design has similar stiffness, but much lower strand indentation than the STP design. The new design shows potential for application in future fusion reactors.

  19. Development of long GdBCO coated conductor using the IBAD/MPMT-PLD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibi, A; Fukushima, H; Yamada, Y; Miyata, S; Kuriki, R; Takahashi, K; Shiohara, Y

    2006-01-01

    We have developed long GdBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (GdBCO) coated conductors by a multi-plume and multi-turn pulsed laser deposition (MPMT-PLD) method and have successfully fabricated 32 and 60.7 m long GdBCO coated conductors with a high critical current, I c , and high deposition rate. The I c of the 32 and 60.7 m long GdBCO coated conductors were 205 A (J c = 1.36 MA cm -2 ) and 183 A (J c = 1.45 MA cm -2 ), respectively, at 77 K and 0 T. In addition, they exhibited higher I c values in a magnetic field than a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (YBCO) coated conductor: typically 20 A at 77 K and 3 T while the value for a YBCO coated conductor is 8 A. These high I c values are due to the smaller number of a-axis oriented grains in GdBCO than in YBCO. Furthermore, the speed of production of the GdBCO layer was increased to 10 m h -1 while that of the former YBCO coated conductor was 3.75 m h -1 . The material yield of long GdBCO layers using the MPMT-PLD method was about 26-28%. The high I c of GdBCO in a magnetic field, the high production rate and the high material yield are promising for applications

  20. Characterization of textile electrodes and conductors using standardized measurement setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, L; Neuhaus, C; Medrano, G; Walter, M; Leonhardt, S; Jungbecker, N; Gries, T

    2010-01-01

    Textile electrodes and conductors are being developed and used in different monitoring scenarios, such as ECG or bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements. Compared to standard materials, conductive textile materials offer improved wearing comfort and enable long-term measurements. Unfortunately, the development and investigation of such materials often suffers from the non-reproducibility of the test scenarios. For example, the materials are generally tested on human skin which is difficult since the properties of human skin differ for each person and can change within hours. This study presents two test setups which offer reproducible measurement procedures for the systematic analysis of textile electrodes and conductors. The electrode test setup was designed with a special skin dummy which allows investigation of not only the electrical properties of textile electrodes but also the contact behavior between electrode and skin. Using both test setups, eight textile electrodes and five textile conductors were analyzed and compared

  1. Thermodynamic behaviour of a coated conductor for currents above Ic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, M; Schacherer, Chr; Weiss, K-P; Jung, A

    2008-01-01

    Coated conductors are becoming more and more applicable. The temperature range below the critical value (T c ) or below the critical current (I c ) is well characterized. But for applications such as fault current limiters, which take advantage of the superconducting-to-normal transition, characterization beyond the superconducting regime is mandatory. Therefore, this work studies the thermodynamic behaviour of a coated conductor immersed in boiling liquid nitrogen which is driven by a sinusoidal over-current of up to more than five times I c . The temperature of the coated conductor exceeds 720 K without any significant degradation. To validate this current-induced high-temperature region, the resistance of the composite tape is measured from T c to 600 K. A thermodynamic and electrical model is conceptualized for calculating the temperature, developing as a function of time during over-currents. The calculated temperature fits well with the measured temperature

  2. High-field thermal transports properties of REBCO coated conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bonura, M

    2015-01-01

    The use of REBCO coated conductors is envisaged for many applications, extending from power cables to high-field magnets. Whatever the case, thermal properties of REBCO tapes play a key role for the stability of superconducting devices. In this work, we present the first study on the longitudinal thermal conductivity (k) of REBCO coated conductors in magnetic fields up to 19 T applied both parallelly and perpendicularly to the thermal-current direction. Copper-stabilized tapes from six industrial manufacturers have been investigated. We show that zero-field k of coated conductors can be calculated with an accuracy of ‡ 15% from the residual resistivity ratio of the stabilizer and the Cu/non-Cu ratio. Measurements performed at high fields have allowed us to evaluate the consistency of the procedures generally used for estimating in-field k in the framework of the Wiedemann-Franz law from an electrical characterization of the materials. In-field data are intended to provide primary ingredients for the ...

  3. MHD Modeling of Conductors at Ultra-High Current Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSENTHAL, STEPHEN E.; DESJARLAIS, MICHAEL P.; SPIELMAN, RICK B.; STYGAR, WILLIAM A.; ASAY, JAMES R.; DOUGLAS, M.R.; HALL, C.A.; FRESE, M.H.; MORSE, R.L.; REISMAN, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    In conjunction with ongoing high-current experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' Z accelerator, the authors have revisited a problem first described in detail by Heinz Knoepfel. Unlike the 1-Tesla MITLs of pulsed power accelerators used to produce intense particle beams, Z's disc transmission line (downstream of the current addition) is in a 100--1,200 Tesla regime, so its conductors cannot be modeled simply as static infinite conductivity boundaries. Using the MHD code MACH2 they have been investigating the conductor hydrodynamics, characterizing the joule heating, magnetic field diffusion, and material deformation, pressure, and velocity over a range of current densities, current rise-times, and conductor materials. Three purposes of this work are (1) to quantify power flow losses owing to ultra-high magnetic fields, (2) to model the response of VISAR diagnostic samples in various configurations on Z, and (3) to incorporate the most appropriate equation of state and conductivity models into the MHD computations. Certain features are strongly dependent on the details of the conductivity model

  4. MHD Modeling of Conductors at Ultra-High Current Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, S.E.; Asay, J.R.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Douglas, M.R.; Frese, M.H.; Hall, C.A.; Morse, R.L.; Reisman, D.; Spielman, R.B.; Stygar, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    In conjunction with ongoing high-current experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' Z accelerator we have revisited a problem first described in detail by Heinz Knoepfel. MITLs of previous pulsed power accelerators have been in the 1-Tesla regime. Z's disc transmission line (downstream of the current addition) is in a 100-1200 Tesla regime, so its conductors cannot be modeled simply as static infinite conductivity boundaries. Using the MHD code MACH2 we have been investigating conductor hydrodynamics, characterizing the joule heating, magnetic field diffusion, and material deformation, pressure, and velocity over a range of current densities, current rise-times, and conductor materials. Three purposes of this work are ( 1) to quantify power flow losses owing to ultra-high magnetic fields, (2) to model the response of VISAR diagnostic samples in various configurations on Z, and (3) to incorporate the most appropriate equation of state and conductivity models into our MHD computations. Certain features are strongly dependent on the details of the conductivity model. Comparison with measurements on Z will be discussed

  5. Modeling the electrical resistance of gold film conductors on uniaxially stretched elastomeric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenzhe; Görrn, Patrick; Wagner, Sigurd

    2011-05-01

    The electrical resistance of gold film conductors on polydimethyl siloxane substrates at stages of uniaxial stretching is measured and modeled. The surface area of a gold conductor is assumed constant during stretching so that the exposed substrate takes up all strain. Sheet resistances are calculated from frames of scanning electron micrographs by numerically solving for the electrical potentials of all pixels in a frame. These sheet resistances agree sufficiently well with values measured on the same conductors to give credence to the model of a stretchable network of gold links defined by microcracks.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of superionic (LiBr)_0_._5(AlSiO)_0_._5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz K Jahja; Safei Purnama

    2010-01-01

    Materials of LiBr silicate aluminum ionic conductor have been prepared by powder metallurgy method in which 0.5 mole of LiBr powder is mixed with about 0.5 mole silicate aluminum in liquid medium of aquadest. After mixing and homogenization, the samples are dried, compacted and heated at 600 °C for 1 hour. Characterization of materials structure was carried out by X-Ray diffraction, ionic conductivity was measured by LCR meter with frequency range of 10"-"1 to 10"5 Hz at room temperature. Results of measurement show the (LiBr)_0_._5(AlSiO)_0_._5 conductor has the structure of both LiBr and of silicate aluminum. (LiBr)_0_._5(AlSiO)_0_._5 has the highest ionic conductivity in the order of 10"-"3 S.cm"-"1 while the ionic conductivity of LiBr is found to be about 10"-"4 S.cm"-"1 and that of silicate aluminum is about 10"-"6 S.cm"-"1, all measured at room temperature. (author)

  7. Effect of conductor geometry on source localization: Implications for epilepsy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlitt, H.; Heller, L.; Best, E.; Ranken, D.; Aaron, R.

    1994-01-01

    We shall discuss the effects of conductor geometry on source localization for applications in epilepsy studies. The most popular conductor model for clinical MEG studies is a homogeneous sphere. However, several studies have indicated that a sphere is a poor model for the head when the sources are deep, as is the case for epileptic foci in the mesial temporal lobe. We believe that replacing the spherical model with a more realistic one in the inverse fitting procedure will improve the accuracy of localizing epileptic sources. In order to include a realistic head model in the inverse problem, we must first solve the forward problem for the realistic conductor geometry. We create a conductor geometry model from MR images, and then solve the forward problem via a boundary integral equation for the electric potential due to a specified primary source. One the electric potential is known, the magnetic field can be calculated directly. The most time-intensive part of the problem is generating the conductor model; fortunately, this needs to be done only once for each patient. It takes little time to change the primary current and calculate a new magnetic field for use in the inverse fitting procedure. We present the results of a series of computer simulations in which we investigate the localization accuracy due to replacing the spherical model with the realistic head model in the inverse fitting procedure. The data to be fit consist of a computer generated magnetic field due to a known current dipole in a realistic head model, with added noise. We compare the localization errors when this field is fit using a spherical model to the fit using a realistic head model. Using a spherical model is comparable to what is usually done when localizing epileptic sources in humans, where the conductor model used in the inverse fitting procedure does not correspond to the actual head

  8. The Connoisseurship of Conducting: A Qualitative Study of Exemplary Wind Band Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Nancy; Henry, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to gain an in-depth perspective through examining how the conducting pedagogy of three selected exemplary high school and college instrumental music conductors function within the context of an actual rehearsal. A typical rehearsal was video recorded, followed by a "think-aloud" session in which the conductor viewed the…

  9. Modelling the V-I characteristic of coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutter, N A [Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); IRC in Superconductivity, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ruttern@ornl.gov; Glowacki, B A [Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); IRC in Superconductivity, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    The critical current densities of coated conductor samples are limited by the presence of low-angle grain boundaries. These boundaries provide an obstacle to current flow, which is determined by their misorientation angle. The superconducting layer of a coated conductor tape may be considered as a network of grains linked together by grain boundaries through which the supercurrent must pass. Such a network has been investigated using a two-dimensional grain model. The three-dimensional orientations of grains in the superconducting network can be assigned randomly based on information obtained from EBSD and x-ray texture measurements. By assigning critical current values to boundaries based on their calculated misorientation, the overall J{sub c} of macroscopic modelled samples can then be calculated. This paper demonstrates how such a technique is applied using a small-scale, idealized sample grain structure in an applied magnetic field. The onset of dissipation at the critical current may be viewed in terms of the flow of the magnetic flux across the sample along high-angle grain boundaries when the critical current is first exceeded. Through such a consideration, the model may be further used to predict the current-voltage characteristic of the coated conductor sample around the superconducting transition. (author)

  10. Stray current interaction in the system of two extensive underground conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machczynski, W.

    1993-01-01

    The important problem, technically, is to evaluate the harmful effects that an electrified railway has on nearby earth-return circuits (cables, pipelines). This paper considers the effects of a DC-electrified railway system on two extensive metal conductors buried in parallel in the vicinity of the tracks. The interaction between currents flowing in both underground conductors is taken into account, whereas the reaction of the conductors' currents on the track current is disregarded. The analysis given is applicable to any DC railway system in which tracks may be represented by a single earth return circuit with current energization. It is assumed in the paper that the system considered is linear and that the earth is homogeneous. The technical application of the method is illustrated by an example of computer simulation

  11. Test and evaluation of conductors for superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    Pancake coils of a monolithic conductor and several different types of braid and cable, using a variety of insulating tapes and bonding resins were constructed. The coils were tested to quench in self-field at currents up to 2700 A. Results are presented for the training behavior of the various coils as compared to short-sample tests. A conductor composed of several braids or cables in parallel, which will be suitable for the in situ fabrication of large magnets is described

  12. Unevenness of Sliding Surface of Overhead Rigid Conductor Lines and Method for Reducing Unevenness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshi, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Masashi

    Rigid conductor lines are used in many subways, because the use of such conductor lines reduces the risk of accidents and because less space is required for their installation. However, as the unevenness of the sliding surface of the rigid conductor lines significantly influences the fluctuations in the contact force between pantographs and contact lines, it is necessary to decrease the unevenness at the construction as well as the maintenance stages. In order to investigate the installation accuracy of overhead rigid conductor lines, we have developed a device that accurately and continuously measures the unevenness of the sliding surface. By using this measuring device, we have confirmed that the unevenness of the sliding surface depends on various factors such as the sag between the support points, the deformation of the aluminum base or the conductive rail in the case of a long wavelength, the slight sagging unevenness between the bolts of the long ear, the undulating wear etc. This paper describes the actual unevenness conditions and the technical methods for decreasing the unevenness of the sliding surface of overhead rigid conductor lines.

  13. Tension optimization of the conductor-and-support cable elements during stranding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Chayun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Steel lifting ropes, cables and other similar products are rod statically undeterminable prestressed structures. Preliminary deformations of their elements (wires are caused by their manufacturing technology. Wires suffer stretching, bending with torsion in a stage of elastoplastic deformation. In this work the mechanic-mathematical model of residual forces determination in the wires of polymetallic conductor-and-support cable is offered. Aim: The aim of the work is studying of the mechanical and mathematical model defining residual forces in the wires of conductor-and-support cable and also the optimization of parameters of a twist by the criterion of residual forces lack after production process finishing. Materials and methods: The method developed by the authors earlier to the study the strain-stressed state of twisted wire products off-loading from technological internal forces has been applied to assess the impact of the approximate value of the longitudinal stiffness of the product. In this paper, each wire is considered as an element of the product individually. This is necessary to investigate the impact of uneven wire tensions on defects of conductor-and-support cable (out-of-straight in a free state and stripping-down. Results: On the basis of the conducted deformation studies of conductor-and-support cable during off-loading process from twist tension of its elements the dependencies of residual forces on the level and interrelation of elements tension has been determined. The condition of ensuring of zero residual forces in the wires of conductor-and-support cable after production is formulated. It was found that calculated values of residual forces are almost identical when using of the approximate and exact values of longitudinal stiffness of conductor-and-support cable.

  14. Solder bond requirement for large, built-up, high-performance conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willig, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Some large built-up conductors fabricated for large superconducting magnets are designed to operate above the maximum recovery current. Because the stability of these conductors is sensitive to the quality of the solder bond joining the composite superconductor to the high-conductivity substrate, a minimum bond requirement is necessary. The present analysis finds that the superconductor is unstable and becomes abruptly resistive when there are temperature excursions into the current sharing region of a poorly bonded conductor. This abrupt transition, produces eddy current heating in the vicinity of the superconducting filaments and causes a sharp reduction in the minimum propagating zone (MPZ) energy. This sensitivity of the MPZ energy to the solder bond contact area is used to specify a minimum bond requirement. For the superconducting MHD magnet built for the Component Development Integration Facility (CDIF), the minimum bonded surface area is .68 cm/sup 2//cm which is 44% of the composite perimeter. 5 refs

  15. Corona Onset Characteristics of Bundle Conductors in UHV AC Power Lines at 2200 m Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilong Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The corona onset characteristic of bundle conductors is an important limiting factor for the design of UHV AC power lines in high-altitude areas. An experimental study on the corona characteristics of 8 × LGJ630, 6 × LGJ720, 8 × LGJ720 and 10 × LGJ720 bundle conductors commonly used in UHV power lines under dry and wet conductor conditions, as well as artificial moderate and heavy rain conditions, was conducted in Ping’an County, Xining City (elevation 2200 m. By using the tangent line method, the corona onset voltages and onset electric field of four types of conductors at high altitudes are obtained for the first time. In addition, the calculation model of corona onset voltage considering the outer strands’ effect on the electric field and the geometric factor in the corona cage in high altitude areas is established. The comparison of the calculation results and experimental results under dry conditions verifies the model’s correctness. Based on the results, an optimal selection scheme for high altitudes is proposed. The roughness coefficient was also calculated and analysed: the roughness coefficient of bundled conductors was between 0.59 and 0.77, and the roughness coefficient of the wet conductor was between the dry and rainy conditions. Both the experimental data and the calculation model can provide a reference for conductor selection for UHV AC power lines for use in high-altitude areas.

  16. Transport current dependence of the hysteresis loss in silver sheathed BSCOO-2212 conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, Herman K.; Woudstra, Martin J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Tenbrink, Johannes

    1994-01-01

    A technique is described to study the critical current density and penetration fieldassociated with the transport current in a silver sheathed BSCCO conductor. A transport current flowing in a conductor in a varying magnetic field will only influence magnetisation currents that are in competition

  17. Mechanisms of fatigue in LIGA Ni MEMS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Imasogie, B.I.; Allameh, S.M.; Boyce, B.; Lian, K.; Lou, J.; Soboyejo, W.O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the mechanisms of fatigue in LIGA Ni micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) thin films with micro-scale columnar and nano-scale equiaxed grains. Stress-life behavior is reported for films with thicknesses of 70 and 270 μm. The stress-life data are compared with previously reported data for Ni MEMS films and bulk Ni. The films with the nano-scale grains (15 nm average grain size) are shown to have higher strength and fatigue resistance (stress-life data) than those with columnar grain structures. The thicker films (with a columnar microstructure) are also shown to have comparable fatigue life to annealed Ni, while the thinner films (with a columnar microstructure) have comparable fatigue life to wrought Ni. The underlying mechanisms of crack nucleation and growth are elucidated via scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These reveal the formation of slip bands and surface oxides and crystallographic surface/sub-surface crack nucleation and growth in the films with the columnar structures. Surface and corner crack nucleations (from pre-existing defects) are observed in the nanostructured films. The implications of the results are discussed for the analyses of fatigue in nickel MEMS structures

  18. Measurement of local critical currents in TFA-MOD processed coated conductors by use of scanning Hall-probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiohara, K.; Higashikawa, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Inoue, M.; Kiss, T.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated 2-dimensional distribution of critical current density. We have measured TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductor. We used scanning Hall-probe microscopy. These provided information is useful for fabrication process of coated conductor. We have carried out 2-dimensional (2D) measurement of local critical current in a Trifluoroacetates-Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed YBCO coated conductor using scanning Hall-probe microscopy. Recently, remarkable R and D accomplishments on the fabrication processes of coated conductors have been conducted extensively and reported. The TFA-MOD process has been expected as an attractive process to produce coated conductors with high performance at a low production cost due to a simple process using non-vacuum equipments. On the other hand, enhancement of critical currents and homogenization of the critical current distribution in the coated conductors are definitely very important for practical applications. According to our measurements, we can detect positions and spatial distribution of defects in the conductor. This kind of information will be very helpful for the improvement of the TFA-MOD process and for the design of the conductor intended for practical electric power device applications.

  19. Analysis of Lightning-induced Impulse Magnetic Fields in the Building with an Insulated Down Conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Patrick Y.; Zhou, Qi-Bin

    This paper presents an analysis of lightning-induced magnetic fields in a building. The building of concern is protected by the lightning protection system with an insulated down conductor. In this paper a system model for metallic structure of the building is constructed first using the circuit approach. The circuit model of the insulated down conductor is discussed extensively, and explicit expressions of the circuit parameters are presented. The system model was verified experimentally in the laboratory. The modeling approach is applied to analyze the impulse magnetic fields in a full-scale building during a direct lightning strike. It is found that the impulse magnetic field is significantly high near the down conductor. The field is attenuated if the down conductor is moved to a column in the building. The field can be reduced further if the down conductor is housed in an earthed metal pipe. Recommendations for protecting critical equipment against lightning-induced magnetic fields are also provided in the paper.

  20. Evaluation of inductive heating energy of a PF insert coil conductor by the calorimetric method (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kunihiro; Nabara, Yoshihiro; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Okuno, Kiyoshi

    2009-02-01

    The PF Insert Coil is a single layer solenoid coil using a superconducting conductor designed for ITER, housed in a Poloidal field coil and installed in the bore of the CS Model Coil. A stability test of the conductor will be performed in a magnetic field generated by the CS Model Coil. In this test, the inductive heat of an inductive heater attached to the conductor will be applied to initiate a normal zone in the conductor. Since the conductor for the PF Insert Coil is a cable-in-conduit conductor, it is quite difficult to estimate inductive heating energy theoretically. Thus, the inductive heating energy is measured experimentally by the calorimetric method. The heating energy is in proportion to a constant multiplied by the integrated square of an applied sinusoidal current wave over the heating period. Experimental results show that the proportional constants of the conductor, cable, conduit and dummy conductor are 0.138 [J/A 2 s], 0.028 [J/A 2 s], 0.118 [J/A 2 s] and 0.009 [J/A 2 s], respectively. The first three denote not only the inductive heating but also the joule heating of the inductive heater. The final value denotes joule heating only. Therefore, subtracting the first three constants by the last one, the proportional constants of inductive heating generated in the conductor, cable and conduit are estimated to be 0.129 [J/A 2 s], 0.019 [J/A 2 s] and 0.109 [J/A 2 s], respectively. (author)

  1. Coated Conductors under Tensile Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonevici, Anca; Villaume, Alain; Villard, Catherine; Sulpice, Andre; Maron, Pierre Brosse; Bourgault, Daniel; Porcar, Laureline

    2006-01-01

    Critical current dependence versus strain is obtained for in-situ axial stress experiments on ISD YBCO and DyBCO coated conductors. The drop of critical current due to the apparition of first cracks in the superconducting ceramics is related to the passage in the plastic region of the substrate for a strain of about 0.3% and a stress higher then 500MPa. The superconductivity is preserved between the cracks

  2. A Systematic Inventory of Motives for Becoming an Orchestra Conductor: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Ioannis; Mullet, Etienne

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the various motives (reasons) that may have led an individual to become an orchestra conductor interpreting classical works, using Apter's (2001) Metamotivational Theory framework. Questionnaires derived from the theory, consisting of 92 possible motives for becoming an orchestra conductor, were presented to 101 orchestra…

  3. Effect of cationic substitution on the double-well hydrogen-bond potential in [K1-x(NH4)x]3H(SO4)2 proton conductors: a single-crystal neutron diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, R R; Chitra, R; Selezneva, E V; Makarova, I P

    2017-10-01

    The structure of the mixed crystal [K 1-x (NH 4 ) x ] 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 as obtained from single-crystal neutron diffraction is compared with the previously reported room-temperature neutron structure of crystalline K 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 . The two structures are very similar, as indicated by the high value of their isostructurality index (94.8%). It was found that the replacement of even a small amount (3%) of K + with NH 4 + has a significant influence on the short strong hydrogen bond connecting the two SO 4 2- ions. Earlier optical measurements had revealed that the kinetics of the superionic transition in the solid solution [K 1-x (NH 4 ) x ] 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 are much faster than in K 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 ; this reported difference in the kinetics of the superionic phase transition in this class of crystal is explained on the basis of the difference in strength of the hydrogen-bond interactions in the two structures.

