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Sample records for superinfection remain unresolved

  1. HIV-1 subtype C superinfected individuals mount low autologous neutralizing antibody responses prior to intrasubtype superinfection

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    Basu Debby

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential role of antibodies in protection against intra-subtype HIV-1 superinfection remains to be understood. We compared the early neutralizing antibody (NAb responses in three individuals, who were superinfected within one year of primary infection, to ten matched non-superinfected controls from a Zambian cohort of subtype C transmission cases. Sequence analysis of single genome amplified full-length envs from a previous study showed limited diversification in the individuals who became superinfected with the same HIV-1 subtype within year one post-seroconversion. We hypothesized that this reflected a blunted NAb response, which may have made these individuals more susceptible to superinfection. Results Neutralization assays showed that autologous plasma NAb responses to the earliest, and in some cases transmitted/founder, virus were delayed and had low to undetectable titers in all three superinfected individuals prior to superinfection. In contrast, NAbs with a median IC50 titer of 1896 were detected as early as three months post-seroconversion in non-superinfected controls. Early plasma NAbs in all subjects showed limited but variable levels of heterologous neutralization breadth. Superinfected individuals also exhibited a trend toward lower levels of gp120- and V1V2-specific IgG binding antibodies but higher gp120-specific plasma IgA binding antibodies. Conclusions These data suggest that the lack of development of IgG antibodies, as reflected in autologous NAbs as well as gp120 and V1V2 binding antibodies to the primary infection virus, combined with potentially competing, non-protective IgA antibodies, may increase susceptibility to superinfection in the context of settings where a single HIV-1 subtype predominates.

  2. Neoadjuvant treatment intensification or adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma rectum: The optimum treatment approach remains unresolved.

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    Mallick, Supriya; Benson, Rony; Haresh, K P; Rath, G K

    2015-12-01

    Rectal carcinoma [RC] is often managed with preoperative radiotherapy or radio-chemotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision (TME). Efforts are being made to improve outcome by intensifying the preoperative treatment. However, the optimum therapy remains unclear. There is ongoing controversy regarding the optimum radiation dose, chemotherapy regimen and schedule. In addition there exists growing disagreement regarding the role of adjuvant chemotherapy after neoadjuvant radiation or chemoradiation. We reviewed the recent land mark trials to find a road map in the management of locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Preoperative short course radiotherapy has long been proven to improve local disease control. The initial trials with long course chemoradiotherapy, comparing short course radiotherapy have shown to increase local control and pathological complete response rates. Since then treatment intensification of this neoadjuvant schedule has been tried by many researchers. But initial results of these treatment intensification trials, show no significant benefit and are associated with increased toxicity. There is an unmet need to stratify patients depending on risk to assign them to long course chemoradiotherapy or short course radiotherapy. Current evidence does not support the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who were treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy. Preoperative radiotherapy appears to improve disease control with favorable toxicity profile and there is very little to choose between long course chemoradiotherapy and short course radiotherapy. However, long course chemoradiotherapy may be beneficial for patients with high risk features like positive circumferential resection margin [CRM] and extramural spread of >5mm. There is no role for adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who were treated preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Retroviral superinfection resistance

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    van der Kuyl Antoinette C

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The retroviral phenomenon of superinfection resistance (SIR defines an interference mechanism that is established after primary infection, preventing the infected cell from being superinfected by a similar type of virus. This review describes our present understanding of the underlying mechanisms of SIR established by three characteristic retroviruses: Murine Leukaemia Virus (MuLV, Foamy Virus (FV, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. In addition, SIR is discussed with respect to HIV superinfection of humans. MuLV resistant mice exhibit two genetic resistance traits related to SIR. The cellular Fv4 gene expresses an Env related protein that establishes resistance against MuLV infection. Another mouse gene (Fv1 mediates MuLV resistance by expression of a sequence that is distantly related to Gag and that blocks the viral infection after the reverse transcription step. FVs induce two distinct mechanisms of superinfection resistance. First, expression of the Env protein results in SIR, probably by occupancy of the cellular receptors for FV entry. Second, an increase in the concentration of the viral Bet (Between-env-and-LTR-1-and-2 protein reduces proviral FV gene expression by inhibition of the transcriptional activator protein Tas (Transactivator of spumaviruses. In contrast to SIR in FV and MuLV infection, the underlying mechanism of SIR in HIV-infected cells is poorly understood. CD4 receptor down-modulation, a major characteristic of HIV-infected cells, has been proposed to be the main mechanism of SIR against HIV, but data have been contradictory. Several recent studies report the occurrence of HIV superinfection in humans; an event associated with the generation of recombinant HIV strains and possibly with increased disease progression. The role of SIR in protecting patients from HIV superinfection has not been studied so far. The phenomenon of SIR may also be important in the protection of primates that are vaccinated with live

  4. Inhibition of superinfection and the evolution of viral latency

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    Berngruber, Thomas W.; Weissing, Franz J.; Gandon, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Latent viruses generally defend their host cell against superinfection by nonlatent virulent mutants that could destroy the host cell. Superinfection inhibition thus seems to be a prerequisite for the maintenance of viral latency. Yet viral latency can break down when resistance to superinfection in

  5. Regulated superinfection may help HIV adaptation on rugged landscape.

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    Leontiev, Vladimir; Hadany, Lilach

    2010-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly adaptable to a, changing environment, including host immune response and antiviral drugs. Superinfection occurs when several HIV proviruses share the same host cell. We previously proposed that HIV may regulate the rate of its superinfection, which would help the virus to adapt (Leontiev et al., 2008). In this paper we, investigate the effect of regulated superinfection in HIV on complex, adaptation on rugged fitness landscapes. We present the results of our in silico experiments that suggest that regulated superinfection facilitates HIV, adaptation on rugged fitness landscapes and that the advantage of regulated, superinfection increases with the ruggedness of the landscape.

  6. Detection of retroviral super-infection from non-invasive samples.

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    Adeelia S Goffe

    Full Text Available While much attention has been focused on the molecular epidemiology of retroviruses in wild primate populations, the correlated question of the frequency and nature of super-infection events, i.e., the simultaneous infection of the same individual host with several strains of the same virus, has remained largely neglected. In particular, methods possibly allowing the investigation of super-infection from samples collected non-invasively (such as faeces have never been properly compared. Here, we fill in this gap by assessing the costs and benefits of end-point dilution PCR (EPD-PCR and multiple bulk-PCR cloning, as applied to a case study focusing on simian foamy virus super-infection in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. We show that, although considered to be the gold standard, EPD-PCR can lead to massive consumption of biological material when only low copy numbers of the target are expected. This constitutes a serious drawback in a field in which rarity of biological material is a fundamental constraint. In addition, we demonstrate that EPD-PCR results (single/multiple infection; founder strains can be well predicted from multiple bulk-PCR clone experiments, by applying simple statistical and network analyses to sequence alignments. We therefore recommend the implementation of the latter method when the focus is put on retroviral super-infection and only low retroviral loads are encountered.

  7. [The clinical relevance of opioid-induced hyperalgesia remains unresolved].

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    Sørensen, Jakob; Sjøgren, Per

    2011-03-28

    Opioids are widely used as analgesics in chronic pain of malignant as well as non-malignant origin. During opioid treatment, pain is occasionally worsened. This could be due to progression of the disease or tolerance or opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). The present article summarizes the preclinical and clinical data in support of the existence of OIH. Further, possible mechanisms and potential treatments are outlined. We conclude that only a few clinical studies on OIH are available. However, a growing body of experimental data supports the presence of OIH in clinical settings. Diagnostic tools for assessment of OIH have yet to be developed.

  8. Bacterial Heterogeneity Is a Requirement for Host Superinfection by the Lyme Disease Spirochete

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    Artem S Rogovskyy; Bankhead, Troy

    2014-01-01

    In nature, mixed Borrelia burgdorferi infections are common and possibly can be acquired by either superinfection or coinfection. Superinfection by heterologous B. burgdorferi strains has been established experimentally, although the ability of homologous B. burgdorferi clones to superinfect a host has not been studied in detail. Information regarding any potential immune barriers to secondary infection also currently is unavailable. In the present study, the ability to superinfect various mo...

  9. The role of virulence for in vivo superinfection fitness of a vertebrate RNA virus

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    Kell, Alison M.; Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a novel, in vivo superinfection fitness assay to examine superinfection dynamics and the role of virulence in superinfection fitness. This assay involves controlled, sequential infections of a natural, vertebrate host, Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), with variants of a co-evolved viral pathogen, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Intervals between infections ranged from 12 hours to 7 days, and both frequency of superinfection and viral replication levels were examined. Using virus genotype pairs of equal and unequal virulence, we observed that superinfection generally occurred with decreasing frequency as the interval between exposures to each genotype increased. For both the equal virulence and unequal virulence genotype pairs, the frequency of superinfection was the same regardless of which genotype was used in the primary exposure. However, the ability to replicate in the context of superinfection did not differ between the genotypes of equal or unequal virulence tested here. For both genotype pairs, the mean viral load of the secondary virus was significantly reduced in superinfection, while primary virus replication was unaffected. Our results demonstrate, for the two genotype pairs examined, that superinfection restriction does occur for IHNV, and that higher virulence did not correlate with a significant difference in superinfection fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first assay to examine the role of virulence of an RNA virus in determining superinfection fitness dynamics within a natural, vertebrate host.

  10. Bacterial heterogeneity is a requirement for host superinfection by the Lyme disease spirochete.

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    Rogovskyy, Artem S; Bankhead, Troy

    2014-11-01

    In nature, mixed Borrelia burgdorferi infections are common and possibly can be acquired by either superinfection or coinfection. Superinfection by heterologous B. burgdorferi strains has been established experimentally, although the ability of homologous B. burgdorferi clones to superinfect a host has not been studied in detail. Information regarding any potential immune barriers to secondary infection also currently is unavailable. In the present study, the ability to superinfect various mouse models by homologous wild-type clones was examined and compared to superinfection by heterologous strains. To assess the ability of homologous B. burgdorferi clones to successfully superinfect a mouse host, primary- and secondary-infecting spirochetes were recovered via in vitro cultivation of collected blood or tissue samples. This was accomplished by generating two different antibiotic-resistant versions of the wild-type B31-A3 clone in order to distinguish superinfecting B. burgdorferi from primary-infecting spirochetes. The data demonstrate an inability of homologous B. burgdorferi to superinfect immunocompetent mice as opposed to heterologous strains. Attempts to superinfect different types of immunodeficient mice with homologous B. burgdorferi indicate that the murine innate immune system represents a major barrier to intrastrain superinfection. Consequently, the possibility of innate immunity as a driving force for B. burgdorferi heterogeneity during the enzootic cycle is discussed.

  11. The Coat Protein and NIa Protease of Two Potyviridae Family Members Independently Confer Superinfection Exclusion.

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    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; French, Roy

    2016-12-01

    Superinfection exclusion (SIE) is an antagonistic virus-virus interaction whereby initial infection by one virus prevents subsequent infection by closely related viruses. Although SIE has been described in diverse viruses infecting plants, humans, and animals, its mechanisms, including involvement of specific viral determinants, are just beginning to be elucidated. In this study, SIE determinants encoded by two economically important wheat viruses, Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV; genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae), were identified in gain-of-function experiments that used heterologous viruses to express individual virus-encoded proteins in wheat. Wheat plants infected with TriMV expressing WSMV P1, HC-Pro, P3, 6K1, CI, 6K2, NIa-VPg, or NIb cistrons permitted efficient superinfection by WSMV expressing green fluorescent protein (WSMV-GFP). In contrast, wheat infected with TriMV expressing WSMV NIa-Pro or coat protein (CP) substantially excluded superinfection by WSMV-GFP, suggesting that both of these cistrons are SIE effectors encoded by WSMV. Importantly, SIE is due to functional WSMV NIa-Pro or CP rather than their encoding RNAs, as altering the coded protein products by minimally changing RNA sequences led to abolishment of SIE. Deletion mutagenesis further revealed that elicitation of SIE by NIa-Pro requires the entire protein while CP requires only a 200-amino-acid (aa) middle fragment (aa 101 to 300) of the 349 aa. Strikingly, reciprocal experiments with WSMV-mediated expression of TriMV proteins showed that TriMV CP, and TriMV NIa-Pro to a lesser extent, likewise excluded superinfection by TriMV-GFP. Collectively, these data demonstrate that WSMV- and TriMV-encoded CP and NIa-Pro proteins are effectors of SIE and that these two proteins trigger SIE independently of each other. Superinfection exclusion (SIE) is an antagonistic virus-virus interaction that prevents secondary

  12. Association of anaplasma marginale strain superinfection with infection prevalence within tropical regions

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    Strain superinfection occurs when a second strain infects a host already infected with a primary strain. The incidence of superinfection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of domestic and wild ruminants, has been shown to be higher in tropical versus temperate regions. This ...

  13. Drug induced superinfection in HIV and the evolution of drug resistance.

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    Leontiev, Vladimir V; Maury, Wendy J; Hadany, Lilach

    2008-01-01

    The rapid evolution of HIV drug resistance is a major cause of AIDS treatment failure. Superinfection, the infection of an already infected cell by additional virions, can be a major factor contributing to the evolution of drug resistance. However, the pattern and consequences of superinfection in HIV populations are far from fully understood. In this paper we study the implications of the fact that superinfection is regulated by HIV. We propose that superinfection is negatively associated with the success of the virus, so that more successful viruses are less likely to allow superinfection. We use computational models to investigate the effect that regulated superinfection would have on the evolution of drug resistance in HIV population. We find that regulated, fitness-associated superinfection can provide a distinct advantage to the virus in adapting to anti-HIV drugs in comparison with unregulated superinfection. Based on the results of the computational models and on current biological evidence, we suggest that the mechanism of fitness-associated regulation of coinfection in HIV is plausible, and that its investigation can lead to new ways to fight viral drug resistance.

  14. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation at 30: Unresolved Scientific Issues

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    Reiss, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven. The key unresolved issues are construct invalidity (all four definitions are unproved and two are illogical); measurement unreliability (the free-choice measure requires unreliable, subjective judgments to infer intrinsic motivation); inadequate experimental…

  15. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation at 30: Unresolved Scientific Issues

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    Reiss, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven. The key unresolved issues are construct invalidity (all four definitions are unproved and two are illogical); measurement unreliability (the free-choice measure requires unreliable, subjective judgments to infer intrinsic motivation); inadequate experimental…

  16. HIV-1 superinfection in women broadens and strengthens the neutralizing antibody response.

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    Valerie Cortez

    Full Text Available Identifying naturally-occurring neutralizing antibodies (NAb that are cross-reactive against all global subtypes of HIV-1 is an important step toward the development of a vaccine. Establishing the host and viral determinants for eliciting such broadly NAbs is also critical for immunogen design. NAb breadth has previously been shown to be positively associated with viral diversity. Therefore, we hypothesized that superinfected individuals develop a broad NAb response as a result of increased antigenic stimulation by two distinct viruses. To test this hypothesis, plasma samples from 12 superinfected women each assigned to three singly infected women were tested against a panel of eight viruses representing four different HIV-1 subtypes at matched time points post-superinfection (~5 years post-initial infection. Here we show superinfected individuals develop significantly broader NAb responses post-superinfection when compared to singly infected individuals (RR = 1.68, CI: 1.23-2.30, p = 0.001. This was true even after controlling for NAb breadth developed prior to superinfection, contemporaneous CD4+ T cell count and viral load. Similarly, both unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed significantly greater potency in superinfected cases compared to controls. Notably, two superinfected individuals were able to neutralize variants from four different subtypes at plasma dilutions >1∶300, suggesting that their NAbs exhibit elite activity. Cross-subtype breadth was detected within a year of superinfection in both of these individuals, which was within 1.5 years of their initial infection. These data suggest that sequential infections lead to augmentation of the NAb response, a process that may provide insight into potential mechanisms that contribute to the development of antibody breadth. Therefore, a successful vaccination strategy that mimics superinfection may lead to the development of broad NAbs in immunized individuals.

  17. Environmental cues and genes involved in establishment of the superinfective Pf4 phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Janice Gee Kay Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm development in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is in part dependent on a filamentous phage, Pf4, which contributes to biofilm maturation, cell death, dispersal and variant formation, e.g. small colony variants. These biofilm phenotypes correlate with the conversion of the Pf4 phage into a superinfective variant that reinfects and kills the prophage carrying host, in contrast to other filamentous phage that normally replicate without killing their host. Here we have investigated the physiological cues and genes that may be responsible for this conversion. Flow through biofilms typically developed superinfective phage around day 4 or 5 of development and corresponded with dispersal. Starvation for carbon or nitrogen did not lead to the development of superinfective phage. In contrast, exposure of the biofilm to nitric oxide, H2O2 or the DNA damaging agent, mitomycin C, reproducibly led to an increase in the superinfective phage, suggesting that reactive oxygen or nitrogen species (RONS played a role in the formation of superinfective phage. In support of this, an oxyR mutant, the major oxidative stress regulator in P. aeruginosa, displayed significantly higher and earlier superinfection than the wild-type. Similarly, inactivation of mutS, a DNA mismatch repair gene, resulted in an early and a four log increase in the amount of superinfective phage generated by the biofilm. In contrast, loss of recA, important for DNA repair and SOS response, also resulted in a delayed and decreased production of superinfective phage. Treatments or mutations that increased superinfection also correlated with an increase in the production of morphotypic variants. The results suggest that the accumulation of RONS by the biofilm may result in DNA lesions in the Pf4 phage, leading to the formation of superinfective phage, which subsequently selects for morphotypic variants, such as small colony variants.

  18. Detection of unresolved binaries with multicolor photometry

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    Chulkov, D; Malkov, O; Sichevskij, S; Krussanova, N; Mironov, A; Zakharov, A; Kniazev, A

    2016-01-01

    The principal goal of this paper is to specify conditions of detection of unresolved binaries by multicolor photometry. We have developed a method for estimating the critical distance at which an unresolved binary of given mass and age can be detected. The method is applied to the photometric system of the planned Lyra-B spaceborne experiment. We have shown that some types of unresolved binary stars can be discovered and distinguished from single stars solely by means of photometric observations.

  19. Sexual Harassment: A problem unresolved!

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    N Vanishree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is a highly prevalent form of gender-based discrimination and sexual exploitation in the workplace and academic environment. In the dental field, there are a few studies regarding sexual harassment among the patients, professors and claims of their students. There is a silence of consent surrounding sexual harassment. It is clearly an issue about which the practicing dentists need to be informed in order to provide knowledgeable assessment and treatment for all patients. Dentists also have a role in advocacy, expert consultation or testimony, research and prevention through education and training. It is a fact that sexual harassment is very commonly encountered by almost everyone especially women. It is the most unresolved and under recognized problem of today especially when professionals are concerned. Preventing sexual harassment requires a considerable investment of time and personnel. This paper reviews the topic of sexual harassment as a problem from its legal aspects and recommendations for further steps to resolve this issue in dentistry.

  20. Bacterial Intestinal Superinfections in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Beyond Clostridum difficile.

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    Lobatón, Triana; Domènech, Eugeni

    2016-07-01

    Besides genetics and environmental factors, intestinal microbiota seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. For many decades, it has been said that some enteropathogens may even trigger both inflammatory bowel disease development and disease flares. For this reason, stool testing had been performed in inflammatory bowel disease flares but current guidelines only recommend to rule out Clostridium difficile infection and there is no clear advice for other enteropathogens given that the scarce available evidence points at a low prevalence of this sort of intestinal superinfections with no clear impact on disease course. The present article reviews the current knowledge about the role of bacterial enteropathogens on disease pathogenesis and flares beyond C. difficile.

  1. Unresolved questions in human copper pump mechanisms.

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    Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2015-11-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential transition metal providing activity to key enzymes in the human body. To regulate the levels and avoid toxicity, cells have developed elaborate systems for loading these enzymes with Cu. Most Cu-dependent enzymes obtain the metal from the membrane-bound Cu pumps ATP7A/B in the Golgi network. ATP7A/B receives Cu from the cytoplasmic Cu chaperone Atox1 that acts as the cytoplasmic shuttle between the cell membrane Cu importer, Ctr1 and ATP7A/B. Biological, genetic and structural efforts have provided a tremendous amount of information for how the proteins in this pathway work. Nonetheless, basic mechanistic-biophysical questions (such as how and where ATP7A/B receives Cu, how ATP7A/B conformational changes and domain-domain interactions facilitate Cu movement through the membrane, and, finally, how target polypeptides are loaded with Cu in the Golgi) remain elusive. In this perspective, unresolved inquiries regarding ATP7A/B mechanism will be highlighted. The answers are important from a fundamental view, since mechanistic aspects may be common to other metal transport systems, and for medical purposes, since many diseases appear related to Cu transport dysregulation.

  2. Clearance of HCV RNA following acute hepatitis A superinfection.

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    Cacopardo, B; Nunnari, G; Nigro, L

    2009-05-01

    A transient reduction of hepatitis C virus replication during the course of acute hepatitis A virus infection has already been reported in the literature. The present study reports the case study of a subject with chronic hepatitis due to hepatitis C virus who went on to develop an acute hepatitis A. From the early onset of acute disease, hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid became undetectable. Following recovery from acute hepatitis, alanine amino-transferase levels became persistently normal and liver biopsy revealed a reduction in the Knodell histological activity index score. Hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance was maintained up to 4 years after the onset of acute hepatitis A. During the course of the acute disease, a sharp increase in interferon gamma levels was detected in serum and in the supernatant of both unstimulated and phytoemagglutinin/lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Interferon gamma levels were still high 3 months later. We hypothesize that acute hepatitis A virus superinfection during the course of chronic hepatitis C may lead to hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance through an immunological mechanism related to interferon gamma production.

  3. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

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    Juen Florian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Besides the predominance of disorganized attachment, clinical participants demonstrated more “segregated system material” especially in stories representing aloneness and more “Personal Experience material” compared to healthy individuals. Within the disorganized/ unresolved clinical individuals, BPD and PTSD patients showed the highest proportion of attachment disorganization and were less able to use other attachment-related defenses to maintain organized. Furthermore, PTSD patients were emotionally overwhelmed by the projective attachment scenes compared to the other clinical groups as indexed by an incapacity to complete sections of the AAP. BPD and addicted patients were characterized by a high degree of self-other boundary confusion. Depressive and schizophrenic patients showed a high overall defensive intensity to remain organized.

  4. Tick-Borne Transmission of Two Genetically Distinct Anaplasma marginale Strains following Superinfection of the Mammalian Reservoir Host

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    Strain superinfection affects the dynamics of epidemiological spread of pathogens through a host population. Superinfection has recently been shown to occur for genetically distinct strains of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale that encode distinctly different surface protein variants. Supe...

  5. Partial protection of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys against superinfection with a heterologous SIV isolate

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    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence that individuals already infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be infected with a heterologous strain of the virus, the extent of protection against superinfection conferred by the first infection and the biologic consequences of superinfection are not well understood. We explored these questions in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/rhesus monkey model of HIV-1/AIDS. We infected cohorts of rhesus monkeys with either SIVmac251 or SIVsmE660 and then exposed animals to the reciprocal virus through intrarectal inoculations. Employing a quantitative real-time PCR assay, we determined the replication kinetics of the two strains of virus for 20 weeks. We found that primary infection with a replication-competent virus did not protect against acquisition of infection by a heterologous virus but did confer relative control of the superinfecting virus. In animals that became superinfected, there was a reduction in peak replication and rapid control of the second virus. The relative susceptibility to superinfection was not correlated with CD4(+) T-cell count, CD4(+) memory T-cell subsets, cytokine production by virus-specific CD8(+) or CD4(+) cells, or neutralizing antibodies at the time of exposure to the second virus. Although there were transient increases in viral loads of the primary virus and a modest decline in CD4(+) T-cell counts after superinfection, there was no evidence of disease acceleration. These findings indicate that an immunodeficiency virus infection confers partial protection against a second immunodeficiency virus infection, but this protection may be mediated by mechanisms other than classical adaptive immune responses.

  6. HIV-1 superinfection occurs less frequently than initial infection in a cohort of high-risk Kenyan women.

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    Keshet Ronen

    Full Text Available HIV superinfection (reinfection has been reported in several settings, but no study has been designed and powered to rigorously compare its incidence to that of initial infection. Determining whether HIV infection reduces the risk of superinfection is critical to understanding whether an immune response to natural HIV infection is protective. This study compares the incidence of initial infection and superinfection in a prospective seroincident cohort of high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya. A next-generation sequencing-based pipeline was developed to screen 129 women for superinfection. Longitudinal plasma samples at 2 years and one intervening time after initial HIV infection were analyzed. Amplicons in three genome regions were sequenced and a median of 901 sequences obtained per gene per timepoint. Phylogenetic evidence of polyphyly, confirmed by pairwise distance analysis, defined superinfection. Superinfection timing was determined by sequencing virus from intervening timepoints. These data were combined with published data from 17 additional women in the same cohort, totaling 146 women screened. Twenty-one cases of superinfection were identified for an estimated incidence rate of 2.61 per 100 person-years (pys. The incidence rate of initial infection among 1910 women in the same cohort was 5.75 per 100 pys. Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were used to compare incidences, adjusting for covariates known to influence HIV susceptibility in this cohort. Superinfection incidence was significantly lower than initial infection incidence, with a hazard ratio of 0.47 (CI 0.29-0.75, p = 0.0019. This lower incidence of superinfection was only observed >6 months after initial infection. This is the first adequately powered study to report that HIV infection reduces the risk of reinfection, raising the possibility that immune responses to natural infection are partially protective. The observation that superinfection risk changes with time

  7. The coat protein and NIa protease of two potyviridae family members independently confer superinfection exclusion

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    Superinfection exclusion (SIE) is an antagonistic virus-virus interaction whereby initial infection by one virus prevents subsequent infection by closely related viruses. Although SIE has been described in diverse viruses infecting plants, humans, and animals, its mechanisms, including involvement o...

  8. Association of Anaplasma marginale strain superinfection with infection prevalence within tropical regions.

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    Elizabeth J Castañeda-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Strain superinfection occurs when a second strain infects a host already infected with and having mounted an immune response to a primary strain. The incidence of superinfection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of domestic and wild ruminants, has been shown to be higher in tropical versus temperate regions. This has been attributed to the higher prevalence of infection, with consequent immunity against primary strains and thus greater selective pressure for superinfection with antigenically distinct strains. However an alternative explanation would be the differences in the transmitting vector, Dermacentor andersoni in the studied temperate regions and Rhipicephalus microplus in the studied tropical regions. To address this question, we examined two tropical populations sharing the same vector, R. microplus, but with significantly different infection prevalence. Using two separate markers, msp1α (one allele per genome and msp2 (multiple alleles per genome, there were higher levels of multiple strain infections in the high infection prevalence as compared to the low prevalence population. The association of higher strain diversity with infection prevalence supports the hypothesis that high levels of infection prevalence and consequent population immunity is the predominant driver of strain superinfection.

  9. Frequent HCV reinfection and superinfection in a cohort of injecting drug users in Amsterdam

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    T.J.W. van de Laar; R. Molenkamp; C. van den Berg; J. Schinkel; M.G.H.M. Beld; M. Prins; R.A. Coutinho; S.M. Bruisten

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims:This study investigates the occurrence of HCV reinfection and superinfection among HCV seroconverters participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies among drug users from 1985 through 2005. Methods: HCV seroconverters (n = 59) were tested for HCV RNA at five different time points: the

  10. Baculovirus superinfection: a probable restriction factor on the surface display of proteins for library screening.

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    Xu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yuanrong; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Xiaofen; Dong, Beitao; Jones, Ian M; Chen, Hongying

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the expression of recombinant proteins, baculoviruses have been developed as a platform for the display of complex eukaryotic proteins on the surface of virus particles or infected insect cells. Surface display has been used extensively for antigen presentation and targeted gene delivery but is also a candidate for the display of protein libraries for molecular screening. However, although baculovirus gene libraries can be efficiently expressed and displayed on the surface of insect cells, target gene selection is inefficient probably due to super-infection which gives rise to cells expressing more than one protein. In this report baculovirus superinfection of Sf9 cells has been investigated by the use of two recombinant multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus carrying green or red fluorescent proteins under the control of both early and late promoters (vAcBacGFP and vAcBacDsRed). The reporter gene expression was detected 8 hours after the infection of vAcBacGFP and cells in early and late phases of infection could be distinguished by the fluorescence intensity of the expressed protein. Simultaneous infection with vAcBacGFP and vAcBacDsRed viruses each at 0.5 MOI resulted in 80% of infected cells co-expressing the two fluorescent proteins at 48 hours post infection (hpi), and subsequent infection with the two viruses resulted in similar co-infection rate. Most Sf9 cells were re-infectable within the first several hours post infection, but the re-infection rate then decreased to a very low level by 16 hpi. Our data demonstrate that Sf9 cells were easily super-infectable during baculovirus infection, and super-infection could occur simultaneously at the time of the primary infection or subsequently during secondary infection by progeny viruses. The efficiency of super-infection may explain the difficulties of baculovirus display library screening but would benefit the production of complex proteins requiring co-expression of multiple polypeptides.

  11. Postscript: Problems With the Security Motivation Model Remain Largely Unresolved: Response to Woody and Szechtman (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; McKay, Dean; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper comments on the response offered by Szechtman and Woody to Taylor et al's initial comments on Szechtman and Woody's original article. Taylor et al highlight one problem with their model that Woody and Szechtman seem to think is unimportant: the treatment relevance of their model. The analogy of aspirin and colds was used, suggesting…

  12. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors produced by a superinfection-resistant stable packaging cell line allow genetic modification of primary human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labenski, Verena; Suerth, Julia D; Barczak, Elke; Heckl, Dirk; Levy, Camille; Bernadin, Ornellie; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Williams, David A; Fehse, Boris; Verhoeyen, Els; Schambach, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Primary human T lymphocytes represent an important cell population for adoptive immunotherapies, including chimeric-antigen and T-cell receptor applications, as they have the capability to eliminate non-self, virus-infected and tumor cells. Given the increasing numbers of clinical immunotherapy applications, the development of an optimal vector platform for genetic T lymphocyte engineering, which allows cost-effective high-quality vector productions, remains a critical goal. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors (ARV) have several advantages compared to other vector platforms, including a more random genomic integration pattern and reduced likelihood for inducing aberrant splicing of integrated proviruses. We developed an ARV platform for the transduction of primary human T lymphocytes. We demonstrated functional transgene transfer using the clinically relevant herpes-simplex-virus thymidine kinase variant TK.007. Proof-of-concept of alpharetroviral-mediated T-lymphocyte engineering was shown in vitro and in a humanized transplantation model in vivo. Furthermore, we established a stable, human alpharetroviral packaging cell line in which we deleted the entry receptor (SLC1A5) for RD114/TR-pseudotyped ARVs to prevent superinfection and enhance genomic integrity of the packaging cell line and viral particles. We showed that superinfection can be entirely prevented, while maintaining high recombinant virus titers. Taken together, this resulted in an improved production platform representing an economic strategy for translating the promising features of ARVs for therapeutic T-lymphocyte engineering.

  13. Unresolved mourning, supernatural beliefs and dissociation: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Unresolved mourning is marked by disorganized behavior and states of mind. In this study, we speculated that pathological dissociation would mediate the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs. This hypothesis was determined based on findings that indicate an association between higher levels of dissociation, stronger beliefs in the supernatural and unresolved mourning. We examined two groups of participants, one classified as non-unresolved (non-U) (n = 56) and the other as unresolved (n = 26) (U) with respect to past loss/trauma as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Two self-report instruments were administered to measure supernatural beliefs and dissociation. As hypothesized, the multivariate analysis of variance indicated mean differences between the two groups. The unresolved group had greater belief in the supernatural and more pathological dissociative processes. The mediation analysis demonstrated that pathological dissociation fully mediated the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs.

  14. Expansion of Variant Diversity Associated with a High Prevalence of Pathogen Strain Superinfection under Conditions of Natural Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueti, Massaro W.; Tan, Yunbing; Broschat, Shira L.; Castañeda Ortiz, Elizabeth J.; Camacho-Nuez, Minerva; Mosqueda, Juan J.; Scoles, Glen A.; Grimes, Matthew; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    Superinfection occurs when a second, genetically distinct pathogen strain infects a host that has already mounted an immune response to a primary strain. For antigenically variant pathogens, the primary strain itself expresses a broad diversity of variants over time. Thus, successful superinfection would require that the secondary strain express a unique set of variants. We tested this hypothesis under conditions of natural transmission in both temperate and tropical regions where, respectively, single-strain infections and strain superinfections of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale predominate. Our conclusion that strain superinfection is associated with a significant increase in variant diversity is supported by progressive analysis of variant composition: (i) animals with naturally acquired superinfection had a statistically significantly greater number of unique variant sequences than animals either experimentally infected with single strains or infected with a single strain naturally, (ii) the greater number of unique sequences reflected a statistically significant increase in primary structural diversity in the superinfected animals, and (iii) the increase in primary structural diversity reflected increased combinations of the newly identified hypervariable microdomains. The role of population immunity in establishing temporal and spatial patterns of infection and disease has been well established. The results of the present study, which examined strain structure under conditions of natural transmission and population immunity, support that high levels of endemicity also drive pathogen divergence toward greater strain diversity. PMID:22585962

  15. [Clinical outcomes of superinfections with primary hepatotropic viruses in patients with chronic hepatitis B or C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, Maciej; Mozer-Lisewska, Iwona

    2014-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and C are among most important problems in contemporary hepatology. Natural history of the disease can be changed as a result of superinfection with other primary hepatotropic viruses. Clinical consequences of such events are uncommon subjects of clinical reports. Acute viral hepatitis occurring in HBV- or HCV-infected patients can result in severe exacerbation of liver disease, including acute liver failure; sometimes progression of liver disease toward liver cirrhosis is observed; HBV and/or HCV clearance is also possible. Because of potentially severe outcomes of superinfections, prevention of such events based on vaccinations and education about the risk related with additional infections should be implemented in the management of patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and C.

  16. Piracy of adhesins: attachment of superinfecting pathogens to respiratory cilia by secreted adhesins of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomanen, E

    1986-12-01

    Two proteins secreted by Bordetella pertussis are known to mediate adherence of these bacteria to mammalian respiratory cilia. When either ciliated cells or other pathogenic bacteria were pretreated with these adhesins, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus acquired the ability to adhere to cilia in vitro and in vivo. Such piracy of adhesins may contribute to superinfection in mucosal diseases such as whooping cough.

  17. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation at 30: Unresolved scientific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven. The key unresolved issues are construct invalidity (all four definitions are unproved and two are illogical); measurement unreliability (the free-choice measure requires unreliable, subjective judgments to infer intrinsic motivation); inadequate experimental controls (negative affect and novelty, not cognitive evaluation, may explain "undermining" effects); and biased metareviews (studies with possible floor effects excluded, but those with possible ceiling effects included). Perhaps the greatest error with the undermining theory, however, is that it does not adequately recognize the multifaceted nature of intrinsic motivation (Reiss, 2004a). Advice to limit the use of applied behavior analysis based on "hidden" undermining effects is ideologically inspired and is unsupported by credible scientific evidence.

  18. Systemic antibiotics and the risk of superinfection in peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Fernando; Laksmana, Theresia; Uribarri, Agurne

    2016-04-01

    Peri-implantitis has emerged in the last few years as a complication difficult to resolve. The etiopathogenesis consensus is mainly attributed to bacteria. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, a PubMed/Medline literature search was performed using the US National Library of Medicine database up to 2015 to analyze available scientific data on the rationale and risk of superinfection associated to systemic antimicrobials in human peri-implant disease. A hand search was also conducted on relevant medical and microbiology journals. The methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS) was independently assessed for quality on the selected papers. Proposed combined therapies use broad-spectrum antibiotics to halt the disease progression. A major associated risk, particularly when prescribed empirically without microbiological follow-up, is the undetected development of superinfections and overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens difficult to eradicate. Peri-implant superinfections with opportunistic bacteria, yeast and viruses, are plausible risks associated to the use of systemic antibiotics in immunocompetent individuals. Lack of microbiological follow-up and antibiotic susceptibility testing may lead to ongoing microbial challenges that exacerbate the disease progression. The increased proliferation of antimicrobial resistance, modern implant surface topography and indiscriminative empiric antibiotic regimens may promote the escalation of peri-implant disease in years to come. A personalized 3-month supportive therapy may help prevent risks by sustaining a normal ecological balance, decreasing specific pathogen proportions and maintaining ideal plaque control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. X-exome sequencing of 405 unresolved families identifies seven novel intellectual disability genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, H; Haas, S A; Chelly, J;

    2016-01-01

    X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. During the past two decades in excess of 100 X-chromosome ID genes have been identified. Yet, a large number of families mapping to the X-chromosome remained unresolved suggesting that more XLID genes ...

  20. Baculovirus superinfection: a probable restriction factor on the surface display of proteins for library screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xu

    Full Text Available In addition to the expression of recombinant proteins, baculoviruses have been developed as a platform for the display of complex eukaryotic proteins on the surface of virus particles or infected insect cells. Surface display has been used extensively for antigen presentation and targeted gene delivery but is also a candidate for the display of protein libraries for molecular screening. However, although baculovirus gene libraries can be efficiently expressed and displayed on the surface of insect cells, target gene selection is inefficient probably due to super-infection which gives rise to cells expressing more than one protein. In this report baculovirus superinfection of Sf9 cells has been investigated by the use of two recombinant multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus carrying green or red fluorescent proteins under the control of both early and late promoters (vAcBacGFP and vAcBacDsRed. The reporter gene expression was detected 8 hours after the infection of vAcBacGFP and cells in early and late phases of infection could be distinguished by the fluorescence intensity of the expressed protein. Simultaneous infection with vAcBacGFP and vAcBacDsRed viruses each at 0.5 MOI resulted in 80% of infected cells co-expressing the two fluorescent proteins at 48 hours post infection (hpi, and subsequent infection with the two viruses resulted in similar co-infection rate. Most Sf9 cells were re-infectable within the first several hours post infection, but the re-infection rate then decreased to a very low level by 16 hpi. Our data demonstrate that Sf9 cells were easily super-infectable during baculovirus infection, and super-infection could occur simultaneously at the time of the primary infection or subsequently during secondary infection by progeny viruses. The efficiency of super-infection may explain the difficulties of baculovirus display library screening but would benefit the production of complex proteins requiring co-expression of multiple

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Superinfection Was Not Detected following 215 Years of Injection Drug User Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Rose; Herring, Belinda L.; Barbour, Jason D.; Grant, Robert M.; Bacchetti, Peter; Kral, Alex; Edlin, Brian R.; Delwart, Eric L.

    2004-01-01

    Evidence for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) superinfection was sought among 37 HIV-1-positive street-recruited active injection drug users (IDUs) from the San Francisco Bay area. HIV-1 sequences from pairs of samples collected 1 to 12 years apart, spanning a total of 215 years of exposure, were generated at p17 gag, the V3-V5 region of env, and/or the first exon of tat and phylogenetically analyzed. No evidence of HIV-1 superinfection was detected in which a highly divergent HIV-1 variant emerged at a frequency >20% of the serum viral quasispecies. Based on the reported risk behavior of the IDUs and the HIV-1 incidence in uninfected subjects in the same cohort, a total of 3.4 new infections would have been expected if existing infection conferred no protection from superinfection. Adjusted for risk behaviors, the estimated relative risk of superinfection compared with initial infection was therefore 0.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.00, 0.79; P = 0.02), indicating that existing infection conferred a statistically significant level of protection against superinfection with an HIV-1 strain of the same subtype, which was between 21 and 100%. PMID:14671091

  2. From Unresolved Anger to Sadness: Identifying Physiological Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Daniel; Diamond, Gary M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to identify physiological correlates of unresolved anger and sadness, and the shift between these emotions, in a context similar to that of emotion-focused, experiential psychotherapy. Twenty-seven university students reporting unresolved anger toward an attachment figure were induced to experience and express unresolved…

  3. Independence of anaplasma marginale strains with high and low transmission efficiencies in the tick vector following simultaneous acquisition by feeding on a superinfected mammalian reservoir host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain superinfection occurs when a second pathogen strain infects a host already carrying a primary strain. Anaplasma marginale superinfection occurs when the second strain carries a variant repertoire different from that of the primary strain, and the epidemiologic consequences depend on the relat...

  4. Superinfection between influenza and RSV alternating patterns in San Luis Potosi State, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Xicoténcatl Velasco-Hernández

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explain through the ecological hypothesis superinfection and competitive interaction between two viral populations and niche (host availability, the alternating patterns of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV and influenza observed in a regional hospital in San Luis Potosí State, México using a mathematical model as a methodological tool. The data analyzed consists of community-based and hospital-based Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI consultations provided by health-care institutions reported to the State Health Service Epidemiology Department from 2003 through 2009.

  5. Dual infection and superinfection inhibition of epithelial skin cells by two alphaherpesviruses co-occur in the natural host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith W Jarosinski

    Full Text Available Hosts can be infected with multiple herpesviruses, known as superinfection; however, superinfection of cells is rare due to the phenomenon known as superinfection inhibition. It is believed that dual infection of cells occurs in nature, based on studies examining genetic exchange between homologous alphaherpesviruses in the host, but to date, this has not been directly shown in a natural model. In this report, gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2, better known as Marek's disease virus (MDV, was used in its natural host, the chicken, to determine whether two homologous alphaherpesviruses can infect the same cells in vivo. MDV shares close similarities with the human alphaherpesvirus, varicella zoster virus (VZV, with respect to replication in the skin and exit from the host. Recombinant MDVs were generated that express either the enhanced GFP (eGFP or monomeric RFP (mRFP fused to the UL47 (VP13/14 herpesvirus tegument protein. These viruses exhibited no alteration in pathogenic potential and expressed abundant UL47-eGFP or -mRFP in feather follicle epithelial cells in vivo. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, it was evident that these two similar, but distinguishable, viruses were able to replicate within the same cells of their natural host. Evidence of superinfection inhibition was also observed. These results have important implications for two reasons. First, these results show that during natural infection, both dual infection of cells and superinfection inhibition can co-occur at the cellular level. Secondly, vaccination against MDV with homologous alphaherpesvirus like attenuated GaHV-2, or non-oncogenic GaHV-3 or meleagrid herpesvirus (MeHV-1 has driven the virus to greater virulence and these results implicate the potential for genetic exchange between homologous avian alphaherpesviruses that could drive increased virulence. Because the live attenuated varicella vaccine is currently being administered to children, who in turn could be

  6. Amplification of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA by Superinfection with a Strain of EBV Derived from Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) hybrid cell line (NPC-KT) lacking defective viral DNA molecules superinfected Raji cells and induced EBV early antigens (EA), as did virus from P3HR-1 cells, which contained defective molecules. The EBV polypeptides induced by NPC-KT appeared to be identical to those induced by P3HR-1 virus. The ability of NPC-KT virus to induce EA was enhanced more than 10-fold by treatment of superinfected cells with dimethyl sulfoxide; however,...

  7. Stochastic modeling of unresolved scales in complex systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinqiao DUAN

    2009-01-01

    Model uncertainties or simulation uncertainties occur in math-ematical modeling of multiscale complex systems, since some mechanisms or scales are not represented (i.e., 'unresolved') due to a lack in our understand-ing of these mechanisms or limitations in computational power. The impact of these unresolved scales on the resolved scales needs to be parameterized or taken into account. A stochastic scheme is devised to take the effects of unresolved scales into account, in the context of solving nonlinear partial differential equations. An example is presented to demonstrate this strategy.

  8. Superinfection occurs in Anaplasma phagocytophilum infected sheep irrespective of infection phase and protection status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström Karin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in domestic ruminants is widespread in the coastal areas of southern Norway. The bacteria may persist in mammalian hosts. Several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum exist. In the present study, we investigate whether superinfection occurs in the acute and persistent phase of the infection. Methods Five-month-old lambs of the Norwegian Dala breed were experimentally infected with two 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum, i.e. A. phagocytophilum variant 1 (GenBank accession number M73220 and variant 2 (GenBank acc. no. AF336220. Eighteen lambs were used, two lambs in each group. Eight groups were experimentally inoculated with either variant 1 or 2 on day 0. Six of these groups were then challenged with the other variant on either days 7, 42 or 84, respectively. One group was left uninfected. The occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in blood samples was determined using semi-nested PCR analysis and gene sequencing. Specific antibodies were measured by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA. Results A. phagocytophilum variant 1 and 2 differed significantly with regards to clinical reaction and cross-immunity in infected lambs. Both variants were found in the blood after challenge. However, variant 1 was detected most frequently. Conclusion The present experiment indicates that superinfection of different genotypes occurs during the acute as well as the persistent phase of an A. phagocytophilum infection, even in lambs protected against the challenged infection.

  9. Unresolved issues in pre-meiotic anther development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy eKelliher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the diversity of other floral organs, the steps in anther ontogeny, final cell types, and overall organ shape are remarkably conserved among Angiosperms. Defects in pre-meiotic anthers that alter cellular composition or function typically result in male-sterility. Given the ease of identifying male-sterile mutants, dozens of genes with key roles in early anther development have been identified and cloned in model species, ordered by time of action and spatiotemporal expression, and used to propose explanatory models for critical steps in cell fate specification. Despite rapid progress, fundamental issues in anther development remain unresolved, and it is unclear if insights from one species can be applied to others. Here we construct a comparison of Arabidopsis, rice, and maize immature anthers to pinpoint distinctions in developmental pace. We analyze the mechanisms by which archesporial (pre-meiotic cells are specified distinct from the soma, discuss what constitutes meiotic preparation, and review what is known about the secondary parietal layer and its terminal periclinal division that generates the tapetal and middle layers. Finally, roles for small RNAs are examined, focusing on the grass-specific phasiRNAs.

  10. Dietary copper and human health: Current evidence and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Muriel; Houdart, Sabine; Oberli, Marion; Kalonji, Esther; Huneau, Jean-François; Margaritis, Irène

    2016-05-01

    Although copper (Cu) is recognized as an essential trace element, uncertainties remain regarding Cu reference values for humans, as illustrated by discrepancies between recommendations issued by different national authorities. This review examines human studies published since 1990 on relationships between Cu intake, Cu balance, biomarkers of Cu status, and health. It points out several gaps and unresolved issues which make it difficult to assess Cu requirements. Results from balance studies suggest that daily intakes below 0.8 mg/day lead to net Cu losses, while net gains are consistently observed above 2.4 mg/day. However, because of an incomplete collection of losses in all studies, a precise estimation of Cu requirements cannot be derived from available data. Data regarding the relationship between Cu intake and potential biomarkers are either too preliminary or inconclusive because of low specificity or low sensitivity to change in dietary Cu over a wide range of intakes. Results from observation and intervention studies do not support a link between Cu and a risk of cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, arthritis or cancer for intakes ranging from 0.6 to 3mg/day, and limited evidence exists for impaired immune function in healthy subjects with a very low (0.38 mg/day) Cu intake. However, data from observation studies should be regarded with caution because of uncertainties regarding Cu concentration in various foods and water. Further studies that accurately evaluate Cu exposure based on reliable biomarkers of Cu status are needed.

  11. Unresolved trauma in fibromyalgia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Elisabeth; Scheidt, Carl E; Endorf, Katharina; Hartmann, Armin; Zimmermann, Peter

    2015-04-30

    This study examined the prevalence of unresolved attachment-related trauma and its association with physical and psychological health status in 34 patients with fibromyalgia. Unresolved trauma was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. In addition, participants completed self-report measures of childhood trauma, fibromyalgia-related health status and depression. Of the sample, 50 per cent was classified as unresolved on the Adult Attachment Interview. Neither interview-based ratings of unresolved trauma nor self-reported childhood sexual or physical abuse were associated with health outcomes. Only for self-reported emotional abuse, a positive correlation with depression emerged. The implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Wheat streak mosaic virus-encoded NIa-Pro and coat protein are involved in virus superinfection exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross protection or superinfection exclusion (SE) is defined as the phenomenon whereby initial infection by one virus prevents subsequent infection by closely related viruses. The mechanisms of SE are just beginning to be understood. Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus: Tritimovirus; family: Poty...

