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Sample records for superhydrophobic abrasion-resistant thin

  1. Plasma enhanced CVD of SiO{sub x}C{sub y}H{sub z} thin film on different textile fabrics: Influence of exposure time on the abrasion resistance and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosace, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.rosace@unibg.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Bergamo, viale Marconi, 5, 24044 Dalmine (Italy); Canton, Roberto [Moma srl, POINT, via Pasubio, 5, 24044 Dalmine (Italy); Colleoni, Claudio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Bergamo, viale Marconi, 5, 24044 Dalmine (Italy)

    2010-02-01

    In order to improve textile fabric abrasion resistance, in this work a SiO{sub x}C{sub y}H{sub z} thin film was realized by low pressure plasma chemical vapour deposition (PCVD) at room temperature, using hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor compound. To test changes in the performance properties of the surface finished samples as a function of the type of the substrate, the deposition was carried out on different textile fabrics. The polymerization processes were followed by weight measurements of textile fabrics. It was found that, after PCVD, a significantly lower fabric weight loss was observed on treated samples after rubbing than on the untreated samples. The morphology, elemental composition and type of chemical bonding present in the film applied on textile fabrics were also investigated using electron scanning microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and infrared spectroscopy techniques (FT-IR (ATR)). The results showed a substantial enhancement of wear resistance for the surfaces modified with the presented process, while tensile and tearing strength were adversely affected.

  2. ABRASION RESISTANCE ESTIMATION OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şemsi YAZICI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study gives the results of a laboratory investigation undertaken to determine the relationship between mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strengths and abrasion resistance of 65-85 MPa high strength concretes incorporating silica fume, fly ash and silica fume-fly ash mixtures as supplementary cementing materials. A series of six different concrete mixtures including a control high strength concrete mixture (C1, and five high strength concrete mixtures (C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 incorporating supplementary cementing materials, were manufactured. The compressive strength, flexural strength, and abrasion resistance were determined for each mixture at 28-days. Mathematical expressions were suggested to estimate the abrasion resistance of concrete regarding their compressive strength and flexural strength.

  3. Optically transparent super-hydrophobic thin film fabricated by reusable polyurethane-acrylate (PUA) mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.-S.; Park, J.-H.; Lee, D.-W.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we describe a simple manufacturing method for producing an optically transparent super-hydrophobic polymer thin film using a reusable photo-curable polymer mold. Soluble photoresist (PR) molds were prepared with under-exposed and under-baked processes, which created unique hierarchical micro/nano structures. The reverse phase of the PR mold was replicated on the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. The unique patterns on the replicated PDMS molds were successfully transferred back to the UV curable polyurethane-acrylate (PUA) using a laboratory-made UV exposure system. Continuous production of the super-hydrophobic PDMS thin film was demonstrated using the reusable PUA mold. In addition, hydrophobic nano-silica powder was sprayed onto the micro/nano structured PDMS surfaces to further improve hydrophobicity. The fabricated PDMS thin films with hierarchical surface texturing showed a water contact angle  ⩾150°. Excellent optical transmittance within the range of visible light of wavelengths between 400–800 nm was experimentally confirmed using a spectrophotometer. High efficiency of the super-hydrophobic PDMS film in optical transparency was also confirmed using solar panels. The fabricated PUA molds are very suitable for use in roll-to-roll or roll-to-plate systems which allow continuous production of super-hydrophobic thin films with an excellent optical transparency.

  4. Drag crisis moderation by thin air layers sustained on superhydrophobic spheres falling in water

    KAUST Repository

    Jetly, Aditya

    2018-01-22

    We investigate the effect of thin air layers naturally sustained on superhydrophobic surfaces on the terminal velocity and drag force of metallic spheres free falling in water. The surface of 20 mm to 60 mm steel or tungsten-carbide spheres is rendered superhydrophobic by a simple coating process that uses commercially available hydrophobic agent. By comparing the free fall of unmodified spheres and superhydrophobic spheres in a 2.5 meters tall water tank, It is demonstrated that even a very thin air layer (~ 1 – 2 μm) that covers the freshly dipped superhydrophobic sphere, can reduce the drag force on the spheres by up to 80 %, at Reynolds numbers 105 - 3×105 , owing to an early drag crisis transition. This study complements prior investigations on the drag reduction efficiency of model gas layers sustained on heated metal spheres falling in liquid by the Leidenfrost effect. The drag reduction effects are expected to have significant implication for the development of sustainable air-layer-based energy saving technologies.

  5. Usage of abrasion-resistant materials in agriculture

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    J Votava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soil-processing machines are subject to an extensive abrasive wear. This paper analyses technical materials and their fitness to exchangeable parts of plough bottoms, such as edge-tools and whole plough cutting edges. There were tested abrasion-resistant steels with different microstructures: austenite, martensite-bainite, and carbide. Steel with the pearlite-ferrite structure was used as an etalon. Abrasion resistance tests were processed in compliance with the norm CSN 01 5084, which is a test of abrasion wear on abrasive cloth.

  6. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface of hierarchical ZnO thin films by using stearic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfen; Li, Benxia; Xu, Chuyang

    2012-01-01

    Flower-like hierarchical ZnO microspheres were successfully synthesized by a simple, template-free, and low-temperature aqueous solution route. The morphology and microstructure of the ZnO microspheres were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The bionic films with hydrophobicity were fabricated by the hierarchical ZnO microspheres modified by stearic acid. It was found that the hydrophobicity of the thin films was very sensitive to the added amount of stearic acid. The thin films modified with 8% stearic acid took on strong superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (CA) almost to be 178° and weak adhersion. The remarkable superhydrophobicity could be attributed to the synergistic effect of micro/nano hierarchical structure of ZnO and low surface energy of stearic acid.

  7. Heat sealable, flame and abrasion resistant coated fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Flame retardant, abrasion resistant elastomeric compositions are disclosed which are comprised of thermoplastic polyurethane polymer and flame retarding amounts of a filler selected from decabromodiphenyloxide and antimony oxide in a 3:1 weight ratio, and decabromodiphenyloxide, antimony oxide, and ammonium polyphosphate in a 3:1:3 weight ratio respectively. Heat sealable coated fabrics employing such elastomeric compositions as coating film are produced by dissolving the elastomeric composition to form a solution, casting the solution onto a release paper and drying it to form an elastomeric film. The film is then bonded to a woven, knitted, or felted fabric.

  8. Homemade abrasion tester and its application for abrasion resistance testing of crease points on down fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidie GUAN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore a new method for testing the fabric abrasion resistance, a homemade abrasion tester is designed and manufactured. The principle, structure and test method of the homemade abrasion tester are introduced. The crease points on fabrics are rubbed using the abrasion tester under certain air pressure and the abrasion of fabrics is reflected on real time through the change of gas flow. The change of gas flow is converted into equivalent aperture by Bernoulli equation and the equivalent aperture is used to evaluate the abrasion resistance of the crease point on fabric. Three measuring parameters of friction velocity, gas pressure and fabric thickness influencing on the abrasion resistance of crease point on down fabrics are tested by orthogonal experiment. The influence of the three elements on the abrasion resistance is analyzed. The results show that the homemade abrasion tester can represent the abrasion resistance of crease point under certain conditions. The gas pressure and fabric thickness have significant influence on the abrasion resistance, but the influence of friction velocity is not significant. Above all, the gas pressure has the most high influence. The research result prevides reference for improving the abrasion resistance of crease points on down fabrics.

  9. Gouging abrasion resistance of materials for oil sands service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llewellyn, R.J. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Tolfree, D.J.; Hall, R.A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Process Engineering; Liang, P. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Hydraulic ore transportation in the oil sands industry has brought about a need for effective and reliable crusher and classifying systems to pulverize, screen and handle mined frozen oil sands lumps and large solids before they get slurried and pipelined to bitumen extraction plants. Improved product development, assessment methods for materials for oil sands applications have generally focused on low and high stress abrasion and slurry erosion resistance because these wear mechanisms are considered to predominate in oil sands mining, transportation and bitumen recovery. With the increased use of crusher and slurry handling systems, materials of construction are required to have good toughness and gouging abrasion properties to withstand impact and ploughing forces. Tests of gouging abrasion were conducted using a modified ASTM G81 procedure on a range of materials associated with oil sands processing. The objective was to assess material property requirements for mitigating these conditions. The wear losses that occurred for reference wear plates were compared to feed rock that was pulverized in a laboratory jaw crusher. The classes of evaluated materials were abrasion resistant (AR) steel plates, austenitic manganese steel castings, chromium and chromium molybdenum white irons (as plain castings and in laminated forms), and chromium carbide and tungsten carbide overlaid wear plates. 8 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  10. Report D : self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for infrastructure elements - creep, shrinkage and abrasion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Concrete specimens were fabricated for shrinkage, creep, and abrasion resistance : testing. Variations of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and conventional concrete were : all tested. The results were compared to previous similar testing programs an...

  11. Abrasion Resistance of as-Cast High-Chromium Cast Iron

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    Pokusová Marcela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High chromium cast irons are widely used as abrasion resistant materials. Their properties and wear resistance depend on carbides and on the nature of the matrix supporting these carbides. The paper presents test results of irons which contain (in wt.% 18-22 Cr and 2-5 C, and is alloyed by 1.7 Mo + 5 Ni + 2 Mn to improve the toughness. Tests showed as-cast irons with mostly austenitic matrix achieved hardness 36-53 HRC but their relative abrasion-resistance was higher than the tool steel STN 19436 heat treated on hardness 60 HRC.

  12. The Effect of Microstructure on the Abrasion Resistance of Low Alloyed Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, X.

    2016-01-01

    The thesis attempts to develop advanced high abrasion resistant steels with low hardness in combination with good toughness, processability and low alloying additions. For this purpose, a novel multi-pass dual-indenter (MPDI) scratch test approach has been developed to approach the real continuous

  13. Improved performance of Mg–Y alloy thin film switchable mirrors after coating with a superhydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La, Mao [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010020 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Ning; Xin, Yunchuan [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Sha, Ren, E-mail: sr@imnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010020 (China); Bao, Shanhu, E-mail: shanhu.bao@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Jin, Ping [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • The PTFE films was prepared for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. • The PTFE as an antireflection layer to improve the luminous transmission, and also to enhance the switching durability of the switchable mirrors. • The PTFE film has a superhydrophobic surface, which endows the Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors with self-cleaning properties. - Abstract: The magnesium based switchable mirrors can reversibly change their optical properties between the transparent and the reflective state as a result of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. These films can potentially be applied as new energy-saving windows, by controlling the transmittance of solar radiation through the regulation of their reflective state. In this study, magnesium–yttrium (Mg–Y) alloy thin films were prepared using a DC magnetron sputtering method. However, the luminous transmittance in the transparent state and the switching durability of switchable mirrors are too poor to satisfy practical demands. In order to improve the films switching durability, luminous transmittance and the surface functionalization, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was coated with thermal vacuum deposition for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. The PTFE layer had a porous network structure and exhibited a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of approximately 152°. By characterization, PTFE thin films shows the excellent protection role against the oxidization of Mg, the switching durability of the films were improved 3 times, and also shows the antireflection role the luminous transmission of films was enhanced by 7% through the top covered with PTFE.

  14. Protective, Abrasion-Resistant Coatings With Tailorable Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Because of their light weight and impact resistance, transparent plastic structures are becoming increasingly desirable for use not only on aircraft but also in terrestrial applications such as automotive windshields and ophthalmic lenses. However, plastics are typically soft and scratch readily, reducing their transparency with use. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, reactively deposited aluminum oxide coatings as thin as 12,000 angstroms have been demonstrated to provide improved resistance to most scratches encountered during normal use. The properties of the coating can be adjusted to tailor the surface to meet other needs, such as water shedding. These adjustments can be made during the deposition process so that multiple manufacturing steps are eliminated.

  15. HYDRO-ABRASIVE RESISTANCE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE WITH ADDED FLY ASH

    OpenAIRE

    Ristić, Nenad; Grdić, Zoran; Topličić-Ćurčić, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    The durability of hydraulic engineering structures mostly depends on the resistance of their concrete surfaces to mechanical abrasion. In this paper, we study the hydro-abrasive resistance and mechanical properties of concrete in which cement is partially replaced with fly ash in various proportions. To evaluate these concretes, we measured their compressive strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity, ultrasound velocity through concrete, and sclerometer rebound. The hydro-abra...

  16. Abrasion-Resistant Aluminized-Coated Aramid Fabrics for Manufacture of Firefighters’ Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    and radiacion are also produced at the cathode surface and may profoundly influence the quality of the substrate coating. These include secondary...14,265-378 (1979). Assink, R.A. Abrasion resistant polymer reflectors for solar applications. Solar Energy Mater vol. 3:263-75, (1980). Audet, N.F. Visor... solar reflectors. Solar Energy Mater vol. 3: No.1-2,277-83,(1981). *Gubareff, G.G., J.E. Janssen, and R.H. Torborg. Thermal radiation properties survey

  17. Heat sealable, flame and abrasion resistant coated fabric. [clothing and containers for space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Flame retardant, abrasion resistant elastomeric compositions are comprised of thermoplastic polyurethane polymer and flame retarding amounts of a filler selected from decabromodiphenyloxide and antimony oxide in a 3:1 weight ratio, and decabromodiphenyloxide, antimony oxide, and ammonium polyphosphate in a 3:1:3 weight ratio respectively. Coated fabrics employing such elastomeric compositions as coating film are flexible, lightweight, and air impermeable and can be made using heat or dielectric sealing procedures.

  18. Anticorrosion Coatings Based on Assemblies of Superhydrophobic Particles Impregnated with Conductive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    Amorphous silica nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel techniques. The particles were fluorinated to impart them with superhydrophobic properties...coatings based on fluorinated diatomaceous earth: Abrasion resistance versus particle geometry’’ Appl. Surf. Sci. 292, 563–569 (2014). 8. Vlassiouk I...layer graphene by shear exfoliation in liquids” Nature Materials 13, 624-630 (2014). 11. Thermo Scientific Application Note AN52252 “The Raman

  19. Superhydrophobic epoxy coating modified by fluorographene used for anti-corrosion and self-cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengqing; Wang, Lida; Sun, Wen; Li, Sijia; Zhu, Tianzhen; Liu, Wei; Liu, Guichang

    2017-04-01

    A facile method for the fabrication of organic coating with superhydrophobic surface on copper substrate is presented in this paper. Liquid-phase exfoliated fluorographene (FG) nanosheets, a low-surface-energy material with different sizes and shapes, are spatially stuck on the surface of epoxy resin coating to build rough surface with random micro/nano structure. The built coating system displays superior protection performances due to its self-cleaning function, mechanical abrasion resistance and chemical stability both in acidic and alkaline aqueous solutions. It not only provides a facile process for superhydrophobic modification of organic coating, but also introduces a new and effective strategy to protect materials by synergistically coupling the protection function of both superhydrophobic surface and organic coating, which can be used for large-scale manufacturing of superhydrophobic organic coating in industrial applications.

  20. Effects of Running Shoes with Abrasion Resistant Rubber Sole on the Exercise Capacity of the Human Body

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    Bo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization, rubber has been gradually used in the manufacture of sports equipment for its favourable properties. This study involved the addition of C5 petroleum resin into brominated isobutylene-isoprene rubber (BIIR and butadiene rubber (BR while manufacturing the sole of running shoes. The effects of running shoes with abrasion resistant rubber sole on the exercise capacity of the human body were investigated by analysing the skid resistance and abrasion resistance of the running shoes, and conducting biomechanical study on naked feet and feet wearing the shoes. The results demonstrated that the rubber sole had favourable slip resistance property and mechanical properties such as stretching, abrasion resistance, and hardness. Compared to naked feet, the peak pressure intensity of the whole step of feet wearing the newly developed shoes, was significantly lower than that of feet wearing ordinary shoes. In the future, rubber can bring more comfortable experience because of its favourable properties.

  1. Validation of the abrasion resistance test protocols and performance criteria of EN13595: The probability of soft tissue injury to motorcycle riders by abrasion resistance of their clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Lauren; Hurren, Christopher; Clarke, Elizabeth; Fitzharris, Michael; Baldock, Matthew; de Rome, Liz; Olivier, Jake; Brown, Julie

    2017-06-01

    Motorcyclists represent an increasing proportion of road users globally and are increasingly represented in crash statistics. Soft tissue injuries are the most common type of injuries to crashed motorcyclists. These injuries can be prevented through the use of protective clothing designed for motorcycle use. However, the quality of such clothing is not controlled in many countries around the world. A European Standard was developed to assess the performance of clothing but as this is not mandatory, clothing certified to this Standard is difficult to obtain. Given the importance of this Standard, and that it has been validated only once, further validation work is required. In-depth crash investigation data were used to investigate the relationship between the abrasion resistance performance of clothing and real-world injury outcome. Clothing was collected from riders who crashed on public roads in Sydney and Newcastle, Australia. This clothing was tested according to the EU Standard and the time to hole was recorded. Hospital medical records were reviewed and the association between a rider suffering a soft tissue injury and the time-to-hole for the garment was examined. The probability of soft tissue injury for Level 1 Standard garments was between 40-60%, but more than 60% of garments tested failed to meet the minimum requirement. The findings of this study provide qualified support for the Standard, with a marginal association between time-to-hole and injury being found. This work supports the need for improved safety performance and an increased number of high performing garments being available to motorcyclists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining of abrasion resistance of hybrid composites reinforced with SiC and Cgr particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Łągiewka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The presented work discusses the influence of the type and volume percentage of particulate reinforcement consisting of mixed silicon carbide and graphite on the abrasion wear of hybrid composites with AlMg10 matrix. Also the macro photos of frictional surfaces have been shown and the results of hardness measurements have been presented. The performed examinations have allowed for stating that the mixture of SiC and Cgr particles changes in favour the tribological properties of the matrix alloy. It has been also proved that introducing hard reinforcing particles along with soft lubricating ones allows for achieving the material exhibiting high abrasion resistance, and moreover, the graphite particles protect the abraded surface from the destructive action of silicon carbide particles. Also hardness measurements have been performed and the resulting conclusion is that the composite hardness increases with an increase in volume fraction of the reinforcing particles.

