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  1. Recent developments in study of the typical superimposed basins and petroleum accumulation in China:Exemplified by the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhijun; WANG Qingchen

    2004-01-01

    Most of petroliferous sedimentary basins in China have experienced multiple phases of tectonic evolution and deposition, and are characterized by tectonic and depositional superimposition. The term "superimposed basin" is suggested to describe those basins which consist of two or more simple prototype basins superimposing vertically and/or coalescing laterally. The characteristics of petroliferous superimposed basins are "multiple stages of basin forming and reworking, multiple layers of source rocks, multiple periods of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion, multiple periods of petroleum migration-accumulation-escape". Therefore,applying the wave process analysis method to studying the process of basin formation, hydrocarbon generation, and reservoir formation, and then establishing theory of "petroleum accumulation system" is helpful to enhancing petroleum exploration efficiency in superimposed basins.This paper will, based on case study in the Tarim basin, report the major developments in studying basin formation, hydrocarbon generation and petroleum accumulation. In study of basin formation, (1) geophysical comprehensive profiles reveal that the Tarim plate has been subducted beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt with an interfinger structure and that the deep structure in the eastern section of the Tianshan orogenic belt is different from that in the western section. (2) The vertical variation in debris and geochemical composition reveals the nature and Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution history of the Kuqa Depression. (3) Field investigation and paleostress reconstruction show that the Kuqa Depression has undergone gravity-driven extension in sedimentary cover when the Tianshan uplifted vertically. In hydrocarbon generation study, new developments include (1) setting environmental index to judge high grade source rocks in marine carbonates, and (2) establishing the lower limit of the organic carbon content for effective carbonate source rocks. In petroleum accumulation

  2. Recent developments in study of the typical superimposed basins and petroleum accumulation in China: Exemplified by the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Zhijun; WANG; Qingchen

    2004-01-01

    Most of petroliferous sedimentary basins in China have experienced multiple phases of tectonic evolution and deposition, and are characterized by tectonic and depositional superimposition. The term "superimposed basin" is suggested to describe those basins which consist of two or more simple prototype basins superimposing vertically and/or coalescing laterally. The characteristics of petroliferous superimposed basins are "multiple stages of basin forming and reworking, multiple layers of source rocks, multiple periods of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion, multiple periods of petroleum migration-accumulation-escape". Therefore,applying the wave process analysis method to studying the process of basin formation, hydrocarbon generation, and reservoir formation, and then establishing theory of "petroleum accumulation system" is helpful to enhancing petroleum exploration efficiency in superimposed basins.This paper will, based on case study in the Tarim basin, report the major developments in studying basin formation, hydrocarbon generation and petroleum accumulation. In study of basin formation, (1) geophysical comprehensive profiles reveal that the Tarim plate has been subducted beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt with an interfinger structure and that the deep structure in the eastern section of the Tianshan orogenic belt is different from that in the western section. (2) The vertical variation in debris and geochemical composition reveals the nature and Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution history of the Kuqa Depression. (3) Field investigation and paleostress reconstruction show that the Kuqa Depression has undergone gravity-driven extension in sedimentary cover when the Tianshan uplifted vertically. In hydrocarbon generation study, new developments include (1) setting environmental index to judge high grade source rocks in marine carbonates, and (2) establishing the lower limit of the organic carbon content for effective carbonate source rocks. In petroleum accumulation

  3. [Superimposed lichen planus pigmentosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Benigno; Suarez-Amor, Óscar; Cabanillas, Miguel; de Las Heras, Cristina; Álvarez, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-16

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that is characterized by the insidious onset of dark brown macules in sun-exposed areas and flexural folds. Superimposed linear lichen planus is an exceedingly rare disorder, but it has been found in both lichen planopilaris and lichen planus types. A 39-year-old woman is presented showing a segmental and linear lichen planus associated with non-segmental lesions meeting all criteria for the diagnosis of superimposed linear planus pigmentosus. The segmental lesions were always more pronounced.

  4. Lemang (Rice bamboo as a representative of typical Malay food in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Araminta Wahyudi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional food as foods typical of the region is one of the cultural elements in various regions of Indonesia. The food is very closely related to customs, indicating that it is very characteristic of each region and ethnicity. Indonesia consists of various ethnic groups. Ethnic Malay is one of the dominant tribe in Indonesia. Malay is spread throughout Indonesia, especially in Sumatra and Borneo. Malay has influenced Indonesia's culture in terms of food. Lemang is a traditional Malay delicacy, which has become a part of Indonesia's culture. Several regions in Indonesia use lemang for traditional ceremonies, such as Bengkulu, Jambi, West Sumatra, North Sumatra, and South Borneo. Each region has a different variation, function, and manner of presentation of lemang but same method of cooking. Local residents use the traditional method to cook lemang using open fire. This method has been passed down from ancestors and has a social value. Cooking lemang by the traditional method involves family members and neighbors so that it can improve kinship. By using the traditional method, local residents can reduce the operational cost. However, the traditional method needs longer cooking time and the quality of products is not uniform due to difficulty in controlling heat. Therefore, researchers have developed new methods of cooking lemang to get uniform quality and to reduce the cooking time. The new methods involve the use of lemang oven and stainless steel mold. Cooking lemang in an oven and replacing bamboo stalk with stainless steel mold can reportedly reduce the cooking time with the same quality as that obtained using the traditional method.

  5. Research on Superimposed Metallogenic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Yusheng; Wang Jianping; Deng Jun; Peng Runmin

    2004-01-01

    As located in the junction of three tectonic plates (the Eurasian plate, the Indian plate and the west Pacific plate), the China continent shows complex regional metallogenic features due to tectonic evolution of "micro-plates, polycycle tectonic movements". Well developed superimposed metallogenic systems have constituted one of the regional metallogenic features in China. Through the study on superimposed metallogenic system of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and of the Yuebei basin (northern Guangdong Province), the authors put forward some basic combination pattern of sedimentary-magmatic superimposed metallogenic system and summarize its forming conditions (controlling factors).

  6. Statistical properties of superimposed stationary spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Moritz; Helias, Moritz; Boucsein, Clemens; Rotter, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    The Poisson process is an often employed model for the activity of neuronal populations. It is known, though, that superpositions of realistic, non- Poisson spike trains are not in general Poisson processes, not even for large numbers of superimposed processes. Here we construct superimposed spike trains from intracellular in vivo recordings from rat neocortex neurons and compare their statistics to specific point process models. The constructed superimposed spike trains reveal strong deviations from the Poisson model. We find that superpositions of model spike trains that take the effective refractoriness of the neurons into account yield a much better description. A minimal model of this kind is the Poisson process with dead-time (PPD). For this process, and for superpositions thereof, we obtain analytical expressions for some second-order statistical quantities-like the count variability, inter-spike interval (ISI) variability and ISI correlations-and demonstrate the match with the in vivo data. We conclude that effective refractoriness is the key property that shapes the statistical properties of the superposition spike trains. We present new, efficient algorithms to generate superpositions of PPDs and of gamma processes that can be used to provide more realistic background input in simulations of networks of spiking neurons. Using these generators, we show in simulations that neurons which receive superimposed spike trains as input are highly sensitive for the statistical effects induced by neuronal refractoriness.

  7. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Superimposed with Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann-Ling Chen

    2006-09-01

    Conclusion: The most frequent causes of PNH-related fetomaternal morbidity and mortality are hemolysis and thrombosis. The situation becomes even more complicated when PNH is superimposed with preeclampsia. Appropriate clinical surveillance, awareness of the potential risks of hemolysis and thrombosis, as well as evaluation of fetal wellbeing are essential.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Sequence Characteristics among Different Superimposed Stages of the Chelif Basin, Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuanfu; JIANG Zaixing; WANG Yue; BAO Dandan

    2009-01-01

    Superimposed basins were investigated with respect to tectonic evolution, sediment deposition and petroleum characteristics within a single superposition stage generally. The comparative study was seldom seen. Sequence characteristics were compared for two different superimposed stages-an expanding rifting stage and a depression-foreland transition stage-in the Chelif Basin during the Miocene in this paper. A model and mechanism for sequence evolution of superimposed basins in different dynamic situations are discussed with respect to sequence similarities and differences. The compared characters include sequence thickness, sequence boundaries and system tracts, as well as sediment deposition within sequences and sequence development patterns. Finally, some typical features of sequence development concomitant with changes of superimposed stages in the Chelif Basin are discussed.

  9. POWER ALLOCATION OF DATA DEPENDENT SUPERIMPOSED TRAINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping; Yuan Weina; Fan Pingzhi

    2008-01-01

    Data Dependent Superimposed Training (DDST) scheme outperforms the traditional superimposed training by fully canceling the effects of unknown data in channel estimator. In DDST,however,the channel estimation accuracy and the data detection or channel equalization performance are affected significantly by the amount of power allocated to data and superimposed training sequence,which is the motivation of this research. In general,for DDST,there is a tradeoff between the channel estimation accuracy and the data detection reliability,i.e.,the more accurate the channel estimation,the more reliable the data detection; on the other hand,the more accurate the channel estimation,the more demanding on the power consumption of training sequence,which in turn leads to the less reliable data detection. In this paper,the relationship between the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the data detector and the training sequence power is analyzed. The optimal power allocation of the training sequence is derived based on the criterion of maximizing SNR of the detector. Analysis and simulation results show that for a fixed transmit power,the SNR and the Symbol Error Rate (SER) of detector vary nonlinearly with the increasing of training sequence power,and there exists an optimal power ratio,which accords with the derived optimal power ratio,among the data and training sequence.

  10. Bent Solenoids with Superimposed Dipole Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Rainer, B.; Goodzeit, Carl, L.

    2000-03-21

    A conceptual design and manufacturing technique were developed for a superconducting bent solenoid magnet with a superimposed dipole field that would be used as a dispersion device in the cooling channel of a future Muon Collider. The considered bent solenoid is equivalent to a 180° section of a toroid with a major radius of ~610 mm and a coil aperture of ~416 mm. The required field components of this magnet are 4 tesla for the solenoid field and 1 tesla for the superimposed dipole field. A magnet of this size and shape, operating at these field levels, has to sustain large Lorentz forces resulting in a maximum magnetic pressure of about 2,000 psi. A flexible round mini-cable with 37 strands of Cu-NbTi was selected as the superconductor. Detailed magnetic analysis showed that it is possible to obtain the required superimposed dipole field by tilting the winding planes of the solenoid by ~25°. A complete structural analysis of the coil support system and the helium containment vessel under thermal, pressure, and Lorentz force loads was carried out using 3D finite element models of the structures. The main technical issues were studied and solutions were worked out so that a highly reliable magnet of this type can be produced at an affordable cost.

  11. Typical Protectionism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the middle of October,acting on a complaint from the United Steelworkers union,the Office of the U.S.Trade Representative initiated a Section 301 investigation into China's clean energy policies and practices.The move has aroused strong opposition from China.China's New Energy Association says the probe is neither well-founded nor responsible,and is typical trade protectionism.

  12. A 10-days heatwave around flowering superimposed on climate change conditions significantly affects production of 22 barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Lyngkjær, Michael F.; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo;

    2015-01-01

    representing a worst case scenario (~RCP8.5, IPCC) at the end of the 21st century. A 10 day-heatwave of 33/22°C (day/night) was superimposed around the time of flowering on the basic climate treatments. The superimposed heatwave decreased overall grain yield in all combinations, however, vast variation...

  13. Superimposed MRSA infection of vulvar eczematous dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Erin; Zedek, Daniel; Lewis, Jasmine; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulvar eczematous dermatitis predisposes patients to superimposed infections, which may result in late diagnosis and architectural destruction. Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is on the rise in genitalia and lower extremities. Case 44 year-old female presented with recurrent vulvar lesions and pain. A diagnosis of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus in the setting of eczema was achieved with concomitant use of photography and dermatopathologic review. Antibiotics were tailored to the resistant infection and preventative moisturization therapy was utilized. Conclusion Awareness of dermatologic conditions affecting the vulva is principal in routine gynecologic care. Barrier protection of eczematous vulvar skin may prevent superficial infections. The regular use of photographic documentation and dermatopathology may decrease time to diagnosis with infrequent conditions. PMID:23763013

  14. Ballistic annihilation with superimposed diffusion in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soham; Larralde, Hernán; Leyvraz, Francois

    2016-02-01

    We consider a one-dimensional system with particles having either positive or negative velocity, and these particles annihilate on contact. Diffusion is superimposed on the ballistic motion of the particle. The annihilation may represent a reaction in which the two particles yield an inert species. This model has been the subject of previous work, in which it was shown that the particle concentration decays faster than either the purely ballistic or the purely diffusive case. We report on previously unnoticed behavior for large times when only one of the two species remains, and we also unravel the underlying fractal structure present in the system. We also consider in detail the case in which the initial concentration of right-going particles is 1/2+ɛ, with ɛ≠0. It is shown that remarkably rich behavior arises, in which two crossover times are observed as ɛ→0.

  15. Is there more valuable information in PWI datasets for a voxel-wise acute ischemic stroke tissue outcome prediction than what is represented by typical perfusion maps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Siemonsen, Susanne; Dalski, Michael; Verleger, Tobias; Kemmling, Andre; Fiehler, Jens

    2014-03-01

    The acute ischemic stroke is a leading cause for death and disability in the industry nations. In case of a present acute ischemic stroke, the prediction of the future tissue outcome is of high interest for the clinicians as it can be used to support therapy decision making. Within this context, it has already been shown that the voxel-wise multi-parametric tissue outcome prediction leads to more promising results compared to single channel perfusion map thresholding. Most previously published multi-parametric predictions employ information from perfusion maps derived from perfusion-weighted MRI together with other image sequences such as diffusion-weighted MRI. However, it remains unclear if the typically calculated perfusion maps used for this purpose really include all valuable information from the PWI dataset for an optimal tissue outcome prediction. To investigate this problem in more detail, two different methods to predict tissue outcome using a k-nearest-neighbor approach were developed in this work and evaluated based on 18 datasets of acute stroke patients with known tissue outcome. The first method integrates apparent diffusion coefficient and perfusion parameter (Tmax, MTT, CBV, CBF) information for the voxel-wise prediction, while the second method employs also apparent diffusion coefficient information but the complete perfusion information in terms of the voxel-wise residue functions instead of the perfusion parameter maps for the voxel-wise prediction. Overall, the comparison of the results of the two prediction methods for the 18 patients using a leave-one-out cross validation revealed no considerable differences. Quantitatively, the parameter-based prediction of tissue outcome led to a mean Dice coefficient of 0.474, while the prediction using the residue functions led to a mean Dice coefficient of 0.461. Thus, it may be concluded from the results of this study that the perfusion parameter maps typically derived from PWI datasets include all

  16. Effect of Superimposed Hydrostatic Pressure on Bendability of Sheet Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. X.; Wu, P. D.; Lloyd, D. J.

    2010-06-01

    The effect of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on fracture under three-point bending is studied numerically using the finite element method based on the Gurson damage model. It is demonstrated that superimposed hydrostatic pressure significantly increases the bendability and bending fracture strain due to the fact that a superimposed pressure delays or completely eliminates the nucleation, growth and coalescence of microvoids or microcracks. Numerical results are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations.

  17. Chronic hypertension superimposed on preeclampsia at 13 gestational weeks: a case report with review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yu-chun; SUN Yu; YANG Hui-xia

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is represented by hypertension and proteinuria in pregnancy.It usually occurs after 20 gestational weeks.There are few reports on preeclampsia before 20 gestational weeks.In this case,we report a patient with chronic hypertension superimposed with preeclampsia at 13 gestational weeks.

  18. Classification of Complex Reservoirs in Superimposed Basins of Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiongqi; ZHOU Xinyuan; LIN Changsong; HUO Zhipeng; LUO Xiaorong; PANG Hong

    2010-01-01

    Many of the sedimentary basins in western China were formed through the superposition and compounding of at least two previously developed sedimentary basins and in general they can be termed as complex superimposed basins.The distinct differences between these basins and monotype basins are their discontinuous stratigraphic sedimentation,stratigraphic structure and stratigraphic stress-strain action over geological history.Based on the correlation of chronological age on structural sections,superimposed basins can be divided into five types in this study:(1)continuous sedimentation type superimposed basins,(2)middle and late stratigraphic superimposed basins,(3)early and late stratigraphic superimposed basins,(4)early and middle stratigraphic superimposed basins,and(5)long-term exposed superimposed basins.Multiple source-reservoir-caprock assemblages have developed in such basins.In addition,multi-stage hydrocarbon generation and expulsion,multiple sources,polycyclic hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple-type hydrocarbon reservoirs adjustment,reformation and destruction have occurred in these basins.The complex reservoirs that have been discovered widely in the superimposed basins to date have remarkably different geologic features from primary reservoirs,and the root causes of this are folding,denudation and the fracture effect caused by multiphase tectonic events in the superimposed basins as well as associated seepage,diffusion,spilling,oxidation,degradation and cracking.Based on their genesis characteristics,complex reservoirs are divided into five categories:(1)primary reservoirs,(2)trap adjustment type reservoirs,(3)component variant reservoirs,(4)phase conversion type reservoirs and(5)scale-reformed reservoirs.

  19. Late-Stage Reservoir Formation Effect and Its Dynamic Mechanisms in Complex Superimposed Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Dejiang; PANG Xiongqi; KUANG Jun; LUO Xiaorong; PANG Hong; LEI Lei

    2010-01-01

    Complex superimposed basins exhibit multi-stage tectonic events and multi-stage reservoir formation; hydrocarbon reservoirs formed in the early stage have generally late-stage genesis characteristics after undergoing adjustment,reconstruction and destruction of later-stage multiple tectonic events.In this paper,this phenomenon is called the late-stage reservoir formation effect.The late-stage reservoir formation effect is a basic feature of oil and gas-forming reservoirs in complex superimposed basins,revealing not only multi-stage character,relevance and complexity of oil and gas-forming reservoirs in superimposed basins but also the importance of late-stage reservoir formation.Late-stage reservoir formation is not a basic feature of off and gas forming reservoir in superimposed basins.Multi-stage reservoir formation only characterizes one aspect of oil and gas-forming reservoir in superimposed basins and does not represent fully the complexity of oil and gas-forming reservoir in superimposed basins.We suggest using"late-stage reservoir formation effect"to replace the"late-stage reservoir formation"concept to guide the exploration of complex reservoirs in superimposed basins.Under current geologic conditions,the late-stage reservoir formation effect is represented mainly by four basic forms:phase transformation,scale reconstruction,component variation and trap adjustment.The late-stage reservoir formation effect is produced by two kinds of geologic processes:first,the off and gas retention function of various geologic thresholds(hydrocarbon expulsion threshold,hydrocarbon migration threshold,and hydrocarbon accumulating threshold)causes the actual time of oil and gas reservoir formation to be later than the time of generation of large amounts of hydrocarbon in a conventional sense,producing the late-stage reservoir formation effect; second,multiple types of tectonic events(continuously strong reconstruction,early-stage strong reconstruction,middle-stage strong

  20. Entanglement typicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsten, Oscar C. O.; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Serafini, Alessio

    2014-09-01

    We provide a summary of both seminal and recent results on typical entanglement. By ‘typical’ values of entanglement, we refer here to values of entanglement quantifiers that (given a reasonable measure on the manifold of states) appear with arbitrarily high probability for quantum systems of sufficiently high dimensionality. We shall focus on pure states and work within the Haar measure framework for discrete quantum variables, where we report on results concerning the average von Neumann and linear entropies as well as arguments implying the typicality of such values in the asymptotic limit. We then proceed to discuss the generation of typical quantum states with random circuitry. Different phases of entanglement, and the connection between typical entanglement and thermodynamics are discussed. We also cover approaches to measures on the non-compact set of Gaussian states of continuous variable quantum systems.

  1. Angiosarcoma of the Eyelid With Superimposed Enterobacter Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Eric B; Agrawal, Megha; Diwan, A Hafeez; Winthrop, Kevin L; Marx, Douglas P

    2016-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare, aggressive, malignant endothelial neoplasm with a variable clinical presentation. The authors describe a case of angiosarcoma involving the eyelid that was complicated by a superimposed Enterobacter infection. Following positive cultures for E. aerogenes and multiple biopsies suspicious but not definitive for angiosarcoma, a final biopsy was consistent with angiosarcoma.

  2. Tools to Detect Delirium Superimposed on Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Alessandro; McCurley, Jessica; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Fick, Donna M.; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Lee, Patricia; Jackson, James C.; Shenkin, Susan D.; Trabucchi, Marco; Schnelle, John; Inouye, Sharon K.; Ely, Wesley E.; MacLullich, Alasdair

    2012-01-01

    Background Delirium commonly occurs in patients with dementia. Though several tools for detecting delirium exist, it is unclear which are valid in patients with delirium superimposed on dementia. Objectives Identify valid tools to diagnose delirium superimposed on dementia Design We performed a systematic review of studies of delirium tools, which explicitly included patients with dementia. Setting In-hospital patients Participants Studies were included if delirium assessment tools were validated against standard criteria, and the presence of dementia was assessed according to standard criteria that used validated instruments. Measurements PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for articles in English published between January 1960 and January 2012. Results Nine studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Of the total of 1569 patients, 401 had dementia, and 50 had delirium superimposed on dementia. Six delirium tools were evaluated. One studyusing the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) with 85% patients with dementia showed a high specificity (96–100%) and moderate sensitivity (77%).Two intensive care unit studies that used the CAM for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) ICU reported 100% sensitivity and specificity for delirium among 23 dementia patients. One study using electroencephalography reported a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 91% among a population with 100% prevalence of dementia. No studies examined potential effects of dementia severity or subtype upon diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions The evidence base on tools for detection of delirium superimposed on dementia is limited, although some existing tools show promise. Further studies of existing or refined tools with larger samples and more detailed characterization of dementia are now required to address the identification of delirium superimposed on dementia. PMID:23039270

  3. Shear flow analyses for polymer melt extruding under superimposed vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yue-jun; FAN Shu-hong; SHI Pu

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of a vibration force field has a profound influence on the polymer formation process.However, its formation mechanism has not been explored until now. With the application of experimental equipment designed by the authors named "Constant Velocity Type Dynamic Rheometer of Capillary" or (CVDRC),we were able to analyze in detail the whole extrusion process of a polymer melt. We did this after superimposing a sine vibration of small amplitude parallel to the extruding direction of the polymer melt. Then, we created a calculation model to determine the shear stress at the wall of the capillary using a superimposed vibration. We also determined the calculation steps needed to establish the afore-mentioned shear stress. Through measurement and analysis, the instantaneous entry pressure of the capillary, the pressure gradient, and the shear stress of the polymer melt within the capillary under vibration force field can be calculated.

  4. Artistic creation as stimulated by superimposed versus separated visual images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, R S; Rothenberg, A

    1980-11-01

    An experiment was performed to examine the role of homospatial thinking in visual art. Each of 43 university-level art students produced three drawing stimulated by pairs of slides. Subjects were randomly assigned to view the pairs either superimposed on one another or separated on the screen. Drawings were independently judged by two internationally noted artists. As predicted, drawings containing an element from each component image intermingled were higher in creative potential when stimulated by the superimposed presentation; however, when sketches from either condition did not clearly contain images from both slides, the separated image presentation yielded the more creative result. Although results favor the hypothesis in part, the overall ambiguity of the data illustrates some of the difficulties in studying creative thought processes under experimental conditions.

  5. One-DOF Superimposed Rigid Origami with Multiple States

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Liu; Gattas, Joseph M.; Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Origami-inspired engineering design is increasingly used in the development of self-folding structures. The majority of existing self-folding structures either use a bespoke crease pattern to form a single structure, or a universal crease pattern capable of forming numerous structures with multiple folding steps. This paper presents a new approach whereby multiple distinct, rigid-foldable crease patterns are superimposed in the same sheet such that kinematic independence and 1-DOF mobility of...

  6. Recrystallization microstructure modelling from superimposed deformed microstructure on microstructure model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prantik Mukhopadhyay

    2009-08-01

    The recovered cold rolled microstructure obtained from orientation image microstructure of Al–4%Mg–0.5%Mn alloy (AA5182 alloy) was superimposed on the grid of cellular automata based microstructure model. The Taylor factors of deformed/cold rolled orientations were considered as the driving force for recrystallization. The local development of recrystallized microstructure and texture were simulated with orientation dependent grain boundary mobility and compared with the experimental results.

  7. Bilateral rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint resulting from subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Takuaki; Iwamoto, Yukihide [Kyushu University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukuoka (Japan); Schneider, Robert [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Bullough, Peter G. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Laboratory Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A 57-year-old woman suffered rapid destruction of both hip joints over a 10 months period. At the first visit, her radiographs demonstrated slight joint space narrowing and acetabular cyst formation in both hips. Five months later, joint space narrowing had further progressed, and intra-articular injection of steroid was given in both hips. However, the hip pain gradually became worse. Five months later, both joint spaces had totally disappeared and both femoral heads had undergone massive collapse. At gross examination, both resected femoral heads showed extensive opaque yellow areas consistent with osteonecrosis. Microscopic examination of these areas revealed evidence of both extensive fracture and callus formation, as well as necrosis throughout, indicating that the osteonecrosis observed in this case was a secondary phenomenon superimposed on pre-existing osteoarthritis and subchondral fracture. There were many pseudogranulomatous lesions in the marrow space and necrotic area, where tiny fragments of bone and articular cartilage, surrounded by histiocytes and giant cells, were embedded, such as are typically seen in rapidly destructive arthrosis. No radiologic or morphologic evidence of primary osteonecrosis was noted. This case indicates that at least some cases of rapidly destructive arthritis are the result of subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis. (orig.)

  8. Simultaneously mapping and superimposing landmark configurations with parsimony as optimality criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, S A; Goloboff, P A

    2012-05-01

    All methods proposed to date for mapping landmark configurations on a phylogenetic tree start from an alignment generated by methods that make no use of phylogenetic information, usually by superimposing all configurations against a consensus configuration. In order to properly interpret differences between landmark configurations along the tree as changes in shape, the metric chosen to define the ancestral assignments should also form the basis to superimpose the configurations. Thus, we present here a method that merges both steps, map and align, into a single procedure that (for the given tree) produces a multiple alignment and ancestral assignments such that the sum of the Euclidean distances between the corresponding landmarks along tree nodes is minimized. This approach is an extension of the method proposed by Catalano et al. (2010. Phylogenetic morphometrics (I): the use of landmark data in a phylogenetic framework. Cladistics. 26:539-549) for mapping landmark data with parsimony as optimality criterion. In the context of phylogenetics, this method allows maximizing the degree to which similarity in landmark positions can be accounted for by common ancestry. In the context of morphometrics, this approach guarantees (heuristics aside) that all the transformations inferred on the tree represent changes in shape. The performance of the method was evaluated on different data sets, indicating that the method produces marked improvements in tree score (up to 5% compared with generalized superimpositions, up to 11% compared with ordinary superimpositions). These empirical results stress the importance of incorporating the phylogenetic information into the alignment step.

  9. One-DOF Superimposed Rigid Origami with Multiple States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Gattas, Joseph M.; Chen, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Origami-inspired engineering design is increasingly used in the development of self-folding structures. The majority of existing self-folding structures either use a bespoke crease pattern to form a single structure, or a universal crease pattern capable of forming numerous structures with multiple folding steps. This paper presents a new approach whereby multiple distinct, rigid-foldable crease patterns are superimposed in the same sheet such that kinematic independence and 1-DOF mobility of each individual pattern is preserved. This is enabled by the cross-crease vertex, a special configuration consisting of two pairs of collinear crease lines, which is proven here by means of a kinematic analysis to contain two independent 1-DOF rigid-foldable states. This enables many new origami-inspired engineering design possibilities, with two explored in depth: the compact folding of non-flat-foldable structures and sequent folding origami that can transform between multiple states without unfolding.

  10. Electronically reconfigurable superimposed waveguide long-period gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulishov, Mykola; Daxhelet, Xavier; Gaidi, Mounir; Chaker, Mohamed

    2002-08-01

    The perturbation to the refractive index induced by a periodic electric field from two systems of interdigitated electrodes with the electrode-finger period l is analyzed for a waveguide with an electro-optically (EO) active core-cladding. It is shown that the electric field induces two superimposed transmissive refractive-index gratings with different symmetries of their cross-section distributions. One of these gratings has a constant component of an EO-induced refractive index along with its variable component with periodicity l, whereas the second grating possesses only a variable component with periodicity 2l. With the proper waveguide design, the gratings provide interaction between a guided fundamental core mode and two guided cladding modes. Through the externally applied electric potential, these gratings can be independently switched ON and OFF, or they can be activated simultaneously with electronically controlled weighting factors. Coupling coefficients of both gratings are analyzed in terms of their dependence on the electrode duty ratio and dielectric permittivities of the core and cladding. The coupled-wave equations for the superimposed gratings are written and solved. The spectral characteristics are investigated by numerical simulation. It is found that the spectral characteristics are described by a dual-dip transmission spectrum with individual electronic control of the dip depths and positions. Within the concept, a new external potential application scheme is described in which the symmetry of the cross-sectional distribution of the refractive index provides coupling only between the core mode and the cladding modes, preventing interaction of the cladding modes with each another. This simple concept opens opportunities for developing a number of tunable devices for integrated optics by use of the proposed design as a building block.

  11. Analyses and Measures of GPR Signal with Superimposed Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicarella, Simone; Ferrara, Vincenzo; D'Atanasio, Paolo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Pajewski, Lara; Pavoncello, Settimio; Prontera, Santo; Tedeschi, Nicola; Zambotti, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The influence of EM noises and environmental hard conditions on the GPR surveys has been examined analytically [1]. In the case of pulse radar GPR, many unwanted signals as stationary clutter, non-stationary clutter, random noise, and time jitter, influence the measurement signal. When GPR is motionless, stationary clutter is the most dominant signal component due to the reflections of static objects different from the investigated target, and to the direct antenna coupling. Moving objects like e.g. persons and vehicles, and the swaying of tree crown, produce non-stationary clutter. Device internal noise and narrowband jamming are e.g. two potential sources of random noises. Finally, trigger instabilities generate random jitter. In order to estimate the effective influence of these noise signal components, we organized some experimental setup of measurement. At first, we evaluated for the case of a GPR basic detection, simpler image processing of radargram. In the future, we foresee experimental measurements for detection of the Doppler frequency changes induced by movements of targets (like physiological movements of survivors under debris). We obtain image processing of radargram by using of GSSI SIR® 2000 GPR system together with the UWB UHF GPR-antenna (SUB-ECHO HBD 300, a model manufactured by Radarteam company). Our work includes both characterization of GPR signal without (or almost without) a superimposed noise, and the effect of jamming originated from the coexistence of a different radio signal. For characterizing GPR signal, we organized a measurement setup that includes the following instruments: mod. FSP 30 spectrum analyser by Rohde & Schwarz which operates in the frequency range 9 KHz - 30 GHz, mod. Sucoflex 104 cable by Huber Suhner (10 MHz - 18 GHz), and HL050 antenna by Rohde & Schwarz (bandwidth: from 850 MHz to 26.5 GHz). The next analysis of superimposed jamming will examine two different signal sources: by a cellular phone and by a

  12. Nursing care for people with delirium superimposed on dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Claire; Clarke, Amanda

    2017-03-31

    Nursing and healthcare is changing in response to an ageing population. There is a renewed need for holistic nursing to provide clinically competent, appropriate and timely care for patients who may present with inextricably linked mental and physical health requirements. This article explores the dichotomy in healthcare provision for 'physical' and 'mental' health, and the unique role nurses have when caring for people with delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). Delirium is prevalent in older people and recognised as 'acute brain failure'. As an acute change in cognition, it presents a unique challenge when occurring in a person with dementia and poses a significant risk of mortality. In this article, dementia is contrasted with delirium and subtypes of delirium presentation are discussed. Nurses can recognise DSD through history gathering, implementation of appropriate care and effective communication with families and the multidisciplinary team. A simple mnemonic called PINCH ME (Pain, INfection, Constipation, deHydration, Medication, Environment) can help identify potential underlying causes of DSD and considerations for care planning. The mnemonic can easily be adapted to different clinical settings and a fictitious scenario is presented to show its application in practice.

  13. Superimposed Pristine Limestone Aquifers with Marked Hydrochemical Differences Exhibit Distinct Fungal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Ali; Purahong, Witoon; Lehmann, Robert; Herrmann, Martina; Küsel, Kirsten; Totsche, Kai U.; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are one important group of eukaryotic microorganisms in a diverse range of ecosystems, but their diversity in groundwater ecosystems is largely unknown. We used DNA-based pyro-tag sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA gene to investigate the presence and community structure of fungi at different sampling sites of two superimposed limestone aquifers ranging from 8.5 to 84 m depth in the newly established Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (Hainich CZE). We detected a diversity of fungal OTUs in groundwater samples of all sampling sites. The relative percentage abundance of Basidiomycota was higher in the upper aquifer assemblage, whilst Ascomycota dominated the lower one. In parallel to differences in the hydrochemistry we found distinct fungal communities at all sampling sites. Classification into functional groups revealed an overwhelming majority of saprotrophs. Finding taxa common to all analyzed groundwater sites, point to a groundwater specific fungal microbiome. The presence of different functional groups and, in particular plant and cattle pathogens that are not typical of subsurface habitats, suggests links between the surface and subsurface biogeosphere due to rapid transportation across the fracture networks typical of karstic regions during recharge episodes. However, further studies including sampling series extended in both time and space are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27242696

  14. Physiological responses and perceived exertion during cycling with superimposed electromyostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick; Schaerk, Jonas; Achtzehn, Silvia; Kleinöder, Heinz; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate and to quantify the effects of local electromyostimulation (EMS) during cycling on the cardiorespiratory system, muscle metabolism, and perceived exertion compared with cycling with no EMS. Ten healthy men (age: 24.6 ± 3.2 years, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 54.1 ± 6.0 ml·min·kg) performed 3 incremental cycle ergometer step tests, 1 without and 2 with EMS (30 and 85 Hz) until volitional exhaustion. Lactate values and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly higher at intensities ≥75% peak power output (PPO) when EMS was applied. Bicarbonate concentration, base excess (BE), and Pco2 were significantly lower when EMS was applied compared with the control at intensities ≥75% PPO. Saliva cortisol levels increased because of the exercise but were unaffected by EMS. Furthermore, EMS showed greater effects on CK levels 24 hours postexercise than normal cycling did. Rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher at 100% PPO with EMS. No statistical differences were found for heart rate, pH, and Po2 between the tested cycling modes. The main findings of this study are greater metabolic changes (lactate, respiratory exchange ratio, BE, (Equation is included in full-text article.), Pco2) during cycling with EMS compared with normal cycling independent of frequency, mainly visible at higher work rates. Because metabolic alterations are important for the induction of cellular signaling cascades and adaptations, these results lead to the hypothesis that applied EMS stimulations during cycling exercise might be an enhancing stimulus for skeletal muscle metabolism and related adaptations. Thus, superimposed EMS application during cycling could be beneficial to aerobic performance enhancements in athletes and in patients who cannot perform high workloads. However, the higher demand on skeletal muscles involved must be considered.

  15. Risk Factors of Superimposed Preeclampsia in Women with Essential Chronic Hypertension Treated before Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors of superimposed preeclampsia in women with essential chronic hypertension receiving antihypertensive therapy prior to conception. METHODS: A retrospective study of 211 patients that analyzed risk factors of superimposed preeclampsia at first prenatal visit. Variables with a p

  16. 16 CFR 300.27 - Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers. 300.27 Section 300.27 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.27 Wool products containing superimposed...

  17. Angiogenic factors in superimposed preeclampsia: a longitudinal study of women with chronic hypertension during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Uma; Sison, Cristina; Sharma, Vijay; Helseth, Geri; Hawfield, Amret; Suthanthiran, Manikkam; August, Phyllis

    2012-03-01

    Imbalances in circulating angiogenic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. To characterize levels of angiogenic factors in pregnant women with chronic hypertension, we prospectively followed 109 women and measured soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), soluble endoglin, and placental growth factor at 12, 20, 28, and 36 weeks' gestation and postpartum. Superimposed preeclampsia developed in 37 (34%) and was early onset (hypertension. We conclude that alterations in angiogenic factors are detectable before and at the time of clinical diagnosis of early onset superimposed preeclampsia, whereas alterations were observed only at the time of diagnosis in women with late-onset superimposed preeclampsia. Longitudinal measurements of angiogenic factors may help anticipate early onset superimposed preeclampsia and facilitate diagnosis of superimposed preeclampsia in women with chronic hypertension.

  18. Monitoring of vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) process with superimposed Fiber-Bragg-gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triollet, S.; Robert, L.; Marin, E.; Ouerdane, Y.

    2011-05-01

    We report the instrumentation of a manufacturing composite process using an optical fiber sensor based on Bragg gratings. The sensor is made of superimposed Long Period (LPG) and short period (FBG) Bragg gratings written in the same fiber section. The monitoring of the process needs simultaneous measurements of temperature and strain. It has been shown that these two solicitations can be determined and discriminated with a superimposed FBG/LPG sensor [1]. In this paper we present the device based on the dual superimposed gratings. The sensor is embedded in a composite specimen manufactured by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) process for monitoring purpose.

  19. Combined multi-nozzle deposition and freeze casting process to superimpose two porous networks for hierarchical three-dimensional microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jessica E; Hunger, Philipp M; Wang, Chengyang; Hamid, Qudus; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Sun, Wei

    2014-03-01

    An engineered three-dimensional scaffold with hierarchical porosity and multiple niche microenvironments is produced using a combined multi-nozzle deposition-freeze casting technique. In this paper we present a process to fabricate a scaffold with improved interconnectivity and hierarchical porosity. The scaffold is produced using a two-stage manufacturing process which superimposes a printed porous alginate (Alg) network and a directionally frozen ceramic-polymer matrix. The combination of two processes, multi-nozzle deposition and freeze casting, provides engineering control of the microenvironment of the scaffolds over several length scales; including the addition of lateral porosity and the ratio of polymer to ceramic microstructures. The printed polymer scaffold is submerged in a ceramic-polymer slurry and subsequently, both structures are directionally frozen (freeze cast), superimposing and patterning both microenvironments into a single hierarchical architecture. An optional additional sintering step removes the organic material and densifies the ceramic phase to produce a well-defined network of open pores and a homogenous cell wall material composition. The techniques presented in this contribution address processing challenges, such as structure definition, reproducibility and fine adjustments of unique length scales, which one typically encounters when fabricating topological channels between longitudinal and transverse porous networks.

  20. Superimposing of virtual graphics and real image based on 3D CAD information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Proposes methods of transforming 3D CAD models into 2D graphics and recognizing 3D objects by features and superimposing VE built in computer onto real image taken by a CCD camera, and presents computer simulation results.

  1. Superimposed Code Theorectic Analysis of DNA Codes and DNA Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Bounds for DNA Codes Based on Fibonacci Ensembles of DNA Sequences ”, 2008 IEEE Proceedings of International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 2292...5, June 2008, pp. 525-34. 32 28. A. Macula, et al., “Random Coding Bounds for DNA Codes Based on Fibonacci Ensembles of DNA Sequences ”, 2008...combinatorial method of bio-memory design and detection that encodes item or process information as numerical sequences represented in DNA. ComDMem is a

  2. Accelerating Oil and Gas Exploration in Western China by Studies of Formations of Hydrocarbon Accumulations in Superimposed Basins——A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiongqi

    2010-01-01

    @@ The superimposed basins in the western region of China are a hot research topic for earth scientists home and abroad for their vast area and rich oil and gas resources.Their complex geological conditions and resultant great exploration difficulties have received much attention of the scientists.This issue presents the advances of several scholars in their long-term research on the mechanisms of oil and gas accumulation and the patterns of oil and gas distribution.These studies are part of the National 973Project entitled"Mechanism of Oil and Gas Accumulation and Patterns of Oil and Gas Distribution in Typical Superimposed Basins in the Western Region of China(no.2006CB202300)",which is funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology.

  3. Glucose clearance in aged trained skeletal muscle during maximal insulin with superimposed exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Mikines, K J; Larsen, J J

    1999-01-01

    clamp with a final 30 min of superimposed two-legged exercise at 70% of individual maximal heart rate. With superimposed exercise, leg glucose extraction decreased (P exercise, leg......Insulin and muscle contractions are major stimuli for glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and have in young healthy people been shown to be additive. We studied the effect of superimposed exercise during a maximal insulin stimulus on glucose uptake and clearance in trained (T) (1-legged bicycle...... +/- 8, DM: 70 +/- 10 ml. min(-1). kg leg(-1)) compared with UT (H: 63 +/- 8, DM: 45 +/- 7 ml. min(-1). kg leg(-1)) but not different between groups (P > 0.05). From these results it can be concluded that, in both diabetic and healthy aged muscle, exercise adds to a maximally insulin-stimulated glucose...

  4. Observations of superimposed ice formation at melt-onset on fast ice on Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Haas, Christian; Bareiss, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of superimposed ice formation and snow properties as a function of the surface energy balance during melt-onset are presented. They were performed on Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, between late May and early June 2002. Rapid snow melt commenced and within 5 days the snow cover initially 0.23 m thick transformed completely into 0.05 m to 0.06 m of superimposed ice. Melt-onset was characterized by rapid changes in the total energy balance, which became positive throughout the whole day af...

  5. Representing dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röhl Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will discuss some of the results of the philosophical debate about dispositions, in order to see whether the formal relations needed to represent dispositions can be broken down to binary relations. Finally, we will discuss problems arising from the possibility of the absence of realizations, of multi-track or multi-trigger dispositions and offer suggestions on how to deal with them.

  6. Metallogenetic Mechanism and Timing of Late Superimposing Fluid Mineralization in the Dongguashan Diplogenetic Stratified Copper Deposit, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaowen; LU Xiancai; LING Hongfei; LU Jianjun; JIANG Shoyong; NIE Guiping; HUANG Shunsheng; HUA Ming

    2005-01-01

    An important diplogenetic mineralization event superimposed on pre-existing exhalation sediments in the Tongling area, Anhui province, was triggered by widespread granitic magmatism along the northeastern margin of the Yangtze Block during 140-135 Ma under extensional tectonic circumstances following the collision between the North China and Yangtze blocks. The main orebodies of the Dongguashan copper deposit, a typical diplogenetic stratified deposit among many polymetallic ore deposits in China, are hosted by strata between Upper Devonian sandstone and Carboniferous limestone, and its mineralization was genetically related to the Qingshanjiao intrusive. The Rb-Sr isotopic isochron of the Qingshanjiao intrusive yields an age of about 136.5±1.4 Ma. The ore-forming fluid reflected by the inclusion fluid in quartz veins is characterized by high temperature and high salinity, and its age was also determined by Rb-Sr isotope dating as 134±11 Ma. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition data suggest that the ore-forming fluid was derived mainly from magmatism. By integrating these isotopic dating data, characteristics of fluid inclusions and the geology of the deposit, the mineralization of the Dongguashan copper deposit is divided into two stages. First, a stratiform sedimentary deposit or protore layer formed in the Late Devonian to the Early Carboniferous, while in the second stage the pre-existing protore was superimposed by hydrothermal fluid that was derived from the Yanshanian magmatic activities occurring around 135 Ma ago. This two-stage mineralization formed the Dongguashan statiform copper deposit.Associated "porphyry" mineralization found in the bottom of and in surrounding intrusive rocks of the orebodies might have occurred in the same period as a second-stage mineralization of this deposit.

  7. 16 CFR 303.23 - Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Textile fiber products containing... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.23 Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers. Where a textile...

  8. A Teething Problem: Artefactual X-Ray Appearances of Odontoid Fracture due to Superimposed Incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Crocker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of artefactual C2 fracture caused by a superimposed incisor tooth in a seven-year-old boy. CT refuted the diagnosis. Trauma clinicians should be aware of this entity to guide correct interpretation of trauma X-rays.

  9. Superimposed Pilots Are Superior for Mitigating Pilot Contamination in Massive MIMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Karthik; Vorobyov, Sergiy A.; Vehkapera, Mikko

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, superimposed pilots are introduced as an alternative to time-multiplexed pilot and data symbols for mitigating pilot contamination in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. We propose a non-iterative scheme for uplink channel estimation based on superimposed pilots and derive an expression for the uplink signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the output of a matched filter employing this channel estimate. Based on this expression, we observe that power control is essential when superimposed pilots are employed. Moreover, the quality of the channel estimate can be improved by reducing the interference that results from transmitting data alongside the pilots, and an intuitive iterative data-aided scheme that reduces this component of interference is also proposed. Approximate expressions for the uplink SINR are provided for the iterative data-aided method as well. In addition, we show that a hybrid system with users utilizing both time-multiplexed and superimposed pilots is superior to an optimally designed system that employs only time-multiplexed pilots, even when the non-iterative channel estimate is used to build the detector and precoder. We also describe a simple approach to implement this hybrid system by minimizing the overall inter and intra-cell interference. Numerical simulations demonstrating the performance of the proposed channel estimation schemes and the superiority of the hybrid system are also provided.

  10. Randomization of Symbol Repetition of Punch Cards with Superimposed Coding in Information-Search Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirovich, L. Ya

    The article shows the effect of the irregularity of using separate symbols on search noise on punch cards with superimposed symbol coding in information-search system (IPS). A binomial law of random value distribution of repetition of each symbol is established and analyzed. A method of determining the maximum value of symbol repetition is…

  11. Modeling typical performance measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekers, Anke Martine

    2009-01-01

    In the educational, employment, and clinical context, attitude and personality inventories are used to measure typical performance traits. Statistical models are applied to obtain latent trait estimates. Often the same statistical models as the models used in maximum performance measurement are appl

  12. Representing Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Representing Development presents the different social representations that have formed the idea of development in Western thinking over the past three centuries. Offering an acute perspective on the current state of developmental science and providing constructive insights into future pathways...... and development, addressing their contemporary enactments and reflecting on future theoretical and empirical directions. The first section of the book provides an historical account of early representations of development that, having come from life science, has shaped the way in which developmental science has...... approached development. Section two focuses upon the contemporary issues of developmental psychology, neuroscience and developmental science at large. The final section offers a series of commentaries pointing to the questions opened by the previous chapters, looking to outline the future lines...