  13. Superinfection exclusion and the long-term survival of honey bees in Varroa-infested colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Gideon J; Brettell, Laura E; Martin, Stephen J; Dixon, David; Jones, Ian M; Schroeder, Declan C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, many millions of European honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies have died as the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has spread around the world. Subsequent studies have indicated that the mite's association with a group of RNA viral pathogens (Deformed Wing Virus, DWV) correlates with colony death. Here, we propose a phenomenon known as superinfection exclusion that provides an explanation of how certain A. mellifera populations have survived, despite Varroa infestation and high DWV loads. Next-generation sequencing has shown that a non-lethal DWV variant ‘type B' has become established in these colonies and that the lethal ‘type A' DWV variant fails to persist in the bee population. We propose that this novel stable host-pathogen relationship prevents the accumulation of lethal variants, suggesting that this interaction could be exploited for the development of an effective treatment that minimises colony losses in the future. PMID:26505829

  14. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli superinfection enhances the severity of mouse bladder infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew J Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs afflict over 9 million women in America every year, often necessitating long-term prophylactic antibiotics. One risk factor for UTI is frequent sexual intercourse, which dramatically increases the risk of UTI. The mechanism behind this increased risk is unknown; however, bacteriuria increases immediately after sexual intercourse episodes, suggesting that physical manipulation introduces periurethral flora into the urinary tract. In this paper, we investigated whether superinfection (repeat introduction of bacteria resulted in increased risk of severe UTI, manifesting as persistent bacteriuria, high titer bladder bacterial burdens and chronic inflammation, an outcome referred to as chronic cystitis. Chronic cystitis represents unchecked luminal bacterial replication and is defined histologically by urothelial hyperplasia and submucosal lymphoid aggregates, a histological pattern similar to that seen in humans suffering chronic UTI. C57BL/6J mice are resistant to chronic cystitis after a single infection; however, they developed persistent bacteriuria and chronic cystitis when superinfected 24 hours apart. Elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6, keratinocyte cytokine (KC/CXCL1, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF in the serum of C57BL/6J mice prior to the second infection predicted the development of chronic cystitis. These same cytokines have been found to precede chronic cystitis in singly infected C3H/HeN mice. Furthermore, inoculating C3H/HeN mice twice within a six-hour period doubled the proportion of mice that developed chronic cystitis. Intracellular bacterial replication, regulated hemolysin (HlyA expression, and caspase 1/11 activation were essential for this increase. Microarrays conducted at four weeks post inoculation in both mouse strains revealed upregulation of IL-1 and antimicrobial peptides during chronic cystitis. These data suggest a mechanism by which caspase-1/11 activation and IL-1

  15. HIV-1 sequence evolution in vivo after superinfection with three viral strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Kuyl Antoinette C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With millions of people infected worldwide, the evolution of HIV-1 in vivo has been the subject of much research. Although recombinant viruses were detected early in the epidemic, evidence that HIV-1 dual infections really occurred came much later. Dual infected patients, consisting of coinfected (second infection before seroconversion and superinfected (second infection after seroconversion individuals, opened up a new area of HIV-1 evolution studies. Here, we describe the in-depth analysis of HIV-1 over time in a patient twice superinfected with HIV-1, first with a subtype B (B2 strain and then with CRF01_AE after initial infection with a subtype B (B1 strain. The nucleotide evolution of gag and env-V3 of the three strains followed a similar pattern: a very low substitution rate in the first 2–3 years of infection, with an increase in synonymous substitutions thereafter. Convergent evolution at the protein level was rare: only a single amino acid in a gag p24 epitope showed convergence in the subtype B strains. Reversal of CTL-epitope mutations were also rare, and did not converge. Recombinant viruses were observed between the two subtype B strains. Luciferase-assays suggested that the CRF01_AE long terminal repeat (LTR constituted the strongest promoter, but this was not reflected in the plasma viral load. Specific real-time PCR assays based upon the env gene showed that strain B2 and CRF01_AE RNA was present in equal amounts, while levels of strain B1 were 100-fold lower. All three strains were detected in seminal plasma, suggesting that simultaneous transmission is possible.

  16. Hepatitis E Virus Superinfection and Clinical Progression in Hepatitis B Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghiem Xuan Hoan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection may cause acute hepatitis and lead to hepatic failure in developing and developed countries. We studied HEV seroprevalences in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection to understand the consequences of HEV superinfection in a Vietnamese population. This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2012 to 2013 and included 1318 Vietnamese patients with HBV-related liver diseases and 340 healthy controls. The case group included patients with acute (n = 26 and chronic hepatitis B (n = 744, liver cirrhosis (n = 160, hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 166 and patients with both liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 222. Anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies were assessed in patients and controls by ELISA. HEV-RNA was identified by PCR assays and sequencing. Seroprevalences of anti-HEV IgG among hepatitis B patients and controls were 45% and 31%, respectively (adjusted P = 0.034. Anti-HEV IgM seroprevalences were 11.6% and 4.7% in patients and controls, respectively (adjusted P = 0.005. Seroprevalences were higher among the elder individuals. When stratifying for patient groups, those with liver cirrhosis had the highest anti-HEV IgG (52% and anti-HEV IgM (19% seroprevalences. Hepatitis B patients with current HEV infection had abnormal liver function tests compared to patients with past or without HEV infection. One HEV isolate was retrieved from a patient with both liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and identified as HEV genotype 3. This study indicates high prevalences of HEV infection in Vietnamese HBV patients and among healthy individuals and shows that HEV superinfection may influence the outcome and progression of HBV-related liver disease.

  17. Oxidative stress and life histories: unresolved issues and current needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R; Blount, Jonathan D; Bronikowski, Anne M; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Isaksson, Caroline; Kirkwood, Tom B L; Monaghan, Pat; Ozanne, Susan E; Beaulieu, Michaël; Briga, Michael; Carr, Sarah K; Christensen, Louise L; Cochemé, Helena M; Cram, Dominic L; Dantzer, Ben; Harper, Jim M; Jurk, Diana; King, Annette; Noguera, Jose C; Salin, Karine; Sild, Elin; Simons, Mirre J P; Smith, Shona; Stier, Antoine; Tobler, Michael; Vitikainen, Emma; Peaker, Malcolm; Selman, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Life-history theory concerns the trade-offs that mold the patterns of investment by animals between reproduction, growth, and survival. It is widely recognized that physiology plays a role in the mediation of life-history trade-offs, but the details remain obscure. As life-history theory concerns aspects of investment in the soma that influence survival, understanding the physiological basis of life histories is related, but not identical, to understanding the process of aging. One idea from the field of aging that has gained considerable traction in the area of life histories is that life-history trade-offs may be mediated by free radical production and oxidative stress. We outline here developments in this field and summarize a number of important unresolved issues that may guide future research efforts. The issues are as follows. First, different tissues and macromolecular targets of oxidative stress respond differently during reproduction. The functional significance of these changes, however, remains uncertain. Consequently there is a need for studies that link oxidative stress measurements to functional outcomes, such as survival. Second, measurements of oxidative stress are often highly invasive or terminal. Terminal studies of oxidative stress in wild animals, where detailed life-history information is available, cannot generally be performed without compromising the aims of the studies that generated the life-history data. There is a need therefore for novel non-invasive measurements of multi-tissue oxidative stress. Third, laboratory studies provide unrivaled opportunities for experimental manipulation but may fail to expose the physiology underpinning life-history effects, because of the benign laboratory environment. Fourth, the idea that oxidative stress might underlie life-history trade-offs does not make specific enough predictions that are amenable to testing. Moreover, there is a paucity of good alternative theoretical models on which contrasting

  18. Are CSF Biomarkers Useful as Prognostic Indicators in Diagnostically Unresolved Cognitively Impaired Patients in a Normal Clinical Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene Schjønning; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Siersma, Volkert

    2016-01-01

    in diagnostically unresolved patients. METHODS: Data on 348 patients were retrospectively evaluated. All participants had a standardized diagnostic workup and follow-up in a memory clinic. RESULTS: Aβ42 levels and Aβ42/p-tau ratios were reduced and levels of t-tau and p-tau as well as the t-tau × p-tau/Aβ42 ratio......BACKGROUND: Despite an extensive evaluation program, patients may remain diagnostically unresolved with regard to the etiology of their cognitive dysfunction. Cerebrospinal fluid neuroinflammation and Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers may act as indicators of neurodegenerative disorders...... were elevated in diagnostically unresolved patients who clinically progressed, compared to a stable group. No differences in neuroinflammatory parameters were found. CONCLUSION: AD biomarkers - in particular the Aβ42/p-tau ratio, but not neuroinflammatory parameters - predicted clinical progression...

  19. Ensemble Kalman filters for dynamical systems with unresolved turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grooms, Ian, E-mail: grooms@cims.nyu.edu [Center for Atmosphere Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States); Lee, Yoonsang [Center for Atmosphere Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States); Majda, Andrew J. [Center for Atmosphere Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States); Center for Prototype Climate Modelling, NYU Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-09-15

    Ensemble Kalman filters are developed for turbulent dynamical systems where the forecast model does not resolve all the active scales of motion. Coarse-resolution models are intended to predict the large-scale part of the true dynamics, but observations invariably include contributions from both the resolved large scales and the unresolved small scales. The error due to the contribution of unresolved scales to the observations, called ‘representation’ or ‘representativeness’ error, is often included as part of the observation error, in addition to the raw measurement error, when estimating the large-scale part of the system. It is here shown how stochastic superparameterization (a multiscale method for subgridscale parameterization) can be used to provide estimates of the statistics of the unresolved scales. In addition, a new framework is developed wherein small-scale statistics can be used to estimate both the resolved and unresolved components of the solution. The one-dimensional test problem from dispersive wave turbulence used here is computationally tractable yet is particularly difficult for filtering because of the non-Gaussian extreme event statistics and substantial small scale turbulence: a shallow energy spectrum proportional to k{sup −5/6} (where k is the wavenumber) results in two-thirds of the climatological variance being carried by the unresolved small scales. Because the unresolved scales contain so much energy, filters that ignore the representation error fail utterly to provide meaningful estimates of the system state. Inclusion of a time-independent climatological estimate of the representation error in a standard framework leads to inaccurate estimates of the large-scale part of the signal; accurate estimates of the large scales are only achieved by using stochastic superparameterization to provide evolving, large-scale dependent predictions of the small-scale statistics. Again, because the unresolved scales contain so much energy

  20. Vaccination against the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes prevents death after influenza virus: S. pyogenes super-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoski, Joshua M; Hurtig, Heather R; Juber, Brian A; Schuneman, Margaret J; Bickett, Thomas E; Svendsen, Joshua M; Burum, Brandon; Penfound, Thomas A; Sereda, Grigoriy; Dale, James B; Chaussee, Michael S; Huber, Victor C

    2014-09-08

    Influenza virus infections are associated with a significant number of illnesses and deaths on an annual basis. Many of the deaths are due to complications from secondary bacterial invaders, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pyogenes. The β-hemolytic bacteria S. pyogenes colonizes both skin and respiratory surfaces, and frequently presents clinically as strep throat or impetigo. However, when these bacteria gain access to normally sterile sites, they can cause deadly diseases including sepsis, necrotizing fasciitis, and pneumonia. We previously developed a model of influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection, which we used to demonstrate that vaccination against influenza virus can limit deaths associated with a secondary bacterial infection, but this protection was not complete. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of a vaccine that targets the M protein of S. pyogenes to determine whether immunity toward the bacteria alone would allow the host to survive an influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection. Our data demonstrate that vaccination against the M protein induces IgG antibodies, in particular those of the IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, and that these antibodies can interact with macrophages. Ultimately, this vaccine-induced immunity eliminated death within our influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection model, despite the fact that all M protein-vaccinated mice showed signs of illness following influenza virus inoculation. These findings identify immunity against bacteria as an important component of protection against influenza virus:bacteria super-infection.

  1. Superinfection of hepatitis E Virus as a cause of decompen-sation in liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manisha Jain; Anita Chakravarti; P Kar Mbbs Md

    2009-01-01

    Objevtive:Super infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV)and hepatitis E virus (HEV)in the presence of un-derlying hepatocellular injury can cause severe illness.In endemic areas such as India,however most patients already have been exposed to HAV but could still be susceptible to HEV infection.In our study we determined the seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgMand anti-HEV IgMto assess the incidence of superinfection with these vi-ruses in cirrhotic patients with the goal of defining the need for protection against these viruses and further cor-relate the presence of these viruses with the clinical course.Methods:We studied 53 patients of cirrhosis as a result of Hepatitis B virus.Apparent causes of decompensation were ruled out before their inclusion in the study group.Serum sample from these patients was tested for HBsAg,anti HBc IgG,anti HEV IgMand anti HAV IgG and IgMby commercially available ELISA kit.Liver function test was done on all the patients and correlated with various serological markers.Results:anti HBc IgG was present in all the cases of cirrhosis. Hepatitis B surface antigen was present in 20 out of 53 cases of cirrhosis.None of the patients demonstrated anti-HAV IgM,however one patient had anti-HEV IgM.Conclusion:Superinfection with HAV in adult pa-tient is uncommon in India.Prevalence of acute HEV infection in decompensated cirrhosis is low in the present study but presence of HEV superinfection in one patient corroborates the apprehension of liver function deterio-ration following superinfection with HEV virus.

  2. Increased susceptibility for superinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae during influenza virus infection is not caused by TLR7-mediated lymphopenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Stegemann

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV causes respiratory tract infections leading to recurring epidemics with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In the past century IAV induced several world-wide pandemics, the most aggressive occurring in 1918 with a death toll of 20-50 million cases. However, infection with IAV alone is rarely fatal. Instead, death associated with IAV is usually mediated by superinfection with bacteria, mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae. The reasons for this increased susceptibility to bacterial superinfection have not been fully elucidated. We previously demonstrated that triggering of TLR7 causes immune incompetence in mice by induction of lymphopenia. IAV is recognized by TLR7 and infections can lead to lymphopenia. Since lymphocytes are critical to protect from S. pneumoniae it has long been speculated that IAV-induced lymphopenia might mediate increased susceptibility to superinfection. Here we show that sub-lethal pre-infections of mice with IAV-PR8/A/34 strongly increased their mortality in non-lethal SP infections, surprisingly despite the absence of detectable lymphopenia. In contrast to SP-infection alone co-infected animals were unable to control the exponential growth of SP. However, lymphopenia forced by TLR7-triggering or antibody-mediated neutropenia did not increase SP-susceptibility or compromise the ability to control SP growth. Thus, the immune-incompetence caused by transient lympho- or leukopenia is not sufficient to inhibit potent antibacterial responses of the host and mechanisms distinct from leukodepletion must account for increased bacterial superinfection during viral defence.

  3. Superinfection interference between dengue-2 and dengue-4 viruses in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Buckner, Eva; Bara, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    Dengue virus consists of four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4) that are transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. In many dengue-endemic regions, co-circulation of two or more DENV serotypes is fairly common increasing the likelihood for exposure of the two vectors to multiple serotypes. We used a model system of DENV-2 and DENV-4 to investigate how prior exposure of Aedes aegypti to one DENV serotype affects its susceptibility to another serotype. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were sequentially infected with DENV-2 and DENV-4 and the infection and dissemination rates for each virus determined. We found that prior infection of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with DENV-4 rendered them significantly less susceptible to secondary infection with DENV-2. Although the results were not statistically significant, mosquitoes infected with DENV-2 were also less susceptible to secondary infection with DENV-4. The midgut dissemination and population dissemination rates for DENV-2 were significantly higher than those of DENV-4 when either virus was administered 7 days after administration of either a non-infectious blood meal or a blood meal containing a heterologous dengue serotype. These results demonstrate that superinfection interference between DENV serotypes is possible within Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, but its effect on DENV epidemiology may be dependent on the fitness of interacting serotypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Mothers’ Unresolved Trauma Blunts Amygdala Response to Infant Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S.; Fonagy, P; Allen, J.; Strathearn, L.

    2014-01-01

    While the neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder has been extensively researched, much less attention has been paid to the neural mechanisms underlying more covert but pervasive types of trauma (e.g., those involving disrupted relationships and insecure attachment). Here, we report on a neurobiological study documenting that mothers' attachment-related trauma, when unresolved, undermines her optimal brain response to her infant's distress. We examined the amygdala blood oxygenation le...

  5. Exercise hemorheology: Classical data, recent findings and unresolved issues

    OpenAIRE

    Başkurt, Oğuz K.; Connes, Philippe; Simmonds, Michael J.; Brun, Jean-Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The present review focuses on the past and recent knowledge in the field of exercise hemorheology and presents some unresolved issues for opening discussion. Acute exercise is associated with a rise in hematocrit which results in an increase in blood viscosity. Whereas increased blood viscosity was previously viewed as having negative consequences for cardiovascular function and aerobic performance, recent findings suggest dynamic changes in blood viscosity might be useful for vascular functi...

  6. Credit creation and control: an unresolved issue in Islamic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Zubair

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. This paper deals with a still unresolved issue - credit creation and control- in an interest free banking system. The available literature on the subject is scanty, controversial and inconclusive. The paper holds that credit creation per se is not un-Islamic; the essential point is how credit is generated and used. It argues that credit creation cannot be banished; it is an imperative for frictionless adjustment of money supply to unavoidable fluctuations in its demand in modern...

  7. Some Unresolved Issues in Ocean Pipes Aspirating Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Qin; WANG Lin; NI Qiao; HUANG Yu-ying

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the dynamics of ocean pipes aspirating fluid and presents a selective review of the research undertaken on it. It focuses on the equations of motion, fluid-solid interaction at the inlet of the free end of the pipe, the stability mechanism of pipes aspirating steady fluid, etc. In particular, some unresolved or partly resolved issues on these important aspects are discussed. Finally, the promising future development in this area is discussed.

  8. Mothers' unresolved trauma blunts amygdala response to infant distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Fonagy, Peter; Allen, Jon; Strathearn, Lane

    2014-01-01

    While the neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder has been extensively researched, much less attention has been paid to the neural mechanisms underlying more covert but pervasive types of trauma (e.g., those involving disrupted relationships and insecure attachment). Here, we report on a neurobiological study documenting that mothers' attachment-related trauma, when unresolved, undermines her optimal brain response to her infant's distress. We examined the amygdala blood oxygenation level-dependent response in 42 first-time mothers as they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, viewing happy- and sad-face images of their own infant, along with those of a matched unknown infant. Whereas mothers with no trauma demonstrated greater amygdala responses to the sad faces of their own infant as compared to their happy faces, mothers who were classified as having unresolved trauma in the Adult Attachment Interview (Dynamic Maturational Model) displayed blunted amygdala responses when cued by their own infants' sadness as compared to happiness. Unknown infant faces did not elicit differential amygdala responses between the mother groups. The blunting of the amygdala response in traumatized mothers is discussed as a neural indication of mothers' possible disengagement from infant distress, which may be part of a process linking maternal unresolved trauma and disrupted maternal caregiving.

  9. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  10. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  11. Superinfection between Influenza and RSV Alternating Patterns in San Luis Potosí State, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Hernández, Jorge Xicoténcatl; Núñez-López, Mayra; Comas-García, Andreu; Cherpitel, Daniel Ernesto Noyola; Ocampo, Marcos Capistrán

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explain through the ecological hypothesis superinfection and competitive interaction between two viral populations and niche (host) availability, the alternating patterns of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and influenza observed in a regional hospital in San Luis Potosí State, México using a mathematical model as a methodological tool. The data analyzed consists of community-based and hospital-based Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) consultations provided by health-care institutions reported to the State Health Service Epidemiology Department from 2003 through 2009. PMID:25803450

  12. A 5'-proximal region of the Citrus tristeza virus genome encoding two leader proteases is involved in virus superinfection exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Osama O; Kang, Sung-Hwan; El-Mohtar, Choaa A; Shilts, Turksen; Bergua, María; Folimonova, Svetlana Y

    2016-02-01

    Superinfection exclusion (SIE), a phenomenon in which a primary virus infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely related virus, has been observed with various viruses. Earlier we demonstrated that SIE by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) requires viral p33 protein. In this work we show that p33 alone is not sufficient for virus exclusion. To define the additional viral components that are involved in this phenomenon, we engineered a hybrid virus in which a 5'-proximal region in the genome of the T36 isolate containing coding sequences for the two leader proteases L1 and L2 has been substituted with a corresponding region from the genome of a heterologous T68-1 isolate. Sequential inoculation of plants pre-infected with the CTV L1L2T68 hybrid with T36 CTV resulted in superinfection with the challenge virus, which indicated that the substitution of the L1-L2 coding region affected SIE ability of the virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Unresolved issues in the search for eta-mesic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kelkar, N G

    2015-01-01

    Even if the theoretical definition of an unstable state is straightforward, its experimental identification often depends on the method used in the analysis and extraction of data. A good example is the case of eta mesic nuclei where strong hints of their existence led to about three decades of extensive theoretical and experimental searches. Considering the still undecided status of these states and the limitations in the understanding of the eta-nucleon as well as the eta-nucleus interaction, the present article tries to look back at some unresolved problems in the production mechanism and final state interaction of the eta mesons and nuclei. An unconventional perspective which provides a physical insight into the nature of the eta-nucleus interaction is also presented using quantum time concepts.

  14. Diversity, disparity, and evolutionary rate estimation for unresolved Yule trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Forrest W; Suchard, Marc A

    2013-05-01

    The branching structure of biological evolution confers statistical dependencies on phenotypic trait values in related organisms. For this reason, comparative macroevolutionary studies usually begin with an inferred phylogeny that describes the evolutionary relationships of the organisms of interest. The probability of the observed trait data can be computed by assuming a model for trait evolution, such as Brownian motion, over the branches of this fixed tree. However, the phylogenetic tree itself contributes statistical uncertainty to estimates of rates of phenotypic evolution, and many comparative evolutionary biologists regard the tree as a nuisance parameter. In this article, we present a framework for analytically integrating over unknown phylogenetic trees in comparative evolutionary studies by assuming that the tree arises from a continuous-time Markov branching model called the Yule process. To do this, we derive a closed-form expression for the distribution of phylogenetic diversity (PD), which is the sum of branch lengths connecting the species in a clade. We then present a generalization of PD which is equivalent to the expected trait disparity in a set of taxa whose evolutionary relationships are generated by a Yule process and whose traits evolve by Brownian motion. We find expressions for the distribution of expected trait disparity under a Yule tree. Given one or more observations of trait disparity in a clade, we perform fast likelihood-based estimation of the Brownian variance for unresolved clades. Our method does not require simulation or a fixed phylogenetic tree. We conclude with a brief example illustrating Brownian rate estimation for 12 families in the mammalian order Carnivora, in which the phylogenetic tree for each family is unresolved.

  15. 15e CONFERENCE INTERNATIONALE TOURNESOL Sunflower ecophysiology: some unresolved issues*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Antonio J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Major unresolved issues in sunflower ecophysiology constrain efforts to improve crop modelling, management, genetic analysis and breeding. Three issues are used here to illustrate this point. Firstly, much of the work on the duration of the emergence to flowering phase has considered the phase as a whole. It is argued that a more detailed analysis based on sub-phases is required, particularly in view of possible intraspecific variability in the durations of the basic vegetative and juvenile phases and evidence that photoperiod responses before, during and after floral initiation may differ between genotypes and even be of opposite sign for the same genotype. Secondly,contrasting responses of grain oil proportion to manipulation of plant population density and incident radiation appear to be linked to variations in kernel oil proportion rather than to kernel: hull ratio, and responses of grain oil proportion to changes in sowing date seem to have a similar origin. More effort should be focused on understanding the controls of oil mass per kernel. It is speculated that there may be a genotype-dependent limit to this variable. A third unresolved issue relates to the nature and strength of the linkage between post-anthesis stay-green and leaf photosynthetic functionality. These variables are poorly related during pre-anthesis senescence of leaves in the lower portion of closed canopies, and for sunflower this linkage appears much weaker than in other crop species. Current interest in post-anthesis stay-green as a possibly useful crop attribute requires clarification of this uncertainty.

  16. Superinfection exclusion of the ruminant pathogen anaplasma marginale in the tick vector is dependent on time between exposures to the strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The remarkable genetic diversity of vector-borne pathogens allows for the establishment of superinfection in the mammalian host. To have a long-term impact on population strain structure, the introduced strains must also be transmitted by a vector population that has been exposed to the existing pri...

  17. X-exome sequencing of 405 unresolved families identifies seven novel intellectual disability genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H; Haas, S A; Chelly, J; Van Esch, H; Raynaud, M; de Brouwer, A P M; Weinert, S; Froyen, G; Frints, S G M; Laumonnier, F; Zemojtel, T; Love, M I; Richard, H; Emde, A-K; Bienek, M; Jensen, C; Hambrock, M; Fischer, U; Langnick, C; Feldkamp, M; Wissink-Lindhout, W; Lebrun, N; Castelnau, L; Rucci, J; Montjean, R; Dorseuil, O; Billuart, P; Stuhlmann, T; Shaw, M; Corbett, M A; Gardner, A; Willis-Owen, S; Tan, C; Friend, K L; Belet, S; van Roozendaal, K E P; Jimenez-Pocquet, M; Moizard, M-P; Ronce, N; Sun, R; O'Keeffe, S; Chenna, R; van Bömmel, A; Göke, J; Hackett, A; Field, M; Christie, L; Boyle, J; Haan, E; Nelson, J; Turner, G; Baynam, G; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G; Müller, U; Steinberger, D; Budny, B; Badura-Stronka, M; Latos-Bieleńska, A; Ousager, L B; Wieacker, P; Rodríguez Criado, G; Bondeson, M-L; Annerén, G; Dufke, A; Cohen, M; Van Maldergem, L; Vincent-Delorme, C; Echenne, B; Simon-Bouy, B; Kleefstra, T; Willemsen, M; Fryns, J-P; Devriendt, K; Ullmann, R; Vingron, M; Wrogemann, K; Wienker, T F; Tzschach, A; van Bokhoven, H; Gecz, J; Jentsch, T J; Chen, W; Ropers, H-H; Kalscheuer, V M

    2016-01-01

    X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. During the past two decades in excess of 100 X-chromosome ID genes have been identified. Yet, a large number of families mapping to the X-chromosome remained unresolved suggesting that more XLID genes or loci are yet to be identified. Here, we have investigated 405 unresolved families with XLID. We employed massively parallel sequencing of all X-chromosome exons in the index males. The majority of these males were previously tested negative for copy number variations and for mutations in a subset of known XLID genes by Sanger sequencing. In total, 745 X-chromosomal genes were screened. After stringent filtering, a total of 1297 non-recurrent exonic variants remained for prioritization. Co-segregation analysis of potential clinically relevant changes revealed that 80 families (20%) carried pathogenic variants in established XLID genes. In 19 families, we detected likely causative protein truncating and missense variants in 7 novel and validated XLID genes (CLCN4, CNKSR2, FRMPD4, KLHL15, LAS1L, RLIM and USP27X) and potentially deleterious variants in 2 novel candidate XLID genes (CDK16 and TAF1). We show that the CLCN4 and CNKSR2 variants impair protein functions as indicated by electrophysiological studies and altered differentiation of cultured primary neurons from Clcn4(-/-) mice or after mRNA knock-down. The newly identified and candidate XLID proteins belong to pathways and networks with established roles in cognitive function and intellectual disability in particular. We suggest that systematic sequencing of all X-chromosomal genes in a cohort of patients with genetic evidence for X-chromosome locus involvement may resolve up to 58% of Fragile X-negative cases.

  18. Classical Swine Fever Virus vs. Classical Swine Fever Virus: The Superinfection Exclusion Phenomenon in Experimentally Infected Wild Boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Sara; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Cabezón, Oscar; Bohórquez, José Alejandro; Rosell, Rosa; Pérez, Lester Josué; Marco, Ignasi; Lavín, Santiago; Domingo, Mariano; Ganges, Llilianne

    2016-01-01

    Two groups with three wild boars each were used: Group A (animals 1 to 3) served as the control, and Group B (animals 4 to 6) was postnatally persistently infected with the Cat01 strain of CSFV (primary virus). The animals, six weeks old and clinically healthy, were inoculated with the virulent strain Margarita (secondary virus). For exclusive detection of the Margarita strain, a specific qRT-PCR assay was designed, which proved not to have cross-reactivity with the Cat01 strain. The wild boars persistently infected with CSFV were protected from superinfection by the virulent CSFV Margarita strain, as evidenced by the absence of clinical signs and the absence of Margarita RNA detection in serum, swabs and tissue samples. Additionally, in PBMCs, a well-known target for CSFV viral replication, only the primary infecting virus RNA (Cat01 strain) could be detected, even after the isolation in ST cells, demonstrating SIE at the tissue level in vivo. Furthermore, the data analysis of the Margarita qRT-PCR, by means of calculated ΔCt values, supported that PBMCs from persistently infected animals were substantially protected from superinfection after in vitro inoculation with the Margarita virus strain, while this virus was able to infect naive PBMCs efficiently. In parallel, IFN-α values were undetectable in the sera from animals in Group B after inoculation with the CSFV Margarita strain. Furthermore, these animals were unable to elicit adaptive humoral (no E2-specific or neutralising antibodies) or cellular immune responses (in terms of IFN-γ-producing cells) after inoculation with the second virus. Finally, a sequence analysis could not detect CSFV Margarita RNA in the samples tested from Group B. Our results suggested that the SIE phenomenon might be involved in the evolution and phylogeny of the virus, as well as in CSFV control by vaccination. To the best of our knowledge, this study was one of the first showing efficient suppression of superinfection in animals

  19. Classical Swine Fever Virus vs. Classical Swine Fever Virus: The Superinfection Exclusion Phenomenon in Experimentally Infected Wild Boar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Muñoz-González

    Full Text Available Two groups with three wild boars each were used: Group A (animals 1 to 3 served as the control, and Group B (animals 4 to 6 was postnatally persistently infected with the Cat01 strain of CSFV (primary virus. The animals, six weeks old and clinically healthy, were inoculated with the virulent strain Margarita (secondary virus. For exclusive detection of the Margarita strain, a specific qRT-PCR assay was designed, which proved not to have cross-reactivity with the Cat01 strain. The wild boars persistently infected with CSFV were protected from superinfection by the virulent CSFV Margarita strain, as evidenced by the absence of clinical signs and the absence of Margarita RNA detection in serum, swabs and tissue samples. Additionally, in PBMCs, a well-known target for CSFV viral replication, only the primary infecting virus RNA (Cat01 strain could be detected, even after the isolation in ST cells, demonstrating SIE at the tissue level in vivo. Furthermore, the data analysis of the Margarita qRT-PCR, by means of calculated ΔCt values, supported that PBMCs from persistently infected animals were substantially protected from superinfection after in vitro inoculation with the Margarita virus strain, while this virus was able to infect naive PBMCs efficiently. In parallel, IFN-α values were undetectable in the sera from animals in Group B after inoculation with the CSFV Margarita strain. Furthermore, these animals were unable to elicit adaptive humoral (no E2-specific or neutralising antibodies or cellular immune responses (in terms of IFN-γ-producing cells after inoculation with the second virus. Finally, a sequence analysis could not detect CSFV Margarita RNA in the samples tested from Group B. Our results suggested that the SIE phenomenon might be involved in the evolution and phylogeny of the virus, as well as in CSFV control by vaccination. To the best of our knowledge, this study was one of the first showing efficient suppression of

  20. Identification of geostationary satellites using polarization data from unresolved images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Andy

    In order to protect critical military and commercial space assets, the United States Space Surveillance Network must have the ability to positively identify and characterize all space objects. Unfortunately, positive identification and characterization of space objects is a manual and labor intensive process today since even large telescopes cannot provide resolved images of most space objects. Since resolved images of geosynchronous satellites are not technically feasible with current technology, another method of distinguishing space objects was explored that exploits the polarization signature from unresolved images. The objective of this study was to collect and analyze visible-spectrum polarization data from unresolved images of geosynchronous satellites taken over various solar phase angles. Different collection geometries were used to evaluate the polarization contribution of solar arrays, thermal control materials, antennas, and the satellite bus as the solar phase angle changed. Since materials on space objects age due to the space environment, it was postulated that their polarization signature may change enough to allow discrimination of identical satellites launched at different times. The instrumentation used in this experiment was a United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) Department of Physics system that consists of a 20-inch Ritchey-Chretien telescope and a dual focal plane optical train fed with a polarizing beam splitter. A rigorous calibration of the system was performed that included corrections for pixel bias, dark current, and response. Additionally, the two channel polarimeter was calibrated by experimentally determining the Mueller matrix for the system and relating image intensity at the two cameras to Stokes parameters S0 and S1. After the system calibration, polarization data was collected during three nights on eight geosynchronous satellites built by various manufacturers and launched several years apart. Three pairs of the eight

  1. Numerical Simulations of Some Unresolved Issues in Diocotron Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Grant W.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2003-10-01

    Several unresolved issues concerning the growth or decay of diocotron modes of nonneutral plasmas in Malmberg-Penning traps were presented at a recent workshop(Workshop on Non-Neutral Plasmas---2003, July 7-11, 2003, Santa Fe, New Mexico. To appear in AIP Conference Proceedings.) 1) Fajans and Pasquini report that, contrary to infinite length models, flat-topped (n(r) = constant) electron columns are violently unstable for non-maxwellian velocity distributions. 2) Driscoll and Kabantsev report that magnetic mirror analogs of electrostatically created trapped-particle asymmetry modes fail to appear in experiments. 3) Kabantsev and Driscoll report that small numbers of positive ions added to electron columns are diocotron unstable, with implications for antihydrogen formation experiments. 4) Driscoll and Kabantsev report that the decay of electrostatically confined asymmetry modes scales with axial magnetic field for low rigidity as B-1 whereas simulations show a B-2 behavior for low rigidity. We report on progress in simulations of these various effects with a detailed particle-in-cell code (Inferno).

  2. Progress Towards an LES Wall Model Including Unresolved Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew; Aikens, Kurt

    2015-11-01

    Wall models used in large eddy simulations (LES) are often based on theories for hydraulically smooth walls. While this is reasonable for many applications, there are also many where the impact of surface roughness is important. A previously developed wall model has been used primarily for jet engine aeroacoustics. However, jet simulations have not accurately captured thick initial shear layers found in some experimental data. This may partly be due to nozzle wall roughness used in the experiments to promote turbulent boundary layers. As a result, the wall model is extended to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness through appropriate alterations to the log-law. The methodology is tested for incompressible flat plate boundary layers with different surface roughness. Correct trends are noted for the impact of surface roughness on the velocity profile. However, velocity deficit profiles and the Reynolds stresses do not collapse as well as expected. Possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as future work will be presented. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  3. Post-liver transplant hepatitis C virus recurrence: an unresolved thorny problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Alberto; Ballardini, Giorgio

    2014-08-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis represents the leading cause of liver transplantation in developed, Western and Eastern countries. Unfortunately, liver transplantation does not cure recipient HCV infection: reinfection universally occurs and disease progression is faster after liver transplant. In this review we focus on what happens throughout the peri-transplant phase and in the first 6-12 mo after transplantation: during this crucial period a completely new balance between HCV, liver graft, the recipient's immune response and anti-rejection therapy is achieved that will deeply affect subsequent outcomes. Nearly all patients show an early graft reinfection, with HCV viremia reaching and exceeding pre-transplant levels; in this setting, histological assessment is essential to differentiate recurrent hepatitis C from acute or chronic rejection; however, differentiating the two patterns remains difficult. The host immune response (mainly cellular mediated) appears to be crucial both in the control of HCV infection and in the genesis of rejection, and it is also strongly influenced by immunosuppressive treatment. At present no clear immunosuppressive strategy could be strongly recommended in HCV-positive recipients to prevent HCV recurrence, even immunotherapy appears to be ineffective. Nonetheless it seems reasonable that episodes of rejection and over-immunosuppression are more likely to enhance the risk of HCV recurrence through immunological mechanisms. Both complete prevention of rejection and optimization of immunosuppression should represent the main goals towards reducing the rate of graft HCV reinfection. In conclusion, post-transplant HCV recurrence remains an unresolved, thorny problem because many factors remain obscure and need to be better determined.

  4. A self-perpetuating repressive state of a viral replication protein blocks superinfection by the same virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Rong; Guo, Qin; Zhang, Shaoyan; Li, Dawei

    2017-01-01

    Diverse animal and plant viruses block the re-infection of host cells by the same or highly similar viruses through superinfection exclusion (SIE), a widely observed, yet poorly understood phenomenon. Here we demonstrate that SIE of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is exclusively determined by p28, one of the two replication proteins encoded by this virus. p28 expressed from a TCV replicon exerts strong SIE to a different TCV replicon. Transiently expressed p28, delivered simultaneously with, or ahead of, a TCV replicon, largely recapitulates this repressive activity. Interestingly, p28-mediated SIE is dramatically enhanced by C-terminally fused epitope tags or fluorescent proteins, but weakened by N-terminal modifications, and it inversely correlates with the ability of p28 to complement the replication of a p28-defective TCV replicon. Strikingly, p28 in SIE-positive cells forms large, mobile punctate inclusions that trans-aggregate a non-coalescing, SIE-defective, yet replication-competent p28 mutant. These results support a model postulating that TCV SIE is caused by the formation of multimeric p28 complexes capable of intercepting fresh p28 monomers translated from superinfector genomes, thereby abolishing superinfector replication. This model could prove to be applicable to other RNA viruses, and offer novel targets for antiviral therapy. PMID:28267773

  5. Characterization of an infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus carrier cell culture with resistance to superinfection with heterologous viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Inmaculada; Galiana, Antonio; Falcó, Alberto; Estepa, Amparo; Perez, Luis

    2011-04-21

    A state of persistence of a non susceptible fish cell line with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was established in vitro by experimental infection. The persistently infected culture showed sustained production of infectious virus and could be continuously passaged for months. A distinct feature of this culture is that only a very small fraction of the cells harbours virus replication, in contrast to other reported IPNV-persistently infected cells from salmonid fish, where nearly all the cells express viral antigens. In spite of the small number of detectable IPNV-infected cells, the carrier culture shows resistance to superinfection with homologous as well as heterologous viruses. Temperature shift-up experiments indicate that viral interference is due to continuous replication of IPNV in the culture. Quantitation of Mx gene expression suggested that the interference phenomenon could be mediated by the activation of the interferon (IFN) system. However, conditioned medium from the IPNV-infected cell cultures only marginally protected other cells against VHSV infection, indicating that other type I IFN-independent mechanism may be underlying the resistance of the persistently infected culture to infection with heterologous viruses. Our study defines a novel in vitro model of IPNV persistence and contributes to the understanding of the widespread distribution of aquabirnaviruses in marine and fresh water environments by establishing a carrier state in non susceptible fish species.

  6. Oxidative stress and life histories : Unresolved issues and current needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speakman, John R.; Blount, Jonathan D.; Bronikowski, Anne M.; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Isaksson, Caroline; Kirkwood, Tom B. L.; Monaghan, Pat; Ozanne, Susan E.; Beaulieu, Michael; Briga, Michael; Carr, Sarah K.; Christensen, Louise L.; Cocheme, Helena M.; Cram, Dominic L.; Dantzer, Ben; Harper, Jim M.; Jurk, Diana; King, Annette; Noguera, Jose C.; Salin, Karine; Sild, Elin; Simons, Mirre J. P.; Smith, Shona; Stier, Antoine; Tobler, Michael; Vitikainen, Emma; Peaker, Malcolm; Selman, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory concerns the trade-offs that mold the patterns of investment by animals between reproduction, growth, and survival. It is widely recognized that physiology plays a role in the mediation of life-history trade-offs, but the details remain obscure. As life-history theory concerns as

  7. Functional MRI correlates of the recall of unresolved life events in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beblo, Thomas; Driessen, Martin; Mertens, Markus; Wingenfeld, Katja; Piefke, Martina; Rullkoetter, Nina; Silva-Saavedra, Anamaria; Mensebach, Christoph; Reddemann, Luise; Rau, Harald; Markowitsch, Hans J; Wulff, Hella; Lange, Wolfgang; Berea, Cristina; Ollech, Isabella; Woermann, Friedrich G

    2006-06-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently report unresolved life events but it is still poorly understood, how these experiences are represented in the brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study aimed at investigating the neural correlates of the recall of unresolved life events in patients with BPD and healthy controls. Twenty female BPD patients and 21 healthy control subjects underwent fMRI. During measurement subjects recalled unresolved and resolved negative life events. Individual cue words were used to stimulate autobiographical memory. After scanning, subjects rated their emotional states during the recall of both types of memories. When contrasting unresolved and resolved life events, patients showed significant bilateral activation of frontotemporal areas including the insula, amygdala, and the anterior cingulate cortex, the left posterior cingulate cortex, right occipital cortex, the bilateral cerebellum and the midbrain. In healthy subjects, no differential brain activation was related to these conditions. The 2 x 2 factorial analysis (DeltaBPD - Deltacontrols) revealed similar results with bilateral activation of the frontal cortex including parts of the insula and of the orbitofrontal cortex, temporal activation including the amygdala, activation of the right occipital cortex, and parts of the cerebellum. Patients but not controls reported higher levels of anxiety and helplessness during the unresolved versus resolved memory condition. The activation of both, the amygdala and prefrontal areas, might reflect an increased effortful but insufficient attempt to control intensive emotions during the recall of unresolved life events in patients with BPD.

  8. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  9. Parasite remains in archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bouchet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefly surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  10. Organic Chemicals Remain High Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Phenol In early April 2007, China's phenol price remained bullish, and with the restart of phenol/acetone units in Sinopec Beijing Yanhua Petrochemical being ahead of schedule, there were few trading actions in the market, and the price of phenol dropped considerably afterwards.

  11. Respiratory Commensal Bacteria Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum Improves Resistance of Infant Mice to Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae Superinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulraj Kanmani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a Gram-positive bacterium found as a member of the normal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract. It was suggested that C. pseudodiphtheriticum may be potentially used as a next-generation probiotic for nasal application, although no deep studies were performed in this regard. We hypothesized that human isolate C. pseudodiphtheriticum strain 090104 is able to modulate the respiratory innate immune response and beneficially influence the resistance to viral and bacterial infections. Therefore, in the present study we investigated how the exposure of infant mice to nasal priming with viable or non-viable C. pseudodiphtheriticum 090104 influences the respiratory innate immune response triggered by Toll-like receptor (TLR-3 activation, the susceptibility to primary Respiratory Synsytial Virus (RSV infection, and the resistance to secondary Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. We demonstrated that the nasal priming with viable C. pseudodiphtheriticum 090104 differentially modulated TLR3-mediated innate antiviral immune response in the respiratory tract of infant mice, improving their resistance to primary RSV infection, and secondary pneumococcal pneumonia. In association with the protection against RSV-pneumococcal superinfection, we found that viable C. pseudodiphtheriticum improved lung CD3+CD4+IFN-γ+, and CD3+CD4+IL-10+ T cells as well as CD11c+SiglecF+IFN-β+ alveolar macrophages. Of interest, non-viable bacteria did not have the same protective effect, suggesting that C. pseudodiphtheriticum colonization is needed for achieving its protective effect. In conclusion, we present evidence that nasal application of viable C. pseudodiphtheriticum could be thought as an alternative to boost defenses against RSV and secondary pneumococcal pneumonia, which should be further studied and validated in clinical trials. Due to the absence of a long-lasting immunity, re-infection with RSV throughout life is common

  12. Haploidentical Transplantation in Children with Acute Leukemia: The Unresolved Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Rani Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT remains a curative option for children with high risk and advanced acute leukemia. Yet availability of matched family donor limits its use and although matched unrelated donor or mismatched umbilical cord blood (UCB are viable options, they fail to meet the global need. Haploidentical family donor is almost universally available and is emerging as the alternate donor of choice in adult patients. However, the same is not true in the case of children. The studies of haploidentical HSCT in children are largely limited to T cell depleted grafts with not so encouraging results in advanced leukemia. At the same time, emerging data from UCBT are challenging the existing paradigm of less stringent HLA match requirements as perceived in the past. The use of posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY has yielded encouraging results in adults, but data in children is sorely lacking. Our experience of using PTCY based haploidentical HSCT in children shows inadequacy of this approach in younger children compared to excellent outcome in older children. In this context, we discuss the current status of haploidentical HSCT in children with acute leukemia in a global perspective and dwell on its future prospects.

  13. The unresolved role of systemic factors in bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessalyn M. Ubellacker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic factors including cytokines, cell-free nucleic acids, microvesicles, and platelets are appreciated as important regulators of adenocarcinoma progression. Research findings using pre-clinical mouse models have revealed that many such systemically acting factors are either secreted by or responsive to peripheral tumors and impact bone and bone marrow (collectively referred to as the bone microenvironment to initiate processes that ultimately govern disease progression, even in the absence of detectable bone metastases. In some cases, cancer-driven modulation of the bone microenvironment involves mobilization of bone marrow hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells into the circulation that are subsequently recruited into peripheral tissues and tumors. In other cases, systemic factors alter bone marrow cell (BMC differentiation and/or gene expression to render the BMCs pro-tumorigenic even prior to their mobilization into the circulation. Given their effect on the bone microenvironment, it stands to reason that such systemic factors might also influence metastases in the bone; however, this hypothesis remains to be comprehensively tested. Here, we briefly review what is known, and not known, about systemic factors that regulate the bone microenvironment and thereby influence bone metastases. We also pose a number of currently unanswered questions in this active area of research. A better understanding of systemic processes that influence bone metastasis should aid discovery of therapeutic approaches that aim to eradicate or reduce disease burden in the bone, which is the cause of significant patient mortality and morbidity and is currently incurable.

  14. More answers to the still unresolved question of nitrate tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas; Gori, Tommaso

    2013-09-01

    Organic nitrates are traditionally felt to be a safe adjuvant in the chronic therapy of patients with coronary artery disease. Despite their long use, progress in the understanding of the pharmacology and mechanism of action of these drugs has been achieved only in the last two decades, with the identification of the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of nitrate tolerance, with, the discovery of the ancillary effects of nitrates, and with the demonstration that nitrate therapy has important chronic side effects that might modify patients' prognosis. These advances are however mostly confined to the molecular level or to studies in healthy volunteers, and the true impact of organic nitrates on clinical outcome remains unknown. Complicating this issue, evidence supports the existence of important differences among the different drugs belonging to the group, and there are reasons to believe that the nitrates should not be treated as a homogeneous class. As well, the understanding of the effects of alternative nitric oxide (NO) donors is currently being developed, and future studies will need to test whether the properties of these new medications may compensate and prevent the abnormalities imposed by chronic nitrate therapy. Intermittent therapy with nitroglycerin and isosorbide mononitrate is now established in clinical practice, but they should neither be considered a definitive solution to the problem of nitrate tolerance. Both these strategies are not deprived of complications, and should currently be seen as a compromise rather than a way fully to exploit the benefits of NO donor therapy.

  15. Unresolved Issues about Post-ERCP Pancreatitis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testoni PA

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatitis represents the most common and feared complication after endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography. Since the introduction of ERCP into clinical practice, many attempts have been made to identify the mechanisms and conditions that can place patients at risk of developing post-procedure pancreatitis, with conflicting and in most cases unsatisfactory results. The following questions about post-ERCP pancreatitis still remain unanswered: the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the onset of pancreatitis, procedural factors that can induce pancreatic damage, patient conditions that can increase the risk of developing pancreatitis in the post-procedure period, criteria for predicting the occurrence of pancreatitis, and possible methods of preventing the complication. Moreover, the criteria used to define post-ERCP pancreatitis differ in various studies and, consequently, there is a wide variation in the literature of the incidence of this complication and it is still not clear what its real incidence is. In the last six years, a significant advance in knowledge has been achieved in most of the above-mentioned fields. Four large prospective multicentre trials seemed to definitely identify patient- and technique-related risk factors that can place patients at risk of developing post-ERCP pancreatitis; clinical conditions, procedure- and patient-related factors, and laboratory tests able to predict the occurrence of post-ERCP pancreatitis in the early phase have been identified. An attempt to identify criteria for defining post-ERCP pancreatitis has also been carried out, although these proposed criteria have not been widely adopted by all Authors.

  16. Alarms Remain,Efforts Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ China must come to terms with the fact that it has quality problems in at least 1% of its products.Though there is no country in the world that can completely avoid problems,given the responsible role China plays on the intemational stage,China should stop to take a look at itself and find ways to improve.China must examine herself carefully,when looking at the production chain;we have to keep aware that some alarms still remain.