  4. Development of conductor feedthrough module of LV electrical penetration assembly for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zhiyuan; Wang Guangjin; Zhou Bin

    2007-01-01

    A LV electrical penetration assembly with perfusion sealing conductor feedthrough module was developed, which can be used for the connection of internal and external cables through the wall of the research reactor workshop. The LV electrical penetration assembly was combined with several independent modules. The maintenance and replacement of the assembly can be easily done in service. The sealing of conductor feedthrough module was achieved with the perfusion of self-extinguishing epoxy. The leakage between the conductor feedthrough module and the end plate module was blocked with rubber rings. The result of the leakage test and the electrical performance test for the samples of conductor feedthrough module satisfied the requirement of research reactor. The structure of the new electrical penetration assembly is simple and compact. It can be manufactured with mature technology and cost low price. The performance of the assembly is steady. It can be used widely in research reactors. (authors)

  5. VAMAS Nb3Sn test conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A bronze-process Nb 3 Sn conductor was measured as part of the second VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) international critical-current round robin. The conductor specifications are given in Table 15. The critical current was measured as a function of magnetic field and axial tensile strain. The measured data are presented in Table 16 and in Figs. 23 and 24. The I c and J c values are based on an electric field criterion (E c ) of 1 μV/cm. In the first VAMAS round robin tests, differences in the test specimens' axial strain, caused by variations in the thermal contraction of different test fixtures, was a major source of interlaboratory variation in the critical-current data. Consequently, electromechanical characterization of the test specimen is important for data interpretation and error analysis. In the second round robin, the test apparatus and procedure were more rigidly specified. This increased experimental control reduced the critical-current variation by a factor of 3.5. The results of our measurements will be published in the final VAMAS report

  6. Structural analysis of the NET toroidal field coils and conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.; Collier, D.; Gori, R.

    1989-01-01

    The NET toroidal field coils will utilise A15-type superconductor at 4.2 K to generate fields up to 11.5 T. The superconductor strands themselves are sensitive to strain, which causes degradation of their current carrying capacity, and thus the detailed behaviour of the coil conductor must be analysied so that the strian can be minimised. This analysis must include the manufacturing processes of the conductor as well as the normal and abnormal loperational loads. The conductor will be insulated and bonded by glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin, with limited bonding shear strength, and the overall support of the complete coil system must be designed to reduce these shear stresses. The coils will be subjected to pulse loads form the poloidal field coils, and analysis of the slip between the various coil components, such as conductors and the coil case, giving rise to frictional heating and possible loss of superconducting properties is another important factor, which has been investigated by a number of stress analyses. The manufacturing, thermal and normal magnetic loads on the coils and the analysis leading to the proposed structural design are described. In addition to the normal operating conditions, there is a range of abnormal load conditions which could result from electrical or mechanical faults on the coils. The effect of these potential faults has been analysed and the coil design modified to prevent catastrophic structural failure. (author). 13 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Mechanical properties of high-current multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.; Hoard, R.W.; Cornish, D.N.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Nb 3 Sn is a strain-sensitive superconductor which exhibits large changes in properties for strains of less than 1 percent. The critical current density at 12 T undergoes a reversible degradation of a factor of two for compressive strains of about 1 percent and undergoes an irreversible degradation for tensile strains on the Nb 3 Sn greater than 0.2 percent. Consequently, the successful application of Nb 3 Sn in large high-field magnets requires a complete understanding of the mechanical properties of the conductor. One conductor which is being used for many applications consists of filaments of Nb 3 Sn in a bronze matrix, and much progress has been made in understanding the mechanical behavior of this composite. The Nb 3 Sn filaments are placed in compression due to the differential thermal contraction between Nb 3 Sn and bronze which occurs when the composite is cooled from the Nb 3 Sn formation temperature (typically 700 0 C) to the 4.2 0 K operating temperature. The general behavior of the critical current when this conductor is subjected to a tensile stress is an increase to a maximum when the compressive strain on the Nb 3 Sn is relieved, followed by a decrease as the Nb 3 Sn filemants are placed in tension. The degree of precompression is controlled largely by the ratio of bronze to Nb 3 Sn in the conductor

  8. Transport losses in single and assembled coated conductors with textured-metal substrate with reduced magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, N.; Jiang, Z.; Li, Z.; Nakahata, M.; Kato, T.; Ueyama, M.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Shiohara, S.

    2008-01-01

    Transport losses in a coated conductor with a textured-metal substrate with reduced magnetism were studied experimentally. The substrate is with a clad structure, and HoBCO superconductor layer is deposited on the substrate with buffer layers. The measured transport loss of a sample whose critical current is 126.0 A falls between Norris's strip value and Norris's ellipse value. The increase in the measured transport loss from Norris's strip value can be attributed to its non-uniform lateral J c distribution. The same buffered clad tape was placed under an IBAD-MOCVD coated conductor with a non-magnetic substrate, and its transport loss was measured. The comparison between the measured transport loss of this sample and that of the identical IBAD-MOCVD coated conductor without the buffered clad tape indicates that the increase in the transport loss due to this buffered clad tape is small. The transport losses of hexagonal assemblies of IBAD-MOCVD coated conductors, whose structure simulates that of superconducting power transmission cables, were also measured where the buffered clad tapes were under-lied or over-lied on the coated conductors. The increase in the transport loss of hexagonal assemblies of coated conductors due to the buffered clad tapes is at an allowable level

  9. Qualification of the US Made Conductors for ITER TF Magnet System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N.; Hatfield, Daniel R.; Miller, John R.; Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Seber, B.

    2010-01-01

    The US Domestic Agency (USDA) is one of the six suppliers of the Toroidal Field (TF) conductor for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In order to qualify conductors according to ITER requirements we prepared several lengths of the CICC and short samples for testing in the SULTAN facility in CRPP, Switzerland. We also fully characterized the strands that were used in these SULTAN samples. Fabrication experience and test results are presented and discussed.

  10. Measuring ac-loss in high temperature superconducting cable-conductors using four probe methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Olsen, Søren Krüger

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the ac-loss of superconducting cable conductors have many aspects in common with measuring the ac-loss of single superconducting tapes. In a cable conductor all tapes are connected to each other and to the test circuit through normal metal joints in each end. This makes such measurement...

  11. Current Density Distribution on the Perimeter of Waveguide Exciter Cylindrical Vibrator Conductor

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Yosyp

    2010-01-01

    On ground of electrodynamic analysis the surface current distribution nonuniformity on the perimeter of waveguide-exciter cylindrical conductor is found. Considerable influence of current distribution nonuniformity on exciter input reactance is established. It is also showed, that the current distribution on the vibrator perimeter, for conductor radius no greater then 0,07 of waveguide cross section breadth, approximately uniform is.

  12. Signal processing of data from short sample tests for the projection of conductor performance in ITER magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai

    2008-01-01

    Qualification of the ITER conductor is absolutely necessary. Testing large scale conductors is expensive and time-consuming. To test 3-4 m long straight samples in a bore of a split solenoid is a relatively economical way in comparison with the fabrication of a coil to be tested in a bore of a background field solenoid. However, testing short samples may give ambiguous results due to different constraints in current redistribution in the cable or other end effects which are not present in the large magnet. This paper discusses the processes taking place in the ITER conductor, conditions when conductor performance could be distorted and possible signal processing to deduce the behaviour of ITER conductors in ITER magnets from the test data

  13. Stress-induced heating in commercial conductors and its possible influence on magnet performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, D.S.; Kroeger, D.M.; Moazed, A.

    1976-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements show that significant amounts of heat are generated when a multifilamentary composite conductor is stressed in tension to levels expected to occur in large, high-field magnet systems. When the stress on the conductor is repetitively cycled between zero and some maximum value, the amount of heat produced per cycle is constant after the first few cycles. Comparison is made between calorimetric determinations of heat injections and the work done on the specimen as indicated by stress-strain curves. Stress-strain curves for a number of commercial conductors indicate that the most important determinant of the magnitude of this effect is the choice of matrix material

  14. Influence of the magnetic field profile on ITER conductor testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhuis, A; Ilyin, Y; Kate, H H J ten

    2006-01-01

    We performed simulations with the numerical CUDI-CICC code on a typical short ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) conductor test sample of dual leg configuration, as usually tested in the SULTAN test facility, and made a comparison with the new EFDA-Dipole test facility offering a larger applied DC field region. The new EFDA-Dipole test facility, designed for short sample testing of conductors for ITER, has a homogeneous high field region of 1.2 m, while in the SULTAN facility this region is three times shorter. The inevitable non-uniformity of the current distribution in the cable, introduced by the joints at both ends, has a degrading effect on voltage-current (VI) and voltage-temperature (VT) characteristics, particularly for these short samples. This can easily result in an underestimation or overestimation of the actual conductor performance. A longer applied DC high field region along a conductor suppresses the current non-uniformity by increasing the overall longitudinal cable electric field when reaching the current sharing mode. The numerical interpretation study presented here gives a quantitative analysis for a relevant practical case of a test of a short sample poloidal field coil insert (PFCI) conductor in SULTAN. The simulation includes the results of current distribution analysis from self-field measurements with Hall sensor arrays, current sharing measurements and inter-petal resistance measurements. The outcome of the simulations confirms that the current uniformity improves with a longer high field region but the 'measured' VI transition is barely affected, though the local peak voltages become somewhat suppressed. It appears that the location of the high field region and voltage taps has practically no influence on the VI curve as long as the transverse voltage components are adequately cancelled. In particular, for a thin conduit wall, the voltage taps should be connected to the conduit in the form of an (open) azimuthally

  15. Relation between the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} and 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simkovic, Fedor [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-12-16

    A formal relation between the GT part of the nuclear matrix elements M{sub GT}{sup 0{nu}} of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the closure matrix elements M{sub cl}{sup 2{nu}} of 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is established. This relation is based on the integral representation of these quantities in terms of their dependence on the distance r between the two nucleons undergoing transformation. We also discuss the difficulties in determining the correct values of the closure 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay matrix elements.

  16. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  17. Gravitomagnetic effects in conductor in applied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedov, B.J.; Karim, M.

    1999-11-01

    The electromagnetic measurements of general relativistic gravitomagnetic effects which can be performed within a conductor embedded in the space-time of slow rotating gravitational object in the presence of magnetic field are proposed. (author)

  18. The GMD Method for Inductance Calculation Applied to Conductors with Skin Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Aebischer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The GMD method (geometric mean distance to calculate inductance offers undoubted advantages over other methods. But so far it seemed to be limited to the case where the current is uniformly distributed over the cross section of the conductor, i.e. to DC (direct current. In this paper, the definition of the GMD is extended to include cases of nonuniform distribution observed at higher frequencies as the result of skin effect. An exact relation between the GMD and the internal inductance per unit length for infinitely long conductors of circularly symmetric cross section is derived. It enables much simpler derivations of Maxwell’s analytical expressions for the GMD of circular and annular disks than were known before. Its salient application, however, is the derivation of exact expressions for the GMD of infinitely long round wires and tubular conductors with skin effect. These expressions are then used to verify the consistency of the extended definition of the GMD. Further, approximate formulae for the GMD of round wires with skin effect based on elementary functions are discussed. Total inductances calculated with the help of the derived formulae for the GMD with and without skin effect are compared to measurement results from the literature. For conductors of square cross section, an analytical approximation for the GMD with skin effect based on elementary functions is presented. It is shown that it allows to calculate the total inductance of such conductors for frequencies from DC up to 25 GHz to a precision of better than 1 %.

  19. Effect of current imbalance on stability of a cable-in-conduit conductor consisting of chrome-plated strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nishi, Masataka; Isono, Takaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ono, Michitaka; Hamajima, Takataro; Fujioka, Tsutomu.

    1997-02-01

    The effect of an unbalanced current distribution in a conductor consisting of chrome plated strands on stability was investigated using a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) consisting of 27 NbTi chrome-plated strands. In addition, the quench behavior when a non-uniform current distribution was produced in the conductor was studied from the experimental results. Moreover, impedance of the chrome-plated strands was measured using the sample conductor. The results show that the stability is determined by the largest strand current when it is sufficiently large otherwise by the transport current when it is not high enough. It was found that it took a long time to make the conductor quench from the onset of the normal transition of the strand carrying the large current. This is explained by the good diffusivity of the coolant temperature in the conductor's cross section. Since the ramp-rate limitation cannot probably take place if the coolant temperature is diffused well in the conductor's cross section, it is expected the ramp-rate limitation can be prevented using this effect. It is also shown that the chrome-plated strands come into contact with one another with uniform transverse conductance on the order of 10 3 S/m. (author)

  20. Manufacturing and test of 2G-HTS coils for rotating machines: Challenges, conductor requirements, realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomen, Marijn; Herkert, Werner; Bayer, Dietmar; Kummeth, Peter; Nick, Wolfgang; Arndt, Tabea

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of 2nd-generation High-Temperature Superconductors (2G-HTSs) in the rotors of electrical motors and generators. For these devices the conductor must be wound into robust impregnated coils, which are operated in vacuum at temperatures around 30 K, in strong magnetic fields of about 2T. Differences in thermal contraction between the coil former, conductor constituents, impregnation resin, bandage and heat-sink materials (assembled at room temperature) cause mechanical stresses at operating temperature. Rotating-machine operation adds Lorentz forces and challenging centripetal accelerations up to thousands of g. Second generation-HTS conductors withstand large tensile stresses in axial direction and compression in normal direction. However, shear stresses, axial compression, and tension normal to the conductor can cause degradation in superconducting properties. Such stresses can be mitigated by correct choice of materials, coil lay-out and manufacturing process. A certain stress level will remain, which the conductor must withstand. We have manufactured many impregnated round and race-track coils, using different 2G-HTS conductors, and tested them at temperatures from 25 K to 77 K. Degradation of the superconductor in early coils was traced to the mentioned differences in thermal contraction, and was completely avoided in coils produced later. We will discuss appropriate coil-winding techniques to assure robust and reliable superconductor performance.

  1. Detection of smaller Jc region and damage in YBCO coated conductors by using permanent magnet method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, K.; Saito, A.; Takano, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Yamada, H.; Takayama, T.; Kamitani, A.; Ohshima, S.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a non-destructive method for measuring the critical current density (J c ) in YBCO-coated conductors by using a permanent magnet (Sm 2 Co 17 ). J c could be determined from the repulsive force (F r ) generated between a permanent magnet and a coated conductor where shielding current flows. We also examined the influence of damage to the film on the J c distribution. The measured F r when the permanent magnet approached the cut part was smaller than that of the undamaged area. We developed a non-destructive method for measuring the critical current density (J c ) in YBCO-coated conductors by using a permanent magnet (Sm 2 Co 17 ). J c could be determined from the repulsive force (F r ) generated between a permanent magnet and a coated conductor where shielding current flows. We tried to detect a smaller J c region in the coated conductor by using the system. The J c distribution could be determined without influence from the thick copper film on YBCO thin film. We also examined the influence of damage to the film on the J c distribution. The surface of the coated conductors was cut by using a knife. The measured F r when the permanent magnet approached the cut part was smaller than that of the undamaged area. This J c measurement technique will be useful for detecting smaller J c regions and defects in coated conductors.

  2. Algorithm for detection of the broken phase conductor in the radial networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojić Mladen M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an algorithm for a directional relay to be used for a detection of the broken phase conductor in the radial networks. The algorithm would use synchronized voltages, measured at the beginning and at the end of the line, as input signals. During the process, the measured voltages would be phase-compared. On the basis of the normalized energy, the direction of the phase conductor, with a broken point, would be detected. Software tool Matlab/Simulink package has developed a radial network model which simulates the broken phase conductor. The simulations generated required input signals by which the algorithm was tested. Development of the algorithm along with the formation of the simulation model and the test results of the proposed algorithm are presented in this paper.

  3. A new percolation model for composite solid electrolytes and dispersed ionic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risyad Hasyim, Muhammad; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    Composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) including conductor/insulator composites known as dispersed ionic conductors (DICs) have motivated the development of novel percolation models that describe their conductivity. Despite the long history, existing models lack in one or more key areas: (1) rigorous foundation for their physical theory, (2) explanation for non-universal conductor-insulator transition, (3) classification of DICs, and (4) extension to frequency-domain. This work describes a frequency-domain effective medium approximation (EMA) of a bond percolation model for CSEs. The EMA is derived entirely from Maxwell’s equations and contains basic microstructure parameters. The model was applied successfully to several composite systems from literature. Simulations and fitting of literature data address these key areas and illustrate the interplay between space charge layer properties and bulk microstructure.

  4. Distribución de potencia en los alimentadores de baja tensión con varios conductores por fase; Power Distribution in Low Tension Feeders with Several Phase Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor S Llamo Laborí

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En las redes de distribución a 120/208 V, las corrientes debidas a las cargas son muy altas y ello obliga ainstalar varios conductores en paralelo por fase. La mayor o menor asimetría de las corrientes que circulan porcada uno de los conductores que forman cada fase no son función del balanceo que se haga de la carga ni delmayor o menor desbalance de las tensiones sino de la disposición de las fases. En este trabajo se presentanlas características y los resultados de un algoritmo para determinar cuál es la disposición de las fases quepermiten obtener el mejor aprovechamiento de la capacidad instalada en los conductores del alimentador. In the 120/208 distribution grids, the loads currents are very high. In this case it is necessary to install severalconductors in parallel. The more o less asymmetry of currents in the different conductors that form everyphase is function of the phase disposition and not of the more or less unbalance of the tension or the loadscurrents. In this work are presented the characteristics and the results of algorithms that permit to determinewhich the phase disposition is that bring the better use of the installed capacity of the feeder.

  5. Conductor Specification and Validation for High-Luminosity LHC Quadrupole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L. D.; Ghosh, A. K.; Dietderich, D. R.; Pong, I.

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN will replace the main ring inner triplet quadrupoles, identified by the acronym MQXF, adjacent to the main ring intersection regions. For the past decade, the U.S. LHC Accelerator R&D Program, LARP, has been evaluating conductors for the MQXFA prototypes, which are the outer magnets of the triplet. Recently, the requirements for MQXF magnets and cables have been published in P. Ferracin et al., IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 26, no. 4, 2016, Art. no.4000207, along with the final specification for Ti-alloyed Nb3Sn conductor determined jointly by CERN and LARP. This paper describes the rationale beneath the 0.85 mm diameter strand’s chief parameters, which are 108 or more sub-elements, a copper fraction not less than 52.4%, strand critical current at 4.22 K not less than 631 A at 12 T and 331 A at 15 T, and residual resistance ratio of not less than 150. This paper also compares the performance for ~100 km production lots of the five most recent LARP conductors to the first 163 km of strand made according to the HL-LHC specification. Two factors emerge as significant for optimizing performance and minimizing risk: a modest increase of the sub-element diameter from 50 to 55 μm, and a Nb:Sn molar ratio of 3.6 instead of 3.4. Furthermore, the statistics acquired so far give confidence that the present conductor can balance competing demands in production for the HL-LHC project.

  6. Application of the parametric proper generalized decomposition to the frequency-dependent calculation of the impedance of an AC line with rectangular conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancarlos-González Abel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AC lines of industrial busbar systems are usually built using conductors with rectangular cross sections, where each phase can have several parallel conductors to carry high currents. The current density in a rectangular conductor, under sinusoidal conditions, is not uniform. It depends on the frequency, on the conductor shape, and on the distance between conductors, due to the skin effect and to proximity effects. Contrary to circular conductors, there are not closed analytical formulas for obtaining the frequency-dependent impedance of conductors with rectangular cross-section. It is necessary to resort to numerical simulations to obtain the resistance and the inductance of the phases, one for each desired frequency and also for each distance between the phases’ conductors. On the contrary, the use of the parametric proper generalized decomposition (PGD allows to obtain the frequency-dependent impedance of an AC line for a wide range of frequencies and distances between the phases’ conductors by solving a single simulation in a 4D domain (spatial coordinates x and y, the frequency and the separation between conductors. In this way, a general “virtual chart” solution is obtained, which contains the solution for any frequency and for any separation of the conductors, and stores it in a compact separated representations form, which can be easily embedded on a more general software for the design of electrical installations. The approach presented in this work for rectangular conductors can be easily extended to conductors with an arbitrary shape.

  7. Application of the parametric proper generalized decomposition to the frequency-dependent calculation of the impedance of an AC line with rectangular conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancarlos-González, Abel; Pineda-Sanchez, Manuel; Puche-Panadero, Ruben; Sapena-Bano, Angel; Riera-Guasp, Martin; Martinez-Roman, Javier; Perez-Cruz, Juan; Roger-Folch, Jose

    2017-12-01

    AC lines of industrial busbar systems are usually built using conductors with rectangular cross sections, where each phase can have several parallel conductors to carry high currents. The current density in a rectangular conductor, under sinusoidal conditions, is not uniform. It depends on the frequency, on the conductor shape, and on the distance between conductors, due to the skin effect and to proximity effects. Contrary to circular conductors, there are not closed analytical formulas for obtaining the frequency-dependent impedance of conductors with rectangular cross-section. It is necessary to resort to numerical simulations to obtain the resistance and the inductance of the phases, one for each desired frequency and also for each distance between the phases' conductors. On the contrary, the use of the parametric proper generalized decomposition (PGD) allows to obtain the frequency-dependent impedance of an AC line for a wide range of frequencies and distances between the phases' conductors by solving a single simulation in a 4D domain (spatial coordinates x and y, the frequency and the separation between conductors). In this way, a general "virtual chart" solution is obtained, which contains the solution for any frequency and for any separation of the conductors, and stores it in a compact separated representations form, which can be easily embedded on a more general software for the design of electrical installations. The approach presented in this work for rectangular conductors can be easily extended to conductors with an arbitrary shape.