  3. Final Technical Report: Development of an Abrasion-Resistant Antisoiling Coating for Front-Surface Reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, Randy C. [Sundog Solar Technology, Arvada, CO (United States)

    2017-07-18

    A high-performance reflective film has been successfully developed for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) solar concentrators. Anti-soiling properties and abrasion resistance have been incorporated into the reflector to reduce reflector cleaning costs and to enhance durability. This approach has also resulted in higher reflectance and improved specularity. From the outset of this project we focused on the use of established high-volume roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques to achieve low manufacturing costs on a per ubit area basis. Roll-to-roll manufacturng equipment has a high capital cost so there is an entire industry devoted to roll-to-roll “toll” manufacturing, where the equipment is operated “around the clock” to produce a multitude of products for a large variety of uses. Using this approach, the reflective film can be manufactured by toll coaters/converters on an as-needed basis.

  4. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Munar, Melvin L; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2015-04-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant-gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl2 solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120°C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120°C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xingling, E-mail: shixingling1985@hotmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Xu, Lingli [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Munar, Melvin L.; Ishikawa, Kunio [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant–gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl{sub 2} solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120 °C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120 °C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. - Highlights: • Ca was incorporated into TiN surface while not sacrificing its hardness. • Interstitial N due to oxidation promoted Ca adsorption and cell adhesion. • Hydrothermal treatment makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant.

  6. Deposition of TiC film on titanium for abrasion resistant implant material by ion-enhanced triode plasma CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Yuhe, E-mail: zyh1120@hotmail.co.jp [School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shen Yang (China); Wang Wei; Jia Xingya [School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shen Yang (China); Akasaka, Tsukasa [Department of Health Science, School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Liao, Susan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Watari, Fumio [Department of Health Science, School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deposition of Titanium Carbide (TiC) layer on titanium (Ti) surface has been demonstrated by an ion-enhanced triode plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Vickers hardness of surface carbide was more than 2000, which confirmed its high abrasion resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical and mechanical properties of the deposited TiC film on Ti were investigated to examine its potential application as an abrasion resistant implant material. - Abstract: Deposition of titanium carbide (TiC) layer on titanium (Ti) surface has been demonstrated by an ion-enhanced triode plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using a TiCl{sub 4} + CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2} gas mixture. Physical and mechanical properties of the deposited TiC film on Ti were investigated to examine its potential application as an abrasion resistant implant material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the specimen was consisted of TiC and Ti. Carbide layer of about 6 {mu}m thickness was observed on the cross section of the specimen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Vickers hardness of surface carbide was more than 2000, which confirmed its high abrasion resistance.

  7. Influence of Utilization of High-Volumes of Class F Fly Ash on the Abrasion Resistance of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William PRINCE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of large volumes of fly ash in various concrete applications is a becoming a more general practice in an efforts towards using large quantities of fly ash. Around the world, Class C or Class F or both as available have been used in high volumes in cement-based materials. In India, majority of fly generated is of Class F type as per ASTM C 618. Yearly fly ash generation in India is approximately 95 million tonnes. Out of which around 15-20% is utilized in cement production and cement/concrete related activities. In order to increase its percentage utilization, an investigation was carried out to use it in concrete.In this paper, abrasion resistance of high volume fly ash (HVFA concretes made with 35, 45, 55, and 65% of cement replacement was evaluated in terms of its relation with compressive strength. Comparison was made between ordinary Portland cement and fly ash concrete. Test results indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete having cement replacement up to 35 percent was comparable to the normal concrete mix with out fly ash. Beyond 35% cement replacement, fly ash concretes exhibited slightly lower resistance to abrasion relative to non-fly ash concretes. Test results further indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete is closely related with compressive strength, and had a very good correlation between abrasion resistance and compressive strength (R2 value between 0.9018 and 0.9859 depending upon age.

  8. The role of the microfissuration of the rock matrix in the abrasion resistance of ornamental granitic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rey, Angel; Sanchez-Delgado, Nuria; Camino, Clara; Calleja, Lope; Ruiz de Argandoña, Vicente G.; Setien, Alexia

    2015-04-01

    The microcrack density and the abrasion resistance of five ornamental granites (Albero, Gris Alba, Mondariz, Rosa Porriño and Traspieles) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been quantified as part of a research aimed to interpret the cuttability of the rocks in relation to the petrophysical properties of the rock matrix. Large blocks from the quarries have been cut with an industrial saw and the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance have been measured in two surfaces: H, parallel to the cut surface; T, perpendicular both to the cut surface and the cutting direction. Both planes are perpendicular to the rift plane, as it is known in quarry works. The microcrack density has been quantified following an stereological procedure applied to polished sections imaged under scanning electron microscopy. The magnification of the images allowed the study of microcracks as narrow as 2 microns in aperture. The density has been quantified in terms of length of microcrack traces per surface unit so possible anisotropies of the microcrack network could be detected. The obtained values are in the typical range for this type of rocks although the Traspieles granite shows a higher value due to its weathering degree (H: 5.11, T: 5.37 mm/mm2). The values measured in the two surfaces (H and T) are quite similar in four of the rocks; only the Albero granite shows a marked anisotropy (H: 2.76 T: 3.53 mm/mm2). The abrasion resistance of the rocks has been measured following the european standard EN 14157:2004 using the capon method. The rocks can be classified in two groups according to their abrasion resistance. Rosa Porriño, Gris Alba and Mondariz granites are the more resistant to abrasion with values around 16-17 mm. Albero and Traspieles granites are less resistant with values higher than 19 mm. The results show a good correlation between the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance. As can be expected the rocks with high microcrack density show low abrasion resistance. The

  9. In Vitro Assessment of the Abrasion Resistance of Two Types of Artificial Teeth Submitted to Brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policastro, Vivian Barnabé; Giro, Gabriela; Leite, Andressa Rosa Perin; Mendoza-Marin, Danny Omar; Paleari, André Gustavo; Compagnoni, Marco Antonio; Pero, Ana Carolina

    2016-08-01

    To assess the effect of brushing with different solutions on the abrasion resistance of two types of acrylic resin teeth. Maxillary premolars from two types of acrylic teeth (Biotone and Biotone IPN) were divided into six groups (n = 12), according to the solution used during brushing: distilled water (control), coconut soap, or dentifrice. A mechanical brushing machine was used to simulate approximately 1 year of brushing (11,000 strokes). The weight loss (WL) of teeth was obtained from the difference between the initial (IW) and final weight (FW) of each specimen, and the mean of percentage of weight loss (PWL) was calculated for each group. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Bonferroni's post-test comparison (α = 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found for the factor solution (p Brushing using dentifrice caused the highest values of weight loss (-0.50%), in comparison with the groups brushed with coconut soap (0.00%) or distilled water (0.00%). For both types of artificial teeth, brushing with dentifrice produced higher abrasion than brushing with coconut soap or water. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  11. A Thermochromic Superhydrophobic Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Pietro; Bayer, Ilker S.; Cingolani, Roberto; Marras, Sergio; Chellali, Ryad; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-06-01

    Highly enhanced solid-state thermochromism is observed in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, when deposited on a superhydrophobic polymer-SiO2 nanocomposite coating. The conformal P3HT coating on the nanocomposite surface does not alter or reduce superhydrophicity while maintaining its reversible enhanced thermochromism. The polymeric matrix of the superhydrophobic surface is comprised of a blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) copolymer and an acrylic adhesive. Based on detailed X-ray diffraction measurements, this long-lasting, repeatable and hysteresis-free thermochromic effect is attributed to the enhancement of the Bragg peak associated with the d-spacing of interchain directional packing (100) which remains unaltered during several heating-cooling cycles. We propose that the superhydrophobic surface confines π-π interchain stacking in P3HT with uniform d-spacing into its nanostructured texture resulting in better packing and reduction in face-on orientation. The rapid response of the system to sudden temperature changes is also demonstrated by water droplet impact and bounce back on heated surfaces. This effect can be exploited for embedded thin film temperature sensors for metal coatings.

  12. Preparation and characterization of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/nanoclay nanocomposite flat sheet membranes for abrasion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chi Yan; Groth, Andrew; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel

    2014-06-15

    Membranes with more resilience to abrasive wear are highly desired in water treatment, especially for seawater desalination. Nanocomposite poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/nanoclay membranes were prepared by phase inversion and then tested for abrasion resistance. Their material properties were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Nanoclay Cloisite(®) 15A was utilised as the inorganic nanoparticle incorporated into PVDF. FTIR results showed a shifting of the PVDF crystalline phase from α to β thus indicating that the nanoclay altered the PVDF host material's structure and mechanical properties in terms of stiffness and toughness. Water permeation test showed that nanoclay at low concentration tended to reduce water flux. All nanocomposite membranes, with between 1 wt% and 5 wt% initial nanoclay loading, were more abrasion resistant than the control PVDF membrane. However, the 1 wt% exhibited superior resistance, lasting two times longer than the reference PVDF membrane under the same abrasive condition. The 1 wt% nanoclay membrane appeared less abraded by SEM observation, while also having the greatest tensile strength improvement (from 4.5 MPa to 4.9 MPa). This membrane also had the smallest agglomerated nanoclay particle size and highest toughness compared to the higher nanoclay content membranes. Nanoclays are therefore useful for improving abrasion resistance of PVDF membranes, but optimal loadings are essential to avoid losing essential mechanical properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Halogen-Free Phosphonate Ionic Liquids as Precursors of Abrasion Resistant Surface Layers on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulia Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface coatings formed by immersion in the ionic liquids (ILs 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylphosphonate (LMP101, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate (LMP102 and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylphosphonate (LEP102 on magnesium alloy AZ31B at 50 °C have been studied. The purpose of increasing the temperature was to reduce the immersion time, from 14 days at room temperature, to 48 hours at 50 °C. The abrasion resistance of the coated alloy was studied by microscratching under progressively increasing load, and compared with that of the uncoated material. The order of abrasion resistance as a function of the IL is LEP102 > LMP101 > LMP102, which is in agreement with the order obtained for the coatings grown at room temperature. The maximum reduction in penetration depth with respect to the uncovered alloy, of a 44.5%, is obtained for the sample treated with the ethylphosphonate LEP102. However, this reduction is lower than that obtained when the coating is grown at room temperature. This is attributed to the increased thickness and lower adhesion of the coatings obtained at 50 °C, particularly those obtained from methylphosphonate ionic liquids. The results are discussed from SEM-EDX and profilometry.

  14. Durable superhydrophobic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; Polyzos, Georgios; Schaeffer, Daniel A.

    2017-11-28

    A superhydrophobic coating including a plurality of particles and a resin. The particles covalently bond to the resin and the resin does not fill the pores of the superhydrophobic particles such that the three dimensional surface topology of the superhydrophobic particles is preserved.

  15. Superhydrophobic immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coux, Martin; Mathis, Adrien; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

    2016-11-01

    A superhydrophobic object is an object on which water doesn't spread. We can think conversely, such an object should be covered by air when immersed in water. The film of air that is formed in this case is visible at the naked eye owing to its brightness. Natural questions that arise from the observation of this phenomenon are how much air stays trapped between the liquid and the solid, ie what is the thickness of the film, and how this quantity can be modified. In this study, we describe an experimental setup that allows us to easily control the velocity of immersion of an object into a liquid bath and to access the volume of dragged air, from which we can deduce the thickness of the air film.

  16. Improved Corrosion and Abrasion Resistance of Organic-Inorganic Composite Coated Electro-galvanized Steels for Digital TV Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Du-Hwan; Noh, Sang-Geol; Park, Jong-Tae; Kang, Choon-Ho [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Recently, household electronic industries require environmentally-friendly and highly functional steels in order to enhance the quality of human life. Customers especially require both excellent corrosion and abrasion resistant anti-fingerprint steels for digital TV panels. Thus POSCO has developed new functional electro-galvanized steels, which have double coated layers with organic-inorganic composites on the zinc surface of the steel for usage as the bottom chassis panel of TVs. The inorganic solution for the bottom layer consists of inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and zirconium compounds with a small amount of epoxy binder, and affords both improved adhesion properties by chemical conversion reactions and corrosion resistance due to a self-healing effect. The composite solution for the top layer was prepared by fine dispersion of organic-inorganic ingredients that consist of a urethane modified polyacrylate polymer, hardener, silica sol and a titanium complex inhibitor in aqueous media. Both composite solutions were coated on the steel surface by using a roll coater and then cured through an induction furnace in the electro-galvanizing line. New anti-fingerprint steel was evaluated for quality performance through such procedures as the salt spray test for corrosion resistance, tribological test for abrasion resistance, and conductivity test for surface electric conductance regarding to both types of polymer resin and coating weight of composite solution. New composite coated anti-fingerprint steels afford both better corrosion resistance and abrasion properties compared to conventional anti-fingerprint steel that mainly consists of acrylate polymers. Detailed discussions of both composite solutions and experimental results suggest that urethane modifications of acrylate polymers of composite solutions play a key role in enhanced quality performances.

  17. Development of Abrasion-Resistant Coating for Solar Reflective Films. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-247

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this CRADA is to develop an abrasion-resistant coating, suitable for use on polymeric-based reflective films (e.g., the ReflecTech reflective film), that allows for improved scratch resistance and enables the use of aggressive cleaning techniques (e.g., direct contact methods like brushing) without damaging the specular reflectance properties of the reflective film.

  18. Preparation of superhydrophobic titanium surfaces via electrochemical etching and fluorosilane modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Xu Wenji, E-mail: wenjixu@dlut.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Song Jinlong; Liu Xin; Xing Yingjie; Sun Jing [School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepare superhydrophobic titanium surfaces via electrochemical etching and fluorosilane modification that have stability and abrasion resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ion activities take place in neutral solution can drive Ti dissolution without affecting the pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of the electrolyte, reaction process, and products indicates that the electrochemical processing is harmless and environment-friendly. - Abstract: The preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces on hydrophilic metal substrates depends on both surface microstructures and low surface energy modification. In this study, a simple and inexpensive electrochemical method for preparing robust superhydrophobic titanium surfaces is reported. The neutral sodium chloride solution is used as electrolyte. Fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) was used to reduce the surface energy of the electrochemically etched surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, and contact angle measurement are performed to characterize the morphological features, chemical composition, and wettability of the titanium surfaces. Stability and friction tests indicate that the prepared titanium surfaces are robust. The analysis of electrolyte, reaction process, and products demonstrates that the electrochemical processing is very inexpensive and environment-friendly. This method is believed to be easily adaptable for use in large-scale industry productions to promote the application of superhydrophobic titanium surfaces in aviation, aerospace, shipbuilding, and the military industry.

  19. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; D& #x27; Urso, Brian R [Clinton, TN

    2012-07-10

    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  20. The Abrasion Resistance and Adhesion of Hfcvd Boron and Silicon-Doped Diamond Films on WC-Co Drawing Dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Jinfei; Tang, Tang; Sun, Fanghong; Xie, Nan

    Diamond films have been deposited on the interior hole surface of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) drawing dies from acetone, trimethyl borate (C3H9BO3), tetraethoxysilane (C8H20O4Si, TEOS) and hydrogen mixture by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. The structures and quality of as-deposited diamond films are characterized with field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The abrasion ratio and the adhesive strength of as-deposited diamond films are evaluated by copper wire drawing tests and ultrasonic lapping tests, respectively. The results suggest that diamond films with small grain size and high growth rate can be obtained due to the mutual effects of boron and silicon impurities in the gas phases. The results of ultrasonic lapping tests show that diamond films doped with boron and/or silicon can bear the severe erosion of the large diamond powder. Diamond films peeling off within the reduction zone of the drawing dies cannot be observed after testing of 2h. The abrasion ratio of boron and silicon-added diamond films is five times that of diamond films without any addition. Adding boron and/or silicon in the diamond films is proved to be an efficient way to obtain high-adhesive-strength and high-abrasion-resistance diamond-coated drawing dies.

  1. Systems for pipeline drainage and drying: pigs pass with flying colors. Robust polyurethane elastomer materials for made-to-measure, abrasion resistant pipeline pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Els, Detlev [Weatherford Kopp GmbH, Lingen (Germany); Passmann, Dirk [Bayer MaterialScience AG, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The pipeline pig system developed for drainage of a long offshore pipeline with two different diameters was a world first that placed extreme demands on the pig design and the materials used. The polyurethane elastomer Baytec registered Q. used for the pig's disks, passed this ''acid test'' with flying colors thanks to its superior properties - accurately dimensioned cast disks, variable hardness, exceptional abrasion resistance, high elasticity, tear strength and resistance to chemicals. (orig.)

  2. Influence of Vanadium and Boron Additions on the Microstructure, Fracture Toughness, and Abrasion Resistance of Martensite-Carbide Composite Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Elghazaly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High chromium cast steel alloys are being used extensively in many industrial services where dry or wet abrasion resistance is required. Such steel castings are demanded for cement, stoneware pipes, and earth moving industries. In this research, five steel heats were prepared in 100 kg and one-ton medium frequency induction furnaces and then sand cast in both Y-block and final impact arm spare parts, respectively. Vanadium (0.5–2.5% and boron (120–150 ppm were added to the 18Cr-1.9C-0.5Mo steel heats to examine their effects on the steel microstructure, mechanical properties especially impact, fracture toughness and abrasion resistance. Changes in the phase transformation after heat treatment were examined using inverted, SEM-EDX microscopy; however, the abrasion resistance was measured in dry basis using the real tonnage of crushed and milled stoneware clay to less than 0.1 mm size distribution.