  17. Unresolved Trauma in Mothers: Intergenerational Effects and the Role of Reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udita eIyengar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A mother’s unresolved trauma may interfere with her ability to sensitively respond to her infant, thus affecting the development of attachment in her own child, and potentially contributing to the intergenerational transmission of trauma. One novel construct within the Dynamic Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation (DMM coding of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI is reorganization, a process whereby speakers are actively changing their understanding of past and present experiences and moving toward attachment security. We conducted a study of mothers with unresolved trauma, exploring their own attachment classification, attachment outcomes of their children, and the potential effects of reorganization on child attachment. Forty-seven first-time mothers participated in the AAI during pregnancy, and returned with their child at 11 months to assess child attachment using the Strange Situation Procedure. Mothers with and without unresolved trauma were compared. We found that mothers with unresolved trauma had insecure attachment themselves and were more likely to have infants with insecure attachment. However, the one exception was that all of the mothers with unresolved trauma who were reorganizing towards secure attachment had infants with secure attachment. These preliminary findings suggest that mothers who are reorganizing may be able to more sensitively respond to their child’s cues, contributing to the development of secure attachment. While our results need to be replicated in a larger cohort, this study is the first to explore the construct of reorganization and its potential relationship with child attachment. If confirmed in future studies, it may provide clinical insight into the intergenerational transmission of insecure attachment within the context of unresolved trauma.

  18. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  19. Low-Replicating Viruses and Strong Anti-Viral Immune Response Associated with Prolonged Disease Control in a Superinfected HIV-1 LTNP Elite Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, María; Casado, Concepción; Arcones, Carolina; Llano, Anuska; Sánchez-Merino, Víctor; Mothe, Beatriz; Vicario, José L.; Grau, Eulalia; Ruiz, Lidia; Sánchez, Jorge; Telenti, Amalio; Yuste, Eloísa; Brander, Christian; Galíndez, Cecilio López-

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the causes for the lack of clinical progression in a superinfected HIV-1 LTNP elite controller patient. Methodology and Principal Findings We studied host genetic, virological and immunological factors associated with viral control in a SI long term non progressor elite controller (LTNP-EC). The individual contained both viruses and maintained undetectable viral loads for >20 years and he did not express any of the described host genetic polymorphisms associated with viral control. None of four full-length gp160 recombinants derived from the LTNP-EC replicated in heterologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CTL responses after SI were maintained in two samples separated by 9 years and they were higher in breadth and magnitude than responses seen in most of 250 treatment naïve patients and also 25 controller subjects. The LTNP-EC showed a neutralization response, against 4 of the 6 viruses analyzed, superior to other ECs. Conclusions The study demonstrated that a strong and sustained cellular and humoral immune response and low replicating viruses are associated with viral control in the superinfected LTNP-EC. PMID:22384103

  20. Unusual outcome of in utero infection and subsequent postnatal super-infection with different PCV2b strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dipongkor Saha; Hans J.Nauwynck; Uladzimir U.Karniychuk; Liping Huang; Marc Geldhof; Merijn Vanhee; David J.Lefebvre; Peter Meerts; Richard Ducatelle; Jan V.Doorsselaere

    2014-01-01

    VC2002, isolated from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pig, is a mixture of two porcine circovirus genotype 2b (PCV2b) viruses, K2 and K39. Preliminary experiments disclosed short-term adverse effects of K39, but not K2, on porcine foetuses. These findings led to the hypothesis that infection of immuno-incompetent foetuses with K2 confers a status of immunotolerance, and postnatal super-infection with K39 triggers PMWS. To explore this hypothesis, nine 55-day-old foetuses were inoculated in utero (three with K2-104.3TCID50, three with K39-104.3TCID50 and three with medium), and foeto-pathogenicity examined. At 21 days post-inoculation (dpi), K2 did not induce pathology, whereas pathological effects of K39 were evident. Twenty-four 45-day-old foetuses were subsequently inoculated to examine the long-term effect of K2, including six with K2-high dose-104.3TCID50, six with K2-low dose-102.3TCID50 and 12 mock-inoculated controls. Both doses resulted in ifve mummiifed foetuses and one live-born piglet each (69dpi). K2 was recovered from all mummies. K2 and K2-speciifc antibodies were not detected in serum of the two live-born piglets at birth, indicating full control of K2 infection. The K2-low dose-infected piglet was immunostimulated at day 2, but not the K2-high dose-infected piglet. Both non-stimulated and stimulated K2-infected piglets were super-inoculated with K39 at day 6 or 8 (taken as 0 days post super-inoculation). Low viral replication was observed in the non-stimulated K2-K39 piglet (up to 103.3 TCID50/g;identiifed as K39). In contrast, viral replication was extremely high in the stimulated K2-K39 piglet (up to 105.6TCID50/g) and identiifed as K2, indicating that K2 infection is controlled during foetal life, but emerges after birth upon immunostimulation. However, none of the piglets showed any signs of PMWS.

  1. Unusual outcome of in utero infection and subsequent postnatal super-infection with different PCV2b strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipongkor; Karniychuk, Uladzimir U; Huang, Liping; Geldhof, Marc; Vanhee, Merijn; Lefebvre, David J; Meerts, Peter; Ducatelle, Richard; Doorsselaere, Jan V; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-06-01

    VC2002, isolated from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pig, is a mixture of two porcine circovirus genotype 2b (PCV2b) viruses, K2 and K39. Preliminary experiments disclosed short-term adverse effects of K39, but not K2, on porcine foetuses. These findings led to the hypothesis that infection of immuno-incompetent foetuses with K2 confers a status of immunotolerance, and postnatal super-infection with K39 triggers PMWS. To explore this hypothesis, nine 55-day-old foetuses were inoculated in utero (three with K2-10(4.3)TCID50, three with K39-10(4.3)TCID50 and three with medium), and foeto-pathogenicity examined. At 21 days post-inoculation (dpi), K2 did not induce pathology, whereas pathological effects of K39 were evident. Twenty-four 45-day-old foetuses were subsequently inoculated to examine the long-term effect of K2, including six with K2-high dose-10(4.3)TCID50, six with K2-low dose-10(2.3)TCID50 and 12 mock-inoculated controls. Both doses resulted in five mummified foetuses and one live-born piglet each (69dpi). K2 was recovered from all mummies. K2 and K2-specific antibodies were not detected in serum of the two live-born piglets at birth, indicating full control of K2 infection. The K2-low dose-infected piglet was immunostimulated at day 2, but not the K2-high dose-infected piglet. Both non-stimulated and stimulated K2-infected piglets were super-inoculated with K39 at day 6 or 8 (taken as 0 days post super-inoculation). Low viral replication was observed in the non-stimulated K2-K39 piglet (up to 10(3.3)TCID50/g; identified as K39). In contrast, viral replication was extremely high in the stimulated K2-K39 piglet (up to 10(5.6)TCID50/g) and identified as K2, indicating that K2 infection is controlled during foetal life, but emerges after birth upon immunostimulation. However, none of the piglets showed any signs of PMWS.

  2. The Contribution of z < or Approx. 6 Sources to the Spatial Coherence in the Unresolved Cosmic Near-Infrared and X-Ray Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, K.; Cappelluti, N.; Hasinger, G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Ricotti, M.

    2014-01-01

    A spatial clustering signal has been established in Spitzer/IRAC measurements of the unresolved cosmic near-infrared background (CIB) out to large angular scales, approx. 1deg. This CIB signal, while significantly exceeding the contribution from the remaining known galaxies, was further found to be coherent at a highly statistically significant level with the unresolved soft cosmic X-ray background (CXB). This measurement probes the unresolved CXB to very faint source levels using deep near-IR source subtraction.We study contributions from extragalactic populations at low to intermediate redshifts to the measured positive cross-power signal of the CIB fluctuations with the CXB. We model the X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), normal galaxies, and hot gas residing in virialized structures, calculating their CXB contribution including their spatial coherence with all infrared emitting counterparts. We use a halo model framework to calculate the auto and cross-power spectra of the unresolved fluctuations based on the latest constraints of the halo occupation distribution and the biasing of AGNs, galaxies, and diffuse emission. At small angular scales (1), the 4.5microns versus 0.5-2 keV coherence can be explained by shot noise from galaxies and AGNs. However, at large angular scales (approx.10), we find that the net contribution from the modeled populations is only able to account for approx. 3% of the measured CIB×CXB cross-power. The discrepancy suggests that the CIB×CXB signal originates from the same unknown source population producing the CIB clustering signal out to approx. 1deg.

  3. National Technology Standards for K-12 Schools: A Case Study of Unresolved Issues in Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.; Sullivan, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses an important need--the dissemination of information relating to technology as a public relations tool--and the associated exigency for administrator and teacher technology training. Specifically, we identify the increased expectations for the performance of school leaders and teachers, as well as unresolved issues in public…

  4. Unresolved Attachment, PTSD, and Dissociation in Women with Childhood Abuse Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall-McClough, K. Chase; Cloitre, Marylene

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine unresolved trauma as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview and current psychiatric symptoms, focusing on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation, in a group of adult female childhood abuse survivors. The authors examined psychiatric symptoms and attachment representations in a…

  5. The Nature of the Unresolved Extragalactic Cosmic Soft X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelluti, N.; Ranalli, P.; Roncarelli, M.; Arevalo, P.; Zamorani, G.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Rovilos, E.; Vignali, C.; Allevato, V.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the power spectrum of the unresolved 0.5-2 keV cosmic X-ray background (CXB) with deep Chandra 4-Msec (Ms) observations in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). We measured a signal that, on scales >30 arcsec, is significantly higher than the shot noise and is increasing with angular scale. We interpreted this signal as the joint contribution of clustered undetected sources like active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM). The power of unresolved cosmic source fluctuations accounts for approximately 12 per cent of the 0.5-2 keV extragalactic CXB. Overall, our modelling predicts that approximately 20 per cent of the unresolved CXB flux is produced by low-luminosity AGN, approximately 25 per cent by galaxies and approximately 55 per cent by the IGM. We do not find any direct evidence of the so-called 'warm hot intergalactic medium' (i.e. matter with 10(exp 5) less than T less than 10(exp 7) K and density contrast delta less than 1000), but we estimated that it could produce about 1/7 of the unresolved CXB. We placed an upper limit on the space density of postulated X-ray-emitting early black holes at z greater than 7.5 and compared it with supermassive black hole evolution models.

  6. Unresolved trauma in mothers: Intergenerational effects and the role of reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mother's unresolved trauma may interfere with her ability to sensitively respond to her infant, thus affecting the development of attachment in her own child, and potentially contributing to the intergenerational transmission of trauma. One novel construct within the Dynamic Maturational Model of ...

  7. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  8. CO2 studies remain key to understanding a future world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, Katie M; Walker, S Michael; Way, Danielle A; Ward, Joy K

    2017-04-01

    Contents 34 I. 34 II. 36 III. 37 IV. 37 V. 38 38 References 38 SUMMARY: Characterizing plant responses to past, present and future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]) is critical for understanding and predicting the consequences of global change over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Previous CO2 studies have provided great insights into the effects of rising [CO2 ] on leaf-level gas exchange, carbohydrate dynamics and plant growth. However, scaling CO2 effects across biological levels, especially in field settings, has proved challenging. Moreover, many questions remain about the fundamental molecular mechanisms driving plant responses to [CO2 ] and other global change factors. Here we discuss three examples of topics in which significant questions in CO2 research remain unresolved: (1) mechanisms of CO2 effects on plant developmental transitions; (2) implications of rising [CO2 ] for integrated plant-water dynamics and drought tolerance; and (3) CO2 effects on symbiotic interactions and eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Addressing these and other key questions in CO2 research will require collaborations across scientific disciplines and new approaches that link molecular mechanisms to complex physiological and ecological interactions across spatiotemporal scales.

  9. Forecasts on the contamination induced by unresolved point sources in primordial non-Gaussianity beyond Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Curto, A; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Toffolatti, L; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Argueso, F; Lapi, A; Lopez-Caniego, M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present forecasts of the contamination on different shapes of the primordial non-Gaussianity fnl parameter -- detectable on future Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) high--resolution anisotropy maps -- produced by unresolved extragalactic point sources at frequencies of cosmological interest (45--375 GHz). We consider two scenarios: an ideal (noiseless) mission and a possible future space-borne satellite, with instrumental characteristics similar to the ones proposed for the Cosmic Origins Explorer (COrE). The local, equilateral, orthogonal and flat shapes are considered in both temperature (intensity) and polarized emission data. The angular power spectrum and bispectrum of extragalactic point sources are estimated by state-of-the-art models of source number counts. The impact of all the most relevant (far--IR and radio selected) source populations on these shapes at COrE frequencies is studied. The results of this analysis show that unresolved extragalactic point sources should not induce a ...

  10. The effect of unresolved binaries on globular cluster proper-motion dispersion profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchini, P; van de Ven, G; Schinnerer, E; Bellini, A; van der Marel, R P; Watkins, L L; Anderson, J

    2016-01-01

    High-precision kinematic studies of globular clusters require an accurate knowledge of all possible sources of contamination. Amongst other sources, binary stars can introduce systematic biases in the kinematics. Using a set of Monte Carlo cluster simulations with different concentrations and binary fractions, we investigate the effect of unresolved binaries on proper-motion dispersion profiles, treating the simulations like HST proper-motion samples. Since globular clusters evolve towards a state of partial energy equipartition, more massive stars lose energy and decrease their velocity dispersion. As a consequence, on average, binaries have a lower velocity dispersion, since they are more massive kinematic tracers. We show that, in the case of clusters with high binary fraction (initial binary fraction of 50%) and high concentration (i.e., closer to energy equipartition), unresolved binaries introduce a color-dependent bias in the velocity dispersion of main-sequence stars of the order of 0.1-0.3 km s$^{-1}...

  11. [Attachment and somatoform disorders: low coherence and unresolved states of mind related to chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eva; Nowacki, Katja; Roland, Inga Christin; Kruse, Johannes

    2011-06-01

    Although attachment theory has become an influential approach used for the study of mental disorders, hitherto little has been known about the relation of attachment to somatoform disorders. In this study 15 patients with a somatoform pain disorder were compared with 15 non-clinical control participants. Attachment representations were measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Compared to the control group, the patient group describes parental behavior as less loving and more rejecting, expresses more anger towards the mother, shows more signs of unresolved loss and trauma, and their interviews are markedly less coherent. None of the patients is classified as secure; the majority falls within the unresolved category. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the often described adversities in the therapeutic alliance with these patients.

  12. Formation and Identification of Unresolved Complex Mixtures in Lacustrine Biodegraded Oil from Nanxiang Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Pengfei Guo; Sheng He; Shukui Zhu; Derong Chai; Shiyan Yin; Wei Dai; Wanfeng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS) method has been developed for the formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) in lacustrine biodegraded oils that with the same source rock, similar maturity, and increasing degradation rank from Nanxiang Basin, China. Normal alkanes, light hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, steranes, and terpanes are degraded gradually from oil B330 to oil G574. The compounds in biodegraded oil ...

  13. Report on the Workshop Resolved and Unresolved Stellar PopUlaTIoNs (RASPUTIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, G.; Valenti, E.

    2014-12-01

    The workshop aimed at sharing and discussing observations and diagnostics, together with models and simulations, of the resolved and unresolved stellar populations in galaxies from the Milky Way to the distant Universe. Special attention was paid to recent results concerning galaxy formation and evolution, fostering the exchange of ideas and techniques in dealing with nearby stellar populations. There will be no published proceedings, but presentations are available for download from the workshop web page (www.eso.org/sci/meetings/2014/rasputin2014).

  14. The detectability of extrasolar planet surroundings - I. Reflected-light photometry of unresolved rings

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Luc; Schneider, Jean

    2004-01-01

    It is expected that the next generation of high-contrast imaging instruments will deliver the first unresolved image of an extrasolar planet. The emitted thermal infrared light from the planet should show no phase effect assuming the planet is in thermal equilibrium. But the reflected visible light will vary versus the phase angle. Here, we study the photometric variation of the reflected light versus the orbital phase of a ringed extrasolar planet. We show that a ring around an extrasolar pl...

  15. Contribution from unresolved discrete sources to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debbijoy Bhattacharya; Parameswaran Sreekumar; Reshmi Mukherjee

    2009-01-01

    The origin of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB) is still an open question,even nearly forty years after its discovery.The emission could originate either from truly diffuse processes or from unresolved point sources.Although the majority of the 271 point sources detected by EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope)are unidentified,of the identified sources,blazars are the dominant candidates.Therefore,unresolved blazars may be considered the main contributor to the EGRB,and many studies have been carried out to understand their distribution,evolution and contribution to the EGRB.Considering that γ-ray emission comes mostly from jets of blazars and that the jet emission decreases rapidly with increasing jet to line-of-sight angle,it is not surprising that EGRET was not able to detect many large inclination angle active galactic nuclei (AGNs).Though Fermi could only detect a few large inclination angle AGNs during the first three months of its survey,it is expected to detect many such sources in the near future.Since non-blazar AGNs are expected to have higher density as compared to blazars,these could also contribute significantly to the EGRB.In this paper,we discuss contributions from unresolved discrete sources including normal galaxies,starburst galaxies,blazars and off-axis AGNs to the EGRB.

  16. The Unresolved Star-Forming Galaxy Component of the Extragalactic Gamma Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Tonia M.; Stecker, F. W.

    2011-01-01

    We present new theoretical estimates of the contribution of unresolved star-forming galaxies to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) as measured by EGRET and the Fermi-LAT. We employ several methods for determining the star-forming galaxy contribution the the EGB, including a method positing a correlation between the gamma-ray luminosity of a galaxy and its rate of star formation as calculated from the total infrared luminosity, and a method that makes use of a model of the evolution of the galaxy gas mass with cosmic time. We find that depending on the model, unresolved star-forming galaxies could contribute significantly to the EGB as measured by the Fermi-LAT at energies between approx. 300 MeV and approx. few GeV. However, the overall spectrum of unresolved star-forming galaxies can explain neither the EGRET EGB spectrum at energies between 50 and 200 MeV nor the Fermi-LAT EGB spectrum at energies above approx. few GeV.

  17. Clinical Neuropathology practice guide 5-2015: MGMT methylation pyrosequencing in glioblastoma: unresolved issues and open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowski, Michal; Berghoff, Anna S; Marosi, Christine; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Heinzl, Harald; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Preusser, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status has prognostic and, in the subpopulation of elderly patients, predictive value in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Therefore, knowledge of the MGMT promoter methylation status is important for clinical decision-making. So far, MGMT testing has been limited by the lack of a robust test with sufficiently high analytical performance. Recently, one of several available pyrosequencing protocols has been shown to be an accurate and robust method for MGMT testing in an intra- and interlaboratory ring trial. However, some uncertainties remain with regard to methodological issues, cut-off definitions, and optimal use in the clinical setting. In this article, we highlight and discuss several of these open questions. The main unresolved issues are the definition of the most relevant CpG sites to analyze for clinical purposes and the determination of a cut-off value for dichotomization of quantitative MGMT pyrosequencing results into "MGMT methylated" and "MGMT unmethylated" patient subgroups as a basis for further treatment decisions.

  18. Sensitivity of computed uranium-238 self-shielding factors to the choice of the unresolved average resonance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Cobos, J.L.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1982-05-01

    The influence of different representations of the unresolved resonances of /sup 238/U on the computed self-shielding factors is examined. It is shown that the evaluated infinitely diluted average capture cross section does not provide sufficient information to determine a unique set of unresolved resonance parameters; different sets of unresolved resonance parameters equally consistent with the evaluated average capture cross section yield significantly different computed self-shielding factors. In the conclusion it is recommended that the resolved resonance description of the evaluated /sup 238/U cross sections be extended to higher energies and that thick sample transmission data and self-indication data be used to improve the evaluation of the unresolved resonance region.

  19. A CATALOG OF NEAR-IR SOURCES FOUND TO BE UNRESOLVED WITH MILLIARCSECOND RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richichi, A. [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Bldg., Huay Kaew Rd., Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Fors, O. [Departament Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (UB/IEEC), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cusano, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Moerchen, M., E-mail: andrea@narit.or.th [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2012-12-15

    Calibration is one of the long-standing problems in optical interferometric measurements, particularly with long baselines which demand stars with angular sizes on the milliarcsecond scale and no detectable companions. While systems of calibrators have been generally established for the near-infrared in the bright source regime (K {approx}< 3 mag), modern large interferometers are sensitive to significantly fainter magnitudes. We aim to provide a list of sources found to be unresolved from direct observations with high angular resolution and dynamic range, which can be used to choose interferometric calibrators. To this purpose, we have used a large number of lunar occultations recorded with the ISAAC instrument at the Very Large Telescope to select sources found to be unresolved and without close companions. An algorithm has been used to determine the limiting angular resolution achieved for each source, taking into account a noise model built from occulted and unocculted portions of the light curves. We have obtained upper limits on the angular sizes of 556 sources, with magnitudes ranging from K{sub s} Almost-Equal-To 4 to 10, with a median of 7.2 mag. The upper limits on possible undetected companions (within Almost-Equal-To 0.''5) range from K{sub s} Almost-Equal-To 8 to 13, with a median of 11.5 mag. One-third of the sources have angular sizes {<=}1 mas, and two-thirds have sizes {<=}2 mas. This list of unresolved sources matches well the capabilities of current large interferometric facilities. We also provide available cross-identifications, magnitudes, spectral types, and other auxiliary information. A fraction of the sources are found to be potentially variable. The list covers parts of the Galactic Bulge and in particular the vicinity of the Galactic Center, where extinction is very significant and traditional lists of calibrators are often insufficient.

  20. Model-based defect detection on structured surfaces having optically unresolved features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daniel; Henning, Andrew J; Sherlock, Ben; Leach, Richard K; Coupland, Jeremy; Giusca, Claudiu L

    2015-10-20

    In this paper, we demonstrate, both numerically and experimentally, a method for the detection of defects on structured surfaces having optically unresolved features. The method makes use of synthetic reference data generated by an observational model that is able to simulate the response of the selected optical inspection system to the ideal structure, thereby providing an ideal measure of deviation from nominal geometry. The method addresses the high dynamic range challenge faced in highly parallel manufacturing by enabling the use of low resolution, wide field of view optical systems for defect detection on surfaces containing small features over large regions.

  1. Unresolved major pulmonary embolism: Importance of follow-up lung scan in diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, H.S.; Intenzo, C.M.; Park, C.H.

    1986-09-01

    Unresolved major pulmonary embolism (UMPE) is an uncommon condition which causes pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale and death. An accurate and prompt diagnosis of UMPE is very important in the management of such patients with pulmonary embolectomy. Folow-up lung scans can lead to earlier diagnosis of UMPE, especially in patients who have a history of acute pulmonary embolism and present with pulmonary hypertension, respiratory insufficiency and cor pulmonale. We report a case of UMPE strongly suggested by follow-up lung scans and subsequently confirmed by pulmonary angiography and postmortem examination.

  2. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump.

  3. Transition wavelengths and unresolved transition array statistics of ions with Z = 72-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbane, D, E-mail: Deirdre.Kilbane@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2011-08-28

    Potential extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation sources have been identified, using the flexible atomic code (FAC), as emission peaks arising from the 4d-4f and 4p-4d transitions in Pd-like to Rb-like ions of hafnium through actinium. The effects of configuration interaction are investigated and for increasing nuclear charge, these strong emitters are seen to separate and move to shorter wavelengths. Each source is characterized using the unresolved transition array model. They are proposed to complement the currently used nitrogen and argon sources in the 'water window', and as possible successors to tin in next-generation lithography.

  4. Near-Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations as Diagnostics of Unresolved Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    González L., R. A.; Liu, M. C.

    Surface brightness fluctuations (SBFs) are already a very powerful tool for deriving cosmological distances. However, their promise as diagnostics of unresolved stellar populations has not yet been fulfilled. Here, we present an ongoing project to mine the 2MASS database with exactly that purpose. This work should help 1) explain the observed dispersion of measured SBFs in nearby galaxy clusters; 2) calibrate the stellar population synthesis models that are used, in combination with observational data, to derive cosmological distances; and 3) expand the capabilities of the largest telescopes, like the GTC, to study very distant stellar populations.

  5. Unresolved questions in J/{psi} production and propagation in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.Y.

    1998-11-01

    In order to understand the J/{psi} suppression arising from the possible occurrence of the quark-gluon plasma in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, it is necessary to have a comprehensive picture how the J/{psi} and its precursors are produced, what their properties after production are, and how the J/{psi} and its precursors propagate inside nuclear matter. There are unresolved questions in the descriptions of J/{psi} production and propagation. The author outlines some of these questions and discusses the approaches for their resolution.

  6. Spectropolarimetric diagnostics of unresolved magnetic fields in the quiet solar photosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Shchukina, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    A few years before the Hinode space telescope was launched, an investigation based on the Hanle effect in atomic and molecular lines indicated that the bulk of the quiet solar photosphere is significantly magnetized, due to the ubiquitous presence of an unresolved magnetic field with an average strength = 130 G. It was pointed out also that this "hidden" field must be much stronger in the intergranular regions of solar surface convection than in the granular regions, and it was suggested that this unresolved magnetic field could perhaps provide the clue for understanding how the outer solar atmosphere is energized. In fact, the ensuing magnetic energy density is so significant that the energy flux estimated using the typical value of 1 km/s for the convective velocity (thinking in rising magnetic loops) or the Alfven speed (thinking in Alfven waves generated by magnetic reconnection) turns out to be substantially larger than that required to balance the chromospheric energy losses. Here we present a brief re...

  7. A critical evaluation of semianalytic methods in the study of centrally heated, unresolved, infrared sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Steven D.; Leung, Chun Ming

    1994-01-01

    We critically evaluate current methods of analysis in infrared (IR) astronomy and investigate the conditions under which these semianalytic methods are reliable. Specifically we examine the usual assumptions of homogeneities in dust density and temperature, and neglect of opacity effects when applied to internally heated, unresolved IR sources. To accomplish this, a series of radiation transport models for these sources have been constructed. The model results are treated as observed quantities and analyzed to derive the source parameters, using simple semianalytic methods. The discrepancies between the derived and actual model parameters can then be attributed to the limitations of the analysis methods and provide a measure of their reliability. Applying this approach to centrally heated, unresolved IR sources, we have studied in detail the following diagnostic problems: (1) determination of dust mass from monochromatic and integrated luminosities; (2) estimation of dust temperature distribution from color temperatures derived from the flux spectrum; and (3) determination of the empirical grain emissivity law (opacity function) for both continuum and spectral features.

  8. The Impact of Unresolved Turbulence on the Escape Fraction of Lyman Continuum Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzadeh, M.; Scannapieco, E.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the relation between the turbulent Mach number ({ M }) and the escape fraction of Lyman continuum photons ({f}{esc}) in high-redshift galaxies. Approximating the turbulence as isothermal and isotropic, we show that the increase in the variance in column densities from { M }=1 to { M }=10 causes {f}{esc} to increase by ≈ 25%, and the increase from { M }=1 to { M }=20 causes {f}{esc} to increases by ≈ 50% for a medium with opacity τ ≈ 1. At a fixed Mach number, the correction factor for escape fraction relative to a constant column density case scales exponentially with the opacity in the cell, which has a large impact for simulated star-forming regions. Furthermore, in simulations of isotropic turbulence with full atomic/ionic cooling and chemistry, the fraction of HI drops by a factor of ≈ 2.5 at { M }≈ 10 even when the mean temperature is ≈ 5× {10}3 {{K}}. If turbulence is unresolved, these effects together enhance {f}{esc} by a factor \\gt 3 at Mach numbers above 10. Such Mach numbers are common at high redshifts where vigorous turbulence is driven by supernovae, gravitational instabilities, and merger activity, as shown both by numerical simulations and observations. These results, if implemented in the current hydrodynamical cosmological simulations to account for unresolved turbulence, can boost the theoretical predictions of the Lyman Continuum photon escape fraction and further constrain the sources of reionization.

  9. Lower oxytocin plasma levels in borderline patients with unresolved attachment representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eJobst

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal problems and affective dysregulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD. BPD patients predominantly show unresolved attachment representations. The oxytocin (OT system is associated with human social attachment and affiliative behavior, and OT dysregulation may be related to distinct attachment characteristics. Here, we investigated whether attachment representations are related to peripheral OT levels in BPD patients. Twenty-one female BPD patients and 20 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls were assessed with clinical scales and measures of interpersonal and attachment-related characteristics, including the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Plasma OT concentrations were measured prior to and during social exclusion in a virtual ball tossing game (Cyberball. The majority of BPD patients (63.2% but no healthy controls showed unresolved (disorganized attachment representations. In this subgroup of patients, baseline OT plasma levels were significantly lower than in BPD patients with organized attachment representations. This pilot study extends previous findings of altered OT regulation in BPD as a putative key mechanism underlying interpersonal dysregulation. Our results provide first evidence that altered OT plasma levels are related to disorganized attachment representations in BPD patients.

  10. A Method for Selecting M dwarfs with an Increased Likelihood of Unresolved Ultra-cool Companionship

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, N J; Marocco, F; Burningham, B; Jones, H R A; Frith, J; Zhong, J; Luo, A L; Qi, Z X; Lucas, P W; Gromadzki, M; Day-Jones, A C; Kurtev, R G; Guo, Y X; Wang, Y F; Bai, Y; Yi, Z P; Smart, R L

    2016-01-01

    Locating ultra-cool companions to M dwarfs is important for constraining low-mass formation models, the measurement of sub-stellar dynamical masses and radii, and for testing ultra-cool evolutionary models. We present an optimised method for identifying M dwarfs which may have unresolved ultra-cool companions. We construct a catalogue of 440,694 candidates, from WISE, 2MASS and SDSS, based on optical and near-infrared colours and reduced proper motion. With strict reddening, photometric and quality constraints we isolate a sub-sample of 36,898 M dwarfs and search for possible mid-infrared M dwarf + ultra-cool dwarf candidates by comparing M dwarfs which have similar optical/near-infrared colours (chosen for their sensitivity to effective temperature and metallicity). We present 1,082 M dwarf + ultra-cool dwarf candidates for follow-up. Using simulated ultra-cool dwarf companions to M dwarfs, we estimate that the occurrence of unresolved ultra-cool companions amongst our M dwarf + ultra-cool dwarf candidates s...

  11. Unresolved wind-driven shells and the supersonic velocity dispersion in giant HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Fernandes, R C; Fernandes, R Cid

    1995-01-01

    The presence of giant shells or loops in giant HII regions are clear witness of the mechanical energy input from massive stars. Here we evaluate the impact that winds may have on the structure of giant nebulae and on their supersonic velocity dispersion. We follow the suggestion from Chu \\& Kennicutt (1994) to see if a combination of a large number of unresolved wind-driven shells caused by massive stars could produce the integrated broad Gaussian profiles typical of giant HII regions. The results, accounting for a wide range of energies, densities and velocity or age of the expanding shells, show that supersonic Gaussian profiles may arise only from a collection of unresolved wind-driven shells if the shells present a peculiar velocity distribution which implies a strongly peaked age distribution leading to an awkward star formation history. On the other hand, a uniform distribution of ages originates profiles with a flat-topped core defined by the terminal shell velocity and a steep decay as v^{-6} up t...

  12. Lower Oxytocin Plasma Levels in Borderline Patients with Unresolved Attachment Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Andrea; Padberg, Frank; Mauer, Maria-Christine; Daltrozzo, Tanja; Bauriedl-Schmidt, Christine; Sabass, Lena; Sarubin, Nina; Falkai, Peter; Renneberg, Babette; Zill, Peter; Gander, Manuela; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal problems and affective dysregulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). BPD patients predominantly show unresolved attachment representations. The oxytocin (OT) system is associated with human social attachment and affiliative behavior, and OT dysregulation may be related to distinct attachment characteristics. Here, we investigated whether attachment representations are related to peripheral OT levels in BPD patients. Twenty-one female BPD patients and 20 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were assessed with clinical scales and measures of interpersonal and attachment-related characteristics, including the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Plasma OT concentrations were measured prior to and during social exclusion in a virtual ball tossing game (Cyberball). The majority of BPD patients (63.2%) but no HCs showed unresolved (disorganized) attachment representations. In this subgroup of patients, baseline OT plasma levels were significantly lower than in BPD patients with organized attachment representations. This pilot study extends previous findings of altered OT regulation in BPD as a putative key mechanism underlying interpersonal dysregulation. Our results provide first evidence that altered OT plasma levels are related to disorganized attachment representations in BPD patients.

  13. The Nature of Unresolved Soft X-Ray Emission from the Galactic Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, Kensuke; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Takei, Yoh; Kimura, Shunsuke; Yoshino, Tomotaka; McCammon, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Although about 40% of the soft X-ray background emission in 0.4 to 1keV range has extragalactic origins and thus is totally blocked by the galactic absorption in midplane directions, it decreases at most by about 20% in midplane. Suzaku observation of the direction, (l, b) = (235°, 0°), showed an OVII Kα emission intensity comparable with that of the MBM-12 on cloud Suzaku observation, but revealed a narrow bump peaked at ˜0.9keV. The latter component is partly filling the decrease of the extragalactic component in midplane. The feature can be well represented by a thin thermal emission with a temperature of about 0.8keV. Because of the high pressure implied for spatially extended hot gas, the emission is likely a sum of unresolved faint sources. We consider a large fraction of the emission originates from faint dM stars. We constructed a model spectrum for spatially unresolved dM stars that consistently explains the observed spectrum and the surface brightness. The model also suggests that the emission from dM stars decreases very rapidly with increasing b, and thus that it cannot compensate entirely the decrease of the extragalactic component at b ˜ 2°--10°.

  14. The Nature of Unresolved Soft X-ray Emission from the Galactic Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Masui, K; Yamasaki, N Y; Takei, Y; Kimura, S; Yoshino, T; McCammon, D

    2008-01-01

    Although about 40% of the soft X-ray background emission in 0.4 to 1 keV range has extragalactic origins and thus is totally blocked by the Galactic absorption in midplane directions, it decreases at most by about 20 % in midplane. Suzaku observation of the direction, (l, b) = (235, 0), showed an OVII Kalpha emission intensity comparable with that of the MBM-12 on cloud Suzaku observation, but revealed a narrow bump peaked at ~ 0.9 keV. The latter component is partly filling the decrease of the extragalactic component in midplane. The feature can be well represented by a thin thermal emission with a temperature of about 0.8 keV. Because of the high pressure implied for spatially extended hot gas, the emission is likely a sum of unresolved faint sources. We consider a large fraction of the emission originates from faint dM stars. We constructed a model spectrum for spatially unresolved dM stars that consistently explains the observed spectrum and the surface brightness. The model also suggests that the emissio...

  15. Bioequivalence accomplishments, ongoing initiatives, and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M N

    2014-02-01

    Although bioequivalence (BE) concepts date back to the late 1960s, there has been a steady evolution in the tools applied to the assessment of product comparability. Despite these advancements, we continue to face a multitude of unresolved challenges. Several of these challenges are unique to veterinary medicine due to issues such as multiple species approvals, unique dosage forms (e.g., intramammary infusion and medicated premixes), physiological challenges (e.g., limitations in blood volume and stress reactions), and the need to evaluate product equivalence for products intended to release drug over a duration of months. Thus, while in some instances, we can adopt advancements implemented by our human health counterparts but in other situations, we need to pioneer our own method for resolving these challenges. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an update on recent advances, achievements, and ongoing initiatives associated with the assessment of product BE in veterinary medicine. This review reflects the highlights of a presentation given at the 2012 meeting of the European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology. Published (2013). This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Scott's Lake Excavation Letters on Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is two letters written about the repatriation of Santee Indian human remains and funerary objects to Santee Sioux Tribe. Includes an inventory of human remains...

  17. Interference of the low-pH inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain HSZP with the early shutoff function of superinfecting HSV-1 strain KOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, J; Kúdelová, M; Rajcáni, J

    1999-03-01

    In former studies, we described that the HSZP strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was defective with respect to the early shutoff of host protein synthesis but was effective at interfering with the early shutoff function of the HSV-1 strain KOS, even when heat-inactivated or neutralized by antibody. However, the HSZP strain failed to interfere when inactivated with zinc ions or purified from cells treated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose. In this study, we provide evidence that the ability of the purified low-pH inactivated (citrate buffer, pH 3.0) and gel-filtered (Sephadex G-25) HSZP virions to adsorb host cells was not significantly affected. However, their ability to induce interference with the early shutoff function of the superinfecting HSV-1 strain KOS was restricted. In comparison with native virus, up to eight times more low-pH inactivated HSZP virions were needed to interfere with the shutoff by strain KOS. The interference was not due to exclusion of strain KOS by HSZP at the level of adsorption and/or penetration. The restriction was partially overcome by treatment of the cells with polyethylene glycol after adsorption of the low-pH inactivated HSZP virions. This observation indicates that the direct fusion of the virion envelope of low-pH inactivated HSZP with the plasma cell membrane was predominantly hampered.

  18. Thoracic Spondylodiscitis Caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a Superinfection of Pulmonary Tuberculous Granuloma in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Pasquale; Tarantino, Roberto; Palmarini, Valeria; De Giacomo, Tiziano; Delfini, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective To describe a very rare case of an immunocompetent man who underwent surgery for thoracic spondylodiscitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that developed as a superinfection of a pulmonary tuberculous granuloma. Methods Posterior decompression and pedicle screw vertebral fixation were followed by T5-T6 anterior somatotomy with implant of an expandable mesh and lateral plating as symptoms worsened. During the anterior approach, an atypical resection of the left lower lobe was also performed. Results A tuberculous granuloma was detected on histology. Ziehl-Neelsen stain confirmed the diagnosis. Culture also detected MRSA. Conclusions Early medical management is the first choice for spondylodiscitis to eradicate the infection and alleviate pain. Immobilization of the affected spine segments can protect the patient from vertebral collapse and from the appearance of neurologic deficits. Surgery is suggested if there are compressive effects on the spinal cord, spinal epidural abscess, vertebral collapse, and deformity. We decided to remove the abscess and to restore the anterior column using an anterior approach. Moreover, in this case, an anterior approach allowed us to identify the etiology of the lesion and to determine the best chemotherapy regimen.

  19. Observing the Earth as an exoplanet with LOUPE, the Lunar Observatory for Unresolved Polarimetry of Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Karalidi, T; Snik, F; Bagnulo, S; Sparks, W B; Keller, C U

    2012-01-01

    The detections of small, rocky exoplanets have surged in recent years and will likely continue to do so. To know whether a rocky exoplanet is habitable, we have to characterise its atmosphere and surface. A promising characterisation method for rocky exoplanets is direct detection using spectropolarimetry. This method will be based on single pixel signals, because spatially resolving exoplanets is impossible with current and near-future instruments. Well-tested retrieval algorithms are essential to interpret these single pixel signals in terms of atmospheric composition, cloud and surface coverage. Observations of Earth itself provide the obvious benchmark data for testing such algorithms. The observations should provide signals that are integrated over the Earth's disk, that capture day and night variations, and all phase angles. The Moon is a unique platform from where the Earth can be observed as an exoplanet, undisturbed, all of the time. Here, we present LOUPE, the Lunar Observatory for Unresolved Polari...

  20. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  1. Optical model calculation for the unresolved/resolved resonance region of Fe-56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Froehner, F.H.

    1997-03-01

    We have studied optical model fits to total neutron cross sections of structural materials using the accurate data base for {sup 56}Fe existing in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. Averages over resolved resonances were calculated with Lorentzian weighting in Reich-Moore (reduced R matrix) approximation. Starting from the best available optical potentials we found that adjustment of the real and imaginary well depths does not work satisfactorily with the conventional weak linear energy dependence of the well depths. If, however, the linear dependences are modified towards low energies, the average total cross sections can be fitted quite well, from the resolved resonance region up to 20 MeV and higher. (author)

  2. Accounting for model error due to unresolved scales within ensemble Kalman filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to account for model error due to unresolved scales in the context of the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF). The approach extends to this class of algorithms the deterministic model error formulation recently explored for variational schemes and extended Kalman filter. The model error statistic required in the analysis update is estimated using historical reanalysis increments and a suitable model error evolution law. Two different versions of the method are described; a time-constant model error treatment where the same model error statistical description is time-invariant, and a time-varying treatment where the assumed model error statistics is randomly sampled at each analysis step. We compare both methods with the standard method of dealing with model error through inflation and localization, and illustrate our results with numerical simulations on a low order nonlinear system exhibiting chaotic dynamics. The results show that the filter skill is significantly improved through th...

  3. Effect of third- and fourth-order moments on the modeling of Unresolved Transition Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Jean-Christophe; Bauche, Jacques; Bauche-Arnoult, Claire

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the third (skewness) and fourth (kurtosis) reduced centered moments on the statistical modeling of E1 lines in complex atomic spectra is investigated through the use of Gram-Charlier, Normal Inverse Gaussian and Generalized Gaussian distributions. It is shown that the modeling of unresolved transition arrays with non-Gaussian distributions may reveal more detailed structures, due essentially to the large value of the kurtosis. In the present work, focus is put essentially on the Generalized Gaussian, the power of the argument in the exponential being constrained by the kurtosis value. The relevance of the new statistical line distribution is checked by comparisons with smoothed detailed line-by-line calculations and through the analysis of 2p-3d transitions of recent laser or Z-pinch absorption measurements. The issue of calculating high-order moments is also discussed (Racah algebra, Jucys graphical method, semi-empirical approach ...).

  4. Introduction to the theory and analysis of resolved (and unresolved) neutron resonances via SAMMY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, N.M.

    1998-02-01

    Neutron cross-section data are important for two distinct purposes: First, they provide insight into the nature of matter, thus assisting in the understanding of fundamental physics. Second, they are needed for practical applications (e.g., for calculating when and how a reactor will become critical, or how much shielding is needed for storage of nuclear materials, and for medical applications). Neutron cross section data in the resolved-resonance region are generally obtained by time-of-flight experiments, which must be carefully analyzed if they are to be properly understood and utilized. In this paper, important features of the analysis process are discussed, with emphasis on the particular techniques used in the analysis code SAMMY. Other features of the code are also described; these include such topics as calculation of group cross sections (including covariance matrices), generation and fitting of integral quantities, and extensions into the unresolved-resonance region and higher energy regions.

  5. Introduction to theory and analysis of resolved (and unresolved) neutron resonances via SAMMY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, N.M.

    1998-07-01

    Neutron cross-section data are important for two distinct purposes: first, they provide insight into the nature of matter, thus assisting in the understanding of fundamental physics; second, they are needed for practical applications (e.g., for calculating when and how a reactor will become critical, or how much shielding is needed for storage of nuclear materials, and for medical applications). Neutron cross section data in the resolved-resonance region are generally obtained by time-of-flight experiments, which must be carefully analyzed if they are to be properly understood and utilized. In this paper, important features of the analysis process are discussed, with emphasis on the particular technique used in the analysis code SAMMY. Other features of the code are also described; these include such topics as calculation of group cross sections (including covariance matrices), generation and fitting of integral quantities, and extensions into the unresolved-resonance region and higher-energy regions.

  6. Introduction to the Theory and Analysis of Resolved (and Unresolved) Neutron Resonances via SAMMY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, N.

    2000-03-13

    Neutron cross-section data are important for two purposes: First, they provide insight into the nature of matter, increasing our understanding of fundamental physics. Second, they are needed for practical applications (e.g., for calculating when and how a reactor will become critical, or how much shielding is needed for storage of nuclear materials, or for medical applications). Neutron cross section data in the resolved-resonance region are generally obtained by time-of-flight experiments, which must be carefully analyzed if they are to be properly understood and utilized. In this report, important features of the analysis process are discussed, with emphasis on the particular techniques used in the analysis code SAMMY. Other features of the code are also described; these include such topics as calculation of group cross sections (including covariance matrices), generation and fitting of integral quantities, and extensions into the unresolved-resonance region and higher-energy regions.

  7. Atom assisted cavity cooling of a micromechanical oscillator in the unresolved sideband regime

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Bijita

    2016-01-01

    The ground state cooling of a mechanical oscillator in an optomechanical cavity containing an ensemble of identical two-level ground-state atoms is studied in the highly unresolved-sideband regime. The system exhibits electromagnetically-induced transparency-like quantum interference effect. The mutual interaction with the cavity optical field gives rise to an indirect coupling between the atomic and mechanical modes. In presence of this interaction, the noise spectrum gets modified and leads to asymmetric cooling and heating rates. Using the quantum master equation, time evolution of the average phonon number is studied and it is observed that the average phonon occupancy in the mechanical resonator exhibits ground-state cooling.

  8. THE EFFECT OF UNRESOLVED BINARIES ON GLOBULAR CLUSTER PROPER-MOTION DISPERSION PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchini, P.; Norris, M. A.; Ven, G. van de; Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bellini, A.; Marel, R. P. van der; Watkins, L. L.; Anderson, J., E-mail: bianchini@mpia.de [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    High-precision kinematic studies of globular clusters (GCs) require an accurate knowledge of all possible sources of contamination. Among other sources, binary stars can introduce systematic biases in the kinematics. Using a set of Monte Carlo cluster simulations with different concentrations and binary fractions, we investigate the effect of unresolved binaries on proper-motion dispersion profiles, treating the simulations like Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion samples. Since GCs evolve toward a state of partial energy equipartition, more-massive stars lose energy and decrease their velocity dispersion. As a consequence, on average, binaries have a lower velocity dispersion, since they are more-massive kinematic tracers. We show that, in the case of clusters with high binary fractions (initial binary fractions of 50%) and high concentrations (i.e., closer to energy equipartition), unresolved binaries introduce a color-dependent bias in the velocity dispersion of main-sequence stars of the order of 0.1–0.3 km s{sup −1} (corresponding to 1%−6% of the velocity dispersion), with the reddest stars having a lower velocity dispersion, due to the higher fraction of contaminating binaries. This bias depends on the ability to distinguish binaries from single stars, on the details of the color–magnitude diagram and the photometric errors. We apply our analysis to the HSTPROMO data set of NGC 7078 (M15) and show that no effect ascribable to binaries is observed, consistent with the low binary fraction of the cluster. Our work indicates that binaries do not significantly bias proper-motion velocity-dispersion profiles, but should be taken into account in the error budget of kinematic analyses.

  9. Biases on Initial Mass Function Determinations. III. Cluster Masses Derived from Unresolved Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2009-07-01

    It is currently common to use spatially unresolved multifilter broadband photometry to determine the masses of individual stellar clusters (and hence the cluster mass function, CMF). I analyze the stochastic effects introduced by the sampling of the stellar initial mass function (SIMF) in the derivation of the individual masses and the CMF, and I establish that such effects are the largest contributor to the observational uncertainties. An analytical solution, valid in the limit where uncertainties are small, is provided to establish the range of cluster masses over which the CMF slope can be obtained with a given accuracy. The validity of the analytical solution is extended to higher mass uncertainties using Monte Carlo simulations and the Gamma approximation. The value of the Poisson mass is calculated for a large range of ages and a variety of filters for solar-metallicity clusters measured with single-filter photometry. A method that uses the code CHORIZOS is presented to simultaneously derive masses, ages, and extinctions. The classical method of using unweighted UBV photometry to simultaneously establish ages and extinctions of stellar clusters is found to be unreliable for clusters older than ≈30 Ma, even for relatively large cluster masses. On the other hand, augmenting the filter set to include longer-wavelength filters and using weights for each filter increases the range of masses and ages that can be accurately measured with unresolved photometry. Nevertheless, a relatively large range of masses and ages is found to be dominated by SIMF sampling effects that render the observed masses useless, even when using UBVRIJHK photometry. A revision of some literature results affected by these effects is presented and possible solutions for future observations and analyses are suggested.

  10. HCN(1-0) Maser Emission by IR Pumping from Unresolved AGN Disk/Torus Toward the Seyfert 2 Nucleus of M51?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, S.; V-Trung, D.; Boone, F.; Krips, M.; Lim, J.; Muller, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present ˜1” (˜34 pc) resolution observations of HCN(1-0) together with CO J=1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 toward the Seyfert 2 nucleus of M51 using IRAM PdBI and SMA. HCN shows a strong emission at the nucleus only at the systemic velocity, where no obvious CO emission. HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) >2 at this region. Based on our radiative transfer calculations, we suggest that this strong HCN emission is affected by the IR pumping and possibly weak HCN masing. This suggests the presence of an edge-on rotating circumnuclear dense molecular gas disk or torus, which remains unresolved at our resolution.