  8. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....12080 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity... conductors are less than 7 feet above the rail, they shall be guarded at all points where persons work or...

  9. Stretchable gold conductors embedded in PDMS and patterned by photolithography: fabrication and electromechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrega, T; Lacour, S P

    2010-01-01

    Stretchable gold conductors embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films were successfully prepared using standard photolithography. The minimum feature sizes patterned in the metal film and PDMS encapsulation are 10 µm and 20 µm, respectively. The micro-patterned conductors are robust to uni-axial (1D) and radial (2D) stretching with applied strains of tens of percent. The electrical response of the conductors follows a nonlinear increase with strain, and is reversible. The extensive stretchability of the conductors relies on a randomly and independently distributed network of micro-cracks (∼100 nm long) in the metal film on PDMS. The micro-cracks elongate to a few microns length both in the stretching and normal directions in 1D stretching but during 2D stretching, the micro-cracks grow and form 'dry mud' islands leaving the gold microstructure inside the islands intact. Patterning metallic thin films directly onto elastomeric substrates opens a promising route for microelectrodes and interconnects for soft and ultra-compliant MEMS and electronic devices.

  10. AC losses for the various voltage-leads in a semi-triple layer BSCCO conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Ryu, K.; Hwang, S.D.; Cha, G.; Song, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two voltage-leads (inner-lead, outer-lead) were soldered to the wires in each layer. Voltage-lead (total-lead) was soldered to the inner layer and arranged on the surface of the outer layer. The loss from the total-lead significantly differs from the sum of the wire losses. In order to investigate the AC loss of the multilayer conductor in a high temperature superconductor cable, a voltage-lead was generally attached to the outermost layer of the conductor. But the conductor's AC loss has not been completely cleared due to the various contact positions and arrangements of the voltage-lead. In this paper, we prepared a semi-triple layer conductor consisting of an inner layer and an outer layer with double layer structure. To measure the AC loss of the conductor, two voltage-leads (inner-lead, outer-lead) were soldered to the wires in each layer and arranged along their surfaces, as well as another voltage-lead (total-lead) was soldered to the inner layer and arranged on the surface of the outer layer. The results show that the AC losses for each layer measured from the inner-lead and the outer-lead, respectively, are identical to the sum of the wire losses. The AC losses in the semi-triple layer conductor measured from the total-lead and the outer-lead are identical for the uniform layer current density, and similar to the sum of the wire losses in both layers. However, the losses measured for the non-uniform layer current density from three voltage-leads are unequal to each other, and the loss from the total-lead significantly differs from the sum of the wire losses.

  11. Subcontract Report: Diffusion Mechanisms and Bond Dynamics in Solid Electrolyte Ion-Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevgolis, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hall, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alvez, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehmedovic, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shea, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Varley, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood, B. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Adelstein, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-03

    We employ first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and Maximally Localized Wannier Function (MLWF) analysis to explore how halide substitution and nano-phase microstructures affect diffusivity, through the activation energy barrier - Ea and D0, in the solid electrolyte Li3InBr6-xClx. We find that nano-phase microstructures with x=3 (50-50 Br-Cl) mixed composition have a higher diffusivity compared to x=2 and x=3 solid solutions. There is a positive linear relationship between ln(D0.) and Ea, which suggests that for superionic conductivity optimizing both the activation energy and the D0 is important. Bond frustration due to mismatch in crystal geometry and ideal coordination number leads to especially high diffusivity through a high D0 in the x=3 composition.

  12. Cube-textured metal substrates for reel-to-reel processing of coated conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Anders Christian

    This thesis presents the results of a study aimed at investigating important fabrication aspects of reel-to-reel processing of metal substrates for coated conductors and identifying a new substrate candidate material with improved magnetic properties. The eect of mechanical polishing on surface...... texture and the fraction of low angle grain boundaries. Finally, a Ni-5Cu-5W substrate may be a good candidate material as a substrate in future coated conductors....

  13. Measurements of residual deformations of steel-aluminum conductors in operating overhead lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, E.V.; Kesel' man, L.M.; Treiger, A.S.

    1982-12-01

    Experience in the operation of overhead power lines using steel-aluminum conductors is presented. Measurements were taken on the residual deformation of the steel-aluminum lines to determine the amount of sag increase and to forecast this increase for the entire period of operation. It is recommended that the work on measuring the residual deformation in the power lines be extended to a broader range of operating conditions such as conductors, spans, and climate conditions.

  14. The electric field of a current-carrying conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    A subject concerning the relativistic invariance of the Gauss theorem has been discussed. The appearance of the electric field around the neutral conductor after excitation of current in it doesn't signify the change of its charge. 8 refs.; 1 fig

  15. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Non-equilibrium ... Introduction. Study of organic conductors and semiconductors continues to generate interest with the ... Band tailing reduces band gap or the acti- ..... (9), we can identify Eg(0) with the focal point and is proportional to P2. 1 .

  16. Inkjet printing of multifilamentary YBCO for low AC loss coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, S C; Joseph, D; Mitchell-Williams, T B; Glowacki, B A; Calleja, A; Vlad, V R; Vilardell, M; Ricart, S; Granados, X; Puig, T; Obradors, X; Usoskin, A; Falter, M; Bäcker, M

    2014-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made with the development of REBCO coated conductors in recent years, and high performance conductors are available commercially. For many applications, however, the cost remains prohibitive, and AC losses discourage their selection for higher frequency applications. Chemical solution deposition (CSD) methods are attractive for low-cost, scalable preparation of buffer and superconductor layers, and in many respects inkjet printing is the method of choice, permitting non-contact deposition with minimal materials wastage and excellent control of coating thickness. Highly textured coatings of YBCO and Gd-doped CeO 2 have previously been reported on buffered metal substrates. Inkjet printing also introduces the possibility of patterning - directly depositing two and three dimensional structures without subtractive processing - offering a low-cost route to coated conductors with reduced AC losses. In this contribution, the inkjet deposition of superconducting YBCO tracks is reported on industrially relevant buffered metal substrates both by direct printing and an inverse patterning approach. In the latter approach, ceria tracks were printed reported, which are a candidate both for resistive filament spacers and buffer layers. TFA-based precursor solutions have been printed on SS/ABAD-YSZ/CeO 2 and Ni-W/LZO/CeO 2 RABiTS substrates, and the resulting multifilamentary samples characterised by microscopy and scanning Hall probe measurements. The prospects for future inkjet-printed low AC loss coated conductors are discussed, including control of interfilamentary resistivity and bridging, transposed filamentary structures and stabilisation material.

  17. The terminal portion of leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein LigA confers protective immunity against lethal infection in the hamster model of leptospirosis

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Éverton F.; Medeiros, Marco A.; McBride, Alan J. A.; Matsunaga, Jim; Esteves, Gabriela S.; Ramos, João G. R.; Santos, Cleiton S.; Croda, Júlio; Homma, Akira; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Haake, David A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2007-01-01

    Subunit vaccines are a potential intervention strategy against leptospirosis, which is a major public health problem in developing countries and a veterinary disease in livestock and companion animals worldwide. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are a family of surface-exposed determinants that have Ig-like repeat domains found in virulence factors such as intimin and invasin. We expressed fragments of the repeat domain regions of LigA and LigB from Leptospira interrogans serovar...

  18. n value and Jc distribution dependence of AC transport current losses in HTS conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Jun; Sawai, Yusuke; Nakayama, Haruki; Tsukamoto, Osami; Miyagi, Daisuke

    2004-01-01

    Compared with LTS materials, HTS materials have some peculiarities affecting AC loss characteristics of the conductors. We measured the AC transport current losses in YBCO thin film coated conductors and a Bi2223/Ag sheathed tape. Comparing the measured data with analytical calculations, the dependence of the AC transport current losses on the n value and critical current density distributions are studied. It is shown that, considering the n values and J c distributions, the peculiarities in the HTS materials can be taken into consideration and the transport current losses in HTS conductors can be calculated by the same analytical method used for LTS

  19. Experimental and computational approaches to electrical conductor loading characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, M.; Goga, V.; Paulech, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes cooling analyses of horizontally arranged bare electric conductor using analytical and numerical methods. Results of these analyses will be compared to the results obtained from experimental measurement. (Authors)

  20. Influence of stiffness in bolted connections in wooden plane structure of truss type Influência da rigidez de ligações parafusadas em estruturas planas de madeira do tipo treliça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. Christoforo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trusses are structural systems commonly used in projects, being employed mainly in roof structures, present in most rural buildings. The design of trusses, as well as other structural systems, requires the determination of displacements, strains and stresses. However, the project is developed from an ideal model of calculation, considering free rotation between the elements of a connection. This paper presents a computer program for the analysis of bidimensional wooden trusses with connections formed with two screws per node. The formulation is based on the flexibility method, taking into account the influence of the effect of semi-rigid connections formed by two screws. An example of a structure is presented and analyzed by the program developed here, highlighting the importance of behavior analysis on semi-rigid connections.Treliças são sistemas estruturais comumente utilizados em projetos, empregadas principalmente em estruturas de cobertura, presentes na maioria das construções rurais. O dimensionamento de treliças, assim como o de outros sistemas estruturais, requer a determinação dos deslocamentos, esforços, tensões e deformações atuantes em seus elementos constituintes. O cálculo é desenvolvido com base em um modelo ideal, considerando-se o giro livre entre os elementos componentes de uma ligação. Este trabalho objetiva apresentar um programa computacional destinado à análise de treliças planas de madeira com ligações formadas com dois parafusos por nó. A formulação é fundamentada no Método da Flexibilidade, levando-se em consideração a influência do efeito semirrígido das ligações formadas por dois parafusos. Um exemplo de estrutura auxiliar de cobertura é apresentado e analisado pelo programa desenvolvido, evidenciando-se a importância da análise do comportamento semirrígido sobre as ligações.

  1. Caracterização físico-química de complexos de insulina: dimetil-beta-ciclodextrina e insulina: hidroxipropil-beta-ciclodextrina e avaliação da influência do tipo de complexo na produção de microesferas biodegradáveis Physico-chemical caracterization of insulin: dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin and insulin:hydroxypropil-beta-cyclodextrin complexes and evaluation of the kind of complexes on the biodegradable microspheres preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A etapa principal na ativação e ligação da insulina ao seu receptor é a dissociação dos hexâmeros do hormônio, normalmente presente nas preparações farmacêuticas, para a forma monomérica bioativa. A utilização de diferentes ciclodextrinas (CDs como adjuvantes em formulações contendo insulina vem sendo explorada e os estudos realizados demonstram que estas substâncias podem aumentar a absorção da insulina principalmente por diminuírem sua capacidade de formar dímeros e hexâmeros em meio aquoso. No presente trabalho, complexos de insulina:hidroxipropil-beta-ciclodextrina (INS:HP-beta-CD e insulina:dimetil-beta-ciclodextrina (INS:DM-beta-CD foram caracterizados utilizando técnicas de titulação calorimétrica isotérmica e espalhamento dinâmico de luz. Por meio da titulação calorimétrica foram determinados os parâmetros termodinâmicos de interação entre a insulina e as CDs utilizadas, sugerindo que o mecanismo de complexação ocorre com aumento de entropia para ambos os sistemas. Os experimentos de espalhamento dinâmico de luz não indicaram diminuição do diâmetro hidrodinâmico das espécies moleculares de insulina após a complexação com as CDs. Os complexos INS:HP-beta-CD e INS:DM-beta-CD foram encapsulados em microesferas (MEs de PLGA 50:50. A caracterização das MEs obtidas revelou aumento considerável na taxa de encapsulamento de insulina quando complexada com as CDs sem que ocorresse diferença significativa no diâmetro das partículas em função da complexação.The main stage in the linking and activation of the specific receptors by the insulin is the dissociation of this peptide hexamers, normally present in pharmaceutical formulations, in the monomeric active form. Because of this, the use of different cyclodextrins as adjuvants in the formulations containing insulin has been explored and the realized studies have demonstrated that the cyclodextrins can increase the absorption of the insulin

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Ethylenedithio-MPTTF-PTM Radical Dyad as a Potential Neutral Radical Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souto, Manuel; Bendixen, Dan; Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    During the last years there has been a high interest in the development of new purely-organic single-component conductors. Very recently, we have reported a new neutral radical conductor based on the perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical moiety linked to a monopyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF...

  3. Materials Science of High-Temperature Superconducting Coated Conductor Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beasley, M. R

    2007-01-01

    This program was broadly focused on the materials science of high temperature superconducting coated conductors, which are of potential interest for application in electric power systems of interest to the Air Force...

  4. Development of YBCO tape conductor fabrication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, G W; Kim, C J; Lee, H G. and others

    2001-08-01

    Superconductor when fabricated into wire shape is applied for developing electric power transmission cable, transformer, generator and SMES. Such superconducting power devices are capable of maximizing the efficiency of electricity and are anticipated to contribute for solving the energy problem of humankind. Furthermore the high temperature oxide superconductor developed in late 1980s is superconducting above boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen temperature has strong potential to realize superconducting power device and a lot of researches are being done in this field. Superconducting wire is the most important core material for developing superconducting power device and thermo-mechanical powder in tube process was developed to fabricated Ag/Bi-2223 conductor in long length having high critical current carrying capacity. Several companies fabricate and sell Ag/Bi-2223 superconducting wire longer than km length and used for developed electrical power device. But because of its inherent property of sharp decrease in current carrying capacity when applying high magnetic field, the application of Bi-2223 sire is limited as low as 20 K when the power device is in operating under high magnetic field. The YBCO tape conductor has the advantages of maintaining high critical current applying high magnetic field and can be used to most of the power device without special limitation. The metal substrate having good crystallographic texture and deposition technique which can deposit the good quality superconducting thin film continuously in large area are need to fabricate coated conductor, and this technique can be applied to develop the superconducting current limiter or magnetic field shielding device. A superconducting wire for using in high magnetic field is play a critical role in developing maglev, MRI, SMES, transformer, generator and motor and the continuous film deposition technique can be applied in other industry very much.

  5. High Temperature Protonic Conductors by Melt Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-21

    A.R. de Arellano-López, A. Sayir. “Microestructura y Comportamiento Plástico de Perovsquitas Conductoras Protónicas de Alta Temperatura ”. Bol. Soc...Conductores Protónicos de Alta Temperatura Crecidos por Fusión de Zona Flotante”. VII Reunión Nacional y VI Conferencia Iberoamericana (Electrocerámica

  6. The ATLAS semi-conductor tracker operation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SCT was installed and commissioned within ATLAS in 2007, and has been used to exploit fully the physics potential of the LHC since the first proton–proton collisions at 7 TeV were delivered in 2009. In this paper, its operational status throughout data taking up to the end of 2011 is presented, and its tracking performance is reviewed. -- Highlights: ► The operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is reviewed. ► More than 99% of the SCT strips have remained operational in all data taking periods so far. ► Tracking performance indicators have met or exceeded design specifications. ► Radiation damage effects match closely expectations from delivered fluence.

  7. Development of a 20kA current feedthrough using YBCO bulk conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maehata, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Kenji; Shintomi, Takakazu; Iwamoto, Akifumi; Maekawa, Ryuji; Mito, Toshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    In the phase II experiment of the Large Helical Device (LHD) of the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), it is planned to operate the helical coils at 1.8 K by employing pressurized superfluid cooling to raise the magnetic field to 4 T with 17.3 kA. It is important to develop a 20kA-class current feedthrough into the 1.8 K region, but it must have a high current capacity and low heat leakage in the maximum magnetic leakage field of 1 T. Rectangle-shaped YBCO bulk conductors measuring 20 mm wide, 140 mm long and 10 mm thick were manufactured from square-pillar-shaped YBCO bulk materials for a 20 kA current. To check the quality of the bulk conductors, internal defects or cracks were detected by carrying out a precise survey of trapped magnetic flux. An assembled 20 kA current feedthrough was mounted in the λ-plate of a pressurized superfluid cooling cryostat. Experiments of current feeding into the 1.8 K region were carried out by operating the 20 kA current feedthrough. In the experiments, the transport current was kept at 20 kA for longer than 1,200 s. During the 20 kA operation, the current transport section of the YBCO bulk conductors remained in the superconducting state and the voltage drop between the YBCO bulk conductors and the copper electrode was observed to be constant. A contact resistance and the Joule heat generation in the joint region between the YBCO bulk conductors and the copper electrode were obtained as 1.45 nΩ and 0.72 W, respectively in the 20 kA operation. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using a 20 kA current feedthrough for the phase II experiment of the LHD. (author)

  8. Brasagem da zircônia metalizada com titânio à liga Ti-6Al-4V Brazing of metalized zirconia with titanium to Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pimenta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zircônia tetragonal estabilizada com ítria foi mecanicamente metalizada com titânio e a condição de molhamento avaliada com as ligas convencionais Ag-28Cu e Au-18Ni. Estas dissolveram o revestimento de titânio para uma completa distribuição deste metal ativo na superfície cerâmica, gerando uma liga ativa in situ e possibilitando adequadas ligações químicas ao metal base na temperatura de união. Os melhores resultados de molhamento foram selecionados para brasagem indireta em forno de alto-vácuo nas juntas ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V. Testes de detecção de vazamento de gás hélio foram realizados na interface de união das juntas; amostras removidas na seção transversal de juntas estanques foram examinadas por técnicas de análise microestrutural. Formou-se uma camada escura adjacente à cerâmica metalizada, responsável pelo molhamento ocasionado pela liga Ag-28Cu. Entretanto, o uso da liga Au-18Ni resultou em precipitação de intermetálicos e microtrincamento interfacial. Perfis de microdureza através da interface resultante até onde a zircônia mostrou típico escurecimento não indicaram alternância significativa entre medições consecutivas; os resultados dos ensaios de resistência mecânica à flexão-3p foram considerados satisfatórios.Yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal was mechanically metallized with titanium and the wetting behavior on the ceramic surface was analyzed using the conventional fillers Ag-28Cu and Au-18Ni. These alloys had dissolved the active metal coating, which acts to zirconia reduction on its surface and promoting suitable chemical bonding to the metallic member. Better wetting results were selected for indirect brazing in a high-vacuum furnace for ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V simple butt joints. Helium gas leak detection was made at the joints interface; samples were removed from the tight joints cross-section and examined by microstructural analysis techniques and EDX analysis. There was formation of a dark

  9. ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Tojo, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi- Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the stri...

  10. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The book carries a large number of summary studies made by using the Research Reactor (KUR) or the Critical Assembly (KUCA). These studies include low temperature irradiation effect on iron-alloy and ceramics, study on the influence of the neutron irradiation on the low temperature strength of various welded joint of dissimilar materials, effects of neutron irradiation on superconducting properties under stress in superconducting wires, neutron activation analysis and photo-emission phenomena from gamma-ray irradiated rock-forming minerals, study of irradiation effects in non-metallic conductors, distribution and mobility of ions of metal elements in stem, activation analysis of high purity metals, Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of superionic conductor, neutron spectrometry with CR-39 track detector, geochemical study on trace element abundances in island arc igneous rocks, experiment for measurement of neutron flux distribution in a tight pitch-lattice with a dy-wir, reactor rate distribution measurement of tight pitch lattice core with internal blanket, measurement of the foil reaction rates in a critical core, and many more. (N.K.)

  11. An experimental method to determine the electrostatic field enhancement factor of a practical conductor surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1989-01-01

    A method of determining the field enhancement factor of a practical conductor is presented. The method is developed from a modified theory of discharge onset in a gaseous medium. This modification incorporates the influence of conductor surface roughness. Onset data from an experimental study...

  12. Size-Controlled AgI/Ag Heteronanowires in Highly Ordered Alumina Membranes: Superionic Phase Stabilization and Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hemin; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Liang, Changhao; Terabe, Kazuya

    2015-08-12

    Nanoscaled ionic conductors are crucial for future nanodevices. A well-known ionic conductor, AgI, exhibited conductivity greater than 1 Ω(-1) cm(-1) in α-phase and transformed into poorly conducting β-/γ-phase below 147 °C, thereby limiting applications. Here, we report that transition temperatures both from the β-/γ- to α-phase (Tc↑) and the α- to β-/γ-phase (Tc↓) are tuned by AgI/Ag heteronanowires embedded in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with 10-30 nm pores. Tc↑ and Tc↓ shift to correspondingly higher and lower temperature as pore size decreases, generating a progressively enlarged thermal hysteresis. Tc↑ and Tc↓ specifically achieve 185 and 52 °C in 10 nm pores, and the final survived conductivity reaches ∼8.3 × 10(-3) Ω(-1) cm(-1) at room temperature. Moreover, the low-temperature stabilizing α-phase (down to 21 °C, the lowest in state of the art temperatures) is reproducible and survives further thermal cycling. The low-temperature phase stabilization and enhancement conductivity reported here suggest promising applications in silver-ion-based future nanodevices.

  13. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y.; Cheng, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T c superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T c superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances

  14. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y. [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances.

  15. Progress in R and D of coated conductor in M-PACC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Koizumi, T.; Kimura, K. [SWCC Showa Cable Systems Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Kato, T. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Aichi (Japan); Kiss, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Izumi, T.; Ibi, A.; Nakaoka, K. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, International Superconductivity Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); and others

    2014-06-15

    The five-year national project in Japan for R and D of coated conductors and applications, named as the Materials and Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) project, was finished at the end of FY2013. The project consists of four sub-themes as cable, transformer, SMES and coated conductors. In the theme of coated conductors, the fabrication process had been developed to satisfy the requirements from the applications such as in-field I{sub c} performance, low AC loss in the long tapes etc. Through the project, the remarkable progress was achieved as follows; a high in-field minimum I-c value over 54A/cm-width under 3T at 77K was realized in a 200m long EuBCO tape with artificial pinning centers of BaHfO{sub 3} by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on the IBAD template. On the other hand, the AC loss reduction was confirmed in the tapes fabricated by both PLD and the metal organic deposition (MOD) techniques by scribing 100 m tapes into 10-filaments. Additionally, the mechanism of the delamination phenomenon was systematically investigated and the strength was improved by eliminating the origins of the weak points in the films. Through the development, all targeted goals were accomplished and the several results were appreciated as a world champion data.