  3. Hierarchically rough, mechanically durable and superhydrophobic epoxy coatings through rapid evaporation spray method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simovich, Tomer; Wu, Alex H.; Lamb, Robert N., E-mail: rnlamb@unimelb.edu.au

    2015-08-31

    A mechanically durable and scalable superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by combining the advantages of both bottom-up and top-down approaches into a one-pot, one-step application method. This is achieved by spray coating a solution consisting of silica nanoparticles, which are embedded within epoxy resin, onto a heated substrate to rapidly drive both solvent evaporation and curing simultaneously. By maintaining a high substrate temperature, the arrival of spray-delivered micrometer-sized droplets are rapidly cured onto the substrate to form surface microroughness, while simultaneously, rapid solvent evaporation within each droplet results in the formation of a nanoporous structure. SEM, dual-beam FIB, and cross-sectional TEM/EDAX elemental mapping were used to confirm both the chemistry and the requisite micro- and nano-porosity within the coating structure requisite for superhydrophobicity. The resultant coatings exhibit contact angles greater than 150° (153.8° ± 0.8°) and roll-off angles of 8° ± 2°, with a coating hardness of 6H on the pencil hardness scale, and a rating of 5 on an ASTM crosshatch test. - Highlights: • A highly superhydrophobic coating was fabricated utilizing epoxy and nanoparticles. • The coating was demonstrated to be very durable and abrasion resistant. • The fabrication involves a novel, scalable one-pot synthesis technique.

  4. How to repel hot water from a superhydrophobic surface?

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhejun

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, with water contact angles greater than 150° and slide angles less than 10°, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their self-cleaning ability and excellent water-repellency. It is commonly accepted that a superhydrophobic surface loses its superhydrophobicity in contact with water hotter than 50 °C. Such a phenomenon was recently demonstrated by Liu et al. [J. Mater. Chem., 2009, 19, 5602], using both natural lotus leaf and artificial leaf-like surfaces. However, our work has shown that superhydrophobic surfaces maintained their superhydrophobicity, even in water at 80 °C, provided that the leaf temperature is greater than that of the water droplet. In this paper, we report on the wettability of water droplets on superhydrophobic thin films, as a function of both their temperatures. The results have shown that both the water contact and slide angles on the surfaces will remain unchanged when the temperature of the water droplet is greater than that of the surface. The water contact angle, or the slide angle, will decrease or increase, however, with droplet temperatures increasingly greater than that of the surfaces. We propose that, in such cases, the loss of superhydrophobicity of the surfaces is caused by evaporation of the hot water molecules and their condensation on the cooler surface. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  5. Effect of denture cleaning on abrasion resistance and surface topography of polymerized CAD CAM acrylic resin denture base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinawi, Lana Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    The application of computer-aided design computer-aided manufacturing (CAD CAM) technology in the fabrication of complete dentures, offers numerous advantages as it provides optimum fit and eliminates polymerization shrinkage of the acrylic base. Additionally, the porosity and surface roughness of CAD CAM resins is less compared to conventionally processed resins which leads to a decrease in the adhesion of bacteria on the denture base, which is associated with many conditions including halitosis and aspiration pneumonia in elderly denture wearers. To evaluate the influence of tooth brushing with dentifrices on CAD CAM resin blocks in terms of abrasion resistance, surface roughness and scanning electron photomicrography. This experimental study was carried out at the Faculty of Dentistry of King Abdulaziz University during 2016. A total of 40 rectangular shaped polymerized CAD CAM resin samples were subjected to 40.000 and 60.000 brushing strokes under a 200-gram vertical load simulating three years of tooth brushing strokes using commercially available denture cleaning dentifrice. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20, using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. ANOVA test revealed a statistical significant weight loss of CAD CAM acrylic resin denture base specimens following 40.000 and 60.000 brushing strokes as well as a statistical significant change (p=0.0.5) in the surface roughness following brushing. The CAD CAM resin samples SEM baseline imaging revealed a relatively smooth homogenous surface, but following 40,000 and 60,000 brushing strokes, imaging displayed the presence of small scratches on the surface. CAD CAM resin displayed a homogenous surface initially with low surface roughness that was significantly affected following simulating three years of manual brushing, but despite the significant weight loss, the findings are within the clinically acceptable limits.

  6. Evaluation of Surface Microhardness and Abrasion Resistance of Two Dental Glass Ionomer Cement Materials after Radiant Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Dionysopoulos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a radiant heat treatment using a dental LED unit on the surface microhardness and abrasion resistance after toothbrushing simulation of two conventional GIC materials. Two conventional GIC materials were studied in this investigation: Ketac Fil Plus Aplicap and IonoStar Molar. Twenty disk-shaped specimens (n=10 were prepared of each GIC (7 mm × 2 mm using cylindrical Teflon molds. Group 1 specimens were left in the mold to set without any treatment, while in Group 2 after placement in the mold the specimens were irradiated for 60 sec at the top surface using a LED light-curing unit. Toothbrushing simulation was carried out using a commercial electric toothbrush which was fixed in a constructed device that allowed the heads of the brushes to be aligned parallel to the surface of the specimens and to control the pressure, with the following parameters: load of the toothbrush standardized at 250 g, medium hardness toothbrush head, and rotation sense changing every 30 sec. The toothbrush abrasion test mechanism, based on a 1.25-Hz frequency for 10,000 cycles, was equivalent to 800 days (~2 years of brushing. Surface hardness, surface roughness, and surface loss after abrasive procedure were evaluated using Vickers method and Vertical Scanning Interferometry. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test (a=0.05. The radiant heat treatment increased the surface microhardness and decreased surface roughness and surface loss after abrasive procedures of both the tested GIC materials but to different extent. Between the tested GIC materials there were significant differences in their tested properties (p<0.05.

  7. Drag reduction properties of superhydrophobic mesh pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldi, Nicasio R.; Dodd, Linzi E.; Xu, Ben B.; Wells, Gary G.; Wood, David; Newton, Michael I.; McHale, Glen

    2017-09-01

    Even with the recent extensive study into superhydrophobic surfaces, the fabrication of such surfaces on the inside walls of a pipe remains challenging. In this work we report a convenient bi-layered pipe design using a thin superhydrophobic metallic mesh formed into a tube, supported inside another pipe. A flow system was constructed to test the fabricated bi-layer pipeline, which allowed for different constant flow rates of water to be passed through the pipe, whilst the differential pressure was measured, from which the drag coefficient (ƒ) and Reynolds numbers (Re) were calculated. Expected values of ƒ were found for smooth glass pipes for the Reynolds number (Re) range 750-10 000, in both the laminar and part of the turbulent regimes. Flow through plain meshes without the superhydrophobic coating were also measured over a similar range (750  pipe of the same diameter. This demonstrates that a superhydrophobic mesh can support a plastron and provide a drag reduction compared to a plain mesh, however, the plastron is progressively destroyed with use and in particular at higher flow rates.

  8. Electrokinetics on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Periklis; Deng, Xu; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-11-21

    On a superhydrophobic surface a liquid is exposed to a large air-water interface. The reduced wall friction is expected to cause a higher electro-osmotic mobility. On the other hand, the low charge density of a superhydrophobic surface reduces the electro-osmotic mobility. Due to a lack of experimental data it has not been clear so far whether the reduced wall friction or the reduced charge density dominate the electrokinetic mobilities. To separate the relative contributions of electrophoresis and electro-osmosis, the mobilities of colloids on a negatively charged hydrophilic, a superhydrophobic (Cassie) and a partially hydrophilized superhydrophobic (Cassie composite) coating were measured. To vary the charge density as well as its sign with respect to those of the colloids the partially hydrophilized surfaces were coated with polyelectrolytes. We analyzed the electrokinetic mobilities of negatively charged polystyrene colloids dispersed in aqueous medium on porous hydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces by confocal laser scanning electron microscopy. In all cases, the external electric field was parallel to the surface. The total electrokinetic mobilities on the superhydrophobic (Cassie) and negatively charged partially hydrophilized (Cassie composite) surfaces were similar, showing that electro-osmosis is small compared to electrophoresis. The positively charged Cassie composite surfaces tend to 'trap' the colloids due to attracting electrostatic interactions and rough morphology, reducing the mobility. Thus, either the charge density of the coatings in the Cassie composite state or its slip length is too low to enhance electro-osmosis.

  9. Superhydrophobicity enhancement through substrate flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Thomas; Gerber, Julia; Prautzsch, Jana; Schutzius, Thomas M; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-11-22

    Inspired by manifestations in nature, microengineering and nanoengineering of synthetic materials to achieve superhydrophobicity has been the focus of much work. Generally, hydrophobicity is enhanced through the combined effects of surface texturing and chemistry; being durable, rigid materials are the norm. However, many natural and technical surfaces are flexible, and the resulting effect on hydrophobicity has been largely ignored. Here, we show that the rational tuning of flexibility can work synergistically with the surface microtexture or nanotexture to enhance liquid repellency performance, characterized by impalement and breakup resistance, contact time reduction, and restitution coefficient increase. Reduction in substrate areal density and stiffness imparts immediate acceleration and intrinsic responsiveness to impacting droplets (∼350 × g), mitigating the collision and lowering the impalement probability by ∼60% without the need for active actuation. Furthermore, we exemplify the above discoveries with materials ranging from man-made (thin steel or polymer sheets) to nature-made (butterfly wings).

  10. Superhydrophobic and anti-reflective ZnO nanorod-coated FTO transparent conductive thin films prepared by a three-step method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bao-jia, E-mail: li_bjia@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Kong, Xia; Cai, Yun-long; Zhang, Jie-lu [Jiangsu Tailong Reduction Box Co. Ltd., Taixing, 225400 (China)

    2016-07-25

    A ZnO nanorod-coated FTO film was prepared by sputtering an AZO layer on FTO glass, thermal annealing of the AZO/FTO film, and hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods at 70 °C on the annealed AZO/FTO film using zinc foils as zinc source. Two other ZnO nanorod-coated FTO films were also prepared by hydrothermal growths of ZnO nanorods on the FTO glass and the unannealed AZO/FTO film respectively for comparison purpose. The results were observed in detail using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, water contact/sliding angle measurement, spectrophotometry and four-point probe measurement. The ZnO nanorods on the annealed AZO/FTO film were found to exhibit denser distribution and better orientation than those on the FTO glass and the unannealed AZO/FTO film. As a result, the ZnO nanorod-coated annealed AZO/FTO film demonstrated superhydrophobicity, high transparency and low reflectance in the visible range. Also this film had the lowest sheet resistance of 4.0 Ω/sq, implying its good electrical conductivity. This investigation provides a valuable reference for developing multifunctional transparent conductive films. - Highlights: • ZnO nanorod-coated annealed AZO/FTO film was obtained by a three-step method. • FTO and unannealed AZO/FTO films were also used as substrates for comparison. • ZnO nanorods on the annealed AZO/FTO film were denser and more vertically-oriented. • The ZnO nanorod-coated annealed AZO/FTO film (Z/TA-FTO) had superhydrophobicity. • The Z/TA-FTO exhibited high transparency, low reflectance and good conductivity.

  11. Fabrication of superhydrophobic Pt3Fe/Fe surface for its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuo; Lu, Shixiang; Xu, Wenguo; Wu, Bei

    2017-10-01

    Well-defined Pt3Fe/Fe superhydrophobic materials on iron sheet with special properties, such as corrosion resistance, superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, was fabricated. The fabrication process involved etching in hydrochloric acid aqueous solution and simple replacement deposition process without using any seed and organic solvent, and then annealing. The electrochemical measurements show that the resultant surface in 3.5% sodium chloride solution displays good corrosion resistance. Also, it is proved that the obtained surface has better mechanical abrasion resistance via scratch test. The superoleophilicity and low water adhesion force of the obtained surface endow it high oil/water separation capacity. The as-prepared nanocomposites display enhanced catalytic activity and kinetics toward degradation of methyl orange. In particular, it possesses the most efficient degradation capacity (95%) towards methyl orange at a high concentration (17.5 mg/L) in 80 min. The improved stability and excellent catalytic activity of the Pt3Fe/Fe nanocomposites promise new opportunities for the development of waste water treatment.

  12. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  13. Is the lotus leaf superhydrophobic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Rodak, Daniel E.

    2005-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have important technical applications ranging from self-cleaning window glasses, paints, and fabrics to low-friction surfaces. The archetype superhydrophobic surface is that of the lotus leaf. When rain falls on lotus leaves, water beads up with a contact angle in the superhydrophobic range of about 160°. The water drops promptly roll off the leaves collecting dirt along the way. This lotus effect has, in recent years, stimulated much research effort worldwide in the fabrication of surfaces with superhydrophobicity. But, is the lotus surface truly superhydrophobic? This work shows that the lotus leaves can be either hydrophobic or hydrophilic, depending on how the water gets on to their surfaces. This finding has significant ramifications on how to make and use superhydrophobic surfaces.

  14. Superhydrophobicity enhancement through substrate flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Thomas; Gerber, Julia; Prautzsch, Jana; Schutzius, Thomas; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2017-11-01

    Inspired by manifestations in nature, micro/nanoengineering superhydrophobic surfaces has been the focus of much work. Generally, hydrophobicity is increased through the combined effects of surface texturing and chemistry; being durable, rigid substrate materials are the norm. However, many natural and technical materials are flexible, and the resulting effect on hydrophobicity has been largely unexplored. Here, we show that the rational tuning of flexibility can work collaboratively with the surface micro/nanotexture to enhance liquid repellency performance, defined by impalement and breakup resistance, contact time reduction, and restitution coefficient increase. Reduction in substrate stiffness and areal density imparts immediate acceleration and intrinsic responsiveness to impacting droplets, mitigating the collision and lowering the impalement probability by 60 % without the need for active actuation. We demonstrate the above discoveries with materials ranging from thin steel or polymer sheets to butterfly wings. Partial support of the Swiss National Science Foundation under Grant 162565 and the European Research Council under Advanced Grant 669908 (INTICE) is acknowledged.

  15. Anti-icing superhydrophobic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangliang; Jones, Andrew K; Sikka, Vinod K; Wu, Jianzhong; Gao, Di

    2009-11-03

    We use nanoparticle-polymer composites to demonstrate the anti-icing capability of superhydrophobic surfaces and report direct experimental evidence that such surfaces are able to prevent ice formation upon impact of supercooled water both in laboratory conditions and in natural environments. We find that the anti-icing capability of these composites depends not only on their superhydrophobicity but also on the size of the particles exposed on the surface. The critical particle sizes that determine the superhydrophobicity and the anti-icing property are in two different length scales. The effect of particle size on ice formation is explained by using a classical heterogeneous nucleation theory. This result implies that the anti-icing property of a surface is not directly correlated with the superhydrophobicity, and thus, it is uncertain whether a superhydrophobic surface is anti-icing without detailed knowledge of the surface morphology. The result also opens up possibilities for rational design of anti-icing superhydrophobic surfaces by tuning surface textures in multiple length scales.

  16. Magnet-induced temporary superhydrophobic coatings from one-pot synthesized hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jian; Wang, Hongxia; Xue, Yuhua; Wang, Xungai; Lin, Tong

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we report on the production of superhydrophobic coatings on various substrates (e.g., glass slide, silicon wafer, aluminum foil, plastic film, nanofiber mat, textile fabrics) using hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles and a magnet-assembly technique. Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with a thin layer of fluoroalkyl silica on the surface were synthesized by one-step coprecipitation of Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) under an alkaline condition in the presence of a fluorinated alkyl silane. Under a magnetic field, the magnetic nanoparticles can be easily deposited on any solid substrate to form a thin superhydrophobic coating with water contact angle as high as 172 degrees , and the surface superhydrophobicity showed very little dependence on the substrate type. The particulate coating showed reasonable durability because of strong aggregation effect of nanoparticles, but the coating layer can be removed (e.g., by ultrasonication) to restore the original surface feature of the substrates. By comparison, the thin particle layer deposited under no magnetic field showed much lower hydrophobicity. The main reason for magnet-induced superhydrophobic surfaces is the formation of nano- and microstructured surface features. Such a magnet-induced temporary superhydrophobic coating may have wide applications in electronic, biomedical, and defense-related areas.

  17. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Controllable Electrical Conductivity and Water Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lijun; Guan, Jipeng; Li, Zhixiang; Zhao, Jingxin; Ye, Cuicui; You, Jichun; Li, Yongjin

    2017-02-14

    A facile and versatile strategy for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces with controllable electrical conductivity and water adhesion is reported. "Vine-on-fence"-structured and cerebral cortex-like superhydrophobic surfaces are constructed by filtering a suspension of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), using polyoxymethylene nonwovens as the filter paper. The nonwovens with micro- and nanoporous two-tier structures act as the skeleton, introducing a microscale structure. The MWCNTs act as nanoscale structures, creating hierarchical surface roughness. The surface topography and the electrical conductivity of the superhydrophobic surfaces are controlled by varying the MWCNT loading. The vine-on-fence-structured surfaces exhibit "sticky" superhydrophobicity with high water adhesion. The cerebral cortex-like surfaces exhibit self-cleaning properties with low water adhesion. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces are chemically resistant to acidic and alkaline environments of pH 2-12. They therefore have potential in applications such as droplet-based microreactors and thin-film microextraction. These findings aid our understanding of the role that surface topography plays in the design and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with different water-adhesion properties.

  18. Streaming potential of superhydrophobic microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok; Kim, Damoa; Kim, Se Young

    2017-03-01

    For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species. The Navier slip coefficient of the first kind surfaces and the no-shear slot ratio of the second kind surfaces are similar in the sense that the volumetric flow rate increases as these parameter values increase. However, although the streaming potential increases monotonically with respect to the Navier slip coefficient, it reaches a maximum and afterward decreases as the no-shear ratio increases. The results of the present investigation imply that the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces employing only the measurement of volumetric flow rate against pressure drop is not appropriate and the fine structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces must be verified before predicting the streaming potential and electrokinetic flows accurately. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Recent Advances in Superhydrophobic Electrodeposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Tam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we present an extensive summary of research on superhydrophobic electrodeposits reported in the literature over the past decade. As a synthesis technique, electrodeposition is a simple and scalable process to produce non-wetting metal surfaces. There are three main categories of superhydrophobic surfaces made by electrodeposition: (i electrodeposits that are inherently non-wetting due to hierarchical roughness generated from the process; (ii electrodeposits with plated surface roughness that are further modified with low surface energy material; (iii composite electrodeposits with co-deposited inert and hydrophobic particles. A recently developed strategy to improve the durability during the application of superhydrophobic electrodeposits by controlling the microstructure of the metal matrix and the co-deposition of hydrophobic ceramic particles will also be addressed.