  11. Unresolved versus resolved: testing the validity of young simple stellar population models with VLT/MUSE observations of NGC 3603

    CERN Document Server

    Kuncarayakti, H; Anderson, J P; Krühler, T; Hamuy, M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT. Stellar populations are the building blocks of galaxies including the Milky Way. The majority, if not all extragalactic studies are entangled with the use of stellar population models given the unresolved nature of their observation. Extragalactic systems contain multiple stellar populations with complex star formation histories. However, their study is mainly based upon the principles of simple stellar populations (SSP). Hence, it is critical to examine the validity of SSP models. AIMS. This work aims to empirically test the validity of SSP models. This is done by comparing SSP models against observations of spatially resolved young stellar population in the determination of its physical properties, i.e. age and metallicity. METHODS. Integral field spectroscopy of a young stellar cluster in the Milky Way, NGC 3603, is used to study the properties of the cluster both as a resolved and unresolved stellar population. The unresolved stellar population is analysed using the H$\\alpha$ equivalent width as ...

  12. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah; van de Goot, Frank; Ruijter, Jan; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof Jan

    2017-01-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered

  13. Mammalian Remains from Indian Sites on Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1960-01-01

    Mr. H. R. VAN HEEKEREN and Mr. C. J. DU RY, of the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde at Leiden, entrusted me with the identification of some animal remains collected from Indian sites on Aruba by Professor J. P. B. DE JOSSELIN DE JONG in 1923. These remains relate for the most part to marine turtles (Che

  14. Insect-Specific Flaviviruses: A Systematic Review of Their Discovery, Host Range, Mode of Transmission, Superinfection Exclusion Potential and Genomic Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Blitvich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the number of insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs discovered in the last decade. Historically, these viruses have generated limited interest due to their inability to infect vertebrate cells. This viewpoint has changed in recent years because some ISFs have been shown to enhance or suppress the replication of medically important flaviviruses in co-infected mosquito cells. Additionally, comparative studies between ISFs and medically important flaviviruses can provide a unique perspective as to why some flaviviruses possess the ability to infect and cause devastating disease in humans while others do not. ISFs have been isolated exclusively from mosquitoes in nature but the detection of ISF-like sequences in sandflies and chironomids indicates that they may also infect other dipterans. ISFs can be divided into two distinct phylogenetic groups. The first group currently consists of approximately 12 viruses and includes cell fusing agent virus, Kamiti River virus and Culex flavivirus. These viruses are phylogenetically distinct from all other known flaviviruses. The second group, which is apparently not monophyletic, currently consists of nine viruses and includes Chaoyang virus, Nounané virus and Lammi virus. These viruses phylogenetically affiliate with mosquito/vertebrate flaviviruses despite their apparent insect-restricted phenotype. This article provides a review of the discovery, host range, mode of transmission, superinfection exclusion ability and genomic organization of ISFs. This article also attempts to clarify the ISF nomenclature because some of these viruses have been assigned more than one name due to their simultaneous discoveries by independent research groups.

  15. M Dwarfs From The SDSS, 2MASS and WISE Surveys: Identification, Characterisation and Unresolved Ultracool Companionship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Neil James

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this thesis is to use a cross-match between WISE, 2MASS and SDSS to identify a large sample of M dwarfs. Through the careful characterisation and quality control of these M dwarfs I aim to identify rare systems (i.e. unresolved UCD companions, young M dwarfs, late M dwarfs and M dwarfs with common proper motion companions). Locating ultracool companions to M dwarfs is important for constraining low-mass formation models, the measurement of substellar dynamical masses and radii, and for testing ultracool evolutionary models. This is done by using an optimised method for identifying M dwarfs which may have unresolved ultracool companions. To do this I construct a catalogue of 440 694 M dwarf candidates, from WISE, 2MASS and SDSS, based on optical- and near-infrared colours and reduced proper motion. With strict reddening, photometric and quality constraints I isolate a sub-sample of 36 898 M dwarfs and search for possible mid-infrared M dwarf + ultracool dwarf candidates by comparing M dwarfs which have similar optical/near-infrared colours (chosen for their sensitivity to effective temperature and metallicity). I present 1 082 M dwarf + ultracool dwarf candidates for follow-up. Using simulated ultracool dwarf companions to M dwarfs, I estimate that the occurrence of unresolved ultracool companions amongst my M dwarf + ultracool dwarf candidates should be at least four times the average for my full M dwarf catalogue. I discuss yields of candidates based on my simulations. The possible contamination and bias from misidentified M dwarfs is then discussed, from chance alignments with other M dwarfs and UCDs, from chance alignments with giant stars, from chance alignments with galaxies, and from blended systems (via visual inspection). I then use optical spectra from LAMOST to spectral type a subset of my M dwarf + ultracool dwarf candidates. These candidates need confirming as true M dwarf + ultracool dwarf systems thus I present a new method I developed to

  16. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. DESIGN: Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden...... was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. SETTING: Nationwide register-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1...... to September 30, 2008. MEASUREMENTS: Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. RESULTS: At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent...

  17. Unresolved Loss, a Risk Factor for Offspring, Predicts Event-Related Potential Responses to Death-Related Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahm, Naomi I. Gribneau; Simon-Thomas, Emiliana R.; Main, Mary; Hesse, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether individual differences in attachment status can be detected by electrophysiological responses to loss-themed pictures. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was used to identify discourse/reasoning lapses during the discussion of loss experiences via death that place speakers in the Unresolved/disorganized AAI…

  18. Polarization dependence of transition intensities in double resonance experiments: unresolved spin doublets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Vladimir S; Field, Robert W

    2008-01-07

    The polarization dependence of transition intensities in multiple resonance spectroscopic experiments can provide information useful for making rotational assignments. A formalism to describe the polarization dependence of transition intensities in multiple resonance experiments, particularly for cases when two rotational/fine structure quantum numbers are needed to specify the state of the system, is presented. The formalism is presented in a form usable both when the transitions between the underlying fine structure components are experimentally resolved, as well as when they are unresolved, to form composite lines. This sort of treatment is necessary for cases when the two quantum numbers that specify the fine structure differ significantly, such as is the case at low N, when the difference between J and N becomes comparable to the value of J. Ratios of transition intensities in different experimentally convenient polarization arrangements are evaluated for the case of composite N transitions formed by combining the spin components of a doublet system. The formalism is expressed in a form easily extendable to accommodate experimental cases of more than two excitation steps, or a combination of excitation steps and an external static electric field. This polarization diagnostic has been experimentally applied to assign spectral features in double resonance Rydberg spectra of CaF.

  19. Isotopic molybdenum total neutron cross section in the unresolved resonance region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahran, R.; Barry, D.; Block, R.; Leinweber, G.; Rapp, M.; Daskalakis, A.; Blain, E.; Williams, D.; McDermott, B.; Leal, L.; Danon, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate isotopic molybdenum nuclear data are important because molybdenum can exist in nuclear reactor components including fuel, cladding, or as a high yield fission product. High-resolution time-of-flight neutron transmission measurements on highly enriched isotopic metallic samples of 95Mo , 96Mo , 98Mo , and 100Mo were performed in the resonance energy range from 1 to 620 keV . The measurements were taken with the newly developed modular 6Li -glass transmission detector positioned at the 100-m experimental flight station. In the unresolved energy region (URR), new comprehensive methods of analysis were developed and validated in order to obtain accurate neutron total cross-section data from the measurement by correcting for background and transmission enhancement effects. Average parameters and fits to the total cross section for 95Mo were obtained using the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model code fitacs, which is currently incorporated into the sammy code. The fits to the experimental data deviate from the current evaluated nuclear data file/B-VII.1 isotopic Mo evaluations by several percent in the URR.

  20. $^{197}$Au($n,\\gamma$) cross section in the unresolved resonance region

    CERN Document Server

    Lederer, C.; Domingo-Pardo, C; Gunsing, F; Kappeler, F; Massimi, C.; Mengoni, A.; Wallner, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Barbagallo, M.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviani, M.; Calvino, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapico, C.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Dolfini, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Losito, R.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Martinez, T.; Mastinu, P.; Mendoza, E.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M.T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Sarmento, R.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tarrio, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2011-01-01

    The cross section of the reaction (197)Au(n,gamma) was measured with the time-of-flight technique at the n_TOF (neutron time-of-flight) facility in the unresolved resonance region between 5 and 400 keV using a pair of C(6)D(6) (where D denotes (2)H) liquid scintillators for the detection of prompt capture gamma rays. The results with a total uncertainty of 3.9%-6.7% for a resolution of 20 bins per energy decade show fair agreement with the Evaluated Nuclear Data File Version B-VII.0 (ENDF B-VII.0), which contains the standard evaluation. The Maxwellian-averaged cross section (MACS) at 30 keV is in excellent agreement with the one according to the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluation and 4.7% higher than the MACS measured independently by activation technique. Structures in the cross section, which had also been reported earlier, have been interpreted as being due to clusters of resonances.

  1. Deriving physical parameters of unresolved star clusters III. Application to M31 PHAT clusters

    CERN Document Server

    de Meulenaer, Philippe; Mineikis, Tadas; Vansevičius, Vladas

    2015-01-01

    This study is the third of a series that investigates the degeneracy and stochasticity problems present in the determination of physical parameters such as age, mass, extinction, and metallicity of partially resolved or unresolved star cluster populations situated in external galaxies when using broad-band photometry. This work tests the derivation of parameters of artificial star clusters using models with fixed and free metallicity for the WFC3+ACS photometric system. Then the method is applied to derive parameters of a sample of 203 star clusters in the Andromeda galaxy observed with the HST. Following Papers I \\& II, the star cluster parameters are derived using a large grid of stochastic models that are compared to the observed cluster broad-band integrated WFC3+ACS magnitudes. We derive the age, mass, and extinction of the sample of M31 star clusters with one fixed metallicity in agreement with previous studies. Using artificial tests we demonstrate the ability of the WFC3+ACS photometric system to ...

  2. Unresolved issues in the management of ulcers of the foot in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffcoate, W J; Lipsky, B A; Berendt, A R; Cavanagh, P R; Bus, S A; Peters, E J G; van Houtum, W H; Valk, G D; Bakker, K

    2008-12-01

    Management of diabetic foot ulcers presents a major clinical challenge. The response to treatment is often poor and the outcome disappointing, while the costs are high for both healthcare providers and the patient. In such circumstances, it is essential that management should be based on firm evidence and follow consensus. In the case of the diabetic foot, however, clinical practice can vary widely. It is for these reasons that the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot has published guidelines for adoption worldwide. The Group has now also completed a series of non-systematic and systematic reviews on the subjects of soft tissue infection, osteomyelitis, offloading and other interventions designed to promote ulcer healing. The current article collates the results of this work in order to demonstrate the extent and quality of the evidence which is available in these areas. In general, the available scientific evidence is thin, leaving many issues unresolved. Although the complex nature of diabetic foot disease presents particular difficulties in the design of robust clinical trials, and the absence of published evidence to support the use of an intervention does not always mean that the intervention is ineffective, there is a clear need for more research in the area. Evidence from sound clinical studies is urgently needed to guide consensus and to underpin clinical practice. It is only in this way that patients suffering with these frequently neglected complications of diabetes can be offered the best hope for a favourable outcome, at the least cost.

  3. `Inverse Crime' and Model Integrity in Lightcurve Inversion applied to unresolved Space Object Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Laura S.; Subbarao, Kamesh

    2016-12-01

    This work presents a case wherein the selection of models when producing synthetic light curves affects the estimation of the size of unresolved space objects. Through this case, "inverse crime" (using the same model for the generation of synthetic data and data inversion), is illustrated. This is done by using two models to produce the synthetic light curve and later invert it. It is shown here that the choice of model indeed affects the estimation of the shape/size parameters. When a higher fidelity model (henceforth the one that results in the smallest error residuals after the crime is committed) is used to both create, and invert the light curve model the estimates of the shape/size parameters are significantly better than those obtained when a lower fidelity model (in comparison) is implemented for the estimation. It is therefore of utmost importance to consider the choice of models when producing synthetic data, which later will be inverted, as the results might be misleadingly optimistic.

  4. Formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures in lacustrine biodegraded oil from Nanxiang Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pengfei; He, Sheng; Zhu, Shukui; Chai, Derong; Yin, Shiyan; Dai, Wei; Zhang, Wanfeng

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS) method has been developed for the formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) in lacustrine biodegraded oils that with the same source rock, similar maturity, and increasing degradation rank from Nanxiang Basin, China. Normal alkanes, light hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, steranes, and terpanes are degraded gradually from oil B330 to oil G574. The compounds in biodegraded oil (oil G574) have fewer types, the polarity difference of compounds in different types is minor, and the relative content of individual compounds is similar. All the features make the compounds in biodegraded oil coelute in GC analysis and form the raised "baseline hump" named UCMs. By injecting standard materials and analyzing mass spectrums of target compounds, it is shown that cyclic alkanes with one to five rings are the major components of UCMs. Furthermore, UCMs were divided into six classes. Classes I and II, composed of alkyl-cyclohexanes, alkyl-naphthanes, and their isomers, are originated from the enrichment of hydrocarbons resistant to degradation in normal oils. Classes III ~ VI, composed of sesquiterpenoids, tricyclic terpanes, low molecular steranes, diasteranes, norhopanes, and their isomers, are probably from some newly formed compounds during the microbial transformation of oil.

  5. Formation and Identification of Unresolved Complex Mixtures in Lacustrine Biodegraded Oil from Nanxiang Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS method has been developed for the formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs in lacustrine biodegraded oils that with the same source rock, similar maturity, and increasing degradation rank from Nanxiang Basin, China. Normal alkanes, light hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, steranes, and terpanes are degraded gradually from oil B330 to oil G574. The compounds in biodegraded oil (oil G574 have fewer types, the polarity difference of compounds in different types is minor, and the relative content of individual compounds is similar. All the features make the compounds in biodegraded oil coelute in GC analysis and form the raised “baseline hump” named UCMs. By injecting standard materials and analyzing mass spectrums of target compounds, it is shown that cyclic alkanes with one to five rings are the major components of UCMs. Furthermore, UCMs were divided into six classes. Classes I and II, composed of alkyl-cyclohexanes, alkyl-naphthanes, and their isomers, are originated from the enrichment of hydrocarbons resistant to degradation in normal oils. Classes III ~ VI, composed of sesquiterpenoids, tricyclic terpanes, low molecular steranes, diasteranes, norhopanes, and their isomers, are probably from some newly formed compounds during the microbial transformation of oil.

  6. Exploring the temporal mechanism involved in the pitch of unresolved harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaernbach, C; Bering, C

    2001-08-01

    This paper continues a line of research initiated by Kaernbach and Demany [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 2298-2306 (1998)], who employed filtered click sequences to explore the temporal mechanism involved in the pitch of unresolved harmonics. In a first experiment, the just noticeable difference (jnd) for the fundamental frequency (F0) of high-pass filtered and low-pass masked click trains was measured, with F0 (100 to 250 Hz) and the cut frequency (0.5 to 6 kHz) being varied orthogonally. The data confirm the result of Houtsma and Smurzynski [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87, 304-310 (1990)] that a pitch mechanism working on the temporal structure of the signal is responsible for analyzing frequencies higher than ten times the fundamental. Using high-pass filtered click trains, however, the jnd for the temporal analysis is at 1.2% as compared to 2%-3% found in studies using band-pass filtered stimuli. Two further experiments provide evidence that the pitch of this stimulus can convey musical information. A fourth experiment replicates the finding of Kaernbach and Demany on first- and second-order regularities with a cut frequency of 2 kHz and extends the paradigm to binaural aperiodic click sequences. The result suggests that listeners can detect first-order temporal regularities in monaural click streams as well as in binaurally fused click streams.

  7. Properties and Modeling of Unresolved Fine Structure Loops Observed by IRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, David H; Warren, Harry P

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have discovered a new class of numerous low-lying dynamic loop structures, and it has been argued that they are the long-postulated unresolved fine structures (UFS) that dominate the emission of the solar transition region. In this letter, we combine IRIS measurements of the properties of a sample of 108 UFS (intensities, lengths, widths, lifetimes) with 1-D non-equilibrium ionization simulations using the HYDRAD hydrodynamic model to examine whether the UFS are now truly spatially resolved in the sense of being individual structures rather than composed of multiple magnetic threads. We find that a simulation of an impulsively heated single strand can reproduce most of the observed properties suggesting that the UFS may be resolved, and the distribution of UFS widths implies that they are structured on a spatial scale of 133km on average. Spatial scales of a few hundred km appear to be typical for a range of chromospheric and coronal st...

  8. Constraining the redshifted 21-cm signal with the unresolved soft X-ray background

    CERN Document Server

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Barkana, Rennan; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the observed unresolved cosmic X-ray background (CXRB) in the soft 0.5-2 keV band to constrain the population of high redshift X-ray sources existing before the end of reionization. Because the nature of these sources is poorly understood, we consider hot gas, X-ray binaries and mini-quasars (i.e., sources with soft and hard X-ray spectra) as possible candidates. We show that all types of the considered sources naturally generate a soft band CXRB, but if they actually generate the observed background their efficiency in producing X-rays must be one-to-two orders of magnitude higher than what is normally assumed. We find that the efficiency of hard sources does not have to be increased as strongly as that of the soft ones in order to generate the observed background. In addition, we show that when models are normalized to the CXRB, cosmic heating occurs quite early, and in some cases X-rays become a significant driver of reionization competing with the UV photons, while the expected high-redshift 21-cm ...

  9. The infant incubator in the neonatal intensive care unit: unresolved issues and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Roberto; Porcella, Annalisa; Fanos, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Since the 19th century, devices termed incubators were developed to maintain thermal stability in low birth weight (LBW) and sick newborns, thus improving their chances of survival. Remarkable progress has been made in the production of infant incubators, which are currently highly technological devices. However, they still need to be improved in many aspects. Regarding the temperature and humidity control, future incubators should minimize heat loss from the neonate and eddies around him/her. An unresolved issue is exposure to high noise levels in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Strategies aimed at modifying the behavior of NICU personnel, along with structural improvements in incubator design, are required to reduce noise exposure. Light environment should be taken into consideration in designing new models of incubators. In fact, ambient NICU illumination may cause visual pathway sequelae or possibly retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), while premature exposure to continuous lighting may adversely affect the rest-activity patterns of the newborn. Accordingly, both the use of incubator covers and circadian lighting in the NICU might attenuate these effects. The impact of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on infant health is still unclear. However, future incubators should be designed to minimize the EMF exposure of the newborn.

  10. Biases on initial mass function determinations. III. Cluster masses derived from unresolved photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz

    2009-01-01

    It is currently common to use spatially unresolved multi-filter broad-band photometry to determine the masses of individual stellar clusters (and hence the cluster mass function, CMF). I analyze the stochastic effects introduced by the sampling of the stellar initial mass function (SIMF) in the derivation of the individual masses and the CMF and I establish that such effects are the largest contributor to the observational uncertainties. An analytical solution, valid in the limit where uncertainties are small, is provided to establish the range of cluster masses over which the CMF slope can be obtained with a given accuracy. The validity of the analytical solution is extended to higher mass uncertainties using Monte Carlo simulations and the Gamma approximation. The value of the Poisson mass is calculated for a large range of ages and a variety of filters for solar-metallicity clusters measured with single-filter photometry. A method that uses the code CHORIZOS is presented to simultaneously derive masses, ag...

  11. The Impact of Unresolved Turbulence on the Escape Fraction of Lyman Continuum Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the turbulent Mach number (\\mach) and the escape fraction of Lyman continuum photons ($f_{\\rm esc}$) in high-redshift galaxies. Approximating the turbulence as isothermal and isotropic, we show that the increase in the variance in column densities from $\\mathcal{M}=1$ to $\\mathcal{M}=10$ causes $f_{\\rm esc}$ to increase by $\\approx 25$\\%, and the increase from $\\mathcal{M}=1$ to $\\mathcal{M}=20$ causes $f_{\\rm esc}$ to increases by $\\approx 50$\\% for a medium with opacity $\\tau\\approx1$. At a fixed Mach number, the correction factor for escape fraction relative to a constant column density case scales exponentially with the opacity in the cell, which has a large impact for simulated star forming regions. Furthermore, in simulations of isotropic turbulence with full atomic/ionic cooling and chemistry, the fraction of HI drops by a factor of $\\approx 2.5$ at $\\mathcal{M}\\approx10$ even when the mean temperature is $\\approx5\\times10^3 K$. If turbulence is unresolved, these eff...

  12. Deriving physical parameters of unresolved star clusters IV. The M33 star cluster system

    CERN Document Server

    de Meulenaer, P; Mineikis, T; Vansevičius, V

    2015-01-01

    Context. When trying to derive the star cluster physical parameters of the M33 galaxy using broad-band unresolved ground-based photometry, previous studies mainly made use of simple stellar population models, shown in the recent years to be oversimplified. Aims. In this study, we aim to derive the star cluster physical parameters (age, mass, and extinction; metallicity is assumed to be LMC-like for clusters with age below 1\\,Gyr and left free for older clusters) of this galaxy using models that take stochastic dispersion of cluster integrated colors into account. Methods. We use three recently published M33 catalogs of cluster optical broad-band photometry in standard $UBVRI$ and in CFHT/MegaCam $u^{*}g'r'i'z'$ photometric systems. We also use near-infrared $JHK$ photometry that we derive from deep 2MASS images. We derive the cluster parameters using a method that takes into account the stochasticity problem, presented in previous papers of this series. Results. The derived differential age distribution of th...

  13. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah S; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Ruijter, Jan M; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-07-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.

  14. Unresolved versus resolved: testing the validity of young simple stellar population models with VLT/MUSE observations of NGC 3603

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncarayakti, H.; Galbany, L.; Anderson, J. P.; Krühler, T.; Hamuy, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Stellar populations are the building blocks of galaxies, including the Milky Way. The majority, if not all, extragalactic studies are entangled with the use of stellar population models given the unresolved nature of their observation. Extragalactic systems contain multiple stellar populations with complex star formation histories. However, studies of these systems are mainly based upon the principles of simple stellar populations (SSP). Hence, it is critical to examine the validity of SSP models. Aims: This work aims to empirically test the validity of SSP models. This is done by comparing SSP models against observations of spatially resolved young stellar population in the determination of its physical properties, that is, age and metallicity. Methods: Integral field spectroscopy of a young stellar cluster in the Milky Way, NGC 3603, was used to study the properties of the cluster as both a resolved and unresolved stellar population. The unresolved stellar population was analysed using the Hα equivalent width as an age indicator and the ratio of strong emission lines to infer metallicity. In addition, spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting using STARLIGHT was used to infer these properties from the integrated spectrum. Independently, the resolved stellar population was analysed using the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) to determine age and metallicity. As the SSP model represents the unresolved stellar population, the derived age and metallicity were tested to determine whether they agree with those derived from resolved stars. Results: The age and metallicity estimate of NGC 3603 derived from integrated spectroscopy are confirmed to be within the range of those derived from the CMD of the resolved stellar population, including other estimates found in the literature. The result from this pilot study supports the reliability of SSP models for studying unresolved young stellar populations. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation

  15. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  16. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  17. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  18. Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Matthew J.; Zhang, Tao; Woyke, Tanja; Speller, Camilla F.; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Yang, Dongya Y.; Derevianko, Anatoly; Rubin, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of ancient DNA have been hindered by the preciousness of remains, the small quantities of undamaged DNA accessible, and the limitations associated with conventional PCR amplification. In these studies, we developed and applied a genomewide adapter-mediated emulsion PCR amplification protocol for ancient mammalian samples estimated to be between 45,000 and 69,000 yr old. Using 454 Life Sciences (Roche) and Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) technologies, we examined over 100 megabases of DNA from amplified extracts, revealing unbiased sequence coverage with substantial amounts of nonredundant nuclear sequences from the sample sources and negligible levels of human contamination. We consistently recorded over 500-fold increases, such that nanogram quantities of starting material could be amplified to microgram quantities. Application of our protocol to a 50,000-yr-old uncharacterized bone sample that was unsuccessful in mitochondrial PCR provided sufficient nuclear sequences for comparison with extant mammals and subsequent phylogenetic classification of the remains. The combined use of emulsion PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing allows for the generation of large quantities of DNA sequence data from ancient remains. Using such techniques, even small amounts of ancient remains with low levels of endogenous DNA preservation may yield substantial quantities of nuclear DNA, enabling novel applications of ancient DNA genomics to the investigation of extinct phyla. PMID:18426903

  19. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  20. The case for fencing remains intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D

    2013-11-01

    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered.

  1. Removing the remaining ridges in fingerprint segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU En; ZHANG Jian-ming; YIN Jian-ping; ZHANG Guo-min; HU Chun-feng

    2006-01-01

    Fingerprint segmentation is an important step in fingerprint recognition and is usually aimed to identify non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions and exclude them as background so as to reduce the time expenditure of image processing and avoid detecting false features. In high and in low quality ridge regions, often are some remaining ridges which are the afterimages of the previously scanned finger and are expected to be excluded from the foreground. However, existing segmentation methods generally do not take the case into consideration, and often, the remaining ridge regions are falsely classified as foreground by segmentation algorithm with spurious features produced erroneously including unrecoverable regions as foreground. This paper proposes two steps for fingerprint segmentation aimed at removing the remaining ridge region from the foreground. The non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions are removed as background in the first step, and then the foreground produced by the first step is further analyzed for possible remove of the remaining ridge region. The proposed method proved effective in avoiding detecting false ridges and in improving minutiae detection.

  2. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  3. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  4. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  5. Effects of mixing on resolved and unresolved scales on stratospheric age of air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietmüller, Simone; Garny, Hella; Plöger, Felix; Jöckel, Patrick; Cai, Duy

    2017-06-01

    Mean age of air (AoA) is a widely used metric to describe the transport along the Brewer-Dobson circulation. We seek to untangle the effects of different processes on the simulation of AoA, using the chemistry-climate model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) and the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). Here, the effects of residual transport and two-way mixing on AoA are calculated. To do so, we calculate the residual circulation transit time (RCTT). The difference of AoA and RCTT is defined as aging by mixing. However, as diffusion is also included in this difference, we further use a method to directly calculate aging by mixing on resolved scales. Comparing these two methods of calculating aging by mixing allows for separating the effect of unresolved aging by mixing (which we term aging by diffusion in the following) in EMAC and CLaMS. We find that diffusion impacts AoA by making air older, but its contribution plays a minor role (order of 10 %) in all simulations. However, due to the different advection schemes of the two models, aging by diffusion has a larger effect on AoA and mixing efficiency in EMAC, compared to CLaMS. Regarding the trends in AoA, in CLaMS the AoA trend is negative throughout the stratosphere except in the Northern Hemisphere middle stratosphere, consistent with observations. This slight positive trend is neither reproduced in a free-running nor in a nudged simulation with EMAC - in both simulations the AoA trend is negative throughout the stratosphere. Trends in AoA are mainly driven by the contributions of RCTT and aging by mixing, whereas the contribution of aging by diffusion plays a minor role.

  6. Constraining the redshifted 21-cm signal with the unresolved soft X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Cohen, Aviad; Barkana, Rennan; Silk, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    We use the observed unresolved cosmic X-ray background (CXRB) in the 0.5-2 keV band and existing upper limits on the 21-cm power spectrum to constrain the high-redshift population of X-ray sources, focusing on their effect on the thermal history of the Universe and the cosmic 21-cm signal. Because the properties of these sources are poorly constrained, we consider hot gas, X-ray binaries and mini-quasars (i.e. sources with soft or hard X-ray spectra) as possible candidates. We find that (1) the soft-band CXRB sets an upper limit on the X-ray efficiency of sources that existed before the end of reionization, which is one-to-two orders of magnitude higher than typically assumed efficiencies, (2) hard sources are more effective in generating the CXRB than the soft ones, (3) the commonly assumed limit of saturated heating is not valid during the first half of reionization in the case of hard sources, with any allowed value of X-ray efficiency, (4) the maximal allowed X-ray efficiency sets a lower limit on the depth of the absorption trough in the global 21-cm signal and an upper limit on the height of the emission peak, while in the 21-cm power spectrum it sets a minimum amplitude and frequency for the high-redshift peaks, and (5) the existing upper limit on the 21-cm power spectrum sets a lower limit on the X-ray efficiency for each model. When combined with the 21-cm global signal, the CXRB will be useful for breaking degeneracies and helping constrain the nature of high-redshift heating sources.

  7. Constraining the redshifted 21-cm signal with the unresolved soft X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Cohen, Aviad; Barkana, Rennan; Silk, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    We use the observed unresolved cosmic X-ray background (CXRB) in the 0.5 - 2 keV band and existing upper limits on the 21-cm power spectrum to constrain the high-redshift population of X-ray sources, focusing on their effect on the thermal history of the Universe and the cosmic 21-cm signal. Because the properties of these sources are poorly constrained, we consider hot gas, X-ray binaries and mini-quasars (i.e., sources with soft or hard X-ray spectra) as possible candidates. We find that (1) the soft-band CXRB sets an upper limit on the X-ray efficiency of sources that existed before the end of reionization, which is one-to-two orders of magnitude higher than typically assumed efficiencies, (2) hard sources are more effective in generating the CXRB than the soft ones, (3) the commonly-assumed limit of saturated heating is not valid during the first half of reionization in the case of hard sources, with any allowed value of X-ray efficiency, (4) the maximal allowed X-ray efficiency sets a lower limit on the depth of the absorption trough in the global 21-cm signal and an upper limit on the height of the emission peak, while in the 21-cm power spectrum it sets a minimum amplitude and frequency for the high-redshift peaks, and (5) the existing upper limit on the 21-cm power spectrum sets a lower limit on the X-ray efficiency for each model. When combined with the 21-cm global signal, the CXRB will be useful for breaking degeneracies and helping constrain the nature of high-redshift heating sources.

  8. Unresolved Fine-scale Structure in Solar Coronal Loop-tops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, E.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; Wedemeyer, S.; Antolin, P.

    2014-12-01

    New and advanced space-based observing facilities continue to lower the resolution limit and detect solar coronal loops in greater detail. We continue to discover even finer substructures within coronal loop cross-sections, in order to understand the nature of the solar corona. Here, we push this lower limit further to search for the finest coronal loop substructures, through taking advantage of the resolving power of the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope/CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter (CRISP), together with co-observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA). High-resolution imaging of the chromospheric Hα 656.28 nm spectral line core and wings can, under certain circumstances, allow one to deduce the topology of the local magnetic environment of the solar atmosphere where its observed. Here, we study post-flare coronal loops, which become filled with evaporated chromosphere that rapidly condenses into chromospheric clumps of plasma (detectable in Hα) known as a coronal rain, to investigate their fine-scale structure. We identify, through analysis of three data sets, large-scale catastrophic cooling in coronal loop-tops and the existence of multi-thermal, multi-stranded substructures. Many cool strands even extend fully intact from loop-top to footpoint. We discover that coronal loop fine-scale strands can appear bunched with as many as eight parallel strands within an AIA coronal loop cross-section. The strand number density versus cross-sectional width distribution, as detected by CRISP within AIA-defined coronal loops, most likely peaks at well below 100 km, and currently, 69% of the substructure strands are statistically unresolved in AIA coronal loops.

  9. Could a Change in Diet Revitalize Children Who Suffer from Unresolved Fatigue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gerjanne Steenbruggen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many children deal with fatigue for which no proper treatment can be given. A possible explanation for their fatigue is a micro deficiency of minerals and vitamins. In this non-randomized controlled trial, we clinically evaluated symptoms of fatigue in children for whom a nutrient-rich diet was advised. A group of 98 children (2–18 years old with unexplained symptoms of fatigue was examined. The dietary modifications consisted of green vegetables, beef, whole milk and full-fat butter. Children in the intervention group were asked to follow the diet for three months, whereas the control-group followed their normal diet. The primary outcome was symptoms of fatigue, as determined by a PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, and secondary outcomes were compliance with the diet and BMI. Children, who followed the diet showed a significant decrease in the need to sleep (CI 0.83; 14.86, p = 0.03. They slept better through the night and took fewer naps. When analyzing components of the advised diet separately, a significant larger decrease in cognitive fatigue symptoms was seen for eating green vegetables according to the diet guidelines (CI 2.27; 30.63, p = 0.024. Furthermore, a lower need to sleep was seen when whole milk was consumed almost daily (CI 0.02; 14.62, p = 0.049. Our study showed that nutritional advice is an elegant, and effective method for decreasing some symptoms of medically unresolved fatigue in children.

  10. Remaining Phosphorus Estimate Through Multiple Regression Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. E. ALVES; A. LAVORENTI

    2006-01-01

    The remaining phosphorus (Prem), P concentration that remains in solution after shaking soil with 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 containing 60 μg mL-1 P, is a very useful index for studies related to the chemistry of variable charge soils. Although the Prem determination is a simple procedure, the possibility of estimating accurate values of this index from easily and/or routinely determined soil properties can be very useful for practical purposes. The present research evaluated the Premestimation through multiple regression analysis in which routinely determined soil chemical data, soil clay content and soil pH measured in 1 mol L-1 NaF (pHNaF) figured as Prem predictor variables. The Prem can be estimated with acceptable accuracy using the above-mentioned approach, and PHNaF not only substitutes for clay content as a predictor variable but also confers more accuracy to the Prem estimates.

  11. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observ.......2% (19/54) and 35.4% (17/48) of the cases respectively. CONCLUSION: Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent. Clinicians should be aware of the hitherto unexplored clinical association with facial dermatitis....

  12. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubigney, Jean-claude

    2014-01-01

    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  13. Terminology for houses and house remains

    OpenAIRE

    Rosberg, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain lucidity, it is essential to choose adequate terminology when speaking of prehistoric houses. The understanding of house construction requires a terminology with a focus on construction. Very often, archaeologists instead use a terminology with a focus on the remains, and use an inadequate terminology for constructions, indicating that they do not fully consider how the constructions work. The article presents some suggestions for adequate construction terminology.

  14. Why do some cores remain starless ?

    CERN Document Server

    Anathpindika, S

    2016-01-01

    Physical conditions that could render a core starless(in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. The density profile of a typical core extracted from an earlier simulation developed to study core-formation in a molecular cloud was used for the purpose. We demonstrate - (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of $\\sim 10^{5}$ years. Those that remained starless did briefly acquire a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the density profile of a unstable Bonnor Ebert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three of our test cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16 and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. On the contrary B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other cores viz. B68, ...

  15. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  16. A subtraction scheme for computing QCD jet cross sections at NNLO. Integrating the iterated singly-unresolved subtraction terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzoni, Paolo [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Somogyi, Gabor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Trocsanyi, Zoltan [Debrecen Univ. (Hungary); Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Research

    2010-11-15

    We perform the integration of all iterated singly-unresolved subtraction terms over the two-particle factorized phase space. We also sum over the unresolved parton flavours. The final result can be written as a convolution (in colour space) of the Born cross section and an insertion operator. We spell out the insertion operator in terms of 24 basic integrals that are defined explicitly. We compute the coefficients of the Laurent-expansion of these integrals in two different ways, with the method of Mellin-Barnes representations and sector decomposition. Finally, we present the Laurentexpansion of the full insertion operator for the specific examples of electron-positron annihilation into two and three jets. (orig.)

  17. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-03-14

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  18. Glenohumeral abduction contracture in children with unresolved neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eismann, Emily A; Little, Kevin J; Laor, Tal; Cornwall, Roger

    2015-01-21

    Following neonatal brachial plexus palsy, the Putti sign-obligatory tilt of the scapula with brachiothoracic adduction-suggests the presence of glenohumeral abduction contracture. In the present study, we utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify this glenohumeral abduction contracture and evaluate its relationship to shoulder joint deformity, muscle atrophy, and function. We retrospectively reviewed MRIs of the thorax and shoulders obtained before and after shoulder rebalancing surgery (internal rotation contracture release and external rotation tendon transfer) for twenty-eight children with unresolved neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Two raters measured the coronal positions of the scapula, thoracic spine, and humeral shaft bilaterally on coronal images, correcting trigonometrically for scapular protraction on axial images. Supraspinatus, deltoid, and latissimus dorsi muscle atrophy was assessed, blinded to other measures. Correlations between glenohumeral abduction contracture and glenoid version, humeral head subluxation, passive external rotation, and Mallet shoulder function before and after surgery were performed. MRI measurements were highly reliable between raters. Glenohumeral abduction contractures were present in twenty-five of twenty-eight patients, averaging 33° (range, 10° to 65°). Among those patients, abductor atrophy was present in twenty-three of twenty-five, with adductor atrophy in twelve of twenty-five. Preoperatively, greater abduction contracture severity correlated with greater Mallet global abduction and hand-to-neck function. Abduction contracture severity did not correlate preoperatively with axial measurements of glenohumeral dysplasia, but greater glenoid retroversion was associated with worse abduction contractures postoperatively. Surgery improved passive external rotation, active abduction, and hand-to-neck function, but did not change the abduction contracture. A majority of patients with persistent shoulder weakness

  19. Reducing Errors in Satellite Simulated Views of Clouds with an Improved Parameterization of Unresolved Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, B. R.; Marchand, R.; Ackerman, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite instrument simulators have emerged as a means to reduce errors in model evaluation by producing simulated or psuedo-retrievals from model fields, which account for limitations in the satellite retrieval process. Because of the mismatch in resolved scales between satellite retrievals and large-scale models, model cloud fields must first be downscaled to scales consistent with satellite retrievals. This downscaling is analogous to that required for model radiative transfer calculations. The assumption is often made in both model radiative transfer codes and satellite simulators that the unresolved clouds follow maximum-random overlap with horizontally homogeneous cloud condensate amounts. We examine errors in simulated MISR and CloudSat retrievals that arise due to these assumptions by applying the MISR and CloudSat simulators to cloud resolving model (CRM) output generated by the Super-parameterized Community Atmosphere Model (SP-CAM). Errors are quantified by comparing simulated retrievals performed directly on the CRM fields with those simulated by first averaging the CRM fields to approximately 2-degree resolution, applying a "subcolumn generator" to regenerate psuedo-resolved cloud and precipitation condensate fields, and then applying the MISR and CloudSat simulators on the regenerated condensate fields. We show that errors due to both assumptions of maximum-random overlap and homogeneous condensate are significant (relative to uncertainties in the observations and other simulator limitations). The treatment of precipitation is particularly problematic for CloudSat-simulated radar reflectivity. We introduce an improved subcolumn generator for use with the simulators, and show that these errors can be greatly reduced by replacing the maximum-random overlap assumption with the more realistic generalized overlap and incorporating a simple parameterization of subgrid-scale cloud and precipitation condensate heterogeneity. Sandia National Laboratories is a

  20. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  1. Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL - Probabilistic Predictive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Suhir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability evaluations and assurances cannot be delayed until the device (system is fabricated and put into operation. Reliability of an electronic product should be conceived at the early stages of its design; implemented during manufacturing; evaluated (considering customer requirements and the existing specifications, by electrical, optical and mechanical measurements and testing; checked (screened during manufacturing (fabrication; and, if necessary and appropriate, maintained in the field during the product’s operation Simple and physically meaningful probabilistic predictive model is suggested for the evaluation of the remaining useful lifetime (RUL of an electronic device (system after an appreciable deviation from its normal operation conditions has been detected, and the increase in the failure rate and the change in the configuration of the wear-out portion of the bathtub has been assessed. The general concepts are illustrated by numerical examples. The model can be employed, along with other PHM forecasting and interfering tools and means, to evaluate and to maintain the high level of the reliability (probability of non-failure of a device (system at the operation stage of its lifetime.

  2. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  3. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  4. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  5. Turbidite plays` immaturity means big potential remains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettingill, H.S. [Repsol Exploracion SA, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-10-05

    The international exploration and production industry is increasingly focusing on deepwater plays. Turbidites are not the only reservoir type that occurs in deepwater frontiers, but they are the primary reservoir type of those plays. A worldwide data base assembled from published information on 925 fields and discoveries with deepwater clastic reservoirs (turbidites sensu lato) has been employed to investigate the large-scale exploration and production trends. Coverage of the Former Soviet Union, China, and the Indian subcontinent has been minor, but with the large data base of fields and discoveries from the rest of the world, the broad conclusions should remain valid. This article describes the global turbidite play in terms of: (1) basins of the world where turbidite fields have been discovered; (2) the five largest basins in terms of total discovered resources; and (3) a summary of trap type, which is a critical geological factor in turbidite fields. The second article will summarize a population of the world`s 43 largest turbidite fields and discoveries.

  6. Remaining phosphorus estimated by pedotransfer function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Cagliari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the determination of remaining phosphorus (Prem is simple, accurate values could also be estimated with a pedotransfer function (PTF aiming at the additional use of soil analysis data and/or Prem replacement by an even simpler determination. The purpose of this paper was to develop a pedotransfer function to estimate Prem values of soils of the State of São Paulo based on properties with easier or routine laboratory determination. A pedotransfer function was developed by artificial neural networks (ANN from a database of Prem values, pH values measured in 1 mol L-1 NaF solution (pH NaF and soil chemical and physical properties of samples collected during soil classification activities carried out in the State of São Paulo by the Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC. Furthermore, a pedotransfer function was developed by regressing Prem values against the same predictor variables of the ANN-based PTF. Results showed that Prem values can be calculated more accurately with the ANN-based pedotransfer function with the input variables pH NaF values along with the sum of exchangeable bases (SB and the exchangeable aluminum (Al3+ soil content. In addition, the accuracy of the Prem estimates by ANN-based PTF were more sensitive to increases in the experimental database size. Although the database used in this study was not comprehensive enough for the establishment of a definitive pedotrasnfer function for Prem estimation, results indicated the inclusion of Prem and pH NaF measurements among the soil testing evaluations as promising ind order to provide a greater database for the development of an ANN-based pedotransfer function for accurate Prem estimates from pH NaF, SB, and Al3+ values.

  7. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  8. An overview of unresolved inherent problems associated with red cell transfusion and potential use of artificial oxygen carriers and ECO-RBC: current status/future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatchian, Jerard; de Sousa, Gracinda

    2007-12-01

    This manuscript deals with why we need alternatives to liquid stored RBC highlighting some of the unresolved inherent problems related to red cell storage lesion and their potential impacts on the clinical outcomes and transfusion complications. The promise of several potential alternatives to red cell transfusions such as: Perfluorocarbon; Modified Hb-based oxygen carriers and newer design of Hb-based oxygen carriers are reviewed. It is noteworthy to say that since the first introduction of these oxygen carriers, almost five decades ago, the only successful drive has been to prepare safer and more convenient oxygen carriers, for enhancing the quality of life of recipients and their usage, either as substitutes to red cell transfusion or even as the bridge, remains patchy. Moreover, as new products with better characteristics become available the older products from the competitors are withdrawn. Finally, the current progress on universal RBC, known as ECO-cells is highlighted and, in the future perspectives, some of the current efforts in making the red cells transfusion safer and more efficacious are briefly addressed.

  9. Effect of a 0.5% chlorhexidine gel on dental plaque superinfecting microorganisms in mentally handicapped patients Efeito do gel de clorexidina a 0,5% em microrganismos superinfectantes da placa bacteriana de portadores de necessidades especiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Mendes Pannuti

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A randomized clinical trial was conducted to investigate the effect of a 0.5% chlorhexidine (CHX gel on dental plaque superinfecting microorganisms in mentally handicapped patients. Thirty inmates from the institution "Casas André Luiz" were assigned to either test group (CHX gel, n = 15 or control group (placebo gel, n = 15. The gel was administered over a period of 8 weeks. Supragingival plaque samples were collected at baseline, after gel use (8 weeks and 16 weeks after baseline. The presence of Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and yeasts was evaluated. No significant growth of any superinfecting microorganism was observed in the CHX group, when compared to the placebo group. The results indicated that the 0.5% chlorhexidine gel did not produce an undesirable shift in these bacterial populations.Foi conduzido um ensaio clínico aleatório com objetivo de investigar o efeito do gel de clorexidina (CHX a 0,5% sobre microorganismos superinfectantes da placa bacteriana de pacientes especiais. Trinta internos da instituição "Casas André Luiz" foram aleatoriamente divididos em grupo teste (gel de CHX, n = 15 e controle (gel placebo, n = 15. O gel foi utilizado por oito semanas. Amostras de placa supragengival foram coletadas no início do estudo, após o uso do gel (oito semanas e 16 semanas após o início do estudo. Foi avaliada a presença de bacilos entéricos Gram-negativos, Staphylococcus e leveduras. Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto à presença desses microorganismos em qualquer momento do estudo. Os resultados indicam que o gel de CHX não provocou mudanças significativas na composição desses microorganismos.

  10. A SUB-GRID VOLUME-OF-FLUIDS (VOF) MODEL FOR MIXING IN RESOLVED SCALE AND IN UNRESOLVED SCALE COMPUTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VOLD, ERIK L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; SCANNAPIECO, TONY J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-10-16

    A sub-grid mix model based on a volume-of-fluids (VOF) representation is described for computational simulations of the transient mixing between reactive fluids, in which the atomically mixed components enter into the reactivity. The multi-fluid model allows each fluid species to have independent values for density, energy, pressure and temperature, as well as independent velocities and volume fractions. Fluid volume fractions are further divided into mix components to represent their 'mixedness' for more accurate prediction of reactivity. Time dependent conversion from unmixed volume fractions (denoted cf) to atomically mixed (af) fluids by diffusive processes is represented in resolved scale simulations with the volume fractions (cf, af mix). In unresolved scale simulations, the transition to atomically mixed materials begins with a conversion from unmixed material to a sub-grid volume fraction (pf). This fraction represents the unresolved small scales in the fluids, heterogeneously mixed by turbulent or multi-phase mixing processes, and this fraction then proceeds in a second step to the atomically mixed fraction by diffusion (cf, pf, af mix). Species velocities are evaluated with a species drift flux, {rho}{sub i}u{sub di} = {rho}{sub i}(u{sub i}-u), used to describe the fluid mixing sources in several closure options. A simple example of mixing fluids during 'interfacial deceleration mixing with a small amount of diffusion illustrates the generation of atomically mixed fluids in two cases, for resolved scale simulations and for unresolved scale simulations. Application to reactive mixing, including Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), is planned for future work.

  11. Monte Carlo Simulation of Opacities of Hot and Dense Au Plasma in the Unresolved Transition Array Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程新路; 杨莉; 张红; 杨向东

    2002-01-01

    The opacity, and its Planck and Rosseland mean values, of the hot and dense Au plasma in local thermodynamicsequilibrium are studied by the Monte Carlo method based on the unresolved transition array (UTA) approxima-tion. The average ion model and the Saha equation are used to determine the atomic level populations. Theresult gives a more detailed structure for frequency-dependent opacity than the popularly used super transitionarray or UTA in the photon energy range of 500eV to 2000eV. The Monte Carlo method can give a result betterthan that of the UTA, with almost the same computation effort.

  12. Temporal behavior of unresolved transition array emission in water window soft x-ray spectral region from multiply charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Thanh-Hung, E-mail: dinh@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Li, Bowen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dunne, Padraig; O' Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Fujioka, Shinsuke [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Nishikino, Masaharu [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    We have characterized the spectral structure and the temporal history of the laser-produced high-Z multi-charged ion plasmas for the efficient water window soft x-ray sources. Strong unresolved transition array emission was observed due to 4d–4f and 4f–5g transitions from Au, Pb, and Bi plasmas in the 280–700 eV photon energy region. The temporal behavior of the emission was essentially similar of that of the laser pulse with a slight delay between different transitions. These results provide feedback for accurate modeling of the atomic processes with the radiative hydrodynamic simulations.

  13. [A few unresolved and frequent questions concerning anxiety and anxiety disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgeat, François; Zullino, Daniele

    2004-01-01

    The field of anxiety disorders shows a considerable evolution in the last decades concerning the overall conceptualization of the disorders and concerning their treatment. However many questions remain open. For instance, what is the importance of anxiety disorders in terms of public health? What is their influence on other factors affecting populations' health, e.g. substance abuse, and especially smoking? Questions also remain concerning the underlying mechanisms, whether biological or psychological. For instance, is it possible to identify cognitive schemas leading to pathological anxiety? What are the physiological manifestations of the hypervigilance and hyperreactivity that are described clinically? Despite the successive classifications, some issues are unsettled concerning the delimitation of anxiety disorders. For instance, do obsessive-compulsive disorders belong to anxiety disorders or preferably to a different family of mental disorders constituting a spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorders? Several practical issues remain open for clinicians: what is the importance of specific therapeutic factors in cognitive-behavioral therapies? Is there a psychoanalytical method and a psychopharmacological therapy specific to anxiety disorders? Concrete questions also deserve attention in relation with therapeutic modalities. Are group treatments superior to individual ones? What is the role of emotion in cognitive-behavioral treatment? Is it useful to associate self-regulation strategies like meditation? Do self-help organizations, that are numerous and helpful in that field, have a role concerning psychotherapy?