  13. Typicals/Típicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vélez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Typicals is a series of 12 colour photographs digitally created from photojournalistic images from Colombia combined with "typical" craft textiles and text from guest writers. Typicals was first exhibited as photographs 50cm x 75cm in size, each with their own magnifying glass, at the Contemporary Art Space at Gorman House in Canberra, Australia, in 2000. It was then exhibited in "Feedback: Art Social Consciousness and Resistance" at Monash University Museum of Art in Melbourne, Australia, from March to May 2003. From May to June 2003 it was exhibited at the Museo de Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Santa Fé Bogotá, Colombia. In its current manifestation the artwork has been adapted from the catalogue of the museum exhibitions. It is broken up into eight pieces corresponding to the contributions of the writers. The introduction by Sylvia Vélez is the PDF file accessible via a link below this abstract. The other seven PDF files are accessible via the 'Research Support Tool' section to the right of your screen. Please click on 'Supp. Files'. Please note that these files are around 4 megabytes each, so it may be difficult to access them from a dial-up connection.

  14. Demonstrating Chirality: Using a Mirror with Physical Models To Show Non-superimposability of Chiral Molecules with Their Mirror Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a remarkable demonstration on chiralty in molecules and the existence of enantiomers, also known as non-superimposable mirror images. Uses a mirror, a physical model of a molecule, and a bit of trickery involving the non-superimposable mirror image. (Author/NB)

  15. Detection of correlated fragments in a sequence of images by superimposed Fourier holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The problem of detecting correlated fragments in a sequence of images recorded by the superimposing holograms within the Fourier holography scheme with angular multiplication of a spatially modulated reference beam is considered. The approach to the solution of this problem is based on the properties of the variance of the image sum. It is shown that this problem can be solved by providing a constant distance between the signal and reference images when recording superimposed holograms and a partial mutual correlatedness of reference images. The detection efficiency is analysed from the point of view of estimated image data capacity, the degree of mutual correlation of reference images, and the hologram recording conditions. The results of a numerical experiment under the most complicated conditions (representation of images by realisations of homogeneous random fields) confirm the theoretical conclusions.

  16. Artistic creation as stimulated by superimposed versus combined-composite visual images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, A

    1986-02-01

    The creative role of homospatial thinking in visual art was assessed in an experiment with 39 highly talented young artists. In order to compare the creative effects of visual elements occupying the same space with identical elements arrayed in a combined foreground and background organization, superimposed slide images were presented to a randomly selected portion of the subject group, and the other portion of the subject group viewed the same slide images constructed into a figure-ground composite. Both groups produced three drawings stimulated by the slide stimuli, and these drawings were independently judged by three art experts. Results were that drawings produced by the group exposed to the superimposed images were rated higher in creative potential than those stimulated by the figure-ground controls. These results extend previous experimental findings of a tendency toward homospatial thinking in creative individuals in literature and visual art.

  17. Multiple-Element Matching Reservoir Formation and Quantitative Prediction of Favorable Areas in Superimposed Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huaijie; PANG Xiongqi; WANG Zhaoming; YU Qiuhua; HUO Zhipeng; MENG Qingyang

    2010-01-01

    Superimposed basins in West China have experienced multi-stage tectonic events and multicycle hydrocarbon reservoir formation,and complex hydrocarbon reservoirs have been discovered widely in basins of this kind.Most of the complex hydrocarbon reservoirs are characterized by relocation,scale re-construction,component variation and phase state transformation,and their distributions are very difficult to predict.Research shows that regional caprock(C),high-quality sedimentary facies(Deposits,D),paleohighs(Mountain,M)and source rock(S)are four geologic elements contributing to complex hydrocarbon reservoir formation and distribution of western superimposed basins.Longitudinal sequential combinations of the four elements control the strata of hydrocarbon reservoir formation,and planar superimpositions and combinations control the range of hydrocarbon reservoir and their simultaneous joint effects in geohistory determine the time of hydrocarbon reservoir formation.Multiple-element matching reservoir formation presents a basic mode of reservoir formation in superimposed basins,and we recommend it is expressed as T-CDMS.Based on the multiple-element matching reservoir formation mode,a comprehensive reservoir formation index(Tcdms)is developed in this paper to characterize reservoir formation conditions,and a method is presented to predict reservoir formation range and probability of occurrence in superimposed basins.Through application of new theory,methods and technology,the favorable reservoir formation range and probability of occurrence in the Ordovician target zone in Tarim Basin in four different reservoir formation periods are predicted.Results show that central Tarim,Yinmaili and Lunnan are the three most favorable regions where Ordovician oil and gas fields may have formed.The coincidence of prediction results with currently discovered hydrocarbon reservoirs reaches 97%.This reflects the effectiveness and reliability of the new theory,methods and technology.

  18. Plasma cortisol levels in malnourished children with and without superimposed acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisey, R. B.; Angers, Marielena; Frenk, S.

    1973-01-01

    Plasma cortisol levels were measured in 13 children with marasmus, in 7 with kwashiorkor, and in 24 normal children. Cortisol levels in the malnourished children did not differ from those of the normal group, either before or after 15 or 30 days of treatment, unless there was superimposed acute stress. Stress caused by complications such as hypoglycaemia, infection, hypothermia, or acidosis led to raised plasma cortisol levels. PMID:4733640

  19. Superimposed electrical stimulation comfortably improves the endurance of maximal voluntary contractions.

    OpenAIRE

    Boisgontier, Matthieu; Moineau, Bastien; Nougier, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    International audience; AIM: Electrical stimulation has shown to improve muscle endurance in sub-maximal contractions but sessions were painful due to the electric stimuli parameters. Therefore, the present study tested the effects of the superimposed electrical stimulation technique using comfortable current on endurance in repetitions of maximal voluntary contraction. METHODS: Seventeen young healthy subjects performed fifty maximal voluntary contractions of the triceps brachii in two condi...

  20. Acute effects of superimposed electromyostimulation during cycling on myokines and markers of muscle damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, P.; Hein, M.; Achtzehn, S.; Bloch, W.; Mester, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of superimposed electromyostimulation (E) during cycling on myokines and markers of muscle damage, as E might be a useful tool to induce a high local stimulus to skeletal muscle during endurance training without performing high external workloads. Methods: 13 subjects participated in three experimental trials each lasting 60 min in a randomized order. 1) Cycling (C), 2) Cycling with superimposed E (C+E) and 3) E. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin were determined before (pre) and 0’, 30’, 60’, 240’ and 24h after each intervention. Results: Only C+E caused significant increases in levels of CK and myoglobin. BDNF and IL-6 significantly increased after C and C+E, however increases for IL-6 were significantly higher after C+E compared to C. Conclusion: The present study showed that superimposed E during cycling might be a useful tool to induce a high local stimulus to skeletal muscle even when performing low to moderate external workloads. This effect might be due the activation of additional muscle fibers and mild eccentric work due to the concomitant activation of agonist and antagonist. However the higher load to skeletal muscle has to be taken into account. PMID:25730652

  1. Linearly Time-Varying Channel Estimation and Symbol Detection for OFDMA Uplink Using Superimposed Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Han

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of superimposed trainings- (STs- based linearly time-varying (LTV channel estimation and symbol detection for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing access (OFDMA systems at the uplink receiver. The LTV channel coefficients are modeled by truncated discrete Fourier bases (DFBs. By judiciously designing the superimposed pilot symbols, we estimate the LTV channel transfer functions over the whole frequency band by using a weighted average procedure, thereby providing validity for adaptive resource allocation. We also present a performance analysis of the channel estimation approach to derive a closed-form expression for the channel estimation variances. In addition, an iterative symbol detector is presented to mitigate the superimposed training effects on information sequence recovery. By the iterative mitigation procedure, the demodulator achieves a considerable gain in signal-interference ratio and exhibits a nearly indistinguishable symbol error rate (SER performance from that of frequency-division multiplexed trainings. Compared to existing frequency-division multiplexed training schemes, the proposed algorithm does not entail any additional bandwidth while with the advantage for system adaptive resource allocation.

  2. A Typical Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Thomas; Achten, Peter; Plasmeijer, Rinus

    We present a typical synergy between dynamic types (dynamics) and generalised algebraic datatypes (GADTs). The former provides a clean approach to integrating dynamic typing in a statically typed language. It allows values to be wrapped together with their type in a uniform package, deferring type unification until run time using a pattern match annotated with the desired type. The latter allows for the explicit specification of constructor types, as to enforce their structural validity. In contrast to ADTs, GADTs are heterogeneous structures since each constructor type is implicitly universally quantified. Unfortunately, pattern matching only enforces structural validity and does not provide instantiation information on polymorphic types. Consequently, functions that manipulate such values, such as a type-safe update function, are cumbersome due to boilerplate type representation administration. In this paper we focus on improving such functions by providing a new GADT annotation via a natural synergy with dynamics. We formally define the semantics of the annotation and touch on novel other applications of this technique such as type dispatching and enforcing type equality invariants on GADT values.

  3. Representing properties locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, K O; Barsalou, L W

    2001-09-01

    Theories of knowledge such as feature lists, semantic networks, and localist neural nets typically use a single global symbol to represent a property that occurs in multiple concepts. Thus, a global symbol represents mane across HORSE, PONY, and LION. Alternatively, perceptual theories of knowledge, as well as distributed representational systems, assume that properties take different local forms in different concepts. Thus, different local forms of mane exist for HORSE, PONY, and LION, each capturing the specific form that mane takes in its respective concept. Three experiments used the property verification task to assess whether properties are represented globally or locally (e.g., Does a PONY have mane?). If a single global form represents a property, then verifying it in any concept should increase its accessibility and speed its verification later in any other concept. Verifying mane for PONY should benefit as much from having verified mane for LION earlier as from verifying mane for HORSE. If properties are represented locally, however, verifying a property should only benefit from verifying a similar form earlier. Verifying mane for PONY should only benefit from verifying mane for HORSE, not from verifying mane for LION. Findings from three experiments strongly supported local property representation and ruled out the interpretation that object similarity was responsible (e.g., the greater overall similarity between HORSE and PONY than between LION and PONY). The findings further suggest that property representation and verification are complicated phenomena, grounded in sensory-motor simulations.

  4. Nitrogen washout during tidal breathing with superimposed high-frequency chest wall oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, A; Zidulka, A; Chang, H K

    1985-08-01

    In order to assess the efficacy of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) superimposed on tidal ventilation, multiple-breath nitrogen washout curves were obtained in 7 normal seated subjects. To maintain a regular breathing pattern throughout the study, the subjects breathed synchronously with a Harvard ventilator set at a constant tidal volume and frequency for each subject during a trial period. Washout curves were obtained during 3 different maneuvers performed in random order. Series A was the control condition with no superimposed HFCWO. In Series B and C, HFCWO at 5 Hz was superimposed on the regulated tidal breathing; the magnitude of the oscillatory tidal volume measured at the airway opening was 20 ml for Series B and 40 ml for Series C. The nitrogen washout was clearly faster in Series C than in Series A for each subject. In Series B, there was an interindividual variability, with a washout rate either equal to that in Maneuver A or in Maneuver C, or intermediate between the two. When these washout curves were analyzed in terms of a simple monocompartment model, the time constant of the washout was found to decrease by 16 +/- 11% in Series B, and 25 +/- 7% in Series C compared with that in Series A. In this group of normal subjects, the correction of any inhomogeneity in the distribution of the ventilation is unlikely to explain these results because of the close fit of all washout curves to a monoexponential model. It is postulated that during inspiration HFCWO enhances gas mixing in the lung periphery and that during expiration it improves gas mixing in the airways.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Aspirin plus calcium supplementation to prevent superimposed preeclampsia: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Souza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have tested calcium supplementation and aspirin separately to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia but not the effects of combined supplementation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of aspirin combined with calcium supplementation to prevent preeclampsia in women with chronic hypertension. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was carried out at the antenatal clinic of a large university hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. A total of 49 women with chronic hypertension and abnormal uterine artery Doppler at 20-27 weeks gestation were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 26 or 100 mg aspirin plus 2 g calcium (N = 23 daily until delivery. The main outcome of this pilot study was development of superimposed preeclampsia. Secondary outcomes were fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. The rate of superimposed preeclampsia was 28.6% lower among women receiving aspirin plus calcium than in the placebo group (52.2 vs 73.1%, respectively, P=0.112. The rate of fetal growth restriction was reduced by 80.8% in the supplemented group (25 vs 4.8% in the placebo vs supplemented groups, respectively; P=0.073. The rate of preterm birth was 33.3% in both groups. The combined supplementation of aspirin and calcium starting at 20-27 weeks of gestation produced a nonsignificant decrease in the incidence of superimposed preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction in hypertensive women with abnormal uterine artery Doppler.

  6. Aspirin plus calcium supplementation to prevent superimposed preeclampsia: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E V; Torloni, M R; Atallah, A N; Santos, G M S dos; Kulay, L; Sass, N

    2014-05-01

    Preeclampsia is an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have tested calcium supplementation and aspirin separately to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia but not the effects of combined supplementation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of aspirin combined with calcium supplementation to prevent preeclampsia in women with chronic hypertension. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was carried out at the antenatal clinic of a large university hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. A total of 49 women with chronic hypertension and abnormal uterine artery Doppler at 20-27 weeks gestation were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 26) or 100 mg aspirin plus 2 g calcium (N = 23) daily until delivery. The main outcome of this pilot study was development of superimposed preeclampsia. Secondary outcomes were fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. The rate of superimposed preeclampsia was 28.6% lower among women receiving aspirin plus calcium than in the placebo group (52.2 vs 73.1%, respectively, P=0.112). The rate of fetal growth restriction was reduced by 80.8% in the supplemented group (25 vs 4.8% in the placebo vs supplemented groups, respectively; P=0.073). The rate of preterm birth was 33.3% in both groups. The combined supplementation of aspirin and calcium starting at 20-27 weeks of gestation produced a nonsignificant decrease in the incidence of superimposed preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction in hypertensive women with abnormal uterine artery Doppler.

  7. The Dahl salt-sensitive rat is a spontaneous model of superimposed preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Ellen E; Williams, Jan M; Garrett, Michael R; Mooney, Jennifer N; Sasser, Jennifer M

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, a leading cause of maternal morbidity and death worldwide, are poorly understood in part due to a lack of spontaneous animal models of the disease. We hypothesized that the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a genetic model of hypertension and kidney disease, is a spontaneous model of superimposed preeclampsia. The Dahl S was compared with the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat, a strain with a well-characterized normal pregnancy, and the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a genetic model of hypertension that does not experience a preeclamptic phenotype despite preexisting hypertension. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, measured via telemetry) was elevated in the Dahl S and SHR before pregnancy, but hypertension was exacerbated during pregnancy only in Dahl S. In contrast, SD and SHR exhibited significant reductions in MAP consistent with normal pregnancy. Dahl S rats exhibited a severe increase in urinary protein excretion, glomerulomegaly, increased placental hypoxia, increased plasma soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), and increased placental production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The Dahl S did not exhibit the expected decrease in uterine artery resistance during late pregnancy in contrast to the SD and SHR. Dahl S pups and litter sizes were smaller than in the SD. The Dahl S phenotype is consistent with many of the characteristics observed in human superimposed preeclampsia, and we propose that the Dahl S should be considered further as a spontaneous model to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of superimposed preeclampsia and to identify and test new therapeutic targets for its treatment.

  8. Superimpose signal processing method for micro-scale thermal imaging of solar salts at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Junko; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Kato, Yukitaka

    2016-05-01

    The global interest in energy applications activates the advanced study about the molten salts in the usage of fluids in the power cycle, such as for transport and heat storage in solar power facilities. However, the basic properties of molten salts show a general scattering in characterization especially in thermal properties. It is suggested that new studies are required on the measurement of thermal properties of solar salts using recent technologies. In this study, micro-scale heat transfer and phase change in molten salts are presented using our originally developed device: the micro-bolometer Infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPA) measuring system is a portable type instrument, which is re-designed to measure the thermal phenomena in high temperature up to 700 °C or higher. The superimpose system is newly setup adjusted to the signal processing in high temperature to realize the quantitative thermal imaging, simultaneously. The portable type apparatus for a quantitative micro-scale thermography using a micro-bolometer has been proposed based on an achromatic lens design to capture a micro-scale image in the long-wave infrared, a video signal superimposing for the real time emissivity correction, and a pseudo acceleration of a timeframe. Combined with the superimpose technique, the micro-scale thermal imaging in high temperature is achieved and the molten flows of the solar salts, sodium nitrate, and potassium nitrate are successfully observed. The solar salt, the mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, shows a different shape of exothermic heat front morphology in the lower phase transition (solidification) temperature than the nitrates on cooling. The proposed measuring technique will be utilized to accelerate the screening step to determine the phase diagram and the eutectics of the multiple mixtures of candidate molten salts, which may be used as heat transport medium from the concentrated solar power to a processing plant for thermal energy

  9. Pixelated speckle image holography carrier fringes for efficient superimposed light harvesting in organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Li, Yan-Qing; Chen, Jing-De; Ou, Qing-Dong; Tang, Jian-Xin; Zhou, Yun; Lin, Yi; Wei, Huai-Xin

    2017-06-01

    An inverted organic solar cell (OSC) device structure by incorporating pixelated speckle image holography carrier fringes (SIHFs) for efficient superimposed light harvesting is demonstrated. The proposed SIHF based OSCs yield an 18.2% increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to that of the flat control devices. Moreover, compared to the common two-dimensional (2D) periodic grating patterned OSCs, SIHF based devices achieve 7.8% higher short-circuit current (JSC) and 10.0% higher PCE. This observable improvement in PCE of SIHF based OSCs is mainly ascribed to the geometric effect due to the unique chaotic carrier fringes of SIHFs.

  10. Freezing, accelerating and slowing directed currents in real time with superimposed driven lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Aritra K; Wulf, Thomas; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We provide a generic scheme offering real time control of directed particle transport in superimposed driven lattices. This scheme allows to accelerate, slow and freeze the transport on demand, by switching one of the lattices subsequently on and off. The underlying physical mechanism hinges on a systematic opening and closing of channels between transporting and non-transporting phase space structures upon switching, and exploits cantori structures which generate memory effects in the population of these structures. Our results should allow for real time control of cold thermal atomic ensembles in optical lattices, but might also be useful as a design principle for targeted delivery of molecules or colloids in optical devices.

  11. Buckling patterns of gold thin films on silicon substrates: Formation of superimposed blisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, J.; Coupeau, C.; Durinck, J.; Grilhé, J.

    2009-06-01

    Buckling phenomena leading to the formation of superimposed blisters have been experimentally observed with the help of a confocal interferometric microscope onto the surface of gold thin films deposited on silicon substrates. Assuming that residual folding effects resulting from plastic deformation mechanisms take place in the film during its morphological evolution, different probable scenarios for the formation of the observed buckling patterns are elaborated in the framework of the Föppl-von Karman's theory of thin plates. Multi-step buckling with growing interface delamination is considered for the first scenario while a single or multi-step buckling at a given delamination width is assumed for the other ones.

  12. [Relationship between jaws and the masseter muscle by superimposing MR images on the cephalogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Ryoji

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the morphological relationship between maxillofacial skeleton and masseter by superimposing the masseter image constructed by MR image scanning on the cephalogram. Sixteen subjects with different mandibular plane angle were examined in this study. Cephalogram and MR images of each subject were taken, and the images were input to a computer by using a digitizer. The areas of masseter were selected in each MR scan image which were projected to the mid-sagittal layer of the MR scan images. The synthesized image of cephalogram and masseter was obtained by completely superimposing sagittal images of the masseter with the mid-sagittal-plane MR image on the cephalogram. The inclination of masseter was determined by the center of gravity on the cross-section of masseter. These synthesized images of cephalogram and masseter showed various shapes of masseter according to different mandibular plane angle. The inclination of masseter had a close correlation with some skeletal parameters (mandibular plane angle, ANB, Y-axis, facial angle, saddle angle) of cephalometric analysis. The volume of the masseter also had a close correlation with skeletal parameters (mandibular plane angle, gonial angle, Y-axis). These results revealed that morphometric analysis using synthesized images of cephalogram and masseter is useful, and that the inclination and the volume of masseter may have an influence on the shape of the mandibular bone and its vertical and anteroposterior development.

  13. A System on a Programmable Chip Architecture for Data-Dependent Superimposed Training Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martín del Campo

    2009-01-01

    with the information, a series of known symbols, whose analysis is used to define the parameters of the filters that remove the distortion of the data. Nevertheless, a part of the available bandwidth has to be destined to these symbols. Until now, no alternative solution has demonstrated to be fully satisfying for commercial use, but one technique that looks promising is superimposed training (ST. This work describes a hybrid software-hardware FPGA implementation of a recent algorithm that belongs to the ST family, known as Data-dependent Superimposed Training (DDST, which does not need extra bandwidth for its training sequences (TS as it adds them arithmetically to the data. DDST also adds a third sequence known as data-dependent sequence, that destroys the interference caused by the data over the TS. As DDST's computational burden is too high for the commercial processors used in mobile systems, a System on a Programmable Chip (SOPC approach is used in order to solve the problem.

  14. Superimposed XOR: Approaching Capacity Bounds of the Two-Way Relay Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jianquan; Xu, Youyun; Wang, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    In two-way relay channels, bitwise XOR and symbol-level superposition coding are two popular network-coding based relaying schemes. However, neither of them can approach the capacity bound when the channels in the broadcast phase are asymmetric. In this paper, we present a new physical layer network coding (PLNC) scheme, called \\emph{superimposed XOR}. The new scheme advances the existing schemes by specifically taking into account the channel asymmetry as well as information asymmetry in the broadcast phase. We obtain its achievable rate regions over Gaussian channels when integrated with two known time control protocols in two-way relaying. We also demonstrate their average maximum sum-rates and service delay performances over fading channels. Numerical results show that the proposed superimposed XOR achieves a larger rate region than both XOR and superposition and performs much better over fading channels. We further deduce the boundary of its achievable rate region of the broadcast phase in an explicit an...

  15. Design of air-gapped magnetic-core inductors for superimposed direct and alternating currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, A. K.; Wilson, T. G.; Owen, H. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Using data on standard magnetic-material properties and standard core sizes for air-gap-type cores, an algorithm designed for a computer solution is developed which optimally determines the air-gap length and locates the quiescent point on the normal magnetization curve so as to yield an inductor design with the minimum number of turns for a given ac voltage and frequency and with a given dc bias current superimposed in the same winding. Magnetic-material data used in the design are the normal magnetization curve and a family of incremental permeability curves. A second procedure, which requires a simpler set of calculations, starts from an assigned quiescent point on the normal magnetization curve and first screens candidate core sizes for suitability, then determines the required turns and air-gap length.

  16. Superimposed folding and thrusting by two phases of mutually orthogonal or oblique shortening in analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongling; Koyi, Hemin A.; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz

    2016-02-01

    Orogens may suffer more than one phase shortening resulting in superposition of structures of different generations. Superimposition of orthogonal or oblique shortening is studied using sandbox and centrifuge modelling. Results of sand models show that in orthogonal superimposition, the two resulting structural trends are approximately orthogonal to each other. In oblique superimposition, structures trend obliquely to each other in the relatively thin areas of the model (foreland), and mutually orthogonal in areas where the model is thickened during the first phase of shortening (i.e. the hinterland). Thrusts formed during the first shortening phase may be reactivated during the later shortening phase. Spacing of the later phase structures is not as wide as expected, considering they across the pre-existing thickened wedge. Superposition of structures results in formation of type 1 fold interference pattern. Bedding is curved outwards both in the dome and basin structures. Folded layers are dipping and plunging outwards in a dome, while they are dipping and plunging inwards in a basin. In the areas between two adjacent domes or basins (i.e. where an anticline is superimposed by a syncline or a syncline is superimposed by an anticline), bedding is curved inwards, and the anticlines plunge inwards and the synclines outwards. The latter feature could be helpful to determine the age relationship for type 2 fold interference pattern. In tectonic regions where multiple phases of shortening have occurred, the orogenic-scale dome-and-basin and arrowhead-shaped interference patterns are commonly formed, as in the models. However, in some areas, the fold interference pattern might be modified by a later phase of thrusting. Similar to models results, superimposition of two and/or even more deformation phases may not be recorded by structures all over the tectonic area.

  17. Application of the"typical"in artistic creation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘臣臣

    2014-01-01

    Art in the creation of the"typical"is the typical art. Its meaning is often explained as: refers to artists through individual and nature created, some essence and law can reflect the reality of life, but also has the unique feature, which show some times people's aesthetic ideal, and showed the artists own unique aesthetic feeling of artistic image. Mainly refers to the character image, known as the "typical character" "typical character" or"typical character", but also refers to the environment or the event, called "a typical environment" or "typical events". Art was typical of image usually is the highly generalization is representative of the people or things in real life and the summary, the formation of artistic works in the image by retouching the, in fact typical art image is more vivid than reality, universal higher and the aesthetic value of richer.

  18. Knee joint neuromuscular activation performance during muscle damage and superimposed fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, Claire; Eston, Roger; Rees, David; Gleeson, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent effects of exercise-induced muscle damage and superimposed acute fatigue on the neuromuscular activation performance of the knee flexors of nine males (age: 26.7 ± 6.1 years; height 1.81 ± 0.05 m; body mass 81.2 ± 11.7 kg [mean±s]). Measures were obtained during three experimental conditions: (i) 'fatigue-muscle damage', involving acute fatiguing exercise performed on each assessment occasion plus a single episode of eccentric exercise performed on the first occasion and after the fatigue trial; (ii) 'fatigue', involving the fatiguing exercise only; and (iii) 'control' consisting of no exercise. Assessments were performed prior to (pre) and at 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h relative to the muscle damaging eccentric exercise. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) showed that muscle damage elicited reductions of up to 38%, 24% and 65% in volitional peak force, electromechanical delay and rate of force development compared to baseline and controls, respectively (F ([10, 80]) = 2.3 to 4.6; P exercise.

  19. A case of extra hepatic portal vein obstruction in pregnancy with superimposed pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Nambisan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra hepatic portal vein obstruction in pregnancy poses a clinical challenge by itself. We present here a case of a 19 year old primigravida with EHPVO who developed superimposed preeclampsia. She had a successful maternal and fetal outcome in a tertiary care centre owing to the team effort involving specialists from medical gastroenterology, nephrology, anesthesiology, and neonatology apart from senior obstetrician. EHPVO is an important cause of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension in third world countries. In pregnancy, the increased blood volume and cardiac output and mesenteric vasodilatation will increase portal flow and aggravate portal hypertension in these patients. The resultant hematemesis in such patients, can compromise the perinatal outcome. Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL reduces the risk of variceal bleeding, and can improve the pregnancy outcome in these women. Thrombocytopenia due to splenomegaly is one of the major complications in these patients and has to be corrected before pregnancy. Platelet transfusion is required intrapartum if the count is less than 50,000/mm3 caesarean delivery is reserved only for obstetric indications. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 3213-3215

  20. Configurable Transmitter and Systolic Channel Estimator Architectures for Data-Dependent Superimposed Training Communications Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romero-Aguirre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a configurable superimposed training (ST/data-dependent ST (DDST transmitter and architecture based on array processors (APs for DDST channel estimation are presented. Both architectures, designed under full-hardware paradigm, were described using Verilog HDL, targeted in Xilinx Virtex-5 and they were compared with existent approaches. The synthesis results showed a FPGA slice consumption of 1% for the transmitter and 3% for the estimator with 160 and 115 MHz operating frequencies, respectively. The signal-to-quantization-noise ratio (SQNR performance of the transmitter is about 82 dB to support 4/16/64-QAM modulation. A Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates that the mean square error (MSE of the channel estimator implemented in hardware is practically the same as the one obtained with the floating-point golden model. The high performance and reduced hardware of the proposed architectures lead to the conclusion that the DDST concept can be applied in current communications standards.

  1. Dunes morphologies and superimposed bedforms in a cellular automaton dune model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Narteau, C.; Rozier, O.; Claudin, P.

    2009-04-01

    We use a new 3D cellular automaton model for bedform dynamics in which individual physical processes such as erosion, deposition and transport are implemented by nearest neighbor interactions and a time-dependent stochastic process. Simultaneously, a lattice gas cellular automaton model is used to compute the flow and quantify the bed shear stress on the topography. Local erosion rates are taken proportional to the shear stress in such a way that there is a complete feedback mechanism between flow and bedform dynamics. In the numerical simulations of dune fields, we observe the formation and the evolution of barchan, transverse, longitudinal and star dunes. For all these types of dunes, we observe the emergence of superimposed bedforms when dunes are large enough. Then, we use the same model under different initial conditions, and we perform the linear stability analysis of a flat sand bed disturbed by a small sinusoidal perturbation. Comparing the most unstable wavelength in the model with the characteristic size of secondary bedforms in nature, we determine the length and time scales of our cellular automaton model. Thus, we establish a link between discrete and continuous approaches and open new perspectives for modeling and quantification of complex patterns in dune fields.

  2. Research on a Composite Power-Superimposed Ultrasonic Vibrator for Wire Drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration power and amplitude are essential factors in ultrasonic drawing processes, especially for difficult-to-draw materials like titanium and its alloys. This paper presents a new composite power-superimposed ultrasonic vibrator for wire drawing which was driven by three separate ultrasonic transducers. The transducers were uniformly distributed around the circular cross section of the vibrator, with their axes along the radial direction and pointing to the center. The vibrator can concentrate the vibrational energy of multiple transducers and transform the radial vibration into a longitudinal vibrator because of the Poisson effect and therefore output larger vibration power and amplitude. In the paper, the four-terminal network method was used to establish the vibration equations of the vibrator. The FE model was established in ANSYS to investigate its characteristics under various excitation conditions. A prototype was manufactured and measurements were performed to verify the validation of FEA results. The results matched well with the theoretical results. It was found that the composite vibrator achieved an amplitude of about 40 μm when driven by square wave signals with 120° in phase difference, which implies a potential way of applying ultrasonic vibration to the processing of difficult-to-draw materials.

  3. Optimal Superimposed Training Sequences for Channel Estimation in MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnam V. Raja Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work an iterative time domain Least Squares (LS based channel estimation method using superimposed training (ST for a Multiple Input Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM system over time varying frequency selective fading channels is proposed. The performance of the channel estimator is analyzed in terms of the Mean Square Estimation Error (MSEE and its impact on the uncoded Bit Error Rate (BER of the MIMO-OFDM system is studied. A new selection criterion for the training sequences that jointly optimizes the MSEE and the BER of the OFDM system is proposed. Chirp based sequences are proposed and shown to satisfy the same. These are compared with the other sequences proposed in the literature and are found to yield a superior performance. The sequences, one for each transmitting antenna, offers fairness through providing equal interference in all the data carriers unlike earlier proposals. The effectiveness of the mathematical analysis presented is demonstrated through a comparison with the simulation studies. Experimental studies are carried out to study and validate the improved performance of the proposed scheme. The scheme is applied to the IEEE 802.16e OFDM standard and a case is made with the required design of the sequence.

  4. Comparison of different undulator schemes with superimposed alternating gradients for the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflueger, J.; Nikitina, Y.M. [DESY/HASYLAB, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    For the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility an undulator with a total length of 30 m is needed. In this study three different approaches to realize an undulator with a sinusoidal plus a superimposed quadrupolar field were studied with the 3D code MAFIA.

  5. The typical behaviour of relays

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.; Saad, David

    2007-01-01

    The typical behaviour of the relay-without-delay channel and its many-units generalisation, termed the relay array, under LDPC coding, is studied using methods of statistical mechanics. A demodulate-and-forward strategy is analytically solved using the replica symmetric ansatz which is exact in the studied system at the Nishimori's temperature. In particular, the typical level of improvement in communication performance by relaying messages is shown in the case of small and large number of re...

  6. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-05-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the "principle of mediocrity": that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing "xerographic distributions" to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. If, however, one allows both the underlying theory and the assumption of typicality to vary, then the assumption of typicality does not always provide the highest likelihoods. Interpreted from a Bayesian perspective, these results support the claim that when one has the freedom to consider different combinations of theories and xerographic distributions (or different "frameworks"), one should favor the framework that has the highest posterior probability; and then from this framework one can infer, in particular, how typical we are. In this way, the invocation of the principle of mediocrity is more questionable than has been recently claimed.

  7. Representativity of TMA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Guido

    2010-01-01

    The smaller the portion of a tumor sample that is analyzed becomes, the higher is the risk of missing important histological or molecular features that might be present only in a subset of tumor cells. Many researchers have, therefore, suggested using larger tissue cores or multiple cores from the same donor tissue to enhance the representativity of TMA studies. However, numerous studies comparing the results of TMA studies with the findings from conventional large sections have shown that all well-established associations between molecular markers and tumor phenotype or patient prognosis can be reproduced with TMAs even if only one single 0.6 mm tissue spot is analyzed. Moreover, the TMA technology has proven to be superior to large section analysis in finding new clinically relevant associations. The high number of samples that are typically included in TMA studies, and the unprecedented degree of standardization during TMA experiments and analysis often give TMA studies an edge over traditional large-section studies.

  8. Disseminated typical bronchial carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novković Dobrivoje

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bronchial carcinoids belong to a rare type of lung tumors. If they do not expose outstanding neuroendocrine activity, they develop without clearly visible symptoms. They are often detected during a routine examination. According to their clinical pathological features, they are divided into typical and atypical tumors. Typical bronchial carcinoids metastasize to distant organs very rarely. Localized forms are effectively treated by surgery. The methods of conservative treatment should be applied in other cases. Case report. We presented a 65-year-old patient with carcinoid lung tumor detected by a routine examination. Additional analysis (chest X-ray, computed tomography of the chest, ultrasound of the abdomen, skeletal scintigraphy, bronhoscopy, histopathological analysis of the bioptate of bronchial tumor, as well as bronchial brushing cytology and immunohistochemical staining performed with markers specific for neuroendocrine tumor proved a morphologically typical lung carcinoid with dissemination to the liver and skeletal system, which is very rarely found in typical carcinoids. Conclusion. The presented case with carcinoid used to be showed morphological and pathohistological characteristics of typical bronchial carcinoid. With its metastasis to the liver and skeletal system it demonstrated unusual clinical course that used to be considered as rare phenomenon. Due to its frequent asymptomatic course and varied manifestation, bronchial carcinoid could be considered as a diagnostic challenge requiring a multidisciplinary approach.

  9. Poly-phase salt tectonics and hydrocarbon accumulation in Tarim superimposed basin, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Liangjie; JIN Zhijun; JlA Chengzao; PI Xuejun; CHEN Suping

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the poly-phase salt tectonics and its relation to the hydrocarbon accumulation of the Tarim superimposed basin. Several salt sequences are developed in the Tarim basin, they are: (1) the Mid-Early Cambrian salt sequence, mainly distributed in the west part of the north Tarim uplift and Keping uplift; (2) the Early Carboniferous salt sequence, mainly distributed in the south slope of the north Tarim uplift; (3) the Paleogene salt sequence, mainly distributed in the mid-west part of the Kuqa foreland fold belt and north Tarim uplift; and (4) the Miocene salt sequence, mainly distributed in the east part of the Kuqa foreland fold belt. The salt sequences deposited in the tectonically calm scenario, while the salt layers deformed during the period of intense tectonism. Although the salt sequences are characteristic of plastic flow, the differences of salt deformation styles exist in the different salt sequences because of the different deformation mechanism. It is attractive that the distribution of the large oil-gas fields or pools has a bearing upon the salt sequences and salt structures, such as the Tahe oilfield related to the Lower Carboniferous salt sequence and laterally facies changed mudstone, the Kela No.2 gas field to the Paleogene salt structures, and the Dina gas field to the Miocene salt structures. It is indicated that the large-scale hydrocarbon accumulation is controlled by the poly-phase salt sequences and structures. The deep analysis of the poly-phase salt tectonics is helpful to understanding the characteristics of the structural deformation and oil-gas accumulation of the Tarim basin.

  10. [Tubeless superimposed high frequency jet ventilation in high grade laryngeal stenoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloy, A; Kimla, T; Schragl, E; Donner, A; Grasl, M

    1994-08-01

    Massive stenosis of the larynx may present a potentially life-threatening situation for the patient, requiring immediate measures to ensure a patient's airway. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate potential benefits of Superimposed High Frequency Jet Ventilation (SHFJV) in patients requiring microlaryngeal surgery due to massive stenosis of the larynx. 23 patients (age range 1.5 to 90 years) with laryngeal stenosis grade 2 and 3 according to the Cotton scale were ventilated using SHFJV. The duration of the SHFJV was 12 to 116 minutes. SHFJV was performed using a Bronchotron Respirator via a jet-laryngoscope. Arterial blood gases demonstrated paO2 between 71 and 295 mmHg and paCO2 of 28 to 81 mmHg. The mean FiO2 applied was 61.75 +/- 19.26. The airway pressure was measured at the tip of the jet-laryngoscope and was between 6 and 15 mmHg, and PEEP was 1 to 5 mmHg. In 13 patients a CO2 laser was utilised during surgery. In all patients SHFJV was performed without problems. Since the ventilation is delivered above any possible stenosis the danger of barotrauma is minimised. The surgeon obtains optimal visibility of the larynx and is not obstructed in the surgical procedure. SHFJV enables both the surgeon and the anesthetist to perform their respective duties and therefore increases the safety of the patient in the management of such a difficult problem as massive stenosis of the larynx.

  11. Incidence and pregnancy outcomes of superimposed preeclampsia with or without proteinuria among women with chronic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Sayuri; Aoki, Shigeru; Nagashima, Ami; Seki, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the incidence and pregnancy outcomes of superimposed preeclampsia (PE) with or without proteinuria among women with chronic hypertension. This retrospective study included 142 women with essential hypertension diagnosed at ⩽20weeks of gestation, managed at a tertiary center. They were divided into three groups (non-PE, PE with proteinuria, and PE without proteinuria) to compare pregnancy outcomes. The non-PE group was further divided into two subgroups (controlled and uncontrolled hypertension). There were 87 women in the non-PE group, 47 in the PE with proteinuria group, and 8 in the PE without proteinuria group. Median gestational age at delivery was 38.7weeks in the non-PE group, 30.4 in the PE with proteinuria group, and 28.4 in the PE without proteinuria group. In three of the women in the PE without proteinuria group, the diagnostic criteria were fulfilled by liver involvement (complicated by thrombocytopenia in one woman). The remaining five women had uteroplacental dysfunction. The 87 women in the non-PE group were divided into a controlled hypertension subgroup of 75 women and uncontrolled hypertension subgroup of 12. The median gestational age at delivery was 39.1weeks in the controlled HT subgroup and 34.1weeks in the uncontrolled hypertension subgroup. The pregnancy outcomes were significantly poorer in the latter group. Pregnancy outcomes were unfavorable in both the PE without proteinuria and PE with proteinuria groups. Women with non-PE uncontrolled hypertension also had poor pregnancy outcomes, although their outcomes were better than those of women with PE. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Alteration and Reformation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Prediction of Remaining Potential Resources in Superimposed Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Hong; PANG Xiongqi; YANG Haijun; LIN Changsong; MENG Qingyang; WANG Huaijie

    2010-01-01

    Complex hydrocarbon reservoirs developed widely in the superimposed basins of China formed from multiple structural alterations,reformation and destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages.They are characterized currently by trap adjustment,component variation,phase conversion,and scale reformation.This is significant for guiding current hydrocarbon exploration by revealing evolution mechanisms after hydrocarbon reservoir formation and for predicting remaining potential resources.Based on the analysis of a number of complex hydrocarbon reservoirs,there are four geologic features controlling the degree of destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages:tectonic event intensity,frequency,time and caprock sealing for oil and gas during tectonic evolution.Research shows that the larger the tectonic event intensity,the more frequent the tectonic event,the later the last tectonic event,the weaker the caprock sealing for oil and gas,and the greater the volume of destroyed hydrocarbons in the early stages.Based on research on the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoir destruction mechanisms,a geological model of tectonic superimposition and a mathematical model evaluating potential remaining complex hydrocarbon reservoirs have been established.The predication method and technical procedures were applied in the Tazhong area of Tarim Basin,where four stages of hydrocarbon accumulation and three stages of hydrocarbon alteration occurred.Geohistorical hydrocarbon accumulation reached 3.184billion tons,of which 1.271 billion tons were destroyed.The total volume of remaining resources available for exploration is~1.9 billion tons.

  13. A New Catalogue of Fine Structures Superimposed on Solar Microwave Bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Jun Fu; Yi-Hua Yan; Yu-Ying Liu; Min Wang; Shu-Juan Wang

    2004-01-01

    The 2.6-3.8 GHz, 4.5-7.5 GHz, 5.2-7.6 GHz and 0.7-1.5 GHz component spectrometers of Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer (SBRS) started routine observations, respectively, in late August 1996, August 1999, August 1999, and June 2000. They just managed to catch the coming 23rd solar active maximum. Consequently, a large amount of microwave burst data with high temporal and high spectral resolution and high sensitivity were obtained. A variety of fine structures (FS)superimposed on microwave bursts have been found. Some of them are known, such as microwave type Ⅲ bursts, microwave spike emission, but these were observed with more detail; some are new. Reported for the first time here are microwave type U bursts with similar spectral morphology to those in decimetric and metric wavelengths, and with outstanding characteristics such as very short durations(tens to hundreds ms), narrow bandwidths, higher frequency drift rates and higher degrees of polarization. Type N and type M bursts were also observed. Detailed zebra pattern and fiber bursts at the high frequency were found. Drifting pulsation structure (DPS) phenomena closely associated with CME are considered to manifest the initial phase of the CME, and quasi-periodic pulsation with periods of tens ms have been recorded. Microwave "patches", unlike those reported previously, were observed with very short durations (about 300 ms), very high flux densities (up to 1000 sfu), very high polarization (about 100% RCP), extremely narrow bandwidths(about 5%), and very high spectral indexes. These cannot be interpreted with the gyrosynchrotron process. A superfine structure in the form of microwave FS (ZPS,type U), consisting of microwave millisecond spike emission (MMS), was also found.

  14. Augmented vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and adhesion when hypertension is superimposed on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgel, Nancy L; Sun, Zhe; Hong, Zhongkui; Hunter, William C; Hill, Michael A; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F; Meininger, Gerald A

    2015-02-01

    Hypertension and aging are both recognized to increase aortic stiffness, but their interactions are not completely understood. Most previous studies have attributed increased aortic stiffness to changes in extracellular matrix proteins that alter the mechanical properties of the vascular wall. Alternatively, we hypothesized that a significant component of increased vascular stiffness in hypertension is due to changes in the mechanical and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells, and that aging would augment the contribution from vascular smooth muscle cells when compared with the extracellular matrix. Accordingly, we studied aortic stiffness in young (16-week-old) and old (64-week-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto wild-type controls. Systolic and pulse pressures were significantly increased in young spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with young Wistar-Kyoto rats, and these continued to rise in old spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with age-matched controls. Excised aortic ring segments exhibited significantly greater elastic moduli in both young and old spontaneously hypertensive rats versus Wistar-Kyoto rats. were isolated from the thoracic aorta, and stiffness and adhesion to fibronectin were measured by atomic force microscopy. Hypertension increased both vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion, and these increases were both augmented with aging. By contrast, hypertension did not affect histological measures of aortic collagen and elastin, which were predominantly changed by aging. These findings support the concept that stiffness and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells are novel mechanisms contributing to the increased aortic stiffness occurring with hypertension superimposed on aging.

  15. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-01-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations, prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations, with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the 'principle of mediocrity': that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, I quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing 'xerographic distributions' to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. I find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. I...

  16. Typical errors of ESP users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.; Korneva, Anna A.

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents analysis of the errors made by ESP (English for specific purposes) users which have been considered as typical. They occur as a result of misuse of resources of English grammar and tend to resist. Their origin and places of occurrence have also been discussed.

  17. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊

    2015-01-01

    Typical American is the representative work of Gish Jen, a famous Chinese American woman writer. This novel is based on the three youth, Ralph, Theresa, and Helen who came to America to study and then became American citizens. This thesis tries to analyze the special psychological state of them from the perspective of psychoanalysis according to Freud 's psychoanalytic theo-ry. Through the writing of this thesis, the author regards that their specific psychoanalytic state is a group features. To learn these special features can help us have a good understanding of people coming from different cultural backgrounds.