  20. Superhydrophobic materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falde, Eric J; Yohe, Stefan T; Colson, Yolonda L; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-10-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are actively studied across a wide range of applications and industries, and are now finding increased use in the biomedical arena as substrates to control protein adsorption, cellular interaction, and bacterial growth, as well as platforms for drug delivery devices and for diagnostic tools. The commonality in the design of these materials is to create a stable or metastable air layer at the material surface, which lends itself to a number of unique properties. These activities are catalyzing the development of new materials, applications, and fabrication techniques, as well as collaborations across material science, chemistry, engineering, and medicine given the interdisciplinary nature of this work. The review begins with a discussion of superhydrophobicity, and then explores biomedical applications that are utilizing superhydrophobicity in depth including material selection characteristics, in vitro performance, and in vivo performance. General trends are offered for each application in addition to discussion of conflicting data in the literature, and the review concludes with the authors' future perspectives on the utility of superhydrophobic biomaterials for medical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton with a superhydrophobic surface and self-cleaning ability has been prepared by the treatment with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-fluorooctyl triethoxysilane. An increased level of treatment increases the water contact angle, thereby exhibiting a self...

  2. Superhydrophobic silica coating by dip coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadik, Satish A., E-mail: superhydrophobicmaterial2100@gmail.com [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Parale, Vinayak; Vhatkara, Rajiv S.; Mahadik, Dinesh B.; Kavale, Mahendra S. [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Wagh, Pratap B.; Gupta, Satish [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Gurav, Jyoti [Empa, Advanced Materials Processing laboratory, 3602 Thun (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    Herein, we report a simple and low cost method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic coating surface on quartz substrates via sol-gel dip coating method at room temperature. Desired surface chemistry and texture growth for superhydrophobicity developed under double step sol–gel process at room temperature. The resultant superhydrophobic surfaces were characterized by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle (WCA) measurement, differential thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) calorimetry and optical spectrometer. Coating shows the ultra high water contact angle about 168 ± 2° and water sliding angle 3 ± 1° and superoleophilic with petroleum oils. This approach allows a simple strategy for the fabrication process of superhydrophilic–superhydrophobic on same surfaces with high thermal stability of superhydrophobicity up to 560 °C. Thus, durability, special wettability and thermal stability of superhydrophobicity expand their application fields.

  3. Superhydrophobic surfaces by electrospinning of polymer mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Grignard, Bruno; Vaillant, Alexandre; De Coninck, Joel; Jérôme, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces have found great interest in environment resist coating, antifouling marine structures and low friction devices whereas superhydrophobic materials, with contact angle higher than 150°, are of special interest in self-cleaning surfaces and stain resistant textiles. (Super)hydrophobicity is a key property that depends on both the surface chemistry and surface roughness. Numerous methods were reported for the preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces by either increasing the ...

  4. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  5. Robust hybrid elastomer/metal-oxide superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshian, S; Jokinen, V; Franssila, S

    2016-08-21

    We introduce a new type of hybrid material: a nanostructured elastomer covered by a hard photoactive metal-oxide thin film resembling the exoskeleton of insects. It has extreme water repellency and fast self-recovery after damage. A new fabrication method for replicating high aspect ratio, hierarchical re-entrant aluminum structures into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is presented. The method is based on a protective titania layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the aluminum template. The ALD titania transfers to the elastomeric scaffold via sacrificial release etching. The sacrificial release method allows for high aspect ratio, even 100 μm deep and successful release of overhanging structures, unlike conventional peeling. The ALD titania conformally covers the 3D multihierarchical structures of the template and protects the polymer during the release etch. Afterwards it prevents the high aspect ratio nanostructures from elasticity based collapse. The resulting nanostructured hybrid PDMS/titania replicas display robust superhydrophobicity without any further fluoro-coating or modification. Their mechanical and thermal robustness results from a thick nanostructured elastomeric layer which is conformally covered by ceramic titania instead of a monolayer hydrophobic coating. We have demonstrated the durability of these replicas against mechanical abrasion, knife scratches, rubbing, bending, peel tape test, high temperature annealing, UV exposure, water jet impingement and long term underwater storage. Though the material loses its superhydrophobicity in oxygen plasma exposure, a fast recovery from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic can be achieved after 20 min UV irradiation. UV-assisted recovery is correlated with the high photoactivity of ALD titania film. This novel hybrid material will be applicable to the large area superhydrophobic surfaces in practical outdoor applications.

  6. The effect of superhydrophobic wetting state on corrosion protection--the AKD example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejenstam, Lina; Ovaskainen, Louise; Rodriguez-Meizoso, Irene; Wågberg, Lars; Pan, Jinshan; Swerin, Agne; Claesson, Per M

    2013-12-15

    Corrosion is of considerable concern whenever metal is used as construction material. In this study we address whether superhydrophobic coatings could be used as part of an environmentally friendly corrosion-protective system, and specific focus is put on how the wetting regime of a superhydrophobic coating affects corrosion inhibition. Superhydrophobic alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax coatings were produced, using different methods resulting in hierarchical structures, where the coatings exhibit the same surface chemistry but different wetting regimes. Contact angle measurements, ESEM, confocal Raman microscopy, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to evaluate the surfaces. Remarkably high impedance values of 10(10)Ω cm(2) (at 10(-2) Hz) were reached for the sample showing superhydrophobic lotus-like wetting. Simultaneous open circuit potential measurements suggest that the circuit is broken, most likely due to the formation of a thin air layer at the coating-water interface that inhibits ion transport from the electrolyte to the metal substrate. The remaining samples, showing superhydrophobic wetting in the rose state and hydrophobic Wenzel-like wetting, showed less promising corrosion-protective properties. Due to the absence of air films on these surfaces the coatings were penetrated by the electrolyte, which allowed the corrosion reaction to proceed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Durable superhydrophobic paper enabled by surface sizing of starch-based composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zhu, Penghui; Kuang, Yudi; Liu, Yu; Lin, Donghan; Peng, Congxing; Wen, Zhicheng; Fang, Zhiqiang

    2017-07-01

    Superhydrophobic paper with remarkable durability is of considerable interest for its practical applications. In this study, a scalable, inexpensive, and universal surface sizing technique was implemented to prepare superhydrophobic paper with enhanced durability. A thin layer of starch-based composite, acting as a bio-binder, was first coated onto the paper surface by a sophisticated manufacturing technique called surface sizing, immediately followed by a spray coating of hexamethyl disilazane treated silica nanoparticles (HMDS-SiNPs) dispersed in ethanol on the surface of the wet starch-coated sheet, and the dual layers dried at the same time. Consequently, durable superhydrophobic paper with bi-layer structure was obtained after air drying. The as-prepared superhydrophobic paper not only exhibited a self-cleaning behavior, but also presented an enhanced durability against scratching, bending/deformation, as well as moisture. The universal surface sizing of starch-based composites may pave the way for the up-scaled and cost-effective production of durable superhydrophobic paper.

  8. Versatile fabrication of a superhydrophobic and ultralight cellulose-based aerogel for oil spillage clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Yuqi; Xu, Yaoguang; Lu, Zexiang; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Fan, Mizi

    2016-10-12

    To deal with marine oil spillage and chemical leakage issues, a highly efficient absorbent (cellulose based aerogel) with a low density (ρ 98.5%) and high mechanical strength was fabricated via a novel physical-chemical foaming method, plasma treatment and subsequent silane modification process. This aerogel has a perfect 3D skeleton and interconnected pores similar to honeycomb, which are favorable to oil adsorption and storage. More importantly, without introducing additional micro/nanoparticles, the rough micro/nano structure of the surface was directly constructed using plasma irradiation in this study. The low surface energy substrate was further introduced using a simple physical-soaking method and the resulting aerogel exhibited excellent superhydrophobicity (WCA > 156°) and superoleophilicity (OCA = 0°), which can selectively and efficiently absorb various oils or organic solvents from polluted water. In addition, this aerogel has a high storage capacity and absorption capacity (up to 4300% and 99% of its weight and volume, respectively). More interestingly, this aerogel exhibits excellent mechanical abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance even in strong acid, alkali solution and salt marine environment. The aerogel could be reused more than 30 times after removal of the absorbed oil by rinsing with ethanol.

  9. Electrospinning and Superhydrophobic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    were made for each solution. The measurements were conducting within the electrospinning enclosure before spinning so as to capture the...thicker and denser mats a gold sputter coater was used in order to reduce charging during imaging. 6 Figu coll im 2.1 In ord placed contac the...glass fibres), electrospun fibre mats (beaded Pellethane fibres, thin Pellethane electrospun fibres, thick Pellethane electrospun fibres), spin

  10. Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor for Acid Gas Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiqotul Himma, Nurul; Gede Wenten, I.

    2017-07-01

    Gas-liquid membrane contactor has gained a great attention as an alternative to conventional absorption columns in acid gas removal from natural gas or post-combustion. The membrane contactor offers high mass transfer area and excellent operational flexibility. However, hydrophobic microporous membranes commonly used are still susceptible to wetting by liquid absorbents, leading to the deterioration of absorption performance in long-term operation. Therefore, many studies were recently directed to improve the membrane wetting resistant by endowing superhydrophobicity. This article then presents a review on superhydrophobic membrane development and its application for acid gas removal using membrane contactor. An overview of gas-liquid membrane contactor is firstly presented, followed by the preparation of superhydrophobic membranes. The performances of superhydrophobic membranes in acid gas absorption are then discussed, and the recommendation for future research is finally outlined. This review may provide an insight into the further development of superhydrophobic membrane contactor.

  11. Dynamic Defrosting on Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreyko, Jonathan B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Srijanto, Bernadeta R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering; Nguyen, Trung Dac [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Center for Computational Sciences; Vega, Carlos [Univ. Complutense Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division; Collier, C. Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS)

    2013-07-03

    Water suspended on chilled superhydrophobic surfaces exhibits delayed freezing; however, the interdrop growth of frost through subcooled condensate forming on the surface seems unavoidable in humid environments. It is therefore of great practical importance to determine whether facile defrosting is possible on superhydrophobic surfaces. Here in this paper, we report that nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces promote the growth of frost in a suspended Cassie state, enabling its dynamic removal upon partial melting at low tilt angles (<15°). The dynamic removal of the melting frost occurred in two stages: spontaneous dewetting followed by gravitational mobilization. This dynamic defrosting phenomenon is driven by the low contact angle hysteresis of the defrosted meltwater relative to frost on microstructured superhydrophobic surfaces, which forms in the impaled Wenzel state. Dynamic defrosting on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces minimizes the time, heat, and gravitational energy required to remove frost from the surface, and is of interest for a variety of systems in cold and humid environments.

  12. Pancake bouncing on superhydrophobic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yahua; Moevius, Lisa; Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng; Yeomans, Julia M.; Wang, Zuankai

    2014-01-01

    Engineering surfaces that promote rapid drop detachment1,2 is of importance to a wide range of applications including anti-icing3?5, dropwise condensation6, and self-cleaning7?9. Here we show how superhydrophobic surfaces patterned with lattices of submillimetre-scale posts decorated with nano-textures can generate a counter-intuitive bouncing regime: drops spread on impact and then leave the surface in a flattened, pancake shape without retracting. This allows for a four-fold reduction in co...

  13. Highly transparent and UV-resistant superhydrophobic SiO2-coated ZnO nanorod arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2014-02-26

    Highly transparent and UV-resistant superhydrophobic arrays of SiO 2-coated ZnO nanorods are prepared in a sequence of low-temperature (<150 C) steps on both glass and thin sheets of PET (2 × 2 in. 2), and the superhydrophobic nanocomposite is shown to have minimal impact on solar cell device performance under AM1.5G illumination. Flexible plastics can serve as front cell and backing materials in the manufacture of flexible displays and solar cells. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  14. Reinigung superhydrophober Oberflächen

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmann, Silke

    2011-01-01

    The unique surface structure of the lotus leaf in combination with hydrophobic epicuticular wax crystalloids results in extreme water repellency and self-cleaning properties. In recent years biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces have been fabricated by mimicking the structure of the lotus leaf. The biggest problem of the fine surface roughness is the sensitivity to oily contaminants and mechanical stress which limit the application of technical superhydrophobic sur...

  15. Superhydrophobic surface fabricated by bulk photografting of acrylic acid onto high-density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianmei; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Huiliang

    2008-10-15

    A superhydrophobic polymeric surface was prepared through a very simple bulk photografting method. A thin layer of acrylic acid (AA), a highly hydrophilic monomer, was sandwiched between two high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets, followed by UV irradiation for a short time, and then the two sheets were pulled apart and dried. The contact angles on the two grafted surfaces decreased very quickly with irradiation time in the first several seconds, and then increased with irradiation time to a level higher than that on pristine HDPE surface. When using a scraped PE surface as the bottom one, it showed superhydrophobicity after 35 s irradiation. XPS investigations show that strong rearrangement of the poly(acrylic acid) molecules has taken place on both surfaces, especially on the bottom surface, which provides the low surface free energy. The scraping and the grafting process led to the formation a unique micro- and nanostructure on the surface. These two factors lead to the superhydrophobicity. The as-prepared surface possesses superhydrophobic properties in a wide range of pH values, stimuli-responsive properties and low or very high adhesion under different situations.

  16. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongta; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Jiang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30 μm) and small (300 nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Meltwater Evolution during Defrosting on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fuqiang; Wu, Xiaomin; Wang, Lingli

    2017-12-19

    Defrosting is essential for removing frost from engineering surfaces, but some fundamental issues are still unclear, especially for defrosting on superhydrophobic surfaces. Here, defrosting experiments on prepared superhydrophobic surfaces were conducted along with the investigation on meltwater evolution characteristics. According to the experiments, the typical meltwater evolution process on superhydrophobic surfaces can be divided into two stages: dewetting by edge curling and dewetting by shrinkage. The edge curling of a meltwater film is a distinct phenomenon and has been first reported in this work. Profiting from the ultralow adhesion of the superhydrophobic surface, edge curling is mainly attributed to two unbalanced forces (one at the interface between the ice slurry layer and pure water layer and the other in the triple phase line area) acting on the layered meltwater film. During the multi-meltwater evolution process, the nonbreaking of chained droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces is also an interesting phenomenon, which is controlled by the interaction between the surface tension and the retentive force because of contact angle hysteresis. An approximate criterion was then developed to explain and determine the status of chained droplets, and experimental data from various surfaces have validated the effectiveness of this criterion. This work may deepen the understanding of defrosting on superhydrophobic surfaces and promote antifrosting/icing applications in engineering.

  18. Superhydrophobic films and methods for making superhydrophobic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Simpson, John T.; Bogorin, Daniela Florentina

    2017-09-26

    This disclosure relates to methods that include depositing a first component and a second component to form a film including a plurality of nanostructures, and coating the nanostructures with a hydrophobic layer to render the film superhydrophobic. The first component and the second component can be immiscible and phase-separated during the depositing step. The first component and the second component can be independently selected from the group consisting of a metal oxide, a metal nitride, a metal oxynitride, a metal, and combinations thereof. The films can have a thickness greater than or equal to 5 nm; an average surface roughness (Ra) of from 90 to 120 nm, as measured on a 5 .mu.m.times.5 .mu.m area; a surface area of at least 20 m.sup.2/g; a contact angle with a drop of water of at least 120 degrees; and can maintain the contact angle when exposed to harsh conditions.

  19. Pancake bouncing on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahua; Moevius, Lisa; Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng; Yeomans, Julia M.; Wang, Zuankai

    2014-07-01

    Engineering surfaces that promote rapid drop detachment is of importance to a wide range of applications including anti-icing, dropwise condensation and self-cleaning. Here we show how superhydrophobic surfaces patterned with lattices of submillimetre-scale posts decorated with nanotextures can generate a counter-intuitive bouncing regime: drops spread on impact and then leave the surface in a flattened, pancake shape without retracting. This allows a fourfold reduction in contact time compared with conventional complete rebound . We demonstrate that the pancake bouncing results from the rectification of capillary energy stored in the penetrated liquid into upward motion adequate to lift the drop. Moreover, the timescales for lateral drop spreading over the surface and for vertical motion must be comparable. In particular, by designing surfaces with tapered micro/nanotextures that behave as harmonic springs, the timescales become independent of the impact velocity, allowing the occurrence of pancake bouncing and rapid drop detachment over a wide range of impact velocities.

  20. Is superhydrophobicity robust with respect to disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coninck, Joël; Dunlop, François; Huillet, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    We consider theoretically the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel states describing the wetting contact angles for rough substrates. More precisely, we consider different types of periodic geometries such as square protrusions and disks in 2D, grooves and nanoparticles in 3D and derive explicitly the contact angle formulas. We also show how to introduce the concept of surface disorder within the problem and, inspired by biomimetism, study its effect on superhydrophobicity. Our results, quite generally, prove that introducing disorder, at fixed given roughness, will lower the contact angle: a disordered substrate will have a lower contact angle than a corresponding periodic substrate. We also show that there are some choices of disorder for which the loss of superhydrophobicity can be made small, making superhydrophobicity robust.

  1. DRAG REDUCTION WITH SUPERHYDROPHOBIC RIBLETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; D' Urso, Brian R [ORNL; Jenner, Elliot [University of Pittsburgh

    2012-01-01

    Samples combining riblets and superhydrophobic surfaces are fabricated at University of Pittsburgh and their drag reduction properties are studied at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a commercial cone-and-plate rheometer. In parallel to the experiments, numerical simulations are performed in order to estimate the slip length at high rotational speed. For each sample, a drag reduction of at least 5% is observed in both laminar and turbulent regime. At low rotational speed, drag reduction up to 30% is observed with a 1 mm deep grooved sample. As the rotational speed increases, a secondary flow develops causing a slight decrease in drag reductions. However, drag reduction above 15% is still observed for the large grooved samples. In the turbulent regime, the 100 microns grooved sample becomes more efficient than the other samples in drag reduction and manages to sustain a drag reduction above 15%. Using the simulations, the slip length of the 100 micron grooved sample is estimated to be slightly above 100 micron in the turbulent regime.