  14. How to bridge the gap between "unresolved" model and "resolved" model in CFD-DEM coupled method for sediment transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Fu, X.; Liu, X.

    2016-12-01

    In nature, granular materials exist widely in water bodies. Understanding the fundamentals of solid-liquid two-phase flow, such as turbulent sediment-laden flow, is of importance for a wide range of applications. A coupling method combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) is now widely used for modeling such flows. In this method, when particles are significantly larger than the CFD cells, the fluid field around each particle should be fully resolved. On the other hand, the "unresolved" model is designed for the situation where particles are significantly smaller than the mesh cells. Using "unresolved" model, large amount of particles can be simulated simultaneously. However, there is a gap between these two situations when the size of DEM particles and CFD cell is in the same order of magnitude. In this work, the most commonly used void fraction models are tested with numerical sedimentation experiments. The range of applicability for each model is presented. Based on this, a new void fraction model, i.e., a modified version of "tri-linear" model, is proposed. Particular attention is paid to the smooth function of void fraction in order to avoid numerical instability. The results show good agreement with the experimental data and analytical solution for both single-particle motion and also group-particle motion, indicating great potential of the new void fraction model.

  15. Results from an experiment that collected visible-light polarization data using unresolved imagery for classification of geosynchronous satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Andy; Matin, Mohammad; Tippets, Roger; Chun, Francis; Strong, David

    2015-05-01

    In order to protect critical military and commercial space assets, the United States Space Surveillance Network must have the ability to positively identify and characterize all space objects. Unfortunately, positive identification and characterization of space objects is a manual and labor intensive process today since even large telescopes cannot provide resolved images of most space objects. The objective of this study was to collect and analyze visible-spectrum polarization data from unresolved images of geosynchronous satellites taken over various solar phase angles. Different collection geometries were used to evaluate the polarization contribution of solar arrays, thermal control materials, antennas, and the satellite bus as the solar phase angle changed. Since materials on space objects age due to the space environment, their polarization signature may change enough to allow discrimination of identical satellites launched at different times. Preliminary data suggests this optical signature may lead to positive identification or classification of each satellite by an automated process on a shorter timeline. The instrumentation used in this experiment was a United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) Department of Physics system that consists of a 20-inch Ritchey-Chrétien telescope and a dual focal plane optical train fed with a polarizing beam splitter. Following a rigorous calibration, polarization data was collected during two nights on eight geosynchronous satellites built by various manufacturers and launched several years apart. When Stokes parameters were plotted against time and solar phase angle, the data indicates that a polarization signature from unresolved images may have promise in classifying specific satellites.

  16. Matching supply and demand for blood in Guizhou province, China: an unresolved challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lucy; McKee, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Problems with blood supply in China in the 1990s stimulated measures to achieve 100% voluntary donation but supply remains inadequate to meet demand. Review of official policies, supplemented with observation of practice and interviews with key informants (potential and actual donors and health workers) in Guizhou province in Southern China. Interviewees perceived the transfusion system as a mutual social contract. However, some individuals were unwilling to donate because of concerns about health risks, the idea of transferring blood between people, wastage or profits being made from blood. Inappropriate incentives, including cash, were used to encourage donation. Recent reforms have increased confidence in donation and transfusion safety although concerns persist about misuse. There is a need to reduce unnecessary use of blood and its products. China still relies heavily on blood supplies obtained through quota, purchase or use of incentives. There is scope to expand voluntary donation further. However, as a priority it will be necessary to reduce overuse.

  17. Outcome expectancy and self-efficacy: theoretical implications of an unresolved contradiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M

    2010-11-01

    According to self-efficacy theory, self-efficacy--defined as perceived capability to perform a behavior--causally influences expected outcomes of behavior, but not vice versa. However, research has shown that expected outcomes causally influence self-efficacy judgments, and some authors have argued that this relationship invalidates self-efficacy theory. Bandura has rebutted those arguments saying that self-efficacy judgments are not invalidated when influenced by expected outcomes. This article focuses on a contradiction in Bandura's rebuttal. Specifically, Bandura has argued (a) expected outcomes cannot causally influence self-efficacy, but (b) self-efficacy judgments remain valid when causally influenced by expected outcomes. While the debate regarding outcome expectancies and self-efficacy has subsided in recent years, the inattention to this contradiction has led to a disproportionate focus on self-efficacy as a causal determinant of behavior at the expense of expected outcomes.

  18. Surgical treatment of potentially primary malignant adrenal tumors: an unresolved issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografos, George N; Perysinakis, Iraklis; Kyrodimou, Eustathia; Kassi, Eva; Kaltsas, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Although the great majority of incidentalomas are adrenocortical adenomas, a number of them, depending on the size and radiological characteristics of the lesions, will turn out to be carcinomas. These tumors may present as suspicious on initial evaluation and potentially malignant or malignant on histology. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy with evolving diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Laparoscopic surgery has become the gold standard for surgery of benign adrenal tumors. Despite the extensive experience gained in laparoscopic adrenalectomy, controversy still remains in the management of adrenal tumors with high suspicion or evidence of malignancy. The aim of this review is to update the existing information regarding the diagnostic approach and surgical management of suspicious and potentially malignant primary adrenal tumors.The interpretation of radiologic characteristics is a cornerstone in pre-operative assessment of large adrenal masses, since open surgery remains the preferred procedure when malignancy is suspected in large tumors with possible local invasion. Despite the improvement of imaging techniques, they lack sufficient accuracy to exclude primary malignancy in tumors from 4 cm to 10 cm in size. An initial laparoscopic approach can be used in this group of patients, but early conversion to open technique is mandatory if curative resection cannot be performed. Adrenal tumors >10 cm of malignant potential should be treated by the open approach from the start. Solitary adrenal metastasis from another primary malignancy is usually amenable to laparoscopic surgery. Patients with suspected adrenal cancer should be referred to tertiary centers that perform laparoscopic and open adrenal surgery with minimal morbidity and mortality.

  19. Contribution of resolved and unresolved harmonic regions to brainstem speech-evoked responses in quiet and in background noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laroche

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Speech auditory brainstem responses (speech ABR reflect activity that is phase-locked to the harmonics of the fundamental frequency (F0 up to at least the first formant (F1. Recent evidence suggests that responses at F0 in the presence of noise are more robust than responses at F1, and are also dissociated in some learning-impaired children. Peripheral auditory processing can be broadly divided into resolved and unresolved harmonic regions. This study investigates the contribution of these two regions to the speech ABR, and their susceptibility to noise. We recorded, in quiet and in background white noise, evoked responses in twelve normal hearing adults in response to three variants of a synthetic vowel: i Allformants, which contains all first three formants, ii F1Only, which is dominated by resolved harmonics, and iii F2&F3Only, which is dominated by unresolved harmonics. There were no statistically significant differences in the response at F0 due to the three variants of the stimulus in quiet, nor did the noise affect this response with the Allformants and F1Only variants. On the other hand, the response at F0 with the F2&F3Only variant was significantly weaker in noise than with the two other variants (p<0.001. With the response at F1, there was no difference with the Allformants and F1Only variants in quiet, but was expectedly weaker with the F2&F3Only variant (p<0.01. The addition of noise significantly weakened the response at F1 with the F1Only variant (p<0.05, but this weakening only tended towards significance with the Allformants variant (p=0.07. The results of this study indicate that resolved and unresolved harmonics are processed in different but interacting pathways that converge in the upper brainstem. The results also support earlier work on the differential susceptibility of responses at F0 and F1 to added noise.

  20. The Problems of Translating Aristotle: Some Typical Unresolved Questions of Terminology and Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle's scientific language of' philosophy includes "sublime words", (semna onomata such as Being, Cosmos, Harmony, God, infinity, and so remains halfway between poetry and science. In Vico's view Aristotle's prose represents a completed transition from poetry to ordinary language, whereas Heidegger's theory of translating considers the basic Greek philosophical terms, such as to on and logos to be as untranslatable as high poetry. Aristotle's language and terminology are a reflection of his philosophy. The foundation of his first philosophy is the experience that the term "being" (to on has several senses (pollahos legetai In order to engage in debate we must first be able to establish ill how many senses a given term can be used. Therefore some philosophical subjects are treated by Aristotle in the form of a philosophical dictionary, i.e. Book V of the Metaphysics. The rendering of many basic terms from Greek philosophy into modern languages entails a preliminary interpretation, as well as an inquiry into the terminological possibilities of the target language. In the case of Slovene some Greek terms lack translation equivalents while others have been translated with an overabundance of synonyms.

  1. Ozone: Unresolved discrepancies for dipole oscillator strength distributions, dipole sums, and van der Waals coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Thakkar, Ajit J.

    2011-08-01

    Dipole oscillator strength distributions (DOSDs) for ozone are constructed from experimental photoabsorption cross-sections combined with constraints provided by the Kuhn-Reiche-Thomas sum rule, the high-energy behavior of the dipole-oscillator-strength density, and molar refractivity data. A lack of photoabsorption data in the intermediate energy region from 24 to 524 eV necessitates the use of a mixture rule in that region. For this purpose, a DOSD for O2 is constructed first. The dipole properties for O2 are essentially the same as those obtained in earlier work even though most of the input data is from more recent experiments. A discrepancy is found between the refractivity data and photoabsorption data in the 10-20.6 eV range for ozone. A reliable ozone DOSD of the sort obtained for many other species remains out of reach. However, it is suggested that the true dipole properties of ozone lie between those predicted by two distributions that we present.

  2. Numerical experiments with assimilation of the mean and unresolved meteorological conditions into large-eddy simulation model

    CERN Document Server

    Esau, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Micrometeorology, city comfort, land use management and air quality monitoring increasingly become important environmental issues. To serve the needs, meteorology needs to achieve a serious advance in representation and forecast on micro-scales (meters to 100 km) called meteorological terra incognita. There is a suitable numerical tool, namely, the large-eddy simulation modelling (LES) to support the development. However, at present, the LES is of limited utility for applications. The study addresses two problems. First, the data assimilation problem on micro-scales is investigated as a possibility to recover the turbulent fields consistent with the mean meteorological profiles. Second, the methods to incorporate of the unresolved surface structures are investigated in a priopi numerical experiments. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the simplest nudging or Newtonian relaxation technique for the data assimilation is applicable on the turbulence scales. It is also shown that the filtering property of...

  3. Limits on the radiative decay of sterile neutrino dark matter from the unresolved cosmic and soft x-ray backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazajian, Kevork N.; Markevitch, Maxim; Koushiappas, Savvas M.; Hickox, Ryan C.

    2007-03-01

    We present upper limits on line emission in the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB) that would be produced by decay of sterile neutrino dark matter. We employ the spectra of the unresolved component of the CXB in the Chandra Deep Fields North and South obtained with the Chandra CCD detector in the E=0.8 9keV band. The expected decay flux comes from the dark matter on the lines of sight through the Milky Way galactic halo. Our constraints on the sterile neutrino decay rate are sensitive to the modeling of the Milky Way halo. The highest halo mass estimates provide a limit on the sterile neutrino mass of msrocket-borne calorimeter by McCammon and collaborators.

  4. A Review: Passive System Reliability Analysis – Accomplishments and Unresolved Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARUN KUMAR NAYAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliability assessment of passive safety systems is one of the important issues, since safety of advanced nuclear reactors rely on several passive features. In this context, a few methodologies such as Reliability Evaluation of Passive Safety System (REPAS, Reliability Methods for Passive Safety Functions (RMPS and Analysis of Passive Systems ReliAbility (APSRA have been developed in the past. These methodologies have been used to assess reliability of various passive safety systems. While these methodologies have certain features in common, but they differ in considering certain issues; for example, treatment of model uncertainties, deviation of geometric and process parameters from their nominal values, etc. This paper presents the state of the art on passive system reliability assessment methodologies, the accomplishments and remaining issues. In this review three critical issues pertaining to passive systems performance and reliability have been identified. The first issue is, applicability of best estimate codes and model uncertainty. The best estimate codes based phenomenological simulations of natural convection passive systems could have significant amount of uncertainties, these uncertainties must be incorporated in appropriate manner in the performance and reliability analysis of such systems. The second issue is the treatment of dynamic failure characteristics of components of passive systems. REPAS, RMPS and APSRA methodologies do not consider dynamic failures of components or process, which may have strong influence on the failure of passive systems. The influence of dynamic failure characteristics of components on system failure probability is presented with the help of a dynamic reliability methodology based on Monte Carlo simulation. The analysis of a benchmark problem of Hold-up tank shows the error in failure probability estimation by not considering the dynamism of components. It is thus suggested that dynamic reliability

  5. Modeling, estimation, and analysis of unresolved space object tracking and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Laura Suarez

    The problem of orbit determination along with shape determination is significant. The orbit determination problem has been tackled for centuries by some of the greatest mathematicians and physicists. The issue of shape determination of space objects, although more recent, has also been addressed quite extensively. Nevertheless, these problems remain of great interest in the scientific and engineering community, and are addressed in this work. The greatest motivation for the tracking and identification of Earth orbiting objects is the ever-increasing population of space assets and man-made debris. It is of interest to implement new and better techniques to track and identify new debris and new orbiting bodies. The precise mathematical modeling of the space object's motion, along with the estimation of its position, velocity, attitude, angular velocity, shape, and size object is presented here. The first step is the development of mathematical model of the equations of motion of the orbiting body. The translational equations of motion are based on the orbiting two-body equations. In addition, rigid-body rotational equations are developed. This mathematical framework also includes models for perturbations. These perturbations are based on phenomena which affect the object as it orbits Earth. In order to acquire information regarding the object, astrometric and photometric measurement models are developed. These models emulate stations in the Space Surveillance Network. Special consideration is given to the development of the photometric model (i.e. the light curve model). The light curve measurement has only recently been used for this application and an extensive analysis of the information it carries is done. This study involves a sensitivity and observability analysis, which provide insight into the information contained in the light curve regarding the orientation, spin, shape, and size of the object. In addition, several mathematical models of the light

  6. Evidence that levels of the dimeric cellular transcription factor CP2 play little role in the activation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat in vivo or following superinfection with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, F; Swendeman, S L; Popik, W; Pitha, P M; Sheffery, M

    1994-08-19

    The dimeric transcription factor CP2 binds a sequence element found near the transcription start site of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) long terminal repeat. Several groups have suggested that cellular factors binding this element might play a role in modulating HIV-1 promoter activity in vivo. For example, induction of latent HIV-1 gene expression in response to superinfection by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or cytomegalovirus is thought to be mediated, in part, by factors binding the CP2 site. In this report we began to examine directly the relationship between CP2 and expression of the HIV-1 promoter. First, we tested what effect HSV-1 infection of T cells had on the cellular levels of CP2. The results showed that HSV-1 infection led to a significant reduction in the level of CP2 DNA binding activity and protein within 20 h. Next, we tested the effect of overexpressing either the wild-type factor or a dominant negative variant of CP2 on HIV-1 promoter activity in vivo. The results showed that CP2 had little effect or slightly repressed HIV-1 promoter activity in vivo. In addition, these expression constructs had little effect on the induction of HIV-1 promoter activity elicited by HSV-1 infection.

  7. Deriving the true mass of an unresolved Brown Dwarf companion to an M-Dwarf with AO aided astrometry*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürster M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available From radial velocity (RV detections alone one does not get all orbital parameters needed to derive the true mass of a non-transiting, unresolved substellar companion to a star. Additional astrometric measurements are needed to calculate the inclination and the longitude of the ascending node. Until today only few true substellar companion masses have been determined by this method with the HST fine guidance sensor [1, 2]. We aim to derive the true mass of a brown dwarf candidate companion to an early M 2.5V dwarf with groundbased high-resolution astrometry aided by adaptive optics. We found this unique brown dwarf desert object, whose distance to the host star is only 0.42 AU, in our UVES precision RV survey of M dwarfs, inferring a minimum companion mass of 27 Jupiter masses [3]. Combining the data with HIPPARCOS astrometry, we found a probability of only 2.9% that the companion is stellar. We therefore observed the host star together with a reference star within a monitoring program with VLT/NACO to derive the true mass of the companion and establish its nature (brown dwarf vs. star. Simultaneous observations of a reference field in a globular cluster are performed to determine the stability of the adaptive optics (AO plus detector system and check its suitability for such high-precision astrometric measurements over several epochs which are needed to find and analyse extrasolar planet systems.

  8. Analysis of unresolved transition arrays in XUV spectral region from highly charged lead ions produced by subnanosecond laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Li, Bowen; Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Takanori; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2017-02-01

    Soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectra from lead (Pb, Z=82) laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) were measured in the 1.0-7.0 nm wavelength region employing a 150-ps, 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser with focused power densities in the range from 3.1×1013 W/cm2 to 1.4×1014 W/cm2. The flexible atomic code (FAC) and the Cowan's suite of atomic structure codes were applied to compute and explain the radiation properties of the lead spectra observed. The most prominent structure in the spectra is a broad double peak, which is produced by Δn=0, n=4-4 and Δn=1, n=4-5 transition arrays emitted from highly charged lead ions. The emission characteristics of Δn=1, n=4-5 transitions were investigated by the use of the unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) model. Numerous new spectral features generated by Δn=1, n=4-5 transitions in ions from Pb21+ to Pb45+ are discerned with the aid of the results from present computations as well as consideration of previous theoretical predictions and experimental data.

  9. Tracking Down the Source Population Responsible for the Unresolved Cosmic 6-8 keV Background

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Y Q; Brandt, W N; Luo, B; Alexander, D M; Bauer, F E; Comastri, A; Fabian, A C; Gilli, R; Lehmer, B D; Schneider, D P; Vignali, C; Young, M

    2012-01-01

    Using the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey, we have identified a sample of 6845 X-ray undetected galaxies that dominates the unresolved ~ 20-25% of the 6-8 keV cosmic X-ray background (XRB). This sample was constructed by applying mass and color cuts to sources from a parent catalog based on GOODS-South HST z-band imaging of the central 6'-radius area of the 4 Ms CDF-S. The stacked 6-8 keV detection is significant at the 3.9 sigma level, but the stacked emission was not detected in the 4-6 keV band which indicates the existence of an underlying population of highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Further examinations of these 6845 galaxies indicate that the galaxies on the top of the blue cloud and with redshifts of 1 ~1E10 M_sun) galaxies. We discuss constraints upon this underlying AGN population, supporting evidence for relatively low-mass galaxies hosting highly obscured AGNs, and prospects for further boosting the stacked signal.

  10. Selective large-eddy simulation of hypersonic flows. Procedure to activate the filtering in unresolved regions only

    CERN Document Server

    Tordella, D; Massaglia, S; Mignone, A

    2012-01-01

    A new method for the localization of the regions where the turbulent fluctuations are unresolved is applied to the large-eddy simulation (LES) of a compressible turbulent jet with an initial Mach number equal to 5. The localization method used is called selective LES and is based on the exploitation of a scalar probe function f which represents the magnitude of the stretching-tilting term of the vorticity equation normalized with the enstrophy (Tordella et al. 2007). For a fully developed turbulent field of fluctuations, statistical analysis shows that the probability that f is larger than 2 is almost zero, and, for any given threshold, it is larger if the flow is under-resolved. By computing the spatial field of f in each instantaneous realization of the simulation it is possible to locate the regions where the magnitude of the normalized vortical stretching-tilting is anomalously high. The sub-grid model is then introduced into the governing equations in such regions only. The results of the selective LES s...

  11. Limits on the Radiative Decay of Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter from the Unresolved Cosmic and Soft X-ray Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Abazajian, Kevork N; Koushiappas, S M; Hickox, R C; Abazajian, Kevork N.; Markevitch, Maxim; Koushiappas, Savvas M.; Hickox, Ryan C.

    2006-01-01

    We present upper limits on line emission in the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB) that would be produced by decay of sterile neutrino dark matter. We employ the spectra of the unresolved component of the CXB in the Chandra Deep Fields North and South obtained with the Chandra CCD detector in the E=0.8-9 keV band. The expected decay flux comes from the dark matter on the lines of sight through the Milky Way galactic halo. Our constraints on the sterile neutrino decay rate are sensitive to the modeling of the Milky Way halo. The highest halo mass estimates provide a limit on the sterile neutrino mass of m_s<2.9 keV in the Dodelson-Widrow production model, while the lowest halo mass estimates provide the conservative limit of m_s<5.7 keV (2-sigma). We also discuss constraints from a short observation of the softer (E<1 keV) X-ray background with a rocket-borne calorimeter by McCammon and collaborators.

  12. Pivotal importance of STAT3 in protecting the heart from acute and chronic stress: new advancement and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foaud A. Zouein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 has been implicated in protecting the heart from acute ischemic injury under both basal conditions and as a crucial component of pre- and post-conditioning protocols. A number of anti-oxidant and antiapoptotic genes are upregulated by STAT3 via canonical means involving phosphorylation on Y705 and S727, although other incompletely defined posttranslational modifications are involved. In addition, STAT3 is now known to be present in cardiac mitochondria and to exert actions that regulate the electron transport chain, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP opening. These non-canonical actions of STAT3 are enhanced by S727 phosphorylation. The molecular basis for the mitochondrial actions of STAT3 are poorly understood, but STAT3 is known to interact with a critical subunit of complex I and to regulate complex I function. Dysfunctional complex I has been implicated in ischemic injury, heart failure, and the aging process. Evidence also indicates that STAT3 is protective to the heart under chronic stress conditions, including hypertension, pregnancy, and advanced age. Paradoxically, the accumulation of unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3 in the nucleus has been suggested to drive pathological cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation via noncanonical gene expression, perhaps involving a distinct acetylation profile. U-STAT3 may also regulate chromatin stability. Our understanding of how the noncanonical genomic and mitochondrial actions of STAT3 in the heart are regulated and coordinated with the canonical actions of STAT3 is rudimentary. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about the pleotropic actions of STAT3 in the heart in order to highlight controversies and unresolved issues.

  13. In vitro minocycline activity on superinfecting microorganisms isolated from chronic periodontitis patients Atividade in vitro de minociclina sobre microrganismos superinfectantes isolados de pacientes com periodontite crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fernandes de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis is the most common type of periodontitis and it is associated with various species of microorganisms. Enteric rods, Pseudomonas, Staphyloccocus and Candida have been retrieved from periodontal pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis and correlated to cases of superinfection. Local or systemic antibiotic therapy is indicated to reinforce the effects of the conventional mechanical therapy. Minocycline has been suggested as one of the most effective drugs against periodontal pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of minocycline on superinfecting microorganisms isolated from the periodontal pocket and the oral cavity of individuals with chronic periodontitis. Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n = 25, Staphylococcus spp. (n = 25, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 9 and Candida spp. (n = 25 were included in the study. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of minocycline were determined using the Müeller-Hinton agar dilution method. Staphylococcus spp. isolates were the most sensitive to minocycline with a MIC of 8 µg/mL, followed by Enterobacteriaceae with a MIC of 16 µg/mL. The concentration of 16 µg/mL inhibited 96% of Candida spp. isolates. The MIC for 88.8% of the isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 128 µg/mL. A concentration of 1,000 µg/mL was not enough to inhibit 100% of the tested isolates.Periodontite crônica é a forma mais comum de periodontite e está associada a diversas espécies de microrganismos. Enterobactérias, Pseudomonas, Staphyloccocus e Candida têm sido recuperados de bolsas periodontais de indivíduos com periodontite crônica e implicados em casos de superinfecção. A terapia antimicrobiana local ou sistêmica pode ser utilizada para reforçar os efeitos da terapia mecânica convencional, e a minociclina tem sido sugerida como antimicrobiano eficaz frente a periodontopatógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a concentração inibit

  14. Selective logging: does the imprint remain on tree structure and composition after 45 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L; Chapman, Colin A; Zanne, Amy E

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging of tropical forests is increasing in extent and intensity. The duration over which impacts of selective logging persist, however, remains an unresolved question, particularly for African forests. Here, we investigate the extent to which a past selective logging event continues to leave its imprint on different components of an East African forest 45 years later. We inventoried 2358 stems ≥10 cm in diameter in 26 plots (200 m × 10 m) within a 5.2 ha area in Kibale National Park, Uganda, in logged and unlogged forest. In these surveys, we characterized the forest light environment, taxonomic composition, functional trait composition using three traits (wood density, maximum height and maximum diameter) and forest structure based on three measures (stem density, total basal area and total above-ground biomass). In comparison to unlogged forests, selectively logged forest plots in Kibale National Park on average had higher light levels, different structure characterized by lower stem density, lower total basal area and lower above-ground biomass, and a distinct taxonomic composition driven primarily by changes in the relative abundance of species. Conversely, selectively logged forest plots were like unlogged plots in functional composition, having similar community-weighted mean values for wood density, maximum height and maximum diameter. This similarity in functional composition irrespective of logging history may be due to functional recovery of logged forest or background changes in functional attributes of unlogged forest. Despite the passage of 45 years, the legacy of selective logging on the tree community in Kibale National Park is still evident, as indicated by distinct taxonomic and structural composition and reduced carbon storage in logged forest compared with unlogged forest. The effects of selective logging are exerted via influences on tree demography rather than functional trait composition.

  15. PAPIN: A Fortran-IV program to calculate cross section probability tables, Bondarenko and transmission self-shielding factors for fertile isotopes in the unresolved resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Cobos, J.G.

    1981-08-01

    The Fortran IV code PAPIN has been developed to calculate cross section probability tables, Bondarenko self-shielding factors and average self-indication ratios for non-fissile isotopes, below the inelastic threshold, on the basis of the ENDF/B prescriptions for the unresolved resonance region. Monte-Carlo methods are utilized to generate ladders of resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region, from average resonance parameters and their appropriate distribution functions. The neutron cross-sections are calculated by the single level Breit-Wigner (SLBW) formalism, with s, p and d-wave contributions. The cross section probability tables are constructed by sampling the Doppler-broadened cross sections. The various self-shielded factors are computed numerically as Lebesgue integrals over the cross section probability tables. The program PAPIN has been validated through extensive comparisons with several deterministic codes.

  16. Differentiation between decomposed remains of human origin and bigger mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, E; Loix, S; Develter, W; Van de Voorde, W; Cuypers, E; Tytgat, J

    2017-08-01

    This study is a follow-up study in the search for a human specific marker in the decomposition where the VOC-profile of decomposing human, pig, lamb and roe remains were analyzed using a thermal desorber combined with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer in a laboratory environment during 6 months. The combination of 8 previously identified human and pig specific compounds (ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, propyl butyrate, ethyl pentanoate, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, methyl(methylthio)ethyl disulfide, diethyl disulfide and pyridine) was also seen in these analyzed mammals. However, combined with 5 additional compounds (hexane, heptane, octane, N-(3-methylbutyl)- and N-(2-methylpropyl)acetamide) human remains could be separated from pig, lamb and roe remains. Based on a higher number of remains analyzed, as compared with the pilot study, it was no longer possible to rely on the 5 previously proposed esters to separate pig from human remains. From this follow-up study reported, it was found that pyridine is an interesting compound specific to human remains. Such a human specific marker can help in the training of cadaver dogs or in the development of devices to search for human remains. However, further investigations have to verify these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162339.html Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged Men more often ... HealthDay News) -- The number of Americans who attempted suicide and wound up in the emergency room has ...

  19. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  20. [The craniofacial identification of the remains from the Yekaterinburg burial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Based on expert evaluation of remains of 7 members of Imperial Romanov family and 4 persons in their attendance, the author demonstrates methodological approaches to identification craniocephalic studies in cases with group burials.

  1. Repatriation of human remains following death in international travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Ruairi; Prendiville, Richard; Cusack, Denis; Flaherty, Gerard

    2017-03-01

    Death during international travel and the repatriation of human remains to one's home country is a distressing and expensive process. Much organization is required involving close liaison between various agencies. A review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed database. Search terms included: 'repatriation of remains', 'death', 'abroad', 'tourism', 'travel', 'travellers', 'travelling' and 'repatriation'. Additional articles were obtained from grey literature sources and reference lists. The local national embassy, travel insurance broker and tour operator are important sources of information to facilitate the repatriation of the deceased traveller. Formal identification of the deceased's remains is required and a funeral director must be appointed. Following this, the coroner in the country or jurisdiction receiving the repatriated remains will require a number of documents prior to providing clearance for burial. Costs involved in repatriating remains must be borne by the family of the deceased although travel insurance may help defray some of the costs. If the death is secondary to an infectious disease, cremation at the site of death is preferred. No standardized procedure is in place to deal with the remains of a migrant's body at present and these remains are often not repatriated to their country of origin. Repatriation of human remains is a difficult task which is emotionally challenging for the bereaving family and friends. As a travel medicine practitioner, it is prudent to discuss all eventualities, including the risk of death, during the pre-travel consultation. Awareness of the procedures involved in this process may ease the burden on the grieving family at a difficult time.

  2. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Alan J.; Brooke Adair; Kimberly Miller; Elizabeth Ozanne; Catherine Said; Nick Santamaria; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effec...

  3. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  4. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Goring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kjellström

    Full Text Available In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS, the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  5. Comparison of Neural Networks and Tabular Nearest Neighbor Encoding for Hyperspectral Signature Classification in Unresolved Object Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, M.; Ritter, G.; Key, R.

    detections (Rfa). As proof of principle, we analyze classification of multiple closely spaced signatures from a NASA database of space material signatures. Additional analysis pertains to computational complexity and noise sensitivity, which are superior to Bayesian techniques based on classical neural networks. [1] Winter, M.E. "Fast autonomous spectral end-member determination in hyperspectral data," in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference On Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, pp. 337-44 (1999). [2] N. Keshava, "A survey of spectral unmixing algorithms," Lincoln Laboratory Journal 14:55-78 (2003). [3] Key, G., M.S. SCHMALZ, F.M. Caimi, and G.X. Ritter. "Performance analysis of tabular nearest neighbor encoding algorithm for joint compression and ATR", in Proceedings SPIE 3814:115-126 (1999). [4] Schmalz, M.S. and G. Key. "Algorithms for hyperspectral signature classification in unresolved object detection using tabular nearest neighbor encoding" in Proceedings of the 2007 AMOS Conference, Maui HI (2007). [5] Ritter, G.X., G. Urcid, and M.S. Schmalz. "Autonomous single-pass endmember approximation using lattice auto-associative memories", Neurocomputing (Elsevier), accepted (June 2008).

  6. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C

    2012-07-10

    Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cutmarked human remains bearing Neandertal features and modern human remains associated with the Aurignacian at Les Rois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Grootes, Pieter M; Kerautret, Bertrand; Dujardin, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The view that Aurignacian technologies and their associated symbolic manifestations represent the archaeologicalproxy for the spread of Anatomically Modern Humans into Europe, is supported by few diagnostic human remains, including those from the Aurignacian site of Les Rois in south-western France. Here we reassess the taxonomic attribution of the human remains, their cultural affiliation, and provide five new radiocarbon dates for the site. Patterns of tooth growth along with the morphological and morphometric analysis of the human remains indicate that a juvenile mandible showing cutmarks presents some Neandertal features, whereas another mandible is attributed to Anatomically Modern Humans. Reappraisal of the archaeological sequence demonstrates that human remains derive from two layers dated to 28-30 kyr BP attributed to the Aurignacian, the only cultural tradition detected at the site. Three possible explanations may account for this unexpected evidence. The first one is that the Aurignacian was exclusively produced by AMH and that the child mandible from unit A2 represents evidence for consumption or, more likely, symbolic use of a Neandertal child by Aurignacian AMH The second possible explanation is that Aurignacian technologies were produced at Les Rois by human groups bearing both AMH and Neandertal features. Human remains from Les Rois would be in this case the first evidence of a biological contact between the two human groups. The third possibility is that all human remains from Les Rois represent an AMH population with conserved plesiomorphic characters suggesting a larger variation in modern humans from the Upper Palaeolithic.

  9. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Ebola vaccine 2014:remained problems to be answered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri; Wiwanitkit; Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreak in Africa in 2014 is a big global issue.The vaccine is the hope for management of the present outbreak of Ebola virus infection.There are several ongoing researches on new Ebola vaccine.In this short manuscript,we discuss and put forward specific remained problems to be answered on this specific issue.Lack for complete knowledge on the new emerging virus,concern from pharmaceutical company and good trial of new vaccine candidates are the remained problem to be further discussed in vaccinology.

  12. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...... develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  13. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown.

  14. Fossil remains of fungi, algae and other organisms from Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fungal remains and other fossils from Cainophytic strata of Jamaica have been compared with species described in mycological and algological publications. Only in a few cases morphologically related taxons have been encountered. The stratigraphie significance of these Jamaican fossils is unknown as

  15. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....

  16. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  17. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  18. Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernardo, G; Galano, G; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F; Angelini, F; Cascino, A

    1998-06-29

    aDNA extraction and amplification procedures have been optimized for Pompeian human bone remains whose diagenesis has been determined by histological analysis. Single copy genes amplification (X and Y amelogenin loci and Y specific alphoid repeat sequences) have been performed and compared with anthropometric data on sexing.

  19. Robotics to enable older adults to remain living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan J; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  20. Iontophoresis generates an antimicrobial effect that remains after iontophoresis ceases.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, C P; Wagle, N; M. D. Anderson(University of Glasgow); Warren, M M

    1992-01-01

    Iontophoresis required chlorine-containing compounds in the medium for effective microbial population reduction and killing. After iontophoresis ceased, the antimicrobial effect generated by iontophoresis remained but slowly decreased. Antimicrobial effects of iontophoresis may be related to the generation of short-lived chlorine-containing compounds.

  1. The Remains of the Day Under the Perspective of Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ling-ling

    2015-01-01

    The Remains of the Day is a Booker-winner novel by Kazuo Ishiguro. Stevens is both the protagonist and the narrator of the novel who restrains his feelings and has to live a life of regret and loss. This article provides a glimpse of its character and theme under the perspective of linguistic adaptation.

  2. Identification of the remains of King Richard III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.E. King (Turi E.); G.G. Fortes (Gloria Gonzalez); P. Balaresque (Patricia); M.G. Thomas (Mark); D.J. Balding (David); P.M. Delser (Pierpaolo Maisano); R. Neumann (Rita); W. Parson (Walther); M. Knapp (Michael); S. Walsh (Susan); L. Tonasso (Laure); J. Holt (John); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); J. Appleby (Jo); P. Forster (Peter); D. Ekserdjian (David); M. Hofreiter (Michael); K. Schürer (Kevin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the

  3. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  4. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Girish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains.

  5. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  6. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees.

  7. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... in Greenland either fossil or extant. The fossil fauna includes the weevil Rutidosoma globulus which is at present extremely rare in Greenland. Its rarity might indicate that it is a recent immigrant, but the fossil finds provide a minimum date for its arrival at around 5840 cal. years B. P. Other remains...... of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....

  8. Comprehensive analysis of microorganisms accompanying human archaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Anna; Stolarek, Ireneusz; Kuczkowska, Bogna; Juras, Anna; Handschuh, Luiza; Piontek, Janusz; Kozlowski, Piotr; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2017-07-01

    Metagenome analysis has become a common source of information about microbial communities that occupy a wide range of niches, including archaeological specimens. It has been shown that the vast majority of DNA extracted from ancient samples come from bacteria (presumably modern contaminants). However, characterization of microbial DNA accompanying human remains has never been done systematically for a wide range of different samples. We used metagenomic approaches to perform comparative analyses of microorganism communities present in 161 archaeological human remains. DNA samples were isolated from the teeth of human skeletons dated from 100 AD to 1200 AD. The skeletons were collected from 7 archaeological sites in Central Europe and stored under different conditions. The majority of identified microbes were ubiquitous environmental bacteria that most likely contaminated the host remains not long ago. We observed that the composition of microbial communities was sample-specific and not correlated with its temporal or geographical origin. Additionally, traces of bacteria and archaea typical for human oral/gut flora, as well as potential pathogens, were identified in two-thirds of the samples. The genetic material of human-related species, in contrast to the environmental species that accounted for the majority of identified bacteria, displayed DNA damage patterns comparable with endogenous human ancient DNA, which suggested that these microbes might have accompanied the individual before death. Our study showed that the microbiome observed in an individual sample is not reliant on the method or duration of sample storage. Moreover, shallow sequencing of DNA extracted from ancient specimens and subsequent bioinformatics analysis allowed both the identification of ancient microbial species, including potential pathogens, and their differentiation from contemporary species that colonized human remains more recently. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University

  9. Middle Paleolithic and Uluzzian human remains from Fumane Cave, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Bailey, Shara E; Peresani, Marco; Mannino, Marcello A; Romandini, Matteo; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-05-01

    The site of Fumane Cave (western Lessini Mountains, Italy) contains a stratigraphic sequence spanning the Middle to early Upper Paleolithic. During excavations from 1989 to 2011, four human teeth were unearthed from the Mousterian (Fumane 1, 4, 5) and Uluzzian (Fumane 6) levels of the cave. In this contribution, we provide the first morphological description and morphometric analysis of the dental remains. All of the human remains, except for Fumane 6, are deciduous teeth. Based on metric data (crown and cervical outline analysis, and lateral enamel thickness) and non-metric dental traits (e.g., mid-trigonid crest), Fumane 1 (lower left second deciduous molar) clearly belongs to a Neandertal. For Fumane 4 (upper right central deciduous incisor), the taxonomic attribution is difficult due to heavy incisal wear. Some morphological features observed in Fumane 5 (lower right lateral deciduous incisor), coupled with the large size of the tooth, support Neandertal affinity. Fumane 6, a fragment of a permanent molar, does not show any morphological features useful for taxonomic discrimination. The human teeth from Fumane Cave increase the sample of Italian fossil remains, and emphasize the need to develop new methods to extract meaningful taxonomic information from deciduous and worn teeth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mineral content of the dentine remaining after chemomechanical caries removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, H K; Beeley, J A; Stevenson, A G

    1995-01-01

    Although the dentine remaining after chemomechanical caries removal appears sound by normal clinical criteria, no definitive evidence has yet been obtained to confirm that the dentine surface is in fact mineralised. The aim of this study was to use backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) to ascertain the level of mineralisation of the dentine remaining in cavities prepared by this technique. Carious dentine was removed from carious lesions by means of N-monochloro-DL-2-aminobutyric acid (NMAB) or NMAB containing 2 mol/l urea. Sections of teeth in which caries removal was complete by normal clinical criteria were examined by EPMA and BSE. Dentine adjacent to the pulp was found to be less mineralised than the surrounding dentine. Although the superficial layer of dentine remaining on the cavity floors frequently appeared to have a slightly reduced mineral content, the results clearly indicated that there was no significant difference between this dentine and the underlying sound dentine.

  11. After 3 years of starvation: duodenum swallowed remaining stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Andreas; Waidner, Uta; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Maria Wolf, Anna; Buttenschoen, Klaus

    2009-05-01

    A 42-year-old morbidly obese patient (BMI 44.1 kg/m(2)) was admitted to our emergency room with upper abdominal pain, nausea, and cholestasis. Nine years ago, a vertical banded gastroplasty had been performed (former BMI 53.5 kg/m(2)) with a subsequent weight loss to BMI 33.0 kg/m(2). After regaining weight up to a BMI of 47.6 kg/m(2), 5 years ago a conversion to a gastric bypass was realized. A computed tomography of the abdomen showed an invagination of the remaining stomach into the duodenum causing obstruction of the orifice of common bile duct. The patient underwent an open desinvagination of the intussusception and resection of the remaining stomach. Gastroduodenal intussusception is rare and mostly secondary to gastric lipoma. To prevent this rare but serious complication, the remaining stomach could be fixed at the crura of the diaphragm, tagged to the anterior abdominal wall by temporary gastrostomy tube, or resected.

  12. Remaining useful tool life predictions in turning using Bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydeep M. Karandikar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tool wear is an important factor in determining machining productivity. In this paper, tool wear is characterized by remaining useful tool life in a turning operation and is predicted using spindle power and a random sample path method of Bayesian inference. Turning tests are performed at different speeds and feed rates using a carbide tool and MS309 steel work material. The spindle power and the tool flank wear are monitored during cutting; the root mean square of the time domain power is found to be sensitive to tool wear. Sample root mean square power growth curves are generated and the probability of each curve being the true growth curve is updated using Bayes’ rule. The updated probabilities are used to determine the remaining useful tool life. Results show good agreement between the predicted tool life and the empirically-determined true remaining life. The proposed method takes into account the uncertainty in tool life and the growth of the root mean square power at the end of tool life and is, therefore, robust and reliable.

  13. Trauma and traumatic loss in pregnant adolescents: the impact of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy on maternal unresolved states of mind and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Sheri; Vaillancourt, Kyla; McKibbon, Amanda; Benoit, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant adolescents are a group at high risk for exposure to traumatic experiences. The present study aimed to examine if Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TF-CBT) typically applied to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), could also be applied to unresolved states of mind in a sample of socially at-risk pregnant adolescents. Forty-three adolescents who were in their second trimester of pregnancy and who also had positive indices of unresolved states of mind or symptoms of PTSD were randomly assigned to either the treatment as usual (parenting classes) or intervention (parenting classes + TF-CBT) group. Adolescent mother-infant dyads were then re-assessed at infant ages 6 and 12 months on a broad range of measures, including those specific to attachment, as well as to PTSD, and adolescent behavioral adjustment. Twenty-six of the 43 (60%) recruited subjects completed all components of the study protocol. Although there were no significant effects of the TF-CBT intervention on maternal attachment, infant attachment, PTSD diagnosis and adolescent behavioral adjustment, several study limitations restrict our ability to draw firm conclusions about the efficacy of TF-CBT for use in pregnant adolescents with complex trauma. The discussion offers insight and guidance for clinical work and future intervention research efforts with this vulnerable population.

  14. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  15. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  16. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  17. How Long Do Numerical Chaotic Solutions Remain Valid?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, T. [Department of Mathematical Sciences , George Mason University , Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Sauer, T.; Yorke, J.A. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Grebogi, C. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik , Universitaet Potsdam , PF 601553, D-14415 Potsdam (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Dynamical conditions for the loss of validity of numerical chaotic solutions of physical systems are already understood. However, the fundamental questions of {open_quotes}how good{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}for how long{close_quotes} the solutions are valid remained unanswered. This work answers these questions by establishing scaling laws for the shadowing distance and for the shadowing time in terms of physically meaningful quantities that are easily computable in practice. The scaling theory is verified against a physical model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. The Unreliable Narrator in the Remains of the Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏艳

    2012-01-01

    Kazuo Ishiguro is an immigration contemporary British literature writer.He received "the typical British middle-class education" in England,so he can skillfully use the standard and beautiful English to write novels.His The Remains of the day won Booker Prize,which is the highest prize for novel in England.The present thesis is aimed at the analysis of the unreliability of the narrator,Stevens,and tries to prove that a large part of his narration goes against the reality or covers his own emotions.

  19. Remains to be transmitted: Primo Levi's traumatic dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blévis, Jean-Jacques

    2004-07-01

    Drawing on the writings of Primo Levi and the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan, the author attempts to conceive psychic trauma as a coalescence of traumas, since this is perhaps the only way to prevent a subject from being forced back into identification with the catastrophic event, whatever that may have been. A recurrent dream of Primo Levi's suggests to the author the way that traumas may have coalesced within Levi. The hope would be to restore the entire significance of what remains from that traumatic event to the speech (parole) of the Other, to the speech of every human, even the most helpless, bruised, or destroyed among us.

  20. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  1. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  2. The Effects of Soil Texture on the Ability of Human Remains Detection Dogs to Detect Buried Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael B; Hodges, Theresa K; Wescott, Daniel J; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline A

    2016-05-01

    Despite technological advances, human remains detection (HRD) dogs still remain one of the best tools for locating clandestine graves. However, soil texture may affect the escape of decomposition gases and therefore the effectiveness of HDR dogs. Six nationally credentialed HRD dogs (three HRD only and three cross-trained) were evaluated on novel buried human remains in contrasting soils, a clayey and a sandy soil. Search time and accuracy were compared for the clayey soil and sandy soil to assess odor location difficulty. Sandy soil (p < 0.001) yielded significantly faster trained response times, but no significant differences were found in performance accuracy between soil textures or training method. Results indicate soil texture may be significant factor in odor detection difficulty. Prior knowledge of soil texture and moisture may be useful for search management and planning. Appropriate adjustments to search segment sizes, sweep widths and search time allotment depending on soil texture may optimize successful detection. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Superinfecting microorganisms in patients under treatment with cyclosporin-A and its correlation to gingival overgrowth Microrganismos superinfectantes em pacientes submetidos a terapia com ciclosporina-A e sua correlação com crescimento gengival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Alexandre Romito

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the presence of superinfecting microorganisms (Gram-negative enteric rods and Candida sp. in heart transplant patients and correlate this with gingival overgrowth. Thirty patients (10 females, 20 males - mean age 45 years were examined. All were under cyclosporin-A (CsA therapy. Patients who had taken any antibiotics 3 months prior the study or had been submitted to periodontal therapy were not enrolled. Patients were required to have at least 6 teeth. The plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, pocket depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL were recorded. Microbiological samples were taken from sulcus/pocket (s/p and from stimulated saliva (ss and submitted to analysis. Patients were divided into two groups: the ones with gingival overgrowth (GO and those without gingival overgrowth (WGO. After statistical analysis (chi-square test, Student's t-test, Fisher test, p A proposta deste trabalho foi identificar a presença de microrganismos superinfectantes (bastonetes entéricos Gram-negativos e Candida sp. em pacientes transplantados cardíacos e correlacioná-la com a presença de crescimento gengival. Foram examinados 30 pacientes (10 mulheres e 20 homens - média de idade: 45 anos. Todos os pacientes estavam sob terapia com ciclosporina-A (CsA sem terem sido submetidos a antibioticoterapia e nem a tratamento periodontal prévio, por pelo menos três meses antes do início do estudo. O paciente deveria ter, no mínimo, seis dentes. Foram registrados os índices de placa bacteriana (IP, índice gengival (IG, valores de profundidade clínica de sondagem (PCS e nível clínico de inserção (NCI. Análise microbiológica foi realizada a partir de amostras coletadas de sulco/bolsa gengival (s/b e da saliva estimulada (se. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: com crescimento gengival (CCG e sem crescimento gengival (SCG. Após análise estatística (teste do qui-quadrado; teste t de Student; prova

  4. Double-shell tank remaining useful life estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantatmula, R.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    The existing 28 double-shell tanks (DSTS) at Hanford are currently planned to continue operation through the year 2028 when disposal schedules show removal of waste. This schedule will place the DSTs in a service life window of 4O to 60 years depending on tank construction date and actual retirement date. This paper examines corrosion- related life-limiting conditions of DSTs and reports the results of remaining useful life models developed for estimating remaining tank life. Three models based on controllable parameters such as temperature, chemistry, and relative humidity are presented for estimates to the year in which a particular DST may receive a breach in the primary tank due to pitting in the liquid or vapor region. Pitting is believed to be the life-limiting condition for DSTs,however, the region of the most aggressive pitting (vapor space or liquid) requires further investigation. The results of the models presented suggest none of the existing DSTs should fail by through-wall pitting until well beyond scheduled retrieval in 2028. The estimates of tank breach years (the year in which a tank may be expected to breach the primary tank wall) range from 2056 for pitting corrosion in the liquid region of tank 104-AW to beyond the next millennium for several tanks in the vapor region.