  16. Keeping an eye on the conductor: neural correlates of visuo-motor synchronization and musical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kentaro; Nakamura, Akinori; Maess, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    For orchestra musicians, synchronized playing under a conductor’s direction is necessary to achieve optimal performance. Previous studies using simple auditory/visual stimuli have reported cortico-subcortical networks underlying synchronization and that training improves the accuracy of synchronization. However, it is unclear whether people who played regularly under a conductor and non-musicians activate the same networks when synchronizing with a conductor’s gestures. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment testing nonmusicians and musicians who regularly play music under a conductor. Participants were required to tap the rhythm they perceived from silent movies displaying either conductor’s gestures or a swinging metronome. Musicians performed tapping under a conductor with more precision than nonmusicians. Results from fMRI measurement showed greater activity in the anterior part of the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) in musicians with more frequent practice under a conductor. Conversely, tapping with the metronome did not show any difference between musicians and nonmusicians, indicating that the expertize effect in tapping under the conductor does not result in a general increase in tapping performance for musicians. These results suggest that orchestra musicians have developed an advanced ability to predict conductor’s next action from the gestures. PMID:25883561

  17. Keeping an Eye on the Conductor: Neural Correlates of Visuo-motor Synchronization and Musical Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro eOno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For orchestra musicians, synchronized playing under a conductor’s direction is necessary to achieve optimal performance. Previous studies using simple auditory/visual stimuli have reported cortico-subcortical networks underlying synchronization and that training improves the accuracy of synchronization. However, it is unclear whether people who played regularly under a conductor and non-musicians activate the same networks when synchronizing with a conductor’s gestures. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment testing nonmusicians and musicians who regularly play music under a conductor. Participants were required to tap the rhythm they perceived from silent movies displaying either conductor’s gestures or a swinging metronome. Musicians performed tapping under a conductor with more precision than nonmusicians. Results from fMRI measurement showed greater activity in the anterior part of the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG in musicians with more frequent practice under a conductor. Conversely, tapping with the metronome did not show any difference between musicians and nonmusicians, indicating that the expertise effect in tapping under the conductor does not result in a general increase in tapping performance for musicians. These results suggest that orchestra musicians have developed an advanced ability to predict conductor’s next action from the gestures.

  18. Evaluation of inductive heating energy of sub-size improved DPC-C conductor by calorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toshinobu; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Miura, Yuushi; Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Matsui, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    1996-08-01

    The improved DPC-U conductor consisting of 648 chrome plated NbTi strands was fabricated and its stability has been investigated using 1/24 sub-size conductor. In the stability experiment, the inductive heating method was applied to originate initial normal zone. Since it is difficult to calculate the inductive heating energy deposited on the conductor because of complicate geometry of the twisted multi-strand cable, inductive heating energy had to be experimentally evaluated using calorimetric method. The heating energy is in proportion to integration of square of an applied sinusoidal wave pulsed current over the heating period. The experimental result shows the proportional constants for the conductor and conduit are 2.062 x 10 -3 [J/A 2 s] and 0.771 x 10 -3 [J/A 2 s], respectively. The coupling between the eddy currents in the strands and conduit might take effect on the heating energy put in the strands. It was shown this effect was however small in this experiment. Consequently, the inductive heating energy applied in the strands was estimated to be the proportional constant of 1.291 x 10 -3 [J/A 2 s] from the difference of the heat energies in the conductor and conduit. (author)

  19. Factores de riesgo de accidentalidad en conductores profesionales de entidades transportistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Guanche Garcell

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes de tráfico constituyen hoy una de las principales causas de muerte e invalidez en el mundo. Con el objetivo de identificar los factores de riesgo de accidentalidad se realizó un estudio descriptivo de 78 conductores de tres entidades transportistas de la provincia de Pinar del Río en noviembre de 2002, a los que se les realizó una evaluación de aspectos generales, de riesgo cardiovascular, estrés y alcoholismo. Toda la información fue analizada utilizando técnica estadística de análisis de distribución de frecuencias. La edad media de los conductores fue de 49,16 años (9,60 %, y la experiencia como conductor profesional de 25,11 años (10,16 %. La enfermedad más referida fue la hipertensión arterial (19,23 % y el asma bronquial (11,53 %, asimismo, el 24,3 % de los conductores refirieron ingerir algún medicamento regularmente. El 44,9 % de los conductores eran fumadores activos, el 9,0 % exfumadores y el 10,2 % fumadores pasivos. El 36,1 % de estos tuvieron algún grado de hipertensión sistodiastólica, mientras que de aquellos sin antecedente de hipertensión arterial el 33,4 % tenía tensión arterial elevada. El 60,2 % tenía estrés leve y el 9,0 % estrés medio. Asimismo, el 17,9 % eran alcohólicos, lo que fue sospechado adicionalmente en el 7,7 % de los conductores. El riesgo global de accidentalidad es cuando menos moderado, dada la frecuencia y asociación de factores de riesgo en los conductores.Traffic accidents are presently one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. With the objective of identifying accident risk factors, a descriptive study of 78 professional drivers from three transport companies from Pinar del Rio province was made in November, 2002. The evaluation comprised general aspects, cardiovascular risks, stress and alcoholism. All the data was analyzed by statistical technique of frequency distribution analysis. The average age of drivers was 49,16 years (9,60% and driving

  20. Reshaping the perfect electrical conductor cylinder arbitrarily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huanyang; Zhang Xiaohe; Luo Xudong; Ma Hongru; Chan Cheting

    2008-01-01

    A general method is proposed to design a cylindrical cloak, concentrator and superscatterer with an arbitrary cross section. The method is demonstrated by the design of a perfect electrical conductor (PEC) reshaper which is able to reshape a PEC cylinder arbitrarily by combining the concept of cloak, concentrator and superscatterer together. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate its properties.

  1. Estudo do comportamento sísmico de ligações reforçadas em edifícios Pombalinos e Gaioleiros

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Bruno Filipe Pereira de

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Civil O trabalho apresentado nesta dissertação foi desenvolvido no departamento de Engenharia Civil da Universidade do Minho. Este trabalho, de caráter experimental, pretende ser uma contribuição para melhor compreender o comportamento das ligações, reforçadas e não reforçadas, nos edifícios históricos de alvenaria Pombalinos e Gaioleiros, sob ações cíclicas que influenciam a vulnerabilidade sísmica. Os ensaios realizados envol...

  2. Prevalencia de lesiones en luchadores olímpicos pertenecientes a la Liga de Lucha Olímpica de Bogotá, D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Mesa, Juan Felipe; Rodríguez-Camacho, Diego Fabricio; Camargo-Rojas, Diana Alexandra; Correa-Morales, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Introducción. En lucha se presentan eventos que pueden generar alteraciones físicas, como caídas, contactos en el suelo, levantamientos, arqueamientos, entre otros. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de lesiones y factores correlacionados en deportistas practicantes de lucha olímpica. Materiales y métodos. Estudio observacional de tipo correlacional y diseño transversal. Participaron 29 deportistas pertenecientes a la Liga de Bogotá. Resultados. En el último año, 15 deportistas ...

  3. Quantum oscillations of thermomagnetic coefficients of layered conductors in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, O.V.; Kozlov, I.V.; Peschansky, V.G.; Krstovska, D.

    2008-01-01

    The linear response of the electronic system of a conductor to a perturbation in the form of an electric field and a temperature gradient in a quantizing magnetic field B is investigated theoretically. The thermoelectric effect in a layered conductor is analyzed and it is shown that the quasi-two-dimensional character of the dispersion law of the charge carriers results in gigantic oscillations of the thermo-emf

  4. A LIGA DE NEUROCIÊNCIAS: A COMPLEMENTAÇÃO ACADÊMICA NOS ESTUDOS NEUROLÓGICOS COM BASE EM AÇÕES DE ENSINO, PESQUISA E EXTENSÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A Liga Acadêmica de Neurociências é um projeto extensionista composto por um grupo de estudantes, coordenado por professores da UEPG – Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, dedicados a se aprofundarem nas ciências neurológicas, ampliarem o conhecimento nas principais doenças da área das neurociências e atenderem as demandas da população sobre o tema. Os membros são designados por meio de um processo seletivo que ocorre anualmente. A liga abrange as três modalidades clássicas de aprendizado: Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão. Na área de Ensino, há reuniões semanais sobre um assunto preestabelecido nas áreas de neurologia clínica, psiquiatria e neurocirurgia. Na Pesquisa, os alunos que apresentam interesse realizam projeto em iniciação científica sob a coordenação dos professores responsáveis pela liga. Por fim, na Extensão, os acadêmicos acompanham atendimentos nos ambulatórios de Neurologia do HURCG – Hospital Universitário Regional dos Campos Gerais – e praticam atividades direcionadas para a população, como palestras sobre AVC (Acidente Vascular Cerebral. A cada ano, novas ideias têm sido implantadas para enriquecer o conhecimento dos acadêmicos. Palavras-chave: Instituições Acadêmicas, Neurociências, Educação Superior, Educação de Graduação em Medicina, Relações Comunidade-Instituição. The Neuroscience League: the academic complementation at neurological studies based on actions of education, research and extension Abstract: The Neuroscience Academic League is a university extension project composed of students supervised by professors from UEPG (Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. This group is dedicated to delving into neurosciences, expanding their knowledge in the fields of major neuroscience-related diseases, as well as meeting the demands of the population on the subject. The members of the project are appointed through a selection process which takes place annually

  5. Electromagnetic Screening and Skin-Current Distribution with Magnetic and Non-Magnetic Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, E [Dept. of Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (SE)

    1974-12-15

    In many applications it is permissible to assume that eddy currents are essentially confined to the skin of the conductor. However, the perfect-conductor approach, commonly employed for skin-current estimates, requires that also mud << L{sub t}, where mu is the relative permeability of the conductor, d its skin depth, and L{sub t} a characteristic length along its surface. The need for this restriction does not seem to be sufficiently well known. In this note simple formulae giving quantitative estimates - valid for arbitrary mud/L - for far-field skin-currents, eddy current losses and screening efficiency are derived for several simple configurations. Boundary conditions that should allow calculations for more complicated configurations are also presented. The parameter mud is important also for non-magnetic materials. Thus, the equivalence of a thin real screen (thickness D) and an infinitely thin screen with the same rhoomegaD will be improved if - in addition - mud is the same for both

  6. Induced critical current density limit of Ag sheathed Bi-2223 tape conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogiwara, H.; Satou, M.; Yamada, Y.; Kitamura, T.; Hasegawa, T.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have already reported the best critical current density of 66,000 A/cm 2 with an Ag sheathed Bi-2223 tape conductor. The Brick-wall model is for explaining the current transport mechanism of this conductor. The model has its roots in the fact that the Bi-2223 tape core is a complicated stack of crystals which have a mica-flake structure. The orientation of the crystals which have a mica-flake structure. The orientation of the crystals seriously affects the current transport capability. Moreover, the contacts between the stacking crystals are very important. The transport current flows dividing into many branch paths. Under high magnetic field, the different paths experienced different electromagnetic forces. Differences between the electromagnetic forces on the different crystals can affect the contacts so as to increase resistivity and decrease overall critical current density of the tape. This effect can foretell the limit of the critical current density obtainable with these kinds of conductors

  7. Bending Test of Conductor for ALICE and LHCb Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Giudici, P A; CERN. Geneva; Flegel, W

    2000-01-01

    Abstract It is foreseen that the coils for the two magnets will be manufactured by winding flat pancakes, which are subsequently shaped to a semi-cylindrical form (ALICE) or bent by 45 degrees (LHCb). We propose here several methods and describe tests that were performed to estimate tolerances and forces which will have to be expected during the manufacturing process. To this end, short Aluminium conductor lengths of adequate cross-section were bent around a shaper piece to an angle of 90 degrees. The tests were repeated for conductors both wrapped with prepreg insulation tape and without this tape. The different test set-ups and the obtained results are described in this note.

  8. Polyacene and a new class of quasi-one-dimensional conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivelson, S.; Chapman, O.L.

    1983-01-01

    Most one-dimensional conductors are quite similar since the Fermi surface is a point and the electron energy dispersion relation near the Fermi surface is linear. It is pointed out that in polyacene the Fermi surface lies at the edge of the Brillouin zone, but that an accidental degeneracy between the valence and conduction bands makes it metallic nonetheless. The dispersion relation is therefore quadratic, and the density of states diverges at the Fermi surface. Thus, polyacene [(C 4 H 2 )/sub n/] and its possible derivatives represent a conceptually new class of quasi-one-dimensional conductors. Moreover, we find that this class of materials has the possibility of possessing interesting condensed phases including high-temperature superconductivity and ferromagnetism

  9. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  10. Cognitive and collaborative demands of freight conductor activities: results and implications of a cognitive task analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    This report presents the results of a cognitive task analysis (CTA) that examined the cognitive and collaborative demands placed on conductors, as well as the knowledge and skills that experienced conductors have developed that enable them to operate...

  11. Intermediate Temperature Proton Conductors – Why and How

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Aili, David; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    represented by early fundamental material research for ionic electrolytes. Such materials, most likely based on proton conductors, are expected to bring a new generation of the technologies: fuel cells by direct oxidation or internal splitting of biofuels such as methanol and ethanol, as well as efficient...

  12. Hall effect in organic layered conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Hasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect in organic layered conductors with a multisheeted Fermi surfaces was considered. It is shown that the experimental study of Hall effect and magnetoresistance anisotropy at different orientations of current and a quantizing magnetic field relative to the layers makes it possible to determine the contribution of various charge carriers groups to the conductivity, and to find out the character of Fermi surface anisotropy in the plane of layers.

  13. A two-dimensional finite element method to calculate the AC loss in superconducting cables, wires and coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Z; Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Coombs, T A [Electronic, Power and Energy Conversion Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Ye, L [Department of Electrical Power Engineering, CAU, P. O. Box 210, Beijing 100083 (China); Campbell, A M [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Zh223@cam.ac.uk

    2008-02-15

    In order to utilize HTS conductors in AC electrical devices, it is very important to be able to understand the characteristics of HTS materials in the AC electromagnetic conditions and give an accurate estimate of the AC loss. A numerical method is proposed in this paper to estimate the AC loss in superconducting conductors including MgB{sub 2} wires and YBCO coated conductors. This method is based on solving a set of partial differential equations in which the magnetic field is used as the state variable to get the current and electric field distributions in the cross sections of the conductors and hence the AC loss can be calculated. This method is used to model a single-element and a multi-element MgB{sub 2} wires. The results demonstrate that the multi-element MgB{sub 2} wire has a lower AC loss than a single-element one when carrying the same current. The model is also used to simulate YBCO coated conductors by simplifying the superconducting thin tape into a one-dimensional region where the thickness of the coated conductor can be ignored. The results show a good agreement with the measurement.

  14. Thermoelectric power in ionic and electronic mixed conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Jin-nouchi, Kenji; Esaka, Takao [Tottori Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-08-01

    In order to study the thermoelectric property of the oxide ionic and electronic mixed conductor of 10 mol% CaO-doped CeO{sub 2} (CDC), a new type of thermocell was prepared, in which platinum electrodes were embedded in the tube-type sample to diminish the large temperature gradient over the electrodes due to the local heat radiation from heating furnace. Using this thermocell, reproducible data were obtained. The thermoelectric power measured in CDC under various oxygen atmospheres (Po{sub 2}) from 1.0 to about 10{sup -15} atm showed that the sign of Seebeck coefficients changed from minus to plus. This variation of Seebeck coefficients vs. Po{sub 2} was well interpreted by considering that (1) the thermoelectric power could be a driving force to make actual and electrochemical oxygen transfer in the mixed conductor and (2) the electrode processes had limiting rates due to slow oxygen diffusion (or oxygen gas exhaustion at the cathode and evolution at the anode). (author)

  15. Mechanical characterization and assessment of the CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S; Desirelli, Alberto; Sgobba, Stefano; Horváth, I L

    2000-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments which are being designed in the framework of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN. The design field of the CMS magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5m and the free aperture is 6 m in diameter. This is achieved with a 4 layer and 5 module superconducting Al stabilized coil, resulting into 20 lengths of conductor of 2.5 km each, energized at a nominal current of 20 kA at 4.5 K. One of the unique features of this thin solenoid is an Al-stabilized conductor reinforced by an Al-alloy. An extensive characterization of mechanical properties at room temperature and 4.2 K has been carried out in order to define the most appropriate alloy and temper for the reinforcement. The effect of the coil curing cycle on the alloy properties has been taken into account. This paper summarizes the main results of these tests. (7 refs).

  16. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  17. Raman Spectroscopic Studies of YBa2Cu3O7 Coated Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Mi Kyeung; Mnh, Nguyen Van; Bae, J. S.; Jo, William; Yang, In Sang; Ko, Rock Kil; Ha, Hong Soo; Park, Chan

    2005-01-01

    We present results of Raman spectroscopic studies of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) coated conductors. Raman scattering is used to characterize optical phonon modes, oxygen content, c-axis misalignment, and second phases of the YBCO coated conductors at a micro scale. A two-dimensional mapping of Raman spectra with transport properties has been performed to elucidate the effect of local propertied on current path and superconducting phase. The information taken from the local measurement will be useful for optimizing the process condition.

  18. Inducted circulation current in a conductor consisting of strands coated with a high resistive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Kato, Takashi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Shimamoto, Susumu

    2000-01-01

    Nonuniform current distribution is generated in a conductor consisting of strands coated by a high resistive layer, such as chromium plating, as a result of superimposition of transport and induce circulation currents. The characteristics of the induced circulation current are analytically studied by using a distributed model circuit. The parameters mostly used in this calculation are those of US-DPC coil, which at first exhibited instability and so-called ramp rate limitation (RRL) because of current imbalance in the conductor consisting of chrome-plated strands. Thus the conductance along strands and the inductance of unit length loop and length of the conductor are mostly assumed to be 10 kS/m, 0.5 μH/m and 150 m, respectively. The analysis results indicate that the induced circulation current can be classified into the boundary and interstrand-induce circulation currents hereafter referred to as BICC an IICC. BICC is induced only across the joint at the ends of the conductor, resulting in a constant along the conductor axis, when the total leakage magnetic flux of the loop is not zero. Its decay time constant is quite long, more than a few hours. In contrast, when the leakage magnetic flux distributes along the conductor axis, IICC is induced among strands in the conductor to eliminate this flux. Since the leakage magnetic flux normally becomes largest where the magnetic field is highest, it becomes larger where the time variation of the magnetic field is larger. Its decay time contrast is much less than that of BICC. If the leakage magnetic flux linearly changes along the US-DPC conductor, it is evaluated to be about 10 s. This IICC therefore becomes dominate in a pulse charge, whose ramping tine is less than 10 s. Moreover, it is found that the variation of the leakage a magnetic flux with the relatively long cycle, such as more than a few 10-meter lengths, causes IICC with a decay-time constant of more than several hundred milliseconds. Such and IICC can

  19. Self-Consistent Theory of Shot Noise Suppression in Ballistic Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulashenko, O. M.; Rubí, J. M.; Kochelap, V. A.

    Shot-noise measurements become a fundamental tool to probe carrier interactions in mesoscopic systems [1]. A matter of particular interest is the significance of Coulomb interaction which may keep nearby electrons more regularly spaced rather than strictly at random and lead to the noise reduction. That effect occurs in different physical situations. Among them are charge-limited ballistic transport, resonant tunneling, single-electron tunneling, etc. In this communication we address the problem of Coulomb correlations in ballistic conductors under the space-charge-limited transport conditions, and present for the first time a semiclassical self-consistent theory of shot noise in these conductors by solving analytically the kinetic equation coupled self-consistently with a Poisson equation. Basing upon this theory, exact results for current noise in a two-terminal ballistic conductor under the action of long-range Coulomb correlations has been derived. The noise reduction factor (in respect to the uncorrelated value) is obtained in a closed analytical form for a full range of biases ranging from thermal to shot-noise limits which describe perfectly the results of the Monte Carlo simulations for a nondegenerate electron gas [2]. The magnitude of the noise reduction exceeds 0.01, which is of interest from the point of view of possible applications. Using these analytical results one may estimate a relative contribution to the noise from different groups of carriers (in energy space and/or real space) and to investigate in great detail the correlations between different groups of carriers. This leads us to suggest an electron energy spectroscopy experiment to probe the Coulomb correlations in ballistic conductors. Indeed, while the injected carriers are uncorrelated, those in the volume of the conductor are strongly correlated, as follows from the derived formulas for the fluctuation of the distribution function. Those correlations may be observed experimentally by

  20. Characterization of long-length, MOCVD-derived REBCO coated conductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. J.; Maroni, V. A.; Hiller, J. M.; Koritala, R. E.; Chen, Y.; Reeves Black, J. L.; Selvamanickam, V.; SuperPower, Inc.; Development Dimensions International, Inc.

    2009-06-01

    A leading approach to the fabrication of long-length, high-performance REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (REBCO) coated conductor is by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of REBCO on buffered templates. Templates are produced by ion beam assisted deposition of textured MgO onto polished metal substrates. The overall performance of MOCVD coated conductors achieved to date is impressive, but further improvement is desired. We have used a coordinated set of characterization techniques to identify the underlying causes for critical current (Ic) performance variations in long-length MOCVD conductors. Using electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, we studied tape specimens from specially designed experiments performed in SuperPower's MOCVD manufacturing equipment with its six-track ldquohelixrdquo tape path. We find that in multi-pass depositions used to produce thicker REBCO films, the REBCO phase uniformity and texture quality in the first pass play key roles in pass-to-pass microstructure evolution, with nucleation of second phase particles in the first layer promoting misoriented grains that propagate through subsequent layers. These misoriented grains, many growing in close proximity with second phase particles, present current-blocking obstacles that limit Ic performance. Our results show that achieving more uniform deposition in the very first deposited layer plays a critical role that in turn leads to reduced misoriented grain content and REBCO lattice disorder in the second and subsequent layers of the REBCO film.