  18. Delirium Superimposed on Dementia Strongly Predicts Worse Outcomes in Older Rehabilitation Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Alessandro; Davis, Daniel; Fick, Donna M.; Turco, Renato; Boustani, Malaz; Lucchi, Elena; Guerini, Fabio; Morghen, Sara; Torpilliesi, Tiziana; Gentile, Simona; MacLullich, Alasdair M.; Trabucchi, Marco; Bellelli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Objective Delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) is common in many settings. Nonetheless, little is known about the association between DSD and clinical outcomes. The study aim was to evaluate the association between DSD and related adverse outcomes at discharge from rehabilitation and at 1-year follow-up in older inpatients undergoing rehabilitation. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Hospital rehabilitation unit. Participants A total of 2642 patients aged 65 years or older admitted between January 2002 and December 2006. Measurements Dementia predating rehabilitation admission was detected by DSM-III-R criteria. Delirium was diagnosed with the DSM-IV-TR. The primary outcome was that of walking dependence (Barthel Index mobility subitem score of <15) captured as a trajectory from discharge to 1-year follow-up. A mixed-effects multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between DSD and outcome, after adjusting for relevant covariates. Secondary outcomes were institutionalization and mortality at 1-year follow-up, and logistic regression models were used to analyze these associations. Results The median age was 77 years (interquartile range: 71–83). The prevalence of DSD was 8%, and the prevalence of delirium and dementia alone were 4% and 22%, respectively. DSD at admission was found to be significantly associated with almost a 15-fold increase in the odds of walking dependence (odds ratio [OR] 15.5; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 5.6–42.7; P < .01). DSD was also significantly associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of institutionalization (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.8–8.9; P < .01) and an almost twofold increase in the risk of mortality (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–2.8; P = .01). Conclusions DSD is a strong predictor of functional dependence, institutionalization, and mortality in older patients admitted to a rehabilitation setting, suggesting that strategies to detect DSD routinely in practice should be developed and DSD should

  19. Superimposed epitopes restricted by the same HLA molecule drive distinct HIV-specific CD8+ T cell repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Shi, Yi; Kuse, Nozomi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Appay, Victor; Gao, George F; Oka, Shinichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2014-07-01

    Superimposed epitopes, in which a shorter epitope is embedded within a longer one, can be presented by the same HLA class I molecule. CD8(+) CTL responses against such epitopes and the contribution of this phenomenon to immune control are poorly characterized. In this study, we examined HLA-A*24:02-restricted CTLs specific for the superimposed HIV Nef epitopes RYPLTFGWCF (RF10) and RYPLTFGW (RW8). Unexpectedly, RF10-specific and RW8-specific CTLs from HIV-1-infected HLA-A*24:02+ individuals had no overlapping Ag reactivity or clonotypic compositions. Single-cell TCR sequence analyses demonstrated that RF10-specific T cells had a more diverse TCR repertoire than did RW8-specific T cells. Furthermore, RF10-specific CTLs presented a higher Ag sensitivity and HIV suppressive capacity compared with RW8-specific CTLs. Crystallographic analyses revealed important structural differences between RF10- and RW8-HLA-A*24:02 complexes as well, with featured and featureless conformations, respectively, providing an explanation for the induction of distinct T cell responses against these epitopes. The present study shows that a single viral sequence containing superimposed epitopes restricted by the same HLA molecule could elicit distinct CD8+ T cell responses, therefore enhancing the control of HIV replication. This study also showed that a featured epitope (e.g., RF10) could drive the induction of T cells with high TCR diversity and affinity. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Typicality, graded membership, and vagueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, James A

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses theoretical problems arising from the vagueness of language terms, and intuitions of the vagueness of the concepts to which they refer. It is argued that the central intuitions of prototype theory are sufficient to account for both typicality phenomena and psychological intuitions about degrees of membership in vaguely defined classes. The first section explains the importance of the relation between degrees of membership and typicality (or goodness of example) in conceptual categorization. The second and third section address arguments advanced by Osherson and Smith (1997), and Kamp and Partee (1995), that the two notions of degree of membership and typicality must relate to fundamentally different aspects of conceptual representations. A version of prototype theory-the Threshold Model-is proposed to counter these arguments and three possible solutions to the problems of logical selfcontradiction and tautology for vague categorizations are outlined. In the final section graded membership is related to the social construction of conceptual boundaries maintained through language use.

  1. Types, Evolution and Pool-Controlling Significance of Pool Fluid Sources in Superimposed Basins: A Case Study from Paleozoic and Mesozoic in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Sihuang; Mei Lianfu; Yuan Caiping; Ma Yongsheng; Guo Tonglou

    2007-01-01

    Having multiple tectonic evolution stages, South China belongs to a superimposed basin in nature. Most marine gas pools became secondary pools. The pool fluid sources serve as the principal pool-controlling factors. On the basis of eight typical petroleum pools, the type, evolution in time-space,and the controlling of petroleum distribution of pool fluid sources are comprehensively analyzed. The main types of pool fluid sources include hydrocarbon, generated primarily and secondly from source rocks, gas cracked from crude oil, gas dissolved in water, inorganic gas, and mixed gases. In terms of evolution, the primary hydrocarbon was predominant prior to Indosinian; during Indosinian to Yenshanian the secondary gas includes gas cracked from crude oil, gas generated secondarily, gas dissolved in water, and inorganic gas dominated; during Yenshanian to Himalayan the most fluid sources were mixed gases. Controlled by pool fluid sources, the pools with mixed gas sources distributed mainly in Upper Yangtze block, especially Sichuan (四川) basin; the pools with primary hydrocarbon sources distributed in paleo-uplifts such as Jiangnan (江南), but most of these pools became fossil pools; the pools with secondary hydrocarbon source distributed in the areas covered by Cretaceous and Eogene in Middle-Lower Yangtze blocks, and Chuxiong (楚雄), Shiwandashan (十万大山), and Nanpanjiang (南盘江) basins; the pools with inorganic gas source mainly formed and distributed in tensional structure areas.

  2. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  3. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  4. Association between delirium superimposed on dementia and mortality in hospitalized older adults: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiati, Jose A. E.; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Background Hospitalized older adults with preexisting dementia have increased risk of having delirium, but little is known regarding the effect of delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) on the outcomes of these patients. Our aim was to investigate the association between DSD and hospital mortality and 12-mo mortality in hospitalized older adults. Methods and findings This was a prospective cohort study completed in the geriatric ward of a university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. We included 1,409 hospitalizations of acutely ill patients aged 60 y and over from January 2009 to June 2015. Main variables and measures included dementia and dementia severity (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, Clinical Dementia Rating) and delirium (Confusion Assessment Method). Primary outcomes were time to death in the hospital and time to death in 12 mo (for the discharged sample). Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed at admission, and additional clinical data were documented upon death or discharge. Cases were categorized into four groups (no delirium or dementia, dementia alone, delirium alone, and DSD). The no delirium/dementia group was defined as the referent category for comparisons, and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for possible confounders (sociodemographic information, medical history and physical examination data, functional and nutritional status, polypharmacy, and laboratory covariates). Overall, 61% were women and 39% had dementia, with a mean age of 80 y. Dementia alone was observed in 13% of the cases, with delirium alone in 21% and DSD in 26% of the cases. In-hospital mortality was 8% for patients without delirium or dementia, 12% for patients with dementia alone, 29% for patients with delirium alone, and 32% for DSD patients (Pearson Chi-square = 112, p < 0.001). DSD and delirium alone were independently associated with in-hospital mortality, with respective hazard ratios

  5. Basic geological features of superimposed basin and hydrocarbon accumulation in Sichuan Basin, China%四川含油气叠合盆地基本特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树根; 李智武; 孙玮; 邓宾; 罗志立; 王国芝; 雍自权; 黄文明

    2011-01-01

    The recent breakthroughs in natural gas exploration in Siehuan Basin have been making it urgent and indispensable to reinvestigate its basic geological features and characteristics of hydrocarbon accumulation. Being a typical superimposed basin, Sichuan Basin has experienced three major phases of basin evolution during the Phanerozoic time as follows:marine carbonate platform with differential subsidence-uplift in extensional setting from Sinian to Middle Triassic,continental clastic basin with fold-and-thrust deformation under compressive background from Late Triassic to Eocene,and uplift and structural modification since Oligocene. Simultaneously,Sichuan Basin has also gone through three key periods of tectonic transformation. The first tectonic transformation in Late Triassic time is characterized by the changes of tectonic settings from extension to compression, basin property from passive continental margin to foreland basin,deposition from marine carbonate to marine clastic and to continental clastic. The second tectonic transformation in early Late Cretaceous is symbolized by the migration of foredeep,tectonic domain change from Qinling orogenic belt to Tibet Plateau, and the change from deposition to partial uplift and erosion. The last tectonic transformation in Eocene is represented by the changes from exorheic basin to endorheic basin, from sedimentary basin to topographic basin, and from deposition to overall uplift and erosion. Affected jointly by peripheral structural belts since Indosinian movement (the Qinling orogenic belt on the north side, Xuefeng intracontinental tectonic system on the east and southeast sides,and Tibet Plateau on the west and southwest sides), multi-stage and multi-direction structures were superimposed in Sichuan Basin. The present-day basin-orogen configuration in Sichuan Basin and adjacent regions exhibits clear trisection in topography, basement and surface structural features, and two types of basin-orogen boundaries, i. e

  6. Spatial mapping of multi-year superimposed ice on the glacier Kongsvegen, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Ola; Kohler, Jack; Lüthje, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    . Below this boundary, the ice has a GPR signature similar to that of ice further down-glacier in the ablation zone. This boundary is posited to represent the closing of crevasses that were created during the last surge of Kongsvegen in similar to 1948. Open crevasses would have interrupted the formation...

  7. Neuro-fuzzy computing for vibration-based damage localization and severity estimation in an experimental wind turbine blade with superimposed operational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Fueled by increasing demand for carbon neutral energy, erections of ever larger wind turbines (WTs), with WT blades (WTBs) with higher flexibilities and lower buckling capacities lead to increasing operation and maintenance costs. This can be counteracted with efficient structural health monitoring (SHM), which allows scheduling maintenance actions according to the structural state and preventing dramatic failures. The present study proposes a novel multi-step approach for vibration-based structural damage localization and severity estimation for application in operating WTs. First, partial autocorrelation coefficients (PACCs) are estimated from vibrational responses. Second, principal component analysis is applied to PACCs from the healthy structure in order to calculate scores. Then, the scores are ranked with respect to their ability to differentiate different damage scenarios. This ranking information is used for constructing hierarchical adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (HANFISs), where cross-validation is used to identify optimal numbers of hierarchy levels. Different HANFISs are created for the purposes of structural damage localization and severity estimation. For demonstrating the applicability of the approach, experimental data are superimposed with signals from numerical simulations to account for characteristics of operational noise. For the physical experiments, a small scale WTB is excited with a domestic fan and damage scenarios are introduced non-destructively by attaching small masses. Numerical simulations are also performed for a representative fully functional small WT operating in turbulent wind. The obtained results are promising for future applications of vibration-based SHM to facilitate improved safety and reliability of WTs at lower costs.

  8. Simultaneous ultrafast optical pulse train bursts generation and shaping based on Fourier series developments using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Víctor; Preciado, Miguel A; Muriel, Miguel A

    2007-08-20

    We propose an all-fiber method for the generation of ultrafast shaped pulse train bursts from a single pulse based on Fourier Series Developments (FDSs). The implementation of the FSD based filter only requires the use of a very simple non apodized Superimposed Fiber Bragg Grating (S-FBG) for the generation of the Shaped Output Pulse Train Burst (SOPTB). In this approach, the shape, the period and the temporal length of the generated SOPTB have no dependency on the input pulse rate.

  9. Vulvar and Perianal Condyloma Superimposed Inflammatory Linear Verrucous Epidermal Nevus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sümeyra Nergız Avcioğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus (ILVEN is a benign cutaneous hamartoma characterized by intensely erythematous, pruritic, and inflammatory papules that occur as linear bands along the lines of Blaschko. There is a considerable clinical and histological resemblance between ILVEN and linear psoriasis, lichen striatus, linear lichen planus, and invasion of epidermal nevus by psoriasis. The pathogenesis of ILVEN is unknown. It is regarded as a genetic dyskeratotic disease reflecting genetic mosaicism. Here, a case of vulvar and perianal condyloma superimposed ILVEN is presented.

  10. Using Standardized Case Vignettes to Evaluate Nursing Home Staff Recognition of Delirium and Delirium Superimposed on Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Donna M.; Kolanowski, Ann M.; Hill, Nikki L.; Yevchak, Andrea; DiMeglio, Brittney; Mulhall, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe nursing home staff knowledge regarding delirium detection and the most common causes of delirium. Specific aims that guided this study include identifying the rate of nurse recognition of delirium and delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD), including different motoric subtypes of delirium, using standardized case vignettes, and exploring what nursing home staff describe as the potential causes of delirium. The study showed overall poor recognition of delirium and DSD, which did not improve over time. Interventions have the potential to increase the early detection of delirium and DSD by the staff and warrant development. PMID:25400513

  11. On Typicality in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.; Searles, Debra J.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-08-01

    From the statistical mechanical viewpoint, relaxation of macroscopic systems and response theory rest on a notion of typicality, according to which the behavior of single macroscopic objects is given by appropriate ensembles: ensemble averages of observable quantities represent the measurements performed on single objects, because " almost all" objects share the same fate. In the case of non-dissipative dynamics and relaxation toward equilibrium states, " almost all" is referred to invariant probability distributions that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. In other words, the collection of initial micro-states (single systems) that do not follow the ensemble is supposed to constitute a set of vanishing, phase space volume. This approach is problematic in the case of dissipative dynamics and relaxation to nonequilibrium steady states, because the relevant invariant distributions attribute probability 1 to sets of zero volume, while evolution commonly begins in equilibrium states, i.e., in sets of full phase space volume. We consider the relaxation of classical, thermostatted particle systems to nonequilibrium steady states. We show that the dynamical condition known as Ω T-mixing is necessary and sufficient for relaxation of ensemble averages to steady state values. Moreover, we find that the condition known as weak T-mixing applied to smooth observables is sufficient for ensemble relaxation to be independent of the initial ensemble. Lastly, we show that weak T-mixing provides a notion of typicality for dissipative dynamics that is based on the (non-invariant) Lebesgue measure, and that we call physical ergodicity.

  12. Experimental investigation of SDBD plasma actuator driven by AC high voltage with a superimposed positive pulse bias voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Hua; Yan, Hui-Jie; Yang, Liang; Hua, Yue; Ren, Chun-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a driven voltage consisting of AC high voltage with a superimposed positive pulse bias voltage ("AC+ Positive pulse bias" voltage) is adopted to study the performance of a surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator under atmospheric conditions. To compare the performance of the actuator driven by single-AC voltage and "AC+ Positive pulse bias" voltage, the actuator-induced thrust force and power consumption are measured as a function of the applied AC voltage, and the measured results indicate that the thrust force can be promoted significantly after superimposing the positive pulse bias voltage. The physical mechanism behind the thrust force changes is analyzed by measuring the optical properties, electrical characteristics, and surface potential distribution. Experimental results indicate that the glow-like discharge in the AC voltage half-cycle, next to the cycle where a bias voltage pulse has been applied, is enhanced after applying the positive pulse bias voltage, and this perhaps is the main reason for the thrust force increase. Moreover, surface potential measurement results reveal that the spatial electric field formed by the surface charge accumulation after positive pulse discharge can significantly affect the applied external electric field, and this perhaps can be responsible for the experimental phenomenon that the decrease of thrust force is delayed by pulse bias voltage action after the filament discharge occurs in the glow-like discharge region. The schlieren images further verify that the actuator-induced airflow velocity increases with the positive pulse voltage.

  13. List of Accredited Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VA accreditation is for the sole purpose of providing representation services to claimants before VA and does not imply that a representative is qualified to provide...

  14. The representative animal

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, J M

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experim...

  15. [Advance directives. Representatives' opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets I Font, J M; Hernando Robles, P; Font I Canals, R; Diestre Ortin, G; Quintana, S

    The use and usefulness of Advance Directives has led to a lot of controversy about their validity and effectiveness. Those areas are unexplored in our country from the perspective of representatives. To determine the opinion of the representatives appointed in a registered Statement of Advance Directives (SAD) on the use of this document. Telephone survey of representatives of 146 already dead people and who, since February 2012, had registered a SAD document. More the two-thirds (98) of respondents recalled that the SAD was consulted, with 86 (58.9%) saying that their opinion as representative was consulted, and 120 (82.1%) believe that the patient's will was respected. Of those interviewed, 102 (69.9%) believe that patients who had previously planned their care using a SAD had a good death, with 33 (22.4%) saying it could have been better, and 10 (6.9%) believe they suffered greatly. The SAD were mostly respected and consulted, and possibly this is related to the fact that most of the representatives declare that the death of those they represented was perceived as comfortable. It would be desirable to conduct further studies addressed at health personnel in order to know their perceptions regarding the use of Advance Directives in the process of dying. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Conditional Short-crested second order waves in shallow water and with superimposed current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    wave, given the value of the wave crest at a specific point in time or space. In the present paper a derivation of the expected second order short-crested wave riding on a uniform current is given. The analysis is based on the second order Sharma and Dean shallow water wave theory and the direction......For bottom-supported offshore structures like oil drilling rigs and oil production platforms, a deterministic design wave approach is often applied using a regular non-linear Stokes' wave. Thereby, the procedure accounts for non-linear effects in the wave loading but the randomness of the ocean...... waves is poorly represented, as the shape of the wave spectrum does not enter the wave kinematics. To overcome this problem and still keep the simplicity of a deterministic approach, Tromans, Anaturk and Hagemeijer (1991) suggested the use of a deterministic wave, defined as the expected linear Airy...

  17. Representing and Performing Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    and MacKenzie’s idea of performativity. Based on these two approaches, the article demonstrates that the segmentation model represents and performs the businesses as it makes up certain new ways to be a business and as the businesses can be seen as moving targets. Inspired by MacKenzie the argument......This article investigates a segmentation model used by the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to classify businesses’ motivational postures. The article uses two different conceptualisations of performativity to analyse what the model’s segmentations do: Hacking’s notion of making up people...... is that the segmentation model embodies cleverness in that it simultaneously alters what it represents and then represents this altered reality to confirm the accuracy of its own model of the businesses’ postures. Despite the cleverness of the model, it also has a blind spot. The model assumes a world wherein everything...

  18. The algorithm of decomposing superimposed 2-D Poisson processes and its application to the extracting earthquake clustering pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴韬; 周成虎; 杨明; 骆剑承; 李全林

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at the complexity of seismic gestation mechanism and spatial distribution, we hypothesize that the seismic data are composed of background earthquakes and anomaly earthquakes in a certain temporal-spatial scope. Also the background earthquakes and anomaly earthquakes both satisfy the 2-D Poisson process of different parameters respectively. In the paper, the concept of N-th order distance is introduced in order to transform 2-D superimposed Poisson process into 1-D mixture density function. On the basis of choosing the distance, mixture density function is decomposed to recognize the anomaly earthquakes through genetic algorithm. Combined with the temporal scanning of C value, the algorithm is applied to the recognition on spatial pattern of foreshock anomalies by examples of Songpan and Longling sequences in the southwest of China.

  19. Black-spot poison ivy dermatitis. An acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon an allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, R M; Rivera, H P; Guin, J D

    1984-08-01

    A black spot in the epidermis over a blister of poison ivy dermatitis is an uncommon finding. Four patients with the phenomenon are described. Histologic and histochemical studies were made on biopsy material and the blackish deposit on the skin surface was compared with black deposits in and on leaves of the species of poison ivy. This examination revealed a yellow, amorphous substance on the stratum corneum of the lesions and a similar substance in and on leaves of the poison ivy plant, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. negundo. Associated with the pigmentary deposits there were distinct changes of acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon allergic contact dermatitis. Our findings support the view that the black material is the oleoresin of the plant, and that this substance behaves both as an irritant and an allergen.

  20. Numerical Investigations on the Influence of Superimposed Double-Sided Pressure on the Formability of Biaxially Stretched AA6111-T4 Sheet Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguang; Wang, Zhongjin; Meng, Qingyuan

    2012-04-01

    Lightweight materials have been widely used in aerospace, automobile industries to meet the requirement of structural weight reduction. Due to their limited plasticity at room temperature, however, lightweight materials always exhibit distinctly poor forming capability in comparison with conventional deep drawing steels. Based on the phenomenon that the superimposed hydrostatic pressure can improve the plasticity of metal, many kinds of double-sided pressure forming processes have been proposed. In the present study, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model combined with finite element method is used to investigate the influence of double-sided pressure on the deformation behavior of biaxially stretched AA6111-T4 sheet metal, including nucleation and growth of microvoids, evaluation of stress triaxiality, and so forth. The Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) localized necking model is used to predict the right-hand side of the forming limit diagram (FLD) of sheet metal under superimposed double-sided pressure. It is found that the superimposed double-sided pressure has no obvious effect on the nucleation of microvoids. However, the superimposed double-sided pressure can suppress the growth and coalescence of microvoids. The forming limit curve (FLC) of the biaxially stretched AA6111-T4 sheet metal under the superimposed double-sided pressure is improved and the fracture locus shifts to the left. Furthermore, the formability increase value is sensitive to the strain path.

  1. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  2. Resolution of superimposed pre-eclampsia, and improvement in umbilical artery flow in a surviving twin after intrauterine demise of its co-twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhulu, Deepa M; Karakash, Scarlett; Rankin, Linda; Minkoff, Howard

    2015-09-01

    Pre-eclampsia has a progressive clinical course, and is only cured by delivery of the placenta. We report a 30-year-old G1P0 with dichorionic twins, discordant growth and chronic hypertension who developed superimposed pre-eclampsia in her 21st week of gestation. After intrauterine demise of the severely growth-restricted twin, the superimposed pre-eclampsia resolved. The surviving twin initially had absent end diastolic flow, which resolved after the demise. A healthy 1935-g neonate with Apgar 9/9 was delivered at 34 weeks. Antenatal resolution of pre-eclampsia is extremely rare and resolution of superimposed pre-eclampsia has not, to our knowledge, been reported.

  3. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    only partially compatible with the geochemical and hydrodynamic calculations for the CT3 aquifer. This leads to many questions about the representativeness of instrumentation (in spite of dense observations), the heterogeneity of the landscape (perhaps even stronger than supposed, complementarities and differences between methods, etc.). Similarly, the diversity and evolution of human behaviours facing new situations (population growth, environmental changes) are essential elements to take into account, not always easily accessible to hydrologists.

  4. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    to mobility and its social context. Such an understanding can be approached through representations, as distance is being represented in various ways, most noticeably in maps and through the notions of space and Otherness. The question this talk subsequently asks is whether these representations of distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...... are present in theoretical and empirical elaborations on mobility, but these remain largely implicit and unchallenged (Bauman 1998). This talk will endeavour to unmask distance as a theoretical entity by exploring ways in which distance can be understood and by discussing distance through its representations...

  5. Development of a prototype apparatus visualizing on a screen the gamma sources superimposed on the image of the vision field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbard, G.; Lemaire, J.E. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Carcreff, H.; Marchand, L.; Thellier, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Reacteurs Experimentaux

    1994-12-31

    Mapping the gamma activity of irradiating zones is often an important prerequisite in dismantling nuclear facilities. The operation is necessary to define a suitable decommissioning strategy before any work begins; it is also required during the procedure to measure the residual activity wherever dose rates are too high to allow human intervention. This report summarizes the work carried out under CEC contract FIED-0055, covering a prototype imaging system designed to display radioactive sources superimposed in real time over a visible light image on a video monitor. This project was developed from an earlier off-line system. The gamma photons are collimated by a double cone system. The imaging system comprises a transparent scintillator bonded to the fiber-optic window of an ultrasensitive camera. The camera was miniaturized to meet specification requirements: with its radiological shielding, the gamma camera weighs 40 kg and is 120 mm in diameter. The processing system is compatible with a realtime camera, and small enough for use at any nuclear. The point-source angular resolution is 1.4 deg. for {sup 60} Co and 0.8 deg. for {sup 137} Cs. The dose rate sensitivity limit is approximately 0.01 mGy.h{sup -1}. Process reliability was confirmed by tests in a high-level radio-metallurgy cell at actual decommissioning site. (authors). 7 figs.

  6. Experimental results of superimposing 9.9 GHz extraordinary mode microwaves on 2.45 GHz ECRIS plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiokada, Takuya, E-mail: nishiokada@nf.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nagaya, Tomoki; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi [Division of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Muramatsu, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-855 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Efficient production of multicharged ions has been investigated on the tandem-type ECRIS in Osaka University. According to the consideration of the accessibility conditions of microwaves to resonance and cutoff regions, it was suggested that the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) heating contributed to enhancement of ion beam intensity. In order to enhance multicharged ion beams efficiently, injecting higher frequency microwave with extraordinary (X-mode) toward UHR region has been tried. In this study, 2.45 GHz frequency microwaves are used for conventional ECR discharge, and 9.9 GHz frequency microwaves with X-mode are superimposed for UHR heating. The effects of additive microwave injection are investigated experimentally in terms of plasma parameters and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measured by Langmuir probe and ion beam current. As the results show, it is confirmed that the electrons in the high energy region are affected by 9.9 GHz X-mode microwave injection from the detailed analysis of EEDF.

  7. Delirium superimposed on dementia: a survey of delirium specialists shows a lack of consensus in clinical practice and research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sarah; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Davis, Daniel H J; Neufeld, Karin J; Kamholz, Barbara A; Trabucchi, Marco; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Morandi, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Despite advances in delirium knowledge and the publication of best practice guidelines, uncertainties exist regarding assessment of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (DSD). An international survey of delirium specialists was undertaken to evaluate current practice. Invitations to participate in an online survey were distributed by email among members of four international delirium associations with additional publication on their websites. The survey covered the assessment and diagnosis of DSD in clinical practice and research studies. Questions were structured around current practice and attitudes. The 205 responders were mostly confident that they could detect DSD with 60% rating their confidence at 7 or above on a likert scale of 0 (none) to 10 (excellent). Seventy-six percent felt that Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) was the most challenging dementia subtype in which to diagnose DSD. Several scales were used to assess for the presence of DSD including the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) (54%), DSM-5 criteria (25%) and CAM-ICU (15%). Responders stated that attention (71%), fluctuation in cognitive status (65%), and arousability (41%) were the most clinically useful features to assess when diagnosing DSD. Motor fluctuations were also deemed important but 61% had no specific test to monitor these. The largest survey of DSD practice to date demonstrates that despite good levels of confidence in recognizing DSD, there exists a lack of consensus concerning assessment and diagnosis globally. These findings suggest the need for the development of more research leading to precise diagnostic criteria and comprehensive guidelines regarding the assessment and diagnosis of DSD.

  8. Feasibility study of monitoring of plasma etching chamber conditions using superimposed high-frequency signals on rf power transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashima, Y; Uesugi, F

    2015-10-01

    An in situ monitoring system that can detect changes in the conditions of a plasma etching chamber has been developed. In the system, low-intensity high-frequency signals are superimposed on the rf power transmission line used for generating plasma. The system measures reflected high-frequency signals and detects the change in their frequency characteristics. The results indicate that the system detects the changes in the conditions in etching chambers caused by the changes in the electrode gap and the inner wall condition and demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. The system can easily be retrofitted to mass-production equipment and it can be used with or without plasma discharge. Therefore, our system is suitable for in situ monitoring of mass-production plasma etching chambers. The system is expected to contribute to development of predictive maintenance, which monitors films deposited on the inner wall of the chamber and prevents equipment faults caused by misalignment of chamber parts in mass-production equipment.

  9. Novel Au/La-SrTiO3 microspheres: superimposed effect of gold nanoparticles and lanthanum doping in photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guannan; Wang, Pei; Luo, He-Kuan; Hor, T S Andy

    2014-07-01

    Novel multielement Au/La-SrTiO(3) microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method using monodisperse gold and La-SrTiO(3) nanocrystals as building blocks. The porous Au/La-SrTiO(3) microspheres had a large surface area of 94.6 m(2)  g(-1). The stable confined Au nanoparticles demonstrated strong surface plasmon resonance effect, leading to enhanced absorption in a broad UV/Vis/NIR range. Doping of rare-earth metal La also broadened the absorption band to the visible region. Both the conduction and valence bands of Au/La-SrTiO(3) microspheres thus show favorable potential for proton reduction under visible light. The superimposed effect of Au nanoparticles and La doping in Au/La-SrTiO(3) microspheres led to high photocurrent density in photoelectrochemical water splitting and good photocatalytic activity in photodegradation of rhodamine B. The photocatalytic activities are in the order of the following: Au/La-SrTiO(3) microspheres>Au/SrTiO(3) microspheres>La-SrTiO(3) microspheres>SrTiO(3) microspheres.

  10. High-speed observation of bubble cloud generation near a rigid wall by second-harmonic superimposed ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Shin; Yasuda, Jun; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2013-08-01

    Cavitation bubbles are known to accelerate therapeutic effects of ultrasound. Although negative acoustic pressure is the principle factor of cavitation, positive acoustic pressure has a role for bubble cloud formation at a high intensity of focused ultrasound when cavitation bubbles provide pressure release surfaces converting the pressure from highly positive to negative. In this study, the second-harmonic was superimposed onto the fundamental acoustic pressure to emphasize either peak positive or negative pressure. The peak negative and positive pressure emphasized waves were focused on a surface of an aluminum block. Cavitation bubbles induced near the block were observed with a high-speed camera by backlight and the size of the cavitation generation region was measured from the high-speed images. The negative pressure emphasized waves showed an advantage in cavitation inception over the positive pressure emphasized waves. In the sequence of the negative pressure emphasized waves immediately followed by the positive pressure emphasized waves, cavitation bubbles were generated on the block by the former waves and the cavitation region were expanded toward the transducer in the latter waves with high reproducibility. The sequence demonstrated its potential usefulness in enhancing the effects of therapeutic ultrasound at a high acoustic intensity.

  11. Normal Spectral Emissivity Measurement of Molten Cu-Co Alloy Using an Electromagnetic Levitator Superimposed with a Static Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Shoya; Nakamura, Yuki; Sugioka, Ken-Ichi; Kubo, Masaki; Tsukada, Takao; Uchikoshi, Masahito; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    The normal spectral emissivity of molten Cu-Co alloy with different compositions was measured in the wavelength range of 780 nm to 920 nm and in the temperature range of 1430 K to 1770 K including the undercooled condition by an electromagnetic levitator superimposed with a static magnetic field. The emissivity was determined as the ratio of the radiance from a levitated molten Cu-Co droplet measured by a spectrometer to the radiance from a blackbody calculated by Planck's law at a given temperature, where a static magnetic field of 2.5 T to 4.5 T was applied to the levitated droplet to suppress the surface oscillation and translational motion of the sample. We found little temperature dependence of the normal spectral emissivity of molten Cu-Co alloy. Concerning the composition dependence, the emissivity decreased markedly above 80 at%Cu and reached that of pure Cu, although its dependence was low between 20 at%Cu and 80 at%Cu. In addition, this composition dependence of the emissivity of molten Cu-Co alloy can be explained well by the Drude free-electron model.

  12. Typicality, physiological activity and concept identification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Swart, de J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The extent to which instances are good or poor examples of their categories (typicality) was varied in a concept identification (CI) task. Typicality was first established for the kind of artificial material traditionally used in CI tasks (experiment 1). This material was employed in a CI task

  13. Three Aspects of Typicality in Multiverse Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    Extracting predictions from cosmological theories that describe a multiverse, for what we are likely to observe in our domain, is crucial to establishing the validity of these theories. One way to extract such predictions is from theory-generated probability distributions that allow for selection effects---generally expressed in terms of assumptions about anthropic conditionalization and how typical we are. In this paper, I urge three lessons about typicality in multiverse settings. (i) Because it is difficult to characterize our observational situation in the multiverse, we cannot assume that we are typical (as in the 'principle of mediocrity'): nor can we ignore the issue of typicality, for it has a measurable impact on predictions for our observations. (ii) There are spectra of assumptions about both conditionalization and typicality, which lead to coincident predictions for our observations, leading to problems of confirmation in multiverse cosmology. And moreover, (iii) when one has the freedom to consid...

  14. Protective and super-imposing effects of Estradiol , Breviscapini, Lumbrokinase In focal cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury on rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang huiFang; Luo ZuMing

    2000-01-01

    Baekgrouad: Postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy is always associated with a decrease in risk of stroke incidence and mortality. The breviscapini and lumbrokinase can protect brain from ischemic injury..Experiments in animal models suggest estradiol can protect brain from ischemic injury. But we know little about the mechanism of brain protection role of estradiol. Espectically we don't know if estrodiol plus other brain protective drugs such as breviscapini and lumbrokinase have superimposing protection. Objective: To study protective function and its mechanism of estradio breviscapini and lumbrokinase after cerebral ischemic reperfusion tn overiectimiaed rat. Methods: We made the local ischemic repenfusion model with thread emgolism of right middle cerebral artery (MCA) of young female SD rars which werc bilaterally ovariectomized two weeks ago were used. These rats were randomized into sham-operated group, control group, estrodiol group, brevisacapini group, 10 SD rats each group. We admistrated each group with reseponsed treatment when rats were subjected to half an hour of MCAO. MCA were oecluded 2 hours and followed by 70 hours of reperfusion. Sham-poerated group were exposed cervical common artery and weren't occluded MCA. The rats were killed at 72 hours. The observed patameters each group listed: 1) The neurological deficit scores were made after MCAO 2 hours and bcforc killed. 2) Each group excluded sham operaated group were caculaled cerebral infarct volume ratio and edema volume with stereological microscoppe. 3) The level of Nitrc oxide (NO) in serum were determined with nitrate redutase method. 4) The level of Interlukin-I (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factot (TNF) were determined by biological activity method. 5) Ultrastructure of neuron were observed with electron microscope. All the rcsults from different groups were compared with each other. The drugs identified effictive in formcr study plus estradiot wcre admistratcd to rats to obscrvcd

  15. Protective and super-imposing effects of Estradiol , Breviscapini, Lumbrokinase In focal cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury on rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang huiFang; Luo ZuMing

    2000-01-01

    Baekgrouad: Postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy is always associated with a decrease in risk of stroke incidence and mortality. The breviscapini and lumbrokinase can protect brain from ischemic injury..Experiments in animal models suggest estradiol can protect brain from ischemic injury. But we know little about the mechanism of brain protection role of estradiol. Espectically we don't know if estrodiol plus other brain protective drugs such as breviscapini and lumbrokinase have superimposing protection. Objective: To study protective function and its mechanism of estradio breviscapini and lumbrokinase after cerebral ischemic reperfusion tn overiectimiaed rat. Methods: We made the local ischemic repenfusion model with thread emgolism of right middle cerebral artery (MCA) of young female SD rars which werc bilaterally ovariectomized two weeks ago were used. These rats were randomized into sham-operated group, control group, estrodiol group, brevisacapini group, 10 SD rats each group. We admistrated each group with reseponsed treatment when rats were subjected to half an hour of MCAO. MCA were oecluded 2 hours and followed by 70 hours of reperfusion. Sham-poerated group were exposed cervical common artery and weren't occluded MCA. The rats were killed at 72 hours. The observed patameters each group listed: 1) The neurological deficit scores were made after MCAO 2 hours and bcforc killed. 2) Each group excluded sham operaated group were caculaled cerebral infarct volume ratio and edema volume with stereological microscoppe. 3) The level of Nitrc oxide (NO) in serum were determined with nitrate redutase method. 4) The level of Interlukin-I (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factot (TNF) were determined by biological activity method. 5) Ultrastructure of neuron were observed with electron microscope. All the rcsults from different groups were compared with each other. The drugs identified effictive in formcr study plus estradiot wcre admistratcd to rats to obscrvcd

  16. Frequency dependence of lung volume changes during superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation and high-frequency jet ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, R; Priori, R; Larsson, A; LoMauro, A; Frykholm, P; Aliverti, A

    2014-01-01

    Superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation (SHFJV) has proved to be safe and effective in clinical practice. However, it is unclear which frequency range optimizes ventilation and gas exchange. The aim of this study was to systematically compare high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) with HFJV by assessing chest wall volume variations (ΔEEV(CW)) and gas exchange in relation to variable high frequency. SHFJV or HFJV were used alternatively to ventilate the lungs of 10 anaesthetized pigs (21-25 kg). The low-frequency component was kept at 16 min(-1) in SHFJV. In both modes, high frequencies ranging from 100 to 1000 min(-1) were applied in random order and ventilation was maintained for 5 min in all modalities. Chest wall volume variations were obtained using opto-electronic plethysmography. Airway pressures and arterial blood gases were measured repeatedly. SHFJV increased ΔEEV(CW) compared with HFJV; the difference ranged from 43 to 68 ml. Tidal volume (V(T)) was always >240 ml during SHFJV whereas during HFJV ranged from 92 ml at the ventilation frequency of 100 min(-1) to negligible values at frequencies >300 min(-1). We observed similar patterns for Pa(O₂) and Pa(CO₂). SHFJV provided generally higher, frequency-independent oxygenation (Pa(O₂) at least 32.0 kPa) and CO₂ removal (Pa(CO₂) ∼5.5 kPa), whereas HFJV led to hypoxia and hypercarbia at higher rates (Pa(O₂) 10 kPa at f(HF)>300 min(-1)). In a porcine model, SHFJV was more effective in increasing end-expiratory volume than single-frequency HFJV, but both modes may provide adequate ventilation in the absence of airway obstruction and respiratory disease, except for HFJV at frequencies ≥300 min(-1).

  17. Synergistic and Superimposed Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Combined with Fasudil in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing-Wen; Li, Yan-Hua; Song, Guo-Bin; Yu, Jie-Zhong; Liu, Chun-Yun; Liu, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Hai-Fei; Yang, Wan-Fang; Wang, Qing; Yan, Ya-Ping; Xiao, Bao-Guo; Ma, Cun-Gen

    2016-12-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the ideal transplanted cells of cellular therapy for promoting neuroprotection and neurorestoration. However, the optimization of transplanted cells and the improvement of microenvironment around implanted cells are still two critical challenges for enhancing therapeutic effect. In the current study, we observed the therapeutic potential of MSCs combined with Fasudil in mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and explored possible mechanisms of action. The results clearly show that combined intervention of MSCs and Fasudil further reduced the severity of EAE compared with MSCs or Fasudil alone, indicating a synergistic and superimposed effect in treating EAE. The addition of Fasudil inhibited MSC-induced inflammatory signaling TLR-4/MyD88 and inflammatory molecule IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α but did not convert M1 microglia to M2 phenotype. The delivery of MSCs enhanced the expression of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) compared with that of Fasudil. Importantly, combined intervention of MSCs and Fasudil further increased the expression of BDNF and GDNF compared with the delivery of MSCs alone, indicating that combined intervention of MSCs and Fasudil synergistically contributes to the expression of neurotrophic factors which should be related to the expression of increased galactocerebroside (GalC) compared with mice treated with Fasudil and MSCs alone. However, a lot of investigation is warranted to further elucidate the cross talk of MSCs and Fasudil in the therapeutic potential of EAE/multiple sclerosis.

  18. Some typical solid propellant rocket motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Typical Solid Propellant Rocket Motors (shortly referred to as Solid Rocket Motors; SRM's) are described with the purpose to form a database, which allows for comparative analysis and applications in practical SRM engineering.

  19. Some typical solid propellant rocket motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Typical Solid Propellant Rocket Motors (shortly referred to as Solid Rocket Motors; SRM's) are described with the purpose to form a database, which allows for comparative analysis and applications in practical SRM engineering.

  20. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-02-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios.

  1. What is typical is good: the influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness judgments. Here, we argue that face typicality is an important factor for social perception because it affects trustworthiness judgments, which approximate the basic evaluation of faces. This effect has been overlooked because trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments have a high level of shared variance for most face samples. We show that for a continuum of faces that vary on a typicality-attractiveness dimension, trustworthiness judgments peak around the typical face. In contrast, perceived attractiveness increases monotonically past the typical face, as faces become more like the most attractive face. These findings suggest that face typicality is an important determinant of face evaluation.

  2. How typical are 'typical' tremor characteristics? : Sensitivity and specificity of five tremor phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Elting, J. W.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; van Laar, T.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.; Tijssen, M. Aj.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Distinguishing between different tremor disorders can be challenging. Some tremor disorders are thought to have typical tremor characteristics: the current study aims to provide sensitivity and specificity for five 'typical' tremor phenomena. Methods: Retrospectively, we examined 210 t

  3. Dependence of the frequency spectrum of small amplitude vibrations superimposed on finite deformations of a nonlinear, cylindrical elastic body on residual stress

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya

    2010-11-01

    We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging to interrogate atherosclerotic plaques in vivo in large arteries. The goal of this investigation is twofold: (i) introduce a modeling framework for residual stress that unlike traditional Fung type classical opening angle models may be used for a diseased artery, and (ii) investigate the sensitivity of the spectra of small amplitude high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on a large deformation to the details of the residual stress stored in arteries through a numerical simulation using physiologic parameter values under both low and high blood pressure loadings. The modeling framework also points the way towards an inverse problem using IVUS techniques to estimate residual stress in healthy and diseased arteries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What is typical is good: The influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  5. Investigation of the Impact of a Heinrich-Event-like Abrupt Event Superimposed Onto the RCP 8.5 Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrance, D.; Ramstein, G.; Dumas, C.; Charbit, S.

    2014-12-01

    The CMIP5/IPCC (AR5) projections of climate change showed the temperatures should increase by between 1.3 °C and 4.4 °C by 2100 and the sea level rise between 26 cm and 82 cm on average. Superimposed on these climatic and hydrologic trends associated with the RCP 8.5 most pessimistic scenario, it is important to investigate the possible effect of an abrupt event like an ice-sheet surge. This is first justified by the recent collapse of the Larsen B ice shelf which illustrates that a non-linear response of the cryosphere may occur in a warming world. Furthermore, in glacial periods, ice-sheets have been unstable and huge surges of icebergs did occur and deeply modified the climate. The aim of this presentation is to show the hypothetical climatic consequences of such a Heinrich-type event on future climate change. To achieve this goal, 3 scenarios of rapid ice-sheet deglaciation have been designed, corresponding to an additional sea level rise of around 3 m : - S1 corresponds to a contribution from Greenland only; - S2 from West-Antarctica only; - S3 from both ice-sheets. We use the global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (OAGCM) IPSL-CM5A-LR. The freshwater perturbation is applied near the ice-sheet(s) during 20 years from 2050 to 2070 during an RCP8.5 perturbation. The RCP8.5 scenario is then continued until 2100 (without freshwater). For these types of scenarios, previous experiments for paleoclimatic cases help us diagnose the most vulnerable areas. The North Atlantic and the collapse of thermohaline circulation is one key issue, but far field teleconnections with the Asian monsoon will also be explored. We will investigate the timing and amplitude of the climate impacts due to the perturbations, which may be quite different in our 3 scenarios. These abrupt events consequences can be important for the populations and the consideration of rapid changes should improve the reliability of IPCC predictions.

  6. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typi...

  7. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  8. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  9. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  10. Linguistic recycling in typical and atypical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    I present evidence that linguistic "recycling" - i.e., the redeployment of linguistic material from prior utterances during conversation - is a striking and prevalent feature not only of interaction between typical speakers, but also, and notably, of interaction involving the communication impaired. In the latter case, recycling may sometimes be used as a compensatory communicative resource when linguistic ability is compromised. Despite its prevalence, however, recycling has largely been ignored by clinical linguists. In addition to providing illustrations of linguistic recycling across a range of communication disorders, I also examine how it is subserved by phenomena such as priming, short-term memory and alignment. I subsequently argue for a shift in perspective that puts recycling at the heart of our perception of how typical and atypical interaction works, and suggest a number of potential benefits for clinical linguistics, ranging from the way we understand and analyse communication disorders to how we assess and treat them.

  11. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  12. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  13. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328554197; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  14. Representing Energy. I. Representing a Substance Ontology for Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2012-01-01

    The nature of energy is not typically an explicit topic of physics instruction. Nonetheless, verbal and graphical representations of energy articulate models in which energy is conceptualized as a quasimaterial substance, a stimulus, or a vertical location. We argue that a substance ontology for energy is particularly productive in developing…

  15. Representing Energy. I. Representing a Substance Ontology for Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2012-01-01

    The nature of energy is not typically an explicit topic of physics instruction. Nonetheless, verbal and graphical representations of energy articulate models in which energy is conceptualized as a quasimaterial substance, a stimulus, or a vertical location. We argue that a substance ontology for energy is particularly productive in developing…

  16. Typical Women Figures in Hemingway's Fictional World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春会; 范璐

    2008-01-01

    Ernest Hemingway is widely regarded as a giant figure in American literature, but meantime he is often criticized for his prejudice against women. However, whether Ernest Hemingway is a misogynist writer or not, I believe is largely depended on readers' comprehension of his works. This paper launched an interesting study on typical women characters in Hemingway's fictional world. The study also reveals that fact that far from being a misogynist writer, Hemingway shows great concern to women as a group. Not only did he own strong insight on women but also expressed his sympathy towards women.

  17. Hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayduk, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Severe structural damage can occur when aircraft collide with hailstones. Consequently, methods of predicting hail damage to airplane surfaces are needed by the aircraft designer. This paper describes an analytical method of predicting the dent depth and final deformed shape for simple structural components impacted by hailstones. The solution was accomplished by adapting the DEPROSS computer program to the problem of normal impact of hail on flat metallic sheets and spherical metallic caps. Experimental data and analytical predictions are presented for hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces along with a description of the hail gun and hail simulation technique used in the experimental study.

  18. Youth spare time: Typical patterns of behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have tried to identify typical patterns of young people's behavior in their spare time and to use these patterns in order to group our subjects regarding their interests and preferences. Main-component analysis showed that it was possible to find different patterns of secondary school students' behavior in spare time as well as that the identified models could be the criteria for grouping them. Five patterns have been identified describing youth orientations towards their free time: academic orientation, orientation towards sports, orientation towards entertainment, orientation towards spending time going out and orientation towards music and computers.

  19. Tolperisone: a typical representative of a class of centrally acting muscle relaxants with less sedative side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quasthoff, Stefan; Möckel, Claudia; Zieglgänsberger, Walter; Schreibmayer, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Tolperisone, a piperidine derivative, is assigned to the group of centrally acting muscle relaxants and has been in clinical use now for decades. The review summarizes the known pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, toxicology and side effects in humans and the clinical use of tolperisone. A future perspective for further exploration of this drug is given.

  20. [Typical forms of schizophrenia in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, E; Konzewoi, V

    1978-01-01

    Aside from typical forms of late schizophrenia which generally conform to the definition given by M. Bleuler, there also are psychoses appearing in old age which differ significantly from the atypical symptoms and consequently present certain diagnostic difficulties. This report contains descriptions of late manifestations in schizophrenic psychoses, which develop with a continuous or assault-like course with a prevalence of parnoial disorders. Paranoid delusions, in such cases, are characterized by aging traits (concrete and short-term delusions, exaggeration of the degree of superficial persecution and prejudice, and a limited number of people involved in the delusions). The development of such forms of late schizophrenia takes a slowly progressing course. The results of these studies, especially the psychopathological symptomatology, the genetic-constitutional background and the development and outcome of these psychoses are analyzed in detail. The data permit to consider such forms of psychose as atypical variants of late schizophrenia.