  5. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  8. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  9. REMAINED DENTAL PARTICLES IN THE JAWS OF EDENTULOUSPATIENTS (ISFAHAN. 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MOSHARRAF

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Remained teeth and other lesions such as cysts, abcesses and tumors is one of the important problems in edentulous patients. In a cross-sectional study, 330 edentulous patients were evaluated radiographically. The radiographic evaluation of patients revealed the presence of 86 residual roots in 58 radiographs. 17.58% of patients had residual roots & 5.8% of patients had Impacted teeth. 58.1% of residual roots and 45% of impacted teeth were in the maxilla and others were in mandible. Maximum Percentage of residual roots (58.1% and impacted teeth (70% were found in molar region. In this study revealed 23.3% of examined patients had remaining dental fragments. From these patients, 5.76% had impacted teeth and 17.58% had residual roots, and maximum percentage of rooth fragments (58.1% were found in molar region. In similar study by spyropoulus, maximum percentage of root fragments (45.6% reported in molar region and maximum percentage of impacted teeth were found in molar and canine region (41.2% in molar and 41.2 in canine region. In this study, 58.1% of root fragments and 45% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla but in spyropoulos" report, 71.9% of root fragments and 94.1% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla.

  10. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  11. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  12. Treatment of patients with dual hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infection: resolved and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Dual hepatitis C virus (HCV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not uncommon in HCV or HBV endemic areas and among subjects at risk of parenteral transmission. In patients dually infected with hepatitis C and B, the disease manifestations are usually more severe than those with either virus infection. In the past decade, the following issues have been resolved. In dually infected patients with active hepatitis C, combined pegylated interferon alfa plus ribavirin was effective, the treatment outcomes being similar to patients with HCV monoinfection. During long-term follow-up, the HCV response was sustained in around 97% of patients; and the long-term outcomes including the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related mortality were improved. However, several clinical issues remain to be resolved. First, host and viral factors influencing the long-term outcomes and treatment options in patients with dual HCV/HBV infection await further studies. Second, about 60% of dually infected patients with baseline undetectable serum HBV DNA levels develop HBV reactivation after the start of treatment. How to prevent and treat HBV reactivation should be clarified. Third, about 30% of dually infected patients lose hepatitis B surface antigen at 5 years after the end of combination therapy; the mechanisms need further investigations. Fourth, the optimal treatment strategies for dually infected patients with active hepatitis B or established cirrhosis should be explored in future clinical trials. Finally, the role of new direct-acting antiviral-based therapy for the treatment of patients with dual HCV/HBV infection also remains to be evaluated. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. OX40: Structure and function - What questions remain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jane; Griffiths, Jordana; Tews, Ivo; Cragg, Mark S

    2017-03-01

    OX40 is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein, reported nearly 30 years ago as a cell surface antigen expressed on activated T cells. Since its discovery, it has been validated as a bone fide costimulatory molecule for T cells and member of the TNF receptor family. However, many questions still remain relating to its function on different T cell sub-sets and with recent interest in its utility as a target for antibody-mediated immunotherapy, there is a growing need to gain a better understanding of its biology. Here, we review the expression pattern of OX40 and its ligand, discuss the structure of the receptor:ligand interaction, the downstream signalling it can elicit, its function on different T cell subsets and how antibodies might engage with it to provide effective immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Remaining teeth, cardiovascular morbidity and death among adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Gamborg, M

    2008-01-01

    disease was increased by 50% (HR=1.50; 95% CI: 1.02-2.19). Risk for coronary heart disease was increased by 31%, but was not significant, after the adjustment for education, age, smoking, diabetes, alcohol intake, systolic blood pressure and body mass index (HR= 1.31; 95% CI: 0.74-2.31). Associations were...... trends in and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) in 1987-88 and 1993-94. Subjects were followed in Danish registers for fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease or stroke. RESULTS: Tooth loss was strongly associated with incidence of stroke, and to a lesser extent......, incidence of cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease, during averagely 7.5 years of follow-up. Compared to those with most teeth remaining, the edentulous suffered >3-fold increased Hazard (HR) of developing stroke (HR=3.25; 95% CI: 1.48-7.14), whereas the risk of developing any cardiovascular...

  15. Genetic Structure Analysis of Human Remains from Khitan Noble Necropolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA was extracted from 13 skeletal remains from the burial groups of Khitan nobles, which were excavated in northeast China. The hypervariable segment I sequences ( HVS Ⅰ ) of the mitochondrial DNA control region, in the 13 individuals, were used as genetic markers to determine the genetic relationships between the individuals and the genetic affinity to other interrelated populations by using the known database of mtDNA. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of these ancient DNA sequences, the genetic structures of two Khitan noble kindreds were obtained, including the Yel Yuzhi's kindred and the Xiao He's kindred. Furthermore, the relationships between the Khitan nobles and some modern interrelated populations were analyzed. On the basis of the result of the analysis, the gene flows of the ancient Khitans and their demographic expansion in history was deduced.

  16. Tactile display on the remaining hand for unilateral hand amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human rely profoundly on tactile feedback from fingertips to interact with the environment, whereas most hand prostheses used in clinics provide no tactile feedback. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility to use a tactile display glove that can be worn by a unilateral hand amputee on the remaining healthy hand to display tactile feedback from a hand prosthesis. The main benefit is that users could easily distinguish the feedback for each finger, even without training. The claimed advantage is supported by preliminary tests with healthy subjects. This approach may lead to the development of effective and affordable tactile display devices that provide tactile feedback for individual fingertip of hand prostheses.

  17. Clinical management of acute HIV infection: best practice remains unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sigall K; Little, Susan J; Rosenberg, Eric S

    2010-10-15

    Best practice for the clinical management of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains unknown. Although some data suggest possible immunologic, virologic, or clinical benefit of early treatment, other studies show no difference in these outcomes over time, after early treatment is discontinued. The literature on acute HIV infection is predominantly small nonrandomized studies, which further limits interpretation. As a result, the physician is left to grapple with these uncertainties while making clinical decisions for patients with acute HIV infection. Here we review the literature, focusing on the potential advantages and disadvantages of treating acute HIV infection outlined in treatment guidelines, and summarize the presentations on clinical management of acute HIV infection from the 2009 Acute HIV Infection Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts.

  18. Evaluating the remaining strength factor for repaired pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, J.L.F.; Vieira, R.D [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Diniz, J.L.A. [Fluke Engenharia Ltda., Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses and brings experimental evidence to the application of the remaining strength factor (RSF) to pipeline that has undergone metal thickness loss due to erosion, corrosion or grinding. The RSF is defined as the ratio between pressures that plastically collapse pipeline segments with and without metal loss (damage), and it may also be extended to damaged pipes that have been repaired with composite sleeves. Data from burst tests performed on undamaged, damaged and damage-repaired pipe specimens are utilized to back up the use of the RSF concept, allowing better insight into the safety factor derived from the application of standard fitness-for-purpose methodologies. The paper concludes by showing that the RSF may be used to establish a quantitative measurement of the effectiveness of a specific repair system applied to damaged pipes. (author)

  19. Mining Cancer Transcriptomes: Bioinformatic Tools and the Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Thomas; Wilhelm, Brian T

    2017-02-22

    The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has had a profound impact on the field of cancer genomics. With the enormous quantities of data being generated from tumor samples, researchers have had to rapidly adapt tools or develop new ones to analyse the raw data to maximize its value. While much of this effort has been focused on improving specific algorithms to get faster and more precise results, the accessibility of the final data for the research community remains a significant problem. Large amounts of data exist but are not easily available to researchers who lack the resources and experience to download and reanalyze them. In this article, we focus on RNA-seq analysis in the context of cancer genomics and discuss the bioinformatic tools available to explore these data. We also highlight the importance of developing new and more intuitive tools to provide easier access to public data and discuss the related issues of data sharing and patient privacy.

  20. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations.

  1. High CJD infectivity remains after prion protein is destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Emmerling, Kaitlin; Manuelidis, Laura

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis that host prion protein (PrP) converts into an infectious prion form rests on the observation that infectivity progressively decreases in direct proportion to the decrease of PrP with proteinase K (PK) treatment. PrP that resists limited PK digestion (PrP-res, PrP(sc)) has been assumed to be the infectious form, with speculative types of misfolding encoding the many unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agent strains. Recently, a PK sensitive form of PrP has been proposed as the prion. Thus we re-evaluated total PrP (sensitive and resistant) and used a cell-based assay for titration of infectious particles. A keratinase (NAP) known to effectively digest PrP was compared to PK. Total PrP in FU-CJD infected brain was reduced to ≤0.3% in a 2 h PK digest, yet there was no reduction in titer. Remaining non-PrP proteins were easily visualized with colloidal gold in this highly infectious homogenate. In contrast to PK, NAP digestion left 0.8% residual PrP after 2 h, yet decreased titer by >2.5 log; few residual protein bands remained. FU-CJD infected cells with 10× the infectivity of brain by both animal and cell culture assays were also evaluated. NAP again significantly reduced cell infectivity (>3.5 log). Extreme PK digestions were needed to reduce cell PrP to report on maximal PrP destruction and titer. It is likely that one or more residual non-PrP proteins may protect agent nucleic acids in infectious particles.

  2. Calculation note for an underground leak which remains underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, H.J.

    1997-05-20

    This calculation note supports the subsurface leak accident scenario which remains subsurface. It is assumed that a single walled pipe carrying waste from tank 106-C ruptures, releasing the liquid waste into the soil. In this scenario, the waste does not form a surface pool, but remains subsurface. However, above the pipe is a berm, 0.762 m (2.5 ft) high and 2.44 m (8 ft) wide, and the liquid released from the leak rises into the berm. The slurry line, which transports a source term of higher activity than the sluice line, leaks into the soil at a rate of 5% of the maximum flow rate of 28.4 L/s (450 gpm) for twelve hours. The dose recipient was placed a perpendicular distance of 100 m from the pipe. Two source terms were considered, mitigated and unmitigated release as described in section 3.4.1 of UANF-SD-WM-BIO-001, Addendum 1. The unmitigated consisted of two parts of AWF liquid and one part AWF solid. The mitigated release consisted of two parts SST liquid, eighteen parts AWF liquid, nine parts SST solid, and one part AWF solid. The isotopic breakdown of the release in these cases is presented. Two geometries were considered in preliminary investigations, disk source, and rectangular source. Since the rectangular source results from the assumption that the contamination is wicked up into the berm, only six inches of shielding from uncontaminated earth is present, while the disk source, which remains six inches below the level of the surface of the land is often shielded by a thick shield due to the slant path to the dose point. For this reason, only the rectangular source was considered in the final analysis. The source model was a rectangle 2.134 m (7 ft) thick, 0.6096 m (2 ft) high, and 130.899 m (131 ft) long. The top and sides of this rectangular source was covered with earth of density 1.6 g/cm{sup 3} to a thickness of 15.24 cm (6 in). This soil is modeled as 40% void space. The source consisted of earth of the same density with the void spaces filled with

  3. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  4. Photoferrotrophy: Remains of an Ancient Photosynthesis in Modern Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Antonio; Walter, Xavier A; Picazo, Antonio; Zopfi, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Photoferrotrophy, the process by which inorganic carbon is fixed into organic matter using light as an energy source and reduced iron [Fe(II)] as an electron donor, has been proposed as one of the oldest photoautotrophic metabolisms on Earth. Under the iron-rich (ferruginous) but sulfide poor conditions dominating the Archean ocean, this type of metabolism could have accounted for most of the primary production in the photic zone. Here we review the current knowledge of biogeochemical, microbial and phylogenetic aspects of photoferrotrophy, and evaluate the ecological significance of this process in ancient and modern environments. From the ferruginous conditions that prevailed during most of the Archean, the ancient ocean evolved toward euxinic (anoxic and sulfide rich) conditions and, finally, much after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, to a predominantly oxic environment. Under these new conditions photoferrotrophs lost importance as primary producers, and now photoferrotrophy remains as a vestige of a formerly relevant photosynthetic process. Apart from the geological record and other biogeochemical markers, modern environments resembling the redox conditions of these ancient oceans can offer insights into the past significance of photoferrotrophy and help to explain how this metabolism operated as an important source of organic carbon for the early biosphere. Iron-rich meromictic (permanently stratified) lakes can be considered as modern analogs of the ancient Archean ocean, as they present anoxic ferruginous water columns where light can still be available at the chemocline, thus offering suitable niches for photoferrotrophs. A few bacterial strains of purple bacteria as well as of green sulfur bacteria have been shown to possess photoferrotrophic capacities, and hence, could thrive in these modern Archean ocean analogs. Studies addressing the occurrence and the biogeochemical significance of photoferrotrophy in ferruginous environments have been

  5. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  6. Towards a dynamics-based estimate of the extent of HR 8799's unresolved warm debris belt

    CERN Document Server

    Contro, B; Horner, J; Marshall, J P

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, the HR8799 system resembles our Solar system more closely than any other discovered to date - albeit on a larger, younger, and more dramatic scale - featuring four giant planets and two debris belts. The first belt lies beyond the orbit of the outer planet, and mirrors our Solar system's Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. The second belt lies interior to the orbit of the inner planet, HR8799e, and is analogous to our Asteroid Belt. With such a similar architecture, the system is a valuable laboratory for examining exoplanet dynamics, and the interaction between debris disks and planets. In recent years, HR8799's outer disk has been relatively well characterised, primarily using the Herschel Space Observatory. In contrast, the inner disk, too close to HR8799 to be spatially resolved by Herschel, remains poorly understood. This leaves significant questions over both the location of the planetesimals responsible for producing the observed dust, and the physical properties of those grains. We have performed ext...

  7. The remaining challenges of pneumococcal disease in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ludwig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal disease can be divided into invasive disease, i.e. when bacteria are detected in normally sterile body fluids, and noninvasive disease. Pneumococcal disease occurs more frequently in younger children and older adults. It is estimated that, in 2050, 30.3% of the European population will be ≥65 yrs old, compared with 15.7% in 2000. Preventive medicine, including vaccination, is essential for the promotion of healthy ageing. Uptake rates for influenza vaccination in the elderly are generally low, despite recommendations in many countries. In addition, it has been reported that influenza infections can make people more susceptible to pneumococcal infections. Despite pneumococcal vaccination, case fatality rates for patients hospitalised with invasive pneumococcal disease have remained at around 12% since the 1950s. Even when effective antibiotic therapy is administered, mortality can be high amongst immunocompetent patients in intensive care. Timely and accurate diagnosis of pneumococcal disease and identification of patients at high risk of poor outcome is essential to ensure that adequate treatment, including hospitalisation when necessary, is implemented as early as possible. Improved diagnostic techniques and more efficacious treatments may help to reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, but preventive measures, such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, should be promoted in order to avoid preventable disease, particularly in the elderly.

  8. Completely open-foldable domes remaining cool in sunshine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Deelen, Sander; Hoogendoorn, Pieter W.; Kommers, Johannes N. M.; Sonner, Thomas; Simoes, Roberto; Grassin, Olivier; Fischer, Andreas; Visser, Simon; Thewissen, Kristof

    2016-07-01

    These open-foldable very light-weight domes, based on very strong textile membranes highly tensioned between steel bows, are designed for bad-weather protection and maintenance of instruments for astronomical, meteorological and civil-engineering measurements and have extremely high wind stability. The domes of the GREGOR telescope and the Dutch Open Telescope are the two existing prototypes. Improvements were developed with all parts light-colored to remain cool in solar light. The new specially made connection parts (eyes) between the textile parts are made from white-colored PETP, a very strong and UV-stable synthetic, and have a better geometrical shape giving higher stability. The rubber seal tubes on top of the dome were of black-colored chloride rubber CR (neoprene), strong and UV stable, but very warm in sunlight. New UV-stable EPDM rubber tubes were produced in natural light color. To get this rubber stiff enough to give good sealing, a black-colored stiff EPDM rubber is put inside the light-colored one. Tests were performed and the forces necessary for compression of the rubber tubes were measured. An inside black tube with a circa 1.3 times larger compression force than the original black tubes was applied. The assembling of the black tubes into the light-colored tubes was successfully applied at the DOT and GREGOR domes.

  9. Prions adhere to soil minerals and remain infectious.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Johnson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified environmental reservoir of infectivity contributes to the natural transmission of prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [TSEs] in sheep, deer, and elk. Prion infectivity may enter soil environments via shedding from diseased animals and decomposition of infected carcasses. Burial of TSE-infected cattle, sheep, and deer as a means of disposal has resulted in unintentional introduction of prions into subsurface environments. We examined the potential for soil to serve as a TSE reservoir by studying the interaction of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc with common soil minerals. In this study, we demonstrated substantial PrP(Sc adsorption to two clay minerals, quartz, and four whole soil samples. We quantified the PrP(Sc-binding capacities of each mineral. Furthermore, we observed that PrP(Sc desorbed from montmorillonite clay was cleaved at an N-terminal site and the interaction between PrP(Sc and Mte was strong, making desorption of the protein difficult. Despite cleavage and avid binding, PrP(Sc bound to Mte remained infectious. Results from our study suggest that PrP(Sc released into soil environments may be preserved in a bioavailable form, perpetuating prion disease epizootics and exposing other species to the infectious agent.

  10. Briquettes of plant remains from the greenhouses of Almeria (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A. J.; Lopez-Martinez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times, plant biomass has been used as a primary fuel, and today, with the impending depletion of fossil fuels, these vegetal sources constitute a cleaner alternative and furthermore have a multitude of uses. The aim of the present study is to design a method of recycling and reuse of plant wastes from intensive agriculture under plastic, by manufacturing briquettes in an environmentally friendly manner. In Almeria (SE Spain), agriculture generates 769,500 t year{sup -}1 of plant remains from greenhouse-grown horticultural crops, a resource currently used for composting and for producing electricity.With the machinery and procedures of the present study, another potential use has been developed by detoxifying and eliminating the plastic wastes of the original biomass for the fabrication of briquettes for fireplaces. The results were slightly inferior to the commercial briquette from other non-horticultural plant materials (no forestry material), specifically 2512 kJ kg{sup -}1, in the least favourable case. On the contrary, the heating value with respect to the two charcoals was significantly lower, with a difference of 12,142 kJ kg{sup -}1. In conclusion; a procedure, applicable in ecological cultivation without agrochemicals or plastic cords, has been developed and tested to reuse and transform plant materials from intensive cultivation into a stable non-toxic product similar to composite logs, applicable in commercial settings or in residential fireplaces. (Author) 48 refs.

  11. [New studies of COX-inhibitors, yet issues remain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2003-09-18

    Advantages and risks related to the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors when treating arthritis are currently being scrutinized by authorities and public. The discussion tends towards exaggerated claims for or against their usefulness. The issue of cardiovascular safety is still not finally settled. In an experimental study using patients with severe coronary disease, administration of celecoxib resulted in improved endothelial function together with reduced CRP levels. Gastrointestinal tolerance was studied in patients who had recently recovered from peptic ulcer bleeding. In this group of high risk patients, celecoxib was as safe as combined therapy using omeprazol and diclofenac when given for 6 months. However, both COX inhibitors caused hypertension and adverse renal effects. The second generation of selective inhibitors is being launched. Etoricoxib--related to rofecoxib--was shown to be as potent as indomethacin in the treatment of acute gout, but it caused fewer adverse reactions. In general, however, any advantage of second generation as compared to first generation COX-2 inhibitors remains to be proven. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care, in its "SBU Alert", has published an appraisal of celecoxib and rofecoxib, in which the need for further long-term safety studies is emphasized.

  12. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  13. Analysis of Data Remaining on Second Hand ADSL Routers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Szewczyk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In theory an ADSL router is capable of providing immense security capabilities including but not limited to wireless encryption, denial of service prevention through firewall rule sets, and logging facilities for review or analysis of network events. However, most laymen may be unaware of the intricacies of the security measures available to them. As a result a vast array of information could remain on ADSL routers once the device is sold, including the users’ approach to security, Internet usage habits, or more importantly confidential user or account information. This paper presents the findings of data acquired from second hand ADSL routers purchased during the first quarter of 2011. The outcomes demonstrate that individuals are not removing their identity adequately and are leaving confidential data which may lead to detrimental outcomes if misused. The paper also demonstrates that the overall security of these devices is alarmingly low, and thus many consumers may fall victim to new and emergent Internet based crimes.

  14. Photorespiration in C4 grasses remains slow under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Silva, Ana E; Powers, Stephen J; Keys, Alfred J; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Parry, Martin A J

    2008-07-01

    The CO(2)-concentrating mechanism present in C(4) plants decreases the oxygenase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and, consequently, photorespiratory rates in air. Under drought conditions, the intercellular CO(2) concentration may decrease and cause photorespiration to increase. The C(4) grasses Paspalum dilatatum Poiret, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Zoysia japonica Steudel were grown in soil and drought was imposed by ceasing to provide water. Net CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapour decreased with leaf dehydration. Decreased carbon and increased oxygen isotope composition were also observed under drought. The response of A to CO(2) suggested that the compensation point was zero in all species irrespective of the extent of drought stress. A slight decrease of A as O(2) concentration increased above 10% provided evidence for slow photorespiratory gas exchanges. Analysis of amino acids contained in the leaves, particularly the decrease of glycine after 30 s in darkness, supported the presence of slow photorespiration rates, but these were slightly faster in Cynodon dactylon than in Paspalum dilatatum and Zoysia japonica. Although the contents of glycine and serine increased with dehydration and mechanistic modelling of C(4) photosynthesis suggested slightly increased photorespiration rates in proportion to photosynthesis, the results provide evidence that photorespiration remained slow under drought conditions.

  15. [Bacterial vaginosis in 2011: a lot of questions remain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohbot, J-M; Lepargneur, J-P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most frequent vaginal affections. It results from a deep imbalance of the vaginal ecosystem whose mechanisms remain mysterious, even if recent progress were accomplished in their comprehension: if the flora implied in the bacterial vaginosis is recognized like polymorphic, it appears that Gardnerella vaginalis plays a major part with two genomically different forms: a commensal form (slightly adhesive to the epithelial cells), and a pathogenic one (strongly adhesive to the epithelial cells); the changes in lactobacilli are also to take into account: L. iners could be a marker of the vaginal flora imbalance whereas L. crispatus is generally met in the normal vaginal flora. These findings could influence the composition of coming probiotics; it is recognized that bacterial vaginosis is involved in the risk of prematurity but molecular quantification of G. vaginalis (and of Atopobium vaginae) is more sensitive for the diagnosis of BV what could improve the detection of high-risk pregnant women. The isolated antibiotic treatments are not very effective on the prevention of recurrences. The rebalancing of the vaginal flora is essential. In this field, the local estrogens showed some effectiveness. The use of probiotics is promising and can be recommended in complement of the antibiotic treatment even if the results of the clinical studies are still too heterogeneous to lead to precise indications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Jonathan R; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system.

  17. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Whitlock

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells and representations of azimuth (head direction cells. Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze vs. an open field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009, the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system.

  18. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Brian F; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Berger, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  19. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Kuhn

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea. Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat. The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  20. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  1. Development of an unresolved CFD-DEM model for the flow of viscous suspensions and its application to solid-liquid mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Bruno; Lassaigne, Manon; Goniva, Christoph; Fradette, Louis; Bertrand, François

    2016-08-01

    Although viscous solid-liquid mixing plays a key role in the industry, the vast majority of the literature on the mixing of suspensions is centered around the turbulent regime of operation. However, the laminar and transitional regimes face considerable challenges. In particular, it is important to know the minimum impeller speed (Njs) that guarantees the suspension of all particles. In addition, local information on the flow patterns is necessary to evaluate the quality of mixing and identify the presence of dead zones. Multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool that can be used to gain insight into local and macroscopic properties of mixing processes. Among the variety of numerical models available in the literature, which are reviewed in this work, unresolved CFD-DEM, which combines CFD for the fluid phase with the discrete element method (DEM) for the solid particles, is an interesting approach due to its accurate prediction of the granular dynamics and its capability to simulate large amounts of particles. In this work, the unresolved CFD-DEM method is extended to viscous solid-liquid flows. Different solid-liquid momentum coupling strategies, along with their stability criteria, are investigated and their accuracies are compared. Furthermore, it is shown that an additional sub-grid viscosity model is necessary to ensure the correct rheology of the suspensions. The proposed model is used to study solid-liquid mixing in a stirred tank equipped with a pitched blade turbine. It is validated qualitatively by comparing the particle distribution against experimental observations, and quantitatively by compairing the fraction of suspended solids with results obtained via the pressure gauge technique.

  2. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  3. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  4. The broad spectrum revisited: Evidence from plant remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-01-01

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73–100] “broad spectrum revolution” (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the transition to farming in southwest Asia entailed a period during which foragers broadened their resource base to encompass a wide array of foods that were previously ignored in an attempt to overcome food shortages. Although these resources undoubtedly included plants, nearly all BSR hypothesis-inspired research has focused on animals because of a dearth of Upper Paleolithic archaeobotanical assemblages. Now, however, a collection of >90,000 plant remains, recently recovered from the Stone Age site Ohalo II (23,000 B.P.), Israel, offers insights into the plant foods of the late Upper Paleolithic. The staple foods of this assemblage were wild grasses, pushing back the dietary shift to grains some 10,000 years earlier than previously recognized. Besides the cereals (wild wheat and barley), small-grained grasses made up a large component of the assemblage, indicating that the BSR in the Levant was even broader than originally conceived, encompassing what would have been low-ranked plant foods. Over the next 15,000 years small-grained grasses were gradually replaced by the cereals and ultimately disappeared from the Levantine diet. PMID:15210984

  5. Fertility remains high in Guatemala despite increasing use of contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    With a total fertility rate of 5.1, Guatemala has one of the highest levels of fertility in Latin America, according to findings from the 1995 DHS survey in Guatemala (Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil--ENSMI-95). Fertility is lower among educated women, urban women, and Ladino women. The differences are most striking by education: on average, women with no formal education will have 7 children, compared with 2 or 3 children among women with at least some secondary education. Contraceptive use among currently married women increased from 23% in 1987 to 32% in 1995; however, this level of use is still low compared with other countries in the region. Almost half of contraceptive users (15%) rely on female sterilization; relatively few use the pill (4%) or the IUD (3%). It is estimated that 24% of married women want to space or limit their births but are not using a contraceptive method. The survey indicates that there have been improvements in most indicators of maternal and child health, but many challenges remain. Only about half of the women receive antenatal care and just one-third receive assistance at delivery from trained medical personnel. Less than half of the children aged 12-23 months have received all the recommended vaccinations, and half of the children under 5 years are malnourished (stunted). At the same time, infant mortality has shown a steady decline. In the 5-year period preceding the survey the infant mortality rate was 51/1000 live births (under-five mortality was 68/1000). The ENSMI-95 was implemented by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica. A total of 12,403 women aged 15-49 years were interviewed. The final report and summary report are available in Spanish.

  6. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  7. Trauma remains a surgical disease from cradle to grave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Shannon N; Stovall, Robert T; Moore, Ernest E; Partrick, David A; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Bensard, Denis D

    2014-08-01

    in the patients who required a hospital stay of more than 7 days (67.2% among all patients). More than half of patients admitted following traumatic injury require operative intervention. This rate remains stable across all age groups. Our data emphasize the continued need for surgeons to stay engaged in the care of the trauma patient, particularly those most critically injured patients who will require prolonged hospital stay. Epidemiologic study, level III. Care management study, level IV.

  8. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  9. Microbial Enterotypes, Inferred by the Prevotella-to-Bacteroides Ratio, Remained Stable during a 6-Month Randomized Controlled Diet Intervention with the New Nordic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Tine R.; Poulsen, Sanne K.; Larsen, Thomas M.; Bahl, Martin I.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human gut microbiota can be divided into enterotypes based on the abundance of specific bacterial groups; however, the biological significance and stability of these enterotypes remain unresolved. Here, we demonstrated that subjects (n = 62) 18 to 65 years old with central obesity and components of metabolic syndrome could be grouped into two discrete groups simply by their relative abundance of Prevotella spp. divided by Bacteroides spp. (P/B ratio) obtained by quantitative PCR analysis. Furthermore, we showed that these groups remained stable during a 6-month, controlled dietary intervention, where the effect of consuming a diet in accord with the new Nordic diet (NND) recommendations as opposed to consuming the average Danish diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota was investigated. In this study, subjects (with and without stratification according to P/B ratio) did not reveal significant changes in 35 selected bacterial taxa quantified by quantitative PCR (ADD compared to NND) resulting from the dietary interventions. However, we found higher total plasma cholesterol within the high-P/B group than in the low-P/B group after the intervention. We propose that stratification of humans based simply on their P/B ratio could allow better assessment of possible effects of interventions on the gut microbiota and physiological biomarkers. PMID:24296500

  10. Ruling out unresolved binaries in five transitional disks VLT/NACO: deep 2.12 and 1.75 {\\mu}m narrow-band imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Vicente, Silvia; Hartung, Markus; Bouy, Herve; Huelamo, Nuria; Artigau, Etienne; Augereau, Jean-Charles; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Olofsson, Johan; Oliveira, Isa; Prusti, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We aim at detecting the presence of companions inside the inner hole/gap region of a sample of five well known transitional disks using spatially-resolved imaging in the near-IR with the VLT/NACO/S13 camera, which probes projected distances from the primary of typically 0.1 to 7 arcsec. The sample includes the stars DoAr 21, HD 135344B (SAO 206462), HR 4796A, T Cha, and TW Hya, spanning ages of less than 1 to 10 Myr, spectral types of A0 to K7, and hole/gap outer radii of 4 to 100 AU. Methods. In order to enhance the contrast and to avoid saturation at the core of the point-spread function (PSF), we use narrow-band filters at 1.75 and 2.12 {\\mu}m. The "locally optimized combination of images" (LOCI) algorithm is applied for an optimal speckle noise removal and PSF subtraction, providing an increase of 0.5-1.5 mag in contrast over the classic method. Results. With the proviso that we could have missed companions owing to unfavorable projections, the VLT/NACO observations rule out the presence of unresolv...

  11. Horse trichinellosis, an unresolved puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozio E.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of routine controls to detect Trichinella larvae in horse-meat, human infections due to horse-meat consumption continue to occur in France and Italy, The epidemiology of horse trichinellosis since its discovery in 1975 is outlined, addressing the possible modes of natural transmission to horses, the need to develop more sensitive methods for detecting Trichinella larvae in horses, and the economic impact of horse trichinellosis. Investigations of human outbreaks due to horse-meat consumption have implicated single cases of inadequate veterinary controls on horses imported from non-European Union countries. In particular, most cases of human infection have been attributed to horses imported from Eastern Europe, where pig trichinellosis is re-emerging and the main source of infection in horses.

  12. Unresolved Issues of Cooperative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stuart W.

    Proposals to use interracial/cross-ethnic learning teams in desegregated classrooms raise issues from research that demonstrate the complicated nature of the relationship between learning teams and classroom interracial relations. According to the research, relationships are affected by the characteristics of learning teams, namely…

  13. Towards a multidisciplinary practice for human remains: the conservation, collection, and display of human remains and objects made from them.©

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Towards a multidisciplinary practice for human remains: the conservation, collection, and display of human remains and objects made from them. This research discussion examines the breadth and complexity of a unique strand of museum collections, artefacts that often cross boundaries of classification, being defined as both material culture and human remains. It explores some of the controversial methods in which collections of human remains were amassed as well as the decision-making processe...

  14. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Some unresolved issues and challenges in the design and implementation of the forthcoming planning and EIA processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjarnadottir, H.; Hilding-Rydevik, T. [Nordregio, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the study is to highlight some unresolved and challenging issues in the forthcoming approximately six year long Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and planning process of the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Different international and Nordic experiences of the processes for final disposal as well as from other development of similar scope, where experiences assumed to be of importance for final disposal of nuclear waste, have been described. Furthermore, issues relating to 'good EIA practice' as well as certain aspects of planning theory have also been presented. The current Swedish situation for the planning and EIA process of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was also been summarized. These different 'knowledge areas' have been compared and measured against our perception of the expectations towards the forthcoming process, put forward by different Swedish actors in the field. The result is a presentation of a number of questions and identification issues that the authors consider need special attention in the design and conduction of the planning and EIA process. The study has been realized through a literature survey and followed by reading and analysis of the written material. The main focus of the literature search was on material describing planning processes, actor perspectives and EIA. Material and literature on the technical and scientific aspects of spent nuclear fuel disposal was however deliberately avoided. There is a wealth of international and Swedish literature concerning final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - concerning both technical issues and issues concerning for example public participation and risk perception. But material of a more systematic and comparative nature (relating to both empirical and theoretical issues, and to practical experiences) in relation to EIA processes and communicative planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel seems to be more sparsely represented

  15. Coarse grid shallow water simulations of rainfall-runoff in small catchments with modified friction law to account for unresolved microtopography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen, Ilhan; Serrano-Taslim, Miguel; Zhao, Jiaheng; Liang, Dongfang; Hinkelmann, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the fully dynamic shallow water equations have been successfully used to simulate rainfall-runoff in natural catchments. Hereby, the hydrodynamics of the surface runoff is greatly influenced by local topographical features. Thus, it is desirable to use high-resolution models which resolve the topography of the study area sufficiently. However, high-resolution simulations across catchment scales are often unfeasible due to finite computer resources. In this contribution, the shallow water equations are solved on a coarse resolution, leaving significant topographical features unresolved. The coarsened grid size leads to a smaller cell number and therefore reduces computational cost. The influence of the topography is accounted for with an artificial friction source term which is dependent on the inundation ratio, i.e. the ratio of water depth to roughness height, the slope and two additional parameters, namely a dimensionless friction coefficient and a geometric conveyance parameter. Subgrid scale information is used to determine these parameters. The friction approach is applied in two different ways: (1) a global average roughness height for the entire catchment is calculated and used as input, (2) the roughness height is calculated individually in each cell which introduces additional heterogeneity to the model. In two test cases, the individual roughness height-based approach is compared to results of the global roughness height-based approach and to igh-resolution model results. The comparison shows slight improvement in the results if the roughness height is assigned individually, however overall the improvement is negligible. Both models enable to run the simulations about three orders of magnitude faster than the high-resolution model.

  16. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI Action Plan requirements; unresolved safety issues; generic safety issues; other multiplant action issues. Supplement 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, the NRC established a program for publishing an annual report on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was initially compiled and reported in three NUREG-series volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). The first annual supplement, which combined these volumes into a single report and presented updated information as of September 30, 1991, was published in December 1991. The second annual supplement, which provided updated information as of September 30, 1992, was published in December 1992. Supplement 2 also provided the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of other multiplant action (MPA) issues not related to TMI Action Plan requirements, USIs, or GSIs. This third annual NUREG report, Supplement 3, presents updated information as of September 30, 1993. This report gives a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, GSIs, and other MPAs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. Additionally, this report serves as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ``A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,`` which tracks safety issues until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees.

  17. One-year functional magnetic resonance imaging follow-up study of neural activation during the recall of unresolved negative life events in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, M; Wingenfeld, K; Rullkoetter, N; Mensebach, C; Woermann, F G; Mertens, M; Beblo, T

    2009-03-01

    Recall of adverse life events under brain imaging conditions has been shown to coincide with activation of limbic and prefrontal brain areas in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We investigate changes of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation patterns during the recall of unresolved adverse life events (ULE) over 1 year. Thirteen female BPD patients participated in the study. During fMRI measurement subjects recalled ULE and negative but resolved life events (RLE) after individual cue words to stimulate autobiographical memory retrieval. Subjective intensity of emotional and sensoric experiences during recall was assessed as well as standardized measures of psychopathology. A 2x2 factorial analysis of fMRI data (Deltat1/t2xDeltaULE/RLE) revealed major right more than left differences of activation (i.e. t1>t2) of the posterior more than anterior cingulate, superior temporal lobes, insula, and right middle and superior frontal lobes (second-level analysis, t=3.0, puncorrected=0.003). The opposite contrast (Deltat2/t1xDeltaULE/RLE) did not reveal any differences. We did not find changes of emotional or sensoric qualities during recall (ULE versus RLE) or of psychopathology measures over the 1-year period. Although subjective and clinical data did not change within 1 year, we observed a substantial decrease of temporo-frontal activation during the recall of ULE from t1 to t2. If future research confirms these findings, the question arises whether the decrease of neural activation precedes clinical improvement in BPD.

  18. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  19. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets XXI. Usage of most VH genes remains constant during fetal and postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John E; Sun, Xuizhu; Wertz, Nancy; Lager, Kelly M; Chaloner, Kathryn; Urban, Joseph; Francis, David L; Nara, Peter L; Tobin, Gregory J

    2011-12-01

    Usage of variable region gene segments during development of the antibody repertoire in mammals is unresolved in part because of the complexity of the locus in mice and humans and the difficulty of distinguishing intrinsic from extrinsic influences in these species. We present the first vertical studies on VH usage that spans the fetal and neonatal period using the piglet model. We tracked VH usage in DNA rearrangements and in VDJ transcripts throughout 75 days of gestation (DG) in outbred fetuses, thereafter in outbred germfree and colonized isolator piglets, isolator piglets infected with swine influenza and in conventionally reared nematode-infected adults. Seven VH genes account for >90% of the pre-immune repertoire which is the same among tissues and in both transcripts and DNA rearrangements. Statistical modeling supports the view that proportional usage of the major genes remains constant during fetal life and that postnatal usage ranking is similar to that during fetal life. Changes in usage ranking are developmental not antigen dependent. In this species exposure to environmental antigens results in diversification of the repertoire by somatic hypermutation of the same small number of VH genes that comprise the pre-immune repertoire, not by using other VH gene available in the germline. Therefore in swine a small number of VH genes shape the antibody repertoire throughout life questioning the need for extensive VH polygeny.

  20. (UnResolved contradictions in the Late Pleistocene glacial chronology of the Southern Carpathians - new samples and recalculated cosmogenic radionuclide age estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsófia RUSZKICZAY-RÜDIGER

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Application of cosmogenic nuclides in the study of Quaternary glaciations has increased rapidly during the last decade owing to the previous absence of direct dating methods of glacial landforms and sediments. Although several hundred publications have already been released on exposure age dating of glacial landforms worldwide, very few studies targeted the Carpathians so far (Kuhlemann et al, 2013a; Makos et al., 2014; Reuther et al, 2004, 2007; Rinterknecht et al. 2012.There are many unresolved or contradictory issues regarding the glacial chronology of the Romanian Carpathians. Recently, some attempts have been made to develop an improved temporal framework for the glaciations of the region using cosmogenic 10Be dating (Reuther et al. 2004, 2007, Kuhlemann et al. 2013a. However, these studies made the picture even more confusing because the local last glacial maximum, for instance, apparently occurred in asynchronous timing compared to each other and also to other dated glacial events in Europe (Hughes et al, 2013.This situation is even more interesting if we take into account that the local glacial maximum tends to agree with the global LGM derived from the Eastern Balkans (Kuhlemann et al. 2013b, while the penultimate glaciation seems to significantly overtake the LGM advance over the Western Balkans (Hughes et al. 2011.The primary candidate reasons to resolve these discrepancies are methodological, e.g. insufficient number of samples (one sample/landform ignoring geological scatter of the data and the application of different half-lives, production rates and scaling schemes during the calculation of exposure ages. Systematic methodological uncertainties in computing exposure ages from measured nuclide concentrations have a significant impact on the conclusions concerning correlations of exposure-dated glacier chronologies with millennial scale climate changes (Balco, 2011. The changes in glacial timing generated by only using the most

  1. New Theoretical Estimates of the Contribution of Unresolved Star-Forming Galaxies to the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background (EGB) as Measured by EGRET and the Fermi-LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Tonia M.

    2011-01-01

    We present new theoretical estimates of the contribution of unresolved star-forming galaxies to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) as measured by EGRET and the Fermi-LAT. We employ several methods for determining the star-forming galaxy contribution the the EGB, including a method positing a correlation between the gamma-ray luminosity of a galaxy and its rate of star formation as calculated from the total infrared luminosity, and a method that makes use of a model of the evolution of the galaxy gas mass with cosmic time. We find that depending on the model, unresolved star-forming galaxies could contribute significantly to the EGB as measured by the Fermi-LAT at energies between approx. 300 MeV and approx. few GeV. However, the overall spectrum of unresolved star-forming galaxies can explain neither the EGRET EGB spectrum at energies between 50 and 200 MeV nor the Fermi-LAT EGB spectrum at energies above approx. few GeV.

  2. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Some unresolved issues and challenges in the design and implementation of the forthcoming planning and EIA processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjarnadottir, H.; Hilding-Rydevik, T. [Nordregio, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the study is to highlight some unresolved and challenging issues in the forthcoming approximately six year long Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and planning process of the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Different international and Nordic experiences of the processes for final disposal as well as from other development of similar scope, where experiences assumed to be of importance for final disposal of nuclear waste, have been described. Furthermore, issues relating to 'good EIA practice' as well as certain aspects of planning theory have also been presented. The current Swedish situation for the planning and EIA process of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was also been summarized. These different 'knowledge areas' have been compared and measured against our perception of the expectations towards the forthcoming process, put forward by different Swedish actors in the field. The result is a presentation of a number of questions and identification issues that the authors consider need special attention in the design and conduction of the planning and EIA process. The study has been realized through a literature survey and followed by reading and analysis of the written material. The main focus of the literature search was on material describing planning processes, actor perspectives and EIA. Material and literature on the technical and scientific aspects of spent nuclear fuel disposal was however deliberately avoided. There is a wealth of international and Swedish literature concerning final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - concerning both technical issues and issues concerning for example public participation and risk perception. But material of a more systematic and comparative nature (relating to both empirical and theoretical issues, and to practical experiences) in relation to EIA processes and communicative planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel seems to be more sparsely represented

  3. Physical forcing and physical/biochemical variability of the Mediterranean Sea: a review of unresolved issues and directions for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Malanotte-Rizzoli

    2013-07-01

    accessible locations, these convection cells are much more amenable to direct observational surveys and mooring arrays. An ubiquitous, energetic mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddy field is superimposed to and interacts with the sub-basin scale, wind-driven gyres that characterize the upper thermocline circulation. Three different scales of motion are therefore superimposed producing a richness of interaction processes which typify similar interactions in unexplored ocean regions. Both wide and narrow shelves are present separated by steep continental slopes from the deep interiors. Cross-shelf fluxes of physical as well biogeochemical parameters are crucial in determining the properties of the shallow versus deep local ecosystems and their trophic chain. Most importantly, the Mediterranean Sea is a basin of contrasting ecosystems, from the strongly oligotrophic deep interiors to the fully eutrophic northern Adriatic characterized by recurrent, anomalous algal blooms and related anoxia events. This review focuses on the identification of the major unresolved scientific issues and wants also to provide directions for future research which may lead to the formulation of interdisciplinary, collaborative implementation plans to address these issues both theoretically and observationally.

  4. Long-term effect of seismic activities on archaeological remains: a test study from Zakynthos, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendürüs, M.; van Wijngaarden, G.J.; Kars, H.; Sintubin, M.; Stewart, I.S.; Niemi, T.M.; Altunel, E.

    2010-01-01

    During the archaeological and geoarchaeological surveys on the island of Zakynthos, Greece, it has been noted that the distribution and preservation of archaeological remains of Zakynthos present spatially different characteristics. In general, archaeological pottery finds and architectural remains

  5. Long-term effect of seismic activities on archaeological remains: a test study from Zakynthos, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendürüs, M.; van Wijngaarden, G.J.; Kars, H.; Sintubin, M.; Stewart, I.S.; Niemi, T.M.; Altunel, E.

    2010-01-01

    During the archaeological and geoarchaeological surveys on the island of Zakynthos, Greece, it has been noted that the distribution and preservation of archaeological remains of Zakynthos present spatially different characteristics. In general, archaeological pottery finds and architectural remains

  6. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Wyoming,...

  7. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  8. Visitor Perceptions of Ancient Egyptian Human Remains in Three United Kindom Museums

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh Kilminster

    2003-01-01

    Although the issues of retention and display of human remains have become topical over the last decade, the thoughts of museum visitors about this topic have not been registered, despite their being the museums’ main stakeholder. The vast majority (82.5%) of 300 respondents questioned in the summer of 2002 at three British museums displaying ancient Egyptian human remains supported the idea of having these remains on display. However, a small percentage of visitors (14.2%) wanted the remains ...

  9. 78 FR 27993 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects published in a Notice of... control of these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the...

  10. 76 FR 795 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated... Trace Parkway, Tupelo, MS. The human remains and cultural items were removed from Claiborne County, MS...

  11. 78 FR 27994 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects published in a Notice of... transfer of control of these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request...

  12. 77 FR 11583 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of San Diego State University, San Diego, CA. The human remains and cultural items were removed from the vicinity of...

  13. 77 FR 59659 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA. The ] human remains were removed from...

  14. 78 FR 25470 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... Parkway has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, published in a Notice... human remains and associated funerary objects under the control of the U.S. Department of the Interior...

  15. 77 FR 68825 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects in the Control of... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Coolidge, AZ. The human remains and...

  16. 78 FR 27995 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the U.S. Army... human remains and associated funerary objects to the lineal descendants, Indian tribes, or Native...

  17. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies to...

  18. 76 FR 58037 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... Society (History Colorado) completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, and... cultural affiliation with the human remains should contact the Colorado Historical Society at the address...

  19. 78 FR 27992 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects published in a Notice of... control of these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the...

  20. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  1. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques stochastic models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, and shows how to utilize the condition monitoring data to predict the remaining useful life of stochastic degrading systems and to schedule maintenance and logistics plans. It is also the first book that describes the basic data-driven remaining useful life prognosis theory systematically and in detail. The emphasis of the book is on the stochastic models, methods and applications employed in remaining useful life prognosis. It includes a wealth of degradation monitoring experiment data, practical prognosis methods for remaining useful life in various cases, and a series of applications incorporated into prognostic information in decision-making, such as maintenance-related decisions and ordering spare parts. It also highlights the latest advances in data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, especially in the contexts of adaptive prognosis for linear stochastic degrading systems, nonlinear degradation modeling based pro...

  3. Taphonomic alterations by the rodent species woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum) upon human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokines, James T

    2015-12-01

    This forensic case report describes the taphonomic effects of woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum) upon a set of skeletonized human remains recovered in Massachusetts, USA. Remains of an individual of this rodent species were discovered where it had been nesting inside the human cranium. Fine, parallel grooves indicative of small rodent gnawing were noted on multiple postcranial elements, and all isolated grooves were consistent in size with the incisors of this species. Other taphonomic alterations to these remains include some gnawing damage and dispersal by large carnivores. This case represents the first report of this rodent species affecting human remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  5. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will your application remain in effect? Your application for SVB will remain in effect from the date it is filed until...

  6. The Mean Remaining Strength Of Systems In A Stress-Strength Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gürler, Selma

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the mean remaining strength of a component inthe stress-strength setup. We present the models for the mean remaining strength for systems consisting of n independent components underthe k-out-of-n:F , parallel and series configurations. We assume thatthe strengths of the components are nonidentically distributed randomvariables and components are designed under the common stress.

  7. "SINCE I MUST PLEASE THOSE BELOW": HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS RESEARCH AND THE LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The ethics of non-invasive scientific research on human skeletal remains are poorly articulated and lack a single, definitive analogue in western law. Laws governing invasive research on human fleshed remains, as well as bio-ethical principles established for research on living subjects, provide effective models for the establishment of ethical guidelines for non-invasive research on human skeletal remains. Specifically, non-invasive analysis of human remains is permissible provided that the analysis and collection of resulting data (1) are accomplished with respect for the dignity of the individual, (2) do not violate the last-known desire of the deceased, (3) do not adversely impact the right of the next of kin to perform a ceremonious and decent disposal of the remains, and (4) do not unduly or maliciously violate the privacy interests of the next of kin.

  8. Farm-scale distribution of deforestation and remaining forest cover in Mato Grosso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter D.; Vanwey, Leah

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of data on property size and type as well as land use reveals the distribution of deforestation, remaining forest cover and carbon stocks in Mato Grosso, Brazil's third largest state. Nearly two-thirds of remaining forests and carbon reserves, equating to between 2 and 3 Pg of carbon, are located on private properties. Around 80% of forests and carbon reserves are on properties larger than 1,000 ha, with smallholder farms and public land reform settlements controlling only a tiny fraction of the state's remaining forest and carbon reserves. Efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation must target owners controlling most of the remaining forest and land types with the highest deforestation rates. We thus suggest that policymakers seeking to protect the remaining forest should focus both incentives and enforcement of anti-deforestation laws in the larger properties where most of these forests are located.