  1. Avaliação de Revestimentos de Liga de Níquel 625 Depositados pelo Processo Eletroescória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Simões Sandes

    Full Text Available Resumo A aplicação de revestimentos de ligas de níquel é comumente realizada na indústria de petróleo e gás para aumento da vida de equipamentos em ambientes agressivos, dado que este procedimento melhora a resistência à corrosão, sem um aumento significativo do custo de produção quando comparado com equipamentos maciços fabricados com outras ligas. Normalmente, as juntas são soldadas pelos processos de eletrodos revestidos, MIG/MAG ou TIG. Neste aspecto, o processo eletroescória realiza deposições com elevada energia de soldagem e baixa diluição, podendo ser uma opção interessante, uma vez que proporciona uma elevada produtividade, permitindo a soldagem com aplicação de apenas uma camada. O presente trabalho avalia propriedades mecânicas, microestruturais e de corrosão de revestimentos de liga de níquel 625 depositada em aço carbono ASTM A516 Grau 70 pelo processo eletroescória, tanto na condição como soldado quanto tratado termicamente. A deposição foi realizada com uma e duas camadas sobre chapas de dimensão 50x400x400 mm, na posição plana e energia de soldagem média de 11,7 kJ/mm. Após a soldagem realizou-se tratamento térmico a 620°C por 10 horas, sendo esta condição comparada ao estado de como soldado. Os ensaios de dobramento não indicaram evidências de defeitos. A avaliação microestrutural realizada por microscopia ótica (MO, eletrônica de varredura (MEV e eletrônica de transmissão (MET mostrou uma microestrutura austenítica para o depósito com pequena fração volumétrica de fases secundárias e o tratamento térmico de alívio de tensões não promoveu mudanças significativas nas propriedades. Na região de grãos grosseiros da zona termicamente afetada (RGGZTA foi observada a ocorrência de ferrita pró-eutetóide, perlita e bainita para o depósito com 1 camada e basicamente ferrita e perlita refinadas para o deposito com 2 passes devido às baixas taxas de resfriamento

  2. Prevalencia de lesiones en luchadores olímpicos pertenecientes a la Liga de Lucha Olímpica de Bogotá, D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Felipe Correa-Mesa; Diego Fabricio Rodríguez-Camacho; Diana Alexandra Camargo-Rojas; Juan Carlos Correa Morales

    2016-01-01

    Introducción. En lucha se presentan eventos que pueden generar alteraciones físicas, como caídas, contactos en el suelo, levantamientos, arqueamientos, entre otros. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de lesiones y factores correlacionados en deportistas practicantes de lucha olímpica. Materiales y métodos. Estudio observacional de tipo correlacional y diseño transversal. Participaron 29 deportistas pertenecientes a la Liga de Bogotá. Resultados. En el último año, 15 deportistas no t...

  3. Interactions between two beta-sheets. Energetics of beta/beta packing in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K C; Némethy, G; Rumsey, S; Tuttle, R W; Scheraga, H A

    1986-04-20

    The analysis of the interactions between regularly folded segments of the polypeptide chain contributes to an understanding of the energetics of protein folding. Conformational energy-minimization calculations have been carried out to determine the favorable ways of packing two right-twisted beta-sheets. The packing of two five-stranded beta-sheets was investigated, with the strands having the composition CH3CO-(L-Ile)6-NHCH3 in one beta-sheet and CH3CO-(L-Val)6-NHCH3 in the other. Two distinct classes of low-energy packing arrangements were found. In the class with lowest energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are aligned nearly parallel (or antiparallel) with each other, with a preference for a negative orientation angle, because this arrangement corresponds to the best complementary packing of the two twisted saddle-shaped beta-sheets. In the second class, with higher interaction energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are oriented nearly perpendicular to each other. While the surfaces of the two beta-sheets are not complementary in this arrangement, there is good packing between the corner of one beta-sheet and the interior part of the surface of the other, resulting in a favorable energy of packing. Both classes correspond to frequently observed orientations of beta-sheets in proteins. In proteins, the second class of packing is usually observed when the two beta-sheets are covalently linked, i.e. when a polypeptide strand passes from one beta-sheet to the other, but we have shown here that a large contribution to the stabilization of this packing arrangement arises from noncovalent interactions.

  4. Alternating current losses of a 10 metre long low loss superconducting cable conductor determined from phase sensitive measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten

    1999-01-01

    The ac loss of a superconducting cable conductor carrying an ac current is small. Therefore the ratio between the inductive (out-of-phase) and the resistive (in-phase) voltages over the conductor is correspondingly high. In vectorial representations this results in phase angles between the current......-in amplifiers can be exploited. In this paper we present the results from ac-loss measurements on a low loss 10 metre long high temperature superconducting cable conductor using such a correction scheme. Measurements were carried out with and without a compensation circuit that could reduce-the inductive...... voltage. The 1 mu V cm(-1) critical current of the conductor was 3240 A at 77 K. At an rms current of 2 kA (50 Hz) the ac loss was derived to be 0.6 +/- 0.15 W m(-1). This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value of ac loss of a high temperature superconducting cable conductor reported so far...

  5. Interaction with beta-arrestin determines the difference in internalization behavor between beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, T; Kawasaki, A; Nagao, T; Kurose, H

    2000-09-15

    The beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR) shows the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. As beta-arrestin is important for internalization, we examine the interaction of beta-arrestin with beta(1)AR with three different methods: intracellular trafficking of beta-arrestin, binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin to intracellular domains of beta(1)- and beta(2)ARs, and inhibition of betaAR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities by beta-arrestin. The green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 translocates to and stays at the plasma membrane by beta(2)AR stimulation. Although green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 also translocates to the plasma membrane, it returns to the cytoplasm 10-30 min after beta(1)AR stimulation. The binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2 to the third intracellular loop and the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR is lower than that of beta(2)AR. The fusion protein of beta-arrestin 1 with glutathione S-transferase inhibits the beta(1)- and beta(2)AR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities, although inhibition of the beta(1)AR-stimulated activity requires a higher concentration of the fusion protein than that of the beta(2)AR-stimulated activity. These results suggest that weak interaction of beta(1)AR with beta-arrestins explains the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. This is further supported by the finding that beta-arrestin can induce internalization of beta(1)AR when beta-arrestin 1 does not dissociate from beta(1)AR by fusing to the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR.

  6. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT - Critical Current Metrology for Nb3Sn Conductor Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, Loren F.

    2011-01-01

    NIST has played a key role in many of the one-on-one, domestic, and international interlaboratory comparisons of measurements on superconductors. The history of interlaboratory comparisons of measurements on superconductors tells us that careful measurement methods are needed to obtain consistent results. Inconsistent results can lead to many problems including: a mistrust of the results of others, unfair advantages in commerce, and erroneous feedback in the optimization of conductor performance. NIST has experience in many interlaboratory comparisons; a long-term commitment to measurement accuracy; and independent, third-party laboratory status. The principal investigator's direct involvement in the measurements and daily supervision of sample mounting is the unique situation that has allowed important discoveries and evolution of our capabilities over the last 30 years. The principal investigator's research and metrology has helped to improve the accuracy of critical-current (I c ) measurements in laboratories throughout the world. As conductors continue to improve and design limits are tested, the continuation of the long-term commitment to measurement accuracy could be vitally important to the success of new conductor development programs. It is extremely important to the U.S. wire manufacturers to get accurate (high certainty) I c measurements in order to optimize conductor performance. The optimization requires the adjustment of several fabrication parameters (such as reaction time, reaction temperature, conductor design, doping, diffusion barrier, Cu to non-Cu ratio, and twist pitch) based on the I c measurement of the conductor. If the I c measurements are made with high variability, it may be unclear whether or not the parameters are being adjusted in the optimal direction or whether or not the conductor meets the target specification. Our metrology is vital to the U.S. wire manufacturers in the highly competitive international arena and to meet the

  7. Methods to reduce AC losses in HTS coated conductors with magnetic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, O. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: osami-t@ynu.ac.jp; Sekizawa, S.; Alamgir, A.K.M. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Miyagi, D. [Okayama University, 1-1, Tsushima-Naka, 1-Chome, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2007-10-01

    HTS coated conductors (CCs) have high potentials as low-cost and long length conductors. However, a question remains as to what influence the magnetic property of the substrates has on the AC losses. In this paper, the influence of magnetic property of substrates on the AC losses in HTS CCs is studied. Based on the study methods to reduce the AC transport current losses and magnetization losses in CCs with magnetic substrates are investigated. It is shown that the losses can be reduced to the same level of those in CCs with non-magnetic substrates.

  8. Methods to reduce AC losses in HTS coated conductors with magnetic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Sekizawa, S.; Alamgir, A.K.M.; Miyagi, D.

    2007-01-01

    HTS coated conductors (CCs) have high potentials as low-cost and long length conductors. However, a question remains as to what influence the magnetic property of the substrates has on the AC losses. In this paper, the influence of magnetic property of substrates on the AC losses in HTS CCs is studied. Based on the study methods to reduce the AC transport current losses and magnetization losses in CCs with magnetic substrates are investigated. It is shown that the losses can be reduced to the same level of those in CCs with non-magnetic substrates

  9. The feasibility of low-mass conductors for toroidal superconducting magnets for SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luton, J.N.

    1990-01-01

    An earlier study by Luton and Bonanos concluded that the design and fabrication of superconducting toroidal bending magnets would require a major effort but would be feasible. This study is an extension to examine the feasibility of low-mass conductors for such use. It included a literature search, consultations, with conductor manufacturers, and design calculations, but no experimental work. An unoptimized sample design that used a residual resistivity ratio for aluminum of 1360 and a current density of 3.5 kA/cm 2 over the uninsulated conductor for a 4.5-T toroid with 1 GJ of stored energy obtained a hot-spot temperature of 120 K with a maximum dump voltage of 3.6 kV and 24% of the initial current inductively transferred into the shorted aluminum structure. The stability margin was 200 mJ/cm 3 of cable space. Limiting the quench pressure to 360 atm to give conservative stresses in the sheath and assuming that the whole flow path quenched immediately resulted in helium taps that could be a kilometer apart if the flow friction factor were the same as that experienced in the Westinghouse (W) Large Coil Task (LCT) coil. This indicates that the 520-m conductor length of each of the 72 individual coil segments of a toroid would be a single flow path. If some practical uncertainties can be favorably resolved by producing and testing sample conductors, the use of a conductor with clad-aluminum stabilizer and extruded aluminum-alloy sheath should be feasible and economical. 9 refs., 3 figs

  10. HTS current lead units prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiohara, K.; Sakai, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Tachikawa, K.; Koizumi, T.; Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Mito, T.

    2010-01-01

    Two superconducting current lead units have been prepared using ten coated conductors of the Tri-Fluoro-Acetate - Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (I c ) of about 170 A at 77 K in self-field. The coated conductors are 5 mm in width, 190 mm in length and about 120 μm in overall thickness. The 1.5 μm thick superconducting YBCO layer was synthesized through the TFA-MOD process on Hastelloy TM C-276 substrate tape with two buffer oxide layers of Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 and CeO 2 . The five YBCO coated conductors are attached on a 1 mm thick Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) board and soldered to Cu caps at the both ends. We prepared two 500 A-class current lead units. The DC transport current of 800 A was stably applied at 77 K without any voltage generation in all coated conductors. The voltage between both Cu caps linearly increased with increasing the applied current, and was about 350 μV at 500 A in both current lead units. According to the estimated values of the heat leakage from 77 K to 4.2 K, the heat leakage for the current lead unit was 46.5 mW. We successfully attained reduction of the heat leakage because of improvement of the transport current performance (I c ), a thinner Ag layer of YBCO coated conductor and usage of the GFRP board for reinforcement instead of a stainless steel board used in the previous study. The DC transport current of 1400 A was stably applied when the two current lead units were joined in parallel. The sum of the heat leakages from 77 K to 4.2 K for the combined the current lead units was 93 mW. In comparison with the conventional Cu current leads by gas-cooling, it could be noted that the heat leakage of the current lead is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Cu current lead.

  11. Diplomacia e fiasco. Repensando a participação brasileira na Liga das Nações: elementos para uma nova interpretação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Breda dos Santos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo do presente estudo é o de demonstrar que a historiografia brasileira tem magnificado a responsabilidade brasileira nos acontecimentos de março de 1926 na Liga das Nações e que se concentra demasiadamente nas motivações do governo de Artur Bernardes, sem considerar aspectos decisivos concernentes à política internacional, notadamente a européia, e questões de ordem institucional próprias da Liga. Portanto, parece mais do que importante inserir internacionalmente a diplomacia de Bernardes, ou seja, pensá-la no contexto do fiasco da própria diplomacia internacional, dos "vinte anos de crise".The main objective of the present study is to demonstrate that the Brazilian historiography has magnified the Brazilian responsibility in the events of March 1926, in the League of Nations. It overconcentrates on the motivations of the government of Artur Bernardes, without considering decisive aspects related to the international politics, specially the European international politics, and institutional issues of the League itself. Thus, it seems more important to look the Brazilian diplomacy from an international perspective, that is, to think about it in the context of the "fiasco" of international diplomacy itself, in the time of "the twenty years crisis".

  12. Estimation of magnetic relaxation property for CVD processed YBCO-coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E.S.; Matsushita, T.; Shikimachi, K.; Watanabe, T.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.

    2010-01-01

    Ion Beam Assist Deposition/Chemical Vapor Deposition(IBAD/CVD)-processed YBCO-coated conductors with high critical current density J c at high magnetic fields are expected to be applied to superconducting equipments such as superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). For application to superconducting magnet in SMES one of the most important properties for superconductors is the relaxation property of superconducting current. In this paper, the relaxation property is investigated for IBAD/CVD-processed YBCO-coated conductors of the superconducting layer in the range of 0.18-0.90 μm. This property can be quantitatively characterized by the apparent pinning potential, U 0 *. It is found that U 0 * takes a smaller value due to the two-dimensional pinning mechanism at high magnetic fields for conductor with thinner superconducting layer. Although U 0 * decreases with increasing thickness at low magnetic fields at 20 K, it increases at high magnetic fields. The results are theoretically explained by the model of the flux creep and flow based on the dimensionality of flux pinning. Scaling analysis is examined for the dependence of U 0 * on the magnetic field, temperature and the layer thickness.

  13. Model for electromagnetic field analysis of superconducting power transmission cable comprising spiraled coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Katsutoku; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Taketsune; Maruyama, Osamu; Ohkuma, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Since the superconductor layers of YBCO-coated conductors are very thin, the ac loss of coated conductors is dominated by the magnetic flux density normal to the conductor face. In cables, most of the normal magnetic flux component is generated near gaps between coated conductors. Although the effects of gaps are significant, there are few reports on the electromagnetic field analysis of cables with spiral structures carried out while taking the gap effect into consideration. In a finitely long cable with a spiral structure, the electromagnetic field is naturally periodic along the cable axis. In a two-layer cable, the simplest period along the cable axis is the least common multiple of the spiral pitches in the inner and outer layers. However, we verified that there is a shorter period, and the same electromagnetic field distribution appears in all conductors of the same layer. Using these periodicities, we developed a three-dimensional model for the analysis of two-layer cables with a spiral structure. Current distributions of cables were analyzed using this model, and ac losses were calculated. In addition, these results were compared with ac losses calculated by two-dimensional analysis performed on the cross section of a cable. It was verified that the ac loss in a cable is correctly calculated by the 2D model when the spiral pitch is long enough. However, in the case of a tightly twisted cable, the ac losses calculated by the 2D model include some errors caused by an approximation in which the spiral structure is ignored.

  14. Conductor gestures influence evaluations of ensemble performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven J; Price, Harry E; Smedley, Eric M; Meals, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that listener evaluations of ensemble performances vary depending on the expressivity of the conductor's gestures, even when performances are otherwise identical. It was the purpose of the present study to test whether this effect of visual information was evident in the evaluation of specific aspects of ensemble performance: articulation and dynamics. We constructed a set of 32 music performances that combined auditory and visual information and were designed to feature a high degree of contrast along one of two target characteristics: articulation and dynamics. We paired each of four music excerpts recorded by a chamber ensemble in both a high- and low-contrast condition with video of four conductors demonstrating high- and low-contrast gesture specifically appropriate to either articulation or dynamics. Using one of two equivalent test forms, college music majors and non-majors (N = 285) viewed sixteen 30 s performances and evaluated the quality of the ensemble's articulation, dynamics, technique, and tempo along with overall expressivity. Results showed significantly higher evaluations for performances featuring high rather than low conducting expressivity regardless of the ensemble's performance quality. Evaluations for both articulation and dynamics were strongly and positively correlated with evaluations of overall ensemble expressivity.

  15. Transport and magnetism in the organic conductors in relation to one dimension localization theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppiroli, L.

    1985-09-01

    On the one side all states are exponentially localized in one dimension, on the other side most of the transport properties of quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors are Drude-like. This apparent contradiction is solved by revisiting the main experimental results concerning disordered organic conductors and by comparing them to the most relevant theories, especially those which take into account electron-phonon an electron-electron interactions [fr

  16. The electrostatics of charged insulating sheets peeled from grounded conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, M J; Horenstein, M N

    2008-01-01

    The physics of a charged, insulating sheet peeled from a ground-plane conductor is examined. Contact charging is ensured by charging a sheet to 10-12 kV with corona to establish intimate electrostatic contact with the underlying conductor. The surface potential is next forced to zero by sweeping the sheet with a stainless-steel brush, and the surface recharged to a new potential between 0 and 11 kV. The sheet is then peeled from the ground plane and its residual charge density is measured. Results show that the residual charge equals the breakdown-limiting value, but its polarity depends on the surface potential acquired just prior to peeling. The results have relevance to studies of industrial webs and insulating sheets.

  17. Current transfer between superconductor and normal layer in coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S

    2007-01-01

    The current transfer between superconducting stripes coated with normal layer is examined in detail. It is shown that, in present YBCO coated conductors with striations, a considerable amount of the current flowing in the normal layer is not transferred into the superconducting stripes. This effect also influences the eddy currents and the coupling currents between the stripes. The effective resistance for the coupling currents is calculated. The maximum allowable twist length of such a striated structure is given, which ensures lower losses than in the corresponding normal conductor of the same volume as the total YBCO cable (including substrate, buffer layer, superconductor and normal coating). In addition, a new simple method for determining the transfer resistance between superconducting and normal parts is proposed

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Development of high-current high-field conductors in Europe for fusion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchateau, J.-L.; Spadoni, M.; Salpietro, E.; Ciazynski, D.; Ricci, M.; Libeyre, P.; della Corte, A.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of the preparation for the realization of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), the construction and test of relevant models of seven different parts of the reactor was decided. Two of them are related to the superconducting coils: the toroidal field model coil (TFMC) and the central solenoid model coil (CSMC). For these superconducting coils, due to the expected high values of the current (≥60 kA) and voltage (≥5 kV with respect to the ground) the adopted technology was that of cable in conduit conductor (CICC). Until recently, little experience of this technology existed. Therefore, an extensive research and development programme has been carried out, in the last 10 years, by the ITER partners and particularly in Europe, to design, industrialize and test these large conductors and their joints. The EURATOM associations CEA and ENEA played a leading part in this phase. The CICC concept is described and the results of the developments are presented. About 7 km of conductors were manufactured in the industry and for that more than 10 tonnes of Nb3Sn strands were produced in Europe. In this large programme, Europe is particularly in charge of the TFMC, which will be tested this summer at Forschung Zentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). In the framework of this programme, three full size conductors and joint samples were tested at the European Sultan test facility (Centre de Recherches de Physique des Plasmas, Villigen, Switzerland), to validate the technological choices and check that the ITER specifications were met. The results of these tests are presented in detail. Starting from the strand critical properties, the conductors made of about 1000 strands did reach their expected performance. The joints of these large conductors are very special and delicate components. Their behaviour was quite successful and the joint resistance of these samples (of the order of 1 nΩ) was well within the specifications.

  19. Low AC Loss YBCO Coated Conductor Geometry by Direct Inkjet Printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupich, Martin, Dr. [American Superconductor Corporation; Duckworth, Robert, Dr. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2009-10-01

    The second generation (2G) high temperature superconductors (HTS) wire offers potential benefits for many electric power applications, including ones requiring filamentized conductors with low ac loss, such as transformers and fault current limiters. However, the use of 2G wire in these applications requires the development of both novel multi-filamentary conductor designs with lower ac losses and the development of advanced manufacturing technologies that enable the low-cost manufacturing of these filamentized architectures. This Phase I SBIR project focused on testing inkjet printing as a potential low-cost, roll-to-roll manufacturing technique to fabricate potential low ac loss filamentized architectures directly on the 2G template strips.

  20. A corrugated perfect magnetic conductor surface supporting spoof surface magnon polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-liang; Li, Zhuo; Gu, Chang-qing; Ning, Ping-ping; Xu, Bing-zheng; Niu, Zhen-yi; Zhao, Yong-jiu

    2014-05-05

    In this paper, we demonstrate that spoof surface magnon polaritons (SSMPs) can propagate along a corrugated perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) surface. From duality theorem, the existence of surface electromagnetic modes on corrugated PMC surfaces are manifest to be transverse electric (TE) mode compared with the transverse magnetic (TM) mode of spoof surface plasmon plaritons (SSPPs) excited on corrugated perfect electric conductor surfaces. Theoretical deduction through modal expansion method and simulation results clearly verify that SSMPs share the same dispersion relationship with the SSPPs. It is worth noting that this metamaterial will have more similar properties and potential applications as the SSPPs in large number of areas.