  1. Typical object velocity influences motion extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Stewart, Andrew J; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2009-02-01

    Previous work indicates that extrapolation of object motion during occlusion is affected by the velocity of the immediately preceding trial. Here we ask whether longer-term velocity representations can also influence motion extrapolation. Red, blue or green targets disappeared behind an occluder. Participants pressed a button when they thought the target had reached the other side. Red targets were slower (10-20 deg/s), blue targets moved at medium velocities (14-26 deg/s) and green targets were faster (20-30 deg/s). We compared responses on a subset of red and green trials which always travelled at 20 deg/s. Although trial velocities were identical, participants responded as if the green targets moved faster (M = 22.64 deg/s) then the red targets (M = 19.72 deg/s). This indicates that motion extrapolation is affected by longer-term information about the typical velocity of different categories of stimuli.

  2. Typical and Atypical Manifestations of Intrathoracic Sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jin; Jung, Jung Im; Chung, Myung Hee; Song, Sun Wha; Kim, Hyo Lim; Baik, Jun Hyun; Han, Dae Hee [St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Jun [Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyo Young [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disorder of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas. The radiological findings associated with sarcoidosis have been well described. The findings include symmetric, bilateral hilar and paratracheal lymphadenopathy, with or without concomitant parenchymal abnormalities (multiple small nodules in a peribronchovascular distribution along with irregular thickening of the interstitium). However, in 25% to 30% of cases, the radiological findings are atypical and unfamiliar to most radiologists, which cause difficulty for making a correct diagnosis. Many atypical forms of intrathoracic sarcoidosis have been described sporadically. We have collected cases with unusual radiological findings associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis (unilateral or asymmetric lymphadenopathy, necrosis or cavitation, large opacity, ground glass opacity, an airway abnormality and pleural involvement) and describe the typical forms of the disorder as well. The understanding of a wide range of the radiological manifestations of sarcoidosis will be very helpful for making a proper diagnosis.

  3. Typicity in Potato: Characterization of Geographic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Manzelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in three regions of Italy and the crop performance and the chemical composition of tubers of three typical potato varieties evaluated. Carbon and nitrogen tuber content was determined by means of an elemental analyzer and the other mineral elements by means of a spectrometer. The same determinations were performed on soil samples taken from experimental areas. The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the results of mineral element tuber analysis, permitted the classification of all potato tuber samples according to their geographic origin. Only a partial discrimination was obtained in function of potato varieties. Some correlations between mineral content in the tubers and in the soil were also detected. Analytical and statistical methods proved to be useful in verifying the authenticity of guaranteed geographical food denominations.

  4. Manipulating decision making of typical agents

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how the choice of decision makers can be varied under the presence of risk and uncertainty. Our analysis is based on the approach we have previously applied to individual decision makers, which we now generalize to the case of decision makers that are members of a society. The approach employs the mathematical techniques that are common in quantum theory, justifying our naming as Quantum Decision Theory. However, we do not assume that decision makers are quantum objects. The techniques of quantum theory are needed only for defining the prospect probabilities taking into account such hidden variables as behavioral biases and other subconscious feelings. The approach describes an agent's choice as a probabilistic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of a utility factor and of an attraction factor. The attraction factor embodies subjective and unconscious dimensions in the mind of the decision maker. We show that the typical aggregate amplitude of the attraction factor is $1/4$, and ...

  5. Iron absorption from typical Latin American diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, A; Amar, M; Cornbluth-Szarfarc, S C; Dillman, E; Fosil, M; Biachi, R G; Grebe, G; Hertrampf, E; Kremenchuzky, S; Layrisse, M

    1984-06-01

    The availability and daily absorption of iron was determined by the extrinsic label method in typical lower middle to lower class diets consumed in regions of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. Differences in iron absorption from meals up to 7-fold, could be attributed to the varying contents of absorption enhancers, eg, in meat, and of inhibitors in tea, vegetables, and wheat or maize bread. The total iron available in the diets from four countries did not meet the physiological requirements for normal subjects but deficient subjects fulfilled their requirements absorbing from 1.0 to 2.1 mg/day. In five diets heme iron (6 to 24% of the total) provided 34 to 73% of the iron absorbed. These data suggest that such absorption and utilization studies may be used to correlate the prevalence of iron deficiency in a population with certain diets and to guide fortification programs.

  6. Fatigue life estimation of welded joints of an aluminium alloy under superimposed random load waves (follow-up report). Effects o high frequency components; Jujo random kajuka ni okeru aluminium gokin yosetsu tsugite no hiro jumyo suitei (zokuho). Koshuha seibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Maenaka, H.; Takada, A. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    In the previous paper, fatigue tests of fillet welded T-joints of JIS A 5083P-O Al-Mg alloy for structural members of ship body were conducted under superimposed random load waves in which the secondary fluctuating waveform superimposes on the primary one, to verify the effectiveness of various fatigue life estimation methods. The T-joints used as specimens had welded toes finished by grinder. In this study, boxing welded joints were used. The residual stress measurements, static loading tests, elastic finite element analysis, and fatigue tests were conducted under both constant amplitude and random loads. These tests were conducted under more common conditions. As a result, conclusions obtained are as follows. A reference stress, which was determined as the stress at a distance of 5 mm from a boxing weld toe, was proved effective in reducing the amount of scattering in the fatigue test results, and in improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation. With regard to the high frequency components, it was required to express the fatigue life using a representative frequency for each stress. 4 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. ONE TYPICAL EXTREMUM IN ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Goroshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to attract attention of teachers, scientific personnel, engineers and students to one peculiarity of extremum seeking in different electrical problems. This feature lies in the fact that in many parts of electrical engineering extremum seeking comes to analysis one and the same mathematical structure (T-structure, but differences lie only in many symbols (designation.In one problems this structure appear in finale, the most simple form, but in others – T-structure is “veiled”, and as a rule  we need  elementary algebraic transformation to detect it.Taking into account high frequency of this structure appearing in electrical problems, in the first part of article the authors  carried out the investigation of extremum characteristics of T-structure and show the results in easy algorithms. To determine the typical T-structure there were taken five problems-examples for extremum seeking  from different parts of electrical engineering. The first and the second examples belong to the theory of electrical circuits.In the first example the problem of maximum active load power obtaining was considered, in the second we see the solution of problem for inductive coupled circuit adjustment in order to obtain the hump current. In the third example the band active filter, built on operating amplifier, is analyzed. According to these methods, taken in the first part of article, the frequency is determined, on which amplifier provides maximum  amplification factor. The forth example deals with analysis of efficiency of transformer. According to algorithm, the optimal efficiency of transformer’s load and also equation for its maximum was determined in this article. In the fifth example the mechanical characteristics of induction motor is analyzed. It is indicated how, on the basis of algorithms article, to obtain equations for critical slip and motor moment, and also the simple development of formula Klossa.The methods of

  8. Imprints of a Pan-African transpressional orogen superimposed on an inferred Grenvillian accretionary belt in central East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Seddon, Samuel; Finn, Carol; Bell, Robin; Wu, Guochao; Jordan, Tom

    2017-04-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in interior East Antarctica are underlain by 50-60 km thick crust imaged by gravity and seismic models (Ferraccioli et al., 2011; An et al., 2015). In contrast, the composite Archean to Mesoproterozoic Mawson craton that occupies the Wilkes and Terre Adelie sector of East Antarctica typically features only 40-45 km thick crust (Aitken et al., 2014). Over 200 km thick and seismically fast lithosphere underlies the Gamburtsev Province, as typically observed over Precambrian lithosphere that has not been substantially reworked during Phanerozoic subduction or collision. Satellite and airborne magnetic data indicate that the Gamburtev Province is sandwiched in between distinct Precambrian lithospheric blocks including the Ruker, Princess Elizabeth Land, Vostok, Nimrod (Goodge and Finn, 2010), South Pole and Recovery provinces. Ferraccioli et al., (2011) proposed that a segment of a stalled orogen (i.e. an orogen where widespread orogenic collapse and root delamination has not occurred) is preserved in the Gamburtsev Province and further hypothesised that its origin relates to widespread accretionary and subsequent collisional events at ca 1 Ga, linked to the assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent. However, recent passive seismic interpretations (An et al., 2015) indicate that crustal thickening may relate instead to Pan-African age assembly of Greater India, East Antarctica and Australia within Gondwana (at ca 550 Ma). Here we interpret a set of enhanced magnetic and gravity images, depth to magnetic and gravity sources and preliminary 2D and 3D forward and inverse models to characterise in detail the crustal architecture of the Gamburtsev Province. Enhanced aeromagnetic images reveal a system of subglacial faults that segment the Gamburtsev Province into three distinct geophysical domains, the northern, central and southern domains. Apparent offsets in high-frequency magnetic anomalies within the central domain are interpreted here

  9. [Typical problems in pediatric emergencies: Possible solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimberg, E; Heinzel, O; Hoffmann, F

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric emergencies are rare and challenging for health care providers, parents, and patients. The purpose of this article is to highlight typical difficulties in the treatment of pediatric patients and to discuss potential solutions. This article is based on a selective literature search using PubMed and the experience of the authors in the field of simulation and pediatric emergencies. Inexperience with pediatric emergencies, uncertainty in technical skills, in the usage of pediatric equipment and in medication dosage as well as parental presence foster the perception of stress and potentially compromise the success of patient care. Beside implementation of simplified technical skill devices (e.g., intraosseous vascular access system, supraglottic airway devices, and alternative approaches for drug administration), there have been many efforts in recent years to improve patient safety. Tools for estimating body weight and precalculated drug-dosing charts have been implemented as well as standardized courses for guidelines, technical skills, and team-related skills have been established. To improve patient safety, regular training and implementation of a sustainable safety culture are mandatory.

  10. The Sun. A typical star in the solar neighborhood?

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Sun is used as the fundamental standard in chemical abundance studies, thus it is important to know whether the solar abundance pattern is representative of the solar neighborhood. Albeit at low precision (0.05 - 0.10 dex) the Sun seems to be a typical solar-metallicity disk star, at high precision (0.01 dex) its abundance pattern seems abnormal when compared to solar twins. The Sun shows a deficiency of refractory elements that could be due to the formation of terrestrial planets. The formation of giant planets may also introduce a signature in the chemical composition of stars. We discuss both planet signatures and also the enhancement of neutron-capture elements in the solar twin 18 Sco.

  11. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...... left by the wayside. The 14 often both fitting and well crafted contributions of this publication offer an approach to how landscape architecture has been and is currently represented; in the design study, in presentation, in criticism, and in the creation of landscape architecture....

  12. Representative process sampling - in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Friis-Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Julius, Lars Petersen

    2007-01-01

    Didactic data sets representing a range of real-world processes are used to illustrate "how to do" representative process sampling and process characterisation. The selected process data lead to diverse variogram expressions with different systematics (no range vs. important ranges; trends and....../or periodicity; different nugget effects and process variations ranging from less than one lag to full variogram lag). Variogram data analysis leads to a fundamental decomposition into 0-D sampling vs. 1-D process variances, based on the three principal variogram parameters: range, sill and nugget effect...

  13. Towards a representative periphytic diatom sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to acquire a representative periphytic diatom sample for river water quality monitoring has been recognised in the development of existing diatom indices, important in the development and employment of diatom monitoring tools for the Water Framework Directive. In this study, a nested design with replication is employed to investigate the magnitude of variation in diatom biomass, composition and Trophic Diatom Index at varying scales within a small chalk river. The study shows that the use of artificial substrates may not result in diatom communities that are typical of the surrounding natural substrates. Periphytic diatom biomass and composition varies between artificial and natural substrates, riffles and glides and between two stretches of the river channel. The study also highlights the existence of high variation in diatom frustule frequency and biovolume at the individual replicate scale which may have implications for the use of diatoms in routine monitoring.

  14. A numerical study of the three-dimensional structure of the Taylor-Couette flow in eccentric configuration with superimposed cross flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurtu, Nicoleta; Egbers, Christoph [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet (BTU), Cottbus (Germany); Stuecke, Peter [Westsaechsische Hochschule (WHZ), Zwickau (Germany)], E-mail: scurtu@tu-cottbus.de

    2008-11-01

    The eccentric small gap Taylor-Couette system with rotating inner cylinder and fixed outer cylinder is investigated numerically. The main flow fields were examined and the transition region from the laminar Couette-flow to the Taylor-vortex-flow in different eccentric arrangements of the cylinders. The effect of the eccentricity on flow patterns was studied for different values of the eccentricity between 0 and 0.75 in relation to the mean gap. This flow was further disturbed by the superimposed cross flow entering into the gap through the feed hole with a cross flow rate of 0.1 of the circumferential flow rate. Hence, more complex three dimensional flow structures evolved in the cylinders' gap, especially in the vicinity of the feed hole.

  15. Functioning of peripheral Ia pathways in infants with typical development: responses in antagonist muscle pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Caroline; Ulrich, Beverly D; Martin, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    In muscle responses of proprioceptive origin, including the stretch/tendon reflex (T-reflex), the corresponding reciprocal excitation and irradiation to distant muscles have been described from newborn infants to older adults. However, the functioning of other responses mediated primarily by Ia-afferents has not been investigated in infants. Understanding the typical development of these multiple pathways is critical to determining potential problems in their development in populations affected by neurological disease, such as spina bifida or cerebral palsy. Hence, the goal of the present study was to quantify the excitability of Ia-mediated responses in lower limb muscles of infants with typical development. These responses were elicited by mechanical stimulation applied to the distal tendons of the gastrocnemius-soleus (GS), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (QAD) muscles of both legs in twelve 2- to 10-month-old infants and recorded simultaneously in antagonist muscle pairs by surface EMG. Tendon taps alone elicited responses in either, both or neither muscle. The homonymous response (T-reflex) was less frequent in the TA than the GS or QAD muscle. An 80 Hz vibration superimposed on tendon taps induced primarily an inhibition of monosynaptic responses; however, facilitation also occurred in either muscle of the recorded pair. These responses were not influenced significantly by age or gender. Vibration alone produced a tonic reflex response in the vibrated muscle (TVR) and/or the antagonist muscle (AVR). However, for the TA muscle the TVR was more frequently elicited in older than younger infants. High variability was common to all responses. Overall, the random distribution and inconsistency of muscle responses suggests that the gain of Ia-mediated feedback is unstable. We propose that during infancy the central nervous system needs to learn to set stable feedback gain, or destination of proprioceptive assistance, based on their use during functional

  16. Interactive decision making using dissimilarity to visually represented prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migut, M.A.; van Gemert, J.C.; Worring, M.; Miksch, S.; Ward, M.

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions, an expert has to reason with multi-dimensional, heterogeneous data and analysis results of these. Items in such datasets are typically represented by features. However, as argued in cognitive science, features do not yield an optimal space for human reasoning. In fact,

  17. Interactive decision making using dissimilarity to visually represented prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migut, M.A.; van Gemert, J.C.; Worring, M.; Miksch, S.; Ward, M.

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions, an expert has to reason with multi-dimensional, heterogeneous data and analysis results of these. Items in such datasets are typically represented by features. However, as argued in cognitive science, features do not yield an optimal space for human reasoning. In fact, hu

  18. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical absences (TA are brief primary generalized epileptic seizures characterized by sudden onset and termination. According to their definition, absences consist of impairment of consciousness that is synchronously accompanied by electroencephalographic (EEG changes as generalized spike–slow wave discharges of 3 or more Hz. The authors conducted an investigation of 1261 patients with different forms of epilepsy with onset of seizures from the first days of life to the age of 18 years. The patients were followed up from 1990 to 2010. Absence seizures were detected in 231 patients, which accounts for 18.3 % of all the epileptic patients. TA were found in 102 patients, which constitutes 8.1 % of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures beyond the age of 18 years. The paper provides a detailed analysis of a group of patients with TA in terms of anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and the results of therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The age of onset of TA-associated epilepsy was from 9 months to 17 years (mean 9.4 ± 4.06 years. The disease occurred most frequently in young school-age children (41.2 %. Isolated TA as the only type of seizures were observed in the clinical picture of 28 (27.5 % patients. TA were concurrent with other types of seizures in other cases. The investigators have identified 4 types of seizures which TA (generalized convulsions, myoclonic seizures, febrile seizures, and eyelid myoclonia may be concurrent with. Neuroimaging stated there were no brain changes in 85.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. Moderate diffuse subatrophic changes were detected in other cases (14.7 %. Local cerebral structural abnormalities were absent. The use of antiepileptic therapy as both monotherapy and polytherapy using different combinations showed the high efficacy of AEDs. Complete remission was achieved in 84.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. An AED-induced reduction in the frequency of

  19. Exploring inertia in a typical state organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Louw

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Those organisations which do not change according to environmental pressures, suffer from organisational inertia. The purpose of this study is to explore the manifestation of organisational inertia in the target organisation. The target population for this study was a group of trainees, representing the geographic and demographic levels of a particular state department. In South Africa, surveys of this nature were only executed in the corporate sector. The results indicate that organisational inertia is a phenomenon that affects both corporate and governmental organisations. Opsomming Organisasies wat nie ooreenkomstig omgewingsdruk verander nie, ly aan organisasietraagheid. Die doel van die studie is om organisasietraagheid te konseptualiseer en die manifestasie daarvan in die teikenorganisasie te ondersoek. Die teikenpopulasie bestaan uit ’n groep kursusgangers wat die demografiese en geografiese samestelling van ‘n tipiese staatsdepartement verteenwoordig. In Suid -Afrika is navorsing van hierdie aard nog net in die korporatiewe sektor uitgevoer. Die resultate toon aan dat organisasietraagheid ‘n faktor is wat beide die korporatiewe omgewing en staatsorganisasies beïnvloed.

  20. Representative process sampling - in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Friis-Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Julius, Lars Petersen

    2007-01-01

    /or periodicity; different nugget effects and process variations ranging from less than one lag to full variogram lag). Variogram data analysis leads to a fundamental decomposition into 0-D sampling vs. 1-D process variances, based on the three principal variogram parameters: range, sill and nugget effect......Didactic data sets representing a range of real-world processes are used to illustrate "how to do" representative process sampling and process characterisation. The selected process data lead to diverse variogram expressions with different systematics (no range vs. important ranges; trends and...... presented cases of variography either solved the initial problems or served to understand the reasons and causes behind the specific process structures revealed in the variograms. Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) are not complete without process TOS....

  1. Judgments of and by Representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-15

    probably agree that John Updike is a more representative American writer than Norman Mailer. rlearly, such a judgment does not have a frequentistic...example, in an early study we presented people with the following description, " John is 27 years old, with an outgoing personality. At college he was an...outstanding athlete but did not show much ability or interest in in- tellectual matters". We found that John was judged to be more likely to be "a gym

  2. The typical mass ratio and typical final spin in supermassive black hole mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, László Á

    2012-01-01

    We prove that merging supermassive black holes (SMBHs) typically have neither equal masses, nor is their mass ratio too extreme. The majority of such mergers fall into the mass ratio range of 1:30 to 1:3, implying a spin flip during the inspiral. We also present a simple expression for the final spin $\\chi_{f}$ of the emerging SMBH, as function of the mass ratio, initial spin magnitudes, and orientation of the spins with respect to the orbital plane and each other. This formula approximates well more cumbersome expressions obtained from the fit with numerical simulations. By integrating over all equally likely orientations for precessing mergers we determine a lower approximant to the final spin distribution as function of the mass ratio alone. By folding this with the derived mass ratio dependent merger rate we derive a lower bound to the typical final spin value after mergers. We repeat the procedure deriving an upper bound for the typical spin in the case when the spins are aligned to the orbital angular m...

  3. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages art_science/2003>. Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  4. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  5. Representative mass reduction in sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Harry Kim; Dahl, Casper Kierulf

    2004-01-01

    We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...... always be representative in the full Theory of Sampling (TOS) sense. This survey also allows empirical verification of the merits of the famous ??Gy?s formula?? for order-of-magnitude estimation of the Fundamental Sampling Error (FSE).......We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...... dividers, the Boerner Divider, the ??spoon method??, alternate/fractional shoveling and grab sampling. Only devices based on riffle splitting principles (static or rotational) passes the ultimate representativity test (with minor, but significant relative differences). Grab sampling, the overwhelmingly...

  6. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  7. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  8. [Research on developping the spectral dataset for Dunhuang typical colors based on color constancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chan; Liang, Jin-Xing

    2013-11-01

    The present paper aims at developping a method to reasonably set up the typical spectral color dataset for different kinds of Chinese cultural heritage in color rendering process. The world famous wall paintings dating from more than 1700 years ago in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes was taken as typical case in this research. In order to maintain the color constancy during the color rendering workflow of Dunhuang culture relics, a chromatic adaptation based method for developping the spectral dataset of typical colors for those wall paintings was proposed from the view point of human vision perception ability. Under the help and guidance of researchers in the art-research institution and protection-research institution of Dunhuang Academy and according to the existing research achievement of Dunhuang Research in the past years, 48 typical known Dunhuang pigments were chosen and 240 representative color samples were made with reflective spectral ranging from 360 to 750 nm was acquired by a spectrometer. In order to find the typical colors of the above mentioned color samples, the original dataset was devided into several subgroups by clustering analysis. The grouping number, together with the most typical samples for each subgroup which made up the firstly built typical color dataset, was determined by wilcoxon signed rank test according to the color inconstancy index comprehensively calculated under 6 typical illuminating conditions. Considering the completeness of gamut of Dunhuang wall paintings, 8 complementary colors was determined and finally the typical spectral color dataset was built up which contains 100 representative spectral colors. The analytical calculating results show that the median color inconstancy index of the built dataset in 99% confidence level by wilcoxon signed rank test was 3.28 and the 100 colors are distributing in the whole gamut uniformly, which ensures that this dataset can provide reasonable reference for choosing the color with highest

  9. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  10. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervasio Antonelli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  11. Representing Conversations for Scalable Overhearing

    CERN Document Server

    Gutnik, G; 10.1613/jair.1829

    2011-01-01

    Open distributed multi-agent systems are gaining interest in the academic community and in industry. In such open settings, agents are often coordinated using standardized agent conversation protocols. The representation of such protocols (for analysis, validation, monitoring, etc) is an important aspect of multi-agent applications. Recently, Petri nets have been shown to be an interesting approach to such representation, and radically different approaches using Petri nets have been proposed. However, their relative strengths and weaknesses have not been examined. Moreover, their scalability and suitability for different tasks have not been addressed. This paper addresses both these challenges. First, we analyze existing Petri net representations in terms of their scalability and appropriateness for overhearing, an important task in monitoring open multi-agent systems. Then, building on the insights gained, we introduce a novel representation using Colored Petri nets that explicitly represent legal joint conv...

  12. 基于视频叠加的心理暗示%Information producing of psychological suggestion based on video superimposing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小一; 老松杨; 张国华

    2012-01-01

    针对未来心理战民意制约、隐式作战等趋势,提出了基于视频叠加的心理暗示(PSBVS)的构想.分析了PSBVS媒体基础、理论基础和方法基础,为实现信息有效编码进而有效影响受众心理,围绕暗示信息生成构建了一个基本的理论框架.研究了主体编码过程、暗示信息视频语义层次结构、受众心理效应过程以及三者之间的关联,针对感知特征层建立了视频叠加的认知参数模型,对参数设置进行了初步分析,提出了视频叠加暗示信息的心理效果模型,力图为信息内容和形式的确定提供一定的依据和支持.除了心理战,PSBVS在广告营销、医疗和教育等领域都具有重要的应用价值.%An idea of psychological suggestion based on video superimposing (PSBVS) was proposed for the trend of public-opinion restriction and covert operation in future psywar. The media basis, theory basis and method basis of PSBVS were analyzed firstly. Then, in order to encode information effectively and impact the psychology of psywar object successfully, a theory frame was established on suggestive information producing. The information coding process, video hiberarchy, and psychological effectiveness process were researched systemically, together with the relationship among them. The cognitive parameter model of video superimposing was constructed for perceptive-feature-level. An effect evaluation model of suggestive information was proposed, which can provide a guidance and feedback to parameter set. A theoretical support was provided for decision of information content and form. Besides psychology warfare, PSBVS has a significant applying value in fields such as commerce advertising, medicare and education.

  13. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterisation of N-Alkyl Quaternary Ammonium Salts Typical Precursors of Cyanines

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, P; Reis, L. V.; SANTOS, P.F.; Ramos, S. S.; Pardal, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic characterisation of some representative N-alkylsubstituted quaternary ammonium salts derived from benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzoselenazole, indole and quinoline are described. These heterocyclic salts, bearing an activated methyl group in the 2-position in relation to the nitrogen atom and N-methyl, -pentyl, -hexyl and -decyl chains, are typical precursors of cyanine dyes.

  14. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterisation of N-Alkyl Quaternary Ammonium Salts Typical Precursors of Cyanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Almeida

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and spectroscopic characterisation of some representative N-alkylsubstituted quaternary ammonium salts derived from benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzoselenazole, indole and quinoline are described. These heterocyclic salts, bearing an activated methyl group in the 2-position in relation to the nitrogen atom and N-methyl, -pentyl, -hexyl and -decyl chains, are typical precursors of cyanine dyes.

  15. Modelling object typicality in description logics - [Workshop on Description Logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors presents a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic framework...

  16. Oxygen availability and distance to surface environments determine community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing prokaroytes in two superimposed pristine limestone aquifers in the Hainich region, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Sebastian; Küsel, Kirsten; Spott, Oliver; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Herrmann, Martina

    2014-10-01

    We followed the abundance and compared the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in the groundwater of two superimposed pristine limestone aquifers located in the Hainich region (Thuringia, Germany) over 22 months. Groundwater obtained from the upper aquifer (12 m depth) was characterized by low oxygen saturation (0-20%) and low nitrate concentrations (0-20 μM), contrasting with 50-80% oxygen saturation and 40-200 μM nitrate in the lower aquifer (48 m and 88 m depth). Quantitative PCR targeting bacterial and archaeal amoA and 16S rRNA genes suggested a much higher ammonia oxidizer fraction in the lower aquifer (0.4-7.8%) compared with the upper aquifer (0.01-0.29%). In both aquifers, AOB communities were dominated by one phylotype related to Nitrosomonas ureae, while AOA communities were more diverse. Multivariate analysis of amoA DGGE profiles revealed a stronger temporal variation of AOA and AOB community composition in the upper aquifer, pointing to a stronger influence of surface environments. Parallel fluctuations of AOA, AOB, and total microbial abundance suggested that hydrological factors (heavy rain falls, snow melt) rather than specific physicochemical parameters were responsible for the observed community dynamics.

  17. Research on the Reasonable Spacing of Holes in Gas Drainage along Coal Seams in Consideration of the Superimposed Effect of Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available o determine the reasonable spacing of holes for gas drainage, an experimental study was conducted on the effective influence radius of drilling hole through the pressure drop method based on the actual condition of coal seams. The coal seam that contains gas is regarded as elastic-plastic dual media. The governing equation of gas transport is established by analyzing the different flow forms of gas in the pore and fissure systems as well as by considering the mass exchange capacity in the pore-fissure system. The equation is embedded into COMSOL Multiphysics (COMSOL software to simulate the gas drainage effect further by drilling along a coal seam under a 3-D space. Upon confirming the effective radius and drainage influence radius of a single pore, the holes for gas drainage can be reasonably spaced along the coal seam by analyzing the change features of coal permeability around the borehole and the functional mechanism of the superimposed effect of drainage, namely, 2r≤L≤R. The study results can reliably guide practical gas drainage theoretically and can also effectively lower the cost of gas drainage as well as ensure the safe production in mines.

  18. Typical distribution of the solar erythemal UV radiation over Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribullová

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Maps of the solar erythemal ultraviolet (UV radiation daily doses were created for every month with horizontal resolution of 500 m at geographical domain 47.15 N–49.86 N×16.94 E–22.81 E covering the territory of Slovakia. Cloud modification factor for the UV radiation (cmfUV was modelled utilizing relation between the cmf of total and UV radiation.

    The maps of the cmf factor of the UV radiation were created utilizing measurements of total radiation performed at 9 observatories during 1995–2004 period and the model of cmf dependence on altitude. Maps of clear-sky UV radiation daily dose and UV radiation daily dose affected by average cloudiness were constructed for mean monthly total ozone, their upper and lower monthly limits, for two probability levels of snow cover occurrence as criterion for the snow effect incorporation in the model and for 1 day representing typical values of every month. The map-set can be considered as an atlas of the solar erythemal UV radiation over Slovakia.

  19. Typical distribution of the solar erythemal UV radiation over Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chmelík

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Maps of solar erythemal ultraviolet (EUV irradiance daily doses were created for every month with a horizontal resolution of 500 m at the geographical domain 47.15 N–49.86 N×16.94 E–22.81 E covering the territory of Slovakia. The cloud modification factor for the EUV radiation (cmfUV was modeled utilizing the relation between the cloud modification factor of global and EUV radiation. The maps of the cmfUV factor were created by utilizing measurements of global irradiance performed at nine observatories during the period 1995–2004 and modeling of the cmfUV dependence on altitude. Maps of the EUV irradiance daily dose corresponded to clear-sky conditions and EUV irradiance daily dose affected by average cloudiness were constructed for mean monthly total ozone, its upper and lower monthly limits, for two probability levels of snow cover occurrence as criteria for the snow effect incorporation in the model and for one day representing typical values for every month. The map-set can be regarded as an atlas of solar EUV radiation over Slovakia.

  20. Help of superimposing thoracic-abdominal images by TDN and SPECT in cancer diagnosis; Aide au diagnostique en cancerologie par superposition d`images thoraco-abdominales TDM et TEMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perault, C.; Schvartz, C.; Wampach, H.; Liehn, J.C.; Delisle, M.J.; Groupe de Pathologie Thyroidienne Tumorale [Institut Jean Godinot, Reims 51056 (France)

    1997-12-31

    Superimposing anatomic (TDM) and tumor specific (SPECT) tomographies facilitates tumor detection and localization. The method that we have earlier developed for pelvic tumors, has been adapted for endocrine tumors in the most deformable thorax-abdominal region. Forty, TDM and double-isotope SPECT acquisitions, comprising an osseous scintigraphy (by {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP) and tumor specific scintigraphy (by {sup 111}In - pentetreotide, {sup 131}I, {sup 131}I - MIBG) have been performed in 13 patients afflicted with medullar (5), differentiated (5), thyroid cancers or carcinoid tumors (3). The fiducial points located on the visible anatomical structures in the two modalities allow making the calculation, some times local, of the matching parameters, what leads to the superimposed images. Ten sites were validated by surgery or later imaging in 8 patients. The reproducibility and matching accuracy were checked for every patient due to the superimposed TDM images and osseous scintigraphies. The superimposed TDM images and tumoral scintigraphy have allowed to increase the reliability and accuracy, to localize the TDM- undetected tumoral sites, to determine the tissue nature of doubtful TDM interpretation and to confirm the positive TDM interpretation or to recognize non-specific scintigraphic fixation. The TDM-SPECT superposition, without external labellers, is possible in the thorax and abdomen, even when the matching accuracy is limited because of relative movement of organs due to respiration or posture. A multi-center study is under way aiming at a larger validation and clinic evaluation

  1. 叠合板式剪力墙T型、L型墙体抗震性能试验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SEISMIC PERFORMANCE ON T AND L TYPES SUPERIMPOSED-SLAB-SHEAR-WALLS STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟林; 沈小璞; 吴志新; 姚峰

    2012-01-01

    采用试验方法,研究叠合板式混凝土剪力墙T型、L型拼接墙体抗震性能。分析了叠合板式剪力墙结构体系抗震设计关键技术研究现状。对叠合板式混凝土剪力墙试件进行非线性推覆研究和非弹性动力响应分析,重点研究影响T型、L型拼接构件抗震性能的滞回曲线、骨架随线、刚度下降曲线和延性性能。研究结果表明:叠合板式剪力墙与全现浇剪力墙的抗震性能基本一致。根据试验结论,提出叠合板式混凝土剪力墙结构基于性能的抗震设计方法。编制出的地方规范已经发布并得到应用。%The seismic problem of a superimposed-slab-shear-walls structure was studied by the experimental method. The key technology of the structural seismic research on a superimposed-slab-shear-walls system was analyzed. Superimposed-slab shear walls was utilized to study the cause of nonlinear detrude-wreck and the parameters of non-elastically dynastic response, where it was focused on the analysis of the hysterics loops, skeleton loops, stiffness degrading loops and ductility of the connections (including T and L types connections) of the superimposed slab that effect the anti-seismic performance of the structure. The results show that the seismic performance of the superimposed-slab shear walls is the same as that of concrete shear walls. According to the research result, the design method of a superimposed-slab-shear-walls structure based on the anti-seismic performance is forward. The local regulation of aseismic design for a superimposed-slab-shear-walls structure has been released and is applied to engineering.

  2. INFLUENCE OF VARIATIONS OF THE CONDUCTIVITY OF UPPER LAYER OF TWO-LAYER SAMPLE ON OF PHASE INTRODUCED ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE OF SUPERIMPOSED TRANSDUCER OF EDDY CURRENT THICKNESS METER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chernyshev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In carrying out eddy current thickness measurement of two-layer conductive objects one from the interfering factors is the presence of variations in the value of the electrical conductivity of the material of the upper layer (coating when moving from point to point on the surface of object of control or when passing from one object of control to another. The aim of this work is to evaluate the accuracy of determining the thickness of the conductive coating disposed on a conducting ferromagnetic basis, using the phase method of eddy current testing. The reason of the error is variation of the electrical conductivity of the material of coating.Determination of the error is based on calculations using known analytical expressions for the loop with current of sinusoidal form arranged over the infinite half space with a covering as a thin layer. Selected in calculating electromagnetic parameters of coating and substrate approximately correspond to the case -chromium layer on a nickel base. Calculations are performed for different frequencies of current passed through coil.It is shown that at reduction of frequency of the current passes through the coil the error is reduced. The value of the lowest possible operating frequency of the excitation current is determined by the condition of absence influence on the phase introduced into the superimposed transducer emf variations in the thickness of the basis.To reduce the indicated error it is proposed to determine, on the basis of phase method at a relatively high frequency transducer current excitation, conductivity of the material of coating. After this, at a low frequency excitation current and using phase method, the coating thickness is determined, taking into consideration the previously determined value of the conductivity of coating. Also discussed ways to improve the accuracy of phase measurements in the MHz region of the excitation current frequency. 

  3. Quantum criticality at the Anderson transition: A typical medium theory perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Samiyeh; Tang, Shao; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir

    2015-10-01

    We present a complete analytical and numerical solution of the typical medium theory (TMT) for the Anderson metal-insulator transition. This approach self-consistently calculates the typical amplitude of the electronic wave functions, thus representing the conceptually simplest order-parameter theory for the Anderson transition. We identify all possible universality classes for the critical behavior, which can be found within such a mean-field approach. This provides insights into how interaction-induced renormalizations of the disorder potential may produce qualitative modifications of the critical behavior. We also formulate a simplified description of the leading critical behavior, thus obtaining an effective Landau theory for Anderson localization.

  4. Representing humans in system security models: An actor-network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    System models to assess the vulnerability of information systems to security threats typically represent a physical infrastructure (buildings) and a digital infrastructure (computers and networks), in combination with an attacker traversing the system while acquiring credentials. Other humans are ge

  5. Representing humans in system security models: An actor-network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    System models to assess the vulnerability of information systems to security threats typically represent a physical infrastructure (buildings) and a digital infrastructure (computers and networks), in combination with an attacker traversing the system while acquiring credentials. Other humans are ge

  6. 10 CFR 63.332 - Representative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative volume. 63.332 Section 63.332 Energy... Protection Standards § 63.332 Representative volume. (a) The representative volume is the volume of ground... radionuclides released from the Yucca Mountain disposal system that will be in the representative volume....

  7. Identification of objective representative scenarios for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Laura; Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is typically based on one or a few representative eruptive scenarios, meant as specific combinations of a representative eruptive size, intensity, and vent position, selected with subjective criteria neglecting the full intrinsic natural variability characterizing volcanic processes. In common practice, the size and intensity of such scenarios are taken as representative of wider ranges, here termed "size classes". The approach implicitly or explicitly assumes that the inter-size class variability (among different eruptive size classes) is predominant with respect to the intra-size class variability (i.e., the variability inside each range represented by an eruptive size and intensity), the latter assumed as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been carried out to verify such an assumption. Here, we first adopt a novel statistical strategy, that accounts for the full natural variability, to quantify the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment for tephra fallout in the Campania area. Secondly, we compare the results of the new method with those based on few representative scenarios only. On one hand, such comparison allows for determining when the simplified approach is valid, and quantifying the bias introduced in hazard assessment when the full variability is not accounted for. On the other hand, this novel approach opens the way to an objective a posteriori identification of a limited number of representative scenarios, which are necessary when there is no possibility to explore the full variability, as for example for rapid hazard assessment during emergencies, or for short-term hazard assessment.

  8. Study protocol for the recreational stimulation for elders as a vehicle to resolve delirium superimposed on dementia (Reserve For DSD trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Doug

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a state of confusion characterized by an acute and fluctuating decline in cognitive functioning. Delirium is common and deadly in older adults with dementia, and is often referred to as delirium superimposed on dementia, or DSD. Interventions that treat DSD are not well-developed because the mechanisms involved in its etiology are not completely understood. We have developed a theory-based intervention for DSD that is derived from the literature on cognitive reserve and based on our prior interdisciplinary work on delirium, recreational activities, and cognitive stimulation in people with dementia. Our preliminary work indicate that use of simple, cognitively stimulating activities may help resolve delirium by helping to focus inattention, the primary neuropsychological deficit in delirium. Our primary aim in this trial is to test the efficacy of Recreational Stimulation for Elders as a Vehicle to resolve DSD (RESERVE- DSD. Methods/Design This randomized repeated measures clinical trial will involve participants being recruited and enrolled at the time of admission to post acute care. We will randomize 256 subjects to intervention (RESERVE-DSD or control (usual care. Intervention subjects will receive 30-minute sessions of tailored cognitively stimulating recreational activities for up to 30 days. We hypothesize that subjects who receive RESERVE-DSD will have: decreased severity and duration of delirium; greater gains in attention, orientation, memory, abstract thinking, and executive functioning; and greater gains in physical function compared to subjects with DSD who receive usual care. We will also evaluate potential moderators of intervention efficacy (lifetime of complex mental activities and APOE status. Our secondary aim is to describe the costs associated with RESERVE-DSD. Discussion Our theory-based intervention, which uses simple, inexpensive recreational activities for delivering cognitive stimulation

  9. Emotional expression of high school students with visual impairments and their typically developing peers

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Vesna; Jablan Branka; Stanimirović Dragana; Drinčić Natalija

    2015-01-01

    Emotions are adaptive reaction to events from the environment and they represent the central part of every person's life. Willing emotional expression influences people from the environment according to our expectations if they recognize our emotions. Studies on expressing emotions in persons with visual impairments indicate the existence of the same type of spontaneous emotional expressions as in typically developing population. Also, these studies point to difficulties in presenting willing...

  10. Indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S. B.; Cheng, M.; Galbally, I. E.; Keywood, M. D.; Lawson, S. J.; Powell, J. C.; Gillett, R.; Dunne, E.; Selleck, P. W.

    2012-07-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive study of indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings. Forty dwellings located over an 800 km2 area in the south-east of Melbourne with a range of ages, materials and structures representative of Australian dwellings were selected. A range of indoor air quality pollutants were sampled both inside and outside for one week each in Winter/Spring 2008 and Summer/Autumn 2009. Information was collected on house characteristics, the surrounding areas and occupant activities during the sampling. Weekly indoor averaged CO2 (536 ± 121 ppm), CO (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm), PM2.5 (8.4 ± 4.0 μg m-3), temperatures (21.2 ± 2.0 °C), water vapour mixing ratios (7.9 ± 1.3 g kg-1), benzene (1.3 ± 1.1 μg m-3), toluene (8.8 ± 7.9 μg m-3) and xylenes (6.2 ± 6.7 μg m-3) varied from 1.1 to approximately three times higher compared to the equivalent outdoors concentrations. Formaldehyde (12.2 ± 4.7 ppb), other carbonyls (7.9 ± 2.6 ppb) and total volatile organic compounds (181.1 ± 89.5 μg m-3) had indoor concentrations of factors between eight and 12 times higher compared to outdoor concentrations. Weekly averaged indoor ozone (0.7 ± 0.7 ppb), NO2 (8.4 ± 3.9 ppb) and PM10 (20.4 ± 8.1 μg m-3) were significantly lower than outdoors. Correlations and factor analysis showed the major influences on this indoor air quality were (a) dwelling age, whereby dwellings constructed in recent decades compared to older buildings were found to have increased concentrations of the highly elevated species formaldehyde, other carbonyls and total volatile organic compounds, and (b) combustion and cooking activities that increased the concentrations of multiple species including CO, CO2, NO2, H2O and particles. The indoor pollutant concentrations from this study were in general comparable with or lower than other Australian or overseas studies.

  11. Consciousness and the structuring property of typical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jonathan W. D.

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical base for consciousness, in particular an explanation of how consciousness is defined by the brain, has long been sought by science. We propose a partial theory of consciousness as relations defined by typical data. The theory is based on the idea that a brain state on its own is almost meaningless but in the context of the typical brain states, defined by the brain's structure, a particular brain state is highly structured by relations. The proposed theory can be applied and tested both theoretically and experimentally. Precisely how typical data determines relations is fully established using discrete mathematics.

  12. VT Biodiversity Project - Representative Landscapes boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This coverage represents the results of an analysis of landscape diversity in Vermont. Polygons in the dataset represent as much as possible (in a...

  13. Representing Uncertainty by Probability and Possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance of uncer......Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance...

  14. Representing Uncertainty by Probability and Possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance of uncer......Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance...

  15. 7 CFR 1280.611 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1280.611 Section 1280.611... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.611 Representative period. Representative period means the period designated by the Secretary pursuant to § 518 of the Act. ...

  16. 29 CFR 548.405 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representative period. 548.405 Section 548.405 Labor... Application § 548.405 Representative period. (a) The application must set forth the facts relied upon to show... employee exclusive of overtime premiums over a representative period of time. 21 The basic rate will be...

  17. 7 CFR 1230.618 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1230.618 Section 1230.618... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.618 Representative period. The term Representative period means the 12-consecutive months prior to the first day of absentee and...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.612 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1220.612 Section 1220.612... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.612 Representative period. Representative period means the period designated by the Secretary pursuant to section 1970 of the Act. ...

  19. Evaluating propensity score balance measures in typical pharmacoepidemiological settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Mohammed S.; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Pestman, Wiebe R.; Belitser, S.; Hoes, Arno W.; Roes, Kit C. B.; De Boer, Anthonius; Klungel, Olaf H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several propensity score (PS) balance measures have been compared in simulated data with normally distributed covariates. Comparisons in data with binary or mixed covariate distributions and rare outcomes, typical of pharmacoepidemiologic data sets, are scarce. Objectives: To compare bal

  20. Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

  1. Three Typical Dermatological Cases Treated by Dr. Li Yueping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaoqiong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dr. Li Yueping has been engaged in dermatological clinic for more than 40 years, accumulating rich experience in treating dermatological diseases. The following is three typical cases she gave successful treatment.

  2. Tomographic maps of typical radio signals and their superpositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man'ko, [No Value; Usoltsev, AS

    2002-01-01

    Following the procedure of noncommutative tomography of analytic signals, some typical radio signals are analyzed. Tomograms of rectangular pulses, delta-pulses, and Gaussian signals are presented. Properties of the noncommutative tomography method are discussed.

  3. Mining Representative Subset Based on Fuzzy Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hongfang; FENG Boqin; L(U) Lintao

    2007-01-01

    Two new concepts-fuzzy mutuality and average fuzzy entropy are presented. Then based on these concepts, a new algorithm-RSMA (representative subset mining algorithm) is proposed, which can abstract representative subset from massive data.To accelerate the speed of producing representative subset, an improved algorithm-ARSMA(accelerated representative subset mining algorithm) is advanced, which adopt combining putting forward with backward strategies. In this way, the performance of the algorithm is improved. Finally we make experiments on real datasets and evaluate the representative subset. The experiment shows that ARSMA algorithm is more excellent than RandomPick algorithm either on effectiveness or efficiency.

  4. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  5. Representing Others in a Public Good Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Evelyn Hauge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In many important public good situations the decision-making power and authority is delegated to representatives who make binding decisions on behalf of a larger group. The purpose of this study is to compare contribution decisions made by individuals with contribution decisions made by group representatives. We present the results from a laboratory experiment that compares decisions made by individuals in inter-individual public good games with decisions made by representatives on behalf of their group in inter-group public good games. Our main finding is that contribution behavior differs between individuals and group representatives, but only for women. While men’s choices are equally self-interested as individuals and group representatives, women make less self-interested choices as group representatives.

  6. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  7. Representing Quadric Surfaces Using NURBS Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开怀

    1997-01-01

    A method for representing quadrc surfaces using NURBS is presented.By means of the necessary and sufficient conditons for NURBS curves to precisely represent circular arcs and other conics,quadric surfaces can be represented by NURBS surfaces with fewer control vertices.The method can be used not only for NURBS surface representation of quadric surfaces,but also for rounding polyhedrons.Many examples are given in the paper.

  8. Entanglement Dynamics in Typical Local- and Normal-Mode Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xi-Wen; WAN Ming-Fang; MA Zhong-Qi

    2007-01-01

    The entanglement dynamics of two stretching vibrations in theoretically typical local- and normal-mode molecules and realistic molecules H2O and SO2 in an algebraic model is studied in terms of the reduced-density linear entropy with initial entangled states taken to be two-mode squeezed vacuum states. It is shown that the behaviour of the entropy in theoretically typical molecules appears to be more regular than that in realistic ones, and that the entropy becomes irregular as the amplitude of two-mode squeezed vacuum states increases. For initial states with a small amplitude, it is demonstrated that the periodicity and the "classical" beat phenomenon of the entropy occur with the beat in theoretically typical molecules being more regular than that in realistic molecules H2O and SO2.