  2. Pancake bouncing on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahua; Moevius, Lisa; Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng; Yeomans, Julia M; Wang, Zuankai

    2014-07-01

    Engineering surfaces that promote rapid drop detachment1,2 is of importance to a wide range of applications including anti-icing3-5, dropwise condensation6, and self-cleaning7-9. Here we show how superhydrophobic surfaces patterned with lattices of submillimetre-scale posts decorated with nano-textures can generate a counter-intuitive bouncing regime: drops spread on impact and then leave the surface in a flattened, pancake shape without retracting. This allows for a four-fold reduction in contact time compared to conventional complete rebound1,10-13. We demonstrate that the pancake bouncing results from the rectification of capillary energy stored in the penetrated liquid into upward motion adequate to lift the drop. Moreover, the timescales for lateral drop spreading over the surface and for vertical motion must be comparable. In particular, by designing surfaces with tapered micro/nanotextures which behave as harmonic springs, the timescales become independent of the impact velocity, allowing the occurrence of pancake bouncing and rapid drop detachment over a wide range of impact velocities.

  3. Superhydrophobicity of Hierarchical and ZNO Nanowire Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    nanoelectronics, nanoparticles , quantum dots 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 9 19a. NAME OF... paints for boats,3 optics,4 and optoelectronics.5 Superhydrophobicity cau- ses a high water contact angle (160.4) and low contact angle hysteresis (ɝ

  4. Electrochemical behaviour of superhydrophobic coating fabricated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, India. MS received 30 June 2014; revised 12 September 2014. Abstract. In this study, superhydrophobic films were prepared through a spraying process of carbon nanotube. (CNT) suspension on aluminium alloy substrate and characterized by scanning electronic ...

  5. Drop impact on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonjae; Leclear, Sani; Leclear, Johnathon; Abhijeet, .; Park, Kyoo-Chul

    We report an empirical study and dimensional analysis on the impact patterns of water drops on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces. While the classic Weber number determines the spreading and recoiling dynamics of a water drop on a horizontal / smooth surface, for a superhydrophobic surface, the dynamics depends on two distinct Weber numbers, each calculated using the length scale of the drop or of the pores on the surface. Impact on an inclined superhydrophobic surface is even more complicated, as the velocity that determines the Weber number is not necessarily the absolute speed of the drop but the velocity components normal and tangential to the surface. We define six different Weber numbers, using three different velocities (absolute, normal and tangential velocities) and two different length scales (size of the drop and of the texture). We investigate the impact patterns on inclined superhydrophobic surfaces with three different types of surface texture: (i) posts, (ii) ridges aligned with and (iii) ridges perpendicular to the impact direction. Results suggest that all six Weber numbers matter, but affect different parts of the impact dynamics, ranging from the Cassie-Wenzel transition, maximum spreading, to anisotropic deformation. We acknowledge financial support from the Office of Naval Research (ONR) through Contract 3002453812.

  6. Biomimetic hairy surfaces as superhydrophobic highly transmissive films for optical applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuellers, Felix; Gomard, Guillaume; Preinfalk, Jan B.; Klampaftis, Efthymios; Worgull, Matthias; Richards, Bryce S.; Hölscher, Hendrik; Kavalenka, Maryna N.

    2017-02-01

    Combining high optical transmission, water-repellency and self-cleaning is of great interest for optoelectronic devices operating in outdoor conditions, such as photovoltaics where shading can significantly reduce the power output. The surface of water plant Pistia stratiotes combines these functionalities through a dense layer of transparent microhairs. It renders the surface superhydrophobic without affecting absorption of sunlight necessary for photosynthesis. Inspired by this surface, we fabricated a superhydrophobic flexible thin nanofur film made from optical grade polycarbonate using a scalable combination of hot embossing and hot pulling techniques. During fabrication, heated sandblasted steel plates locally elongate softened polymer, thus covering its surface in microcavities surrounded by high aspect ratio micro- and nanohairs. The superhydrophobic nanofur exhibits contact angles of (166+/-6°), low sliding angles (film stands above 85% over the visible range, with 97% of the transmitted light scattered forward. Reflection drops below 4% when coated on a polymeric substrate, which can enhance light extraction in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). We report an increase of more than 10% in luminous efficacy for a nanofur coated OLED compared to a bare device. Finally, the nanofur film can be used for enhancing the incoupling of light to solar cells, while additionally providing self-cleaning properties. Optical coupling of the nanofur to a multi-crystalline silicon solar cell results in a 5.8% gain in photocurrent compared to a bare device under normal incidence.

  7. Microstructured surfaces engineered using biological templates: a facile approach for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN LOSIC

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of microstructured surfaces using biological templates was investigated with the aim of exploring of a facile and low cost approach for the fabrication of structured surfaces with superhydrophobic properties. Two soft lithographic techniques, i.e., replica moulding and nano-imprinting, were used to replicate the surfaces of a biological substrate. Leaves of the Agave plant (Agave attenuate, a cost-free biological template, were used as a model of a biosurface with superhydrophobic properties. The replication process was performed using two polymers: an elastomeric polymer, poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS, and a polyurethane (PU based, UV-curable polymer (NOA 60. In the first replication step, negative polymer replicas of the surface of leaves were fabricated, which were used as masters to fabricate positive polymer replicas by moulding and soft imprinting. The pattern with micro and nanostructures of the surface of the leaf possesses superhydrophobic properties, which was successfully replicated into both polymers. Finally, the positive replicas were coated with a thin gold film and modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs to verify the importance of the surface chemistry on the hydrophobic properties of the fabricated structures. Wetting (contact angle and structural (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy characterisation was performed to confirm the hydrophobic properties of the fabricated surfaces (> 150°, as well as the precision and reproducibility of the replication process.

  8. One-Step Modification of Superhydrophobic Surfaces by a Mussel-Inspired Polymer Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung Min; You, Inseong; Cho, Woo Kyung; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Lee, Tae Geol; Choi, Insung S.; Karp, Jeffery M.; Lee, Haeshin

    2010-01-01

    A bio-inspired approach for superhydrophobic surface modification was investigated. Hydrophilic conversion of the superhydrophobic surface was easily achieved through this method, and the superhydrophobic-hydrophilic alternating surface was generated by the method combined with soft-lithography. The resulting patterned surface showed high water adhesion property in addition to superhydrophobic property. PMID:21031386

  9. Superhydrophobic nanofluidic channels for enhanced electrokinetic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checco, Antonio; Al Hossain, Aktaruzzaman; Rahmani, Amir; Black, Charles; Doerk, Gregory; Colosqui, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    We present current efforts in the development of novel slit nanofluidic channels with superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces designed to enhance hydrodynamic conductivity and improve selective transport and electrokinetic energy conversion efficiencies (mechanical-electrical energy conversion). The nanochannels are fabricated on silicon wafers using UV lithography, and their internal surface is patterned with conical nanostructures (feature size and spacing 30 nm) defined by block copolymer self-assembly and plasma etching. These nanostructures are rendered superhydrophobic by passivation with a hydrophobic silane monolayer. We experimentally characterize hydrodynamic conductivity, effective zeta potentials, and eletrokinetic flows for the patterned nanochannels, comparing against control channels with bare surfaces. Experimental observations are rationalized using both continuum-based modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Scientific and technical knowledge produced by this work is particularly relevant for sustainable energy conversion and storage, separation processes and water treatment using nanoporous materials. The ONR Contract # N000141613178 and NSF-CBET award# 1605809.

  10. Drop impact on porous superhydrophobic polymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioboo, R; Voué, M; Vaillant, A; De Coninck, J

    2008-12-16

    Water drop impacts are performed on porous-like superhydrophobic surfaces. We investigate the influence of the drop size and of the impact velocity on the event. The Cassie-Baxter/Wenzel transition is observed to be a function of the drop size, as well as the outcomes of the impact or deposition process, which can be deposition, rebound, sticking, or fragmentation. A quantitative analysis on the experimental conditions required to observe rebound is provided. Our analysis shows that the wettability hysteresis controls the limit between deposition and rebound events. This limit corresponds to a constant Weber number. A survey of literature results on impact over patterned superhydrophobic surfaces is provided as a comparison.

  11. Superhydrophobic aerogel that does not require per-fluoro compounds or contain any fluorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, David J.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2015-05-26

    Provided are superhydrophobic coatings, devices and articles including superhydrophobic coatings, and methods for preparing the superhydrophobic coatings. The exemplary superhydrophobic device can include a substrate component and one or more superhydrophobic coatings disposed over the substrate component, wherein at least one of the one or more superhydrophobic coatings has a water contact angle of at least about 150.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The one or more superhydrophobic coatings can include an ultra high water content acid catalyzed polysilicate gel, the polysilicate gel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  12. Is superhydrophobicity robust with respect to disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    De Coninck, Joël; Dunlop, François; Huillet, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    We consider theoretically the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel states describing the wetting contact angles for rough substrates. More precisely, we consider different types of periodic geometries such as square protrusions and disks in 2D, grooves and nanoparticles in 3D and derive explicitly the contact angle formulas. We also show how to introduce the concept of surface disorder within the problem and, inspired by biomimetism, study its effect on superhydrophobicity. Our results, quite generally, ...

  13. Fabricating Superhydrophobic Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jonah; Grinstaff, Mark

    2015-08-28

    Superhydrophobic materials, with surfaces possessing permanent or metastable non-wetted states, are of interest for a number of biomedical and industrial applications. Here we describe how electrospinning or electrospraying a polymer mixture containing a biodegradable, biocompatible aliphatic polyester (e.g., polycaprolactone and poly(lactide-co-glycolide)), as the major component, doped with a hydrophobic copolymer composed of the polyester and a stearate-modified poly(glycerol carbonate) affords a superhydrophobic biomaterial. The fabrication techniques of electrospinning or electrospraying provide the enhanced surface roughness and porosity on and within the fibers or the particles, respectively. The use of a low surface energy copolymer dopant that blends with the polyester and can be stably electrospun or electrosprayed affords these superhydrophobic materials. Important parameters such as fiber size, copolymer dopant composition and/or concentration, and their effects on wettability are discussed. This combination of polymer chemistry and process engineering affords a versatile approach to develop application-specific materials using scalable techniques, which are likely generalizable to a wider class of polymers for a variety of applications.

  14. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Layers of Porous Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Robust Water Repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature-Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team

    2015-11-01

    In nature, birds exhibit multiple layers of superhydrophobic feathers that repel water. Inspired by bird feathers, we utilize porous superhydrophobic surfaces and compare the wetting and dewetting characteristics of a single surface to stacks of multiple surfaces. The superhydrophobic surfaces were submerged in water in a closed chamber. Pressurized gas was regulated to measure the critical pressure for the water to fully penetrate through the surfaces. In addition to using duck feathers, two-tier porous superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated to serve as synthetic mimics with a controlled surface structure. The energy barrier for the wetting transition was modeled as a function of the number of layers and their orientations with respect to each other. Moreover, after partial impalement into a subset of the superhydrophobic layers, it was observed that a full dewetting transition was possible, which suggests that natural organisms can exploit their multiple layers to prevent irreversible wetting.

  16. Super-hydrophobic graphene coated polyurethane (GN@PU) sponge with great oil-water separation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotan; Liu, Dongyan; Ma, Yuling; Nie, Jing; Sui, Guoxin

    2017-11-01

    The graphene/polyurethane (GN@PU) sponge was prepared via simple dip-coating PU sponges in graphene aqueous suspension containing cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs), where CNWs played a vital role to facilitate the uniform graphene sheets coated on the skeletons of polyurethane sponge (PU). The super-hydrophobic GN@PU sponge was obtained by optimizing the ratio of GN and CNWs to choose the final coating suspensions of GN/CNWs mixture or pure graphene. The GN@PU sponge showed densely packed graphene sheets, contributing super-hydrophobicity to the sponge with water contact angle of 152° and a large lubricating oil absorption value of 31 g g-1. The elasticity, mechanical durability, thermal and chemical stability were all found to be improved after coating with the thin GN layers. Moreover, the GN@PU sponges possess outstanding recyclability and stability since no decline in absorption efficiency was observed after more than 100 cycles.

  17. Superhydrophobic transparent films from silica powder: Comparison of fabrication methods

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Li-Der

    2011-07-01

    The lotus leaf is known for its self-clean, superhydrophobic surface, which displays a hierarchical structure covered with a thin wax-like material. In this study, three fabrication techniques, using silicon dioxide particles to create surface roughness followed by a surface modification with a film of polydimethylsiloxane, were applied on a transparent glass substrate. The fabrication techniques differed mainly on the deposition of silicon dioxide particles, which included organic, inorganic, and physical methods. Each technique was used to coat three samples of varying particle load. The surface of each sample was evaluated with contact angle goniometer and optical spectrometer. Results confirmed the inverse relationships between contact angle and optical transmissivity independent of fabrication techniques. Microstructural morphologies also suggested the advantage of physical deposition over chemical methods. In summary, the direct sintering method proved outstanding for its contact angle vs transmissivity efficiency, and capable of generating a contact angle as high as 174°. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multifunctional polymer nano-composite based superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Asthana, Ashish; Buchel, Robert; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces become desirable in plethora of applications in engineering fields, automobile industry, construction industries to name a few. Typical fabrication of superhydrophobic surface consists of two steps: first is to create rough morphology on the substrate of interest, followed by coating of low energy molecules. However, typical exception of the above fabrication technique would be direct coating of functional polymer nanocomposites on substrate where superhydrophobicity is needed. Also in this case, the use of different nanoparticles in the polymer matrix can be exploited to impart multi-functional properties to the superhydrophobic coatings. Herein, different carbon nanoparticles like graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon black (CB) are used in fluropolymer matrix to prepare superhydrophobic coatings. The multi-functional properties of coatings are enhanced by combining two different carbon fillers in the matrix. The aforementioned superhydrophobic coatings have shown high electrical conductivity and excellent droplet meniscus impalement resistance. Simultaneous superhydrophobic and oleophillic character of the above coating is used to separate mineral oil and water through filtration of their mixture. Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) Grant 200021_135479.

  19. Superhydrophobic surfaces for applications in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Michele; Benedetti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    Technological fields in which seawater is implied are numerorus, working in seawater (shipping, oil industry, marine aquaculture,..), and exploiting seawater in plants (cooling heat-exchange, desalination, power plants,..). All suffer from detrimental effects induced by biofouling mainly enhancing material failures and limiting energetic efficiencies. Among the remediation solutions, technologies coniugating economical, green and efficiency criteria should represent the direction. With the aim to meet these criteria, superhydrophobic (SH) technology attracted many researches for the protection of materials operating in contact with seawater. In this work, the literature focusing on such technology for the protection of surfaces in contact with seawater has been reviewed, mainly focusing on boat and ship hull protection. Despite the growing interest around SH technology in seawater for fouling control and friction drag reduction of hulls, to date literature shows that superhydrophobicity in seawater is still limited if compared with a time window compatible with technological needs (set on years). An evaluation of the causes of early superhydrophobicity loss under operative conditions clearly indicates that, to the best of present knowledge, a SH surface cannot preserve this feature by itself alone (especially in real seawater). Hence, we have considered to highlight the behaviour of SH surfaces in seawater in relation to early stages of biocolonization (conditioning film and pioneering bioslime formation). Considering the annual costs sustained for the biofouling impact control, advantages coming from SH surfaces, in terms of foul control and friction drag reduction, would allow economical savings allowing to cover both the appliance of longevity keeping strategies of the SH surfaces and investments in green technologies of SH coating life cycle (production, storing). In addition a brief outlook is provided on technological fields exploiting seawater in pipelines

  20. Hybrid surface design for robust superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Susmita; Alt, Marie T; Garimella, Suresh V

    2012-06-26

    Surfaces may be rendered superhydrophobic by engineering the surface morphology to control the extent of the liquid-air interface and by the use of low-surface-energy coatings. The droplet state on a superhydrophobic surface under static and dynamic conditions may be explained in terms of the relative magnitudes of the wetting and antiwetting pressures acting at the liquid-air interface on the substrate. In this paper, we discuss the design and fabrication of hollow hybrid superhydrophobic surfaces which incorporate both communicating and noncommunicating air gaps. The surface design is analytically shown to exhibit higher capillary (or nonwetting) pressure compared to solid pillars with only communicating air gaps. Six hybrid surfaces are fabricated with different surface parameters selected such that the Cassie state of a droplet is energetically favorable. The robustness of the surfaces is tested under dynamic impingement conditions, and droplet dynamics are explained using pressure-based transitions between Cassie and Wenzel states. During droplet impingement, the effective water hammer pressure acting due to the sudden change in the velocity of the droplet is determined experimentally and is found to be at least 2 orders of magnitude less than values reported in the literature. The experiments show that the water hammer pressure depends on the surface morphology and capillary pressure of the surface. We propose that the observed reduction in shock pressure may be attributed to the presence of air gaps in the substrate. This feature allows liquid deformation and hence avoids the sudden stoppage of the droplet motion as opposed to droplet behavior on smooth surfaces.

  1. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Scott R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Efird, Marty [VeloxFlow, LLC

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: wet-cleanable; anti-biofouling; waterproof; and anti-corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  2. Superhydrophobic silicone fiber mats fabricated by electrospinning from solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Bonnie; Clark, Aneta; Snow, Steven; Hill, Randal; Schmidt, Randall; Fogg, Brad; Lo, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Fine silicone fibers of 1 -- 20 μm diameter were fabricated from solution via electrospinning. These are the first examples of fine fibers prepared from silicone homopolymers. Fiber morphology (beaded, ribbon-like, smooth) and diameter were controlled. The nanoscale surface roughness of nonwoven fiber mats created with silicone fibers produced a superhydrophobic surface that had a water contact angle of ˜160^o. The superhydrophobic surface was made reversibly hydrophilic with exposure to oxygen plasma. The combination of high surface area and superhydrophobicity suggests potential applications in the areas of water-repellent textiles, filtration, adsorption and chemical separations, wound dressings, and fuel cells.

  3. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuxuan; Coyle, Thomas W.; Azimi, Gisele; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature, chemical inertness, high temperature stability, and good mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The effects of various spraying conditions including standoff distance, torch power, number of torch passes, types of solvent and plasma velocity were investigated. The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured surface topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces found in nature. The water contact angle on the SPPS superhydrophobic coating was up to 65% higher than on smooth REO surfaces.