  1. Finite-element analysis and comparison of the AC loss performance of BSCCO and YBCO conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavrev, Svetlomir; Grilli, Francesco; Dutoit, Bertrand; Ashworth, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The AC loss performance of two BSCCO and two YBCO conductors of different geometry, characterized by the same self-field critical current of 150 A, is analysed and compared quantitatively. The comparison is made using the finite-element method with a nonlinear B-dependent E-J relation. A new shell-region model is utilised for the simulations of thin YBCO strips. Different AC working conditions are simulated: self-field, applied external field, and combined transport current and external perpendicular field application. Magnetic field and current density profiles are investigated in order to illustrate the reasons for the loss difference in the conductors. Depending on the application, the advantages of using BSCCO or YBCO conductors with specific geometry are outlined

  2. Structural characteristics of proposed ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] TF [toroidal field] coil conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, C.R.; Miller, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of transverse loading on a cable-in-conduit conductor which has been proposed for the toroidal field coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The primary components of this conductor are a loose cable of superconducting wires, a thin-wall tube for helium containment, and a U-shaped structural channel. A method is given where the geometry of this conductor can be optimized for a given set of operating conditions. It is shown, using finite-element modeling, that the structural channel is effective in supporting loads due to transverse forces and internal pressure. In addition, it is shown that the superconducting cable is effectively shielded from external transverse loads that might otherwise degrade its current carrying capacity. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Conductor fabrication for ITER Model Coils. Status of the EU cabling and jacketing activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, A. della; Ricci, M.V.; Spadoni, M.; Bessette, D.; Duchateau, J.L.; Salpietro, E.; Garre, R.; Rossi, S.; Penco, R.; Laurenti, A.

    1994-01-01

    The conductors for the ITER magnets are being defined according to the operating requirements of the machine. To demonstrate the technological feasibility of the main features of the magnets, two model coils (central solenoid and toroidal field), with bores in the range 2-3 m, will be manufactured. This is the first significant industrial production of full-size conductor (a total of about 6.5 km for these coils). One cabling and one jacketing line have been assembled in Europe. The former can cable up to 1100 m (6 tons) unit lengths; the latter, which can also handle 1000 m conductor lengths, has been assembled in a shorter version (320 m). A description of the lines is reported, together with the results of the trials performed up to now. (author) 2 figs

  4. Detection of smaller J{sub c} region and damage in YBCO coated conductors by using permanent magnet method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, K., E-mail: tey88221@st.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Saito, A. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Takano, Y.; Suzuki, T. [Tohoku Seiki Industries, Ltd., 3-1246, Tachiyagawa, Yamagata 990-2251 (Japan); Yamada, H.; Takayama, T.; Kamitani, A.; Ohshima, S. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    We developed a non-destructive method for measuring the critical current density (J{sub c}) in YBCO-coated conductors by using a permanent magnet (Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}). J{sub c} could be determined from the repulsive force (F{sub r}) generated between a permanent magnet and a coated conductor where shielding current flows. We also examined the influence of damage to the film on the J{sub c} distribution. The measured F{sub r} when the permanent magnet approached the cut part was smaller than that of the undamaged area. We developed a non-destructive method for measuring the critical current density (J{sub c}) in YBCO-coated conductors by using a permanent magnet (Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}). J{sub c} could be determined from the repulsive force (F{sub r}) generated between a permanent magnet and a coated conductor where shielding current flows. We tried to detect a smaller J{sub c} region in the coated conductor by using the system. The J{sub c} distribution could be determined without influence from the thick copper film on YBCO thin film. We also examined the influence of damage to the film on the J{sub c} distribution. The surface of the coated conductors was cut by using a knife. The measured F{sub r} when the permanent magnet approached the cut part was smaller than that of the undamaged area. This J{sub c} measurement technique will be useful for detecting smaller J{sub c} regions and defects in coated conductors.

  5. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  6. Highlights from the first ecancer-Liga Colombiana contra el Cancer conference, 17-18 November 2016, Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The first oncology conference organised by e cancer and the Liga Colombiana contra el Cancer took place on 17-18 November 2016 in Bogota. It was a highly successful event owing to the number of participants, the quality of the speakers, and the academic programme. Around 48 professors from 8 different countries came and shared their knowledge and experience of cancer management. They also talked about the most recent developments noted or achieved in this area. The keynote speech from Dr Nubia Muñoz was of great interest which was related to the safety of a HPV vaccine and the implications of a mass vaccination programme in developing countries. Geriatric oncology and palliative care were also topics that sparked great interest during the event.

  7. An Organic Mixed Ion-Electron Conductor for Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting...

  8. An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting...

  9. Physical properties of a new Deep Eutectic Solvent based on lithium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide and N-methylacetamide as superionic suitable electrolyte for lithium ion batteries and electric double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisset, Aurélien; Jacquemin, Johan; Anouti, Mérièm

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation of new Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) based on N-methylacetamide and TFSI. • Characterization of conductivity, viscosity and thermal properties of DES. • DES presents a superionic character in Walden classification. • DES is suitable electrolyte for lithium ion batteries and electric double layer capacitors. -- Abstract: Herein we present a study on the physical/chemical properties of a new Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) based on N-methylacetamide (MAc) and lithium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (LiTFSI). Due to its interesting properties, such as wide liquid-phase range from −60 °C to 280 °C, low vapor pressure, and high ionic conductivity up to 28.4 mS cm −1 at 150 °C and at x LiTFSI = 1/4, this solution can be practically used as electrolyte for electrochemical storage systems such as electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and/or lithium ion batteries (LiBs). Firstly, relationships between its transport properties (conductivity and viscosity) as a function of composition and temperature were discussed through Arrhenius’ Law and Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) equations, as well as by using the Walden classification. From this investigation, it appears that this complex electrolyte possesses a number of excellent transport properties, like a superionic character for example. Based on which, we then evaluated its electrochemical performances as electrolyte for EDLCs and LiBs applications by using activated carbon (AC) and lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) electrodes, respectively. These results demonstrate that this electrolyte has a good compatibility with both electrodes (AC and LiFePO 4 ) in each testing cell driven also by excellent electrochemical properties in specific capacitance, rate and cycling performances, indicating that the LiTFSI/MAc DES can be a promising electrolyte for EDLCs and LiBs applications especially for those requiring high safety and stability

  10. Herança e desequilíbrio de ligação em sete locos isoenzimáticos de Cecropia pachystachya. Inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in sevem isozymes loci of Cecropia pachystachya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Arruda RIBAS

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis sistemas enzimáticos (ACP,G6PDH, IDH, PGI, PGM e SKDH, codificandosete locos polimórficos (Acp-3, G6pdh-1, Idh-1,Pgi-2, Pgm-1, Pgm-2 e Skdh-1, foram investigadospara a herança e desequilíbrio de ligação emCecropia pachystachya Trec. A herança mendelianafoi confirmada para todos os locos avaliados.Desvios significativos da razão de segregaçãoesperada 1:1 foram detectados apenas em umaprogênies de árvore heterozigótica. O desequilíbriode ligação foi examinado para 21 pares de locosisoenzimáticos, não sendo detectados desequilíbriosentre nenhum deles e, assim, estes podem serutilizados em subseqüentes estudos do sistemade reprodução, diversidade e estrutura genética deC. pachystachya.

  11. Charge densities and charge noise in mesoscopic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This generalization leads to a local Wigner–Smith life-time matrix. Keywords. Density ... Of interest is the charge distribution in such a conductor and ..... is the transmission probability of the scattering problem without absorption if .... as a voltage probe which has its potential adjusted in such a way that there is no net current.

  12. A radiation hard dipole magnet coils using aluminum clad copper conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    A C-type septum dipole magnet is located 600 mm downstream of the primary target in an external beam line of the AGS. Conventional use of fiber glass/epoxy electrical insulation for the magnet coils results in their failure after a relatively short running period, therefore a radiation hard insulation system is required. This is accomplished by replacing the existing copper conductor with a copper conductor having a thin aluminum skin which is anodized to provide the electrical insulation. Since the copper supports a current density of 59 A/mm 2 , no reduction in cross sectional area can be tolerated. Design considerations, manufacturing techniques, and operating experience of a prototype dipole is presented. 3 refs., 4 figs

  13. Fundamentals and applications of neutron diffraction. Applications 4. Crystal structure analysis of ionic conducting ceramic materials by means of neutron diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, Masatomo

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure and ionic diffusion path of ionic and mixed ionic-electronic conductors, which are important in a variety of applications such as fuel cells, gas sensors, catalyst and batteries, are reviewed. α-AgI has many occupational sites of mobile Ag ions. β-alumina exhibits two-dimensional Na ionic diffusion. In the fluorite-structured superionic conductors such as ceria solid solution Ce 0.93 Y 0.07 O 1.96 , bismuth oxide solid solution δ-Bi 1.4 -Yb 0.6 O 3 and copper iodide CuI, a similar curved diffusion pathway along the directions is observed. In the ionic conductors with the cubic ABO 3 perovskite-type structure such as lanthanum gallate and lanthanum cobaltite solid solutions, the mobile ions diffuses along a curved line keeping the interatomic distance between the B cation and O 2- anion to some degree. The structure and diffusion path of double-perovskite-type La 0.64 Ti 0.92 Nb 0.08 O 2.99 , K 2 NiF 4 -type(Pr 0.9 La 0.1 ) 2 (Ni 0.74 Cu 0.21 Ga 0.05 )O 4+δ , and apatite-type La 9.69 (Si 5.70 Mg 0.30 )O 26.24 are described. The structure and diffusion path of lithium-ion conductors La 0.62 Li 0.16 TiO 3 and Li 0.6 FePO 4 are also discussed. The diffusion paths of La 0.62 Li 0.16 TiO 3 and Li 0.6 FePO 4 are two- and one-dimensional, respectively. (author)

  14. Relative stiffness of flat conductor cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of the bending moment required to obtain a given deflection in short lengths of flat conductor cable (FCC) is presented in this report. Experimental data were taken on 10 different samples of FCC and normalized to express all bending moments (relative stiffness factor) in terms of a cable 5.1 cm (2.0 in.) in width. Data are presented in tabular and graphical form for the covenience of designers who may be interested in finding torques exerted on critical components by short lengths of FCC.

  15. Reversible axial-strain effect in Y-Ba-Cu-O coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheggour, N [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Ekin, J W [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Thieme, C L H [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Xie, Y-Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Selvamanickam, V [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Feenstra, R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The recently discovered reversible strain effect in Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) coated conductors contrasts with the general understanding that the effect of strain on the critical-current density J{sub c} in practical high-temperature superconductors is determined only by crack formation in the ceramic component. Instead of having a constant J{sub c} as a function of strain before an irreversible drop when cracks form in the superconductor, J{sub c} in YBCO coated conductors can decrease or increase reversibly with strain over a significant strain range up to an irreversible strain limit. This reversible effect is present in samples fabricated either with rolling-assisted biaxially textured Ni-W substrates or with ion-beam-assisted deposition on Hastalloy substrates. The reversibility of J{sub c} with strain is observed for thin as well as thick YBCO films, and at two very different temperatures (76 and 4 K). The reversible effect is dependent on temperature and magnetic field, thus indicating its intrinsic nature. We also report an enhancement of the irreversible strain limit {epsilon}{sub irr} where the reversible strain effect ends and YBCO cracking starts. The value of {epsilon}{sub irr} increases from about 0.4% to more than 0.5% when YBCO coated conductors are fabricated with an additional Cu protection layer.

  16. Reversible axial-strain effect in Y-Ba-Cu-O coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheggour, N; Ekin, J W; Thieme, C L H; Xie, Y-Y; Selvamanickam, V; Feenstra, R

    2005-01-01

    The recently discovered reversible strain effect in Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) coated conductors contrasts with the general understanding that the effect of strain on the critical-current density J c in practical high-temperature superconductors is determined only by crack formation in the ceramic component. Instead of having a constant J c as a function of strain before an irreversible drop when cracks form in the superconductor, J c in YBCO coated conductors can decrease or increase reversibly with strain over a significant strain range up to an irreversible strain limit. This reversible effect is present in samples fabricated either with rolling-assisted biaxially textured Ni-W substrates or with ion-beam-assisted deposition on Hastalloy substrates. The reversibility of J c with strain is observed for thin as well as thick YBCO films, and at two very different temperatures (76 and 4 K). The reversible effect is dependent on temperature and magnetic field, thus indicating its intrinsic nature. We also report an enhancement of the irreversible strain limit ε irr where the reversible strain effect ends and YBCO cracking starts. The value of ε irr increases from about 0.4% to more than 0.5% when YBCO coated conductors are fabricated with an additional Cu protection layer

  17. Design and synthesis of the superionic conductor Na10SnP2S12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William D.; Tsujimura, Tomoyuki; Miara, Lincoln J.; Wang, Yan; Kim, Jae Chul; Ong, Shyue Ping; Uechi, Ichiro; Suzuki, Naoki; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-03-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are emerging as candidates for large-scale energy storage due to their low cost and the wide variety of cathode materials available. As battery size and adoption in critical applications increases, safety concerns are resurfacing due to the inherent flammability of organic electrolytes currently in use in both lithium and sodium battery chemistries. Development of solid-state batteries with ionic electrolytes eliminates this concern, while also allowing novel device architectures and potentially improving cycle life. Here we report the computation-assisted discovery and synthesis of a high-performance solid-state electrolyte material: Na10SnP2S12, with room temperature ionic conductivity of 0.4 mS cm-1 rivalling the conductivity of the best sodium sulfide solid electrolytes to date. We also computationally investigate the variants of this compound where tin is substituted by germanium or silicon and find that the latter may achieve even higher conductivity.

  18. Design and synthesis of the superionic conductor Na10SnP2S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William D; Tsujimura, Tomoyuki; Miara, Lincoln J; Wang, Yan; Kim, Jae Chul; Ong, Shyue Ping; Uechi, Ichiro; Suzuki, Naoki; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-03-17

    Sodium-ion batteries are emerging as candidates for large-scale energy storage due to their low cost and the wide variety of cathode materials available. As battery size and adoption in critical applications increases, safety concerns are resurfacing due to the inherent flammability of organic electrolytes currently in use in both lithium and sodium battery chemistries. Development of solid-state batteries with ionic electrolytes eliminates this concern, while also allowing novel device architectures and potentially improving cycle life. Here we report the computation-assisted discovery and synthesis of a high-performance solid-state electrolyte material: Na10SnP2S12, with room temperature ionic conductivity of 0.4 mS cm(-1) rivalling the conductivity of the best sodium sulfide solid electrolytes to date. We also computationally investigate the variants of this compound where tin is substituted by germanium or silicon and find that the latter may achieve even higher conductivity.

  19. Effect of annular secondary conductor in a linear electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the variation of average axial force density in the annular secondary conductor of a linear electromagnetic stirrer. Different geometries of secondaries are considered for numerical and experimental validation namely, 1. hollow annular ring, 2. annular ring with a solid cylinder and 3. solid cylinder.

  20. Sequence swapping does not result in conformation swapping for the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 beta-hairpin turns in human acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewon; Lee, Jihun; Brych, Stephen R; Logan, Timothy M; Blaber, Michael

    2005-02-01

    The beta-turn is the most common type of nonrepetitive structure in globular proteins, comprising ~25% of all residues; however, a detailed understanding of effects of specific residues upon beta-turn stability and conformation is lacking. Human acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) is a member of the beta-trefoil superfold and contains a total of five beta-hairpin structures (antiparallel beta-sheets connected by a reverse turn). beta-Turns related by the characteristic threefold structural symmetry of this superfold exhibit different primary structures, and in some cases, different secondary structures. As such, they represent a useful system with which to study the role that turn sequences play in determining structure, stability, and folding of the protein. Two turns related by the threefold structural symmetry, the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 turns, were subjected to both sequence-swapping and poly-glycine substitution mutations, and the effects upon stability, folding, and structure were investigated. In the wild-type protein these turns are of identical length, but exhibit different conformations. These conformations were observed to be retained during sequence-swapping and glycine substitution mutagenesis. The results indicate that the beta-turn structure at these positions is not determined by the turn sequence. Structural analysis suggests that residues flanking the turn are a primary structural determinant of the conformation within the turn.

  1. A dendrite-suppressing composite ion conductor from aramid nanofibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Siu-On; Ho, Szushen; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ruilin; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2015-01-27

    Dendrite growth threatens the safety of batteries by piercing the ion-transporting separators between the cathode and anode. Finding a dendrite-suppressing material that combines high modulus and high ionic conductance has long been considered a major technological and materials science challenge. Here we demonstrate that these properties can be attained in a composite made from Kevlar-derived aramid nanofibres assembled in a layer-by-layer manner with poly(ethylene oxide). Importantly, the porosity of the membranes is smaller than the growth area of the dendrites so that aramid nanofibres eliminate 'weak links' where the dendrites pierce the membranes. The aramid nanofibre network suppresses poly(ethylene oxide) crystallization detrimental for ion transport, giving a composite that exhibits high modulus, ionic conductivity, flexibility, ion flux rates and thermal stability. Successful suppression of hard copper dendrites by the composite ion conductor at extreme discharge conditions is demonstrated, thereby providing a new approach for the materials engineering of solid ion conductors.

  2. Minimizing coupling loss by selection of twist pitch lengths in multi-stage cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolando, G; Nijhuis, A; Devred, A

    2014-01-01

    The numerical code JackPot-ACDC (van Lanen et al 2010 Cryogenics 50 139–48, van Lanen et al 2011 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21 1926–9, van Lanen et al 2012 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 025012) allows fast parametric studies of the electro-magnetic performance of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs). In this paper the code is applied to the analysis of the relation between twist pitch length sequence and coupling loss in multi-stage ITER-type CICCs. The code shows that in the analysed conductors the coupling loss is at its minimum when the twist pitches of the successive cabling stages have a length ratio close to one. It is also predicted that by careful selection of the stage-to-stage twist pitch ratio, CICCs cabled according to long twist schemes in the initial stages can achieve lower coupling loss than conductors with shorter pitches. The result is validated by AC loss measurements performed on prototype conductors for the ITER Central Solenoid featuring different twist pitch sequences. (paper)

  3. Analytical studies on hotspot temperature of cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Takigami, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Hiroatsu

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical study to review the hotspot temperature design criteria of the cable-in-conduit conductors for the ITER magnet system. The ITER magnet system uses three kinds of cable-in-conduit conductors for the Toroidal Field (TF) coils, the Central Solenoid (CS) and the Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The amount of copper in the superconducting cable has been defined by using the classical hotspot temperature design criteria that is based on the adiabatic condition. In the current design, ITER superconducting cables include a large amount of pure copper strands to satisfy the classical criteria. However, temperature and stress in the conduit and insulations after quench can be simulated with the quench simulation program and stress analysis program using the latest analysis tools. This analysis shows that the strand temperature is dominated by the conduction along strands and the heat capacity of other conductor materials and coolant. The hotspot temperature depends strongly on the delay time for quench detection. This analysis provides an estimation of delay times for quench detection. The thermal and stress analysis can provide the maximum allowable temperature after quench by determination of a failure or a functional disorder condition of the jacket material and turn insulation. In conclusion, it is found that the current density of the cable space can be increased, by reducing the extra copper strand, thereby, allowing a reduction of the coil radial build. (author)

  4. Large superconducting conductors and joints for fusion magnets: From conceptual design to test at full size scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J.L.; Decool, P.; Libeyre, P.; Turck, B.

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of superconducting conductor, using the so-called cable-in-conduit concept, is emerging mainly involving fusion activity. It is to be noted that at present time no large Nb 3 Sn magnet in the world is operating using this concept. The difficulty of this technology which has now been studied for 20 years, is that it has to integrate major progresses in multiple interconnected new fields such as: large number (1000) of superconducting strands, high current conductors (50 kA), forced flow cryogenics, Nb 3 Sn technology, low loss conductors in pulsed operation, high current connections, high voltage insulation (10 kV), economical and industrial feasibility. CEA was very involved during these last 10 years in this development which took place in the frame of the NET and ITER technological programs. One major milestone was reached in 1998-1999 with the successful tests by our Association of three full size conductor and connection samples in the Sultan facility (Villigen, Switzerland). (author)

  5. Comparative characterization of Cu–Ni substrates for coated conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, H.; Suo, H.L.; Wulff, Anders Christian

    2014-01-01

    Three Cu100xNix alloys, with x = 23, 33 and 45 at.%Ni, have been evaluated for use as substrates for coated conductors on the basis of measurements of their microstructure, crystallographic texture and hardness. It is found that high-temperature annealing after heavy rolling generates strong cube...

  6. Exploring a Metamorphosis: Identity Formation for an Emerging Conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchione, Cayenna

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the manner in which professional identity formation in emerging conductors is entangled with the cultural context of orchestras, I focus on the amorphous evolution from a student identity to that of a professional, illuminating some underlying social conditions of the ever-elusive profession of conducting. Prevailing assumptions about…

  7. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  8. A High Current Density Low Cost Niobium 3 Tin Titanium Doped Conductor Utilizing A Novel Internal Tin Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce A Zeitlin

    2005-01-01

    An internal tin conductor has been developed using a Mono Element Internal Tin (MEIT) with an integral Nb barrier surrounding the Nb filaments. High current densities of 3000 A/mm2+ at 12 T and 1800 A/mm2 at 15 T have been achieved in conductors as small as 0.152 mm with the use of Nb7.5Ta filaments and Ti in the Sn core. In contrast, conductors with pure Nb and Ti in the Sn achieved 2700 A/mm2 at 12 T. Two internal fins, developed and patented on the project, were introduced into the filament array and reduced the effective filament diameter (Deff) by 38%. Additional fins will further reduce Deff The conductor was produced from 152.4 mm diameter billets to produce wire as small as 0.152 mm. The process promises be scaleable to 304 mm diameter billets yielding wire of 0.304 mm diameter. The MEIT process wire was easy to draw with relatively few breaks. The cost of this conductor in large production quantities based on the cost model presented could meet the 1.5 $/kilo amp meter(KAM) target of the HEP community

  9. Manufacture of mineral-insulated conductor for ITER prototype ELM and VS coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Feng; Wu, Yu; Jin, Huan; Yu, Min; Han, Qiyang; Ling, Feng; Kalish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Compaction method is successfully developed for MIC manufacture. • Manufactured MICs show well controlled outer diameter and good electrical properties. • Insulation resistance of all the MICs is higher than 100 GΩ@DC 2500 V. - Abstract: An ITER Organization (IO) Task Agreement (TA) “Final Design and Prototyping of the ITER In-Vessel Coils (IVC) and Feeders” is almost finished by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). ITER IVCs consist of edge-localized mode (ELM) and vertical stabilization (VS) coils. One prototype Mid-ELM coil complete with 19 brackets brazed with the conductors and one prototype 120° section of upper VS coil with structural components brazed to the conductors have been fabricated. Compaction method is developed successfully for the mineral-insulated conductor (MIC) manufacture. Approximate 110 m Inconel 625 jacket MICs for Mid-ELM prototype coil and 80 m stainless steel 316L jacket MICs for VS prototype coil were manufactured. Most of the copper tubes used for the MICs fabrication failed the ultrasonic testing (UT), but the jacket tubes have good passing rate. Manufacture processes and inspection for the MICs are presented in this paper

  10. Improved multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductors produced by the titanium-bronze process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, K.; Itoh, K.; Kamata, K.; Moriai, H.; Tada, N.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of a titanium addition to the bronze matrix of superconducting Nb 3 Sn wires have been investigated. The titanium addition to the matrix remarkably increases the Nb 3 Sn growth rate and the high-field, critical current density of the wire. An overall critical-current density of 3.8 . 10 4 A/cm 2 at 15 T has been obtained for the multifilamentary Nb/Cu-7.5 at.% Sn-0.4 at.% Ti wire with 4.7 μm-diameter 31 x 331 cores. The anisotropy in the critical current with respect to the field direction becomes larger with increasing aspect ratio of the rectangular-shaped multifilamentary wires. A 9.5 mm wide and 1.8mm thick Nb/Cu-7.5Sn-0.4Ti conductor with 5 μm-diameter 349 x 361=125 989 cores has been successfully fabricated on an industrial scale. This conductor carries a superconducting current of over 1300 A at 16.5 T. The newly developed Ti-bronze Nb 3 Sn conductor makes it feasible to generate a field of proportional 15 T in a large diameter bore. (orig.)