  9. Typical Skin Injuries in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, Brett; Yatchmink, Yvette; Goldberg, Amy

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric skin injuries have primarily been described in typically developing children. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and pattern of skin injuries of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), to describe how this compared with previously demonstrated skin injury locations in typically developing children, and to identify differences in skin injury frequency and locations between autistic children with and without self-injurious behaviors (SIBs). Children with ASD were recruited between September of 2011 and September of 2014. Demographic information was obtained from the caregiver. All skin injuries and their locations were documented. Of the 41 children enrolled, half were reported to have SIBs. The most identified skin injury locations were the legs, knees, and back. Children with autism (1) obtain skin injuries frequently and in similar locations as typically developing children and (2) rarely obtain skin injuries to locations that are considered uncommon for accidental injuries despite reports of SIBs.

  10. Spatial Resolution of the ECE for JET Typical Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribaldos, V. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to obtain estimations of the spatial resolution of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) phenomena for the typical plasmas found in JET tokamak. The analysis of the spatial resolution of the ECE is based on the underlying physical process of emission and a working definition is presented and discussed. In making these estimations a typical JET pulse is being analysed taking into account the magnetic configuration, the density and temperature profiles, obtained with the EFIT code and from the LIDAR diagnostic. Ray tracing simulations are performed for a Maxwellian plasma taking into account the antenna pattern. (Author) 5 refs.

  11. Representing Object Colour in Language Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that colour. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object colour is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…

  12. Fostering an Interest in Science in a Typically Underrepresented Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah F.; McEntire, Jennifer Cleveland; Sarakatsannis, James

    2007-01-01

    This "case study" details how food science was introduced into the classrooms of a typically underrepresented population. James Sarakatsannis, an 8th grade physical science teacher, was planning a unit that would use fast food to teach science to his classes, when he came across the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) website and a wealth of…

  13. The simulation study of three typical time frequency analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The principals and characteristics of three typical time frequency analysis methods that Short Time Furious transformation, wavelet transformation and Hilbert-Huang transformation are introduced, and the mathematical definition, characteristics and application ranges of these analysis methods and so on are pointed out, then their time-frequency local performance is made analysis and comparison through computer programming and simulation.

  14. Quantum typicality in spin network states of quantum geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Anzà, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we extend the so-called typicality approach, originally formulated in statistical mechanics contexts, to SU(2) invariant spin network states. Our results do not depend on the physical interpretation of the spin-network, however they are mainly motivated by the fact that spin-network states can describe states of quantum geometry, providing a gauge-invariant basis for the kinematical Hilbert space of several background independent approaches to quantum gravity. The first result is, by itself, the existence of a regime in which we show the emergence of a typical state. We interpret this as the prove that, in that regime there are certain (local) properties of quantum geometry which are "universal". Such set of properties is heralded by the typical state, of which we give the explicit form. This is our second result. In the end, we study some interesting properties of the typical state, proving that the area-law for the entropy of a surface must be satisfied at the local level, up to logarithmic c...

  15. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  16. 28 CFR 61.5 - Typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.5 Typical classes of action. (a) The NEPA.... These classes are: actions normally requiring environmental impact statements (EIS), actions normally...; (ii) Proposals for legislation developed by or with the significant cooperation and support of...

  17. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  18. Typical School Day Experiences of Indian Children in Different Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N.; Malar, G.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that India has experienced conditions that have lead to significant illiteracy, but that commitment to education can be found in lesser-known parts of India today. Profiles three schools in Tamil Nadu and describes a typical school day for a student with special needs, a student in a tribal setting, and a student in a rural setting. (TJQ)

  19. Stimulus Overselectivity in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, William V.; Farber, Rachel S.; Mueller, Marlana R.; Grant, Eileen; Lorin, Lucy; Deutsch, Curtis K.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome…

  20. Typical Lexical and Syntactical Mistakes in Technical Treatises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Gedzevičienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article suggests the analysis of typical mechanically made lexical and syntactical mistakes appearing in treatises. The article also provides the examples of mistakes found in this book. Causes for language mistakes (mistakes in using the wrong words, cases and prepositions and correction of errors are given.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  2. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  3. Realizing the Typical Gas Burning System' s Control by PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang,Hengcheng; Wang,Yanbin

    2003-01-01

    This Paper introduced the typical gas burning sys-tem's cemposing, analysesed and discussed its operation theoryand two different leak control methods in detail, investigatedconcretely the software and hardware design project of realizingcontrol and performed communication with upper computer bySiemens' s S7-300 Programmable Logical Controller.

  4. Describing Typical Capstone Course Experiences from a National Random Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahe, Jon E.; Hauhart, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The pedagogical value of capstones has been regularly discussed within psychology. This study presents results from an examination of a national random sample of department webpages and an online survey that characterized the typical capstone course in terms of classroom activities and course administration. The department webpages provide an…

  5. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  6. Whittaker categories and strongly typical Whittaker modules for Lie superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bagci, Irfan; Wiesner, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Following analogous constructions for Lie algebras, we define Whittaker modules and Whittaker categories for finite-dimensional simple Lie superalgebras. Results include a decomposition of Whittaker categories for a Lie superalgebra according to the action of an appropriate sub-superalgebra; and, for basic classical Lie superalgebras of type I, a description of the strongly typical simple Whittaker modules.

  7. BRONCHOSCOPIC THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH INTRALUMINAL TYPICAL BRONCHIAL CARCINOID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUTEDJA, TG; SCHREURS, AJ; VANDERSCHUEREN, RG; KWA, B; VANDERWERF, TS; POSTMUS, PE

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy of bronchoscopic therapy in patients with intraluminal typical bronchial carcinoid. Design: Retrospective analysis of the data of patients with bronchial carcinoid, treated primarily with bronchoscopic techniques such as Nd-YAG laser in various hospitals in the Nethe

  8. Typical neuroleptic malignant syndrome presented in patient on maintenance quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan Madhusudan Raval

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is an acute, life-threatening medical complication caused by antipsychotics. It is commonly seen with typical antipsychotics and very rare with atypicals. Cases have been reported with quetiapine also, but this case is of special interest because it occurred in patient who was stable on maintenance quetiapine 200 mg/day for last 5 years.

  9. Temperament Dimensions in Stuttering and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether children who stutter (CWS) and typically developing children (TDC) differ from each other on composite temperament factors or on individual temperament scales. Methods: Participants consisted of 116 age and gender-matched CWS and TDC (3.04-8.11). Temperament was assessed with a Dutch…

  10. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  11. Sonographic findings of typical and atypical scrotal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Daniel N; Jensen, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    This review article illustrates sonographic findings in the setting of accidental and nonaccidental scrotal trauma. Although sonographic findings may be irrespective of the type of trauma, the goals of sonographic evaluation are similar in both atypical and typical mechanisms of scrotal injury. Familiarity with findings such as disruption of testicular integrity or vascularity facilitates prompt diagnosis and plays a critical role in clinical management.

  12. On the entailment problem for a logic of typicality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available , Buenos Aires, Argentina, 25-31 July 2015 On the entailment problem for a logic of typicality Richard Booth Mahasarakham University Thailand ribooth@gmail.com Giovanni Casini CAIR, Univ. of Pretoria and CSIR Meraka South Africa; Univ...

  13. Neuronal synchrony does not represent texture segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; Spekreijse, H.

    1998-01-01

    The visual environment is perceived as an organized whole of objects and their surroundings. In many visual cortical areas, however, neurons are typically activated when a stimulus is presented over a very limited portion of the visual field, the receptive field of that neuron(1-4). To bridge the ga

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorders as a Qualitatively Distinct Category from Typical Behavior in a Large, Clinically Ascertained Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Sinclair, Leslie; Kubu, Cynthia S.; Law, Paul; Rezai, Ali; Constantino, John N.; Eng, Charis

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are best represented as a discrete category distinct from typical behavior within autism-affected families. The latent structure, categorical versus dimensional, of ASDs informs future diagnostic revisions, clinical assessment, and the design of future research. Data…

  15. Foregrounded Beauty:A Brief Analysis of Cummings’Typical Poems from the Perspective of Stylistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文荣

    2014-01-01

    E. E. Cummings is one of the representatives of American modern experimental poets whose poems are well-known for the unique style. Cummings endeavors to make his poems be different from other poets’. He broke the traditional way of writing poems, invented in the changing of lines of the poem and the spelling of the words in the poem, thus to make his personal poem style distinctive. Therefore, standing on the stylistic point of view, this paper makes a brief analysis on Cummings’typical poems from foregrounding perspective.

  16. Web Image Search Re-ranking with Click-based Similarity and Typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaopeng; Mei, Tao; Zhang, Yong Dong; Liu, Jie; Satoh, Shin'ichi

    2016-07-20

    In image search re-ranking, besides the well known semantic gap, intent gap, which is the gap between the representation of users' query/demand and the real intent of the users, is becoming a major problem restricting the development of image retrieval. To reduce human effects, in this paper, we use image click-through data, which can be viewed as the "implicit feedback" from users, to help overcome the intention gap, and further improve the image search performance. Generally, the hypothesis visually similar images should be close in a ranking list and the strategy images with higher relevance should be ranked higher than others are widely accepted. To obtain satisfying search results, thus, image similarity and the level of relevance typicality are determinate factors correspondingly. However, when measuring image similarity and typicality, conventional re-ranking approaches only consider visual information and initial ranks of images, while overlooking the influence of click-through data. This paper presents a novel re-ranking approach, named spectral clustering re-ranking with click-based similarity and typicality (SCCST). First, to learn an appropriate similarity measurement, we propose click-based multi-feature similarity learning algorithm (CMSL), which conducts metric learning based on clickbased triplets selection, and integrates multiple features into a unified similarity space via multiple kernel learning. Then based on the learnt click-based image similarity measure, we conduct spectral clustering to group visually and semantically similar images into same clusters, and get the final re-rank list by calculating click-based clusters typicality and withinclusters click-based image typicality in descending order. Our experiments conducted on two real-world query-image datasets with diverse representative queries show that our proposed reranking approach can significantly improve initial search results, and outperform several existing re-ranking approaches.

  17. Characterization of Three Different Unusual S-Layer Proteins from Viridibacillus arvi JG-B58 That Exhibits Two Super-Imposed S-Layer Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Matthias; Lederer, Franziska L; Günther, Tobias J; Raff, Johannes; Pollmann, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Genomic analyses of Viridibacillus arvi JG-B58 that was previously isolated from heavy metal contaminated environment identified three different putative surface layer (S-layer) protein genes namely slp1, slp2, and slp3. All three genes are expressed during cultivation. At least two of the V. arvi JG-B58 S-layer proteins were visualized on the surface of living cells via atomic force microscopy (AFM). These S-layer proteins form a double layer with p4 symmetry. The S-layer proteins were isolated from the cells using two different methods. Purified S-layer proteins were recrystallized on SiO2 substrates in order to study the structure of the arrays and self-assembling properties. The primary structure of all examined S-layer proteins lack some features that are typical for Bacillus or Lysinibacillus S-layers. For example, they possess no SLH domains that are usually responsible for the anchoring of the proteins to the cell wall. Further, the pI values are relatively high ranging from 7.84 to 9.25 for the matured proteins. Such features are typical for S-layer proteins of Lactobacillus species although sequence comparisons indicate a close relationship to S-layer proteins of Lysinibacillus and Bacillus strains. In comparison to the numerous descriptions of S-layers, there are only a few studies reporting the concomitant existence of two different S-layer proteins on cell surfaces. Together with the genomic data, this is the first description of a novel type of S-layer proteins showing features of Lactobacillus as well as of Bacillus-type S-layer proteins and the first study of the cell envelope of Viridibacillus arvi.

  18. 7 CFR 1205.20 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1205.20 Section 1205.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... period means the 2006 calendar year....

  19. Enhancing policy innovation by redesigning representative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    . Two Danish case studies indicate that collaboration between politicians and relevant and affected stakeholders can promote policy innovation, but also that a redesign of representative democracy is needed in order to establish a productive combination of political leadership, competition...

  20. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  1. Caspar Wessel on representing complex numbers (1799)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Bodil

    1999-01-01

    In celebration of the bicentenary of the publication of Wessel's paper on the geometric interpretation of complex numbers it is decsribed how Wessel used complex numbers to represent directions in surveying, at least as early as 1787.......In celebration of the bicentenary of the publication of Wessel's paper on the geometric interpretation of complex numbers it is decsribed how Wessel used complex numbers to represent directions in surveying, at least as early as 1787....

  2. Quadratic forms representing all odd positive integers

    CERN Document Server

    Rouse, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of classifying all positive-definite integer-valued quadratic forms that represent all positive odd integers. Kaplansky considered this problem for ternary forms, giving a list of 23 candidates, and proving that 19 of those represent all positive odds. (Jagy later dealt with a 20th candidate.) Assuming that the remaining three forms represent all positive odds, we prove that an arbitrary, positive-definite quadratic form represents all positive odds if and only if it represents the odd numbers from 1 up to 451. This result is analogous to Bhargava and Hanke's celebrated 290-theorem. In addition, we prove that these three remaining ternaries represent all positive odd integers, assuming the generalized Riemann hypothesis. This result is made possible by a new analytic method for bounding the cusp constants of integer-valued quaternary quadratic forms $Q$ with fundamental discriminant. This method is based on the analytic properties of Rankin-Selberg $L$-functions, and we use it to prove...

  3. [A case of disseminated gonococcal infection without typical skin rash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Kazuhisa; Gomi, Harumi; Morisawa, Yuji

    2011-07-01

    Few case reports have been published on disseminated gonococcal infection in Japan. We report such a non-HIV case without typical skin rash. A 49-year-old Japanese man living in Thailand on business was seen for fever and multiple arthralgia after returning to Japan. Given the travel history, differential diagnoses included endemic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue fever, and chikungunya. Diagnosis was based on right-knee arthrocentesis, and synovial fluid culture followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The isolated strain was sensitive to penicillin. The man was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and oral levofloxacin. Disseminated gonococcal infection should thus be considered when examining those with classical polyarthralgia symptoms even without a typical skin rash.

  4. Artificial bias typically neglected in comparisons of uncertain atmospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Mikkonen, Santtu; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Lipponen, Antti; Arola, Antti

    2016-09-01

    Publications in atmospheric sciences typically neglect biases caused by regression dilution (bias of the ordinary least squares line fitting) and regression to the mean (RTM) in comparisons of uncertain data. We use synthetic observations mimicking real atmospheric data to demonstrate how the biases arise from random data uncertainties of measurements, model output, or satellite retrieval products. Further, we provide examples of typical methods of data comparisons that have a tendency to pronounce the biases. The results show, that data uncertainties can significantly bias data comparisons due to regression dilution and RTM, a fact that is known in statistics but disregarded in atmospheric sciences. Thus, we argue that often these biases are widely regarded as measurement or modeling errors, for instance, while they in fact are artificial. It is essential that atmospheric and geoscience communities become aware of and consider these features in research.

  5. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    the effect of the new requirements for renovation is that existing buildings should be brought up to the energy performance level of new buildings in connection with larger renovations and other substantial changes in the buildings. To demonstrate how it could be done, a thorough energy efficient renovation...... of a typical Danish single-family house from the 1960/70’s with need of renovation has been initiated and the preliminary results are presented in this paper. It is worth noting that about 500,000 of a total of 1.1 million Danish detached single-family houses were erected in that time period. Specifically......, the purpose of the project was to demonstrate that energy efficient renovation of a typical single-family house would lead to large reductions in energy consumption in a cost efficient manner, and at the same time improve living conditions. The focus has also been on achieving a commonly acceptable design...

  6. Diagnosis and management of typical and atypical lung carcinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Sara; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Macerelli, Marianna; Proto, Claudia; Vitali, Milena; Signorelli, Diego; Ganzinelli, Monica; Scanagatta, Paolo; Duranti, Leonardo; Trama, Annalisa; Buzzoni, Roberto; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Pastorino, Ugo; de Braud, Filippo; Garassino, Marina Chiara

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 20% to 30% of all neuroendocrine tumours originate in the bronchial tree and lungs. According to the 2015 World Health Organization categorization, these tumours are separated into four subtypes characterized by increasing biological aggressiveness: typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small-cell carcinoma. Although typical and atypical lung carcinoids account for less than 1-5% of all pulmonary malignancies, the incidence of these neoplasms has risen significantly in recent decades. Surgery is the treatment of choice for loco-regional disease but for advanced lung carcinoids there is no recognized standard of care and successful management requires a multidisciplinary approach. The aim of this review is to provide a useful guide for the clinical management of lung carcinoids.

  7. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  8. Stimulus Overselectivity in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, William V; Farber, Rachel S; Mueller, Marlana R; Grant, Eileen; Lorin, Lucy; Deutsch, Curtis K

    2016-05-01

    Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome were matched for intellectual level, and all three groups were matched for developmental levels on tests of nonverbal reasoning and receptive vocabulary. Delayed matching-to-sample tests presented color/form compounds, printed words, photographs of faces, Mayer-Johnson Picture Communication Symbols, and unfamiliar black forms. No significant differences among groups emerged for test accuracy scores. Overselectivity was not statistically overrepresented among individuals with autism in contrast to those with Down syndrome or typically developing children.

  9. Memory for radio advertisements: the effect of program and typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of the type of radio program on the memory for radio advertisements. We also investigated the role in memory of the typicality (high or low) of the elements of the products advertised. Participants listened to three types of programs (interesting, boring, enjoyable) with two advertisements embedded in each. After completing a filler task, the participants performed a true/false recognition test. Hits and false alarm rates were higher for the interesting and enjoyable programs than for the boring one. There were also more hits and false alarms for the high-typicality elements. The response criterion for the advertisements embedded in the boring program was stricter than for the advertisements in other types of programs. We conclude that the type of program in which an advertisement is inserted and the nature of the elements of the advertisement affect both the number of hits and false alarms and the response criterion, but not the accuracy of the memory.

  10. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each condi...

  11. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  12. Measurement and analysis of typical motion error traces from a circular test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The circular test provides a rapid and efficient way of measuring the contouring accuracy of a machine tool.To get the actual point coordinate in the work plane,an improved measurement instrument - a new ball bar test system - is presented in this paper to identify both the radial error and the rotation angle error when the machine is manipulated to move in circular traces.Based on the measured circular error,a combination of Fourier components is chosen to represent the systematic form error that fluctuates in the radial direction.The typical motion errors represented by the corresponding Fourier components can thus be identified.The values for machine compensation can be calculated and adjusted until the desired results are achieved.

  13. CYBERCITY:CONCEPTION,TECHNICAL SUPPORTS AND TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,the concepts about the CyberCity and the corresponding technique supports and typical applications are introduced.As the pilot projects,the applications of CCGIS software in CyberShenzhen and CyberShanghai are also presented.At last,some of key technologies such as the reconstruction of three dimensional city model,vast amount of data integration and its real time application of 3D animation are discussed.

  14. [Design of Electrocardiogram Signal Generator Based on Typical Electrocardiogram Database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuting; Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Dongshang; Liu, Guili

    2016-02-01

    Using LabVIEW programming and high-speed multifunction data acquisition card PCI-6251, we designed an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal generator based on Chinese typical ECG database. When the ECG signals are given off by the generator, the generator can also display the ECG information annotations at the same time, including waveform data and diagnostic results. It could be a useful assisting tool of ECG automatic diagnose instruments.

  15. Performance of a commercial transport under typical MLS noise environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of a 747-200 automatic flight control system (AFCS) subjected to typical Microwave Landing System (MLS) noise is discussed. The performance is then compared with the results from a previous study which had a B747 AFCS subjected to the MLS standards and recommended practices (SARPS) maximum allowable noise. A glide slope control run with Instrument Landing System (ILS) noise is also conducted. Finally, a linear covariance analysis is presented.

  16. Typical Event Horizons in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  17. Dealing with typical values via Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmidt, Eulalia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2010-07-01

    This paper is an improved and extended version of our previous work2 on typicality in terms of Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets (to be called A-IFSs, for short)3. We follow the line of reasoning known from psychological and cognitive sciences, in particular from linguistic experiments, and verify how those results work in the case of classification - a typical problem in computer science, decision sciences, etc. Our considerations concentrate on a typical example discussed in cognitive sciences - we investigate to which extent a linguistic representation in a psychological space (we start from nominal data - names are assigned to objects as labels) succeeds in predicting categories via A-IFSs. First, we consider a model of categories with a geometrical centroid model in which the similarity is defined in terms of a distance to centroids. Next, we verify if the extreme ideals, which are important in cognitive processes when categories are learnt in the presence of the alternative (contrast) category, give comparative results. Finally, we discuss if the 'reachable extreme ideals' and 'dominating frequency centres' give comparative results. We show that A-IFSs make it possible to reflect a positive and negative information via the concept of membership and non-membership. Although the paper presents ongoing research, the results obtained are promising and point out the usefulness and strength of A-IFSs as a tool to account for more aspects of vague data and information. Based on 'On Some Typical Values for A-IFS', by E. Szmidt and J. Kacprzyk which appeared in the Proceedings of the 4th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Systems IS'08, pp. 13-2-13-7. There is currently a discussion on the appropriateness of the name IFS introduced by Dubois et al. (2005), and also Atanassov's (2005) response. This is, however, beyond the scope of this paper which will not be dealing with this issue.

  18. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2014-01-01

    The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. W...

  19. Theory of Mind experience sampling in typical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lauren; Coffey, Anna; Povinelli, Daniel J; Pruett, John R

    2013-09-01

    We explored the frequency with which typical adults make Theory of Mind (ToM) attributions, and under what circumstances these attributions occur. We used an experience sampling method to query 30 typical adults about their everyday thoughts. Participants carried a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) that prompted them to categorize their thoughts as Action, Mental State, or Miscellaneous at approximately 30 pseudo-random times during a continuous 10-h period. Additionally, participants noted the direction of their thought (self versus other) and degree of socializing (with people versus alone) at the time of inquiry. We were interested in the relative frequency of ToM (mental state attributions) and how prominent they were in immediate social exchanges. Analyses of multiple choice answers suggest that typical adults: (1) spend more time thinking about actions than mental states and miscellaneous things, (2) exhibit a higher degree of own- versus other-directed thought when alone, and (3) make mental state attributions more frequently when not interacting (offline) than while interacting with others (online). A significant 3-way interaction between thought type, direction of thought, and socializing emerged because action but not mental state thoughts about others occurred more frequently when participants were interacting with people versus when alone; whereas there was an increase in the frequency of both action and mental state attributions about the self when participants were alone as opposed to socializing. A secondary analysis of coded free text responses supports findings 1-3. The results of this study help to create a more naturalistic picture of ToM use in everyday life and the method shows promise for future study of typical and atypical thought processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Interferon alpha antibodies show no cross reactions with typical autoantibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görg, S; Klouche, M; Wilhelm, D; Kirchner, H

    1993-04-01

    Patients treated with natural human interferon alpha develop anti-interferon antibodies (IFN-AB) only in very rare cases. By contrast, patients with autoimmune disorders are able to generate high-titered IFN-AB against endogenous interferon alpha. One explanation for the development of auto-IFN-AB could be cross-reactivity with typical autoimmune antigens. We investigated the cross-reactivity of 3 high-titered IgG IFN-AB of female autoimmune patients (aged 32, 36, 74 years; two severe cases of SLE, one case of autoimmune thyroiditis) as well as 25 low-titered natural IgM IFN-AB of healthy blood donors (aged 19-48 years). Typical autoimmune antigens including dsDNA, ENA, as well as natural interferon beta and recombinant interferon gamma are not able to inhibit binding of IFN-AB to interferon alpha in an ELISA test system. Preincubation of sera containing either dsDNA antibodies (dsDNA-AB) (24 patients), thyroid peroxidase (TPO-AB) (9 patients) or thyroglobulin (TG-AB) (12 patients) with interferon alpha resulted in no change in the respective autoantibody titer. These data suggest that there is no cross-reactivity between IFN-alpha-AB and dsDNA-AB, TPO-AB or TG-AB. Thus, an explanation for the occurrence of IFN-AB in autoimmune disorders cannot be found in a cross-reaction between interferon alpha with typical autoimmune antigens.

  1. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. Which are the findings to create tourism local system based on the relationship with touristic and food and wine supply chain? Italian tourism is based on accommodation system, so the whole consideration of the Italian cultural tourism: tourism made in Italy. The touristic added value to specific local context takes advantage from the synergy with food and wine supply chain: made in Italy of typical productions. Agritourism could be better accommodation typology to rural tourism and to exclusivity of consumption typical productions. The reciprocity among food and wine supply chain and tourism provides new insights on the key topics related to tourism development and to the organization of geographical space as well and considering its important contribution nowadays to the economic competitiveness.

  2. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  3. Do regional climate models represent regional climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    When using climate change scenarios - either from global climate models or further downscaled - to assess localised real world impacts, one has to ensure that the local simulation indeed correctly represents the real world local climate. Representativeness has so far mainly been discussed as a scale issue: simulated meteorological variables in general represent grid box averages, whereas real weather is often expressed by means of point values. As a result, in particular simulated extreme values are not directly comparable with observed local extreme values. Here we argue that the issue of representativeness is more general. To illustrate this point, assume the following situations: first, the (GCM or RCM) simulated large scale weather, e.g., the mid-latitude storm track, might be systematically distorted compared to observed weather. If such a distortion at the synoptic scale is strong, the simulated local climate might be completely different from the observed. Second, the orography even of high resolution RCMs is only a coarse model of true orography. In particular in mountain ranges the simulated mesoscale flow might therefore considerably deviate from the observed flow, leading to systematically displaced local weather. In both cases, the simulated local climate does not represent observed local climate. Thus, representativeness also encompasses representing a particular location. We propose to measure this aspect of representativeness for RCMs driven with perfect boundary conditions as the correlation between observations and simulations at the inter-annual scale. In doing so, random variability generated by the RCMs is largely averaged out. As an example, we assess how well KNMIs RACMO2 RCM at 25km horizontal resolution represents winter precipitation in the gridded E-OBS data set over the European domain. At a chosen grid box, RCM precipitation might not be representative of observed precipitation, in particular in the rain shadow of major moutain ranges

  4. Non-alcoholic acute Wernicke's encephalopathy: Role of MRI in non typical cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elefante, Andrea, E-mail: aelefant@unina.it [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Puoti, Gianfranco [I Division of Neurology, General Medicine Department, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Senese, Rossana [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Coppola, Cinzia [I Division of Neurology, General Medicine Department, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Russo, Carmela [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Tortora, Fabio [Department of Neuroradiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Divitiis, Oreste de [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Brunetti, Arturo [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: Acute Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, most commonly found in chronic alcoholics. It is not so easy to suspect acute WE when the clinical picture does not include all the typical symptoms and alcohol abuse is not reported. Three rare cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in non-alcoholic patients are reported. Cases presentation: Two patients developed the disease following prolonged intravenous feeding, the third was carrying a gastric lymphoma. None of them presented with the classic clinical triad of WE (ophtalmoplegia/nystagmus, ataxia and consciousness disturbance), showing just one or two of the typical symptoms. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represented the key tool to suspect and define WE diagnosis, showing a picture characterized by bilaterally altered signal of the thalamic pulvinar, mesencephalic cup, mammillary bodies, periaqueductal grey matter and floor of fourth ventricle. All patients dramatically improved within 48 h after administration of thiamine. Conclusion: We emphasize that WE should be suspected in all patients showing typical MRI features presenting with at least one of the clinical triad of WE.

  5. Narrative versus Style: Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization cues are similar to stylistic surface cues of a film sequence. It was predicted that genre recognition of short film fragments is cued more by filmic realization cues than by event cues. The results...

  6. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  7. Representative Sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    The Theory of Sampling (TOS) provides a description of all errors involved in sampling of heterogeneous materials as well as all necessary tools for their evaluation, elimination and/or minimization. This tutorial elaborates on—and illustrates—selected central aspects of TOS. The theoretical...... regime in order to secure the necessary reliability of: samples (which must be representative, from the primary sampling onwards), analysis (which will not mean anything outside the miniscule analytical volume without representativity ruling all mass reductions involved, also in the laboratory) and data...

  8. Representing Context in Hypermedia Data Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    2005-01-01

    As computers and software systems move beyond the desktopand into the physical environments we live and workin, the systems are required to adapt to these environmentsand the activities taking place within them. Making applicationscontext-aware and representing context informationalong side...... application data can be a challenging task. Thispaper describes how digital context traditionally has beenrepresented in hypermedia data models and how this representationcan scale to also represent physical context. TheHyCon framework and data model, designed for the developmentof mobile context...

  9. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-12-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao's original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  10. Representative Sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    regime in order to secure the necessary reliability of: samples (which must be representative, from the primary sampling onwards), analysis (which will not mean anything outside the miniscule analytical volume without representativity ruling all mass reductions involved, also in the laboratory) and data...... analysis (“data” do not exist in isolation of their provenance). The Total Sampling Error (TSE) is by far the dominating contribution to all analytical endeavours, often 100+ times larger than the Total Analytical Error (TAE).We present a summarizing set of only seven Sampling Unit Operations (SUOs...

  11. Volatile S-nitrosothiols and the typical smell of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Wolfgang

    2015-03-09

    An unconventional approach to investigations into the identification of typical volatile emissions during illnesses gives rise to the proposal of a new class of cancer markers. Until now, cancer markers seem not to have been conclusively identified, though the obvious behavior of dogs points to their existence. The focus has been directed towards molecules containing sulfurous functionalities. Among such compounds, S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) are known to be involved in important physiological processes in living organisms and they are described as being typically elevated in cancer. Volatile SNOs (vSNOs) are proposed to be the source of the significant smell of cancer. Synthetic vSNOs are known to have lifetimes of between some minutes and several hours, which may be the main reason as to why they have been ignored until now, and also for the inability of analytics to detect them in vivo. Based on typical structures occurring in the volatile sulfur organics being emitted from human breath, four vSNOs have been synthesized and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Simulating the relatively fatty consistency of cancer tissue by diluting the samples in n-decane, surprisingly reduces their tendency to decompose to lifetimes of weeks even at room temperature. A sniffer dog was trained with the synthetic vSNOs, and the results of the tests indicate that synthetic and cancer smells are very similar or even the same. The findings can be a clue for further target-oriented systematic optimization of existing sensitive measurement methods to prove vSNOs as cancer emissions and finally establish future methods for cancer diagnosis based on screening for this new class of volatile illness markers.

  12. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchavenya, E; Dubrovina, S

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term "Urogenital tuberculosis" includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  13. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables.

  14. Conditioned place preference successfully established in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Leah Ticker; Takata, Sandy; Thompson, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Affective processing, known to influence attention, motivation, and emotional regulation is poorly understood in young children, especially for those with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by language impairments. Here we faithfully adapt a well-established animal paradigm used for affective processing, conditioned place preference (CPP) for use in typically developing children between the ages of 30-55 months. Children displayed a CPP, with an average 2.4 fold increase in time spent in the preferred room. Importantly, associative learning as assessed with CPP was not correlated with scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), indicating that CPP can be used with children with a wide range of cognitive skills.

  15. Lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve: typical and atypical MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bernadette Zhi Ying [Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); University College London, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Amrami, Kimberly K.; Wenger, Doris E. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Dyck, P. James B. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurology, Rochester, MN (United States); Scheithauer, Bernd W. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Lipomatosis of nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of nerve, usually affecting the median nerve. The MRI appearance is characteristic. We describe two cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the sciatic nerve, an extremely unusual location for this lesion, in patients with sciatic neuropathy. These cases share the typical features previously described in the literature for other nerves, but also contain atypical features not previously highlighted, relating to the variability in distribution and extent of the fatty deposition. Recognition of the MRI appearance of this entity is important in order to avoid unnecessary attempts at surgical resection of this lesion. (orig.)

  16. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo Liu; Yanmei Zhao; Christopher WK Chow; Dongsheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study.Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared.The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low.The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chiorodibromoacetic acid.The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality.The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  17. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2016-11-15

    Neutron and gamma flux and dose equivalent rate distribution are analysed in radial and shields of a typical PWR type reactor based on the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNP5. The ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross-section library has been employed for the criticality and shielding analysis. The computed results are in good agreement with the reference results (maximum difference is less than 56 %). It implies that MCNP5 a good tool for accurate prediction of neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in radial shield around the core of PWR type reactors.

  18. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valič, Blaž; Kos, Bor; Gajšek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m(-1) for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m(-1) for DECT and 0.10 V m(-1) for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m(-1) for DECT, 0.13 V m(-1) for WiFi and 0.26 V m(-1) for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity.

  19. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Zhao, Yanmei; Chow, Christopher W K; Wang, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study. Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared. The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low. The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chlorodibromoacetic acid. The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality. The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  20. Typical Faulty Goals of Adolescents: A Base for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Eugene W.; Sweeney, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Proposes that the behavior of many teenagers may be understood as a function of 11 immediate goals, each of which represents a coherent set of attitudes and behaviors by which the ultimate goals of belonging and self-esteem are sought. These goals are rooted in faulty beliefs and elicit characteristic reactions from adults. (Author)

  1. A Framework for Representing Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Ludger; Blunck, Henrik; Hinrichs, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for representing the trajectories of moving objects and the time-varying results of operations on moving objects. This framework supports the realization of discrete data models of moving objects databases, which incorporate representations of moving objects based on non-li...

  2. 26 CFR 601.502 - Recognized representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 230; (4) Enrolled actuary. Any individual who is enrolled as an actuary by and is in active status with the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries pursuant to 29 U.S.C. 1242. (5) Other individuals... actuaries, and others); (3) I am authorized to represent the taxpayer(s) identified in the power of...

  3. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  4. Perception and Processing of Faces in the Human Brain Is Tuned to Typical Feature Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, D. Samuel; Alvarez, Ivan; Lawson, Rebecca P.; Henriksson, Linda; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Faces are salient social stimuli whose features attract a stereotypical pattern of fixations. The implications of this gaze behavior for perception and brain activity are largely unknown. Here, we characterize and quantify a retinotopic bias implied by typical gaze behavior toward faces, which leads to eyes and mouth appearing most often in the upper and lower visual field, respectively. We found that the adult human visual system is tuned to these contingencies. In two recognition experiments, recognition performance for isolated face parts was better when they were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. The recognition cost of reversed locations was equal to ∼60% of that for whole face inversion in the same sample. Similarly, an fMRI experiment showed that patterns of activity evoked by eye and mouth stimuli in the right inferior occipital gyrus could be separated with significantly higher accuracy when these features were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. Our findings demonstrate that human face perception is determined not only by the local position of features within a face context, but by whether features appear at the typical retinotopic location given normal gaze behavior. Such location sensitivity may reflect fine-tuning of category-specific visual processing to retinal input statistics. Our findings further suggest that retinotopic heterogeneity might play a role for face inversion effects and for the understanding of conditions affecting gaze behavior toward faces, such as autism spectrum disorders and congenital prosopagnosia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Faces attract our attention and trigger stereotypical patterns of visual fixations, concentrating on inner features, like eyes and mouth. Here we show that the visual system represents face features better when they are shown at retinal positions where they typically fall during natural vision. When facial features were shown at typical (rather

  5. Typical magnitude and spatial extent of crowding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberg, Jan; Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced spatial processing of local visual details has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC), and crowding is postulated to be a mechanism that may produce this ability. However, evidence for atypical crowding in ASC is mixed, with some studies reporting a complete lack of crowding in autism and others reporting a typical magnitude of crowding between individuals with and without ASC. Here, we aim to disambiguate these conflicting results by testing both the magnitude and the spatial extent of crowding in individuals with ASC (N = 25) and age- and IQ-matched controls (N = 23) during an orientation discrimination task. We find a strong crowding effect in individuals with and without ASC, which falls off as the distance between target and flanker is increased. Both the magnitude and the spatial range of this effect were comparable between individuals with and without ASC. We also find typical (uncrowded) orientation discrimination thresholds in individuals with ASC. These findings suggest that the spatial extent of crowding is unremarkable in ASC, and is therefore unlikely to account for the visual symptoms reported in individuals with the diagnosis.

  6. Diversity of amino acids in a typical chernozem of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunze, N. I.

    2014-12-01

    The content and composition of the amino acids in typical chernozems were studied. The objects of the study included a reference soil under an old fallow and three variants under fodder crop rotations: not fertilized, with mineral fertilizers, and with organic fertilizers. The contents of 18 amino acids were determined in these soils. The amino acids were extracted by the method of acid hydrolysis and identified by the method of ion-exchange chromatography. The total content of most of the amino acids was maximal in the reference soil; it was much lower in the cultivated soils and decreased in the following sequence: organic background > mineral background > no fertilization. The diversity of amino acids was evaluated quantitatively using different parameters applied in ecology for estimating various aspects of the species composition of communities (Simpson, Margalef, Menhinick, and Shannon's indices). The diversity and contribution of different amino acids to the total pool of amino acids also varied significantly in the studied variants. The maximum diversity of amino acids and maximum evenness of their relative abundance indices were typical of the reference chernozem; these parameters were lower in the cultivated soils. It was concluded that the changes in the structure of the amino acids under the impact of agricultural loads are similar to those that are usually observed under stress conditions.

  7. Flux measurement and modeling in a typical mediterranean vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Serena; Bellucco, Veronica; Pyles, David R.; Falk, Matthias; Sirca, Costantino; Duce, Pierpaolo; Snyder, Richard L.; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Spano, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    Vineyard ecosystems are typical in the Mediterranean area, since wine is one of the most important economic sectors. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the interactions between this kind of vegetation and the atmosphere. These information are important both to understand the behaviour of such ecosystems in different environmental conditions, and are crucial to parameterize crop and flux simulation models. Combining direct measurements and modelling can obtain reliable estimates of surface fluxes and crop evapotranspiration. This study would contribute both to (1) directly measure energy fluxes and evapotranspiration in a typical Mediterranean vineyard, located in the South of Sardinia (Italy), through the application of the Eddy Covariance micrometeorological technique and to (2) evaluate the land surface model ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) in simulating energy fluxes and evapotranspiration over vineyard. Independent datasets of direct measurements were used to calibrate and validate model results during the growing period. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate model performance and accuracy in predicting surface fluxes. Results will be showed as well as the model capability to be used for future studies to predict energy fluxes and crop water requirements under actual and future climate.

  8. A study on prioritizing typical women’s entrepreneur characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ramezani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main pivot of progress and growth of every country. The spread of entrepreneurship particularly the role of women in this category has speeded up today more than any other times. Many of researchers believe that attention to women entrepreneurship plays remarkable role in soundness and safety of nation’s economy. Maybe in Iran less attention has been paid to this matter in proportion to other countries and due to various reasons, there are not many entrepreneur woman. However, employing typical entrepreneur women in various fields of productivity, industrial, commercial, social and cultural and even higher than these, in country’s political issue proves that women’s role is magnificent and in many cases they enjoy higher abilities in portion to men. In this paper, using additive ratio assessment (ARAS as a prioritizing method, eleven entrepreneur women were chosen for prioritizing criteria for measuring a typical women’s entrepreneurship characteristics. The results show that the balance between work and family among criteria are propounded as the highest weight and fulfilling different jobs simultaneously as the lowest weight.

  9. The experimental investigation of microcracks nucleation in typical tectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The evolution and nucleation of microcracks in typical tectonics are investigated in the experiment of fracture of marble specimen. The change of state during nucleation of microcracks is observed. The controlling effect of tectonics on evolution of microcracks is analyzed by using the damage mechanics theory. These characteristics can be analogized to kilometer meters as the first effect of earthquake precursors. These studies may be helpful to interpret the foreshock or general foreshock in the moderate or short stage before strong earthquakes. The other physical precursors are second or third effect. The local density of microcracks increasing abruptly may be helpful to interpret the phenomenon that part precursor records appear catastrophic jump. The part out of nucleation where some microcracks heal and the density change reversibly may be helpful to interpret the phenomenon that some precursors records appear reverse change. The area difference of microcracks accumulation and evolution in different part of typical tectonics is studied. This difference may be helpful to interpret the characteristics (including the area) of earthquake preparation of different tectonics, and further to interpret the difference of the precursors between plate edge and intraplate. These differences may be introduced by the scholars with different points of view as to discuss about the existence of precursors before earthquakes. However, when the precursor records are studied, one must notice the geology background in different areas.

  10. A Case of Typical Carcinoid of the Larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Sato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a rare case of typical carcinoid occurring primarily in the epiglottis. The patient was a 70-year-old man. On initial examination, a polypoid lesion with irregular surface near the center right-hand side of the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis was observed, and a biopsy was performed. Pathological examination of the specimen suggested the possibility of adenocarcinoma. Surgical excision was performed by means of laryngomicrosurgery. A Weerda-type laryngoscope was used to open the larynx, supplemented by rigid nasal sinus surgery endoscopes, and the right-hand half of the epiglottis were excised was ensured using a CO2 laser. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was negative for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell cancer; typical carcinoid was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Aspiration occurred postoperatively, swallowing training was therefore provided, and the patient was discharged from hospital 2 months after surgery when he was able to eat normally. As of 4 years after surgery, the patient remains under follow-up observation by means of PET-CT and neck, thoracic, and abdominal CT administered at appropriate intervals, but no findings indicating obvious recurrence or metastasis have been observed, and the patient displays good swallowing function.

  11. Recommended Concentration Limits of Typical Indoor Air Contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Chao; JIANG Yun-tao; ZHAO Jia-ning

    2009-01-01

    From the view of both objective and subjective factors.the indoor air quality(IAQ)evaluation was considered.Carbon dioxide (CO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) were selected as the typical contaminants of indoor air,and the evaluation method of logarithmic index was adopted as the evaluation means of IAQ.Then the recommended limits (RL) of typical contaminants CO2 and HCHO were given through analysis and calcula-tion.The limits of CO2 and HCHO in Indoor Air Quahty Standard of China or other existing standards probably correspond to the level of PD=25(%).The result shows that the existing standards fail to meet the require-ment of the definition of"acceptable indoor air quality",that is to say,less than 20% of the people express dis-satisfaction.When PD=20%,RL of CO2 and HCHO are 728×10-6 and 0.068×10-6 respectively,which are stricter than the limits in the existing standards.The method proposed in this paper is applicable to 13.1%≤PD≤86.7%.

  12. Episodic fluid movements in superimposed basin:Combined evidence from outcrop and fluid inclusions of the Majiang ancient oil reservoir,Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Combined evidence from the outcrop and the fluid inclusion assemblage (FIA) analysis indicates that there exist two episodes of fluid flow controlled by the tectonic activity. The first episode was recorded mainly in the reservoir rock of the Honghuayuan Formation,representing the fluid flow of hydrocarbon charging. The second episode occurred mainly along the fault systems,representing the fluid move-ment when the ancient oil reservoir was destroyed. The host mineral morphology,homogeneous tem-perature,and salinity of the FIAs record an episodic fluid movement. Characters of high homogenous temperature,low salinity and a quick temperature variation of the first episode fluid flow may indicate an early-stage fluid eruption,and correspondingly,fine-grained calcite was formed. Temperature of the erupted fluid tended to decrease during its mixing with the upper formation fluid and finally had the same temperature as the upper formation. From then on,the temperature was rather steady and fa-vored the growth of the coarse calcite. Due to this character of the temperature variation of the episodic fluid flow,we can use the homogenous temperature of the FIA of the coarse calcite to date the forma-tion and the destruction time of the Majiang ancient oil reservoir. Episodic fluid flow was known for its inhomogeneous trapping,which resulted in the failure of dating according to the burial history. But taking a close look at its temperature variation,we think that the latest stage of fluid flow,characterized by steady state temperature and grow of the coarser crystals,can be used for dating. It will be of great value if this method is proved to be effective. The formation and the destruction time of the Majiang ancient oil reservoir were dated to be in the Indosinian Period and the late Yanshan-early Hymalayan Period respectively. This conclusion is in great discrepancy with the common accepted idea that the Majiang ancient oil reservoir was formed and destroyed during the

  13. Apples are not the only fruit: The effects of concept typicality on semantic representation in the anterior temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Woollams

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, an apple seems a fairly good example of a fruit, whereas an avocado seems less so. The extent to which an exemplar is representative of its category, a variable known as concept typicality, has long been thought to be a key dimension determining semantic representation. Concept typicality is, however, correlated with a number of other variables, in particular age of acquisition and name frequency. Consideration of picture naming accuracy from a large case-series of semantic dementia patients demonstrated strong effects of concept typicality that were maximal in the moderately impaired patients, over and above the impact of age of acquisition and name frequency. Induction of a temporary virtual lesion to the left anterior temporal lobe, the region most commonly affected in semantic dementia, via repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation produced an enhanced effect of concept typicality in the picture naming of normal participants, but did not affect the magnitude of the age of acquisition or name frequency effects. These results indicate that concept typicality exerts its influence on semantic representations themselves, as opposed to the strength of connections outside the semantic system. To date, there has been little direct exploration of the dimension of concept typicality within connectionist models of intact and impaired conceptual representation, and these findings provide a target for future computational simulation.