  4. Fabrication of the durable low refractive index thin film with chitin-nanofiber by LBL method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Durable low refractive index thin films with anti-reflection properties were successfully fabricated using chitin nanofibers (CHINF obtained from crab shell. The low refractive index film was achieved by forming porous thin films; the porosity was produced by increasing the number of airspaces inside the membrane. The layer-by-layer (LBL method was used to achieve the effective stacking of the CHINF. The influence of surface structure and refractive index under changes in the solution pH was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and ellipsometry. Transmittance of the fabricated film is 4.1 % higher than that of a glass substrate and refractive index film of that is 1.29. The films had abrasion resistance and antifogging properties because of the high mechanical strength and hydrophilicity of chitin. We believe this LBL film using CHINF is a promising candidate material to overcome the durability problems associated with optical thin films.

  5. Droplet impact on vibrating superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisensee, Patricia B.; Ma, Jingcheng; Shin, Young Hwan; Tian, Junjiao; Chang, Yujin; King, William P.; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-10-01

    Many unanswered questions remain pertaining to droplet dynamics during impact on vibrating surfaces. Using optical high-speed imaging, we investigate the impact dynamics of macroscopic water droplets (≈2.5 mm ) on rigid and elastic superhydrophobic surfaces vibrating at 60-320 Hz and amplitudes of 0.2-2.7 mm. Specifically, we study the influence of the frequency, amplitude, rigidity, and substrate phase at the moment of impact on the contact time of impacting droplets. We show that a critical impact phase exists at which the contact time transitions from a minimum to a maximum greater than the theoretical contact time on a rigid, nonvibrating superhydrophobic surface. For impact at phases higher than the critical phase, contact times decrease until reaching a minimum of half the theoretical contact time just before the critical phase. The frequency of oscillation determines the phase-dependent variability of droplet contact times at different impact phases: higher frequencies (> 120 Hz) show less contact time variability and have overall shorter contact times compared to lower frequencies (60-120 Hz). The amplitude of vibration has little direct effect on the contact time. Through semiempirical modeling and comparison to experiments, we show that phase-averaged contact times can increase or decrease relative to a nonvibrating substrate for low (100 Hz ) vibration frequencies, respectively. This study not only provides new insights into droplet impact physics on vibrating surfaces, but also develops guidelines for the rational design of surfaces to achieve controllable droplet wetting in applications utilizing vibration.

  6. A Nano-modified superhydrophobic membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ferreira Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the synthesis of super-hydrophobic membranes. The polymer used in this research is polystyrene (PS, which has low surface energy but not low enough to be characterized as a superhydrophobic material. As hydrophobicity is based on low energy surface and surface roughness, the electrospinning technique was selected as the manufacturing technique. N, N' dimethylformamide (DMF was employed as the PS solvent. Two groups of PS/DMF solutions were investigated i.e. 20/80 and 35/65. To increase even more the hydrophobicity, nanoparticles of silica, graphene, cadmium, and zinc were dispersed into the PS/DMF solutions. In contrast to results previous published in literature, the PS/DMF weight ratio of 20/80 led to water contact angles (WCA of 148º, which is higher than the contact angle for the 35/65 ratio, i.e. 143º. This fact seems to be due to the presence of non-evaporated solvent into the PS surface as the 35/65 solution was more viscous. The WCA for membranes with 0.5 wt. (% of graphene reached 152º, 149º-153º for membranes with nanosilica addition, 151º with 5.0 wt. (% CdS, and 153º, 163º and 168º with the addition of 5 wt. (%, 10 wt. (% and 15 wt. (% of ZnS, respectively.

  7. Capillary origami: superhydrophobic ribbon surfaces and liquid marbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen McHale

    2011-03-01

    known to apply to superhydrophobic surfaces. The results are given for both droplets being wrapped by thin ribbons and for solid grains encapsulating droplets to form liquid marbles.

  8. Carbon nanotube based functional superhydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sunny

    The main objective of this dissertation is synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT) based superhydrophobic materials. The materials were designed such that electrical and mechanical properties of CNTs could be combined with superhydrophobicity to create materials with unique properties, such as self-cleaning adhesives, miniature flotation devices, ice-repellant coatings, and coatings for heat transfer furnaces. The coatings were divided into two broad categories based on CNT structure: Vertically aligned CNT arrays (VA coatings) and mesh-like (non-aligned) carbon nanotube arrays (NA coatings). VA coatings were used to create self-cleaning adhesives and flexible field emission devices. Coatings with self cleaning property along with high adhesiveness were inspired from structure found on gecko foot. Gecko foot is covered with thousands of microscopic hairs called setae; these setae are further divided into hundreds of nanometer sized hairs called spatulas. When gecko presses its foot against any surface, these hairs bend and conform to the topology of the surface resulting into very large area of contact. Such large area of intimate contact allows geckos to adhere to surfaces using van der Waals (vdW) interactions alone. VA-CNTs adhere to a variety of surfaces using a similar mechanism. CNTs of suitable diameter could withstand four times higher adhesion force than gecko foot. We found that upon soiling these CNT based adhesives (gecko tape) could be cleaned using a water droplet (lotus effect) or by applying vibrations. These materials could be used for applications requiring reversible adhesion. VA coatings were also used for developing field emission devices. A single CNT can emit electrons at very low threshold voltages. Achieving efficient electron emission on large scale has a lot of challenges such as screening effect, pull-off and lower current efficiency. We have explored the use of polymer-CNT composite structures to overcome these challenges in this work. NA

  9. Superhydrophobic engineered cementitious composites for highway applications : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The strength and durability of highway bridges are two of the key components in maintaining a high level of freight transportation capacity on the nations highways. This research focused on developing new hybrid superhydrophobic engineered cementi...

  10. Facile method to prepare a transparent superhydrophobic PET film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Hong; Wang, Xian; Yuan, Zhiqing

    2016-11-01

    A simple method to fabricate a transparent superhydrophobic coating was developed by spraying PDMS/SiO2 nanoparticles suspension on a hydrophilic PET film. This PDMS/SiO2 nanoparticles suspension was prepared by fully diluting and properly stirring. When this suspension was sprayed on the surface of PET film at a distance of about 30 cm for 2 s, a porous micro-nano-binary structure was formed, which endowed the hydrophilic PET film superhydrophobicity, while the PET film maintained transparent after spraying with a SiO2 nanoparticle layer. The as-prepared superhydrophobic PET film exhibited a high water contact angle of about 155° ± 1.9° and a low water sliding angle of about 7°. The formation mechanism of this transparent superhydrophobic coating on PET film was also discussed in detail in this paper.

  11. Superhydrophobic photocatalytic PTFE – Titania coatings deposited by reactive pDC magnetron sputtering from a blended powder target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratova, Marina, E-mail: marina_ratova@hotmail.com; Kelly, Peter J.; West, Glen T.

    2017-04-01

    The production of photocatalytic coatings with superhydrophobic properties, as opposed to the conventional hydrophilic properties, is desirable for the prevention of adhesion of contaminants to photocatalytic surfaces with subsequent deterioration of photocatalytic properties. In this work polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) – TiO{sub 2} composite thin films were deposited using a novel method of reactive pulsed direct current (pDC) magnetron sputtering of a blended PTFE – titanium oxide powder target. The surface characteristics and photocatalytic properties of the deposited composite coatings were studied. The as-deposited coatings were annealed at 523 K in air and analysed with Raman spectroscopy, optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. Hydrophobicity was assessed though measurements of water contact angles, and photocatalytic properties were studied via methylene blue dye degradation under UV irradiation. It was found that variations of gas flow and, hence, process pressures allowed deposition of samples combining superhydrophobicity with stable photocatalytic efficiency under UV light irradiation. Reversible wettability behaviour was observed with the alternation of light-dark cycles. - Highlights: • PTFE-TiO{sub 2} coatings were deposited by pDC reactive magnetron sputtering. • Blended powder target was used for coatings deposition. • Deposited coatings combined superhydrophobic and photocatalytic properties. • Under UV irradiation coatings exhibited reversible wettability.

  12. Robust biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingjie; Huang, Tao; Lei, Jinglei; He, Jianxin; Qu, Linfeng; Huang, Peiling; Zhou, Wei; Li, Nianbing; Pan, Fusheng

    2015-01-28

    The following facile approach has been developed to prepare a biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface with high stabilities and strong resistances on 2024 Al alloy that are robust to harsh environments. First, a simple hydrothermal treatment in a La(NO3)3 aqueous solution was used to fabricate ginkgo-leaf like nanostructures, resulting in a superhydrophilic surface on 2024 Al. Then a low-surface-energy compound, dodecafluoroheptyl-propyl-trimethoxylsilane (Actyflon-G502), was used to modify the superhydrophilic 2024 Al, changing the surface character from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. The water contact angle (WCA) of such a superhydrophobic surface reaches up to 160°, demonstrating excellent superhydrophobicity. Moreover, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface shows high stabilities in air-storage, chemical and thermal environments, and has strong resistances to UV irradiation, corrosion, and abrasion. The WCAs of such a surface almost remain unchanged (160°) after storage in air for 80 days, exposure in 250 °C atmosphere for 24 h, and being exposed under UV irradiation for 24 h, are more than 144° whether in acidic or alkali medium, and are more than 150° after 48 h corrosion and after abrasion under 0.98 kPa for 1000 mm length. The remarkable durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface can be attributed to its stable structure and composition, which are due to the existence of lanthanum (hydr)oxides in surface layer. The robustness of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface to harsh environments will open their much wider applications. The fabricating approach for such robust superhydrophobic surface can be easily extended to other metals and alloys.

  13. Durability of hydrophobic coatings for superhydrophobic aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenner, Elliot, E-mail: Elj17@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Barbier, Charlotte, E-mail: barbiercn@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); D’Urso, Brian, E-mail: dursobr@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Robust and easily produced superhydrophobic surfaces are of great interest for mechanical applications, including drag reduction and MEMS. We produce novel superhydrophobic surfaces with several different coatings and tested the durability of each of these coatings with respect to long term immersion in water in order to determine the most long-lasting surface preparation. A pair of combinations of spin on polymers, surface features, and adhesion promoters was found that provide long term durability.

  14. Facile synthesis of a two-tier hierarchical structured superhydrophobic-superoleophilic melamine sponge for rapid and efficient oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiucun; You, Hui; Xu, Liqun; Li, Tianhao; Jiang, Xianquan; Li, Chang Ming

    2017-11-15

    Oil leakages often cause fatal disasters for environmental pollution but an efficient treatment of the oil spills is still very challenging. Sponge-substrates with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity have been attracted much attention for oil/water separation. In this study, an inexpensive commercial melamine sponge was chemically modified for the uses of oil spills treatment by oil/water separation. Inspiring from the superhydrophobic property of lotus leaf, pyrrole was polymerized by a simple vapor-phase deposition to encapsulate the raw melamine-formaldehyde (MF) sponge. The as-formed thin polypyrrole walls were utilized as reducing reagent to generate Ag nanoparticles on the capsuled sponge. Accordingly, a superhydrophobic melamine sponge with a two-tier hierarchical structure was achieved after fluorination, and this material was applied to absorb oil from water. The absorption capacity, absorption rate and recyclability were investigated. This superhydrophobic sponge exhibited an efficient and fast oil/water separation performance in complicated environment and could be applied in industrial production because of its low cost and simple fabrication procedure. This study presents a facile strategy for the fabrication of efficient oil sorbents based on a two-tier hierarchical structure, providing a novel means for the upgrading of engineered sorption materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Flow condensation on copper-based nanotextured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresin, Daniele; Tiwari, Manish K; Del Col, Davide; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have shown excellent ability to promote dropwise condensation with high droplet mobility, leading to enhanced surface thermal transport. To date, however, it is unclear how superhydrophobic surfaces would perform under the stringent flow condensation conditions of saturated vapor at high temperature, which can affect superhydrophobicity. Here, we investigate this issue employing "all-copper" superhydrophobic surfaces with controlled nanostructuring for minimal thermal resistance. Flow condensation tests performed with saturated vapor at a high temperature (110 °C) showed the condensing drops penetrate the surface texture (i.e., attain the Wenzel state with lower droplet mobility). At the same time, the vapor shear helped ameliorate the mobility and enhanced the thermal transport. At the high end of the examined vapor velocity range, a heat flux of ~600 kW m(-2) was measured at 10 K subcooling and 18 m s(-1) vapor velocity. This clearly highlights the excellent potential of a nanostructured superhydrophobic surface in flow condensation applications. The surfaces sustained dropwise condensation and vapor shear for five days, following which mechanical degradation caused a transition to filmwise condensation. Overall, our results underscore the need to investigate superhydrophobic surfaces under stringent and realistic flow condensation conditions before drawing conclusions regarding their performance in practically relevant condensation applications.

  16. Writing and functionalisation of suspended DNA nanowires on superhydrophobic pillar arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Miele, Ermanno

    2014-08-08

    Nanowire arrays and networks with precisely controlled patterns are very interesting for innovative device concepts in mesoscopic physics. In particular, DNA templates have proven to be versatile for the fabrication of complex structures that obtained functionality via combinations with other materials, for example by functionalisation with molecules or nanoparticles, or by coating with metals. Here, the controlled motion of the a three-phase contact line (TCL) of DNA-loaded drops on superhydrophobic substrates is used to fabricate suspended nanowire arrays. In particular, the deposition of DNA wires is imaged in situ, and different patterns are obtained on hexagonal pillar arrays by controlling the TCL velocity and direction. Robust conductive wires and networks are achieved by coating the wires with a thin layer of gold, and as proof of concept conductivity measurements are performed on single suspended wires. The plastic material of the superhydrophobic pillars ensures electrical isolation from the substrate. The more general versatility of these suspended nanowire networks as functional templates is outlined by fabricating hybrid organic-metal-semiconductor nanowires by growing ZnO nanocrystals onto the metal-coated nanowires.

  17. Writing and functionalisation of suspended DNA nanowires on superhydrophobic pillar arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Ermanno; Accardo, Angelo; Falqui, Andrea; Marini, Monica; Giugni, Andrea; Leoncini, Marco; De Angelis, Francesco; Krahne, Roman; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2015-01-07

    Nanowire arrays and networks with precisely controlled patterns are very interesting for innovative device concepts in mesoscopic physics. In particular, DNA templates have proven to be versatile for the fabrication of complex structures that obtained functionality via combinations with other materials, for example by functionalisation with molecules or nanoparticles, or by coating with metals. Here, the controlled motion of the a three-phase contact line (TCL) of DNA-loaded drops on superhydrophobic substrates is used to fabricate suspended nanowire arrays. In particular, the deposition of DNA wires is imaged in situ, and different patterns are obtained on hexagonal pillar arrays by controlling the TCL velocity and direction. Robust conductive wires and networks are achieved by coating the wires with a thin layer of gold, and as proof of concept conductivity measurements are performed on single suspended wires. The plastic material of the superhydrophobic pillars ensures electrical isolation from the substrate. The more general versatility of these suspended nanowire networks as functional templates is outlined by fabricating hybrid organic-metal-semiconductor nanowires by growing ZnO nanocrystals onto the metal-coated nanowires. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; Blue, Craig A [Knoxville, TN; Kiggans, Jr., James O [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13

    A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

  19. Sessile droplet evaporation on superheated superhydrophobic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hays, Robb C; Maynes, Daniel; Webb, Brent W

    2013-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video depicts the evaporation of sessile water droplets placed on heated superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces of varying cavity fraction, F_c, and surface temperature, T_s, above the saturation temperature, T_sat. Images were captured at 10,000 FPS and are played back at 30 FPS in this video. Teflon-coated silicon surfaces of F_c = 0, 0.5, 0.8, and 0.95 were used for these experiments. T_s ranging from 110{\\deg}C to 210{\\deg}C were studied. The video clips show how the boiling behavior of sessile droplets is altered with changes in surface microstructure. Quantitative results from heat transfer rate experiments conducted by the authors are briefly discussed near the end of the video.

  20. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-08-07

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s(-1). In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s(-1) (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties.

  1. Electrospun superhydrophobic membranes with unique structures for membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan; Loh, Chun-Heng; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-09-24

    With modest temperature demand, low operating pressure, and high solute rejection, membrane distillation (MD) is an attractive option for desalination, waste treatment, and food and pharmaceutical processing. However, large-scale practical applications of MD are still hindered by the absence of effective membranes with high hydrophobicity, high porosity, and adequate mechanical strength, which are important properties for MD permeation fluxes, stable long-term performance, and effective packing in modules without damage. This study describes novel design strategies for highly robust superhydrophobic dual-layer membranes for MD via electrospinning. One of the newly developed membranes comprises a durable and ultrathin 3-dimensional (3D) superhydrophobic skin and porous nanofibrous support whereas another was fabricated by electrospinning 3D superhydrophobic layers on a nonwoven support. These membranes exhibit superhydrophobicity toward distilled water, salty water, oil-in-water emulsion, and beverages, which enables them to be used not only for desalination but also for other processes. The superhydrophobic dual-layer membrane #3S-N with nanofibrous support has a competitive permeation flux of 24.6 ± 1.2 kg m(-2) h(-1) in MD (feed and permeate temperate were set as 333 and 293 K, respectively) due to the higher porosity of the nanofibrous scaffold. Meanwhile, the membranes with the nonwoven support exhibit greater mechanical strength due to this support combined with better long-term performance because of the thicker 3D superhydrophobic layers. The morphology, pore size, porosity, mechanical properties, and liquid enter pressure of water of these superhydrophobic composite membranes with two different structures are reported and compared with commercial polyvinylidene fluoride membranes.