  11. Manufacture of mineral-insulated conductor for ITER prototype ELM and VS coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Feng, E-mail: longf@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Yu; Jin, Huan; Yu, Min; Han, Qiyang; Ling, Feng [Institute of Plasma Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Kalish, Michael [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Compaction method is successfully developed for MIC manufacture. • Manufactured MICs show well controlled outer diameter and good electrical properties. • Insulation resistance of all the MICs is higher than 100 GΩ@DC 2500 V. - Abstract: An ITER Organization (IO) Task Agreement (TA) “Final Design and Prototyping of the ITER In-Vessel Coils (IVC) and Feeders” is almost finished by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). ITER IVCs consist of edge-localized mode (ELM) and vertical stabilization (VS) coils. One prototype Mid-ELM coil complete with 19 brackets brazed with the conductors and one prototype 120° section of upper VS coil with structural components brazed to the conductors have been fabricated. Compaction method is developed successfully for the mineral-insulated conductor (MIC) manufacture. Approximate 110 m Inconel 625 jacket MICs for Mid-ELM prototype coil and 80 m stainless steel 316L jacket MICs for VS prototype coil were manufactured. Most of the copper tubes used for the MICs fabrication failed the ultrasonic testing (UT), but the jacket tubes have good passing rate. Manufacture processes and inspection for the MICs are presented in this paper.

  12. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...... lines express TGF beta-receptors and also produce TGF beta mRNAs....

  13. AA, Inner Conductor of Magnetic Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Antiprotons emerging at large angles from the production target (hit by an intense 26 GeV proton beam from the PS), were focused into the acceptance of the injection line of the AA by means of a "magnetic horn" (current-sheet lens). Here we see an early protype of the horn's inner conductor, machined from solid aluminium to a thickness of less than 1 mm. The 1st version had to withstand pulses of 150 kA, 15 us long, every 2.4 s. See 8801040 for a later version.

  14. Chemical solution deposition: a path towards low cost coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradors, X; Puig, T; Pomar, A; Sandiumenge, F; Pinol, S; Mestres, N; Castano, O; Coll, M; Cavallaro, A; Palau, A; Gazquez, J; Gonzalez, J C; Gutierrez, J; Roma, N; Ricart, S; Moreto, J M; Rossell, M D; Tendeloo, G van

    2004-01-01

    The achievement of low cost deposition techniques for high critical current YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 coated conductors is one of the major objectives to achieve a widespread use of superconductivity in power applications. Chemical solution deposition techniques are appearing as a very promising methodology to achieve epitaxial oxide thin films at a low cost, so an intense effort is being carried out to develop routes for all chemical coated conductor tapes. In this work recent achievements will be presented towards the goal of combining the deposition of different type of buffer layers on metallic substrates based on metal-organic decomposition with the growth of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 layers using the trifluoroacetate route. The influence of processing parameters on the microstructure and superconducting properties will be stressed. High critical currents are demonstrated in 'all chemical' multilayers

  15. Conductor qualification tests for the 30-MJ Bonneville Power Administration SMES coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.; Boenig, H.J.; Henke, M.; Turner, R.D.; Schramm, R.

    1980-01-01

    The 30-MJ energy storage coil for the Bonneville Power Administration requires a low-loss, cryostable conductor that is able to carry 4.9 kA in a field of 2.8 T and will maintain its properties over 10 8 partial discharge cycles. The multi-level cable which satisfies these requirements has been extensively tested at various stages in its development and in its final form. Tests have been performed to determine the effect of manufacturing options on ac losses, low temperature electrical resistivity, stability, and fatigue resistance of the insulated conductor. This paper will concentrate on the stability and fatigue tests which have not previously been reported

  16. Diseño de un Procedimiento de Cálculo de Conductores Bajo Efecto con Corrientes Armónicas

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Adolfo Acevedo Ramírez; Mario Salvador Esparza González; Juan Carlos Olivares Galván

    2009-01-01

    El problema que se estudia en este trabajo, es el impacto que tienen los armónicos generados por cargas no lineales en los conductores empleados para las instalaciones eléctricas, utilizando una metodología que permite calcular un calibre adecuado de conductor para minimizar las pérdidas ocasionadas por el efecto piel producto de los armónicos. Inicialmente se desarrolló un procedimiento para calcular la caída de tensión y las pérdidas en el conductor a diferentes frecuencias, mediante simula...

  17. Composite Cu/Fe/MgB{sub 2} superconducting wires and MgB{sub 2}/YSZ/Hastelloy coated conductors for ac and dc applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, B A [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Majoros, M [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Vickers, M [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Eisterer, M [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Toenies, S [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Weber, H W [Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Fukutomi, M [National Institute for Materials Science, Superconducting Materials Center, 1-2-1, Sengen, Ibaraki (Japan); Komori, K [National Institute for Materials Science, Superconducting Materials Center, 1-2-1, Sengen, Ibaraki (Japan); Togano, K [National Institute for Materials Science, Superconducting Materials Center, 1-2-1, Sengen, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    We discuss the results of a study of MgB{sub 2} multifilamentary conductors and coated conductors from the point of view of their future dc and ac applications. The correlation between the slope of the irreversibility line induced by neutron irradiation defects and in situ structural imperfections and the critical temperature and critical current density is discussed with respect to the conductor performance and applicability. We debate the possible origin of the observed anomalous decrease of ac susceptibility at 50 K in copper clad in situ powder-in-tube MgB{sub 2} wires. Different conductor preparation methods and conductor architectures, and attainable critical current densities are presented. Some numerical results on critical currents, thermal stability and ac losses of future MgB{sub 2} multifilamentary and coated conductors with magnetic cladding of their filaments are also discussed.

  18. Estimation of πd-Interactions in Organic Conductors Including Magnetic Anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takehiko; Katsuhara, Mao

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic interactions in organic conductors including magnetic anions, such as λ-(BETS)2FeCl4 and κ-(BETS)2FeX4 [X = Cl and Br], are estimated from intermolecular overlap integrals; the overlaps between anions afford Jdd, and those between anions and donors give Jπ d. From this, the most stable spin alignments are decided, and such quantities as the Néel and Weiss temperatures, as well as the magnitude of spin polarization on the π-molecules are evaluated on the basis of the mean-field theory of πd-systems. The calculation is extended to several other πd-conductors, which are classified depending on the relative magnitudes of the direct dd- and indirect πd-interactions.

  19. Long length coated conductor fabrication by inclined substrate deposition and evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prusseit, W [THEVA Duennschichttechnik GmbH, Rote-Kreuz-Str. 8, 85737 Ismaning (Germany); Hoffmann, C [THEVA Duennschichttechnik GmbH, Rote-Kreuz-Str. 8, 85737 Ismaning (Germany); Nemetschek, R [THEVA Duennschichttechnik GmbH, Rote-Kreuz-Str. 8, 85737 Ismaning (Germany); Sigl, G [THEVA Duennschichttechnik GmbH, Rote-Kreuz-Str. 8, 85737 Ismaning (Germany); Handke, J [THEVA Duennschichttechnik GmbH, Rote-Kreuz-Str. 8, 85737 Ismaning (Germany); Luemkemann, A [Technical University Munich, James- Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kinder, H [Technical University Munich, James- Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2006-06-01

    The commercial development of coated conductors is rapidly progressing. As a result we present an economic route to produce second generation HTS tape from the initial substrate preparation to the final metal coating. The most important and technically challenging steps are the deposition of an oriented buffer layer and the superconductor film in a reel-to-reel configuration. New evaporation techniques have been developed to enable reliable, high rate tape coating. Highly oriented MgO - buffer layers are realized by inclined substrate deposition (ISD) and DyBCO is deposited by simple e-gun evaporation yielding critical currents beyond 200 A/cm. Coated conductors have been fabricated up to 40 m length and are currently tested in a variety of applications.

  20. Influence of stresses on superconducting properties of Nb3Sn conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.; Luhman, T.S.; Sampson, W.B.; Onishi, T.; Klamut, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    This investigation of the degradation in the superconducting properties of Nb 3 Sn conductors when subjected to mechanical strain can be divided into the following areas: (I) monofilamentary Nb 3 Sn wires, (II) multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductors and wires, (III) effects of additives to Nb 3 Sn, (IV) mechanisms for degradation, and (V) construction of test facilities. Efforts to the present time have been concentrated in the investigation of T/sub c/, J/sub c/, and H/sub c2/ variations in monofilamentary wires. The most important finding in this study is that a Nb 3 Sn composite wire can sustain an effective mechanical strain well beyond ''1%'' if a proper ratio of the matrix to the Nb core has been chosen

  1. Effect of bronze on the compression of Nb3Sn in multifilamentary conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, G.

    1978-01-01

    Nb 3 Sn in multifilamentary conductors is subject to compressive strain as a result of the relatively small thermal contraction of the filaments as compared to bronze. The critical current Isub(c) is consequently degraded. The critical current increases, when an external tensile stress is applied, and passes through a maximum. The ratio of the maximum critical current to the initial critical current increases with the flux density and reaches a value of two at a flux density of 16 T for technical conductors. The strain epsilonsub(m), at which Isub(c) maximum is reached, lies between 0.4% and 0.7% for the conductors investigated and depends on the material parameters. For a constant ratio of bronze to filament cross section this strain epsilonsub(m) is reduced as the Nb 3 Sn layer thickness is increased and can be determined approximately by a graphical method from the stress-strain diagram. Epsilonsub(m) is to a large extent dependent on the metallurgical properties of bronze, which vary to a considerable extent depending upon the heat treatment. (author)

  2. H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, Nikolaos; Huijser, A.; Poulsen, Finn Willy

    2015-01-01

    The atomic mass ratio of ca. 2 between deuterium and hydrogen is the highest for any pair of stable isotopes and results in significant and measurable H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors containing these species. This paper discusses H/D isotope effects manifested in O-H/O-D...

  3. Violence Against Drivers and Conductors in the Road Passenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study examined the extent, nature and risk factors of workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique. A random sample of 504 participants was selected from a population of 2 618 registered bus, minibus, and taxi drivers/conductors. The results ...

  4. Conductor and Ensemble Performance Expressivity and State Festival Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Harry E.; Chang, E. Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study is the second in a series examining the relationship between conducting and ensemble performance. The purpose was to further examine the associations among conductor, ensemble performance expressivity, and festival ratings. Participants were asked to rate the expressivity of video-only conducting and parallel audio-only excerpts from a…

  5. Mode coupling analysis of coherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering from fluorite-type materials approaching the superionic transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, D.K.; Tosi, M.P.

    1987-08-01

    Neutron scattering experiments on SrCl 2 , CaF 2 and PbF 2 have shown that intensity and width of the coherent diffuse quasi-elastic spectrum increase rapidly with temperature into the fast-ion conducting phase, the main feature in the integrated quasi-elastic intensity being a peak just beyond the (200) point along the (100) direction in scattering wave vector space. The Zwanzig-Mori memory function formalism is used in this work to analyze the quasi-elastic scattering cross section from charge density fluctuations in terms of anharmonic couplings between the vibrational modes of the crystal. The two- and three-mode channels are examined for compatibility with the quasi-elastic neutron scattering evidence, on the basis of (i) energy and momentum conservation and van Hove singularity arguments and (ii) measured phonon dispersion curves along the main symmetry directions in SrCl 2 , CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 . The analysis identifies a specific microscopic role for the Raman-active optic branches. The eigenvectors of the relevant Raman-active and partner modes in the three-mode channel describe relative displacements of the two halogens in the unit cell superposed on relative displacements of the halogen and alkaline earth components. This microscopic picture is thus consistent with the superionic transition being associated with the onset of dynamic disorder in the anionic component of the crystal. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatelatos, M.G.; England, T.R.

    1976-07-01

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  7. The future of high-strength copper base conductor materials; Hochfeste Leitermaterialien auf Kupfer-Basis: quo vadis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberger, J.; Botcharova, E.; Gaganov, A.; Lyubimova, J.; Schultz, L. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallische Werkstoffe; Witte, H.; Jones, H. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Hermannsdoerfer, T.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany). Hochfeld-Magnetlabor; Givord, D. [Institut Neel, Grenoble (France); Barthem, V.M.T.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Boettcher, R.D.; Hannemann, K. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Aerodynamik und Stroemungstechnik

    2008-07-01

    Conductor materials with specific mechanical properties are required in many fields of science and industry. They are optimised selectively to achieve certain properties and optimum functionality, which often makes them a key component of the system in which they are used. This contribution describes current and future applications of the copper base high-strength conductor materials developed at IFW Dresden. (orig.)

  8. Field and temperature scaling of the critical current density in commercial REBCO coated conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Senatore, Carmine; Bonura, Marco; Kulich, Miloslav; Mondonico, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Scaling relations describing the electromagnetic behaviour of coated conductors (CCs) greatly simplify the design of REBCO-based devices. The performance of REBCO CCs is strongly influenced by fabrication route, conductor architecture and materials, and these parameters vary from one manufacturer to the others. In the present work we have examined the critical surface for the current density, Jc(T,B,θ ), of coated conductors from six different manufacturers: American Superconductor Co. (US), Bruker HTS GmbH (Germany), Fujikura Ltd. (Japan), SuNAM Co. Ltd. (Korea), SuperOx ZAO (Russia) and SuperPower Inc. (US). Electrical transport and magnetic measurements were performed at temperatures between 4.2 K and 77 K and in magnetic field up to 19 T. Experiments were conducted at three different orientations of the field with respect to the crystallographic c-axis of the REBCO layer, θ = 0deg , 45deg and 90deg , in order to probe the angular anisotropy of Jc. In spite of the large variability of CCs performance, ...

  9. Conceptual design of a 15T-class pulsed conductor with fiber-reinforced Nb3Sn superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Hiroshi; Arai, Kazuaki; Agatsuma, Koh

    1997-01-01

    We have been developing a new type of Nb 3 Sn superconductor with high elastic modulus fibers for the application of high field pulsed superconducting magnets. We call this type of conductor FRS(Fiber-Reinforced Superconductor). This paper tries to show that FRS has great potential for the construction of a 15T-class pulsed magnet, with the size of which equals to that of the central solenoid of ITER(International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), because each monofilamentary FRS can support the part of hoop stress under operation of the magnet. Conceptual design of a basic strand with monofilamentary FRS, construction of the first- and second- level subcable, cooling condition of CICC(Cable in conduit conductor), stability and ac losses of the conductor are discussed. (author)

  10. Quantitative impedance analysis of solid ionic conductors: Effects of electrode polarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patil, D.; Shimakawa, K.; Zima, Vítězslav; Wágner, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 14 (2014), "143707-1"-"143707-6" ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : impedance * conductivity * ion conductors Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014

  11. Temporal interaction between an artificial orchestra conductor and human musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Bos, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Conductor project concerns the development of the first properly interactive virtual orchestra conductor—a Virtual Human that can conduct a piece of music through interaction with musicians, leading and following them while they are playing. This article describes our motivation for

  12. Hydrogen electrolysis using a NASICON solid protonic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulens, J.; Longhurst, T.H.; Kuriakose, A.K.; Canaday, J.D.

    1988-09-01

    A protonic conductor based on a bonded NASICON disc has been used for hydrogen electrolysis at 300 K. Currents up to 200 mA can be passed through the disc, and the electrolysis proceeds with 100% current efficiency. The resistance of the ceramic is affected by its extent of hydration. Degradation and failure of the ceramic occurs at the cathode as a result of electrolysis.

  13. Influence of the structure and content of physical training tourists-conductors 12–13 years on the level of physical fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Horbonos-Andronova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the effect of the structure and content of physical training tourists-conductors 12–13 years on the level of physical fitness. Results: significant differences in the level of development of basic motor qualities tourists conductors between the experimental and control groups. Material and Methods: the used theoretical analysis and synthesis of the literature, teacher testing, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 90 people, 64 of them – men and 26 – women. Conclusions: determined that the overall level of physical qualities tourists conductors is low; no single structure building training process of preparation tourists conductors 12–13 years; no innovative technologies; narrow range of physical training of athletes. Established that additional means of physical training significantly affect the level of physical qualities tourists conductors 12–13 years at a stage of previous base preparation

  14. Fabrication of long REBCO coated conductors by PLD process in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yijie, E-mail: yjli@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structure and Quantum Control, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 20040 (China); Shanghai Superconductor Technology Corporation, Ltd, 28 Jiang Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Linfei; Wu, Xiang [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structure and Quantum Control, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 20040 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • SJTU fabricated 100 m long class CC tapes with over 300 A/cm on RABiTS tapes in 2011. • 100 m long CC tapes with 500 A/cm have been routinely fabricated on IBAD-MgO tapes. • The process optimization for kilometer long coated conductor tapes is underway. - Abstract: In China, the First National Key Project on CC Program started in 2009, which was focused on developing hundred meter long class CC tapes based on PLD/RABiTS processes. In this project, SJTU mainly worked on all of functional layer deposition process development. Northwest Institute for Non-ferrous Metal Research worked on RABiTS tape fabrication. At the end of the project in 2011, SJTU successfully fabricated hundred meter long CC tapes with over 300 A/cm (at 77 K, self field) on RABiTS tapes. To develop high performance CC tapes by PLD/IBAD-MgO processes, a pilot CC fabrication line was set up at Shanghai Superconductor Technology Corporation, Ltd. in 2013. High quality long REBCO coated conductors have been successfully fabricated on flexible polycrystalline metal tapes by PLD plus magnetron sputter and IBAD processes. Under optimized conditions, the IBAD-MgO layers showed pure (0 0 1) orientation and excellent in-plane texture. The in-plane phi-scan rocking curve is 4–6 degrees. AFM observation showed MgO layer had very smooth surface. The RMS is less 1 nm. On the textured MgO layer, sputter deposited single cerium oxide cap-layer showed pure (0 0 1) orientation and excellent in-plane texture of 4–6 degree. Reel-to-reel PLD process with high deposition rate was already scaled up to 100 m/h tape speed. Hundred meters long coated conductor tapes with over 500 A/cm performance have been routinely fabricated. And now, the process optimization for kilometer long coated conductor tapes is underway.

  15. Calculation of temperature rise for cable conductor of DCS cabinet power based on theory of numerical thermal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yong; Zhang Longqiang; Yang Zhen; Yu Bin

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure a long-term reliable operation of the DCS cabinet's 220 V AC power cable, it was needed to confirm whether the conductor temperature rise of power cable meet the requirement of the cable specification. Based on the actual data in site and the theory of numerical heat transfer, conservative model was established, and the conductor temperature was calculated. The calculation results show that the cable arrangement on the cable tray will not lead to the conductor temperature rise of power cable over than the required temperature in technical specification. (authors)

  16. Long-Term Adaptations to Unexpected Surface Perturbations: Postural Control During Stance and Gait in Train Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Hoppe, Matthias Wilhelm; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to evaluate the differences in postural control during stance and gait between train conductors and controls. Twenty-one train conductors and 21 office workers performed 6 unilateral and bilateral balance tests on stable and unstable surfaces as well as a gait analysis. In the balance tests, the mean velocity of the center of pressure and unstable surface was measured. In the bilateral balance tests the selected stance width was measured. During gait the length, width, frequency, and velocity of the steps were calculated from the ground reaction forces. Train conductors showed a significantly greater step width during gait (15.4 ± 4.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.4 cm; p = .035) and stance width during the bilateral stance on the unstable surface (21.0 ± 5.1 vs. 17.8 ± 3.7 cm; p = .026) than the office workers, while no differences were revealed in balance variables. The revealed differences between train conductors and office workers may represent task-specific feedforward control strategies, which increase the base of support and may be helpful to resist unexpected perturbations in trains.

  17. Manufacturing progress of EDIPO. A Nb{sub 3}Sn-dipole for the ITER conductor test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borlein, M.; Amend, J.; Theisen, W.; Walter, W. [Babcock Noell GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany); Baker, W.; Fernandez-Cano, E.; Portone, A.; Salpietro, E. [Fusion For Energy F4E, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is a joint international research and development project that aims to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of fusion power. For the construction of ITER and the manufacturing of its components, high quality standards must be met. Especially the coils of the magnet system - the heart of the ITER machine - are unique in size and complexity. Therefore the magnet coil manufacturing must be followed by a lot of quality measures. One of the necessary tests is the control of the conductor - to be sure that the conductor fulfils the technical performance needed for a proper magnet operation. As the conductor will experience a magnetic field of approx. 12-13 T during operation, it has to be tested within a magnetic background field. The European Dipole-magnet, called EDIPO, will be the heart of this conductor test facility which will be constructed at the CRPP Villigen (CH). Following the presentation, given in the Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology in 2007, this paper shows the current status of the manufacturing of this complex Nb{sub 3}Sn-Magnet. At first, the design of the EDIPO shall be described. (orig.)