  14. Estimating Typical Multiple Sclerosis Disability Progression Speed from Clinical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Murray G.; Asbridge, Mark; Hicks, Vern; Kirby, Sarah; Murray, Thomas J.; Andreou, Pantelis; Lin, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. Estimates of MS natural history (NH) disability progression speed from clinical observations vary worldwide. This may reflect, in part, variance in censoring-bias) (missing observations) and assumptions about when irreversible disability progression events occurred. We test whether estimates of progression speed which assume midpoint survival time at irreversible disability endpoints are significantly faster than estimates which assume maximum survival time, and are more stable across study groups and time periods. Methods Our Nova Scotia NH study population includes 2,240 definite relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis (R-MS) natural history patients with 18,078 Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) clinical observations in study period 1979–2010. Progression speed is measured by rate-of-change in range EDSS 0–6 and by survival time at irreversible endpoints EDSS 1–9. Midpoint censoring-bias-reduction methods are applied to clinical observations. Findings Typical EDSS increase per year in range EDSS 0–6, assuming midpoint survival time, is estimated to be 0.168 for all R-MS, 0.204 for eventually-DMD-treated patients and 0.155 for never-DMD-treated patients. Estimates assuming midpoint rather than maximum survival time are significantly faster: 16% faster for all R-MS natural history patients, 6% faster for eventually-DMD-treated patients, and 21% faster for never-DMD-treated patients. The variability of estimates across study groups and time periods decreased when midpoint survival time was assumed. Conclusions Estimates of typical disease progression speed from 1979–2010 Nova Scotia clinical observations are sensitive to censoring-bias and to analysts’ survival time assumptions. Censoring-bias-adjusted estimates of typical natural history disability progression speed in relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis patients are significantly faster, and less variable within

  15. Estimating typical multiple sclerosis disability progression speed from clinical observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray G Brown

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. Estimates of MS natural history (NH disability progression speed from clinical observations vary worldwide. This may reflect, in part, variance in censoring-bias (missing observations and assumptions about when irreversible disability progression events occurred. We test whether estimates of progression speed which assume midpoint survival time at irreversible disability endpoints are significantly faster than estimates which assume maximum survival time, and are more stable across study groups and time periods. METHODS: Our Nova Scotia NH study population includes 2,240 definite relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis (R-MS natural history patients with 18,078 Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS clinical observations in study period 1979-2010. Progression speed is measured by rate-of-change in range EDSS 0-6 and by survival time at irreversible endpoints EDSS 1-9. Midpoint censoring-bias-reduction methods are applied to clinical observations. FINDINGS: Typical EDSS increase per year in range EDSS 0-6, assuming midpoint survival time, is estimated to be 0.168 for all R-MS, 0.204 for eventually-DMD-treated patients and 0.155 for never-DMD-treated patients. Estimates assuming midpoint rather than maximum survival time are significantly faster: 16% faster for all R-MS natural history patients, 6% faster for eventually-DMD-treated patients, and 21% faster for never-DMD-treated patients. The variability of estimates across study groups and time periods decreased when midpoint survival time was assumed. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of typical disease progression speed from 1979-2010 Nova Scotia clinical observations are sensitive to censoring-bias and to analysts' survival time assumptions. Censoring-bias-adjusted estimates of typical natural history disability progression speed in relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis patients are significantly faster, and less variable

  16. Climate Change and the Representative Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B. [Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2000-02-01

    The artifice of an infinitely-lived representative agent is commonly invoked to balance the present costs and future benefits of climate stabilization policies. Since actual economies are populated by overlapping generations of finite-lived persons, this approach begs important questions of welfare aggregation. This paper compares the results of representative agent and overlapping generations models that are numerically calibrated based on standard assumptions regarding climate economy interactions. Under two social choice rules - Pareto efficiency and classical utilitarianism - the models generate closely similar simulation results. In the absence of policies to redistribute income between present and future generations, efficient rates of carbon dioxide emissions abatement rise from 15 to 20% between the years 2000 and 2105. Under classical utilitarianism, in contrast, optimal control rates rise from 48 to 79% this same period. 23 refs.

  17. Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  18. Data structures and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Thomson, Judi R; Harvey, William J; Paulson, Patrick R; Whiting, Mark A; Tratz, Stephen C; Chappell, Alan R; Butner, Robert S

    2014-02-18

    Data structures and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  19. Representing a public that does not exist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    and function of the teacher. Confronted by this teachers and educationalists in Denmark have chosen different paths. One current returns to nationalistic and traditional educational ideals and another accepts the global agenda and attempts to find a new form of legitimacy within the ‘what works’ framework......In her seminal essay ‘The Crisis in Education’ Hannah Arendt presents teachers with the challenge of having to represent a world that is becoming out of joint. This means that the teacher stands as a representative of a world that is becoming increasingly inexplicable and incomprehensible......, and the only way of retaining any form of authority (and legitimacy as a teacher) is to remain loyal to the task of presenting this world to the child. This challenge presents itself acutely in the form of a global reform agenda that legitimizes standardisation and accountability while eroding the authority...

  20. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  1. Representing exact number visually using mental abacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael C; Barner, David

    2012-02-01

    Mental abacus (MA) is a system for performing rapid and precise arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, a physical calculation device. Previous work has speculated that MA is based on visual imagery, suggesting that it might be a method of representing exact number nonlinguistically, but given the limitations on visual working memory, it is unknown how MA structures could be stored. We investigated the structure of the representations underlying MA in a group of children in India. Our results suggest that MA is represented in visual working memory by splitting the abacus into a series of columns, each of which is independently stored as a unit with its own detailed substructure. In addition, we show that the computations of practiced MA users (but not those of control participants) are relatively insensitive to verbal interference, consistent with the hypothesis that MA is a nonlinguistic format for exact numerical computation.

  2. Representativeness and significance factors in ESP texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Curado Fuentes

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of communicative approaches and strategies in specialized discourse has led to revising notions of representative and significant language . Particularly in the work with academic genres, in science and technology (EST settings such as our own institution, the need for determining these factors is ever growing. The application of empirical resources such as specific language corpora, in fact, becomes convenient. In this paper, the aim is to specify the type of corpus linguistic representativeness and significance sought in the case of teaching English to our groups of Computer Science students. In that scope, we present data and samples on which to base our suggestions and claims regarding the exploitation of textual material.

  3. Meeting staff representatives of the European Agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      The AASC (Assembly of Agency Staff Committee) held its 27th Meeting of the specialized European Agencies on 26 and 27 May on the premises of the OHIM (Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market) in Alicante, Spain. Two representatives of the CERN Staff Association, in charge of External Relations, attended as observers. This participation is a useful complement to regular contacts we have with FICSA (Federation of International Civil Servants' Associations), which groups staff associations of the UN Agencies, and the annual CSAIO conferences (Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations), where each Autumn representatives of international organizations based in Europe meet to discuss themes of common interest to better promote and defend the rights of the international civil servants. All these meetings allow us to remain informed on items that are directly or indirectly related to employment and social conditions of our colleagues in other international and Europ...

  4. Gravity and magnetic survey of the Oaxaca city region: Cenozoic horst-and-graben structure superimposed on the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary, southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enríquez, J. O.; Belmonte-Jiménez, S. I.; Keppie, J. D.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.; Arzate, J. A.; Martínez-Silva, J.; Martínez-Serrano, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    A geophysical survey of the Oaxaca Fault along the north-trending Etla and Zaachila valleys area, southern Mexico, shows a series of NNW-SSE Bouguer and magnetic anomalies with steeper gradients towards the east. The Oaxaca Fault represents Tertiary extensional reactivation of the Juarez shear zone that constitutes the boundary between the Oaxaca and Juárez terranes. Cooperative interpretation of six combined gravity and magnetic NE-SW profiles perpendicular to the valleys indicates the presence of a composite depression comprising three N-S sub-basins: the northern Etla and southern Zaachila sub-basins separated by the Atzompa sub-basin. The Etla sub-basin is bounded by the moderately E-dipping, Etla Fault and the more steeply W-dipping Oaxaca Fault, which together constitute a graben that continues southwards into the Atzompa graben. The deeper Zaachila sub-basin, south of Oaxaca city, is a wide V-shaped graben with a horst in the middle. The new geophysical data suggest that the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary is displaced sinistrally ca. 20 km along the E-W Donají Fault, which defines the northern boundary of the Zaachila sub-basin. On the other hand, the Oaxaca Fault may either continue unbroken southwards along the western margin of the horst in the Zaachila sub-basin or be offset along with the terrane boundary. The sinistral movement may have taken place either during the Late Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic, Laramide Orogeny as a lateral ramp in the thrust plane or under Miocene-Pliocene, NE-SW extension. The former suggests that the Donají Fault is a transcurrent fault, whereas the latter implies that it is a transfer fault. The models imply that originally the suture was continuous south of the Donaji Fault and provide a constraint for the accretion of the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes.

  5. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kulchavenya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term “Urogenital tuberculosis” includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  6. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    are covered in the categorisation include fixed vs. general networks, specialised vs. general nodes, linear vs. nonlinear costs, single vs. multi commodity, uncapacitated vs. capacitated activities, single vs. multi modal and static vs. dynamic. The models examined address both strategic and tactical planning...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model.......This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...

  7. A Modal Model to Simulate Typical Structural Dynamic Nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayes, Randall L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roettgen, Daniel R [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Some initial investigations have been published which simulate nonlinear response with almost traditional modal models: instead of connecting the modal mass to ground through the traditional spring and damper, a nonlinear Iwan element was added. This assumes that the mode shapes do not change with amplitude and there are no interactions between modal degrees of freedom. This work expands on these previous studies. An impact experiment is performed on a structure which exhibits typical structural dynamic nonlinear response, i.e. weak frequency dependence and strong damping dependence on the amplitude of vibration. Use of low level modal test results in combination with high level impacts are processed using various combinations of modal filtering, the Hilbert Transform and band-pass filtering to develop response data that are then fit with various nonlinear elements to create a nonlinear pseudo-modal model. Simulations of forced response are compared with high level experimental data for various nonlinear element assumptions.

  8. Processing relative clauses by Hungarian typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Bence; Lukács, Agnes

    2012-05-01

    Hungarian is a language with morphological case marking and relatively free word order. These typological characteristics make it a good ground for testing the crosslinguistic validity of theories on processing sentences with relative clauses. Our study focussed on effects of structural factors and processing capacity. We tested 43 typically developing children in two age groups (ages of 4;11-7;2 and 8;2-11;4) in an act-out task. Differences in comprehension difficulty between different word order patterns and different head function relations were observed independently of each other. The structural properties causing difficulties in comprehension were interruption of main clauses, greater distance between the verb and its arguments, accusative case of relative pronouns, and SO head function relations. Importantly, analyses of associations between working memory and sentence comprehension revealed that structural factors made processing difficult by burdening components of working memory. These results support processing accounts of sentence comprehension in a language typologically different from English.

  9. Aeroelastic Calculations Using CFD for a Typical Business Jet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Two time-accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes were used to compute several flutter points for a typical business jet model. The model consisted of a rigid fuselage with a flexible semispan wing and was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center where experimental flutter data were obtained from M(sub infinity) = 0.628 to M(sub infinity) = 0.888. The computational results were computed using CFD codes based on the inviscid TSD equation (CAP-TSD) and the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations (CFL3D-AE). Comparisons are made between analytical results and with experiment where appropriate. The results presented here show that the Navier-Stokes method is required near the transonic dip due to the strong viscous effects while the TSD and Euler methods used here provide good results at the lower Mach numbers.

  10. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Steven [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Philosophy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2006-06-21

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP{sub 1} and WAP{sub 2}. We show that WAP{sub 2}, the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP{sub 1}, however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP{sub 1} is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning.

  11. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  12. Conditioned place preference successfully established in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah T Hiller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Affective processing, known to influence attention, motivation and emotional regulation is poorly understood in young children, especially for those with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by language impairments. Here we faithfully adapt a well-established animal paradigm used for affective processing, conditioned place preference for use in typically developing children between the ages of 30-55 months. Children displayed a conditioned place preference, with an average 2.4 fold increase in time spent in the preferred room. Importantly, associative learning as assessed with conditioned place preference was not correlated with scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, indicating that conditioned place preference can be used with children with a wide range of cognitive skills.

  13. [Injury patterns and typical stress situations in paragliding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, M; Schröter, E

    2005-05-01

    Paragliding is known as a high risk sport with a substantial rate of severe and fatal injuries. Analysis of typical injury mechanisms and statistics showed that the total rate of paragliding injuries has decreased in recent years for an increasing number of pilots. In 2003, the rate of severe and fatal injuries in paragliding was less than that of other air sports and motorcycling. Through the introduction of a spine protector system in Germany and Austria, the number of vertebral fractures decreased significantly between 2000 and 2003. Most other injuries, especially of the lower extremities, could be avoided by adequate and farsighted flight behavior. Qualified instruction with regular training, standardized development of safety equipment and consequent analysis of paragliding injuries will help to improve the safety status in paragliding.

  14. Waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, M. A.; Wydeven, T.

    1992-01-01

    A compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat, reported in a prior NASA Technical Memorandum and a related journal article, was updated. This report augments that compilation by the inclusion of the following new data: those data uncovered since completion of the prior report; those obtained from Soviet literature relevant to life support issues; and those for various minor human body wastes not presented previously (saliva, flatus, hair, finger- and toenails, dried skin and skin secretions, tears, and semen), but included here for purposes of completeness. These waste streams complement those discussed previously: toilet waste (urine, feces, etc.), hygiene water (laundry, shower/handwash, dishwasher water and cleansing agents), trash, humidity condensate, perspiration and respiration water, trace contaminants, and dust generation. This report also reproduces the latest information on the environmental control and life support system design parameters for Space Station Freedom.

  15. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  16. Typical duration of good seeing sequences at Concordia

    CERN Document Server

    Fossat, Eric; Agabi, Karim; Bondoux, Erick; Challita, Zalpha; Jeanneaux, Francois; Mekarnia, Djamel

    2010-01-01

    Context: The winter seeing at Concordia is essentially bimodal, excellent or quite poor, with relative proportions that depend on altitude above the snow surface. This paper studies the temporal behavior of the good seeing sequences. Aims: An efficient exploitation of extremely good seeing with an adaptive optics system needs long integrations. It is then important to explore the temporal distribution of the fraction of time providing excellent seeing. Methods: Temporal windows of good seeing are created by a simple binary process. Good or bad. Their autocorrelations are corrected for those of the existing data sets, since these are not continuous, being often interrupted by technical problems in addition to the adverse weather gaps. At the end these corrected autocorrelations provide the typical duration of good seeing sequences. This study has to be a little detailed as its results depend on the season, summer or winter. Results: Using a threshold of 0.5 arcsec to define the "good seeing", three characteris...

  17. GENERATION OF A TYPICAL METEOROLOGICAL YEAR FOR PORT HARCOURT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OGOLOMA O.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the typical meteorological year (TMY for the Port Harcourt climatic zone based on the hourly meteorological data recorded during the period 1983–2002, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The data are the global solar radiation, wind velocity, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and others. The HVAC outside design conditions for the Port Harcourt climatic zone (latitude 4.44oN, longitude 7.1oE, elevation 20 m were found to be 26.7oC, 78.6% and 3.5 m/s for the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, respectively, and 13.5 MJ/m2/day for the global solar radiation. The TMY data for the zone are shown to be sufficiently reliable for engineering practice.

  18. Design of a Typical Offshore Transportation System for External Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shittu, A. A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The external corrosion assessment of a typical offshore transportation system has been presented. Cathodic protection design was carried out for the pipeline and it was found that a bracelet square weld on anode of L = 195, G =101.6 , Thickness = 70, M = 149.75 , ∅ = 1.2235, N = 128 and s = 300was found to be satisfactory in providing secondary/ backup protection for the 48inchespipeline in the external environment provided. The external anticorrosion coating selected is the Three layer polyethylene (3LPE coating based on the dimensions of the pipeline and the design temperature of 80℃. The 3LPE external corrosioncoating will comprise of an inner layer fusion bond epoxy, a middle layer: adhesive and an outer layer: High density polyethylene (HDPE base with additives.

  19. Shielding of gamma radiation by typical European houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckbach, Reinhard; Jacob, Peter; Paretzke, Herwig G.

    1987-03-01

    The shielding of gamma radiation by typical European houses has been investigated using a Monte Carlo photon transport code. Sources of the gamma radiation are activity deposited on the building and its surroundings and air-borne radionuclides in an semi-infinite cloud. Results are given for different source energies and at various locations inside and outside of the buildings. The effects of deposition on nearby trees and of shielding by neighbouring buildings was investigated. A comparison has been made with results obtained for the same buildings by the point kernel buildup factor method. More than an order of magnitude underestimations by the point kernel method are shown to arise in certain cases.

  20. Infiuence of Bicycle Traffic on Capacity of Typical Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; YUE Hao

    2007-01-01

    Bicycle traffic has a significant effect on the capacity of signalized intersections. This paper divides the influence of bicyclists on vehicular flow into four types with the time durations estimated based on probability, shock wave, and gap acceptance theory. Vehicular saturation flow rate is predicted for various conditions on the basis of the speed-flow curve for the capacity of typical intersections influenced by bicycle traffic.The model overcomes the limitations of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM, 2000) method for left-turns due to data collection, and takes into account the effect of trapped bicycles on the through vehicular traffic.The numerical results show that the left-turn and through capacities predicted by the model are lower than those of the HCM method. The right-turn capacity is close to that of the HCM method at Iow bicycle volumes and higher than that of the HCM method at high bicycle volumes.

  1. Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Saxon E

    2007-10-23

    The primary objective of Project Activity ORD-FY04-012, “Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative,” was to provide the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with expertise on past, present, and future climate scenarios and to support the technical elements of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) climate program. The Climate Technical Support Representative was to explain, defend, and interpret the YMP climate program to the various audiences during Site Recommendation and License Application. This technical support representative was to support DOE management in the preparation and review of documents, and to participate in comment response for the Final Environmental Impact Statement, the Site Recommendation Hearings, the NRC Sufficiency Comments, and other forums as designated by DOE management. Because the activity was terminated 12 months early and experience a 27% reduction in budget, it was not possible to complete all components of the tasks as originally envisioned. Activities not completed include the qualification of climate datasets and the production of a qualified technical report. The following final report is an unqualified summary of the activities that were completed given the reduced time and funding.

  2. Latency represents sound frequency in mouse IC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Frequency is one of the fundamental parameters of sound.The frequency of an acoustic stimulus can be represented by a neural response such as spike rate,and/or first spike latency(FSL)of a given neuron.The spike rates/frequency function of most neurons changes with different acoustic ampli-tudes,whereas FSL/frequency function is highly stable.This implies that FSL might represent the fre-quency of a sound stimulus more efficiently than spike rate.This study involved representations of acoustic frequency by spike rate and FSL of central inferior colliculus(IC)neurons responding to free-field pure-tone stimuli.We found that the FSLs of neurons responding to characteristic frequency(CF)of sound stimulus were usually the shortest,regardless of sound intensity,and that spike rates of most neurons showed a variety of function according to sound frequency,especially at high intensities.These results strongly suggest that FSL of auditory IC neurons can represent sound frequency more precisely than spike rate.

  3. Latency represents sound frequency in mouse IC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Qiang; TANG Jie; YU ZuLin; ZHANG Juan; ZHOU YingJie; XIAO ZhongJu; SHEN JunXian

    2007-01-01

    Frequency is one of the fundamental parameters of sound. The frequency of an acoustic stimulus can be represented by a neural response such as spike rate, and/or first spike latency (FSL) of a given neuron. The spike rates/frequency function of most neurons changes with different acoustic amplitudes, whereas FSL/frequency function is highly stable. This implies that FSL might represent the frequency of a sound stimulus more efficiently than spike rate. This study involved representations of acoustic frequency by spike rate and FSL of central inferior colliculus (IC) neurons responding to free-field pure-tone stimuli. We found that the FSLs of neurons responding to characteristic frequency (CF) of sound stimulus were usually the shortest, regardless of sound intensity, and that spike rates of most neurons showed a variety of function according to sound frequency, especially at high intensities.These results strongly suggest that FSL of auditory IC neurons can represent sound frequency more precisely than spike rate.

  4. Diversity and representativeness: two key factors

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    In the past few weeks many of you have filled out the questionnaire for preparing the upcoming Five-yearly review. Similarly, Staff Association members have elected their delegates to the Staff Council for the coming two years. Once again we would like to thank all those who have taken the time and effort to make their voice heard on these two occasions. Elections to the Staff Council Below we publish the new Staff Council with its forty delegates who will represent in 2014 and 2015 all CERN staff in the discussions with Management and Member States in the various bodies and committees. Therefore it is important that the Staff Council represents as far as possible the diversity of the CERN population. By construction, the election process with its electoral colleges and two-step voting procedure guarantees that all Departments, even the small ones, and the various staff categories are correctly represented. Figure 1 shows the participation rate in the elections. The average rate is just above 52 %, with ...

  5. Fluctuating asymmetry and preferences for sex-typical bodily characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William M.; Price, Michael E.; Kang, Jinsheng; Pound, Nicholas; Zhao, Yue; Yu, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Body size and shape seem to have been sexually selected in a variety of species, including humans, but little is known about what attractive bodies signal about underlying genotypic or phenotypic quality. A widely used indicator of phenotypic quality in evolutionary analyses is degree of symmetry (i.e., fluctuating asymmetry, FA) because it is a marker of developmental stability, which is defined as an organism's ability to develop toward an adaptive end-point despite perturbations during its ontogeny. Here we sought to establish whether attractive bodies signal low FA to observers, and, if so, which aspects of attractive bodies are most predictive of lower FA. We used a 3D optical body scanner to measure FA and to isolate size and shape characteristics in a sample of 77 individuals (40 males and 37 females). From the 3D body scan data, 360° videos were created that separated body shape from other aspects of visual appearance (e.g., skin color and facial features). These videos then were presented to 87 evaluators for attractiveness ratings. We found strong negative correlations between FA and bodily attractiveness in both sexes. Further, sex-typical body size and shape characteristics were rated as attractive and correlated negatively with FA. Finally, geometric morphometric analysis of joint configurations revealed that sex-typical joint configurations were associated with both perceived attractiveness and lower FA for male but not for female bodies. In sum, body size and shape seem to show evidence of sexual selection and indicate important information about the phenotypic quality of individuals. PMID:18711125

  6. [Typical dishes consumed in Sonora: regionalization and nutrient contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardines, R P; Bermúdez, M C; Wong, P; León, G

    1985-12-01

    This study deals with the development of a method to identify typical food dishes, successfully applied in the State of Sonora, Mexico. The State was divided into six regions considering the size of the territory and existence of different physical, economic and sociocultural conditions, and how they influence the consumption patterns. A list of 66 regional food dishes was prepared by interviewing housewives from different parts of Sonora who now lived in the city of Hermosillo. From this list, 47 dishes were identified as regionally consumed, and a State-wide survey was performed to determine their frequency of consumption. Based on the categories of "very frequently", "frequently" and "less frequently", a group of 15 dishes (2 per region, plus 3 dishes throughout the State) was selected. A questionnaire was used to obtain the different ways they had of preparing them. The "typical recipe" for each dish was also determined, using the mode as statistical parameter. Samples of these food dishes were prepared at the laboratory following the selected home recipes for proximal analysis and determination of their vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, phosphorus and iron content. The results showed that a portion of "gallina pinta" contributed more than 25% of the daily recommended intake established by the National Institute of Nutrition "Salvador Zubirán" (INNSZ) for an adult man for energy, protein, iron, niacin and 24.3% thiamine and 21.0% calcium. The "chivichangas de queso", for example, contributed 45.2% of the calcium requirement, and the "tamales de carne", 36% iron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Specific Heat in a Typical Metallic Glass Former

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Hai-Bo; ZHAO Zuo-Feng; WEN Ping; WANG Wei-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The specific heat in a typical Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 metallic glass forming system is investigated.It is found that the specific heat of the metallic liquid is around 4.7R (R is the gas constant) and that it is almost independent of temperature.The glass transition observed during cooling is accompanied by a decrease in the specific heat of 1.5R.The specific heat of the metallic glass is similar to that of its crystalline phases,contributed mainly from atomic vibrations.Combined with the results of the structural relaxation and diffusivities,we demonstrate an intrinsic connection between the atomic motion and the specific heat in the metallic glass-forming liquid.The results support the idea that glass transition is a process accompanied by the freezing of most of the atomic transitional motions in a metallic supercooled liquid during cooling.%The specific heat in a typical Pd40 Ni10 Cu30 P20 metallic glass forming system is investigated. It is found that the specific heat of the metallic liquid is around 4.7R (R is the gas constant) and that it is almost independent of temperature. The glass transition observed during cooling is accompanied by a decrease in the specific heat of 1.5R. The specific heat of the metallic glass is similar to that of its crystalline phases, contributed mainly from atomic vibrations. Combined with the results of the structural relaxation and diffusivities, we demonstrate an intrinsic connection between the atomic motion and the specific heat in the metallic glass-forming liquid. The results support the idea that glass transition is a process accompanied by the freezing of most of the atomic transitional motions in a metallic supercooled liquid during cooling.

  8. Space and language in Williams syndrome: insights from typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Barbara; Ferrara, Katrina

    2013-11-01

    One of the holy grails of cognitive science is to understand the causal chain that links genes and cognition. Genetic syndromes accompanied by cognitive effects offer natural experiments that can uniquely inform our understanding of this chain. In this article, we discuss the case of Williams syndrome (WS), which is characterized by a set of missing genes on chromosome 7q11.23, and presents with a unique cognitive profile that includes severe spatial impairment along with strikingly fluent and well-structured language. An early inference from this profile was the idea that a small group of genes could directly target one cognitive system while leaving others unaffected. Recent evidence shows that this inference fails. First, the profile within the spatial domain is varied, with relative strength in some aspects of spatial representation but severe impairment in others. Second, some aspects of language may fail to develop fully, raising the question of how to compare the resilience and fragility of the two key cognitive domains in this syndrome. Third, much research on the profile fails to place findings in the context of typical developmental trajectories. We explore these points and propose a new hypothesis that explains the unusual WS cognitive profile by considering normal mechanisms of cognitive development that undergo change on an extremely prolonged timetable. This hypothesis places the elements of the WS cognitive profile in a new light, refocuses the discussion of the gene-cognition causal chain for WS and other disorders, and more generally, underlines the importance of understanding cognitive structure in both typical and atypical development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:693-703. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1258 Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Memory for sequences of events impaired in typical aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to remember sequences of events, an important feature of episodic memory. Unlike existing paradigms, this task is nonspatial, nonverbal, and can be used to isolate different cognitive processes that may be differentially affected in aging. Here, we used this task to make a comprehensive comparison of sequence memory performance between younger (18–22 yr) and older adults (62–86 yr). Specifically, participants viewed repeated sequences of six colored, fractal images and indicated whether each item was presented “in sequence” or “out of sequence.” Several out of sequence probe trials were used to provide a detailed assessment of sequence memory, including: (i) repeating an item from earlier in the sequence (“Repeats”; e.g., ABADEF), (ii) skipping ahead in the sequence (“Skips”; e.g., ABDDEF), and (iii) inserting an item from a different sequence into the same ordinal position (“Ordinal Transfers”; e.g., AB3DEF). We found that older adults performed as well as younger controls when tested on well-known and predictable sequences, but were severely impaired when tested using novel sequences. Importantly, overall sequence memory performance in older adults steadily declined with age, a decline not detected with other measures (RAVLT or BPS-O). We further characterized this deficit by showing that performance of older adults was severely impaired on specific probe trials that required detailed knowledge of the sequence (Skips and Ordinal Transfers), and was associated with a shift in their underlying mnemonic representation of the sequences. Collectively, these findings provide unambiguous evidence that the

  10. Artificial bias typically neglected in comparisons of uncertain atmospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Mikkonen, Santtu; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Arola, Antti

    2016-04-01

    Researchers in atmospheric sciences frequently disregard data uncertainty in their choice of methods for data analysis and visualisation. Such methods include the widely used standard least squares line fitting in combination with some variations of scatter plots when comparing two different data sets of the same physical quantity. When using these methods, random data uncertainty (eg. measurement uncertainty) causes artificial systematic bias in the comparison between the extreme values of the data sets, which is then often interpreted falsely as a consequence of some true physical phenomenon or instrument misbehavior. This artificial bias is recognized as regression to the mean (RTM), that is a known effect in the field of statistics, but mostly disregarded in atmospheric sciences and not acknowledged at all in the vast majority of publications in our field. All kinds of data comparisons are subject to the bias, as long as uncertainty is present in the data. This work introduces the concept of RTM bias and demonstrates the necessity of considering the RTM effect in comparisons of data with uncertainties. We not only visualize the RTM effect with synthetic data but also use simulations based on real atmospheric data to estimate the magnitude of RTM bias in data comparisons common in our field. Typically, RTM bias is greater when the reference data (often on the x-axis) has greater uncertainty. For example, mid-visible aerosol optical thickness determined using a sun photometer may have a fairly low uncertainty of +-0.01 and, thus the RTM effect is small when using it as reference data. On the other hand UV index measurements with a broadband instrument may have an uncertainty of 10 % and higher, and the bias caused by RTM becomes larger. The bias caused by RTM is typically greatest for the extreme values of the data sets, emphasizing the need to account for RTM bias when comparing and interpreting these cases.

  11. 40 CFR 72.26 - Delegation by designated representative and alternate designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designated representative may delegate, to one or more natural persons, his or her authority to make an... representative may delegate, to one or more natural persons, his or her authority to make an electronic... this part and parts 73 through 77 of this chapter. (c) In order to delegate authority to make an...

  12. Comparison of Energy Performance of Different HVAC Systems for a Typical Office Room and a Typical Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    This report is part of the work performed under the project “Natural cooling and Ventilation through Diffuse Ceiling Supply and Thermally Activated Building Constructions”. In this project, a new system solution combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and thermally activated...... the energy consumption for buildings with cooling demand in cold seasons. In this way, the building system can operate at a very low energy use all the year round. The main purpose of this task is to investigate the energy performance of different HVAC systems used in the office room and the classroom......, and find the potential of energy saving for the proposed new system solution. In this report, a typical room is selected according to the previous study, but the occupation is different for the purpose of the office and the classroom. Energy performance of these two types of room under different internal...

  13. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M.; Travers, Brittany G.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3–36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4–39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  14. Recommendations for representative ballast water sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej

    2017-05-01

    Until now, the purpose of ballast water sampling studies was predominantly limited to general scientific interest to determine the variety of species arriving in ballast water in a recipient port. Knowing the variety of species arriving in ballast water also contributes to the assessment of relative species introduction vector importance. Further, some sampling campaigns addressed awareness raising or the determination of organism numbers per water volume to evaluate the species introduction risk by analysing the propagule pressure of species. A new aspect of ballast water sampling, which this contribution addresses, is compliance monitoring and enforcement of ballast water management standards as set by, e.g., the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention. To achieve this, sampling methods which result in representative ballast water samples are essential. We recommend such methods based on practical tests conducted on two commercial vessels also considering results from our previous studies. The results show that different sampling approaches influence the results regarding viable organism concentrations in ballast water samples. It was observed that the sampling duration (i.e., length of the sampling process), timing (i.e., in which point in time of the discharge the sample is taken), the number of samples and the sampled water quantity are the main factors influencing the concentrations of viable organisms in a ballast water sample. Based on our findings we provide recommendations for representative ballast water sampling.

  15. [Sensitivity of four representative angular cephalometric measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xü, T; Ahn, J; Baumrind, S

    2000-05-01

    Examined the sensitivity of four representative cephalometric angles to the detection of different vectors of craniofacial growth. Landmark coordinate data from a stratified random sample of 48 adolescent subjects were used to calculate conventional values for changes between the pretreatment and end-of-treatment lateral cephalograms. By modifying the end-of-treatment coordinate values appropriately, the angular changes could be recalculated reflecting three hypothetical situations: Case 1. What if there were no downward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 2. What if there were no forward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 3. What if there were no Nasion change? These questions were asked for four representative cephalometric angles: SNA, ANB, NAPg and UI-SN. For Case 1, the associations (r) between the baseline and the modified measure for the three angles were very highly significant (P < 0.001) with r2 values no lower than 0.94! For Case 2, however, the associations were much weaker and no r value reached significance. These angular measurements are less sensitive for measuring downward landmark displacement than they are for measuring forward landmark displacement.

  16. How Are Feedbacks Represented in Land Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Land systems are characterised by many feedbacks that can result in complex system behaviour. We defined feedbacks as the two-way influences between the land use system and a related system (e.g., climate, soils and markets, both of which are encompassed by the land system. Land models that include feedbacks thus probably more accurately mimic how land systems respond to, e.g., policy or climate change. However, representing feedbacks in land models is a challenge. We reviewed articles incorporating feedbacks into land models and analysed each with predefined indicators. We found that (1 most modelled feedbacks couple land use systems with transport, soil and market systems, while only a few include feedbacks between land use and social systems or climate systems; (2 equation-based land use models that follow a top-down approach prevail; and (3 feedbacks’ effects on system behaviour remain relatively unexplored. We recommend that land system modellers (1 consider feedbacks between land use systems and social systems; (2 adopt (bottom-up approaches suited to incorporating spatial heterogeneity and better representing land use decision-making; and (3 pay more attention to nonlinear system behaviour and its implications for land system management and policy.

  17. Cortical and subcortical changes in typically developing preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuler, L Tugan; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Buss, Claudia; Head, Kevin; Hasso, Anton N; Sandman, Curt A

    2011-07-05

    There is evidence that abnormal cerebral development during childhood is a risk factor for various cognitive and psychiatric disorders. There is not, however, sufficient normative data available on large samples of typically developing children, especially within the narrow preadolescent age range. We analyzed high resolution MRI images from 126 normally developing children between ages 6 and 10 years. Age related differences in cortical thickness and in the volumes of major subcortical structures were assessed. Thinner cortices were observed in the occipital, parietal and somatosensory regions as well as in distinct regions of the temporal and frontal lobes with increasing age. Among the major subcortical structures analyzed in this study, only the thalamus showed increased volume with age after accounting for intracranial volume. Within the age range studied age-related cortical and subcortical differences were similar for boys and girls except for the right insula, where girls showed a slight increase in thickness with age. The findings reveal age-associated changes in brain anatomy, providing information about the trajectory of normal brain development during late childhood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effect of Three Typical Disinfection Byproducts on Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Lu; Zhang, Meng-lu; Wang, Chun-ming; Lin, Hui-rong; Yu, Xin

    2015-07-01

    The effect of typical disinfection byproducts (DBPs) on bacterial antibiotic resistance was investigated in this study. chlorodibromomethane (CDBM), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and chloral hydrate (CH) were selected, which belong to trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and aldehydes, respectively. After exposure to the selected DBPs, the resistance change of the tested strains to antibiotics was determined. As a result, all of the three DBPs induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to gain increased resistance to the five antibiotics tested, and the DBPs ranked as IAA > CH > CDBM according to their enhancement effects. Multidrug resistance could also be enhanced by treatment with IAA. The same result was observed in Escherichia coli K12, suggesting that the effect of DBPs on antibiotic resistance was a common phenomenon. The mechanism was probably that DBPs stimulated oxidative stress, which induced mutagenesis. And the antibiotic resistance mutation frequency could be increased along with mutagenesis. This study revealed that the acquisition of bacterial antibiotic resistance might be related to DBPs in drinking water systems. Besides the genotoxicological risks, the epidemiological risks of DBPs should not be overlooked.

  19. Typical application of Rogowski coils in inspection of electrobath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红; 贾正春

    2004-01-01

    During the aluminum electrolytic roasting process, each component of the electrobath of aluminum performs unsteadily when the electrolytic bath is in the pre-roasting stage. It is important to monitor the currents of the anodes and the cathodes of the aluminum electrobath at regular intervals. Both practice and investigation indicate that Rogowski coil can be adopted to measure heavy direct current of the anodes and the cathodes of the aluminum electrobath. The paper not only introduces the typical application of the Rogowski coil to inspect the state of aluminum electrobath in the roasting process, but also analyzes the principles of the coil sensor including its dynamic properties and some important measurement results respectively. The optimal parameters of the coil can be simulated by means of an advanced simulation tool: simulink tools based on MATLAB soft environment. Based on the gathered current data, an even-current coefficient has been introduced, and the current curve can be drawn. Since they are applied in AL-Electrolyzing, it is possible to distinguish the anode of which the current is not evenly distributed, and to take adjusting measures over a period of time to ensure that the current is evenly distributed.

  20. INDIVIDUAL TYPICAL FEATURES OF MICROCIRCULATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anosov I. P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the question of primary school age children`s blood microcirculation in dependence on their individual typical features. We examined some 120 healthy children of 6-9 years, which were the students of secondary schools of the city of Melitopol. Anthropometric survey was conducted by the standard measurement scheme of longitudinal chest and weight parameters of the bodies of children. Diagnosis of body type (somatotype was conducted by the method of M. Chernorutskiy. According to the index of physical development - Pine index (PI, the children were divided into three somatic type: asthenic with IP> 30 gipersteni at PI <10 and normostenic type at 10

  1. ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Grohskopf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 10 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 m3 ha-1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fertilizer, organized in a randomized block design with four replications. The N contents were determined in the plant tissue and in the forms of total N and acid hydrolyzed fractions: ammonium-N, hexosamine-N, α-amino-N, amide-N, and unidentified-N. Annual application of pig slurry or mineral fertilizer increased the total-N content in the 0-10 cm depth layer. The main fractions of organic N in the soil were α-amino-N when pig slurry was applied and unidentified-N in the case of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry increased the N fractions considered as labile: α-amino-N, ammonium-N, and amide-N. The increase in these labile organic N fractions in the soil through pig slurry application allows greater N uptake by the maize and oat crops in a no-tillage system.

  2. New typical meterological years and solar radiation data manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A new solar radiation data manual and new typical meterological years (TMYs) were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Analytic Studies Division under the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. These tasks were funded and monitored by the Photovoltaics Branch of the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The new manual and the new TMYs were derived from the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The new manual is entitled Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors. It provides designers and engineers of solar-energy-related systems with average monthly and yearly solar radiation values for various types of collectors for 239 stations in the United States and its territories. The new TMY data sets are referred to as TMY2s. This distinguishes them from earlier TMY data sets derived from the 1952-1975 SOLMET/ERSATZ data base. This paper describes the new data manual and the new TMY2s.

  3. A Typical Simulation of a 3-KW Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Stirling engine is being received more and more attention with the development of renewable energy utility. The paper described the design and simulation of a 3-KW Stirling engine based on a testing V-type machine while in the process of manufactured at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology. The engine was driven by solar energy. Based on the testing machine, the heater model of variable heat source, regenerator model and complete appliance model were built, and the thermal performance was simulated and shown under a typical sunlight in the area of Wuhan. The results suggested that the output power curve of Stirling engine appeared as the shape of a saddle in consideration that the radiant energy density of solar energy was non-constant, and electrical heating was employed to serve as the auxiliary heat source. There was about 1.83 KW output work of the manufactured engine during the simulation, and the effective efficiency was about 25.4%.

  4. Parameterization of Evapotranspiration Estimation for Two Typical East Asian Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of evapotranspiration plays an important role in understanding the water cycle on the earth, especially the water budget in agricultural ecosystems. The parameterization approach of the Penman-Monteith-Katerji-Perrier (PM-KP model, accounting for the influence of meteorological variables and aerodynamic resistance on surface resistance, was proposed in the literature, but it has not been applied to Asian croplands, and its error and sensitivity have not been reported yet. In this study, the estimation of evapotranspiration on half-hourly scale was carried out for two typical East Asian cropland research sites, and evaluated by using eddy-covariance measurements corrected with the energy-balance-closure concept. Sensitivity coefficients as well as systematic bias and random errors of the PM-KP approach were used to evaluate the model performance. Different distributions of the calibration coefficients between different crops were reported for the first time, indicating that the calibration of this model was more stable for the rice field than for the potato field. The commonly-used parameterization approach suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO was used as reference and was site-specifically optimized. The results suggest that the PM-KP approach would be a better alternative than the PM-FAO approach for estimating evapotranspiration for the flooded rice field, and an acceptable alternative for rain-fed croplands when the soil is well watered and the air is humid during the summer monsoon.

  5. Dependence of gait parameters on height in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Valentina; Nascimbeni, Alberto; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura; Knaflitz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In clinical gait analysis is fundamental to have access to normative data, to be used as a reference in the interpretation of pathological walking. In a paediatric population this may be complicated by the dependence of gait parameters on child growth. The aim of this work is to provide the correlations of spatial-temporal gait parameters with children's height. We obtained the regression lines of cadence, double support, and gait phases, with respect to height, from a sample of 85 normally typically developing children aged 6 to 11. Our analysis of gait phases was not limited to the traditional analysis of stance and swing, but rather focused on the sub-phases of stance - heel contact, flat foot contact, push off - which proved to be an innovative approach to gait analysis. Heel contact decreased, flat foot contact increased and push off remained essentially unchanged with respect to children's height. These results may be useful in the interpretation of gait data in developing children, and the regression lines obtained may be used to normalize their gait parameters.

  6. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  7. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Yang, Ning; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Han; Yan, Chao-Gan; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6-16 years, 42 boys). We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right) in its superior part, rightward (left lateral temporal cortex) was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex) was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure-function relationships during the development.

  8. Emergence of typical entanglement in two-party random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlsten, O C O; Plenio, M B

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement within a system undergoing a random, local process. We find that there is initially a phase of very fast generation and spread of entanglement. At the end of this phase the entanglement is typically maximal. In previous work we proved that the maximal entanglement is reached to a fixed arbitrary accuracy within $O(N^3)$ steps, where $N$ is the total number of qubits. Here we provide a detailed and more pedagogical proof. We demonstrate that one can use the so-called stabilizer gates to simulate this process efficiently on a classical computer. Furthermore, we discuss three ways of identifying the transition from the phase of rapid spread of entanglement to the stationary phase: (i) the time when saturation of the maximal entanglement is achieved, (ii) the cut-off moment, when the entanglement probability distribution is practically stationary, and (iii) the moment block entanglement scales exhibits volume scaling. We furthermore investigate the mixed state and multipartite sett...

  9. Structure of executive functions in typically developing kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Lafrenière, Marc-André

    2015-12-01

    Whereas studies of the past 10 years have shown the executive functions (EFs) in adults to be differentiated into at least three principal components (working memory, inhibition, and flexibility), EF structure in children is far less well understood despite a large body of research on the subject. A study was undertaken to test different structural models of EFs through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on a large sample of typically developing kindergarteners (N = 272). The method employed sought to remedy the shortcomings of past research in this field such as absence of CFA, insufficient number of EF components tested, insufficient number of indicators per latent variable, and absence of control on processing speed. Children were assessed using a battery of EF tasks developed by the researchers to measure working memory (WM), flexibility, and inhibition (backward word span, backward block span, fruit Stroop, day-night test, hand Stroop, Trails-P, card sort, face sort, and verbal fluency shift). CFA results show the best-fitting model to comprise two factors, namely, an inhibition factor and a WM-flexibility factor. Invariance analyses suggest that this structure is the same for girls and boys and that latent variable means do not differ by sex. These results support the hypothesis of EF differentiation during development. The researchers formulate other hypotheses regarding neurophysiological development.

  10. Mechanical Response of Typical Cement Concrete Pavements under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Fei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the mechanical response of cement concrete pavements under impact loading, four types of typical cement concrete pavement structures are investigated experimentally and numerically under an impact load. Full-scale three-dimensional pavement slots are tested under an impact load and are monitored for the mechanical characteristics including the deflection of the pavement surface layer, the strain distribution at the bottom of the slab, and the plastic damage and cracking under the dynamic impact load. Numerical analysis is performed by developing a three-dimensional finite element model and by utilizing a cement concrete damage model. The results show that the calculation results based on the cement concrete damage model are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results based on the three-dimensional test slot experiment. The peak values of stress and strain as monitored by the sensors are analyzed and compared with the numerical results, indicating that the errors of numerical results from the proposed model are mostly within 10%. The rationality of the finite element model is verified, and the model is expected to be a suitable reference for the analysis and design of cement concrete pavements.

  11. Comparison of typical mega cities in China using emergy synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. X.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, G. Q.; Jiang, M. M.; Liu, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    An emergy-based comparison analysis is conducted for three typical mega cities in China, i.e., Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, from 1990 to 2005 in four perspectives including emergy intensity, resource structure, environmental pressure and resource use efficiency. A new index of non-renewable emergy/money ratio is established to indicate the utilization efficiency of the non-renewable resources. The results show that for the three mega urban systems, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the total emergy inputs were 3.76E+23, 3.54E+23, 2.52E+23 sej in 2005, of which 64.88%, 91.45% and 72.28% were imported from the outsides, respectively. As to the indicators of emergy intensity involving the total emergy use, emergy density and emergy use per cap, three cities exhibited similar overall increase trends with annual fluctuations from 1990 to 2005. Shanghai achieved the highest level of economic development and non-renewable resource use efficiency, and meanwhile, lower proportion of renewable resource use and higher environmental pressure compared to those of Beijing and Guangzhou. Guangzhou has long term sustainability considering an amount of local renewable resources used, per capita emergy used, energy consumption per unit GDP and the ratio of waste to renewable emergy. It can be concluded that different emergy-based evaluation results arise from different geographical locations, resources endowments, industrial structures and urban orientations of the concerned mega cities.

  12. Characterisation of lab in typical Salento Pecorino cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, M S; Laddomada, B; Poltronieri, P; Zacheo, G

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-nine strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria isolated from the typical Pecorino cheese of the Salento area of Italy, were identified and grouped according to their genetic similarity. A preliminary characterisation of the strains was conducted by means of morphological and biochemical analysis, but molecular approaches were necessary for the clear identification of the species. For the species detection, the amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene was employed In addition, restriction analysis of amplified rDNA (ARDRA) and PCR and AFLP fingerprinting enabled inter- and intra-specific variation to be estimated UPGMA cluster analysis was used to divide the strains into distinct clusters which corresponded with the species delineation obtained by molecular identification. The data obtained show that the community of lactobacilli responsible for the fermentation and aging of Pecorino cheese is composed of a limited number of species. The main identified strains were Lactobacillus brevis, L. plantarum, L. casei, L. sakei, L. pentosus, L. farciminis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of a Typical High-End Industrial Park in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change caused by greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, which severely limits the development of human society and threatens the survival of humanity, has drawn the international community's long-term attention. Gathering the most important production factors in the region, an industrial park usually represents the development level of specific industries in the region. Therefore, the industrial park should be regarded as the base unit for developing a low-carbon economy and reducing GHG emissions. Focusing on a typical high-end industrial park in Beijing, we analyze the carbon sources within the system boundary and probe into the emission structure in view of life-cycle analysis. A GHG inventory is thereby set up to calculate all GHG emissions from the concerned park. Based on the results, suggestions are presented to guide the low-carbon development of the high-end industrial park.

  14. RUNOFF GENERATION CHARACTERISTICS IN TYPICAL EROSION REGIONS ON THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li CHEN; Qingquan LIU; Jiachun LI

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a process-based model for runoff generation on slopes. One dimensional kinematic wave theory combined with the revised Green-Ampt infiltration formula is applied in the model. According to the characteristics of soil and rainfall in the Loess Plateau area, six types of storm are defined, and among them three typical erosion zones that have different values of representative parameters are chosen to simulate the runoff generation processes. The primary hydraulic characteristics of the runoff generation, such as unit discharge, runoff depth, flow velocity, shear stress and ratio of runoff generation, are obtained and analyzed. The results demonstrate that the different erosion characteristics are related to different runoff generation zones.