  9. Screw Remaining Life Prediction Based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the remaining life of ball screw, a screw remaining life prediction method based on quantum genetic algorithm (QGA and support vector machine (SVM is proposed. A screw accelerated test bench is introduced. Accelerometers are installed to monitor the performance degradation of ball screw. Combined with wavelet packet decomposition and isometric mapping (Isomap, the sensitive feature vectors are obtained and stored in database. Meanwhile, the sensitive feature vectors are randomly chosen from the database and constitute training samples and testing samples. Then the optimal kernel function parameter and penalty factor of SVM are searched with the method of QGA. Finally, the training samples are used to train optimized SVM while testing samples are adopted to test the prediction accuracy of the trained SVM so the screw remaining life prediction model can be got. The experiment results show that the screw remaining life prediction model could effectively predict screw remaining life.

  10. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Decontamination and management of human remains following incidents of hazardous chemical release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Watson, Annetta; Bock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To provide specific guidance and resources for systematic and orderly decontamination of human remains resulting from a chemical terrorist attack or accidental chemical release. A detailed review and health-based decision criteria protocol is summarized. Protocol basis and logic are derived from analyses of compound-specific toxicological data and chemical/physical characteristics. Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present, such as sites of transportation accidents, terrorist operations, or medical examiner processing points. Guidance is developed from data-characterizing controlled experiments with laboratory animals, fabrics, and materiel. Logic and specific procedures for decontamination and management of remains, protection of mortuary affairs personnel, and decision criteria to determine when remains are sufficiently decontaminated are presented. Established procedures as well as existing materiel and available equipment for decontamination and verification provide reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from chemically exposed remains. Unique scenarios such as those involving supralethal concentrations of certain liquid chemical warfare agents may prove difficult to decontaminate but can be resolved in a timely manner by application of the characterized systematic approaches. Decision criteria and protocols to "clear" decontaminated remains for transport and processing are also provided. Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for management of remains and release can be followed.

  12. Characteristics of remaining oil viscosity in water-and polymer-flooding reservoirs in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of 21 crude oil samples shows a good correlation between high molecular-weight hydrocarbon components (C 40+) and viscosity.Forty-four remaining oil samples extracted from oil sands of oilfield development coring wells were analyzed by high-temperature gas chromatography (HTGC),for the relative abundance of C 21-,C 21-C 40 and C 40+ hydrocarbons.The relationship between viscosity of crude oil and C 40+ (%) hydrocarbons abundance is used to expect the viscosity of remaining oil.The mobility characteristics of remaining oil,the properties of remaining oil,and the next displacement methods in reservoirs either water-flooded or polymer-flooded are studied with rock permeability,oil saturation of coring wells,etc.The experimental results show that the hydrocarbons composition,viscosity,and mobility of remaining oil from both polymer-flooding and water-flooding reservoirs are heterogeneous,especially the former.Relative abundance of C 21- and C 21-C 40 hydrocarbons in polymer-flooding reservoirs is lower than that of water-flooding,but with more abundance of C 40+ hydrocarbons.It is then suggested that polymer flooding must have driven more C 40- hydrocarbons out of reservoir,which resulted in relatively enriched C 40+,more viscous oils,and poorer mobility.Remaining oil in water-flooding reservoirs is dominated by moderate viscosity oil with some low viscosity oil,while polymer-flooding mainly contained moderate viscosity oil with some high viscosity oil.In each oilfield and reservoir,displacement methods of remaining oil,viscosity,and concentration by polymer-solution can be adjusted by current viscosity of remaining oil and mobility ratio in a favorable range.A new basis and methods are suggested for the further development and enhanced oil recovery of remaining oil.

  13. Study of dental occlusion in ancient human remains: a methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorin, Elena; Cadafalch, Joan; Ceperuelo, Dolors; Adserias Adserias, Maria José; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduard; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-09-01

    The anthropological dental and maxillary study in human skeletal remains usually refers to alterations or conditions of the oral cavity. These alterations could have repercussions on life style, dietary habits and diseases. In this particular context, dental occlusion is not often analyzed due to the fragmented condition of the remains, and especially due to the lack of methodology adapted to study ancient remains. The aim of this study is to propose an anthropological method based on clinical dental practice. In the method presented in this work, odontological parameters such as overjet, overbite, and Angle's Classification of Malocclusion, are evaluated.

  14. Application of the Stephan et al. Chest Radiograph Comparison Method to Decomposed Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Mariyam I; Hefner, Joseph T; Markey, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    This manuscript describes the use of comparative radiography of the chest to facilitate positive identification of human remains in advanced stages of decomposition. The method reported by Stephan et al. for positive identification of dry, disarticulated skeletal elements was used on semifleshed, decomposing remains. Positive identification was established through multiple points of concordance observed in radiographs of the left and right clavicles and the C5-T1 vertebrae. This case study demonstrates the applicability of the Stephan et al.'s method in cases involving decomposing remains. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. The Swan-Ganz Catheter Remains a Critically Important Component of Monitoring in Cardiovascular Critical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew; Curley, Gerard F; Mustard, Mary; Mazer, C David

    2017-01-01

    Few inventions in modern medicine have generated as passionate and extended debate as the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). Since its introduction in 1970, the PAC remains an indispensable monitor in cardiovascular critical care. Despite attempts to develop less invasive alternatives, the PAC remains unequaled as a single monitoring device capable of measuring physiological derangement in most components of the circulation, in the awake or sedated patient, with real-time feedback on the efficacy of an intervention. In reviewing the literature, we contend that the PAC remains the "gold standard" for hemodynamic monitoring of critically ill cardiac patients. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determining postmortem interval using glycoproteinous adhesion deposits by Balanus improvisus on human skeletal and dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytheway, Joan A; Pustilnik, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    An anthropological analysis was conducted on skeletal and dental remains brought to the Galveston County Medical Examiner's office. The skeletal remains were dry, fragmented, and absent of typical fluvial characteristics. During microscopic examination, semitransparent, circular objects were discovered on the dentition, the mandible, tibial plateau, and distal femur. The objects were glycoproteinous adhesions deposited by the acorn barnacle, Balanus improvisus. B. improvisus is an intertidal barnacle found in estuaries in Galveston Bay. Basal diameter of the adhesions on the dentition were significantly smaller than those found on the postcranial bones (p = 0.010), indicating two consecutive cohorts adhered to the bone and dentition. As settlement typically occurs once a year, this would indicate that the remains were in the fluvial environment for at least 375-410 days. It is important in geographic areas that have prevalent fluvial environments that human remains, particularly dentition, are microscopically examined for marine life evidence. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Isolation of PCR ready-human DNA using copper nanoparticles from skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Anand; Ansari, Niha; Shah, Shahil; Rao, M V; Menon, Shobhana K

    2017-01-01

    Present study represents a novel approach of PCR ready-human DNA extraction method from skeletal remains using copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) for personnel identification. To achieve rapid, cost effective, sensitive and non-hazardous method for DNA extraction we utilized CuNPs synthesized using microwave. The applicability of this approach was first tested in blood samples and afterwards, this system was extended to skeletal remains' samples also. This method yields good quality DNA that are ready for PCR reactions from small quantities of blood and skeletal remains. Consequently, even small quantities of nanoparticles could be potentially utilized for a highly efficient isolation of DNA from skeletal remains as well as from ancient archaeological samples. The present method has the advantages that it is quick with high yield, inexpensive, robust, environment friendly and does not require use of hazardous organic solvents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Paleoparasitology in Brazil and Findings in Human Remains from South America: A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shênia Patrícia Corrêa Novo; Luiz Fernando Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    .... In sequence, it is made a presentation of parasitological findings on human remains found in archaeological sites in South America, highlighting Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru, where major discoveries have occurred...

  19. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including...

  20. Pond Creek Coal Zone Remaining Resources by County in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal zone resource areas and attributed with remaining resources (millions of...

  1. Fire Clay Coal Zone Remaining Resources by County in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Fire Clay coal zone resource areas and attributed with remaining resources (millions of...

  2. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed Remaining Resources by County in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed resource areas and attributed with remaining resource values...

  3. Predictors of patients remaining anovulatory during clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation in normogonadotropic oligoamenorrheic infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); E.R. te Velde (Egbert); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe diagnostic criteria used to identify patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome remain controversial. The present prospective longitudinal follow-up study was designed to identify whether certain criteria assessed during standardized initial scree

  4. Predictors of patients remaining anovulatory during clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation in normogonadotropic oligoamenorrheic infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); E.R. te Velde (Egbert); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe diagnostic criteria used to identify patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome remain controversial. The present prospective longitudinal follow-up study was designed to identify whether certain criteria assessed during standardized initial

  5. RSPF-based Prognosis Framework for Estimation of Remaining Useful Life in Energy Storage Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a case study where a RSPF-based prognosis framework is applied to estimate the remaining useful life of an energy storage device (Li-Ion...

  6. Scott's Lake Site/Santee Indian Mound/Fort Watson Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a generic dataset collected on human remains and funerary objects during Scott's Lake Site Excavation. Excavated by Dr. Leland G. Ferguson of SCIAA in 1973,...

  7. Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Liao; Wei Xie; Yu Peng; Datong Liu; Hong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS). The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a...

  8. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline.

  9. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, C.-W.; Chiu, H.-L.; Chang, S.-K.

    2015-08-01

    Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the "colour change" of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the "colure change" is used to evaluate the "real" surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The"Lingdao man No.1", is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P.) excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by step for ensuring the surface

  10. SpeX spectroscopy of unresolved very low mass binaries. II. Identification of 14 candidate binaries with late-M/early-L and T dwarf components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Nicholls, Christine P. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Mail Code 0424, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Gelino, Christopher R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Looper, Dagny L. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Schmidt, Sarah J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College, City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Cruz, Kelle [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); West, Andrew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 104 The Green, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Gizis, John E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Metchev, Stanimir, E-mail: daniella@physics.ucsd.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Multiplicity is a key statistic for understanding the formation of very low mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs. Currently, the separation distribution of VLM binaries remains poorly constrained at small separations (≤1 AU), leading to uncertainty in the overall binary fraction. We approach this problem by searching for late-M/early-L plus T dwarf spectral binaries whose combined light spectra exhibit distinct peculiarities, allowing for separation-independent identification. We define a set of spectral indices designed to identify these systems, and we use a spectral template fitting method to confirm and characterize spectral binary candidates from a library of 815 spectra from the SpeX Prism Spectral Libraries. We present 11 new binary candidates, confirm 3 previously reported candidates, and rule out 2 previously identified candidates, all with primary and secondary spectral types in the range M7-L7 and T1-T8, respectively. We find that subdwarfs and blue L dwarfs are the primary contaminants in our sample and propose a method for segregating these sources. If confirmed by follow-up observations, these systems may add to the growing list of tight separation binaries, whose orbital properties may yield further insight into brown dwarf formation scenarios.

  11. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  12. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Rio; Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-02-01

    Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal-distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal-distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure.

  13. Nurses' clinical decision-making for preserving nursing home residents' remaining abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Jung Eun; Kim, Mi So; Kim, Su Jin; Chang, Sung Ok

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to clarify and conceptualise nurses' clinical decision-making for preserving the remaining abilities of nursing home residents suffering from physical-cognitive functional decline. Older adults experience physical, psychological and social changes, but their remaining abilities differ across individuals. This study used a qualitative research to gain a deeper understanding of nursing homes nurses' clinical decision-making. In-depth interviews with 32 experienced nurses were undertaken. The data were analysed using conventional content analysis. Six categories and 58 subcategories of nursing practice related to managing the remaining abilities of residents with physical-cognitive functional decline were generated. The results of this study revealed five themes: (1) seeing residents' potential, (2) physical, emotional and psychosocial care in daily routines, (3) keeping personalised charts, (4) encouraging, promoting and physical and emotional support and (5) preparing residents for more independent living. The results were categorised into nurses' personal strategies based on their experience, practical nursing knowledge, nursing interventions and nursing evaluation criteria. The themes reflected positive views on the residents' functional abilities and the nursing homes nurses' perception that their goal was to help residents achieve their highest level of independence. Preserving nursing home residents' remaining abilities represents nurses' optimistic view of residents' functional status. Routine care tailored for preserving the remaining abilities of individual nursing home residents with physical-cognitive functional decline is needed. Preserving the remaining abilities of nursing home resident is supported by therapeutic interactions including close contact as well as physical and emotional support. Nurses' main goal in working with residents with remaining abilities is improving their independence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Results Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner’s syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen.

  15. The Early Aurignacian human remains from La Quina-Aval (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Christine; Dujardin, Véronique; Trinkaus, Erik

    2012-05-01

    There is a dearth of diagnostic human remains securely associated with the Early Aurignacian of western Europe, despite the presence of similarly aged early modern human remains from further east. One small and fragmentary sample of such remains consists of the two partial immature mandibles plus teeth from the Early Aurignacian of La Quina-Aval, Charente, France. The La Quina-Aval 4 mandible exhibits a prominent anterior symphyseal tuber symphyseos on a vertical symphysis and a narrow anterior dental arcade, both features of early modern humans. The dental remains from La Quina-Aval 1 to 4 (a dm(1), 2 dm(2), a P(4) and a P(4)) are unexceptional in size and present occlusal configurations that combine early modern human features with a few retained ancestral ones. Securely dated to ~33 ka (14)C BP (~38 ka cal BP), these remains serve to confirm the association of early modern humans with the Early Aurignacian in western Europe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Study of remains and dental wastes of a First World War German rest camp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R; Tzortzis, S; Desfosses, Y; Signoli, M; Tardivo, D

    2014-12-01

    This article presents the analysis of dental remains and waste from the dental office of a German rest camp of the First World War in order to study the living conditions of the soldiers, the care policy and the prosthetic rehabilitation techniques used in this context. The study included both dental and prosthetic remains, revealed during the excavation. The criteria to determine dental and periodontal health were the presence or absence of caries, wear, tartar and periodontal lesion. Location, severity and frequency of each of these parameters were examined. Regarding the prosthetic remains, the type of prosthesis and the materials used were determined. Three hundred and twenty seven (327) dental remains were analyzed. A high prevalence of large caries, especially in the molar areas, was highlighted. The incisal areas had however more wear and tartar. 183 casts of plaster dental arcade allowed to highlight a significant proportion of posterior edentulous. Prosthetic remains and laboratory waste revealed the use of vulcanite and porcelain for making dentures.

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTER FUNCTION AND LENGTH OF REMAINING RECTUM AFTER RESECTING RECTAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xiaowei

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between internal anal sphincter function and length of remaining rectum after resecting rectal carcinoma. Methods: Preoperatively,21 patients were evaluated via patients' clinical date,including anal resting pressure (resting pressure) assay.Six months postoperatively, repeated manometric studies and clinical evaluations were performed to assess the level of continence. The formula use for calculating postoperative resting pressure is as follows: postoperative resting pressure=0.42×preoperative resting pressure+1.56×length of remaining recturm+12.37 (R2=0.58; P<0.01).Degree of continence was graded based on severity of the dysfunction and grade of the continence score. Results:It was demonstrated the patients with low postoperative resting pressures (<4.0 Kpa) had incontinence, and those with high postoperative resting pressures (>4.7 Kpa) were continent. There were significant correlations between length of the remaining rectum and ratio of the decrease in maximum resting pressure (postoperative/preoperative maximum resting pressure; r=0.62; P<0.01). Conclusion:Continence of rectum is influenced by maximum resting pressure of function of the internal anal sphincter, length of remaining rectum is shorter, the more damage to the internal anal sphincter. It is able to foretell stool incontinence by using the postoperative resting pressure formula, and to determine the length of the remaining rectum.

  18. From Biography to Osteobiography: An Example of Anthropological Historical Identification of the Remains of St. Paul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihanović, Frane; Jerković, Ivan; Kružić, Ivana; Anđelinović, Šimun; Janković, Stipan; Bašić, Željana

    2017-09-01

    In the identification process of historical figures, and especially in cases of Saint's bodies or mummified remains, any method that includes physical encroachment or sampling is often not allowed. In these cases, one of the few remaining possibilities is the application of nondestructive radiographical and anthropological methods. However, although there have been a few attempts of such analyses, no systematic standard methodology has been developed until now. In this study, we developed a methodological approach that was used to test the authenticity of the alleged body of Saint Paul the Confessor. Upon imaging the remains on MSCT and post-processing, the images were analyzed by an interdisciplinary team to explore the contents beneath the binding media (e.g., the remains) and to obtain osetobiographical data for comparison with historical biological data. Obtained results: ancestry, sex, age, occupation, and social status were consistent with historical data. Although the methodological approach proved to be appropriate in this case, due to the discrepancy in the amount of data, identity could not be fully confirmed. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that the remains do not belong to St. Paul was rejected, whilst positive identification receives support. Anat Rec, 300:1535-1546, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly.

  20. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  1. A novel approach of remaining discharge energy prediction for large format lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Liu, Chang; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-03-01

    Accurate estimation of battery pack remaining discharge energy is a crucial challenge to the battery energy storage systems. In this paper, a new method of battery pack remaining discharge energy estimation is proposed using the recursive least square-unscented Kalman filter. To predict the remaining discharge energy precisely, the inconsistency of the battery pack caused by different working temperatures is taken into consideration and the degree of battery inconsistency is quantified based on mathematical methods of statistics. In addition, the recursive least square is applied to identify the parameters of the battery pack model on-line and the unscented Kalman filter is employed in battery pack remaining discharge energy and energy utilization ratio estimation. The experimental results in terms of battery states estimation under the new European driving cycle and real driven profiles, with the root mean square error less than 0.01, further verify that the proposed method can estimate the battery pack remaining discharge energy with high accuracy. What's more, the relationship between the pack energy utilization ratio and the degree of battery inconsistency is summarized in the paper.

  2. Optimization of DNA recovery and amplification from non-carbonized archaeobotanical remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Andersen, Kenneth; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate a...... resolution. Therefore, in this paper, we compare a variety of DNA extraction techniques on primarily desiccated archaeobotanical remains and identify which method consistently yields the greatest amount of purified DNA. In addition, we test five DNA polymerases to determine how well they replicate DNA...... extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated...

  3. Ethical Issues Surrounding the Use of Modern Human Remains for Research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, N; Dempers, J J

    2017-02-01

    Chapter 8 of the South African National Health Act 61 of 2003 (NHA) that deals with the donation of human tissue was promulgated in 2012. The new Act is perceived to impose restrictions on low-risk research involving human remains. This study aimed to identify the issues raised by a research ethics committee (REC) when reviewing protocols where human remains are used as data source. REC minutes from 2009 to 2014 were reviewed, and issues raised by the committee were categorized. In total, 127 protocols submitted to the committee over 6 years involved human remains. Queries relating to science (22.2%) and administration (18.9%) were the most common, whereas queries relating to legal issues constituted only 10.2%. Ethical issues centered on informed consent regarding sensitive topics such as HIV, DNA, and deceased children. The change in legislation did not change the number or type of legal issues identified by the REC.

  4. Identification of the remains of the Romanov family by DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, P; Ivanov, P L; Kimpton, C; Piercy, R; Benson, N; Tully, G; Evett, I; Hagelberg, E; Sullivan, K

    1994-02-01

    Nine skeletons found in a shallow grave in Ekaterinburg, Russia, in July 1991, were tentatively identified by Russian forensic authorities as the remains of the last Tsar, Tsarina, three of their five children, the Royal Physician and three servants. We have performed DNA based sex testing and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis and confirm that a family group was present in the grave. Analysis of mitochondrial (mt) DNA reveals an exact sequence match between the putative Tsarina and the three children with a living maternal relative. Amplified mtDNA extracted from the remains of the putative Tsar has been cloned to demonstrate heteroplasmy at a single base within the mtDNA control region. One of these sequences matches two living maternal relatives of the Tsar. We conclude that the DNA evidence supports the hypothesis that the remains are those of the Romanov family.

  5. Evaluating the impact of water processing on wood charcoal remains: Tell Qarassa North, a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Zapata, Lydia; Colledge, Sue

    of different anatomic elements of the wood, which binds the cells and may increase resistance to mechanical damage during processes as flotation. This may explain why vitrification was better represented in the roof samples processed by flotation, since water might have destroyed weaker wood charcoal remains....... In this work a comparison of the results obtained from water processing and hand-picking of wood charcoal remains at the Neolithic site of Tell Qarassa North (south Syria) is presented. The material comes from a burnt roof structure, where a total of 50 hand-picked wood samples and four flotation samples (120...... such as vitrification and those related to decay. The results showed large differences in the taxonomic and taphonomic composition of wood remains retrieved in situ and through flotation. While Amygdalus had same proportions in both assemblages, in those derived by flotation, there were greater proportions of Pistacia...

  6. Updated Estimates of the Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. ESCO Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Carvallo Bodelon, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Murphy, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-04-01

    The energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering energy and economic savings in the public and institutional buildings sector, primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. The ESCO industry often provides (or helps arrange) private sector financing to complete public infrastructure projects with little or no up-front cost to taxpayers. In 2014, total U.S. ESCO industry revenue was estimated at $5.3 billion. ESCOs expect total industry revenue to grow to $7.6 billion in 2017—a 13% annual growth rate from 2015-2017. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to update and expand our estimates of the remaining market potential of the U.S. ESCO industry. We define remaining market potential as the aggregate amount of project investment by ESCOs that is technically possible based on the types of projects that ESCOS have historically implemented in the institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors using ESCO estimates of current market penetration in those sectors. In this analysis, we report U.S. ESCO industry remaining market potential under two scenarios: (1) a base case and (2) a case “unfettered” by market, bureaucratic, and regulatory barriers. We find that there is significant remaining market potential for the U.S. ESCO industry under both the base and unfettered cases. For the base case, we estimate a remaining market potential of $92-$201 billion ($2016). We estimate a remaining market potential of $190-$333 billion for the unfettered case. It is important to note, however, that there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the estimates for both the base and unfettered cases.

  7. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus B; Rasmussen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Avnstorp, Magnus B., Peter Rasmussen, Patrice Brassard, Thomas Seifert, Morten Overgaard, Peter Krustrup, Niels H. Secher, and Nikolai B. Nordsborg. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise. High Alt Med Biol 16:000-000, 2015.-Background...... metabolism and increased an index of cerebral blood flow, but cerebral net water and ion homeostasis remained stable. Thus, although AMS develops within hours and may be related to exercise-induced disturbance of cerebral ion and water balance, such changes are not detectable when subjects are exposed...

  8. Some Phrygian Plant and Insect Remains from Kerkenes Dağ, Central Anatolia (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the 1996 and 2000 seasons of excavation at Kerkenes Dağ, a large single‐period Phrygian mountain‐top city located in central Turkey, a small assemblage of archaeobotanical remains and an insect were recovered from two specific archaeological contexts dated to the 540s B.C. This report documents a well‐cleaned Triticum durum/aestivum grain cache retrieved from a baking area, along with hand‐picked remains of Cornus mas, Cerasus cf. avium, and a Brachycerus sp. weevil.

  9. Psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and compliance time remaining in prison sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jarillo, M; Caravaca-Sánchez, F; Sánchez-Alcaraz, C; Luna, A

    2016-10-01

    This study shows the results obtained from evaluating the main psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and their relation to a remaining sentence time in prison. A questionnaire based on an ad hoc design was administered, using a Likert scale, with a total of 383 inmates serving sentences in southeast Spain. Findings show that inmates with a remaining sentence period of more than one year, like those who had served more than a year of their sentence, showed greater concern about possible economic difficulties. The psychosocial stressors studied might provide relevant information to facilitate the process of social reintegration after the completion of a prison sentence.

  10. Skeletal Indicators of Shark Feeding on Human Remains: Evidence from Florida Forensic Anthropology Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michala K; Winburn, Allysha P; Burgess, George H

    2017-05-02

    This research examines a series of six Florida forensic anthropology cases that exhibit taphonomic evidence of marine deposition and shark-feeding activities. In each case, we analyzed patterns of trauma/damage on the skeletal remains (e.g., sharp-force bone gouges and punctures) and possible mechanisms by which they were inflicted during shark predation/scavenging. In some cases, shark teeth were embedded in the remains; in the absence of this evidence, we measured interdental distance from defects in the bone to estimate shark body length, as well as to draw inferences about the potential species responsible. We discuss similarities and differences among the cases and make comparisons to literature documenting diagnostic shark-inflicted damage to human remains from nearby regions. We find that the majority of cases potentially involve bull or tiger sharks scavenging the remains of previously deceased, adult male individuals. This scavenging results in a distinctive taphonomic signature including incised gouges in cortical bone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi

    2010-11-09

    The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in East Asia and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for East Asia involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia.

  12. Stratigraphy and chronology of the WLH 50 human remains, Willandra Lakes World Heritage Area, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer; Spooner, Nigel; Magee, John; Thorne, Alan; Simpson, John; Yan, Ge; Mortimer, Graham

    2011-05-01

    We present a detailed description of the geological setting of the burial site of the WLH 50 human remains along with attempts to constrain the age of this important human fossil. Freshwater shells collected at the surface of Unit 3, which is most closely associated with the human remains, and a carbonate sample that encrusted the human bone were analysed. Gamma spectrometry was carried out on the WLH 50 calvaria and TIMS U-series analysis on a small post-cranial bone fragment. OSL dating was applied to a sample from Unit 3 at a level from which the WLH 50 remains may have eroded, as well as from the underlying sediments. Considering the geochemistry of the samples analysed, as well as the possibility of reworking or burial from younger layers, the age of the WLH 50 remains lies between 12.2 ± 1.8 and 32.8 ± 4.6 ka (2-σ errors). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The ambiguity of human ashes: Exploring encounters with cremated remains in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, B.M.H.P.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores cremation and disposal practices in the Netherlands, focusing on the attitudes and experiences of bereaved Dutch people in relation to cremated remains. In academic and professional narratives, human ashes are commonly described as “important,” as “sacred,” and as a vehicle to

  14. The Class of 2012: Labor Market for Young Graduates Remains Grim. EPI Briefing Paper #340

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shierholz, Heidi; Sabadish, Natalie; Wething, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Though the labor market is slowly improving, the Great Recession that began in December 2007 was so long and severe that the crater it left in the labor market continues to be devastating for workers of all ages. Unemployment has been above eight percent for more than three years, and 12.7 million workers remain unemployed today. The weak labor…

  15. The quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end cavity preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, MK; de Schwartz, FBC; van der Sluis, LWM; Wesselink, PR

    2001-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end resection and root-end cavity preparation. Methodology Roots of 40 mandibular incisors. 12 mm in length. were divided into two groups and instrumented using a balanced force techni

  16. What Makes Hotel Expatriates Remain in Their Overseas Assignments: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Zoe Ju-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In this study the researcher uses a qualitative research design to discover what makes hotel expatriates remain in their overseas assignments. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and personal documents are used as data collection methods. Four hotel expatriates are recruited as participants of the study. The collected interview…

  17. Showing up, Remaining Engaged, and Partaking as Students: Resilience among Students of Mexican Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which 12 high school students of Mexican descent remain resilient amid difficult and stressful realities. Through an examination of students' interview responses, a case is made that students' ability to engage in school and figure out everyday ways to partake as students are signs of resilience. This work suggests…

  18. Digital Marketing Budgets for Independent Hotels: Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid, so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. This article suggests how an independent hotel can maximize their marketing budget by using multiple channels and strategies.

  19. Taming Disruptive Technologies, or How To Remain Relevant in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic books as a disruptive technology, that is, a technology that has appeal to its users but upsets the traditional models. Highlights include a history of print technology; types of electronic books; reader devices; stakeholders, including users, librarians, and publishers; and how vendors can remain relevant. (LRW)

  20. Role of mobile IPv6 for mobile networks and its remaining issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Kan, Zhigang

    2001-10-01

    Mobile IPv6 has received tremendous attention from the cellular telephony industry for use in the next generation networks. This paper starts with recent development of Mobile IPv6 technologies and its standards, and explores remaining issues such as fast handover, smooth handover, mobility managements, AAA, QoS, security and scenarios in its deployment, with particular attention to IPv6.

  1. Dating rice remains through phytolith carbon-14 study reveals domestication at the beginning of the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xinxin; Lu, Houyuan; Jiang, Leping; Zhang, Jianping; Yang, Xiaoyan; Huan, Xiujia; He, Keyang; Wang, Can; Wu, Naiqin

    2017-06-20

    Phytolith remains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) recovered from the Shangshan site in the Lower Yangtze of China have previously been recognized as the earliest examples of rice cultivation. However, because of the poor preservation of macroplant fossils, many radiocarbon dates were derived from undifferentiated organic materials in pottery sherds. These materials remain a source of debate because of potential contamination by old carbon. Direct dating of the rice remains might serve to clarify their age. Here, we first validate the reliability of phytolith dating in the study region through a comparison with dates obtained from other material from the same layer or context. Our phytolith data indicate that rice remains retrieved from early stages of the Shangshan and Hehuashan sites have ages of approximately 9,400 and 9,000 calibrated years before the present, respectively. The morphology of rice bulliform phytoliths indicates they are closer to modern domesticated species than to wild species, suggesting that rice domestication may have begun at Shangshan during the beginning of the Holocene.

  2. Mammalian remains from an Indian site on Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1963-01-01

    The animal remains (mostly of shells, fish, and turtles) collected by Mr. H. R. VAN HEEKEREN and Mr. C. J. DU RY at the Indian site Sint Jan II, Curaçao, in March, 1960, include a few specimens of mammals. As was the case with the Indian site Santa Cruz, on Aruba (HOOIJER, 1960), several forms are r

  3. Analysis of solids remaining following chemical cleaning in tank 6F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, Fernando F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, David M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Summer, Michael E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, Samuel D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2010-02-05

    Following chemical cleaning, a solid sample was collected and submitted to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. SRNL analyzed this sample by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the composition of the solids remaining in Tank 6F and to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process.

  4. Fish remains from Miocene beds of Višnja vas near Vojnik, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Šoster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses fossil teeth of sharks (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii and porgies (Teleostei, Sparidae fromthe Miocene glauconite sandstones of Vi{nja vas near Vojnik. The remains of fish teeth, mostly tooth crowns, belongto cartilaginous fishes of the genera Notorynchus, Carcharias, Carcharoides, Isurus and Cosmopolitodus and to abony fish genus Pagrus.

  5. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.83 Timers; elapsed time... liquid content in the container. (b) The timer or other indicator shall be accurately calibrated in...

  6. Most colorectal cancer survivors live a large proportion of their remaining life in good health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Thong, Melissa S Y; Ezzati, Majid; Lamont, Elizabeth B; Nusselder, Wilma J; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V

    2012-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis reduces life expectancy and decreases patients' well-being. We sought to assess the determinants of health and functional status and estimate the proportion of remaining life that CRC survivors would spend in good health. Using Sullivan method, healthy life expectancy was calculated based on survival data of 14,849 CRC survivors within a population-based cancer registry in southern Netherlands and quality of life information among a random sample of these survivors (n = 1,291). Overall, albeit short life expectancy (LE at age 50 = 12 years for males and 13 years for females), most CRC survivors spent a large proportion of their remaining life in good health (74 and 77 %, for males and females, respectively). Long-term survivors may expect to live a normal life span (LE at age 50 = 30 years) and spent a large proportion of the remaining life in good health (78 %). In distinction, those with stage IV CRC had less than 2 years to live and spent more than half of their remaining life in poor health. Most CRC patients may expect no compromise on living a healthy life, underlining the importance of early detection. On the other hand, the high proportion of non-healthy years among stage IV CRC survivors confirms the importance of early detection and palliative care.

  7. On the remains of some Carnivora found in a prehistoric site at Vlaardingen, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.

    1961-01-01

    The excavation of a prehistoric site at Vlaardingen, about 10 km W. of Rotterdam, yielded among ceramics and other man-made objects, many remains of zoological origin (GLASBERGEN, 1960). Mr. P. J. VAN DER FEEN and Miss M. R. WALVIUS, who were in charge of the zoological material found at

  8. The quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end cavity preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, MK; de Schwartz, FBC; van der Sluis, LWM; Wesselink, PR

    2001-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end resection and root-end cavity preparation. Methodology Roots of 40 mandibular incisors. 12 mm in length. were divided into two groups and instrumented using a balanced force techni

  9. Plantar pressures in diabetic patients with foot ulcers which have remained healed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Owings; J. Apelqvist; A. Stenstrom; M. Becker; S.A. Bus; A. Kalpen; J.S. Ulbrecht; P.R. Cavanagh

    2009-01-01

    Aims The recurrence of foot ulcers is a significant problem in people with diabetic neuropathy. The purpose of this study was to measure in-shoe plantar pressures and other characteristics in a group of neuropathic patients with diabetes who had prior foot ulcers which had remained healed. Methods T

  10. Between Theory and History: "The Remains of the Day" in the International Relations Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Anthony F., Jr.; Lang, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Recommends using Kazuo Ishiguro's "The Remains of the Day" to teach international relations by focusing on the normative elements of international relations, the importance of history, and the relationship between theory and history. Explores the use of one theory, feminism, in the novel and provides suggestions for other novels. (CMK)

  11. Taming Disruptive Technologies, or How To Remain Relevant in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic books as a disruptive technology, that is, a technology that has appeal to its users but upsets the traditional models. Highlights include a history of print technology; types of electronic books; reader devices; stakeholders, including users, librarians, and publishers; and how vendors can remain relevant. (LRW)

  12. Optimization of DNA recovery and amplification from non-carbonized archaeobotanical remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Wales

    Full Text Available Ancient DNA (aDNA recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate aDNA from ancient plant materials, and furthermore, such DNA extracts frequently contain inhibitory substances that preclude successful PCR amplification. In the age of high-throughput sequencing, this problem is even more significant because each additional endogenous aDNA molecule improves analytical resolution. Therefore, in this paper, we compare a variety of DNA extraction techniques on primarily desiccated archaeobotanical remains and identify which method consistently yields the greatest amount of purified DNA. In addition, we test five DNA polymerases to determine how well they replicate DNA extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated decisions as to which one to use for a given task. The experimental findings should prove useful to the aDNA and archaeological communities by guiding future research methodologies and ensuring precious archaeobotanical remains are studied in optimal ways, and may thereby yield important new perspectives on the interactions between humans and past plant communities.

  13. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Bodner, D;

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Experts opinions consensus. OBJECTIVE: To develop a common strategy to document remaining autonomic neurologic function following spinal cord injury (SCI). BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: The impact of a specific SCI on a person's neurologic function is generally described through use of ...

  14. 78 FR 19303 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... pieces of cinder. In the Federal Register (66 FR 32846-32847, June 18, 2001), paragraph number 12 is... Federal Register (66 FR 32846-32847, June 18, 2001). A reassessment of the inventory during tribal... group identity with the human remains and associated funerary objects. In the Federal Register (66...

  15. Dementia and Friendship: The Quality and Nature of the Relationships That Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Phyllis Braudy

    2013-01-01

    Friendships are an integral part of the human experience. Yet, dementia often takes a toll on social relationships, and many friends withdraw. This research, however, focuses on friendships that remain, despite a diagnosis of dementia. It examines the quality of the friendships of people with dementia and long-term friendships. Data were collected…

  16. More comprehensive forensic genetic marker analyses for accurate human remains identification using massively parallel DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Angie D; Churchill, Jennifer D; King, Jonathan L; Stoljarova, Monika; Gill-King, Harrell; Assidi, Mourad; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-10-17

    Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States. The remains were in an unmarked grave and there were no records or other metadata available regarding the identity of the individual. Due to the high throughput of MPS, a variety of biometric markers could be typed using a single sample. Using MPS and suitable forensic genetic markers, more relevant information could be obtained from a limited quantity and quality sample. Results were obtained for 25/26 Y-STRs, 34/34 Y SNPs, 166/166 ancestry-informative SNPs, 24/24 phenotype-informative SNPs, 102/102 human identity SNPs, 27/29 autosomal STRs (plus amelogenin), and 4/8 X-STRs (as well as ten regions of mtDNA). The Y-chromosome (Y-STR, Y-SNP) and mtDNA profiles of the unidentified skeletal remains are consistent with the R1b and H1 haplogroups, respectively. Both of these haplogroups are the most common haplogroups in Western Europe. Ancestry-informative SNP analysis also supported European ancestry. The genetic results are consistent with anthropological findings that the remains belong to a male of European ancestry (Caucasian). Phenotype-informative SNP data provided strong support that the individual had light red hair and brown eyes. This study is among the first to genetically characterize historical human remains with forensic genetic marker kits specifically designed for MPS. The outcome demonstrates that substantially more genetic information can be obtained from

  17. Nondestructive sampling of human skeletal remains yields ancient nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Deborah A; Bonine, Holly M; Mata-Míguez, Jaime; Kemp, Brian M; Snow, Meradeth H; LeBlanc, Steven A

    2012-02-01

    Museum curators and living communities are sometimes reluctant to permit ancient DNA (aDNA) studies of human skeletal remains because the extraction of aDNA usually requires the destruction of at least some skeletal material. Whether these views stem from a desire to conserve precious materials or an objection to destroying ancestral remains, they limit the potential of aDNA research. To help address concerns about destructive analysis and to minimize damage to valuable specimens, we describe a nondestructive method for extracting DNA from ancient human remains. This method can be used with both teeth and bone, but it preserves the structural integrity of teeth much more effectively than that of bone. Using this method, we demonstrate that it is possible to extract both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from human remains dating between 300 BC and 1600 AD. Importantly, the method does not expose the remains to hazardous chemicals, allowing them to be safely returned to curators, custodians, and/or owners of the samples. We successfully amplified mitochondrial DNA from 90% of the individuals tested, and we were able to analyze 1-9 nuclear loci in 70% of individuals. We also show that repeated nondestructive extractions from the same tooth can yield amplifiable mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. The high success rate of this method and its ability to yield DNA from samples spanning a wide geographic and temporal range without destroying the structural integrity of the sampled material may make possible the genetic study of skeletal collections that are not available for destructive analysis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Identification of human remains from the Second World War mass graves uncovered in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Hadžić Metjahić, Negra; Čakar, Jasmina; Džehverović, Mirela; Dogan, Serkan; Ferić, Elma; Džijan, Snježana; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Madžar, Tomislav; Rod, Eduard; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-06-01

    To present the results obtained in the identification of human remains from World War II found in two mass graves in Ljubuški, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Samples from 10 skeletal remains were collected. Teeth and femoral fragments were collected from 9 skeletons and only a femoral fragment from 1 skeleton. DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using an optimized phenol/chloroform DNA extraction procedure. All samples required a pre-extraction decalcification with EDTA and additional post-extraction DNA purification using filter columns. Additionally, DNA from 12 reference samples (buccal swabs from potential living relatives) was extracted using the Qiagen DNA extraction method. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex ESI kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, and PowerPlex Y23 was used to amplify 23 Y chromosomal STR loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using a standard statistical approach. A total of 10 samples were processed, 9 teeth and 1 femoral fragment. Nine of 10 samples were profiled using autosomal STR loci, which resulted in useful DNA profiles for 9 skeletal remains. A comparison of established victims' profiles against a reference sample database yielded 6 positive identifications. DNA analysis may efficiently contribute to the identification of remains even seven decades after the end of the World War II. The significant percentage of positively identified remains (60%), even when the number of the examined possible living relatives was relatively small (only 12), proved the importance of cooperation with the members of the local community, who helped to identify the closest missing persons' relatives and collect referent samples from them.

  19. Genetic identification of putative remains of the famous astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Wiesław; Allen, Marie; Branicki, Wojciech; Lembring, Maria; Gajewska, Marta; Kupiec, Tomasz

    2009-07-28

    We report the results of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses of skeletal remains exhumed in 2005 at Frombork Cathedral in Poland, that are thought to be those of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543). The analyzed bone remains were found close to the altar Nicolaus Copernicus was responsible for during his tenure as priest. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) profiles from 3 upper molars and the femurs were identical, suggesting that the remains originate from the same individual. Identical mtDNA profiles were also determined in 2 hairs discovered in a calendar now exhibited at Museum Gustavianum in Uppsala, Sweden. This calendar was the property of Nicolaus Copernicus for much of his life. These findings, together with anthropological data, support the identification of the human remains found in Frombork Cathedral as those of Nicolaus Copernicus. Up-to-now the particular mtDNA haplotype has been observed only 3 times in Germany and once in Denmark. Moreover, Y-chromosomal and autosomal short tandem repeat markers were analyzed in one of the tooth samples, that was much better preserved than other parts of the skeleton. Molecular sex determination revealed that the skeleton is from a male individual, and this result is consistent with morphological investigations. The minimal Y-chromosomal haplotype determined in the putative remains of Nicolaus Copernicus has been observed previously in many countries, including Austria, Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic. Finally, an analysis of the SNP located in the HERC2 gene revealed the C/C genotype that is predominant in blue-eyed humans, suggesting that Copernicus may have had a light iris color.

  20. Comparison of decomposition rates between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lennon N; Wescott, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Penetrating trauma has been cited as a significant factor in the rate of decomposition. Therefore, penetrating trauma may have an effect on estimations of time-since-death in medicolegal investigations and on research examining decomposition rates and processes when autopsied human bodies are used. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in the rate of decomposition between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains in the same environment. The purpose is to shed light on how large incisions, such as those from a thorocoabdominal autopsy, effect time-since-death estimations and research on the rate of decomposition that use both autopsied and non-autopsied human remains. In this study, 59 non-autopsied and 24 autopsied bodies were studied. The number of accumulated degree days required to reach each decomposition stage was then compared between autopsied and non-autopsied remains. Additionally, both types of bodies were examined for seasonal differences in decomposition rates. As temperature affects the rate of decomposition, this study also compared the internal body temperatures of autopsied and non-autopsied remains to see if differences between the two may be leading to differential decomposition. For this portion of this study, eight non-autopsied and five autopsied bodies were investigated. Internal temperature was collected once a day for two weeks. The results showed that differences in the decomposition rate between autopsied and non-autopsied remains was not statistically significant, though the average ADD needed to reach each stage of decomposition was slightly lower for autopsied bodies than non-autopsied bodies. There was also no significant difference between autopsied and non-autopsied bodies in the rate of decomposition by season or in internal temperature. Therefore, this study suggests that it is unnecessary to separate autopsied and non-autopsied remains when studying gross stages of human decomposition in Central Texas

  1. 309 proteomic analysis of the blastocoel fluid and remaining cells of bovine blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P L; Groendahl, M L; Beck, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are derived from the human blastocyst and possess the potential to differentiate into any cell type present in the adult human body. Human ESC are considered to have great potential in regenerative medicine for the future treatment of severe diseases and conditions...... the proteome of the blastocoel fluid and the remaining cells of bovine blastocysts. Bovine blastocysts were produced by in vitro fertilization of oocytes retrieved from slaughterhouse ovaries. The blastocoel from 195 blastocysts (1-8nL per blastocyst) were isolated by micromanipulation and analysed by nano......-HPLC tandem mass spectrometry along with the remaining cells of the blastocyst. Searching the mass spectrometry data against a combined bovine database (SwissProt/TrEMBL), we identified 263 proteins in the blastocoel fluid and 1606 proteins in the cellular compartment of the blastocyst. A Venn diagram showed...

  2. Scavenging behavior of Lynx rufus on human remains during the winter months of Southeast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippley, Angela; Larison, Nicole C; Moss, Kathryn E; Kelly, Jeffrey D; Bytheway, Joan A

    2012-05-01

    Animal-scavenging alterations on human remains can be mistaken as human criminal activity. A 32-day study, documenting animal scavenging on a human cadaver, was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. A Stealth Cam Rogue IR was positioned near the cadaver to capture scavenging activity. An atypical scavenger, the bobcat, Lynx rufus, was recorded feeding on the cadaver. Scavenging by bobcats on human remains is not a predominant behavior and has minimal documentation. Scavenging behaviors and destruction of body tissues were analyzed. Results show that the bobcat did not feed on areas of the body that it does for other large animal carcasses. Results also show the bobcat feeds similarly during peak and nonpeak hours. Understanding the destruction of human tissue and covering of the body with leaf debris may aid forensic anthropologists and pathologists in differentiating between nefarious human activity and animal scavenging. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  4. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  5. "Why we stay": immigrants' motivations for remaining in communities impacted by anti-immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R; Lewis Valentine, Jessa; Padilla, Brian

    2013-07-01

    Although restrictive immigration policy is intended to reduce incentives for unauthorized immigrants to remain in the United States, many immigrants remain in their U.S. community despite the anti-immigration climate surrounding them. This study explores motivations shaping immigrants' intentions to stay in Arizona after passage of Senate Bill 1070 in 2010, one of the most restrictive immigration policies in recent decades. We conducted three focus groups in a large metropolitan city in Arizona with Mexican immigrant parents (N = 25). Themes emerging from the focus groups described multiple and interlocking personal, family and community, and contemporary sociopolitical motivations to stay in their community, and suggest that some important motivating factors have evolved as a result of immigrants' changing environment. Implications for research and social policy reform are discussed.

  6. Constant negotiating: managing work-related musculoskeletal disorders while remaining at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Young, Joanne; Solberg, Shirley; Gaudine, Alice

    2014-02-01

    We used grounded theory to explore processes and strategies used by workers affected by work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) while they remained in the workplace, and we developed a theory to describe the overall process. Participants included 25 workers affected by WMSDs who were currently employed in various workplaces in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The theoretical model has five main phases: (a) becoming concerned, (b) getting medical help, (c) dealing with the workplace, (d) making adjustments to lifestyle, and (e) taking charge, each with separate subphases. Constant negotiating was the core variable that explained the overall process, with workers engaged in negotiations with others in occupational, health, and social contexts. Using a two-dimensional figure, we illustrate the negotiation strategies workers used. We discuss implications for health care, workplaces, education, and research for creating a culture of understanding and respect for injured workers who wish to remain working after developing WMSDs.

  7. Spectral analysis of pharmaceutical formulations prepared according to ancient recipes in comparison with old museum remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, M Cristina; Baraldi, C; Freguglia, G; Baraldi, P

    2011-10-01

    A study of the composition of the remains of ancient ointments from museums was undertaken to enable understanding of the preparation techniques. Comparison of ancient recipes from different historical periods and spectroscopic characteristics of inorganic and/or organic remains recovered in museum vessels enabled preparation of ancient pharmaceutical-cosmetic formulations. Farmacopea Augustana by Occo was one the most important books studied for the 14 formulations prepared in the laboratory. Three formulations are discussed in detail and raw materials and new preparations were proposed for ozone ageing. The most important micro Raman results are discussed. The spectra of the raw materials lipids, beeswax, and resins are discussed; beeswax and pig suet (axŭngia) Raman spectra were found to be similar, but different from those of the aged oils. SERS was applied to ancient ointments and galbanum and the Raman spectra are reported and discussed for the first time.

  8. The remaining area of the convex hull of a Poisson process

    CERN Document Server

    Groeneboom, Piet

    2011-01-01

    In Cabo and Groeneboom (1994) the remaining area of the left-lower convex hull of a Poisson point process with intensity one in the first quadrant of the plane was analyzed, using the methods of Groeneboom (1988), giving formulas for the expectation and variance of the remaining area for a finite interval of slopes of the boundary of the convex hull. However, the time inversion argument of Groeneboom (1988) was not correctly applied in Cabo and Groeneboom (1994), leading to an incorrect scaling constant for the variance. The purpose of this note is to show how the correct application of the time inversion argument gives the right expression, which is in accordance with results in Nagaev and Khamdamov (1991) and Buchta (2003).

  9. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  10. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  11. New discovery of submerged forest remains in Shenhu bay,Fujian Province, and its environmental significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianqiu; LIN Wenqun; ZHAO Xitao; WAN Shaohong; YU Mingtong

    2003-01-01

    The authors have made a further investigation on the tidal-zone paleoforest remains found in the Shenhu bay, Fujian Province. By surveying (scale of 1 : 500) and numbering of the remains, 65 tree trunks were found. They are relatively concentrated in three different regions from south to north. Their growing ages ranged from 45 a to 100 a.22 ancient trunks' sections with low degree of carbonization show that the paleoforest was composed of Keteleeria Carr.,Morus L. and Gleditsia L. 14C dating shows that the paleoforest was living in 9 420 6760 aBP. Later it stopped developing and was buried by the alluvial aggradation caused by the sea level rise.