  2. Fabrication of semi-transparent super-hydrophobic surface based on silica hierarchical structures

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ping-Hei

    2011-01-01

    This study successfully develops a versatile method of producing superhydrophobic surfaces with micro/nano-silica hierarchical structures on glass surfaces. Optically transparent super hydrophobic silica thin films were prepared by spin-coating silica particles suspended in a precursor solution of silane, ethanol, and H2O with molar ratio of 1:4:4. The resulting super hydrophobic films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical transmission, and contact angle measurements. The glass substrates in this study were modified with different particles: micro-silica particles, nano-silica particles, and hierarchical structures. This study includes SEM micrographs of the modified glass surfaces with hierarchical structures at different magnifications. © 2011 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. A superhydrophobic chip based on SU-8 photoresist pillars suspended on a silicon nitride membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2014-07-28

    We developed a new generation of superhydrophobic chips optimized for probing ultrasmall sample quantities by X-ray scattering and fluorescence techniques. The chips are based on thin Si3N4 membranes with a tailored pattern of SU-8 photoresist pillars. Indeed, aqueous solution droplets can be evaporated and concentrated at predefined positions using a non-periodic pillar pattern. We demonstrated quantitatively the deposition and aggregation of gold glyconanoparticles from the evaporation of a nanomolar droplet in a small spot by raster X-ray nanofluorescence. Further, raster nanocrystallography of biological objects such as rod-like tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles reveals crystalline macro-domain formation composed of highly oriented nanorods. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  4. Preparation of superhydrophobic films on titanium as effective corrosion barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fen; Chen, Shougang; Dong, Lihua; Lei, Yanhua; Liu, Tao; Yin, Yansheng

    2011-01-01

    Stable superhydrophobic films were prepared on the electrochemical oxidized titania/titanium substrate by a simple immersion technique into a methanol solution of hydrolyzed 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane [CF3(CF2)5(CH2)2Si(OCH2CH3)3, PTES] for 1 h at room temperature followed by a short annealing at 140 °C in air for 1 h. The surface morphologies and chemical composition of the film were characterized by means of water contact angle (CA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The water contact angle on the surface of this film was measured to be as high as 160°. SEM images showed that the resulting surfaces exhibited special hierarchical structure. The special hierarchical structure along with the low surface energy leads to the high surface superhydrophobicity. The corrosion resistance ability and durance property of the superhydrophobic film in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was evaluated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The anticorrosion properties of the superhydrophobic film are compared to those of unmodified pure titanium and titania/titanium substrates. The results showed that the superhydrophobic film provides an effective corrosion resistant coating for the titanium metal even with immersion periods up to 90 d in the 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, pointing to promising future applications.

  5. Preparation of superhydrophobic films on titanium as effective corrosion barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fen [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Chen Shougang, E-mail: sgchen@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Dong Lihua [Institute of Ocean Materials and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); Lei Yanhua; Liu Tao [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Yin Yansheng, E-mail: yys2006@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Ocean Materials and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Stable superhydrophobic films were prepared on the electrochemical oxidized titania/titanium substrate by a simple immersion technique into a methanol solution of hydrolyzed 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane [CF{sub 3}(CF{sub 2}){sub 5}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}Si(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}, PTES] for 1 h at room temperature followed by a short annealing at 140 deg. C in air for 1 h. The surface morphologies and chemical composition of the film were characterized by means of water contact angle (CA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The water contact angle on the surface of this film was measured to be as high as 160{sup o}. SEM images showed that the resulting surfaces exhibited special hierarchical structure. The special hierarchical structure along with the low surface energy leads to the high surface superhydrophobicity. The corrosion resistance ability and durance property of the superhydrophobic film in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was evaluated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The anticorrosion properties of the superhydrophobic film are compared to those of unmodified pure titanium and titania/titanium substrates. The results showed that the superhydrophobic film provides an effective corrosion resistant coating for the titanium metal even with immersion periods up to 90 d in the 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, pointing to promising future applications.

  6. Single-Step Process toward Achieving Superhydrophobic Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Tang, Xiu-Zhi; Zhu, Wenyu; Thompson, Brianna C; Huang, Mingyue; Yang, Jinglei; Hu, Xiao; Khor, Khiam Aik

    2016-05-04

    We report the first use of spark plasma sintering (SPS) as a single-step process to achieve superhydrophobic reduced graphene oxide (rGO). It was found that SPS was capable of converting smooth and electrically insulating graphene oxide (GO) sheets into highly electrically conductive rGO with minimum residual oxygen and hierarchical roughness which could be well retained after prolonged ultrasonication. At a temperature of 500 °C, which is lower than the conventional critical temperature for GO exfoliation, GO was successfully exfoliated, reduced, and hierarchically roughened. rGO fabricated by only 1 min of treatment at 1050 °C was superhydrophobic with a surface roughness (Ra) 10 times as large as that of GO as well as an extraordinarily high C:O ratio of 83.03 (atom %) and water contact angle of 153°. This demonstrates that SPS is a superior GO reduction technique, which enabled superhydrophobic rGO to be quickly and effectively achieved in one single step. Moreover, the superhydrophobic rGO fabricated by SPS showed an impressive bacterial antifouling and inactivation effect against Escherichia coli in both aqueous solution and the solid state. It is envisioned that the superhydrophobic rGO obtained in this study can be potentially used for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications, such as the fabrication of self-cleaning and antibacterial surfaces.

  7. Study on superhydrophobic surfaces of octanol grafted electrospun silica nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Long-Yue [Key Laboratory of Natural Resources of Changbai Mountain and Functional Molecules, Yanbian University, Yanji 133002 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Yanbian University, 977 Gongyuan Road, Yanji 133002 (China); Han, Shunyu; Jiang, Nanzhe [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Yanbian University, 977 Gongyuan Road, Yanji 133002 (China); Meng, Wan, E-mail: mengw@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Yanbian University, 977 Gongyuan Road, Yanji 133002 (China)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, superhydrophobic surfaces were successfully prepared by grafting of octanol on the surface of electrospun silica nanofibers (SNFs). The chemical compositions and microstructures of the prepared SNFs surfaces were investigated by using N{sub 2} full isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and contact angle measurements. The results indicate that the surface of SNFs changed from being superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic by octanol surface grafting. The contact angle of the octanol-grafted SNFs was close to 150.2° because their surface was modified by –(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}–CH{sub 3} groups. The 3D network of SNFs networks and the low surface energy of the alkyl side chains played important roles in creating the superhydrophobic surface of the SNFs. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was prepared from electrospinning SNFs and by grafting octanol on their surface. • The surface of SNFs changed from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic. • The CA of MSNFs became 150.2° because of interactions between grafted octyl groups.

  8. Drag reduction of a miniature boat with superhydrophobic grille bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Jiang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water strider can slide on water surface with a very small drag force using its long superhydrophobic legs. Inspired by the water strider legs, we report here a novel design of superhydrophobic grille structure for drag reduction. A miniature boat covered with a superhydrophobic grille at the bottom is fabricated and compared with a normal boat with flat bottom in the same size, and a significant drag reduction is obtained by the former. Experiments also reveal that the grille structure exhibits a remarkable loading capacity supplied by the water surface tension. It is found that the optimal design of such a miniature boat with a considerable loading capacity and a small drag can be realized through controlling the length and the spacing of the grilles. This study shows a new idea to reduce the fluid drag in microfluidics, micro electromechanical system and other engineering areas.

  9. The friction property of super-hydrophobic cotton textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Changhong; Li, Jun

    2010-04-01

    Two kinds of super-hydrophobic cotton textiles were prepared via dip-coating cotton textiles with nano-silica suspensions, and the cotton textiles exhibits high contact angle more than 160° and low sliding angle lower than 4°. A friction method was used to evaluate the durability of the as-prepared super-hydrophobic cotton textiles, the results shows that one of the as-prepared super-hydrophobic cottons exhibits better stability property against friction, and its contact angle remained higher than 150° and sliding angle remained lower than 15° after 1000 times friction. SEM analysis shows the reduction of hydrophobic property was resulted from the damage of surface structure during friction cycle.

  10. Transparent nanostructured coatings with UV-shielding and superhydrophobicity properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Taoye; Chen Jianfeng [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Isimjan, Tayirjan T; Rohani, Sohrab, E-mail: chenjf@mail.buct.edu.cn, E-mail: srohani@uwo.ca [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Visible light transparent, UV-shielding and superhydrophobic nanostructured coatings have been successfully fabricated through a facile layer-by-layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The coatings are composed of an underlying UV-shielding TiO{sub 2} layer and a top fully covered protective SiO{sub 2} layer. The resulting coatings can block 100% of UVB and UVC and almost 85% of UVA. The fabricated surfaces have contact angles exceeding 165 deg. after coating with organic PTES (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane) molecules. The transparent superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit extremely strong UV stability. All coatings retain the initial UV-shielding and superhydrophobic properties even after exposure to 275 nm UV light with a light intensity of 75 mW cm{sup -2} for 12 h.

  11. Transparent nanostructured coatings with UV-shielding and superhydrophobicity properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taoye; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.; Chen, Jianfeng; Rohani, Sohrab

    2011-07-01

    Visible light transparent, UV-shielding and superhydrophobic nanostructured coatings have been successfully fabricated through a facile layer-by-layer deposition of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles. The coatings are composed of an underlying UV-shielding TiO2 layer and a top fully covered protective SiO2 layer. The resulting coatings can block 100% of UVB and UVC and almost 85% of UVA. The fabricated surfaces have contact angles exceeding 165° after coating with organic PTES (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane) molecules. The transparent superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit extremely strong UV stability. All coatings retain the initial UV-shielding and superhydrophobic properties even after exposure to 275 nm UV light with a light intensity of 75 mW cm - 2 for 12 h.

  12. Electrosprayed superhydrophobic PTFE: a non-contaminating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkarter, Ezequiel [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana 81531-990 Centro Politecnico Jardim das Americas, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Saul, Cyro K [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana 81531-990 Centro Politecnico Jardim das Americas, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Thomazi, Fabiano [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana 81531-990 Centro Politecnico Jardim das Americas, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Cruz, Nilson C [Grupo de Plasma e Materiais, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 18087-180 Avenida Tres de Marco, 511 Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Zanata, Silvio M [Departamento de Patologia Basica, Universidade Federal do Parana 81531-990 Centro Politecnico Jardim das Americas, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Roman, Lucimara S [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana 81531-990 Centro Politecnico Jardim das Americas, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Schreiner, Wido H [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana 81531-990 Centro Politecnico Jardim das Americas, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)

    2007-12-21

    This paper reports on the exposure of superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings to common aqueous solutions which are used in biology, biotechnology and chemical sensor applications. Advancing contact angles as high as 173{sup 0} for aqueous solutions were measured on the PTFE surface. Water drop sliding angles at 2{sup 0} show a very low contact angle hysteresis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirm that aqueous solutions can move or stay on the superhydrophobic surface without contamination. Owing to the chemical inertness of the polymer, these results indicate that superhydrophobic PTFE can be used in lab-on-a-chip and multi-sensor devices as well as in biological cultures, where aqueous solutions meet solid surfaces, without contaminating the interface.

  13. Superhydrophobic bionic surfaces with hierarchical microsphere/SWCNT composite arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Huang, Xing Jiu; Heo, Sung Hwan; Li, Cun Cheng; Choi, Yang Kyu; Cai, Wei Ping; Cho, Sung Oh

    2007-02-13

    Superhydrophobic bionic surfaces with hierarchical micro/nano structures were synthesized by decorating single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on monolayer polystyrene colloidal crystals using a wet chemical self-assembly technique and subsequent surface treatment with a low surface-energy material of fluoroalkylsilane. The bionic surfaces are based on the regularly ordered colloidal crystals, and thus the surfaces have a uniform superhydrophobic property on the whole surface. Moreover, the wettability of the bionic surface can be well controlled by changing the distribution density of CNTs or the size of polystyrene microspheres. The morphologies of the synthesized bionic surfaces bear much resemblance to natural lotus leaves, and the wettability exhibited remarkable superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of about 165 degrees and a sliding angle of 5 degrees.

  14. Electrophoretic deposition of unstable colloidal suspensions for superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Young Soo; Buie, Cullen R

    2011-04-05

    A novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is presented. EPD presents a readily scalable, customizable, and potentially low cost surface manufacturing process. Low surface energy materials with high surface roughness are achieved using EPD of unstable hydrophobic SiO(2) particle suspensions. The effect of suspension stability on surface roughness is quantitatively explored with optical absorbance measurements (to determine suspension stability) and atomic force microscopy (to measure surface roughness). Varying suspension pH modulates suspension stability. Contrary to most applications of EPD, we show that superhydrophobic surfaces favor mildly unstable suspensions since they result in high surface roughness. Particle agglomerates formed in unstable suspensions lead to highly irregular films after EPD. After only 1 min of EPD, we obtain surfaces with low contact angle hysteresis and static contact angles exceeding 160°. We also present a technique to enhance the mechanical durability of the superhydrophobic surfaces by adding a polymeric binder to the suspension prior to EPD.

  15. Nanostructured superhydrophobic films synthesized by electrodeposition of fluorinated polyindoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ramos Chagas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Materials with bioinspired superhydrophobic properties are highly desirable for many potential applications. Here, nine novel monomers derived from indole are synthesized to obtain these properties by electropolymerization. These monomers differ by the length (C4F9, C6F13 and C8F17 and the position (4-, 5- and 6-position of indole of the perfluorinated substituent. Polymeric films were obtained with C4F9 and C6F13 chains and differences in the surface morphology depend especially on the substituent position. The polyindoles exhibited hydrophobic and superhydrophobic properties even with a very low roughness. The best results are obtained with PIndole-6-F6 for which superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic properties are obtained due to the presence of spherical nanoparticles and low surface energy compounds.

  16. Superhydrophobic films for the protection of outdoor cultural heritage assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoudis, P. N.; Karapanagiotis, I.; Tsakalof, A.; Zuburtikudis, I.; Kolinkeová, B.; Panayiotou, C.

    2009-11-01

    A very simple method that can be used to impart superhydrophobicity to stone surfaces of monuments using common and low-cost materials that are already employed or are easy to be found by conservators is presented. A siloxane-nanoparticle dispersion is sprayed on a stone, and this process can result in the formation of a rough two-length-scale hierarchical structure that exhibits water repellent properties, provided that the nanoparticle concentration in the dispersion is higher than a critical value. Superhydrophobicity (static contact angle >150° and contact angle hysteresis aesthetic appearance of the three stones, included in this study, is highly affected by the nanoparticles.

  17. Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzius, Thomas M.; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Köhme, Moritz; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous removal of condensed matter from surfaces is exploited in nature and in a broad range of technologies to achieve self-cleaning, anti-icing and condensation control. But despite much progress, our understanding of the phenomena leading to such behaviour remains incomplete, which makes it challenging to rationally design surfaces that benefit from its manifestation. Here we show that water droplets resting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous levitation and subsequent trampoline-like bouncing behaviour, in which sequential collisions with the surface accelerate the droplets. These collisions have restitution coefficients (ratios of relative speeds after and before collision) greater than unity despite complete rigidity of the surface, and thus seemingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. However, these restitution coefficients result from an overpressure beneath the droplet produced by fast droplet vaporization while substrate adhesion and surface texture restrict vapour flow. We also show that the high vaporization rates experienced by the droplets and the associated cooling can result in freezing from a supercooled state that triggers a sudden increase in vaporization, which in turn boosts the levitation process. This effect can spontaneously remove surface icing by lifting away icy drops the moment they freeze. Although these observations are relevant only to systems in a low-pressure environment, they show how surface texturing can produce droplet-surface interactions that prohibit liquid and freezing water-droplet retention on surfaces.

  18. Superhydrophobic and oleophobic fibers by coaxial electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daewoo; Steckl, Andrew J

    2009-08-18

    Control of surface wetting properties to produce strongly hydrophobic or hydrophilic effects is at the heart of many macro- and microfluidic applications. In this work, we have investigated coaxial electrospinning to produce core-sheath-structured nano/microfibers that combine different properties from individual core and sheath materials. Teflon AF is an amorphous fluoropolymer that is widely utilized as a hydrophobic material. Hydrophobic fluoropolymers are normally not electrospinnable because their low dielectric constant prevents sufficient charging for a solution to be electrospun. The first Teflon electrospun fibers are reported using coaxial electrospinning with Teflon AF sheath and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) core materials. Using these core/sheath fibers, superhydrophobic and oleophobic membranes have been successfully produced. These coaxial fibers also preserve the core material properties as demonstrated with mechanical tensile tests. The fact that a normally nonelectrospinnable material such as Teflon AF has been successfully electrospun when combined with an electrospinnable core material indicates the potential of coaxial electrospinning to provide a new degree of freedom in terms of material combinations for many applications.

  19. Multiple time scale dynamics in the breakdown of superhydrophobicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirat, C.; Sbragaglia, M.; Peters, A.M.; Borkent, B.M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias; Lohse, Detlef

    2008-01-01

    Drops deposited on rough and hydrophobic surfaces can stay suspended with gas pockets underneath the liquid, then showing very low hydrodynamic resistance. When this superhydrophobic state breaks down, the subsequent wetting process can show different dynamical properties. A suitable choice of the

  20. Facile Method to Prepare Superhydrophobic and Water Repellent Cellulosic Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Karapanagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica nanoparticles (7 nm were dispersed in solutions of a silane/siloxane mixture. The dispersions were applied, by brush, on four types of paper: (i modern, unprinted (blank paper, (ii modern paper where a text was printed using a common laser jet printer, (iii a handmade paper sheet detached from an old book, and (iv Japanese tissue paper. It is shown that superhydrophobicity and water repellency were achieved on the surface of the deposited films, when high particle concentrations were used (≥1% w/v, corresponding to high static (θS ≈ 162° and low tilt (θt < 3° contact angles. To interpret these results, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was employed to observe the surface morphologies of the siloxane-nanoparticle films. Static contact angles, measured on surfaces that were prepared from dilute dispersions (particle concentration <1% w/v, increased with particle concentration and attained a maximum value (162° which corresponds to superhydrophobicity. Increasing further the particle concentration did not have any effect on θS. Colourimetric measurements showed that the superhydrophobic films had negligible effects on the aesthetic appearance of the treated papers. Furthermore, it is shown that the superhydrophobic character of the siloxane-nanoparticle films was stable over a wide range of pH.