  15. Lifespan development: the effects of typical aging on theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Joseph M

    2013-01-15

    Whether typical aging is associated with impairments in social understanding is a topic of critical importance in characterizing the changes that occur in older adulthood. Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to represent other's mental states, and has been tested in a variety of different paradigms in older adults. The overarching research question has been whether ToM abilities may rely on other cognitive abilities, such as processing speed or executive functioning, and as such declines in ToM may reflect a decline in general meta-representational abilities. Alternatively, ToM abilities may be relatively spared, suggesting the acquisition of a sort of social wisdom with advancing age. The preponderance of the evidence is in line with the first possibility: namely, ToM, as measured by paradigms involving faces, cartoons, stories, and videos is typically impaired in social aging, and these impairments are at least partly mediated by impairments in executive functions and fluid intelligence (but not typically by crystallized intelligence). Neuroimaging investigations suggest that older adults who perform as well as younger adults may activate compensatory mechanisms, but are impaired in the brain mechanisms most closely associated with ToM ability when their task performance is impaired. Recent methodological advances allowing continuous rather than categorical assessment of ToM show that ToM may be observed to function independently from general cognition in aging, but further investigation is needed to confirm this point. Implications of these findings for the longstanding discussion regarding Theory of Mind's endangered status as a special cognitive module are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ALMA Reveals Weak [NII] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Intense Starbursts at z=5-6

    CERN Document Server

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Capak, Peter L; Carilli, Christopher L; Sharon, Chelsea E; Stacey, Gordon J; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas Z; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2016-01-01

    We report interferometric measurements of [NII] 205 um fine-structure line emission from a representative sample of three galaxies at z=5-6 using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). These galaxies were previously detected in [CII] and far-infrared continuum emission and span almost two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized inter-stellar medium properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their L_[CII]/L_[NII] ratio. We find extremely low [NII] emission compared to [CII] (L_ [CII]/L_[NII]=68 [+200/-28]) from a "typical" L*_UV star-forming galaxy, likely directly or indirectly (by its effect on the radiation field) related to low dust abundance and low metallicity. The infrared-luminous modestly star-forming Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) in our sample is characterized by an ionized-gas fraction (L_[CII]/L_[NII]<=20) typical of local star-forming galaxies and shows evidence for spatial variations i...

  17. A change will do us good: threats diminish typical preferences for male leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Diekman, Amanda B; Schneider, Monica C

    2011-07-01

    The current research explores role congruity processes from a new vantage point by investigating how the need for change might shift gender-based leadership preferences. According to role congruity theory, favorability toward leaders results from alignment between what is desired in a leadership role and the characteristics stereotypically ascribed to the leader. Generally speaking, these processes lead to baseline preferences for male over female leaders. In this research, the authors propose that a shift in gender-based leadership preferences will emerge under conditions of threat. Because the psychological experience of threat signals a need for change, individuals will favor candidates who represent new directions in leadership rather than consistency with past directions in leadership. Specifically, they find that threat evokes an implicit preference for change over stability (Experiment 1) and gender stereotypes align women with change but men with stability (Experiments 2a and 2b). Consequently, the typical preference for male leaders is diminished, or even reversed, under threat (Experiments 3 and 4). Moreover, the shift away from typical gender-based leadership preferences occurs especially among individuals who highly legitimize the sociopolitical system (Experiment 4), suggesting that these preference shifts might serve to protect the underlying system.

  18. Evaluation of Clear-Sky Incoming Radiation Estimating Equations Typically Used in Remote Sensing Evapotranspiration Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted W. Sammis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation is a key component of the energy balance, whose estimation accuracy has an impact on energy flux estimates from satellite data. In typical remote sensing evapotranspiration (ET algorithms, the outgoing shortwave and longwave components of net radiation are obtained from remote sensing data, while the incoming shortwave (RS and longwave (RL components are typically estimated from weather data using empirical equations. This study evaluates the accuracy of empirical equations commonly used in remote sensing ET algorithms for estimating RS and RL radiation. Evaluation is carried out through comparison of estimates and observations at five sites that represent different climatic regions from humid to arid. Results reveal (1 both RS and RL estimates from all evaluated equations well correlate with observations (R2 ≥ 0.92, (2 RS estimating equations tend to overestimate, especially at higher values, (3 RL estimating equations tend to give more biased values in arid and semi-arid regions, (4 a model that parameterizes the diffuse component of radiation using two clearness indices and a simple model that assumes a linear increase of atmospheric transmissivity with elevation give better RS estimates, and (5 mean relative absolute errors in the net radiation (Rn estimates caused by the use of RS and RL estimating equations varies from 10% to 22%. This study suggests that Rn estimates using recommended incoming radiation estimating equations could improve ET estimates.

  19. Constructing random matrices to represent real ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alex; Plank, Michael J; Rossberg, Axel G; Beecham, Jonathan; Emmerson, Mark; Pitchford, Jonathan W

    2015-05-01

    Models of complex systems with n components typically have order n(2) parameters because each component can potentially interact with every other. When it is impractical to measure these parameters, one may choose random parameter values and study the emergent statistical properties at the system level. Many influential results in theoretical ecology have been derived from two key assumptions: that species interact with random partners at random intensities and that intraspecific competition is comparable between species. Under these assumptions, community dynamics can be described by a community matrix that is often amenable to mathematical analysis. We combine empirical data with mathematical theory to show that both of these assumptions lead to results that must be interpreted with caution. We examine 21 empirically derived community matrices constructed using three established, independent methods. The empirically derived systems are more stable by orders of magnitude than results from random matrices. This consistent disparity is not explained by existing results on predator-prey interactions. We investigate the key properties of empirical community matrices that distinguish them from random matrices. We show that network topology is less important than the relationship between a species' trophic position within the food web and its interaction strengths. We identify key features of empirical networks that must be preserved if random matrix models are to capture the features of real ecosystems.

  20. A holistic evaluation of a typical beach nourishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    is the primary method used by the Danish Coastal Authority for coastal protection and represents a management tool which serves a dual purpose. Beach Nourishment is protecting coastal lands as well as backshore properties (infrastructures, buildings etc.) and preserving natural heritages. Nevertheless, more......The coastal landscape in Denmark is characterized by multiple areas of geologic, biologic and recreational interests both at a national and international level. In the later years several guidelines have been set up in the coastal protection area. Recognizing the value of the healthy natural...... environment, the aims for the future are to ensure the presence of naturally shaped beaches and at the same time to reduce the risk of erosion. For this reason beach nourishment is used widely along the Danish North Sea coast and this method is preferred to solid constructions. Beach Nourishment...

  1. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2017-07-28

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  2. Representing the vacuum polarization on de Sitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Katie E.; Woodard, Richard P. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute of Theoretical Physics (ITP) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    Previous studies of the vacuum polarization on de Sitter have demonstrated that there is a simple, noncovariant representation of it in which the physics is transparent. There is also a cumbersome, covariant representation in which the physics is obscure. Despite being unwieldy, the latter form has a powerful appeal for those who are concerned about de Sitter invariance. We show that nothing is lost by employing the simple, noncovariant representation because there is a closed form procedure for converting its structure functions to those of the covariant representation. We also present a vastly improved technique for reading off the noncovariant structure functions from the primitive diagrams. And we discuss the issue of representing the vacuum polarization for a general metric background.

  3. STATISTICAL MODELS OF REPRESENTING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Feraru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.

  4. Typical tumors of the petrous bone; Typische Tumoren des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland); Ulmer, S. [Medizinisch-Radiologisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-04-15

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. (orig.) [German] In der Region des Felsenbein, inneren Gehoerkanals und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels findet sich eine Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Gewebearten inklusive knoechernes, epitheliales, nervales und vaskulaeres Gewebe. Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Laesionen, ossaere oder vaskulaere Pathologien koennen entsprechend dort gefunden werden. Wir diskutieren verschiedene Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Pathologien inklusive angeborene Laesionen wie Muko- und Meningozelen, entzuendliche Veraenderungen wie die Osteomyelitis, Pseudotumoren, die Wegener-Granulomatose, nichtneoplastische Tumoren wie das Epidermoid, Cholesteatom oder Cholesterolgranulom und gutartige neoplastische Tumoren wie das am haeufigsten zu findende Vestibularisschwannom, das Paragangliom und das Meningeom, Gefaessprozesse/-pathologien und schliesslich maligne Laesionen wie Metastasen

  5. Typical Lignocellulose-degrading Enzymes: a Synthesis of Kinetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Post, W. M.; Mayes, M. A.; Frerichs, J.; Jagadamma, S.

    2011-12-01

    While soil enzymes have been explicitly included in the soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition models, there are big concerns on the model parameterization. Our object is to study the kinetic parameters of five typical lignocellulose-degrading enzymes through literature research and data synthesis. The kinetic parameters refer to the maximum specific enzyme activity (Vmax) and half-saturation constant (Km) in the Michaelis-Menton equation. The Activation energy (Ea) and the pH optimum and sensitivity (pHopt and pHsen) were also analyzed. pHsen was estimated by curve fitting of an exponential-quadratic function. The Vmax values in different units under various conditions were converted into the same units at a reference temperature (20°C) and optimum pH. The scaling issue on Vmax and Km and the effects of soil temperature, pH, and SWC were discussed later. Major findings are summarized as follows. (i) Both Vmax and Km are log-normal distributed. (ii) No significant difference in Vmax is found between groups (ligninases and cellulases). The one-standard-deviation interval of Vmax falls within 10-1000 (mean ≈ 100) mg C mg^-1 Enz h^-1. However, there is significant difference in Km between groups. (iii) Significant difference in activation energy, i.e., 53±17 and 37±15 kJ mol^-1 is found for ligninases and cellulases, respectively. (iv) Both ligninases and cellulases prefer to acid environment. The average ratio of pHsen to pHopt ranges 0.3-0.4 and the optimum pH for ligninases is significantly lower than pHopt for cellulases. (v) A preliminary analysis of Vmax indicates a scaling factor 0.01-0.1 for transforming the Vmax from lab measurements to SOC decomposition models. This study provides useful information for the parameterization of enzyme-driven SOC decomposition models.

  6. Accuracy of the typical computed tomographic appearances of fibrosing alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, K T; Wells, A U; Rubens, M B; Kirk, J M; du Bois, R M; Hansell, D M

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Open lung biopsy is often performed to confirm the diagnosis in patients with suspected fibrosing alveolitis. The superior sensitivity and specificity of high resolution computed tomography (CT) over chest radiography in various diffuse lung diseases suggest that the characteristic appearance of fibrosing alveolitis on high resolution CT might render biopsy confirmation unnecessary. METHODS--The chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans of 86 patients (41 with fibrosing alveolitis and 45 with various other diffuse lung diseases) were examined individually and independently by two observers. No clinical information was given and the observers gave a level of confidence when the diagnosis was thought to be fibrosing alveolitis. RESULTS--The observers correctly and confidently discriminated between fibrosing alveolitis and other diffuse lung diseases on high resolution CT with an accuracy of 88% and on chest radiography with an accuracy of 76%. The false negative rate for fibrosing alveolitis diminished from 29% on chest radiography to 11% on high resolution CT. The false positive rate on chest radiography was 19% and on high resolution CT 13%; the false positive diagnoses on CT were the result of a few conditions (extrinsic allergic alveolitis, sarcoidosis, cryptogenic organising pneumonia, and pulmonary eosinophilia) which mimicked some of the CT features of fibrosing alveolitis. The superficial similarity of the CT patterns of these conditions are discussed. CONCLUSIONS--High resolution CT is superior to chest radiography in establishing the diagnosis of fibrosing alveolitis and the typical CT appearances are virtually pathognomonic. The diagnostic advantages of CT over chest radiography should further reduce the need for open lung biopsy in this condition. Images PMID:8135910

  7. TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Jim; Melody, Moya

    2012-11-08

    There is significant variation in hot water use and draw patterns among households. This report describes typical hot water use patterns in single-family residences in North America. We found that daily hot water use is highly variable both among residences and within the same residence. We compared the results of our analysis of the field data to the conditions and draw patterns established in the current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for residential water heaters. The results show a higher number of smaller draws at lower flow rates than used in the test procedure. The data from which the draw patterns were developed were obtained from 12 separate field studies. This report describes the ways in which we managed, cleaned, and analyzed the data and the results of our data analysis. After preparing the data, we used the complete data set to analyze inlet and outlet water temperatures. Then we divided the data into three clusters reflecting house configurations that demonstrated small, medium, or large median daily hot water use. We developed the three clusters partly to reflect efforts of the ASHRAE standard project committee (SPC) 118.2 to revise the test procedure for residential water heaters to incorporate a range of draw patterns. ASHRAE SPC 118.2 has identified the need to separately evaluate at least three, and perhaps as many as five, different water heater capacities. We analyzed the daily hot water use data within each cluster in terms of volume and number of hot water draws. The daily draw patterns in each cluster were characterized using distributions for volume of draws, duration of draws, time since previous draw, and flow rates.

  8. Integrated SNG Production in a Typical Nordic Sawmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennai Mesfun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biomass-based motor fuels and chemicals are becoming increasingly important to replace fossil energy sources within the coming decades. It is likely that the new biorefineries will evolve mainly from existing forest industry sites, as they already have the required biomass handling infrastructure in place. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential for increasing the profit margin from sawmill byproducts by integrating innovative downstream processes. The focus is on the techno-economic evaluation of an integrated site for biomass-based synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG production. The option of using the syngas in a biomass-integrated gasification combined cycle (b-IGCC for the production of electricity (instead of SNG is also considered for comparison. The process flowsheets that are used to analyze the energy and material balances are modelled in MATLAB and Simulink. A mathematical process integration model of a typical Nordic sawmill is used to analyze the effects on the energy flows in the overall site, as well as to evaluate the site economics. Different plant sizes have been considered in order to assess the economy-of-scale effect. The technical data required as input are collected from the literature and, in some cases, from experiments. The investment cost is evaluated on the basis of conducted studies, third party supplier budget quotations and in-house database information. This paper presents complete material and energy balances of the considered processes and the resulting process economics. Results show that in order for the integrated SNG production to be favored, depending on the sawmill size, a biofuel subsidy in the order of 28–52 €/MWh SNG is required.

  9. Food Poisioning Typicality in Food Safety Vulnerable Area of Indonesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdilBasukiAhza

    2001-01-01

    Food poisoning characteristics and patterns were studied in six vulnerable provinces of Indonesia to identify the typicality of food poisonings.Units of analysis were district level,gender,type of food,and place of events,using the data of incidence of food poisoning from 1987to 1998 period(ten year),Multivariate analysis and bi-plot technique were used to characterize the vulnerability of the areas based on the following variables:(1) time of symptom perceived,(2) number of cases for each kind of poison,(3) incidence of chemicals poisoning,and (4)incidence the microbial poisonings,It was found that the three provinces most vulnerable to food poisoning are Central Java,West Java and Jogyakarta.The causes of food poisoning incidence are microbial poisonings(49.36%),chemicals(24.50%),natural toxicant(4.66%),and other causes or indications(21.37%),The poisoning symptoms were perceived within 1.0-144 hrs with incubation time of 0.08 to 33.00 hrs after food intake,depedn on the type of poison.The type of foods that caused poisoning are family prepared foods(30.57%),preserved food(industrial products) (29.94%),food from catering services(21.66%),traditional foods(10.83%) and street foods(7.00%),WOmen are more vulnerable(67.84)than men(32.16%),The most vulnerable places for food poisoning are respectively at home(family)(44.16%),at workplaces (16.23%),party venue(14.29%),school(12.99%),and in public places(12.34%).The results lead to the urgent needs of a better formulation,more stringent food control policy and regulation at district levels,the use of different approach towards a more locally oriented food poisoning safety measures and actions.

  10. Thermal diffusivity of typical Chernozems in the Kamennaya Steppe reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangel'skaya, T. A.; Luk'yashchenko, K. I.; Tikhonravova, P. I.

    2015-02-01

    The thermal diffusivity of medium-deep light clayey typical chernozems (Voronic Chernozems (Pachic, Clayic)) has been studied, which varies with the soil water content in the ranges of (0.77-2.88) × 10-7 m2/s for the Ap horizon, (0.82-2.60) × 10-7 m2/s for the Ad horizon, (0.86-2.58) × 10-7 m2/s for the A1 horizon, (0.78-2.31) × 10-7 m2/s for the A1' horizon, (0.81-2.87) × 10-7 m2/s for the AB horizon, (1.01-3.33) × 10-7 m2/s for the B horizon, and (0.98-3.26) × 10-7 m2/s for the Bca horizon. The dependences of the thermal diffusivity on the water content are described by S-shaped curves with a long gently sloped segment in the region of volumetric water content below 0.15 cm3/cm3, a region of pronounced increase of thermal diffusivity in the water content range from 0.15 to 0.30-0.35 cm3/cm3, and the cessation of the increase or even some decrease in the water content range above 0.30-0.35 cm3/cm3. The approximation of the experimental curves has allowed developing a set of pedotransfer functions, which reflect the differences between the horizons and can be used for the quantification of the thermal diffusivity of the studied horizons at any water content.

  11. A Typical Case Study: Solid Waste Management in Petroleum Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadea S. Alshammari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current environmental concerns have forced developed and developing countries to reduce air, water and land pollution for sustainable growth. Solid refinery waste is cocktail of hydrocarbons, water, heavy metal and fine solids and is substantial in quantity. The principal processes of waste management focus mainly on waste source reduction, reusing, recycling, composting, incineration with or without energy recovery, fuel production and land filling. Waste management models have a common approach of assignment of generating sources to landfills, transfer stations sitting, site selection for landfills, etc. but recently new integrated models have been developed and applied. Waste management system in an industrial complexes uses multi-objective mixed integer programming approach for the running of existing facilities in dynamic net work flow models with nonlinear costs of management. The latest multi-objective mixed integer programming techniques are applied to resolve the potential conflict between environmental and economic goals and to evaluate sustainable strategies for waste management. In this approach, material recycling in an economic sense exhibits huge indirect benefits, although the emphasis of environmental quality as a major objective in decision-making drives the optimal solution toward pro-recycling programs. The use of grey and fuzzy system theories as uncertainty analysis tools as an enhancement of this modeling analysis proves to be highly profitable. A multi-objective optimization model based on the goal programming approach has been developed and tested in this study for passable management of solid waste generated by a typical petroleum refining industry in the state of Kuwait. The analytic hierarchy process, a decision-making approach, including qualitative and quantitative aspects of a problem, has been integrated in the model to prioritize the conflicting goals existing in the waste management problems of the petroleum

  12. Physical Composition, Nutrients and Contaminants of Typical Waste Dumping Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meuser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The composition of wastes is quite variable depending upon the generating source and mode of collection. Most of the material from the domestic activities will be organic in nature and contains essential plant nutrients, whereas the dumping material of commercial and industrial wastes usually contains appreciable amounts of heavy and potentially toxic metals and organic pollutants. Approach: Objective of the present study was to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the waste material and the distribution and extent of toxic pollutants in three selected typical dumping sites in the state of Haryana, India. Results: 62-65% of the waste fine material consisted of mineral particles and biodegradable organic waste, 20-25% consisted of construction and demolition waste and the remaining 10-15% were other materials such as study, plastic, metals, glass and timber, with an amount of polyethene of 3.4-5.7%. The ratio of the plant available concentrations of P, K and S and their total amounts were 3-7% for P and 1-4% for S, whereas the macronutrient potassium reached values of 29-39%. Metals As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were present in all samples (total concentration in aqua regia extract. As, Ba, Ni and Pb did not show clear differences between the three investigates sites. Cd, Cr and Zn concentrations were high but different at the different sites (Cu maximum: 1,964 mg kg−1, Zn maximum: 2,200 mg kg−1. The mobility of the metals was calculated as the ratio of DTPA/aqua regia extraction. Cd showed the highest ratio (18-22%, while the other calculated metals showed much lower ratios (Cu 6.7, Pb 7.9 Ni 2.1, Zn 3.6 and Cr 0.5%. In general, PAH and benzo(apyrene concentrations fell below the detection limit. Also the phenol index did not exceed the detection limit of 1.2 mg kg−1 (with two exceptions. In 14 out of 36 samples a GC-MS screening was conducted in order to get an overview of the organic

  13. Response of Maize Plant to Phosphorus Fertilization on Typic Distrudepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Kasno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available On the acid soil, phosphorus nutrients become critical for agricultural crops growth. At the present, price of fertilizers significantly increase and fertilizers are not available. These conditions can affect on soil productivity and crop production. The objective of these research were to study the response of maize (Zea mays L. to phosphate fertilizers on Inceptisol. The research was conducted in Cicadas Village on Typic Dystrudept. Experiment was conducted in a randomized completely block design, with 8 treatments and three replications. Treatments consisted of 6 dosages of P fertilizers, which were P source is SP-36 WIKA Agro 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1. SP-36 and Tunisia rock phosphate (40 kg P ha-1 were used for standard. Pioneer 12 variety of maized was used as an indicator. Plot size was 5 m x 6 m and the maize was planting with distance of 75 cm x 20 cm with one seed per hole. The results showed that organic C and N, P (extracted by Bray 1, K and CEC on the soil were low. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased which was P extracted by HCl 25% from 24 to 67 mg P 100 g-1 soil and which were extracted by Bray 1 increased from 0,87 to 63.31 mg P kg-1 soil. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased plant height from 175.2 cm become to 221.1 cm. Plant height of maize using SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer (210.6 cm was similar to plant heigh using SP-36 fertilizer (213.4 cm but less height from Tunisia rock phosphate. The yield of maize on SP-36 WIKA Agro (4.94 t ha-1 were linely higher than SP-36 (4.69 t ha-1, significantly was higher than that of Tunisia rock phosphate. Maximum dosage of SP-36 fertilizer was 66.67 kg P ha-1, and optimum dosage was 42 kg P ha-1. Value of Relative Agronomic Effectiveness SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer was heigher than SP-36.

  14. The Korarchaeota: Archaeal orphans representing an ancestral lineage of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkins, James G.; Kunin, Victor; Anderson, Iain; Barry, Kerrie; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Hedlund, Brian; Hugenholtz, Phil; Kyrpides, Nikos; Graham, David; Keller, Martin; Wanner, Gerhard; Richardson, Paul; Stetter, Karl O.

    2007-05-01

    Based on conserved cellular properties, all life on Earth can be grouped into different phyla which belong to the primary domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. However, tracing back their evolutionary relationships has been impeded by horizontal gene transfer and gene loss. Within the Archaea, the kingdoms Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota exhibit a profound divergence. In order to elucidate the evolution of these two major kingdoms, representatives of more deeply diverged lineages would be required. Based on their environmental small subunit ribosomal (ss RNA) sequences, the Korarchaeota had been originally suggested to have an ancestral relationship to all known Archaea although this assessment has been refuted. Here we describe the cultivation and initial characterization of the first member of the Korarchaeota, highly unusual, ultrathin filamentous cells about 0.16 {micro}m in diameter. A complete genome sequence obtained from enrichment cultures revealed an unprecedented combination of signature genes which were thought to be characteristic of either the Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, or Eukarya. Cell division appears to be mediated through a FtsZ-dependent mechanism which is highly conserved throughout the Bacteria and Euryarchaeota. An rpb8 subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified which is absent from other Archaea and has been described as a eukaryotic signature gene. In addition, the representative organism possesses a ribosome structure typical for members of the Crenarchaeota. Based on its gene complement, this lineage likely diverged near the separation of the two major kingdoms of Archaea. Further investigations of these unique organisms may shed additional light onto the evolution of extant life.

  15. Life-cycle assessment of typical Portuguese cork oak woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

    2013-05-01

    Cork forest systems are responsible for making an important economic contribution to the Mediterranean region, especially Portugal where the cork oak woodlands or montados contain about 32% of the world's area. The environmental profile derived from reproduction cork production and extraction in two Portuguese regions (Tagus valley and Alentejo) representative of the Portuguese sector were assessed in detail using the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology from a cradle-to-gate perspective. The production line was divided into four stages considering all the processes involved: stand establishment, stand management, cork stripping and field recovery. According to the environmental results, there were remarkable differences between the two production scenarios mainly due to the intensity and repetition of forest activities even though the cork yield was reported to be the same. The management system in the Alentejo region presented the worse environmental profile in almost all the impact categories under assessment, mainly due to the shorter cycle duration of the mechanical cleaning and pruning processes. Cork stripping was identified in both scenarios as the production stage with the highest contribution to the environmental profile due to the cleaning and pruning processes. A sensitivity assessment concerning the cork yield was performed since the average production yields in the Portuguese montados are lower than the ones used in this study. Thus, if the cork yield is reduced, the environmental profile in both scenarios gets worse since almost all the forest activities involved are the same.

  16. Alien or Alike? How the Perceived Similarity Between the Typical Science Teacher and a Student's Self-Image Correlates with Choosing Science at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula; Taconis, Ruurd

    2012-12-01

    By applying the self-to-prototype matching theory to students' academic choices, this study links the unpopularity of science in many industrialized countries with the perceived gap between typical persons representing science (e.g. physics teachers) on the one hand and students' self-image on the other. A sample of N = 308 Dutch and German students described both themselves and typical teachers representing different school subjects using 65 trait adjectives. The following hypotheses were tested: The typical hard sciences teacher and the typical languages teacher will be perceived as differing in their personal characteristics. The typical physics teachers will be perceived as being less similar to students' own self-image than teachers representing languages. Actual choices students make during secondary school should correlate with the perceived fit between students' self-image and the prototype of teachers representing different school subjects, especially in the less frequent and less popular choices of a math or physics major/profile. The findings supported these hypotheses. The discussion stresses that students acquire not only knowledge about science but also about science culture (sensu Aikenhead) in their science classes and that students' image of science teachers can influence their academic choices.

  17. Recent activities of the Seismology Division Early Career Representative(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Matthew; Van Noten, Koen; Ermert, Laura; Mai, P. Martin; Krawczyk, CharLotte

    2016-04-01

    The European Geosciences Union is a bottom-up-organisation, in which its members are represented by their respective scientific divisions, committees and council. In recent years, EGU has embarked on a mission to reach out for its numerous 'younger' members by giving awards to outstanding young scientists and the setting up of Early Career Scientists (ECS) representatives. The division representative's role is to engage in discussions that concern students and early career scientists. Several meetings between all the division representatives are held throughout the year to discuss ideas and Union-wide issues. One important impact ECS representatives have had on EGU is the increased number of short courses and workshops run by ECS during the annual General Assembly. Another important contribution of ECS representatives was redefining 'Young Scientist' to 'Early Career Scientist', which avoids discrimination due to age. Since 2014, the Seismology Division has its own ECS representative. In an effort to more effectively reach out for young seismologists, a blog and a social media page dedicated to seismology have been set up online. With this dedicated blog, we'd like to give more depth to the average browsing experience by enabling young researchers to explore various seismology topics in one place while making the field more exciting and accessible to the broader community. These pages are used to promote the latest research especially of young seismologists and to share interesting seismo-news. Over the months the pages proved to be popular, with hundreds of views every week and an increased number of followers. An online survey was conducted to learn more about the activities and needs of early career seismologists. We present the results from this survey, and the work that has been carried out over the last two years, including detail of what has been achieved so far, and what we would like the ECS representation for Seismology to achieve. Young seismologists are

  18. The Two Sides of the Representative Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sutherland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Federalist 10 James Madison drew a functional distinction between “parties” (advocates for factional interests and “judgment” (decision-making for the public good and warned of the corrupting effect of combining both functions in a “single body of men.” This paper argues that one way of overcoming “Madisonian corruption” would be by restricting political parties to an advocacy role, reserving the judgment function to an allotted (randomly-selected microcosm of the whole citizenry, who would determine the outcome of parliamentary debates by secret ballot—a division of labour suggested by James Fishkin’s experiments in deliberative polling. The paper then defends this radical constitutional proposal against Bernard Manin’s (1997 claim that an allotted microcosm could not possibly fulfil the “consent” requirement of Natural Right theory. Not only does the proposal challenge Manin’s thesis, but a 28th Amendment implementing it would finally reconcile the competing visions that have bedevilled representative democracy since the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

  19. The Two Sides of the Representative Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sutherland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Federalist 10 James Madison drew a functional distinction between “parties” (advocates for factional interests and “judgment” (decision-making for the public good and warned of the corrupting effect of combining both functions in a “single body of men.” This paper argues that one way of overcoming “Madisonian corruption” would be by restricting political parties to an advocacy role, reserving the judgment function to an allotted (randomly-selected microcosm of the whole citizenry, who would determine the outcome of parliamentary debates by secret ballot—a division of labour suggested by James Fishkin’s experiments in deliberative polling. The paper then defends this radical constitutional proposal against Bernard Manin’s (1997 claim that an allotted microcosm could not possibly fulfil the “consent” requirement of Natural Right theory. Not only does the proposal challenge Manin’s thesis, but a 28th Amendment implementing it would finally reconcile the competing visions that have bedevilled representative democracy since the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

  20. Implicit Theories and Offender Representativeness in Judgments About Sexual Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Craig A; Bartels, Ross M

    2016-07-01

    Implicit theories structure the way people understand and respond to various human actions. Typically, people believe attributes are either fixed (entitists) or malleable (incrementalists). The present study aimed to examine (a) whether attitudes toward sexual offenders differ depending upon one's implicit theory about human nature and sexual offenders, and (b) whether implicit theories are associated with judgments made about different types of child abusers. A sample of 252 community participants was recruited. Their attitudes, implicit theories, and political orientation were assessed via self-report. One of three vignettes describing an incidence of child sexual abuse was then presented. The cases were identical except the perpetrator was either an adult male, an adult female, or a male juvenile. Participants then made judgments about the offender's deserved sentence and moral character. Entitists (across both domains) held more negative attitudes than incrementalists, although the magnitude of the difference was greatest when examining implicit theories about sexual offenders. Compared with those with an incremental theory of sexual offenders, entity theorists judged sexual offending to be more (a) indicative of the perpetrator's moral character and (b) deserving of punishment. However, scores were greater toward the adult male relative to the adult female and juvenile. The findings suggest that implicit theories about sexual offenders are domain specific. They also indicate that judgments made by those with an entity theory (about sexual offenders) are affected by whether a case is representative of a stereotypical sexual offender. Implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and future research.

  1. Pseudomembranous collagenous colitis with superimposed drug damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanacci, Vincenzo; Cristina, Silvia; Muscarà, Maurizio; Saettone, Silvia; Broglia, Laura; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Salemme, Marianna; Occhipinti, Pietro; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2013-11-01

    Pseudomembranous collagenous colitis is a rare pathological condition, not related to infectious agents, and characterized by thickening of the subepithelial collagen and formation of pseudomembranes. We report one such case, which responded to budesonide treatment after failures of previous approaches given, being unaware of the correct diagnosis.

  2. Superimposed particles in 1D ground states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueto, Andras, E-mail: suto@szfki.hu [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-01-21

    For a class of nonnegative, range-1 pair potentials in one-dimensional continuous space we prove that any classical ground state of lower density {>=}1 is a tower-lattice, i.e. a lattice formed by towers of particles the heights of which can differ only by 1, and the lattice constant is 1. The potential may be flat or may have a cusp at the origin; it can be continuous, but its derivative has a jump at 1. The result is valid on finite intervals or rings of integer length and on the whole line.

  3. Controlled acceleration of superimposed Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available when the rotation rate decreases. The change in overall intensity of the two parts of the intensity profile are out of phase with one another. This is a consequence of energy conservation. Consequently, the velocity and acceleration are (4) and (5... in the centre (green) and outer (blue) regions of the intensity profile as a function of the propagation distance, z. (b) Snap-shots of the field recorded at intervals along the propagation distance. Fig. 5. (a) Graph of the velocity of the rotation rate as a...

  4. Research advances of superimposed orogenesis and metallogenesis in the Sanjiang Tethys%三江特提斯复合造山与成矿作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓军; 杨立强; 王长明

    2011-01-01

    The significant achievements in past three - year of superimposed orogenesis and metallogenesis in the Sanjiang Tethys, the National 973-Program, are briefly summarized in this paper, including the metallogenic geodynamic setting, the metallogenic systems of accreting orogen and collisional orogen, the transition of tectonic regime and superimposed orogenesis, the metallogenic forecasting theory and the exploration techniques. (1) The metallogenic geodynamic getting of the proto-, paleo-, neo-Tethys and continental collision have been built up, and the large-scale tectonics-magmatism-metallogenic event during the Yanshanian has been proposed. (2) VMS Cu-Pb-Zn metallogenic systems have been divided into three types; the passive continental margin type, the active continental margin type, and ocean basin type. Studies showed that the metallogenesis in the Yulong and Xianggelila porphyry Cu metallogenic belt was related to the Indian magmatic activities. (3) Sediment-hosted Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag deposits formed at the three stages of the Indo-Asia collisional orogen, which include two metallogenic systems: the vein Cu systems are related to metamorphic fluids from both of the deep crust and shallow sedimentary strata, and Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag systems are related to basin fluids from the shallow sedimentary strata. (4) Porphyry Cu metallogenic system in the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan belt formed in the age of 35Ma ± , which is controlled by the crust thickness from the Indo-Asia collisional orogen. (5 ) Orogenic gold deposits occurred in three tectonic-thermal events; the earlier convergence regime of India-Eurasia at 62Ma ± , and the transition of tectonic regime at the later stage of 35Ma ± and 28Ma. (6) There have been occurred three stages of the transition of tectonic regime in the Sanjiang Tethys; from the accreting orogen to the collisional orogen, from the main collision to late collision, and from late collision to post-collision. The former two controlled the formation of

  5. Do Female Representatives Adhere More Closely to Citizens’ Preferences Than Male Representatives?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We analyze whether female or male members of parliament adhere more closely to citizens’ revealed preferences with quasi-experimental data. By matching individual representatives’ voting behavior on legislative proposals with real referenda outcomes on the same issues, we identify the effect of gender on representatives’ responsiveness to revealed preferences of the majority of voters. Overall, female members of parliament tend to adhere less to citizens’ preferences than male parliam...

  6. 混沌神经网络在分离叠加模式和多对多联想记忆中的应用%A Chaotic Neural Network and its Applications in Separation of Superimposed Pattern and Many-to-Many Associative Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光远; 段书凯

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified chaotic associative memory neural network(MCAM). It has two im-portant features :it can recall stored patterns from superimposed input; (2)it can deal with many-to-many associativememory. The computer simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  7. Representing Identity and Equivalence for Scientific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickett, K. M.; Sacchi, S.; Dubin, D.; Renear, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Matters of equivalence and identity are central to the stewardship of scientific data. In order to properly prepare for and manage the curation, preservation and sharing of digitally-encoded data, data stewards must be able to characterize and assess the relationships holding between data-carrying digital resources. However, identity-related questions about resources and their information content may not be straightforward to answer: for example, what exactly does it mean to say that two files contain the same data, but in different formats? Information content is frequently distinguished from particular representations, but there is no adequately developed shared understanding of what this really means and how the relationship between content and its representations hold. The Data Concepts group at the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS), University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, is developing a logic-based framework of fundamental concepts related to scientific data to support curation and integration. One project goal is to develop precise accounts of information resources carrying the same data. We present two complementary conceptual models for information representation: the Basic Representation Model (BRM) and the Systematic Assertion Model (SAM). We show how these models provide an analytical account of digitally-encoded scientific data and a precise understanding of identity and equivalence. The Basic Representation Model identifies the core entities and relationships involved in representing information carried by digital objects. In BRM, digital objects are symbol structures that express propositional content, and stand in layered encoding relationships. For example, an RDF description may be serialized as either XML or N3, and those expressions in turn may be encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 sequences. Defining this encoding stack reveals distinctions necessary for a precise account of identity and equivalence

  8. HOW TO REPRESENT THE GENETIC CODE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Santos-Magalhães

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The advent of molecular genetic comprises a true revolution of far-reaching consequences for human-kind, which evolved into a specialized branch of the modern-day Biochemistry. The analysis of specicgenomic information are gaining wide-ranging interest because of their signicance to the early diag-nosis of disease, and the discovery of modern drugs. In order to take advantage of a wide assortmentof signal processing (SP algorithms, the primary step of modern genomic SP involves convertingsymbolic-DNA sequences into complex-valued signals. How to represent the genetic code? Despitebeing extensively known, the DNA mapping into proteins is one of the relevant discoveries of genetics.The genetic code (GC is revisited in this work, addressing other descriptions for it, which can beworthy for genomic SP. Three original representations are discussed. The inner-to-outer map buildson the unbalanced role of nucleotides of a codon. A two-dimensional-Gray genetic representationis oered as a structured map that can help interpreting DNA spectrograms or scalograms. Theseare among the powerful visual tools for genome analysis, which depends on the choice of the geneticmapping. Finally, the world-chart for the GC is investigated. Evoking the cyclic structure of thegenetic mapping, it can be folded joining the left-right borders, and the top-bottom frontiers. As aresult, the GC can be drawn on the surface of a sphere resembling a world-map. Eight parallels oflatitude are required (four in each hemisphere as well as four meridians of longitude associated tofour corresponding anti-meridians. The tropic circles have 11.25o, 33.75o, 56.25o, and 78.5o (Northand South. Starting from an arbitrary Greenwich meridian, the meridians of longitude can be plottedat 22.5o, 67.5o, 112.5o, and 157.5o (East and West. Each triplet is assigned to a single point on thesurface that we named Nirenberg-Kohamas Earth. Despite being valuable, usual representations forthe GC can be

  9. English as a Foreign Language in Bilingual Language-minority Children, Children with Dyslexia and Monolingual Typical Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Canducci, Elisa; Gravagna, Giulia; Palladino, Paola

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating literacy skills in English as a foreign language in three different groups of children: monolinguals with dyslexia (n = 19), typically developing bilinguals (language-minority) (n = 19) and a control group of monolinguals (Italian) (n = 76). Bilinguals were not expected to fail in English measures, and their gap with monolinguals would be expected to be limited to the instructional language, owing to underexposure. All participants were enrolled in Italian primary schools (fourth and fifth grades). A non-verbal reasoning task and Italian and English literacy tasks were administered. The Italian battery included word and non-word reading (speed and accuracy), word and non-word writing, and reading comprehension; the English battery included similar tasks, except for the non-word writing. Bilingual children performed similarly to typical readers in English tasks, whereas in Italian tasks, their performance was similar to that of typical readers in reading speed but not in reading accuracy and writing. Children with dyslexia underperformed compared with typically developing children in all English and Italian tasks, except for reading comprehension in Italian. Profile analysis and correlational analyses were further discussed. These results suggest that English as a foreign language might represent a challenge for students with dyslexia but a strength for bilingual language-minority children. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Typical and atypical appearance of early-onset Alzheimer's disease: A clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Shinobu; Kobayashi, Ryota; Hayashi, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The International Working Group (IWG) has classified Alzheimer's disease (AD) as two different types, the typical form and the atypical form, but clinicopathological studies of atypical AD are limited. Because atypical AD cases usually present with early-onset dementia, we investigated 12 patients with early-onset AD, including two patients with typical AD and 10 patients with atypical AD. Of these patients, six had the posterior variant, three had the frontal variant and one had the logopenic variant mixed with semantic dementia. We reported MRI, single-photon emission CT and neuropathological findings in six representative cases. We also described a "left temporal variant" of AD presenting with transcortical cortical sensory aphasia, which has not been reported previously and is another subtype of the posterior variant of AD. We found a significant correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and counts of NFTs in the cerebral cortices. An atypical presentation with focal neuropsychological symptoms roughly correlated with the density of NFTs in the cerebral cortex and more directly related to spongiform changes in the superficial layers of these areas. In contrast, the distribution of amyloid depositions was diffuse and did not necessarily correlate with focal neuropsychological symptoms. Braak staging or ABC score is not necessarily appropriate to evaluate atypical AD, and instead, spongiform changes in addition to tau pathology in the association cortices better explain the diversity of atypical AD. Interestingly, another patient with a posterior variant of AD had a novel type of atypical plaque, which we referred to as "lucent plaque". They were recognizable with HE staining in the circumference and dystrophic neurites were abundant with Gallyas-Braak staining. These plaques demonstrated intense immunoreactivity to both tau AT-8 and amyloid β (Aβ), suggesting a peculiar coexistence pattern of amyloid and tau in these plaques. Clinicopathological studies

  11. Emotional expression of high school students with visual impairments and their typically developing peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are adaptive reaction to events from the environment and they represent the central part of every person's life. Willing emotional expression influences people from the environment according to our expectations if they recognize our emotions. Studies on expressing emotions in persons with visual impairments indicate the existence of the same type of spontaneous emotional expressions as in typically developing population. Also, these studies point to difficulties in presenting willing emotional expressions. The aim of this research was to determine the difference in emotional expression between high school students with visual impairments and their typically developing peers. The sample consisted of 33 students with visual impairments and the same number of students with no developmental disabilities. Emotional states simulation scenario by Friedman et al. was used in this research. Emotional expression was assessed with regard to the level of success in simulating seven emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, surprise, fear, and neutral state. The participants' task was to simulate the given emotional states in three structured situations (uttering two sentences and a series of vowels. The simulation of emotions was recorded. On the basis of video recordings, three independent assessors measured the success in simulating emotions on a nine-point scale. By analyzing the obtained results, a statistically significant difference in emotional expression was determined between the participants with visual impairments and their peers with no developmental disabilities (F(1=3.692; p=0.05.Arithmetic mean differences are statistically significant for simulating disgust (p=0.002 and surprise (p=0.01. In the group of participants with visual impairments, gender was a significant factor in simulating the emotional state of happiness (p=0.024, while type of school was a significant factor in simulating sadness (p=0.027.

  12. Typical synoptic situations and their impacts on the wintertime air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qiang; Molina, Luisa T.

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization have caused severe air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, northwestern China, with heavy haze events occurring frequently in recent winters. Using the NCEP reanalysis data, the large-scale synoptic situations influencing the Guanzhong basin during wintertime of 2013 are categorized into six types to evaluate the contribution of synoptic situations to the air pollution, including "north-low", "southwest-trough", "southeast-high", "transition", "southeast-trough", and "inland-high". The FLEXPART model has been utilized to demonstrate the corresponding pollutant transport patterns for the typical synoptic situations in the basin. Except for "southwest-trough" and "southeast-high" (defined as favorable synoptic situations), the other four synoptic conditions (defined as unfavorable synoptic situations) generally facilitate the accumulation of air pollutants, causing heavy air pollution in the basin. In association with the measurement of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) in the basin, the unfavorable synoptic situations correspond to high PM2.5 mass concentrations or poor air quality and vice versa. The same analysis has also been applied to winters of 2008-2012, which shows that the basin was mainly influenced by the unfavorable synoptic situations during wintertime leading to poor air quality. The WRF-CHEM model has further been applied to simulate the selected 6 days representing the typical synoptic situations during the wintertime of 2013, and the results generally show a good agreement between the modeled distributions and variations of PM2.5 and the corresponding synoptic situations, demonstrating reasonable classification for the synoptic situations in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, low-level horizontal wind speed, and planetary boundary layer, all contribute to heavy air pollution events in the basin under unfavorable synoptic conditions

  13. Registration Appointment and Services for Representatives Management Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A new internet/intranet application that collects all representative information and establishes the relationship between the claimant and the representative. Allow...

  14. DYNAMIC SYSTEM COLLISION,SUPERIMPOSING AND GOLD DEPOSIT FORMING IN JIAPIGOU FAULT BELT,JILIN PROVINCE%吉林夹皮沟断裂带动力系统碰撞、叠加及金矿床形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙忠实; 冯本智; 邓军; 翟裕生

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic system is the sdudying key in gold metallization. Itcontrols gold deposit forming all the time. Earth evolution and gold metallization in Jiapigou area are divided into three stages and three kinds of tectonic belts with the help of metallogenic dynamic system theory. The first one is the marginal gold mineralizing belt of rising-slipping dynamic system in the Archean-Proterozoic craton. A pair of dynamic system between uplifting Archean craton and extending or slipping Proterozoic sediments formed gold mineralizing ductile shear belts of the craton margin and then gold enriched initially. Dynamic system of the hercynian subduction is the second kind of the south margin mineralizing belt. Continental rift and collision took place between Siberia plate and Chinese-Korea plate. The positive-negative dynamic system formed over earth crust-fault and gold mineralizes.The Mesozoic superimposing tectono-magmatic dynamic system forms the third kind of metallogenic belt. The Mesozoic Pacific plate subduction, TanLu fault slipping , NNE and NW striked conjugate ore-controlling structure form poly-level dynamic system superimposing. Magma activities and mantle origin fluid go up. Gold further enrich. Finally form Jiapigou gold deposit.The limits of metallogenic prognosis are that original metamorphic rock's area enter Jiapigou fault belt and the Mesozoic granite area by both sides of Jiapigou fault.%动力系统是金成矿作用研究的关键,它控制金矿床产生的始终。运用成矿动力系统思想把夹皮沟区地壳演化和金成矿分为三大阶段和三大构造带。(1)太古—元古宙克拉通隆—滑动力系统边缘矿化带,太古宙克拉通隆起、元古宙沉积物拉伸滑断,成矿动力系统在克拉通周边形成韧性剪切带,金受到初步富集;(2)海西俯冲动力系统南缘矿化带,西伯利亚板块与中朝板块间大陆拉张和碰撞,正反动力系统产生超壳断裂和金矿化;(3)中生代叠

  15. Alien or Alike? How the Perceived Similarity between the Typical Science Teacher and a Student's Self-Image Correlates with Choosing Science at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula; Taconis, Ruurd

    2012-01-01

    By applying the self-to-prototype matching theory to students' academic choices, this study links the unpopularity of science in many industrialized countries with the perceived gap between typical persons representing science (e.g. physics teachers) on the one hand and students' self-image on the other. A sample of N = 308 Dutch and German…

  16. Global Processing Speed in Children with Low Reading Ability and in Children and Adults with Typical Reading Ability: Exploratory Factor Analytic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate processing speed as a latent dimension in children with dyslexia and children and adults with typical reading skills. Method: Exploratory factor analysis (FA) was based on a sample of multigenerational families, each ascertained through a child with dyslexia. Eleven measures--6 of them timed--represented verbal and…

  17. Representative Sinusoids for Hepatic Four-Scale Pharmacokinetics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ole Schwen

    Full Text Available The mammalian liver plays a key role for metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. The corresponding biochemical processes are typically subject to spatial variations at different length scales. Zonal enzyme expression along sinusoids leads to zonated metabolization already in the healthy state. Pathological states of the liver may involve liver cells affected in a zonated manner or heterogeneously across the whole organ. This spatial heterogeneity, however, cannot be described by most computational models which usually consider the liver as a homogeneous, well-stirred organ. The goal of this article is to present a methodology to extend whole-body pharmacokinetics models by a detailed liver model, combining different modeling approaches from the literature. This approach results in an integrated four-scale model, from single cells via sinusoids and the organ to the whole organism, capable of mechanistically representing metabolization inhomogeneity in livers at different spatial scales. Moreover, the model shows circulatory mixing effects due to a delayed recirculation through the surrounding organism. To show that this approach is generally applicable for different physiological processes, we show three applications as proofs of concept, covering a range of species, compounds, and diseased states: clearance of midazolam in steatotic human livers, clearance of caffeine in mouse livers regenerating from necrosis, and a parameter study on the impact of different cell entities on insulin uptake in mouse livers. The examples illustrate how variations only discernible at the local scale influence substance distribution in the plasma at the whole-body level. In particular, our results show that simultaneously considering variations at all relevant spatial scales may be necessary to understand their impact on observations at the organism scale.