  12. Remaining stress-state and strain-energy in tempered glass fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2016-01-01

    , nanoscale materials, composites, glass and fundamentals, Springer, Houston, 2005) have proposed models for the fragments size based on an energy approach. Often an estimate of the remaining strain energy in the fragment is used; which leaves the questions: (a) what parameters are important for the remaining......When tempered glass breaks, it shatters into relatively small pieces depending on the residual stress state in the glass. This has been known for centuries and is currently used in standards for classifying whether a piece of glass is tempered or not. However, the process of fragmentation...... is complex and only a few, relatively simple, models have been suggested for predicting the fragment size. The full theoretical explanation is still to be found and this work aims at providing another brick to the puzzle. The strain-energy present in tempered glass is obviously contributing...

  13. Remaining useful life prediction for an adaptive skew-Wiener process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zeyi; Xu, Zhengguo; Ke, Xiaojie; Wang, Wenhai; Sun, Youxian

    2017-03-01

    Predicting the remaining useful life for operational devices plays a critical role in prognostics and health management. As the models based on the stochastic processes are widely used for characterizing the degradation trajectory, an adaptive skew-Wiener model, which is much more flexible than traditional stochastic process models, is proposed to model the degradation drift of industrial devices. To make full use of the prior knowledge and the historical information, an on-line filtering algorithm is proposed for state estimation, a two-stage algorithm is adopted to estimate unknown parameters as well. For remaining useful life prediction, a novel result is presented with an explicit form based on the closed skew normal distribution. Finally, sufficient Monte Carlo simulations and an application for ball bearings in rotating electrical machines are used to validate our approach.

  14. All Those Who Remained: The American-Led Guerillas in the Philippines, 1942-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    a US invasion of the Philippines.4 He directed his Chief of Intelligence, General Charles Willoughby , and the Allied Intelligence Bureau of SWPA to...American-led guerillas in Luzon, the Filipinos remained confident that US forces would return and liberate the Philippines. 4 Charles A. Willoughby and...General Charles A. Willoughby , General MacArthur’s Director of Intelligence. Willoughby had the G-2 section at SWPA document all intelligence operations

  15. US Public Health Preparedness for Zika and Other Threats Remains Vulnerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchin, Jeffrey S

    2016-04-01

    The unanticipated global outbreak of Zika virus infection is the most current but certainly not the last emerging infectious disease challenge to confront the US public heath system. Despite a number of such threats in recent years, significant gaps remain in core areas of public health system readiness. Stable, sustained investments are required to establish a solid foundation for achieving necessary national public health emergency preparedness and response capacity.

  16. Skeletal remains from Punic Carthage do not support systematic sacrifice of infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Schwartz

    Full Text Available Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the "Tophet" yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3(rd c. BCE and Diodorus Siculus (1(st c. BCE], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human

  17. Abundance and Utility: For Military Operations, Liquid Fuels Remain a Solid Choice over Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    and combat support vehicles, ships, and aircraft, the adoption of natural gas —whether as compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG...tacticaldefensemedia.com16 | DoD Power & Energy Fall 2014 For Military Operations, Liquid Fuels Remain a Solid Choice over Natural Gas By Bret...Strogen and Patrick Lobner Abundance and Utility Fueling the Force Natural Gas M ilitary energy strategists often recount the British Royal Navy’s decision

  18. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of human remains from the Yuansha site in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idelisi; ABUDURESULE; Victor; H.; MAIR

    2008-01-01

    The Yuansha site is located in the center of the Taklimakan Desert of Xinjiang, in the southern Silk Road region. MtDNA was extracted from fifteen human remains excavated from the Yuansha site, dating back 2,000―2,500 years. Analysis of the phylogenetic tree and the multidimensional scaling (MDS) reveals that the Yuansha population has relatively close relationships with the modern populations of South Central Asia and Indus Valley, as well as with the ancient population of Chawuhu.

  19. FORECASTING OF A REMAINING LIFE OF ENGINEERING SYSTEMS BY USING THE PARAMETRIC MODELS OF RELIABILITY VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy A. Berketov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of forecasting of a remaining life of complex engineering systems at the operational stage. The example of solving this problem is replacement of devices if their specified life has been completed (preventive replacements or if we extend the lifetime a system in addition to guarantee. This method allows to organize a preventive maintenance of a system taking into account its technical position at this moment all that lead to reducing the maintenance costs.

  20. Austerity, cyclical adjustment and the remaining leeway for expansionary fiscal policies in the Euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Truger, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy in the Euro area is still dominated by austerity measures implemented under the institutional setting of the 'reformed' stability and growth pact, and the even stricter 'fiscal compact'. At the same time, calls for a more expansionary fiscal policy to overcome the economic crisis have become more frequent, recently. Therefore, the article tries to assess the remaining leeway for a truly expansionary fiscal policy within the existing institutional framework. Special emphasis is p...

  1. Effect of interaction of embedded crack and free surface on remaining fatigue life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genshichiro Katsumata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embedded crack located near free surface of a component interacts with the free surface. When the distance between the free surface and the embedded crack is short, stress at the crack tip ligament is higher than that at the other area of the cracked section. It can be easily expected that fatigue crack growth is fast, when the embedded crack locates near the free surface. To avoid catastrophic failures caused by fast fatigue crack growth at the crack tip ligament, fitness-for-service (FFS codes provide crack-to-surface proximity rules. The proximity rules are used to determine whether the cracks should be treated as embedded cracks as-is, or transformed to surface cracks. Although the concepts of the proximity rules are the same, the specific criteria and the rules to transform embedded cracks into surface cracks differ amongst FFS codes. This paper focuses on the interaction between an embedded crack and a free surface of a component as well as on its effects on the remaining fatigue lives of embedded cracks using the proximity rules provided by the FFS codes. It is shown that the remaining fatigue lives for the embedded cracks strongly depend on the crack aspect ratio and location from the component free surface. In addition, it can be said that the proximity criteria defined by the API and RSE-M codes give overly conservative remaining lives. On the contrary, the WES and AME codes always give long remaining lives and non-conservative estimations. When the crack aspect ratio is small, ASME code gives non-conservative estimation.

  2. Highly efficient automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Debska, Magdalena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Vodopivec Mohorčič, Katja; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Štefanič, Borut; Geršak, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    We optimised the automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains using the AutoMate Express system and the PrepFiler BTA kit. 24 Contemporary and 25 old skeletal remains from WWII were analysed. For each skeleton, extraction using only 0.05 g of powder was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations (no demineralisation - ND method). Since only 32% of full profiles were obtained from aged and 58% from contemporary casework skeletons, the extraction protocol was modified to acquire higher quality DNA and genomic DNA was obtained after full demineralisation (FD method). The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the Investigator Quantiplex kit and STR typing was performed using the NGM kit to evaluate the performance of tested extraction methods. In the aged DNA samples, 64% of full profiles were obtained using the FD method. For the contemporary skeletal remains the performance of the ND method was closer to the FD method compared to the old skeletons, giving 58% of full profiles with the ND method and 71% of full profiles using the FD method. The extraction of DNA from only 0.05 g of bone or tooth powder using the AutoMate Express has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA from old and contemporary skeletons, especially with the modified FD method. We believe that the results obtained will contribute to the possibilities of using automated devices for extracting DNA from skeletal remains, which would shorten the procedures for obtaining high-quality DNA from skeletons in forensic laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. THE LATE EARLY PLEISTOCENE HUMAN REMAINS FROM BUIA, DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia) Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea) has preserved a rich paleontological, paleoanthropological, and archeological record. Fieldwork undertaken between 1995 and 2003 on a site at Uadi Aalad (Abbate et al. 1998) led to the discovery of one-million-year-old human remains. They consist of a cranium in excellent preservation condition (UA-31), two permanent teeth (UA-222 and UA-369), and three pelvic portions (UA-173, UA-405 and U...

  4. Carbon stable isotope analysis of cereal remains as a way to reconstruct water availability: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Flohr, Pascal; Muldner, Gundula; Jenkins, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructing past water availability, both as rainfall and irrigation, is important to answer questions about the way society reacts to climate and its changes and the role of irrigation in the development of social complexity. Carbon stable isotope analysis of archaeobotanical remains is a potentially valuable method for reconstructing water availability. To further define the relationship between water availability and plant carbon isotope composition and to set up baseline values for the...

  5. Recovery Rates of Human Fetal Skeletal Remains Using Varying Mesh Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokines, James T; De La Paz, Jade S

    2016-01-01

    Human fetal skeletal elements of different gestational ages were screened with multiple mesh sizes (6.4 mm [1/4 inch], 3.2 mm [1/8 inch], 2.0 mm, and 1.0 mm) to determine their recovery rates. All remains were previously macerated, and no significantly damaged elements were used. The 6.4 mm mesh allowed a large loss of elements (63.2% overall), including diagnostic elements, while no diagnostic elements were lost when the 1 mm mesh (0.2%) was used. When using the 3.2 mm mesh, 16.2% of the bones were lost, including some diagnostic elements (primarily tooth crowns), while 7.5% were lost using the 2.0 mm mesh. The authors recommend that the potential loss of information incurred when utilizing larger mesh sizes be taken into consideration when planning recovery methods where fetal remains may be encountered and that a minimum of 1.0 mm mesh be utilized in recovery contexts known to include fetal remains. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Lindauer, Susanne; Tomasto-Cagigao, Elsa; Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960's provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960's. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations.

  7. Blood or spores? A cautionary note on interpreting cellular debris on human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, A; Stefanelli, S; Caccianiga, M; Rizzi, A; Bertoglio, B; Sforza, C; Cattaneo, C

    2015-07-01

    The identification of red blood cells on both skeletal human remains and decomposed corpses is of remarkable importance in forensic sciences, irrespective of its diagnostic value; their presence is often perplexing and difficult to interpret especially when in the context of decomposition and taphonomical variables. Some clinical research has focused on the morphological changes of red blood cells over time by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but no research has investigated whether botanical structures can be confused for red blood cells. Since some literature has recently presumed the detection of erythrocyte-like cells on skeletal remains (even ancient) as surely erythrocytes, and most have never taken into consideration the chance of an origin different from blood, such as botanical, the present study aims at verifying the possibility of confusion between erythrocytes and botanical cells by applying SEM analysis and at highlighting the pitfalls in this particular issue through a test submitted to pathologists and natural scientists asked to discriminate between red blood cells and different vegetal structures (60 images obtained by SEM analysis). The results showed that although there are diagnostic features useful in identifying red blood cells from botanical structures, some spores resulted very similar to decaying red blood cells, which calls for attention and great caution when studying decomposed human remains.

  8. A code of ethics for evidence-based research with ancient human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreissl Lonfat, Bettina M; Kaufmann, Ina Maria; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    As clinical research constantly advances and the concept of evolution becomes a strong and influential part of basic medical research, the absence of a discourse that deals with the use of ancient human remains in evidence-based research is becoming unbearable. While topics such as exhibition and excavation of human remains are established ethical fields of discourse, when faced with instrumentalization of ancient human remains for research (i.e., ancient DNA extractions for disease marker analyses) the answers from traditional ethics or even more practical fields of bio-ethics or more specific biomedical ethics are rare to non-existent. The Centre for Evolutionary Medicine at the University of Zurich solved their needs for discursive action through the writing of a self-given code of ethics which was written in dialogue with the researchers at the Institute and was published online in Sept. 2011: http://evolutionäremedizin.ch/coe/. The philosophico-ethical basis for this a code of conduct and ethics and the methods are published in this article. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Neanderthal axial and appendicular remains from Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersey, Ben; Brudvik, Kyle; Black, Michael T; Defleur, Alban

    2013-12-01

    Excavations carried out during the 1990s at Moula-Guercy cave Ardèche, France, yielded 108 hominid specimens dating to 100-120 Ka. In this paper, we describe and compare the 39 axial and appendicular specimens not including hand and foot bones. Among these remains are a large adult femur, several clavicles, a likely antimeric pair of radial heads, and a nearly complete superior pubic ramus. Analyses of this material indicate a clear affinity with Neanderthals by the presence of large and robust muscle attachments, thick long bone cortices, a long pubic ramus, and a superoinferiorly flattened clavicle shaft. The recovered remains reveal the presence of a mature male, a smaller mature individual, possibly a reproductive age female, an immature individual of age 10-12, and a second immature individual of age 4. Future analyses on the Moula-Guercy remains will illuminate ties to other known Neanderthal populations and contribute to the ongoing debate over the relative rate of Neanderthal metric growth.

  10. Neanderthal hand and foot remains from Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersey, Ben; Jabbour, Rebecca S; Brudvik, Kyle; Defleur, Alban

    2013-12-01

    The hand and foot remains from Moula-Guercy cave (Ardèche, France) comprise 24 specimens of Eemian age (ca. 120 ka). The specimens include primarily complete elements, which are rare among the Moula-Guercy postcrania. The hand remains have several characteristic Neanderthal traits including a laterally facing (parasagittally oriented) second metacarpal-capitate articulation, a short styloid process, a wide proximal articular surface on the third metacarpal, and absolutely expanded apical tuberosities on the distal hand phalanges relative to modern humans. The foot remains include several incomplete elements along with an antimeric pair of naviculars, a medial cuneiform and cuboid, and a single complete element from each of the distal segments (one each: metatarsal, proximal foot phalanx, intermediate foot phalanx, distal foot phalanx). Consistent among the specimens are relatively wide diaphyses for length in the metatarsals and phalanges and large and prominent muscle attachments, both consistent with previously published Neanderthal morphology. The hand and foot collection from Moula-Guercy is an important dataset for future studies of Neanderthal functional morphology, dexterity, and behavior as it represents a previously undersampled time period for European Neanderthals.

  11. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni

    2013-06-01

    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene.

  12. Skeletal remains of a diminutive primate from the Paleocene of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Gerhard

    2008-10-01

    Most living mammal orders, including our own, started their career during the first 10 million years of the Cenozoic, the Age of Mammals. The fossil record documents that early Paleogene adaptive radiations of various clades included tiny species of the size of living shrews. Remains of particularly diminutive limb bones are described from the late Paleocene site of Walbeck, Sachsen-Anhalt. Discovered in 1939, it has remained the only known Paleocene mammal-bearing locality from Germany. The remains are referred to the family Adapisoriculidae, which is considered on the basis of the present postcranial evidence to represent plesiadapiform primates rather than alleged lipotyphlan insectivores as previously proposed. The Walbeck fossils compete with the Early Eocene species Toliapina vinealis from Europe and Picromomys petersonorum from North America for the status of the smallest known primate, fossil and living. Their estimated body weights are as small as 10 g. The limb bones show features related to enhanced flexion at the elbow and hip joint, suggesting arboreal habits and environments such as terminal branches. The diminutive size and tooth morphology suggest feeding on small insects and other invertebrates. Postcranials are important to assess early radiations, such tiny specimens as the present ones are extremely scarce in the fossil record, however.

  13. Dental health of children: where we are today and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most common disease in man and presents a tremendous health-affecting challenge and fiscal burden to both developed and underdeveloped countries. Changing demographics including increased number of ethnic minorities, cultural practices and diet, the number of children living in poverty or near poverty, and the special needs of medically compromised children have made solutions more complex and evasive. Systemic and topical fluoride contacts remain the most cost-effective public health response to preventing caries among children. The time-honored impact of reducing sugars and carbohydrates in the diet and improving oral hygiene practices also remain essential. New technology has the potential of offering remineralization strategies. The dental profession is challenged to be proactive in identifying alternatives and implementing new and creative ways to embrace underserved children and improve their access to care including trauma prevention. The impact on families and society, including financial and general well-being, due to poor oral health is significant. Lower income families absorb disproportionately the effect of dental diseases due to lack of education, food availability and selection, and access to early preventive care.

  14. Female reproductive decline is determined by remaining ovarian reserve and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wilkosz

    Full Text Available The early decline and loss of female fertility in humans and other species represents an evolutionary paradox. Despite being born with a vast stock of oocytes, females encounter an exhaustion of ovarian reserve and sterility half way through their natural lives. Female reproductive ageing has been proposed to proceed as an ongoing decline in ovarian reserve, determined by remaining ovarian follicle number. However, despite extensive modelling, the respective contributions of intra-, inter-, and extra-ovarian signalling have not been fully characterised. It remains unclear whether reproductive ageing progresses simply as a pre-determined function of remaining ovarian follicles, or as an age-dependent process in humans. Here, we have analysed ovarian response to hormonal stimulation in women who have undergone surgical removal of a single ovary, in order to investigate the relative contributions of intra-, inter, and extra-ovarian signalling on reproductive ageing. Our data show that in unilaterally oophorectomised women, ovarian response to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH declines beyond levels predicted by a total ovarian follicle pool model of reproductive ageing. Maintenance of ovarian function later in reproductive life, despite the removal of half of the total ovarian reserve, suggests a role for an extra-ovarian age-dependent regulation of reproductive decline. This highlights the need for further work to identify signalling factors that communicate age-related signals between the soma and the germline.

  15. Choosing and remaining in mental health nursing: perceptions of Western Australian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Carole A; Hauck, Yvonne; Hoffman, Rosemary

    2014-12-01

    Mental health nursing has an ageing workforce with a critical shortage of nurses in Western Australia. Additionally, mental health is not the preferred career for many graduate nurses. Current challenges with recruitment and retention suggest that strategies are needed to address this issue. This research project adopted a novel approach that focused on exploring the positive aspects of why mental health nurses remain, rather than why they leave. A cross-sectional design was employed comprising a brief interview survey, and nurses working within one public mental health service in Western Australia were invited to participate. A total of 192 nurses participated across 5 months, from adult, older adult, forensic, and education/research programmes. Thematic analysis was conducted from five key questions, and responses from questions one and two are discussed in this paper: 'Why did you choose mental health nursing?' and 'Why do you remain in mental health nursing?'. The main themes extracted in response to choosing mental health nursing were wanting to make a difference, mental health captured my interest, encouraged by others, and opportunities. Subsequent themes extracted from responses to remaining in mental health nursing were facing reality, passion for mental health nursing, patient-centred caring, and workplace conditions. Findings will be utilized to inform strategies for recruitment and retention of graduate nurses; further development of support systems, such as preceptorship training and improving student clinical experiences; as well as improving professional development opportunities for existing mental health nurses.

  16. Modelling of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service: A stepwise approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hazlin; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Jais, Mohammad; Ridzuan, Arifi

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain the most significant model of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service by using a stepwise approach. Currently, Malaysians, young and old are showing more interests in involving themselves in community service projects, either locally or internationally. This positive movement of serving the needy is somehow being halted by the lack of human and financial resources. Therefore, the trend today sees organizers of such projects depend heavily on voluntary supports as they enable project managers to add and to expand the quantity and diversity of services offered without exhausting the minimal budget available. Volunteers are considered a valuable commodity as the available pool of volunteers may be declining due to various reasons which include the volunteer satisfaction. In tandem with the existing situation, a selected sample of 215 diploma students from one of the public universities in Malaysia, who have been involved in at least one community service project, agreed that everybody should have a volunteering intention in helping others. The findings revealed that the most significant model obtained contains two factors that contributed towards intention to remain in community service; work assignment and organizational support, with work assignment becoming the most significant factor. Further research on the differences of intention to remain in community service between students' stream and gender would be conducted to contribute to the body of knowledge.

  17. Post-operative hemimaxillectomy rehabilitation using prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining natural teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhou Qu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the stability of prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining teeth for subjects who had undergone hemi-maxillectomy. METHODS: Ten patients were included in the study. Oral rehabilitation was performed using a temporary prosthesis that was supported by remaining teeth for the first three months. Then, a zygoma implant was placed to provide support for a final prosthesis in addition to the remaining teeth. Each prosthesis was tailor-made according to biomechanical three-dimensional finite element analysis results. The patients were assessed using the prosthesis functioning scale of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In addition, retention and bite force were recorded for both the temporary prosthesis and the final prosthesis. RESULTS: The mean bite force of the prosthetic first molar was increased to 69.2 N. The mean retentive force increased to 13.5 N after zygoma implant insertion. The bite force on the prosthetic first molar was improved to 229.3 N. CONCLUSION: Bite force increased significantly with the support of a zygoma implant. The use of zygoma implants in the restoration of maxillary defects improved functional outcome and patient satisfaction.

  18. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R.; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960’s provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960’s. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations. PMID:26061688

  19. The use of fish remains in sediments for the reconstruction of paleoproductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drago, T; Santos, A M P; Pinheiro, J [Institute Nacional de Recursos Biologicos (INRB), L-IPIMAR, Av. 5 de Outubro s/n 8700-305 OLHaO (Portugal); Ferreira-Bartrina, V [Centra de Investigacion CientIfica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada- CICESE, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana, C.P.22860, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)], E-mail: tdrago@ipimar.pt

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the works concerning fish productivity are based in fish landing records. However, in order to understand the causes of variability in fish productivity (natural and/or anthropogenic) it is essential to have information from periods when human impacts (e.g., fisheries) are considered unimportant. This can be achieved through the use of fish remains, i.e. scales, vertebrae and otoliths, from sediment records. The obtained data can be used to develop time series of fish stocks revealing the history of fish population dynamics over the last centuries or millennia. The majority of these works are located in Eastern Boundary Current Systems (e.g., Benguela, Peru-Humboldt, California), because these are associated with coastal upwelling and high productivity, which in some cases is at the origin of low bottom oxygen levels, leading to scale preservation. A search for fish remains in the Portuguese margin sediments is in progress in the context of the ongoing research project POPEI (High-resolution oceanic paleoproductivity and environmental changes; correlation with fish populations), which intend to fill the gap in studies of this type for the Canary Current System. In this paper we review some general ideas of the use of fish remains, related studies, methodologies and data processing, as well as presenting the first results of POPEI.

  20. New remains of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Megatheriidae, Xenarthra) from the coastal region of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    New remains of Eremotherium were recovered from the Pacific coast of Ecuador's Manabi province. The Machalilla fossiliferous locality records the northernmost presence of Eremotherium along the Pacific coast of South America. Most of the fossil remains belong to the same individual, mainly its posterior half, but other individuals are represented. Among the better-preserved specimens are skull fragments, most of the hind limb bones and a number of trunk and caudal centra. These remains were compared with samples collected during the 20th century along the southern coastal regions of Ecuador and northern Peru. Many characters of the long bones and tarsals testify to a possibly different lineage despite the closeness of other Eremotherium populations. Some metric and morphological aspects suggest a different space-temporal southern Caribbean provenance. Other Eremotherium specimens, coming from other Ecuadorian localities, were studied and compared with classic Eremotherium samples. Interesting morpho-functional aspects are pointed out with regard to the tail and its importance in the bipedal stance.

  1. Using of microvertebrate remains in reconstruction of late quaternary (Holocene paleoclimate, Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Hashemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Study of quaternary microvertebrate remains in eastern Iran, according to a few of the sediments is very important. Reconstruction of quaternary climate in many parts of West and North West of Iran as the biggest karst state is possible, such as cave Kani Mikaiel (Hashemi et al. 2005, 2006, 2007a;b, 2008; 2010, Jangjoo et al . 2010, Yafteh cave (Otte et al. 2007, Hashemi et al. 2015. However, such studies were very poor in eastern and north-eastern Iran (Hashemi and darvish 2006; Hashemi et al. 2008, 2015. Investigation of taxonomic identification; quantification and distribution of micromammals revealed that these remains are useful in paleontology and archaeological research, because their abundance is useful for paleobiostratigraphy and dating of continental sediments. The recent research is about reconstruction of paleoclimate in two archeological sites of Konar sandal (KS (Jiroft and Tapeh Naderi (TN (Mashhad based on the microvertebrate and especially Tatera indica species. In these sites we attempted to solve the palaeoenvironment condition by analysis of rodent remains which hold the greatest potential to monitoring of ecological parameters (Hoover et al. 1977; Getz 1961; Reig 1970; Merritt 1974. Combining of a rich network of data with using of morphological and morphometric methods; reconstruction of paleoenvironment; documentation and investigation of their relationship with the environment is the main result of this research .       Material & Methods   In both zooarchaeological samples which are composed of juveniles and young individual rodent, (KS, NISP=800 and TN, NISP=3 cranial and postcranial remains were sorted anatomically and washed with water. Dental pattern of mandible and maxillary tooth rows were drowns using a drawing tube connecting to a stereomicroscope (Olympus SZH-10. All recovered teeth fragments were measured based on the greatest dental length and width of the upper and lower jaw molars when

  2. Unilateral nephrectomy elongates primary cilia in the remaining kidney via reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Jun; Jang, Hee-Seong; Kim, Jee In; Lipschutz, Joshua H; Park, Kwon Moo

    2016-02-29

    The length of primary cilia is associated with normal cell and organ function. In the kidney, the change of functional cilia length/mass is associated with various diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, polycystic kidney disease, and congenital solitary kidney. Here, we investigate whether renal mass reduction affects primary cilia length and function. To induce renal mass reduction, mice were subjected to unilateral nephrectomy (UNx). UNx increased kidney weight and superoxide formation in the remaining kidney. Primary cilia were elongated in proximal tubule cells, collecting duct cells and parietal cells of the remaining kidney. Mn(III) Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), an antioxidant, reduced superoxide formation in UNx-mice and prevented the elongation of primary cilia. UNx increased the expression of phosphorylated ERK, p21, and exocyst complex members Sec8 and Sec10, in the remaining kidney, and these increases were prevented by MnTMPyP. In MDCK, a kidney tubular epithelial cell line, cells, low concentrations of H2O2 treatment elongated primary cilia. This H2O2-induced elongation of primary cilia was also prevented by MnTMPyP treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that kidney compensation, induced by a reduction of renal mass, results in primary cilia elongation, and this elongation is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  3. A review of sex estimation techniques during examination of skeletal remains in forensic anthropology casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kaur, Sandeep; Baryah, Neha; Singh, R K

    2016-04-01

    Sex estimation is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology casework, and requires foremost consideration in the examination of skeletal remains. Forensic anthropologists frequently employ morphologic and metric methods for sex estimation of human remains. These methods are still very imperative in identification process in spite of the advent and accomplishment of molecular techniques. A constant boost in the use of imaging techniques in forensic anthropology research has facilitated to derive as well as revise the available population data. These methods however, are less reliable owing to high variance and indistinct landmark details. The present review discusses the reliability and reproducibility of various analytical approaches; morphological, metric, molecular and radiographic methods in sex estimation of skeletal remains. Numerous studies have shown a higher reliability and reproducibility of measurements taken directly on the bones and hence, such direct methods of sex estimation are considered to be more reliable than the other methods. Geometric morphometric (GM) method and Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste (DSP) method are emerging as valid methods and widely used techniques in forensic anthropology in terms of accuracy and reliability. Besides, the newer 3D methods are shown to exhibit specific sexual dimorphism patterns not readily revealed by traditional methods. Development of newer and better methodologies for sex estimation as well as re-evaluation of the existing ones will continue in the endeavour of forensic researchers for more accurate results.

  4. Evidence of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in human skeletal remains from pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lavín, M; Mansilla, J; Pineda, C; Pijoán, C; Ochoa, P

    1994-02-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is one of the earliest recognized disease entities in the history of medicine. It has a peculiar periosteal proliferation distinctive from other bone diseases. In its advanced stage, it leaves an indelible mark on the skeleton. It has been recently shown that digital clubbing is accompanied by a bone remodeling process of the underlying phalanges. Thus, theoretically, this entity can be recognized in ancient human skeletal remains. We studied part of the collection of skeletal remains from pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica preserved at the National Museum of Anthropology of Mexico City. We examined 1000 specimens and found 2 skeletons with widespread, bilateral, symmetric periosteal proliferation of the tubular bones in addition to the bone remodeling changes of the distal phalanges. One of the specimens was from the Formative period (2000 B.C. to 100 A.D.). We conclude that hypertrophic osteoarthropathy can be recognized in ancient human skeletal remains and that this disease was present in Mesoamerica near the time of the original description of clubbing by Hippocrates about 2500 years ago.

  5. The effect of limb amputation on standing weight distribution in the remaining three limbs in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Grayson Lee; Millis, Darryl

    2017-01-16

    Despite the fact that limb amputation is a commonly performed procedure in veterinary medicine, quantitative data regarding outcomes are lacking. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of limb amputation on weight distribution to the remaining three limbs at a stance in dogs. Ten dogs with a prior forelimb amputation and ten dogs with a prior hindlimb amputation; all of which had no history of orthopaedic or neural disease in the remaining three limbs were included in the study. Standing weight bearing was evaluated with a commercial stance analyzer in all dogs. Five valid trials were obtained and a mean percentage of weight bearing was calculated for each remaining limb. The dogs with a previous forelimb amputation, and also those with a previous hindlimb amputation, had the largest mean increase in weight bearing in the contralateral forelimb. In conclusion, proactive monitoring of orthopaedic disease in the contralateral forelimb may be advisable in dogs with a previous limb amputation. In addition, when determining candidacy for a limb amputation, disease of the contralateral forelimb should be thoroughly evaluated.

  6. The clandestine multiple graves in Malaysia: The first mass identification operation of human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Noor, Mohd Suhani; Khoo, Lay See; Zamaliana Alias, Wan Zafirah; Hasmi, Ahmad Hafizam; Ibrahim, Mohamad Azaini; Mahmood, Mohd Shah

    2017-09-01

    The first ever mass identification operation of skeletal remains conducted for the clandestine graves in Malaysia consisted of 165 individuals unearthed from 28 human trafficking transit camps located in Wang Kelian, along the Thai-Malaysia border. A DVI response was triggered in which expert teams comprising of pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists, radiologists and DNA experts were gathered at the identified operation centre. The Department of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Star, Kedah, located approximately 75km away from Wang Kelian, was temporarily converted into a victim identification centre (VIC) as it is the nearest available forensic facility to the mass grave site. The mortuary operation was conducted over a period of 3 months from June to September 2015, and was divided into two phases; phase 1 involving the postmortem examination of the remains of 116 suspected individuals and for phase 2 the remains of 49 suspected individuals. The fact that the graves were of unknown individuals afforded the mass identification operation a sufficient duration of 2 weeks as preparatory phase enabling procedurals and daily victim identification workflow to be established, and the setting up of a temporary body storage for the designated mortuary. The temporary body storage has proven to be a significant factor in enabling the successful conclusion of the VIC operation to the final phase of temporary controlled burials. Recognition from two international observers, Mr. Andréas Patiño Umaña, from the International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) and Prof. Noel Woodford from Victoria Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM) had proven the mortuary operation was in compliance to the international quality and standards. The overall victim identification and mortuary operation identified a number of significant challenges, in particular the management of commingled human remains as well as the compilation of postmortem data in the absence of

  7. Detection and characterization of volatile organic compounds from burned human and animal remains in fire debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, John D; Taormina, Eimi I; Brien, David J

    2017-03-01

    Debris collected from various test sites where mammalian remains (human and porcine) had been burned in a variety of full-scale fire scenarios was evaluated for the presence of volatile residues that could be characteristic of those remains. Levels of volatiles were measured using the method commonly used for fire debris analysis: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Homologous n-aldehydes (from n-pentanal to n-nonanal) proved to be a significant indicator of the presence of burned animal tissue as they were observed in nearly all of the samples. Such aldehydes are created by the combustion of animal fats. One aldehyde, n-hexanal, appeared more frequently than the other aldehydes, n-pentanal, n-heptanal, n-octanal, and n-nonanal. Ethanol was detected in two-thirds of the samples, while acetone appeared in about three-fourths of the samples, but both were detected at much lower concentrations than n-hexanal. These appear to have been combustion products of the substrates on which each body burned, rather than originating from the combustion of the body. There appeared to be no qualitative distinction between volatile products produced from burned porcine carcasses and those from human cadavers. Since a homologous series of C5-C9n-aldehydes is not produced as a dominant species by the pyrolysis or combustion of any normally encountered substrate (carpet, bedding, wood products or upholstery), their detection by normal fire debris methods appears to be a valid indicator of the presence of burned animal remains. These data will also provide guidance to fire debris analysts as to the nature of volatiles associated with the combustion of human bodies in real-world fires. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in forensic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, D; Cunha, E; Thompson, T J U

    2015-09-01

    The determination of the original condition of human remains prior to burning is critical since it may facilitate the reconstruction of circumstances surrounding death in forensic cases. Although the use of heat-induced bone changes is not a completely reliable proxy for determining pre-burning conditions, it is not completely devoid of potential, as we can observe a clear difference in the occurrence of such features between the fleshed and dry bones. In order to quantify this difference and determine its true value for forensic research, the frequencies of heat-induced warping and thumbnail fractures were documented on modern cremations of cadavers from recently deceased individuals and from the cremations of skeletons previously inhumed. The effect of age, sex, time span from death to cremation, duration and temperature of combustion on those frequencies was statistically investigated. Results demonstrated that the heat-induced features were significantly more frequent in the sample of cadavers. In addition, warping was determined to be the most useful indicator of the pre-burning condition of human remains. Temperature of combustion was the only variable having a significant effect on the frequency of both features, suggesting that fluctuation of temperature, along with collagen preservation and recrystallization of the inorganic phase, is paramount for their occurrence. Both warping and thumbnail fractures may eventually be used for the estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in lack of other indicators, but their reliability is far from absolute. Ideally, such inference must be supported by other data such as skeletal representation, objects or defleshing marks on the bones.

  9. DNA and RNA profiling of excavated human remains with varying postmortem intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berge, M; Wiskerke, D; Gerretsen, R R R; Tabak, J; Sijen, T

    2016-11-01

    When postmortem intervals (PMIs) increase such as with longer burial times, human remains suffer increasingly from the taphonomic effects of decomposition processes such as autolysis and putrefaction. In this study, various DNA analysis techniques and a messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling method were applied to examine for trends in nucleic acid degradation and the postmortem interval. The DNA analysis techniques include highly sensitive DNA quantitation (with and without degradation index), standard and low template STR profiling, insertion and null alleles (INNUL) of retrotransposable elements typing and mitochondrial DNA profiling. The used mRNA profiling system targets genes with tissue specific expression for seven human organs as reported by Lindenbergh et al. (Int J Legal Med 127:891-900, 27) and has been applied to forensic evidentiary traces but not to excavated tissues. The techniques were applied to a total of 81 brain, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney and skin samples obtained from 19 excavated graves with burial times ranging from 4 to 42 years. Results show that brain and heart are the organs in which both DNA and RNA remain remarkably stable, notwithstanding long PMIs. The other organ tissues either show poor overall profiling results or vary for DNA and RNA profiling success, with sometimes DNA and other times RNA profiling being more successful. No straightforward relations were observed between nucleic acid profiling results and the PMI. This study shows that not only DNA but also RNA molecules can be remarkably stable and used for profiling of long-buried human remains, which corroborate forensic applications. The insight that the brain and heart tissues tend to provide the best profiling results may change sampling policies in identification cases of degrading cadavers.

  10. Incidental findings in the use of DNA to identify human remains: an ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa S; London, Alex John; Aronson, Jay D

    2013-02-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)-that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking-may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as well as the familial nature of DNA, identification initiatives employing DNA analysis are particularly prone to reveal IFs about familial relationships, such as misattributed paternity or false beliefs about sibling relationships. Despite forensic scientists' widespread awareness of the possibility of generating IFs, to date there has been relatively little explicit guidance about their management. This paper fills that gap. It offers substantive guidance about the ethical management of IFs in this context. To ensure that the analysis addresses actual needs and practices in the field, one author (JDA) conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants from six regionally diverse organizations involved in post-conflict or post-disaster identification efforts. The paper first describes how methods of DNA analysis give rise to IFs. Next, it explains the importance of developing an ethically justified general policy for managing IFs and discusses features of DNA identification efforts that are relevant to such a policy. Then it presents an argument in support of a general policy of nondisclosure-specifically, that considerations of fair access to the individual and social benefits of identification efforts, and the concern to minimize and fairly distribute the risks of participation, support a policy of nondisclosure. It concludes by considering some implications of this argument for the choice among scientific practices involved in using DNA analysis to identify human remains

  11. Comparative microanatomical structure of gills and skin of remainers and skippers from Gunung Kidul intertidal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Rizka Apriani; Sukiya

    2017-08-01

    One type of adaptation needed in fish that live in Intertidal Zone is morphological adaptation. When the tide is low, oxygen circulation in this area is limited, causing tidepools that occurred during this time hypoxic for species that live inside. This research aimed to study the microanatomical structure of respiratory organ of two group of fish that live in intertidal zone and to investigate whether skin of these species can be used as respiratory surface to overcome hypoxic condition. Two species of fish (Bathygobiusfuscus of remainers group and Blenniellabilitonensis of skippers, respectively), were caught and sacrificed, then gills and skin of them were harvested. The organs then undergone further processing for microanatomical preparation with paraffin method and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Microanatomical structure of gills and skin analyzed descriptively. Gills were observed to study whether additional structure is presence and modification (in structure of epithelial cells and/or the length of secondary lamelae) is occurred as part of morphological change to absorb more oxygen during low tide. In skin, the thickness of epidermal layers were measured and the number of blood capillaries were counted to investigate whether it can also be used as additional respiratory surface. Quantitative data of skin and gills were statistically analyzed using Student's T-test. Results showed that there were no differences in gills structure between remainers and skippers. Additional structure in gills were absent in both species. However, quantitative measurements in skin showed that skippers have less layers of epidermal cells and high number of blood capillaries compared to remainers' skin. This results indicated that skippers were able to use their skin as additional respiratory surface outside gills.

  12. Prognostication of LED Remaining Useful Life and Color Stability in the Presence of Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Zang, Hao; Davis, J Lynn

    2015-06-22

    The reliability of LED products may be affected by both luminous flux drop and color shift. Previous research on the topic focuses on either luminous maintenance or color shift. However, luminous flux degradation usually takes very long time to observe in LEDs under normal operating conditions. In this paper, the impact of a VOC (volatile organic compound) contaminated luminous flux and color stability are examined. As a result, both luminous degradation and color shift had been recorded in a short time. Test samples are white, phosphorconverted, high-power LED packages. Absolute radiant flux is measured with integrating sphere system to calculate the luminous flux. Luminous flux degradation and color shift distance were plotted versus aging time to show the degradation pattern. A prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the state variables and state estimator have been proposed in this paper. In this PHM framework, unscented kalman filter (UKF) was deployed as the carrier of all states. During the estimation process, third order dynamic transfer function was used to implement the PHM framework. Both of the luminous flux and color shift distance have been used as the state variable with the same PHM framework to exam the robustness of the method. Predicted remaining useful life is calculated at every measurement point to compare with the tested remaining useful life. The result shows that state estimator can be used as the method for the PHM of LED degradation with respect to both luminous flux and color shift distance. The prediction of remaining useful life of LED package, made by the states estimator and data driven approach, falls in the acceptable errorbounds (20%) after a short training of the estimator.

  13. Incidental Findings in the Use of DNA to Identify Human Remains: An Ethical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa S.; Aronson, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)—that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking—may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as well as the familial nature of DNA, identification initiatives employing DNA analysis are particularly prone to reveal IFs about familial relationships, such as misattributed paternity or false beliefs about sibling relationships. Despite forensic scientists’ widespread awareness of the possibility of generating IFs, to date there has been relatively little explicit guidance about their management. This paper fills that gap. It offers substantive guidance about the ethical management of IFs in this context. To ensure that the analysis addresses actual needs and practices in the field, one author (JDA) conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants from six regionally diverse organizations involved in post-conflict or post-disaster identification efforts. The paper first describes how methods of DNA analysis give rise to IFs. Next, it explains the importance of developing an ethically justified general policy for managing IFs and discusses features of DNA identification efforts that are relevant to such a policy. Then it presents an argument in support of a general policy of nondisclosure—specifically, that considerations of fair access to the individual and social benefits of identification efforts, and the concern to minimize and fairly distribute the risks of participation, support a policy of nondisclosure. It concludes by considering some implications of this argument for the choice among scientific practices involved in using DNA analysis to identify human

  14. Alteration and Reformation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Prediction of Remaining Potential Resources in Superimposed Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Hong; PANG Xiongqi; YANG Haijun; LIN Changsong; MENG Qingyang; WANG Huaijie

    2010-01-01

    Complex hydrocarbon reservoirs developed widely in the superimposed basins of China formed from multiple structural alterations,reformation and destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages.They are characterized currently by trap adjustment,component variation,phase conversion,and scale reformation.This is significant for guiding current hydrocarbon exploration by revealing evolution mechanisms after hydrocarbon reservoir formation and for predicting remaining potential resources.Based on the analysis of a number of complex hydrocarbon reservoirs,there are four geologic features controlling the degree of destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages:tectonic event intensity,frequency,time and caprock sealing for oil and gas during tectonic evolution.Research shows that the larger the tectonic event intensity,the more frequent the tectonic event,the later the last tectonic event,the weaker the caprock sealing for oil and gas,and the greater the volume of destroyed hydrocarbons in the early stages.Based on research on the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoir destruction mechanisms,a geological model of tectonic superimposition and a mathematical model evaluating potential remaining complex hydrocarbon reservoirs have been established.The predication method and technical procedures were applied in the Tazhong area of Tarim Basin,where four stages of hydrocarbon accumulation and three stages of hydrocarbon alteration occurred.Geohistorical hydrocarbon accumulation reached 3.184billion tons,of which 1.271 billion tons were destroyed.The total volume of remaining resources available for exploration is~1.9 billion tons.

  15. The Replisomes Remain Spatially Proximal throughout the Cell Cycle in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiameli, Sarah M; Veit, Brian T; Merrikh, Houra; Wiggins, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    The positioning of the DNA replication machinery (replisome) has been the subject of several studies. Two conflicting models for replisome localization have been proposed: In the Factory Model, sister replisomes remain spatially co-localized as the replicating DNA is translocated through a stationary replication factory. In the Track Model, sister replisomes translocate independently along a stationary DNA track and the replisomes are spatially separated for the majority of the cell cycle. Here, we used time-lapse imaging to observe and quantify the position of fluorescently labeled processivity-clamp (DnaN) complexes throughout the cell cycle in two highly-divergent bacterial model organisms: Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Because DnaN is a core component of the replication machinery, its localization patterns should be an appropriate proxy for replisome positioning in general. We present automated statistical analysis of DnaN positioning in large populations, which is essential due to the high degree of cell-to-cell variation. We find that both bacteria show remarkably similar DnaN positioning, where any potential separation of the two replication forks remains below the diffraction limit throughout the majority of the replication cycle. Additionally, the localization pattern of several other core replisome components is consistent with that of DnaN. These data altogether indicate that the two replication forks remain spatially co-localized and mostly function in close proximity throughout the replication cycle. The conservation of the observed localization patterns in these highly divergent species suggests that the subcellular positioning of the replisome is a functionally critical feature of DNA replication.

  16. Wood remains from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Jordan and their paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hamad, Abdalla M. B.; Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    During field work in the Triassic of Jordan fossil wood remains have been discovered at five horizons (S-1AR-S-5AR) of the Late Triassic (Carnian) Abu Ruweis Formation in NW Jordan. In most horizons wood remains are too badly preserved to allow for a detailed xylotomic investigation. Only two horizons provided material which exhibited anatomical details: (1) in horizon S-1AR we found rare and rather small fragments of woody charcoal exhibiting cellular details (representing the first macroscopic evidence of paleo-wildfires from the Late Triassic of the Middle East), and (2) in horizon S-5AR surfaces of partly compressed (gagatized) and partly permineralized wood fragments exhibited anatomical details that could be investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. All wood remains that allow for a detailed investigation show features typical of gymnosperms, but at the moment nothing can be said about a more specific taxonomic affinity of most of the woods, although wood from horizon S-5AR exhibits characteristics of protopinoid wood. Our data provide evidence that gymnospermous woody vegetation cover has existed in the source areas of the sediments deposited in the Abu Ruweis Formation in Jordan and that this woody vegetation occasionally experienced wildfires. This, together with lithological data, provides evidence for a seasonally dry (maybe even arid) climate during deposition of the Abu Ruweis Formation. On a larger scale our findings contribute to the very scarce current knowledge about Late Triassic wildfires on the entire continent Gondwana, from where so far only three records of macro-charcoals, as undisputed evidence of paleo-wildfires, have been published from this period.

  17. Role of sediment size and biostratinomy on the development of biofilms in recent avian vertebrate remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Lenczewski, Melissa E.; Clawson, Steven R.; Warnock, Jonathan P.

    2017-04-01

    Microscopic soft tissues have been identified in fossil vertebrate remains collected from various lithologies. However, the diagenetic mechanisms to preserve such tissues have remained elusive. While previous studies have described infiltration of biofilms in Haversian and Volkmann’s canals, biostratinomic alteration (e.g., trampling), and iron derived from hemoglobin as playing roles in the preservation processes, the influence of sediment texture has not previously been investigated. This study uses a Kolmogorov Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit test to explore the influence of biostratinomic variability and burial media against the infiltration of biofilms in bone samples. Controlled columns of sediment with bone samples were used to simulate burial and subsequent groundwater flow. Sediments used in this study include clay-, silt-, and sand-sized particles modeled after various fluvial facies commonly associated with fossil vertebrates. Extant limb bone samples obtained from Gallus gallus domesticus (Domestic Chicken) buried in clay-rich sediment exhibit heavy biofilm infiltration, while bones buried in sands and silts exhibit moderate levels. Crushed bones exhibit significantly lower biofilm infiltration than whole bone samples. Strong interactions between biostratinomic alteration and sediment size are also identified with respect to biofilm development. Sediments modeling crevasse splay deposits exhibit considerable variability; whole-bone crevasse splay samples exhibit higher frequencies of high-level biofilm infiltration, and crushed-bone samples in modeled crevasse splay deposits display relatively high frequencies of low-level biofilm infiltration. These results suggest that sediment size, depositional setting, and biostratinomic condition play key roles in biofilm infiltration in vertebrate remains, and may influence soft tissue preservation in fossil vertebrates.

  18. Assessment of the Remaining Life of Bituminous Layers in Road Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán Adorjányi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mechanistic-empirical approach is presented for the assessment of bearing capacity condition of asphalt pavement layers by Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements and laboratory fatigue tests. The bearing capacity condition ratio was determined using past traffic data and the remaining fatigue life which was determined from multilayer pavement response model. The traffic growth rate was taken into account with finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. Fatigue resistance of layers’ bituminous materials was obtained with indirect tensile fatigue tests. Deduct curve of condition scores was derived with Weibull distribution.

  19. Samantha Matthews. Poetical Remains – Poets’ Graves, Bodies, and Books in the Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc PORÉE

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available What is left of poets after they have passed away? Graves and books, answers Samantha Matthews in Poetical Remains, a study which capitalizes on body-oriented essays, while threatening to drive the trend into the ground, since it offers the ultimate take on poets—viewing them as terminal cases, but assessing their books as open-ended. The work purports to examine what it views as the particular affinity between poets' physical and literary “remains” in the Romantic to late Victorian period. B...

  20. The virtual approach to the assessment of skeletal injuries in human skeletal remains of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Petra; Ross, Ann H; Jurda, Mikoláš; Šplíchalová, Ivana

    2017-07-01

    While assessing skeletal injuries in human skeletal remains, forensic anthropologists are frequently presented with fractured, fragmented, or otherwise modified skeletal remains. The examination of evidence and the mechanisms of skeletal injuries often require that separate osseous elements be permanently or temporarily reassembled or reconstructed. If not dealt with properly, such reconstructions may impede accurate interpretation of the evidence. Nowadays, routine forensic examinations increasingly incorporate digital imaging technologies. As a result, a variety of PC-assisted imaging techniques, collectively referred to as the virtual approach, have been made available to treat fragmentary skeletal remains. The present study employs a 3D virtual approach to assess mechanisms of skeletal injuries, and provides an expert opinion of causative tools in three forensic cases involving human skeletal remains where integrity was compromised by multiple peri- or postmortem alterations resulting in fragmentation and/or incompleteness. Three fragmentary skulls and an incomplete set of foot bones with evidence of perimortem fractures (gunshot wounds) and sharp force trauma (saw marks) were digitized using a desktop laser scanner. The digitized skeletal elements were reassembled in the virtual workspace using functionalities incorporated in AMIRA(®) version 5.0 software, and simultaneously in real physical space by traditional reconstructive approaches. For this study, the original skeletal fragments were substituted by replicas built by 3D printing. Inter-method differences were quantified by mesh-based comparison after the physically reassembled elements had been re-digitized. Observed differences were further reinforced by visualizing local variations using colormaps and other advanced 3D visualization techniques. In addition, intra-operator and inter-operator error was computed. The results demonstrate that the importance of incorporating the virtual approach into the