  18. Speculative Betas

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Hong; David Sraer

    2012-01-01

    We provide a model for why high beta assets are more prone to speculative overpricing than low beta ones. When investors disagree about the common factor of cash-flows, high beta assets are more sensitive to this macro-disagreement and experience a greater divergence-of-opinion about their payoffs. Short-sales constraints for some investors such as retail mutual funds result in high beta assets being over-priced. When aggregate disagreement is low, expected return increases with beta due to r...

  19. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  20. Enhancement of conductivity due to local disorder in a one-dimensional conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morifuji, Masato; Maeda, Yusuke

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically investigate electron transport in a one-dimensional conductor with a locally disordered potential by using the non-equilibrium Green’s function theory. It is found that, by changing the energy of a site in a one-dimensional atomic chain, the electron conductivity can be larger when the modulated site energy is smaller than that of the other sites. This contradicts the conventional picture that an electron is scattered by the disorder of the potential, because such a scattering process usually causes resistivity. We show that the enhancement of conductivity that seems contradictory to the conventional picture of electron motion is explained by the change of energy of quasi bound states in the conductor. (paper)

  1. Solderability study of RABiTS-based YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yifei; Duckworth, Robert C.; Ha, Tam T.; Gouge, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Study examines the implication of solder and flux selection in YBCO splice joints. Focus is on commercially available RABiTS-based YBCO coated conductors. Solderability varied with solder and flux for three different stabilizations tested. Resistivity of stabilizer was dominant factor in splice joint resistance. Solder materials affected splice joint resistance when solderability was poor. The solderability of commercially available YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) coated conductors that were made from Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS)-based templates was studied. The coated conductors, also known as second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires (in the geometry of flat tapes about 4 mm wide), were laminated with copper, brass, or stainless steel strips as stabilizers. To understand the factors that influence their solderability, surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the wire surfaces. The solderability of three solders, 52In48Sn, 67Bi33In, and 100In (wt.%), was evaluated using a standard test (IPC/ECA J-STD-002) and with two different commercial fluxes. It was found that the solderability varied with the solder and flux but the three different wires showed similar solderability for a fixed combination of solder and flux. Solder joints of the 2G wires were fabricated using the tools and the procedures recommended by the HTS wire manufacturer. The solder joints were made in a lap-joint geometry and with the superconducting sides of the two wires face-to-face. The electrical resistances of the solder joints were measured at 77 K, and the results were analyzed to qualify the soldering materials and evaluate the soldering process. It was concluded that although the selection of soldering materials affected the resistance of a solder joint, the resistivity of the stabilizer was the dominant factor.

  2. Labelling of. beta. -endorphin (. beta. -END) and. beta. -lipotropin (. beta. -LPH) by /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deby-Dupont, G.; Joris, J.; Franchimont, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgique)); Reuter, A.M.; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y. (Institut des Radioelements, Fleurus (Belgique))

    1983-01-01

    5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-endorphin were labelled with 2 mCi /sup 125/I by the chloramine T technique. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-15 and on Sephadex G-50 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer was obtained with a specific activity about 150 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g.Kept at + 4/sup 0/C, the tracer remained utilizable for 30 days without loss of immunoreactivity. The labelling with lactoperoxydase and the use of another gel filtration method (filtration on Aca 202) gave a /sup 125/I ..beta..-END tracer with the same immunoreactivity. The binding of this tracer to the antibody of an anti-..beta..-END antiserum diluted at 1/8000 was 32% with a non specific binding of 2%. 5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-lipotropin were labelled with 0.5 mCi /sup 125/I by the lactoperoxydase method. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-25 and on Sephadex G-75 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer with a specific activity of 140 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g was obtained. It remained utilizable for 30 days when kept at + 4/sup 0/C. Gel filtration on Aca 202 did not give good purification, while gel filtration on Aca 54 was good but slower than on Sephadex G-75. The binding to antibody in absence of unlabelled ..beta..-LPH was 32% for an anti-..beta..-LPH antiserum diluted at 1/4000. The non specific binding was 2.5%.

  3. Irreversible properties of YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vostner, A.

    2001-02-01

    Over the past few years substantial efforts were made to optimize the fabrication techniques of various high temperature superconductors for commercial applications. In addition to Bi-2223 tapes, Y-123 coated conductors have the potential for large-scale production and are considered as the second generation of superconducting 'wires' for high current applications. This work reports on magnetic and transport current investigations of Y-123 thick films deposited on either single crystalline substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or on metallic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). At the beginning, a short introduction of the general idea of a coated conductor and of the different production techniques is presented, followed by a description of the different experimental set-ups and the evaluation methods. The main part starts with the results obtained from SQUID magnetometry and ac-susceptibility measurements including the transition temperatures T c , the field dependence of the magnetic critical current densities and the irreversibility lines. In addition, some issues concerning the granular structure and the inter- and intragranular current distribution of the superconducting films are discussed. The investigations by transport currents are focused on the behavior of the application relevant irreversible parameters. These are the angular and the field dependence of the critical transport current densities at 77 and 60 K, as well as the temperature dependence of the irreversibility fields up to 6 T. To gain more insight into the defect structure of the films, neutron irradiation studies were performed on some samples. The introduction of these artificial pinning centers causes large enhancements of the magnetic J c in LPE specimens for the field parallel to the c-axis (H//c) at higher temperatures and magnetic fields. The granular structure of the samples does not change up to the highest neutron fluences. However, the enhancements of the transport J c

  4. High field ESR study of the pi-d interaction effect in beta-(BDA-TTP)2MCl4 (M=Fe, Ga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Takahisa; Vantol, J.; Brunel, L.-C.; Choi, E. S.; Brooks, J. S.; Kaihatsu, T.; Akutsu, H.; Yamada, J.

    2007-03-01

    Novel magnetic organic conductors with pi-d interaction have commanded attention since the discovery of field induced superconductivity. One of them, beta-(BDA-TTP)2FeCl4, has alternating donor molecules and quasi 2D electrical properties. Previous studies of electrical and magnetic properties show an M-I transition at 120K and an AF transition at TN=8.5K, suggesting an exchange interaction between the conduction electrons and the Fe^3+ d-electrons. The properties of beta-(BDA-TTP)2GaCl4 are similar with exception of the absence of the AF transition, which is apparently due to the absence of pi-d exchange interaction. We report angular/temperature dependent 240GHz quasi optical ESR measurements on both compounds to probe the magnetic properties. The Ga compound signals follow the donor molecule structure, and show no magnetic order at any temperature. The Fe compound signals are quite different from the Ga compound, and exhibit AF behavior below TN. The difference of Fe and Ga compounds will be discussed in terms of the interaction between localized and itinerant magnetic moments.

  5. High-performance rechargeable batteries with fast solid-state ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-06-27

    A high-performance rechargeable battery using ultra-fast ion conductors. In one embodiment the rechargeable battery apparatus includes an enclosure, a first electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a second electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a nanomaterial in the enclosure, and a heat transfer unit.

  6. A 90 años de la fundación de la Liga Feminista Costarricense: los derechos políticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta E. Solano Arias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available : Repaso de los derechos políticos de las mujeres con motivo del 90 aniversario de la fundación de la Liga Feminista Costarricense el 12 de octubre de 1923 en el Colegio Superior de Señoritas. El artículo ofrece un breve recorrido histórico de la participación de mujeres en hechos sociales y políticos relacionados con procesos electorales y la demanda del derecho el sufragio para las mujeres durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX y hasta 1925 en Costa Rica. Destaca algunas acciones de dos sufragistas descollantes durante los años 1912 a 1925, Ángela Acuña y Sara Casal.

  7. Electromagnetic field analyses of two-layer power transmission cables consisting of coated conductors with magnetic and non-magnetic substrates and AC losses in their superconductor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahata, Masaaki; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional electromagnetic field analyses were undertaken using two representative cross sections of two-layer cables consisting of coated conductors with magnetic and non-magnetic substrates. The following two arrangements were used for the coated conductors between the inner and outer layers: (1) tape-on-tape and (2) alternate. The calculated magnetic flux profile around each coated conductor was visualized. In the case of the non-magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which coated conductors in the outer layer are exposed contains more perpendicular component to the conductor wide face (perpendicular field component) when compared to that in the inner layer. On the other hand, for the tape-on-tape arrangement of coated conductors with a magnetic substrate, the reverse is true. In the case of the alternate arrangement of the coated conductor with a magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which the coated conductors in the inner and outer layers are exposed experiences a small perpendicular field component. When using a non-magnetic substrate, the AC loss in the superconductor layer of the coated conductors in the two-layer cables is dominated by that in the outer layer, whereas the reverse is true in the case of a magnetic substrate. When comparing the AC losses in superconductor layers of coated conductors with non-magnetic and magnetic substrates in two-layer cables, the latter is larger than the former, but the influence of the magnetism of substrates on AC losses in superconductor layers is not remarkable

  8. Computer-aided design of multifrequency eddy-current tests for layered conductors with multiple property variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeds, W E; Dodd, C V; Scott, G W

    1979-10-01

    Our program is part of a larger project designed to develop multifrequency eddy-current inspection techniques for multilayered conductors with parallel planar boundaries. To reduce the need to specially program each new problem, a family of programs that handle a large class of related problems with only minor editorial and interactive changes were developed. Programs for two types of cylindrical coil probes were developed: the reflection probe, which contains the driver and pickup coils and is used from one side of the specimen, and the through-transmission probe set, which places the driver and pickup coils on opposite sides of the conductor stack. The programs perform the following basic functions: (1) simulation of an ideal instrument's response to specific conductor and defect configurations, (2) control of an eddy-current instrument interfaced to a minicomputer to acquire and record actual instrument responses to test specimens, (3) construction of complex function expansions to relate instrument response to conductor and defect properties by using measured or computed responses and properties, and (4) simulation of a microcomputer on board the instrument by the interfaced minicomputer to test the analytical programming for the microcomputer. The report contains the basic equations for the computations, the main and subroutine programs, instructions for editorial changes and program execution, analyses of the main programs, file requirements, and other miscellaneous aids for the user.

  9. Externalized conductors and insulation failure in Biotronik defibrillator leads: History repeating or a false alarm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Elia; Borghi, Ambra; Bonetti, Lorenzo; Fontana, Pier Luigi; Cappelli, Stefano

    2017-02-16

    Conductor externalization and insulation failure are frequent complications with the recalled St. Jude Medical Riata implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads. Conductor externalization is a "unique" failure mechanism: Cables externalize through the insulation ("inside-out" abrasion) and appear outside the lead body. Recently, single reports described a similar failure also for Biotronik leads. Moreover, some studies reported a high rate of electrical dysfunction (not only insulation failure) with Biotronik Linox leads and a reduced survival rate in comparison with the competitors. In this paper we describe the case of a patient with a Biotronik Kentrox ICD lead presenting with signs of insulation failure and conductor externalization at fluoroscopy. Due to the high risk of extraction we decided to implant a new lead, abandoning the damaged one; lead reimplant was uneventful. Subsequently, we review currently available literature about Biotronik Kentrox and Linox ICD lead failure and in particular externalized conductors. Some single-center studies and a non-prospective registry reported a survival rate between 88% and 91% at 5 years for Linox leads, significantly worse than that of other manufacturers. However, the preliminary results of two ongoing multicenter, prospective registries (GALAXY and CELESTIAL) showed 96% survival rate at 5 years after implant, well within industry standards. Ongoing data collection is needed to confirm longer-term performance of this family of ICD leads.

  10. A new cable-in-conduit conductor magnet with insulated strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Satarou; Yamamoto, Junya; Motojima, Osamu.

    1995-09-01

    Many studies have used cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) coils in trying to develop an AC superconducting magnet because of its enormous potential if AC losses were low and insulation voltage was high. The strands in the most recent CICC magnets are coated with chromium or another metal with high electrical resistance to order to induce current re-distribution among the strands and to avoid a quench caused by a current imbalance. Current re-distribution is highly complex and very difficult to analyze because the conditions of the strand surfaces and the contact areas vary greatly with the operation of the conductor. If, however, the cable currents were well-balanced, insulating the strands would be the best way to reduce AC losses. We propose a new CICC magnet structure featuring a current lead that balances the strand currents via its resistance. Having calculated current balances, we find that strand currents are well within the present parameters for nuclear fusion experiments and superconducting magnet energy storages. (author)

  11. Progress on a high current density low cost Niobium3Tin conductor scaleable to modern niobium titanium production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Bruce A.; Pyon, Taeyoung; Gregory, Eric; Scanlan, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    A number of configurations of a mono element internal tin conductor (MEIT) were fabricated designed to explore the effect of local ratio, niobium content, and tin content on the overall current density. Critical current densities on four configurations were measured, two to 17T. Current density as a function of filament size was also measured with filaments sizes ranging from 1.8 to 7.1 microns. A Nb60wt%Ta barrier was also explored as a means to reduce the high cost of the Tantalum barrier. The effectiveness of radial copper channels in high Nb conductors is also evaluated. Results are used to suggest designs for more optimized conductors.

  12. Alternating current losses of a 10 metre long low loss superconducting cable conductor determined from phase sensitive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger Olsen, S.; Kuehle, A.; Traeholt, C.; C Rasmussen, C.; Toennesen, O.; Daeumling, M.; Rasmussen, C.N.; Willen, D.W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ac loss of a superconducting cable conductor carrying an ac current is small. Therefore the ratio between the inductive (out-of-phase) and the resistive (in-phase) voltages over the conductor is correspondingly high. In vectorial representations this results in phase angles between the current and the voltage over the cable close to 90 degrees. This has the effect that the loss cannot be derived directly using most commercial lock-in amplifiers due to their limited absolute accuracy. However, by using two lock-in amplifiers and an appropriate correction scheme the high relative accuracy of such lock-in amplifiers can be exploited. In this paper we present the results from ac-loss measurements on a low loss 10 metre long high temperature superconducting cable conductor using such a correction scheme. Measurements were carried out with and without a compensation circuit that could reduce the inductive voltage. The 1 μV cm -1 critical current of the conductor was 3240 A at 77 K. At an rms current of 2 kA (50 Hz) the ac loss was derived to be 0.6±0.15 W m -1 . This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value of ac loss of a high temperature superconducting cable conductor reported so far at these high currents. (author)

  13. Sodium-Ion Intercalated Transparent Conductors with Printed Reduced Graphene Oxide Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiayu; Gu, Feng; Bao, Wenzhong; Dai, Jiaqi; Shen, Fei; Luo, Wei; Han, Xiaogang; Urban, Daniel; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-06-10

    In this work, we report for the first time that Na-ion intercalation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) can significantly improve its printed network's performance as a transparent conductor. Unlike pristine graphene that inhibits Na-ion intercalation, the larger layer-layer distance of RGO allows Na-ion intercalation, leading to simultaneously much higher DC conductivity and higher optical transmittance. The typical increase of transmittance from 36% to 79% and decrease of sheet resistance from 83k to 311 Ohms/sq in the printed network was observed after Na-ion intercalation. Compared with Li-intercalated graphene, Na-ion intercalated RGO shows much better environmental stability, which is likely due to the self-terminating oxidation of Na ions on the RGO edges. This study demonstrated the great potential of metal-ion intercalation to improve the performance of printed RGO network for transparent conductor applications.

  14. The Impact of Active Conductors on Czech and Hungarian Lightning Protection Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikeš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the developmental conditions for the emergence of protection against lightning. It reviews the legislation especially in the Czech Republic over the last 15 years, and its application for active lightning conductors. The paper presents examples of the damage caused bylightning strikes on buildings protected by ESE lightning rods constructed using the French nationalstandard NFC 17-102 [1] and STN 34 1391 [2]. Installation of lightning conductors based on thesestandards is not, however, in accordance with the valid legislation in the Czech Republic and Hungary.In response to a growing number of ESE installations in the Czech Republic, it is vital to inform boththe broader professional publc and the lay public of cases involving failures of this type of lightningconductor.

  15. Development of multifilamentary NbTi and Nb3Sn composite conductors with very fine filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, T.; Hubota, T.; Makiura, T.; Oda, Y.; Okon, H.; Yasohama, K.

    1986-01-01

    A NbTi multifilamentary composite conductor with about 10,000 filaments has been manufactured in long lengths. A filament diameter of 0.52 μm, a twist pitch of 1.13 mm, a strand diameter of 0.1 mm and a Cu/CuNi mixed matrix result in strongly reduced a.c. losses. The hysteresis loss and the coupling loss are 73 kW/m 3 and 56 kW/m 3 for a 50 Hz magnetic field with an amplitude of 1.5 T. From three strands a conductor was formed with a twist pitch of 2.4 mm. Several small coils were wound and operated at 50 Hz. One of the coils generated a maximum field of 1.52 T(center) at an operating current of the same size as the static critical current. Similarily the construction of a Nb 3 Sn multifilamentary composite conductor with about 280,000 sub-micron filaments for a.c. use was tried

  16. Measurement of transverse Jc profiles of coated conductors using a magnetic knife of permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenisch, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, F M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ashworth, S P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coulter, J Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matias, Vlad [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The transverse J{sub c} distribution in YBCO coated conductors was measured non-destructively with high resolution using a 'magnetic knife' made of permanent magnets. The method utilizes the strong depression of J{sub c} in applied magnetic fields. A narrow region of low (including zero) magnetic field, in a surrounding higher field, is moved transversely across the sample in order to reveal the critical-current density distribution. The net resolution of this device is approximately 65 {micro}m, and the J{sub c} resolution is better than 0.5%. A Fourier series inversion process was used to determine the transverse J{sub c} distribution in the sample. The J{sub c} profile was correlated with other sample properties of coated conductors prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Because of its straight-forward and inexpensive design, this J{sub c} imaging technique can be a powerful tool for quality control in coated-conductor production.

  17. Self-field ac losses in biaxially aligned Y endash Ba endash Cu endash O tape conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Y.; Hosaka, M.; Sadakata, N.; Saitoh, T.; Kohno, O.; Takeda, K.

    1997-01-01

    Self-field ac losses were measured by the conventional ac four-probe method in biaxially aligned Y endash Ba endash Cu endash O tapes using polycrystalline Hastelloy tapes with textured yttria-stabilized-zirconia buffer layers. The ac losses increased in proportion to the fourth power of transport current in the high J c sample, and agreed well with Norris close-quote equation for thin strip conductors. However, the low J c sample had rather higher losses than Norris close-quote prediction, suggesting excessive magnetic flux penetration caused by percolated current paths. The results confirmed Norris close-quote prediction of the low ac losses for thin strip conductors, and indicated the importance of removing percolated structures of current paths to avoid higher ac losses than the theoretical predictions based on uniform conductors. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. A new Theory for frequencies computation of overhead lines with bundle conductors.

    OpenAIRE

    dubois, Hervé; Dal Maso, Filipo; Lilien, Jean-Louis

    1991-01-01

    Vertical, horizontal and torsional mechanical frequencies are studies for both single and bundle conductor lines. Models and tests are presented. These data are of particular impact on galloping phenomenon. Peer reviewed

  19. Assessment of affinities of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for monoamine transporters permanently expressed in cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tomoya; Fujita, Masahiro; Shimada, Shoichi; Sato, Kohji; Schloss, Patrick; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yasushi; Tohyama, Masaya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three cocaine analogs, beta-CIT (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane), beta-CIT-FE (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(2-fluoroethyl)-nortropane), and beta-CIT-FP (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane), on the uptake of [ 3 H]dopamine(DA), serotonin(5-HT), and 1-norepinephrine (NE) using cell lines permanently expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, to determine their affinities for these three transporters. We generated cell lines stably expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, by the Chen-Okayama method, and then tested the abilities of (-)cocaine, beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, beta-CIT-FP, and clomipramine to inhibit the uptake of [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, and 1-NE. Ki values of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, 1-NE uptake were 6, 29, and 33 nM, 91, 133, and 130 nM, and 28, 113 and 70 nM, respectively, whereas those of cocaine and clomipramine were 316, 581, and 176 nM and > 10,000, 437, and 851 nM, respectively. Beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP were shown to be potent DA, 5-HT, and NE uptake inhibitors. Beta-CIT and beta-CIT-FP were highly potent and selective dopamine uptake inhibitors, and therefore might be useful for imaging of DA transporter with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET)

  20. Electrocautery versus Ultracision versus LigaSure in Surgical Management of Hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divisi, Duilio; Di Leonardo, Gabriella; De Vico, Andrea; Crisci, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the sympathectomy procedures for primary hyperhidrosis in terms of complications and effectiveness. From January 2010 to September 2012 we performed 130 sympathectomies in 65 patients, 27 males (42%) and 38 females (58%). Electrocoagulation was used in 20 procedures (15%), ultrasonic scalpel in 54 (42%), and radiofrequency dissector in 56 (43%). Seven patients (11%) underwent bilateral sympathectomy in the same surgical session, while in 58 (89%) the right surgical approach was delayed 30 days from the first procedure. We noticed 12 complications (9%): (a) chest pain in 6 patients (4 with electrocoagulation, 1 with ultrasonic scalpel, and 1 with radiofrequency dissector), which disappeared in 20 ± 1 day; (b) paresthesias in 3 electrocoagulation patients, was solved in 23 ± 5 days; (c) bradycardia in 1 ultrasonic patient, normalized in 4th postoperative hour; (d) unilateral relapse in 2 electrocoagulation patients after the second side approach, positively treated in 1 patient by resurgery in video-assisted thoracoscopy (VAT). The quality-adjusted life year and the quality of life evaluation revealed a statistically significant improvement (p = 0.02) in excessive sweating and general satisfaction after surgery, with Ultracision and LigaSure showing better findings than electrocoagulation. The latest generation devices offered greater efficacy in the treatment of hyperhidrosis, minimizing complications and facilitating the resumption of normal work and social activity of patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.