  18. A New Concept for Representing Trees in LES Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, G.; Walko, R. L.; Avissar, R.

    2006-12-01

    Atmosphere-biosphere interactions have become an important focus in Earth science. Key issues involving this type of interactions, such as dispersal of aerosols, seeds and pollen from forest canopies into the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), require a good understanding of turbulence in and near plant canopies. With modern computers, it is now feasible to use Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) at quite high resolution. Thus, we upgraded the LES version of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) so that it can simulate turbulence inside forest canopies (hereafter referred to as the "RAMS Forest LES" RAFLES) while accounting explicitly for some of the tree characteristics. The simulation domain consists of the tree canopy that is constructed using the Virtual Canopy Generator (V-CaGe) based on observed structural properties of the forest. This canopy can be heterogeneous in all three dimensions. It interacts with the flow field by (1) generating obstacles to the flow resulting from the woody component of the canopy, (2) exchanging heat and vapor with the atmosphere, and (3) dragging the flow with the tree leaves. The "shaved" grid-cell technique is used to represent the obstacle field. RAFLES inherits from RAMS all its other characteristics (including its physics, grid-nesting structure, boundary conditions, data assimilation, and parallel computing, among others). Thus, it simulates atmospheric processes at the mesoscale and resolves the full depth of the ABL, which does not need to be parameterized as in other typical LES. RAFLES was evaluated with the high-frequency observations collected at the Duke Forest FACE site and it is used to study the impacts of various heterogeneous canopies on turbulence, seeds and pollen dispersal.

  19. 29 CFR 417.19 - Assistant Secretary's representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistant Secretary's representative. 417.19 Section 417.19... Union To Take Appropriate Remedial Action Following Subpart A Procedures § 417.19 Assistant Secretary's representative. The Assistant Secretary shall appoint a representative or representatives whose functions shall...

  20. 48 CFR 1830.7002-3 - Representative investment calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Representative investment... Representative investment calculations. (a) The calculation of the representative investment requires... accounting period, the contractor shall either: (1) Determine a representative investment for the...

  1. CRASH SAFETY OF A TYPICAL BAY TABLE IN A RAILWAY VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel MATSIKA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, urban and high speed trains are incorporating tables (workstations as common railway vehicle interior furniture because passengers prefer seating by bay tables. Among table design characteristics, the most challenging is meeting crashworthiness requirements. Past accident data and sled test results have shown that in the event of railway vehicle frontal impact, occupants located in the bay seating are exposed to chest and abdominal injuries upon contact with tables resulting from secondary collision. In some cases tables have tended to be structurally weak; they easily detach from the side walls and/or floor mounting. Subsequently these become unguided missiles that strike occupants, resulting in injuries. This paper presents an analysis of the crash performance of a typical bay table. The results provide some understanding of the table’s crash safety, giving an indication of its impact aggression. Table materials are characterised using quasi-static compressive tests. In addition, experimental dynamic (impact tests are conducted using a pendulum representing a body block (mass. The results provide information about the possible loading of the table on the occupant in the event of a crash. Contact forces are compared with chest and abdominal injury tolerance thresholds to infer the collision injury potential. Recommendations are then made on design of bay tables to meet the “functional-strength-and-safety balance”.

  2. Nitrate in shallow groundwater in typical agricultural and forest ecosystems in China, 2004-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyu Zhang; Zhiwei Xu; Xiaomin Sun; Wenyi Dong; Deborah Ballantine

    2013-01-01

    The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) concentrations from shallow groundwater wells situated in 29 of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network field stations,representing typical agro-and forest ecosystems,were assessed using monitoring data collected between 2004 and 2010.Results from this assessment permit a national scale assessment of nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater,and allow linkages between nitrate concentrations in groundwater and broad land use categories to be made.Results indicated that most of the NO3--N concentrations in groundwater from the agro-and forest ecosystems were below the Class 3 drinking water standard stated in the Chinese National Standard:Quality Standard for Ground Water (< 20 mg/L).Over the study period,the average NO3--N concentrations were significantly higher in agro-ecosystems (4.1 ±-0.33 mg/L) than in forest ecosystems (0.5 + 0.04 mg/L).NO3--N concentrations were relatively higher (> 10 mg N/L) in 10 of the 43 wells sampled in the agricultural ecosystems.These elevated concentrations occurred mainly in the Ansai,Yucheng,Linze,Fukang,Akesu,and Cele field sites,which were located in arid and semiarid areas where irrigation rates are high.We suggest that improvements in N fertilizer application and irrigation management practices in the arid and semi-arid agricultural ecosystems of China are the key to managing groundwater nitrate concentrations.

  3. Development of novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in typically developing children and Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the development of novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in both typically developing (TD) children and individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Thirty-one TD children between the ages of 3;09 and 17;01 and thirty-four individuals with WS between the ages of 7;01 and 44 years old were administered a newly developed task examining novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension, as well as a range of standardised tests that assess semantic knowledge. This age range and the background measures allowed construction of developmental trajectories to investigate whether chronological age or mental age, represented by word knowledge, relate to novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension. The results showed that comprehension of figurative language did not increase with chronological age in WS, in contrast to TD. Although there was no difference for the different types of metaphors, certain metonymy expressions were found to be easier than others in the TD group. In addition, semantic knowledge was a reliable predictor for novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in the TD but only for metonymy in the WS group. In sum, development of novel metonymy in the WS group is only delayed while comprehension of novel metaphor is both delayed and atypical. However, future research should further investigate differences between sub-types, as well as what cognitive factors relate to novel metaphor comprehension in individuals with Williams syndrome.

  4. Experimental study on co-pyrolysis characteristics of typical medical waste compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜; 崔文谦; 王维维; 张强; 张于峰; 马洪亭

    2014-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of 21 kinds of binary mixtures between typical medical compositions was investigated under nitrogen conditions by dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at 25–800 °C. The weighed sum method (WSM) coupled with thermal analysis was applied to study the interaction between components. Then, co-pyrolysis kinetic model of the binary mixtures (tube for transfusion (TFT) and gauze) was established to verify the reliability of conclusions. The results show the follows. 1) Strong or weak interactions are shown between binary mixtures containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC),the main ingredient of TFT. The addition of other medical waste could enhance first stage decomposition of TFT. While, the secondary stage pyrolysis may be suppressed or enhanced or not affected by the addition. 2) There exists no interaction between catheter and other component, the DTG peak temperature representing CaCO3 decomposition in catheter fraction is obviously lower than that of pure catheter;while, the shape of DTG peak keeps unchanged. 3) No evident reaction occurs between the other mix-samples, it is considered that their co-pyrolysis characteristics are linear superposition of mono-component pyrolysis characteristics.

  5. Melting behavior of typical thermoplastic materials--an experimental and chemical kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Tu, Ran; Ma, Xin; Xie, Qiyuan; Jiang, Xi

    2013-11-15

    A medium-scale melting experiment rig was designed and constructed in this study. A detailed experimental study was conducted on the melting behavior and the chemical kinetic characteristics of three typical thermoplastic materials, including polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS). It is observed that the thermal decomposition of the thermoplastic materials mainly consists of three stages: the initial heating stage, the melting-dominated stage and the gasification-dominated stage. Melting of the materials examined takes place within a certain temperature range. The melting temperature of PS is the lowest, moreover, it takes the shortest time to be completely liquefied. To quantitatively represent the chemical kinetics, an nth-order reaction model was employed to interpret the thermal decomposition behavior of the materials. The calculated reaction order is largely in accordance with the small-scale thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The small difference between the results and TGA data suggests that there are some limitations in the small-scale experiments in simulating the behavior of thermoplastic materials in a thermal hazard. Therefore, investigating the thermal physical and chemical properties of the thermoplastic materials and their thermal hazard prevention in medium or large-scale experiments is necessary for the fire safety considerations of polymer materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Frontal variant of Alzheimer's disease and typical Alzheimer's disease: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Fernández-Calvo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical heterogeneity is one of the characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Hence, the atypical frontal or dysexecutive presentation is becoming increasingly well-known, although the underlying factors are still unknown. In this study, the neuropsychological performance of two groups of patients with AD (frontal variant--ADfv--and typical--TAD were compared. The ADfv group (n = 13 was selected due to the existence of frontal hypoperfusion on a simple photon emission computer tomography (SPECT. The results revealed that the ADfv group displayed a severe dysexecutive disorder, more severe neuropsychiatric symptomatology (disinhibition and apathy, more functional impairment, and it generated a higher caregiver overload than the TAD group without frontal impairment (n = 47. Despite the facts that the ADfv group's performance was poorer in all the neuropsychological tests, significant group differences were only found in the processing speed and visuoconstruction tasks. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the processing speed and mental flexibility scores significantly predicted a diagnosis of ADfv. The existence of the grasp reflex, anosognosia, and the absence of apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele (APOE e4 were also more prevalent in the ADfv group. This group had a predominance of males and it was more likely to have a positive family history of AD. To conclude, the study suggests that ADfv represents a subtype of AD that seems to have different clinical, neuropsychological, and genetic characteristics from TAD.

  7. Effects of Urban Configuration on Human Thermal Conditions in a Typical Tropical African Coastal City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Lubango Ndetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-term simulation of urban climate was done using the easily available long-term meteorological data from a nearby synoptic station in a tropical coastal city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study aimed at determining the effects of buildings’ height and street orientations on human thermal conditions at pedestrian level. The urban configuration was represented by a typical urban street and a small urban park near the seaside. The simulations were conducted in the microscale applied climate model of RayMan, and results were interpreted in terms of the thermal comfort parameters of mean radiant (Tmrt and physiologically equivalent (PET temperatures. PET values, high as 34°C, are observed to prevail during the afternoons especially in the east-west oriented streets, and buildings’ height of 5 m has less effect on the thermal comfort. The optimal reduction of Tmrt and PET values for pedestrians was observed on the nearly north-south reoriented streets and with increased buildings’ height especially close to 100 m. Likewise, buildings close to the park enhance comfort conditions in the park through additional shadow. The study provides design implications and management of open spaces like urban parks in cities for the sake of improving thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians.

  8. For Your Local Eyes Only: Culture-Specific Face Typicality Influences Perceptions of Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Oikawa, Masanori; Oikawa, Haruka; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Recent findings show that typical faces are judged as more trustworthy than atypical faces. However, it is not clear whether employment of typicality cues in trustworthiness judgment happens across cultures and if these cues are culture specific. In two studies, conducted in Japan and Israel, participants judged trustworthiness and attractiveness of faces. In Study 1, faces varied along a cross-cultural dimension ranging from a Japanese to an Israeli typical face. Own-culture typical faces were perceived as more trustworthy than other-culture typical faces, suggesting that people in both cultures employ typicality cues when judging trustworthiness, but that the cues, indicative of typicality, are culture dependent. Because perceivers may be less familiar with other-culture typicality cues, Study 2 tested the extent to which they rely on available facial information other than typicality, when judging other-culture faces. In Study 2, Japanese and Israeli faces varied from either Japanese or Israeli attractive to unattractive with the respective typical face at the midpoint. For own-culture faces, trustworthiness judgments peaked around own-culture typical face. However, when judging other-culture faces, both cultures also employed attractiveness cues, but this effect was more apparent for Japanese participants. Our findings highlight the importance of culture when considering the effect of typicality on trustworthiness judgments.

  9. Canonical Typicality

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghi, Nino

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that a system, S, weakly coupled to a heat bath, B, is described by the canonical ensemble when the composite, S+B, is described by the microcanonical ensemble corresponding to a suitable energy shell. This is true both for classical distributions on the phase space and for quantum density matrices. Here we show that a much stronger statement holds for quantum systems. Even if the state of the composite corresponds to a single wave function rather than a mixture, the reduced ...

  10. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

  11. 75 FR 24510 - Drug and Drug-Related Supply Promotion by Pharmaceutical Company Sales Representatives at VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... rule is necessary to limit such access to those circumstances that benefit VA from an educational..., so as to ensure that those programs and materials focus on clinician education as opposed to... terms to be inclusive of all items typically promoted by pharmaceutical sales representatives....

  12. Identifying the Dimensionality of Oral Language Skills of Children With Typical Development in Preschool Through Fifth Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Milburn, Trelani F

    2017-08-16

    Language is a multidimensional construct from prior to the beginning of formal schooling to near the end of elementary school. The primary goals of this study were to identify the dimensionality of language and to determine whether this dimensionality was consistent in children with typical language development from preschool through 5th grade. In a large sample of 1,895 children, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with 19-20 measures of language intended to represent 6 factors, including domains of vocabulary and syntax/grammar across modalities of expressive and receptive language, listening comprehension, and vocabulary depth. A 2-factor model with separate, highly correlated vocabulary and syntax factors provided the best fit to the data, and this model of language dimensionality was consistent from preschool through 5th grade. This study found that there are fewer dimensions than are often suggested or represented by the myriad subtests in commonly used standardized tests of language. The identified 2-dimensional (vocabulary and syntax) model of language has significant implications for the conceptualization and measurement of the language skills of children in the age range from preschool to 5th grade, including the study of typical and atypical language development, the study of the developmental and educational influences of language, and classification and intervention in clinical practice. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5154220.

  13. Anti-jamming scheme of pilot modification MLD based on superimposed spread spectrum for UAV-MIMO%基于叠加扩频的无人机 MIMO 导频修正 MLD 抗干扰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈自力; 高喜俊

    2015-01-01

    The remote control link of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)is often cluttered by interference, which results in performance degradation or losing lock.The technologies of multiple input multiple output (MIMO)space time block codes and direct spread are combined to suppress the common interference in the re-mote control link.The superimposed spread spectrum is presented to eliminate multiple access interference in the fusion technology,combat against narrow-band jamming and avoid deception jamming.The maximum likeli-hood decoding (MLD)based on the subspace projection of noise is adopted to suppress the noise interference of natural and strong wideband.The disturb deviation of MLD caused by channel estimation deviation is analyzed. Then the pilot modification is set up to reduce the effect of channel estimate error on MLD performance.The theoretical analysis and system simulation show that the scheme has better communication privacy and great ro-bustness which can suppress multi-population interferences.It can provide a scheme for achieving the intelligent anti-jamming of UAV in the future.%针对无人机遥控链路常受干扰的影响导致性能下降甚至失锁,研究将多输入多输出(multiple input multiple output,MIMO)空时分组编码与直扩技术相结合实现对链路常见干扰抑制。提出叠加扩频的方法消除融合技术中存在的多址干扰、对抗窄带干扰并预防欺骗干扰;采用基于噪声子空间投影的简化最大似然译码(maximum likelihood decoding,MLD)抑制自然以及强宽带噪声干扰,通过分析由信道估计误差引起的 MLD 扰动误差,并利用导频修正来降低信道估计误差对 MLD 性能影响。理论分析及仿真表明,该方案通信保密性好、鲁棒性强,能够实现对多种干扰的抑制,为未来无人机智能抗干扰的实现提供方案。

  14. Statistics On Title II Direct Payments To Claimant Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Every person has the right to be represented by an attorney or other representative while pursuing a claim or other rights. This dataset contains data around Title...

  15. VT Biodiversity Project - Representative Landscapes in Vermont polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This coverage represents the results of an analysis of landscape diversity in Vermont. Polygons in the dataset represent as much as possible (in a...

  16. Impact of typical rather than nutrient-dense food choices in the US Department of Agriculture Food Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Patricia; Cleveland, Linda E; Koegel, Kristin L; Kuczynski, Kevin J; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2012-10-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Patterns, released as part of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, are designed to meet nutrient needs without exceeding energy requirements. They identify amounts to consume from each food group and recommend that nutrient-dense forms-lean or low-fat, without added sugars or salt-be consumed. Americans fall short of most food group intake targets and do not consume foods in nutrient-dense forms. Intake of calories from solid fats and added sugars exceed maximum limits by large margins. Our aim was to determine the potential effect on meeting USDA Food Pattern nutrient adequacy and moderation goals if Americans consumed the recommended quantities from each food group, but did not implement the advice to select nutrient-dense forms of food and instead made more typical food choices. Food-pattern modeling analysis using the USDA Food Patterns, which are structured to allow modifications in one or more aspects of the patterns, was used. Nutrient profiles for each food group were modified by replacing each nutrient-dense representative food with a similar but typical choice. Typical nutrient profiles were used to determine the energy and nutrient content of the food patterns. Moderation goals are not met when amounts of food in the USDA Food Patterns are followed and typical rather than nutrient-dense food choices are made. Energy, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium exceed limits in all patterns, often by substantial margins. With typical choices, calories were 15% to 30% (ie, 350 to 450 kcal) above the target calorie level for each pattern. Adequacy goals were not substantially affected by the use of typical food choices. If consumers consume the recommended quantities from each food group and subgroup, but fail to choose foods in low-fat, no-added-sugars, and low-sodium forms, they will not meet the USDA Food Patterns moderation goals or the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Copyright © 2012 Academy of

  17. 42 CFR 422.1010 - Authority of representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of representatives. 422.1010 Section 422.1010 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1010 Authority of representatives. (a) A representative appointed and qualified in accordance with...

  18. 42 CFR 423.1010 - Authority of representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of representatives. 423.1010 Section 423.1010 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Penalties § 423.1010 Authority of representatives. (a) A representative appointed and qualified...

  19. 40 CFR 197.31 - What is a representative volume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a representative volume? 197... a representative volume? (a) It is the volume of ground water that would be withdrawn annually from... Yucca Mountain disposal system that will be in the representative volume. The DOE must then use...

  20. 22 CFR 23.4 - Representative value in exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representative value in exchange. 23.4 Section 23.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.4 Representative value in exchange. Representative value in exchange for the collection of a fee means...

  1. 20 CFR 266.7 - Accountability of a representative payee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability of a representative payee. 266.7 Section 266.7 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT REPRESENTATIVE PAYMENT § 266.7 Accountability of a representative payee. (a) A...

  2. Improved Algorithm of SCS-CN Model Parameters in Typical Inland River Basin in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin J.; Ding, Jian L.; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Wen Q.

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall-runoff relationship is the most important factor for hydrological structures, social and economic development on the background of global warmer, especially in arid regions. The aim of this paper is find the suitable method to simulate the runoff in arid area. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) is the most popular and widely applied model for direct runoff estimation. In this paper, we will focus on Wen-quan Basin in source regions of Boertala River. It is a typical valley of inland in Central Asia. First time to use the 16m resolution remote sensing image about high-definition earth observation satellite “Gaofen-1” to provide a high degree accuracy data for land use classification determine the curve number. Use surface temperature/vegetation index (TS/VI) construct 2D scatter plot combine with the soil moisture absorption balance principle calculate the moisture-holding capacity of soil. Using original and parameter algorithm improved SCS-CN model respectively to simulation the runoff. The simulation results show that the improved model is better than original model. Both of them in calibration and validation periods Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency were 0.79, 0.71 and 0.66,038. And relative error were3%, 12% and 17%, 27%. It shows that the simulation accuracy should be further improved and using remote sensing information technology to improve the basic geographic data for the hydrological model has the following advantages: 1) Remote sensing data having a planar characteristic, comprehensive and representative. 2) To get around the bottleneck about lack of data, provide reference to simulation the runoff in similar basin conditions and data-lacking regions.

  3. Attitudes of typically developing children's parents toward inclusive education of visually impaired preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelković Marija; Vučinić Vesna; Jablan Branka; Eškirović Branka

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of pilot research on attitudes of parents who have typically developing children toward integrating children with visual impairments into regular preschool education system. The research is the result of a study on the advantages of adapted questionnaire which assesses attitudes of typically developing children's parents on inclusion of children with visual impairments. The sample consists of 34 parents who have typically developing children. We analyzed their ...

  4. Multi-mode entangled states represented as Grassmannian polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Y.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce generalized Grassmannian representatives of multi-mode state vectors. By implementing the fundamental properties of Grassmann coherent states, we map the Hilbert space of the finite-dimensional multi-mode states to the space of some Grassmannian polynomial functions. These Grassmannian polynomials form a well-defined space in the framework of Grassmann variables; namely Grassmannian representative space. Therefore, a quantum state can be uniquely defined and determined by an element of Grassmannian representative space. Furthermore, the Grassmannian representatives of some maximally entangled states are considered, and it is shown that there is a tight connection between the entanglement of the states and their Grassmannian representatives.

  5. 'Most advanced, yet acceptable': typicality and novelty as joint predictors of aesthetic preference in industrial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekkert, Paul; Snelders, Dirk; van Wieringen, Piet C W

    2003-02-01

    Typicality and novelty have often been shown to be related to aesthetic preference of human artefacts. Since a typical product is rarely new and, conversely, a novel product will not often be designated as typical, the positive effects of both features seem incompatible. In three studies it was shown that typicality (operationalized as 'goodness of example') and novelty are jointly and equally effective in explaining the aesthetic preference of consumer products, but that they suppress each other's effect. Direct correlations between both variables and aesthetic preference were not significant, but each relationship became highly significant when the influence of the other variable was partialed out. In Study 2, it was furthermore demonstrated that the expertise level of observers did not affect the relative contribution of novelty and typicality. It was finally shown (Study 3) that a more 'objective' measure of typicality, central tendency - operationalized as an exemplar's average similarity to all other members of the category - yielded the same effect of typicality on aesthetic preference. In sum, all three studies showed that people prefer novel designs as long as the novelty does not affect typicality, or, phrased differently, they prefer typicality given that this is not to the detriment of novelty. Preferred are products with an optimal combination of both aspects.

  6. Evaluating the consequences of loss of flow accident for a typical VVER-1000 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirvakili, S.M.; Safaei, S. [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering; Faghihi, F. [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Safety Research Center

    2010-07-01

    The loss of coolant flow in a nuclear reactor can result from a mechanical or electrical failure of the coolant pump. If the reactor is not tripped promptly, the immediate effect is a rapid increase in coolant temperature, decrease in minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) and fuel damage. This study evaluated the shaft seizure of a reactor coolant pump in a VVER-1000 nuclear reactor. The locked rotor results in rapid reduction of flow through the affected reactor coolant loop and in turn leads to an increase in the primary coolant temperature and pressure. The analysis was conducted with regard for superimposing loss of power to the power plant at the initial accident moment. The required transient functions of flow, pressure and power were obtained using system transient calculations applied in COBRA-EN computer code in order to calculate the overall core thermal-hydraulic parameters such as temperature, critical heat flux and DNBR. The study showed that the critical period for the locked rotor accident is the first few seconds during which the maximum values of pressure and temperature are reached. 10 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. A case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera superimposed on basal cell carcinoma%基底细胞上皮瘤伴棘状外瓶霉所致的暗色丝孢霉病一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林能兴; 郑岳臣; 曾敬思; 黄长征; 连昕; 毛叶红; 黄春艳

    2010-01-01

    A 67-year-old female farmer presented with a painless dark-erythematous, green bean-sized nodule on the left side of her head for 5 years.The nodule gradually grew and extended to the left temple.Three months prior to the presentation, the lesion began to enlarge rapidly and ulcerate.Histopathology of the lesion revealed a diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma.Brown hypha, spores, and blastospores were observed between cancer cell nests and in necrotic tissues.Culture of biopsy materials grew moist, glistening, olivaceous-black or dark yeast-like colonies, with gray fluffy hyphae at the margin.Slide culture showed brown branched and septate hypha, with spinate conidiophores arising terminally or laterally at right angles.There were rhino-protuberances at the tip of conidiophores together with clumps of smooth, oval microconidia at the top of or around the conidiophores, and many clear annellations were observed at the distant end of conidiophores.The strain was identified as Exophiala spinifera and confirmed genetically.The patient was diagnosed as phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera superimposed on basal cell carcinoma based on the clinical manifestations,histopathological and mycological examinations, as well as DNA sequencing results.Clinical cure was achieved after management with oral itraconazole and 10-session photodynamic therapy.No recurrence was noted during 1-year follow-up.%患者女,67岁,农民.5年前左头顶部长出一无痛性绿豆大小暗红色结节,逐年扩大、隆起,并延及左颞部.近3个月结节、肿块迅速增大,并出现溃疡.肿块经组织病理检查,诊断为基底细胞上皮瘤,肿瘤细胞巢之间和坏死组织内有褐色菌丝、孢子、芽生孢子.真菌培养为深橄榄黑色酵母样菌落,潮湿有光泽,边缘一圈灰色短绒毛状菌丝.方块小培养镜下见褐色分支分隔菌丝,其顶端与侧缘有成直角长出的棘状分生孢子梗,梗尖端有鼻状突起,顶尖及其周围有成

  8. Typical and Atypical Development of Basic Numerical Skills in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Kolle, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical processing have been identified as a central and potentially causal problem in developmental dyscalculia; however, so far not much is known about the typical and atypical development of such skills. This study assessed basic number skills cross-sectionally in 262 typically developing and 51 dyscalculic children in…

  9. The involvement of limbic structures in typical and atypical absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onat, F.Y.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Nehlig, A.; Snead, O.C.

    2013-01-01

    Typical and atypical seizures of absence epilepsy are thought to be generated by a rhythmogenic interplay between the cortex and the thalamus. However, the question remains as to which other subcortical and extrathalamic structures are involved in the pathophysiology of typical and atypical absence

  10. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children Attending Special and Typical Education Greek Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Malliou, P.; Kofotolis, N.; Vlachopoulos, S. P.; Kellis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions about Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of typical education and special education students in Greece. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was administered to the parents of 251 children from typical schools, 46 students attending integration classes (IC) within a…

  12. An Analysis of Ralph's Fate in Typical American from the Perspective of Cultural Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2016-01-01

    Ralph, the hero of Typical American written by Gish Jen, is originally a Chinese man who goes to America for PhD but finally becomes a typical American after a series of cultural crisis and adaptation. This paper is intended to analyze the fate of Ralph from the perspective of Lysgaard's U-curve cultural adaptation theory.

  13. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical hatchery...

  14. Feeding and Eating Behaviors in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Yolanda; Young, Robyn L.; Robson, Danielle C.

    2008-01-01

    Mothers of children aged 2-12 years completed an exhaustive questionnaire assessing feeding and eating behaviors for both themselves and their children with autism, and typically developing siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (where available), or typically developing children with no sibling with a disability. Results indicate that…

  15. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children Attending Special and Typical Education Greek Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Malliou, P.; Kofotolis, N.; Vlachopoulos, S. P.; Kellis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions about Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of typical education and special education students in Greece. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was administered to the parents of 251 children from typical schools, 46 students attending integration classes (IC) within a…

  17. Mother-Child Play: Children with Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    Child solitary and collaborative mother-child play with 21 children with Down syndrome and 33 mental-age-matched typically developing children were compared. In solitary play, children with Down syndrome showed less exploratory but similar symbolic play compared to typically developing children. From solitary to collaborative play, children with…

  18. Typical and atypical development of reaching and postural control in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-01-01

    Successful reaching requires postural control, either by active regulation or by postural support. The present paper reviews literature on typical and atypical development of reaching and postural control during infancy. Typically, reaching movements end in grasping around 4 months of age. Initially

  19. On the role of object knowledge in reference production : Effects of color typicality on content determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, H.G.W.; Koolen, R.M.F.; Maes, A.A.; Bello, Paul; Guarini, Marcello; McShane, Marjorie; Scassellati, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In two language production experiments, we investigated whether stored knowledge of the typical color of objects affects spoken reference. In experiment 1, human speakers referred to objects with colors ranging from very typical (e.g., red tomato) to very atypical (e.g., blue pepper). The

  20. On the role of object knowledge in reference production : Effects of color typicality on content determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, H.G.W.; Koolen, R.M.F.; Maes, A.A.; Bello, Paul; Guarini, Marcello; McShane, Marjorie; Scassellati, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In two language production experiments, we investigated whether stored knowledge of the typical color of objects affects spoken reference. In experiment 1, human speakers referred to objects with colors ranging from very typical (e.g., red tomato) to very atypical (e.g., blue pepper). The probabilit

  1. 42 CFR 137.294 - What is the typical IHS environmental review process for construction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.294 What is the typical IHS environmental review... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the typical IHS environmental review... impact on the environment, and therefore do not require environmental impact statements (EIS)....

  2. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  3. Using Typical Infant Development to Inform Music Therapy with Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Barbara L.; Stultz, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates some ways in which observations of typically-developing infants can inform music therapy and other work with children with disabilities. The research project that is described examines typical infant development with special attention to musical relatedness and communication. Videotapes of sessions centering on musical…

  4. Using Typical Infant Development to Inform Music Therapy with Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Barbara L.; Stultz, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates some ways in which observations of typically-developing infants can inform music therapy and other work with children with disabilities. The research project that is described examines typical infant development with special attention to musical relatedness and communication. Videotapes of sessions centering on musical…

  5. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  6. Adaptive and maladaptive correlates of repetitive behavior and restricted interests in persons with down syndrome and developmentally-matched typical children: a two-year longitudinal sequential design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Evans

    Full Text Available We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI in children with and without Down syndrome (DS over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA levels: "younger" 2-4 years; "older" 5-11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior.

  7. [Quantitative method of representative contaminants in groundwater pollution risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-03-01

    In the light of the problem that stress vulnerability assessment in groundwater pollution risk assessment is lack of an effective quantitative system, a new system was proposed based on representative contaminants and corresponding emission quantities through the analysis of groundwater pollution sources. And quantitative method of the representative contaminants in this system was established by analyzing the three properties of representative contaminants and determining the research emphasis using analytic hierarchy process. The method had been applied to the assessment of Beijing groundwater pollution risk. The results demonstrated that the representative contaminants hazards greatly depended on different research emphasizes. There were also differences between the sequence of three representative contaminants hazards and their corresponding properties. It suggested that subjective tendency of the research emphasis had a decisive impact on calculation results. In addition, by the means of sequence to normalize the three properties and to unify the quantified properties results would zoom in or out of the relative properties characteristic of different representative contaminants.

  8. Using stories to disseminate research: the attributes of representative stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, John F

    2007-11-01

    When researchers communicate their findings to patients, clinicians, policy-makers, or media, they may find it helpful to supplement quantitative data with stories about individuals who represent themes in their research. Whether such stories are gathered during the research itself or identified from other sources, researchers must develop strategies for assessing their representativeness. This paper proposes 5 attributes of representative stories: (1) expression of important themes in the research, (2) explicit location in the "distribution" of stories that exemplify the theme, (3) verifiability, (4) acknowledgment of uncertainty, and (5) compelling narration. This paper summarizes research on substance abuse among physicians, and uses these 5 attributes to assess the representativeness of a published case report and a fictional short story about addicted physicians. While neither story is fully representative of the research, the process of evaluating these stories illustrates an approach to identifying representative stories for use in disseminating research.

  9. High School Students' perception of University Students as STEM representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    2012-01-01

    . Some representatives transmit information and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students......The Danish government has an ambition to recruit more high school students into STEM educations (science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics). The students’ choice of further education is based on the people and jobs they have knowledge of. Therefore, to recruit more students into STEM...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relationship to the subject area or the person representing it...

  10. High School Students' Perception of University Students as STEM Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    . Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students......The Danish government has an ambition to recruit more high school students into STEM edu-cations (science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics). The students’ choice of further education is based on the people and jobs they have knowledge of. Therefore, to recruit more students into STEM...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it...

  11. [Lactase deficiency among representatives of various nationalities of Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvavyĭ, N F; Kozlov, A I; Kondik, V M

    1991-01-01

    Some features of lactase tolerance were investigated in representatives of varying groups of indigenous population in Siberia-Mansi, Khanty, Nenets, Buryats. The indirect method was used to evaluate lactase activity. A total of 92 subjects were investigated. It was found that 32% of the representatives of the Urals population group and 53% of Buryats were capable of lactase assimilating. The data obtained correspond to the cultural-genetic hypothesis on the nature of lactase tolerance in the representatives of different ethnic groups.

  12. The contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging to distinguishing typical from atypical meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakyemez, Bahattin [Uludag University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Bursa State Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bursa (Turkey); Yildirim, Nalan; Gokalp, Gokhan; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Parlak, Mufit [Uludag University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    Atypical/malignant meningiomas recur more frequently then typical meningiomas. In this study, the contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging to the differentiation of atypical/malignant and typical meningiomas and to the determination of histological subtypes of typical meningiomas was investigated. The study was performed prospectively on 39 patients. The signal intensity of the lesions was evaluated on trace and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images. ADC values were measured in the lesions and peritumoral edema. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean ADC values in atypical/malignant and typical meningiomas were 0.75{+-}0.21 and 1.17{+-}0.21, respectively. Mean ADC values for subtypes of typical meningiomas were as follows: meningothelial, 1.09{+-}0.20; transitional, 1.19{+-}0.07; fibroblastic, 1.29{+-}0.28; and angiomatous, 1.48{+-}0.10. Normal white matter was 0.91{+-}0.10. ADC values of typical meningiomas and atypical/malignant meningiomas significantly differed (P<0.001). However, the difference between peritumoral edema ADC values was not significant (P>0.05). Furthermore, the difference between the subtypes of typical meningiomas and atypical/malignant meningiomas was significant (P<0.001). Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings of atypical/malignant meningiomas and typical meningiomas differ. Atypical/malignant meningiomas have lower intratumoral ADC values than typical meningiomas. Mean ADC values for peritumoral edema do not differ between typical and atypical meningiomas. (orig.)

  13. Examination of Hydrate Formation Methods: Trying to Create Representative Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.; Nakagawa, S.; Kwon, T.-H.

    2011-04-01

    Forming representative gas hydrate-bearing laboratory samples is important so that the properties of these materials may be measured, while controlling the composition and other variables. Natural samples are rare, and have often experienced pressure and temperature changes that may affect the property to be measured [Waite et al., 2008]. Forming methane hydrate samples in the laboratory has been done a number of ways, each having advantages and disadvantages. The ice-to-hydrate method [Stern et al., 1996], contacts melting ice with methane at the appropriate pressure to form hydrate. The hydrate can then be crushed and mixed with mineral grains under controlled conditions, and then compacted to create laboratory samples of methane hydrate in a mineral medium. The hydrate in these samples will be part of the load-bearing frame of the medium. In the excess gas method [Handa and Stupin, 1992], water is distributed throughout a mineral medium (e.g. packed moist sand, drained sand, moistened silica gel, other porous media) and the mixture is brought to hydrate-stable conditions (chilled and pressurized with gas), allowing hydrate to form. This method typically produces grain-cementing hydrate from pendular water in sand [Waite et al., 2004]. In the dissolved gas method [Tohidi et al., 2002], water with sufficient dissolved guest molecules is brought to hydrate-stable conditions where hydrate forms. In the laboratory, this is can be done by pre-dissolving the gas of interest in water and then introducing it to the sample under the appropriate conditions. With this method, it is easier to form hydrate from more soluble gases such as carbon dioxide. It is thought that this method more closely simulates the way most natural gas hydrate has formed. Laboratory implementation, however, is difficult, and sample formation is prohibitively time consuming [Minagawa et al., 2005; Spangenberg and Kulenkampff, 2005]. In another version of this technique, a specified quantity of gas

  14. Adsorption Properties of Typical Lung Cancer Breath Gases on Ni-SWCNTs through Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of useful information is contained in the human breath gases, which makes it an effective way to diagnose diseases by detecting the typical breath gases. This work investigated the adsorption of typical lung cancer breath gases: benzene, styrene, isoprene, and 1-hexene onto the surface of intrinsic and Ni-doped single wall carbon nanotubes through density functional theory. Calculation results show that the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorb on intrinsic single wall carbon nanotubes surface by weak physisorption. Besides, the density of states changes little before and after typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption. Compared with single wall carbon nanotubes adsorption, single Ni atom doping significantly improves its adsorption properties to typical lung cancer breath gases by decreasing adsorption distance and increasing adsorption energy and charge transfer. The density of states presents different degrees of variation during the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption, resulting in the specific change of conductivity of gas sensing material. Based on the different adsorption properties of Ni-SWCNTs to typical lung cancer breath gases, it provides an effective way to build a portable noninvasive portable device used to evaluate and diagnose lung cancer at early stage in time.

  15. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  16. 42 CFR 102.44 - Representatives of requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages § 102.44 Representatives of requesters. (a) Persons other than a requester (e.g., a lawyer, guardian, friend) may file a Request Package on a requester's behalf as his or her representative. A requester need not use the services of a lawyer to secure benefits...

  17. A geometric language for representing structure in polyphonic music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2012-01-01

    is represented as a set of multidimensional points, generated by performing transformations on component patterns. The language introduces the concept of a periodic mask, a generalisation of Deutsch and Feroe’s notion of a pitch alphabet, that can be applied to any dimension of a geometric representation......, allowing for both rhythms and pitch collections to be represented parsimoniously in a uniform way....

  18. 16 CFR 460.6 - “Representative thickness” testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âRepresentative thicknessâ testing. 460.6 Section 460.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.6 “Representative thickness” testing. All tests except aluminum...

  19. State Tax Capacity and the Representative Tax System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the merit of using the Representative Tax System to measure state fiscal capacity instead of the traditional measure of per capita income. The conclusion is that the Representative Tax System can play a major role in determining the allocation of federal grants. (MJL)

  20. 20 CFR 725.363 - Qualification of representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualification of representative. 725.363... MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS UNDER PART C OF TITLE IV OF THE....363 Qualification of representative. (a) Attorney. Any attorney in good standing who is admitted...

  1. Calls to Teen Line: Representative Concerns of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Kathryn E.; Schondel, Connie K.; Ivoska, William J.; Marlowe, Alison L.; Manke-Mitchell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Study examines whether the concerns of teenagers calling a peer listening service are representative of the concerns of teenagers in the area served. Results indicate that students' biggest concerns involve family problems, peer relationships, self-esteem, and school problems. Concludes that calls to the teen line are representative. (Author/GCP)

  2. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 261 - Representative Sampling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representative Sampling Methods I...—Representative Sampling Methods The methods and equipment used for sampling waste materials will vary with the form and consistency of the waste materials to be sampled. Samples collected using the...

  3. Dontion From CCPIT Overseas Representative Offices To Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@After the strong earthquake centered in Wenchuan County in the Southwestern Chinese Sichuan Province took place,the CCPIT Overseas Representative Offices immediately responding to the call of the CPC Central Committee,the State Council and following the instruction of CCPIT concerning disaster relief work,vigororsly organized.Below are the statistics of donation from partial overseas representative offices by May 19.

  4. 20 CFR 211.5 - Employee representative compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee representative compensation. 211.5... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.5 Employee representative compensation. All payments made by a railway... office he occupies with such organization are creditable as compensation, including payments made...

  5. 37 CFR 10.84 - Representing a client zealously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representing a client... Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.84 Representing a client zealously. (a) A practitioner shall not intentionally: (1) Fail to seek the lawful objectives of a client through reasonably available...

  6. 37 CFR 1.34 - Acting in a representative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... capacity. 1.34 Section 1.34 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of Application and Appointment of Attorney Or Agent § 1.34 Acting in a representative capacity. When a patent practitioner acting in a representative capacity appears in person or signs a paper...

  7. 14 CFR 183.31 - Designated manufacturing inspection representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated manufacturing inspection representatives. 183.31 Section 183.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: Privileges § 183.31 Designated manufacturing inspection representatives. A designated...

  8. 22 CFR 41.25 - NATO representatives, officials, and employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NATO representatives, officials, and employees... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Foreign Government Officials § 41.25 NATO representatives, officials, and employees. (a) Classification. An alien shall be classified under the symbol...

  9. Family representative payeeship and violence risk in severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S; Van Dorn, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Although representative payeeship is prevalent among people with mental illness and shows promise to positively influence clinically relevant outcomes, research also suggests this legal mechanism could be implemented in ways that are problematic. The current study examined whether family representative payeeship was associated with elevated risk of family violence perpetrated by persons with severe mental illness (SMI). Data were collected every 4 months for 1 year in structured interviews with N = 245 persons with SMI who received disability benefits. Multivariate analyses showed that substance abuse, history of violence, frequency of family contact, and family representative payeeship were associated with elevated odds of family violence. Analyses also showed family contact and family representative payeeship had a cumulative effect on increasing the predicted probability of family violence (controlling for covariates such as violence history and substance abuse). The data shed light on the potential for family representative payeeship to be associated with increased risk of interpersonal conflict and violence in SMI.

  10. Attitudes of typically developing children's parents toward inclusive education of visually impaired preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of pilot research on attitudes of parents who have typically developing children toward integrating children with visual impairments into regular preschool education system. The research is the result of a study on the advantages of adapted questionnaire which assesses attitudes of typically developing children's parents on inclusion of children with visual impairments. The sample consists of 34 parents who have typically developing children. We analyzed their attitudes toward inclusion of children with visual impairments and the relation of those attitudes with gender and education. The results contribute to better understanding of the position of visually impaired children in the inclusive education system.

  11. On Medical Care Interpreting:Basic Requirements and Solutions to Typical Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晶晶

    2013-01-01

      Based on Pöchhacker, Kadric and Tebble’s theory on interpreting requirements, this paper suggested the basic require⁃ments for medical care interpreters. Through a practical analysis on three typical scenarios, this paper discussed typical problems and their solutions in medical care interpreting, including long instructions, patients asking for advice and unexpected reaction from patients. The research showed that the basic requirements of interpreting are the keys to solving the typical problems and proved the importance of understanding of the barriers in cross-culture communication.

  12. Sizing and Costing Optimisation of a Typical Wind/PV Hybrid Electricity Generation System for a Typical Residential Building in Urban Armidale NSW, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data obser...

  13. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data obser...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF RESISTANCE OF THE BROWN TYPICAL SOIL OF THE UTRISH NATIONAL RESERVE TO CHEMICAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mospanenko A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an assessment of resistance of the brown typical soil of the Utrish national reserve to pollution with heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil on biological indicators

  15. [Mood effects on the impression formation of typical and atypical targets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Mika

    2002-12-01

    In this study, we investigated mood effects on impression formation of typical and atypical target persons, in an attempt to replicate the findings reported by Forgas (1992a). Listening to a particular piece of music, participants were first induced into positive, negative, or neutral mood. Then, they read statements, in which typical and atypical targets were described with positive and negative personality traits. While reading the statements, they were asked to form an impression of the target, and evaluate him/her. After the impression formation task, they were given ten minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results showed that mood congruent memory effect was found regardless of the targets. On the contrary, mood congruent judgment effect in positive mood was found only for typical targets. It was suggested that mood effects depend on the kind of information processing strategies triggered by typical and atypical targets.

  16. METHODS OF THE APPROXIMATE ESTIMATIONS OF FATIGUE DURABILITY OF COMPOSITE AIRFRAME COMPONENT TYPICAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Strizhius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of the approximate estimations of fatigue durability of composite airframe component typical elements which can be recommended for application at the stage of outline designing of the airplane are generated and presented.

  17. SOCIAL AND NON-SOCIAL CUEING OF VISUOSPATIAL ATTENTION IN AUTISM AND TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, John R.; LaMacchia, Angela; Hoertel, Sarah; Squire, Emma; McVey, Kelly; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments explored attention to eye gaze, which is incompletely understood in typical development and is hypothesized to be disrupted in autism. Experiment 1 (n=26 typical adults) involved covert orienting to box, arrow, and gaze cues at two probabilities and cue-target times to test whether reorienting for gaze is endogenous, exogenous, or unique; experiment 2 (total n=80: male and female children and adults) studied age and sex effects on gaze cueing. Gaze cueing appears endogenous and may strengthen in typical development. Experiment 3 tested exogenous, endogenous, and/or gaze-based orienting in 25 typical and 27 Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children. ASD children made more saccades, slowing their reaction times; however, exogenous and endogenous orienting, including gaze cueing, appear intact in ASD. PMID:20809377

  18. Dynamic design of stiffeners for a typical panel using topology optimization and finite element analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Yadong; Fei, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    .... In order to improve the stiffness–mass efficiency, this article presents a combined use of topology optimization and finite element analysis to the dynamic design of stiffeners for a typical panel...

  19. 7 CFR 1.610 - Who may represent a party, and what requirements apply to a representative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Hearing Process § 1.610 Who may represent a... may either represent himself or herself in the hearing process under this subpart or authorize an... documents under § 1.611; (2) Include the name and address of the person on whose behalf the appearance is...

  20. Choosing a Group Representative : The Impact of Perceived Organizational Support on the Preferences for Deviant Representatives in Work Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, Stephanie; Teixeira, Catia Pinto; Gillis, Celine; Goldoni, Edwine; Stinglhamber, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Group representative selection in negotiation is a topic that has only recently attracted researchers' attention. This article focuses on workplace negotiations and examines how employees' selection of representatives depends on their level of perceived organizational support (POS). We predict and s