  1. Laser-induced nanoscale superhydrophobic structures on metal surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakrishnan, J.; Pathiraj, B.; Karatay, Elif; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The combination of a dual-scale (nano and micro) roughness with an inherent low-surface energy coating material is an essential factor for the development of superhydrophobic surfaces. Ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) machining/structuring is a promising technique for obtaining the dual-scale

  2. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  3. Design of textured surfaces for super-hydrophobicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithvi Raj Jelia

    2017-11-11

    Nov 11, 2017 ... Alternatively, geometries of natural super-hydrophobic surfaces are often imitated to design textured surfaces. Knowing the ... The proposed approach is sufficiently general that its application can be extended to design other textured surfaces. Keywords. .... labТ software package. Further, manufacturing ...

  4. Superhydrophobic/superoleophilic magnetic elastomers by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milionis, Athanasios, E-mail: am2vy@virginia.edu [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Fragouli, Despina; Brandi, Fernando; Liakos, Ioannis; Barroso, Suset [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Ruffilli, Roberta [Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Athanassiou, Athanassia, E-mail: athanassia.athanassiou@iit.it [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • We report the development of magnetic nanocomposite sheets. • Laser irradiation of the nanocomposites induces chemical and structural changes to the surface. • The laser-patterned surfaces exhibit superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. • The particle contribution in altering the surface and bulk properties of the material is studied. - Abstract: We report the development of magnetic nanocomposite sheets with superhydrophobic and supeoleophilic surfaces generated by laser ablation. Polydimethylsiloxane elastomer free-standing films, loaded homogeneously with 2% wt. carbon coated iron nanoparticles, were ablated by UV (248 nm), nanosecond laser pulses. The laser irradiation induces chemical and structural changes (both in micro- and nano-scale) to the surfaces of the nanocomposites rendering them superhydrophobic. The use of nanoparticles increases the UV light absorption efficiency of the nanocomposite samples, and thus facilitates the ablation process, since the number of pulses and the laser fluence required are greatly reduced compared to the bare polymer. Additionally the magnetic nanoparticles enhance significantly the superhydrophobic and oleophilic properties of the PDMS sheets, and provide to PDMS magnetic properties making possible its actuation by a weak external magnetic field. These nanocomposite elastomers can be considered for applications requiring magnetic MEMS for the controlled separation of liquids.

  5. Drop Impact upon Micro- and Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsai, Peichun Amy; Pacheco Benito, Sergio; Pirat, C.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Lohse, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally investigate drop impact dynamics onto different superhydrophobic surfaces, consisting of regular polymeric micropatterns and rough carbon nanofibers, with similar static contact angles. The main control parameters are the Weber number We and the roughness of the surface. At small

  6. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surface with high adhesive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Glass substrates modified by carbon/silica composites are fabricated through a two-step process for the preparation of a superhydrophobic surface (water contact angle ≥ 150°). Carbon nanoparticles were first prepared through a deposition process on glass using a hydrothermal synthesis route, then the glass was ...

  7. Design of textured surfaces for super-hydrophobicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 42; Issue 11. Design of textured ... Alternatively, geometries of natural super-hydrophobic surfaces are often imitated to design textured surfaces. Knowing the ... dimensions.The proposed approach is sufficiently general that its application can be extended to design other textured surface ...

  8. Heat and mass transfer over slippery, superhydrophobic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, A. Sander; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2016-01-01

    The classical Graetz-Nusselt problem is extended to describe heat and mass transfer over heterogeneously slippery, superhydrophobic surfaces. The cylindrical wall consists of segments with a constant temperature/concentration and areas that are insulating/impermeable. Only in the case of mass

  9. A Nano-modified superhydrophobic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Antonio Ferreira, E-mail: aavila@netuno.lcc.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Graduacao em Engenharia Mecania. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Oliveira, Aline Marques de; Lacerda, Glenda Ribeiro de Barros Silveira; Munhoz, Viviane Cristina; Santos, Mayara Cele Goncalves; Santos, Patricia Figueiredo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Quimica; Triplett, Matt [Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center, AMSRD-AMR-WD-GA, Redstone Arsenal, (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This paper focuses on the synthesis of super-hydrophobic membranes. The polymer used in this research is polystyrene (PS), which has low surface energy but not low enough to be characterized as a super hydrophobic material. As hydrophobicity is based on low energy surface and surface roughness, the electrospinning technique was selected as the manufacturing technique. N, N' dimethylformamide (DMF) was employed as the PS solvent. Two groups of PS/DMF solutions were investigated i.e. 20/80 and 35/65. To increase even more the hydrophobicity, nanoparticles of silica, graphene, cadmium, and zinc were dispersed into the PS/DMF solutions. In contrast to results previous published in literature, the PS/DMF weight ratio of 20/80 led to water contact angles (WCA) of 148 Degree-Sign , which is higher than the contact angle for the 35/65 ratio, i.e. 143 Degree-Sign . This fact seems to be due to the presence of non-evaporated solvent into the PS surface as the 35/65 solution was more viscous. The WCA for membranes with 0.5 wt. (%) of graphene reached 152 Degree-Sign , 149 Degree-Sign -153 Degree-Sign for membranes with nanosilica addition, 151 Degree-Sign with 5.0 wt. (%) CdS, and 153 Degree-Sign , 163 Degree-Sign and 168 Degree-Sign with the addition of 5 wt. (%), 10 wt. (%) and 15 wt. (%) of ZnS, respectively. author)

  10. Super-Hydrophobic Green Corrosion Inhibitor On Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H.; Ismail, A.; Ahmad, S.; Soon, C. F.

    2017-06-01

    There are many examples of organic coatings used for corrosion protection. In particular, hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic coatings are shown to give good protection because of their enhanced ability to slow down transport of water and ions through the coating. The purpose of this research is to develop water repellent coating to avoid direct contact between metal and environment corrosive and mitigate corrosion attack at pipeline system. This water repellent characteristic on super-hydrophobic coating was coated by electrodeposition method. Wettability of carbon steel with super-hydrophobic coating (cerium chloride and myristic acid) and oxidized surface was investigated through contact angle and inhibitor performance test. The inhibitor performance was studied in 25% tannin acid corrosion test at 30°C and 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl). The water contact angle test was determined by placing a 4-μL water droplet of distilled water. It shows that the wettability of contact angle super-hydrophobic with an angle of 151.60° at zero minute can be classified as super-hydrophobic characteristic. By added tannin acid as inhibitor the corrosion protection on carbon steel becomes more consistent. This reveals that the ability of the coating to withstand with the corrosion attack in the seawater at different period of immersions. The results elucidate that the weight loss increased as the time of exposure increased. However, the corrosion rates for uncoated carbon steel is high compared to coated carbon steel. As a conclusion, from both samples it can be seen that the coated carbon steel has less corrosion rated compared to uncoated carbon steel and addition of inhibitor to the seawater provides more protection to resist corrosion attack on carbon steel.

  11. Superhydrophobic copper tubes with possible flow enhancement and drag reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I; Zhang, Yong

    2009-06-01

    The transport of a Newtonian liquid through a smooth pipe or tube is dominated by the frictional drag on the liquid against the walls. The resistance to flow against a solid can, however, be reduced by introducing a layer of gas at or near the boundary between the solid and liquid. This can occur by the vaporization of liquid at a surface at a temperature above the Leidenfrost point, by a cushion of air (e.g. below a hovercraft), or by producing bubbles at the interface. These methods require a continuous energy input, but a more recent discovery is the possibility of using a superhydrophobic surface. Most reported research uses small sections of lithographically patterned surfaces and rarely considers pressure differences or varying flow rates. In this work we present a method for creating a uniform superhydrophobic nanoribbon layer on the inside of round copper tubes of millimetric internal radius. Two types of experiments are described, with the first involving a simultaneous comparison of four tubes with different surface finishes (as received, as received with hydrophobic coating, nanoribbon, and nanoribbon with a hydrophobic coating) under constant flow rate conditions using water and water-glycerol mixtures. The results show that the superhydrophobic nanoribbon with a hydrophobic coating surface finish allows greater flow at low pressure differences but that the effect disappears as the pressure at the inlet of the tube is increased. The second experiment is a simple visual demonstration of the low-pressure behavior using two nominally identical tubes in terms of length and cross-section, but with one tube possessing a superhydrophobic internal surface finish. In this experiment a reservoir is allowed to feed the two tubes with open ends via a T-piece and it is observed that, once flow commences, it preferentially occurs down the superhydrophobic tube.

  12. Designing durable and flexible superhydrophobic coatings and its application in oil purification

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, N.; Lu, Y.; Xiong, D.; Carmalt, C. J.; Parkin, I. P.

    2016-01-01

    Lotus-inspired superhydrophobic coatings are usually mechanically weak and lack durability, this hinders their practical applications. A suspension that can be treated on various materials in any size and shape to form a mechanically durable superhydrophobic coating is developed, which retains water repellent properties after multiple cycles of abrasion, blade scratching, tape-peeling, repeated deformation, a series of environmental tests and recycling. Based on its superhydrophobicity under ...

  13. Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings for Microfluidics and MEMs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branson, Eric D.; Singh, Seema [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Houston, Jack E.; van Swol, Frank B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Low solid interfacial energy and fractally rough surface topography confer to Lotus plants superhydrophobic (SH) properties like high contact angles, rolling and bouncing of liquid droplets, and self-cleaning of particle contaminants. This project exploits the porous fractal structure of a novel, synthetic SH surface for aerosol collection, its self-cleaning properties for particle concentration, and its slippery nature 3 to enhance the performance of fluidic and MEMS devices. We propose to understand fundamentally the conditions needed to cause liquid droplets to roll rather than flow/slide on a surface and how this %22rolling transition%22 influences the boundary condition describing fluid flow in a pipe or micro-channel. Rolling of droplets is important for aerosol collection strategies because it allows trapped particles to be concentrated and transported in liquid droplets with no need for a pre-defined/micromachined fluidic architecture. The fluid/solid boundary condition is important because it governs flow resistance and rheology and establishes the fluid velocity profile. Although many research groups are exploring SH surfaces, our team is the first to unambiguously determine their effects on fluid flow and rheology. SH surfaces could impact all future SNL designs of collectors, fluidic devices, MEMS, and NEMS. Interfaced with inertial focusing aerosol collectors, SH surfaces would allow size-specific particle populations to be collected, concentrated, and transported to a fluidic interface without loss. In microfluidic systems, we expect to reduce the energy/power required to pump fluids and actuate MEMS. Plug-like (rather than parabolic) velocity profiles can greatly improve resolution of chip-based separations and enable unprecedented control of concentration profiles and residence times in fluidic-based micro-reactors. Patterned SH/hydrophilic channels could induce mixing in microchannels and enable development of microflow control elements

  14. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Ping; Lin, Shawn-Yu, E-mail: sylin@rpi.edu [The Future Chips Constellation and the Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Hsieh, Mei-Li [Department of Photonics, National Chia-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ∼95% for λ = 400–620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°–60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for λ = 400–870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO{sub 2} nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θ{sub CB} ∼ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  15. Superhydrophobic ZnAl double hydroxide nanostructures and ZnO films on Al and glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Debasis, E-mail: debasis.de@bcrec.ac.in [Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Department, Dr. B C Roy Engineering College, Durgapur, West Bengal 713206 (India); Sarkar, D.K. [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l' Aluminium (CURAL), L' Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Blvd. Université, Chicoutimi, Saguenay, Québec G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic nanostructured ZnAl: layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and ZnO films have been fabricated on Al and glass substrates, respectively, by a simple and cost effective chemical bath deposition technique. Randomly oriented hexagonal patterned of ZnAl: LDHs thin nanoplates are clearly observed on Al-substrate in the scanning electron microscopic images. The average size of these hexagonal plates is ∼4 μm side and ∼30 nm of thickness. While on the glass substrate, a oriented hexagonal patterned ZnO nanorods (height ∼5 μm and 1 μm diameter) are observed and each rod is further decorated throughout the top few nanometers with several nanosteps. At the top of the nanorod, a perfectly hexagonal patterned ZnO surface with ∼250 nm sides is observed. The tendency to form hexagonal morphological features is due to the hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO confirmed from X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy image. The ZnAl: LDHs and/or ZnO coated substrates have been passivated by using stearic acid (SA) molecules. Infrared spectra of passivated ZnAl: LDHs coated substrates confirm the presence of SA. X-ray diffraction pattern also corroborates the results of infrared spectrum. The contact angle of the as prepared samples is zero. The superhydrophobicity is achieved by observing contact angle of ∼161° with a hysteresis of ∼4° for Al-substrate. On the glass substrate, a higher contact angle of ∼168° with a lower hysteresis of ∼3° is observed. A lower surface roughness of ∼4.93 μm is measured on ZnAl: LDHs surface layer on the Al substrate as compare to a higher surface roughness of 6.87 μm measured on ZnO layer on glass substrate. The superhydrophobicity of passivated nanostructured films on two different substrates is observed due to high surface roughness and low surface energy. - Highlights: • ZnAl: layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanoplates are fabricated on Al substrate. • ZnO nanorods are fabricated on

  16. On the Durability and Wear Resistance of Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker S. Bayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent liquid repellent coatings with exceptional wear and abrasion resistance are very demanding to fabricate. The most important reason for this is the fact that majority of the transparent liquid repellent coatings have so far been fabricated by nanoparticle assembly on surfaces in the form of films. These films or coatings demonstrate relatively poor substrate adhesion and rubbing induced wear resistance compared to polymer-based transparent hydrophobic coatings. However, recent advances reported in the literature indicate that considerable progress has now been made towards formulating and applying transparent, hydrophobic and even oleophobic coatings onto various substrates which can withstand certain degree of mechanical abrasion. This is considered to be very promising for anti-graffiti coatings or treatments since they require resistance to wear abrasion. Therefore, this review intends to highlight the state-of-the-art on materials and techniques that are used to fabricate wear resistant liquid repellent transparent coatings so that researchers can assess various aptitudes and limitations related to translating some of these technologies to large scale stain repellent outdoor applications.

  17. Wetting, superhydrophobicity, and icephobicity in biomimetic composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Vahid

    Recent developments in nano- and bio-technology require new materials. Among these new classes of materials which have emerged in the recent years are biomimetic materials, which mimic structure and properties of materials found in living nature. There are a large number of biological objects including bacteria, animals and plants with properties of interest for engineers. Among these properties is the ability of the lotus leaf and other natural materials to repel water, which has inspired researchers to prepare similar surfaces. The Lotus effect involving roughness-induced superhydrophobicity is a way to design nonwetting, self-cleaning, omniphobic, icephobic, and antifouling surfaces. The range of actual and potential applications of superhydrophobic surfaces is diverse including optical, building and architecture, textiles, solar panels, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic devices, and applications requiring antifouling from biological and organic contaminants. In this thesis, in chapter one, we introduce the general concepts and definitions regarding the wetting properties of the surfaces. In chapter two, we develop novel models and conduct experiments on wetting of composite materials. To design sustainable superhydrophobic metal matrix composite (MMC) surfaces, we suggest using hydrophobic reinforcement in the bulk of the material, rather than only at its surface. We experimentally study the wetting properties of graphite-reinforced Al- and Cu-based composites and conclude that the Cu-based MMCs have the potential to be used in the future for the applications where the wear-resistant superhydrophobicity is required. In chapter three, we introduce hydrophobic coating at the surface of concrete materials making them waterproof to prevent material failure, because concretes and ceramics cannot stop water from seeping through them and forming cracks. We create water-repellant concretes with CA close to 160o using superhydrophobic coating. In chapter four, experimental

  18. How water droplets evaporate on a superhydrophobic substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Gelderblom, Hanneke; Nair, Hrudya; van Houselt, Arie; Lefferts, Leon; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Evaporation of water droplets on a superhydrophobic substrate, on which the contact line is pinned, is investigated. While previous studies mainly focused on droplets with contact angles smaller than $90^\\circ$, here we analyze almost the full range of possible contact angles (10$^\\circ$-150$^\\circ$). The greater contact angles and pinned contact lines can be achieved by the use of superhydrophobic Carbon Nanofiber substrates. The time-evolutions of the contact angle and the droplet mass are examined. The experimental data is in good quantitative agreement with the model presented by Popov (Physical Review E 71, 2005), demonstrating that the evaporation process is quasi-static, diffusion-driven, and that thermal effects play no role. Furthermore, we show that the experimental data for the evolution of both the contact angle and the droplet mass can be collapsed onto one respective universal curve for all droplet sizes and initial contact angles.

  19. Biomimetic Superhydrophobic Biobased Polyurethane-Coated Fertilizer with Atmosphere "Outerwear".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiazhuo; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Wan, Yongshan; Li, Yuncong C; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Qinghua

    2017-05-10

    The development of efficient biobased controlled-release fertilizers has captured much research attention because of the environmental concerns and food scarcity problems. In this work, a biomimetic superhydrophobic biobased polyurethane-coated fertilizer (SBPF) was successfully fabricated by increasing surface roughness and reducing surface energy of polyurethane (PU) coating. The green PU coating was synthesized from low-cost, biodegradable, and renewable cottonseed oil. The nutrient release longevity of SBPF revealed 2-fold enhancement compared with the normal biobased PU-coated fertilizer (BPF). The significant improvement of nutrient release characteristics can be attributed to the atmosphere "outerwear" which ensured the nonwetting contact of water with superhydrophobic surfaces in gas state instead of in liquid state. The new concept introduced in this study can inform the development of the next generation of biobased controlled release fertilizers.

  20. Preparation of wood-like structured copper with superhydrophobic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianchi; Liu, Guiju; Kong, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Here, we report a method to use natural wood lauan as a template to fabricate superhydrophobic biomorphic copper on a carbon substrate (Cu/C). First, a carbon substrate with the microstructure of lauan was obtained by sintering lauan in an oxygen-free environment. A biomorphic Cu/C material was then obtained by immersing this carbon substrate into a Cu(NO3)2 solution and sintering. Finally, the hydrophobicity of the products obtained was investigated. The Cu/C retained the microstructure of the wood well. It exhibited excellent superhydrophobicity after it was modified with fluorine silane. The water contact angle of this modified Cu/C reached 160°.

  1. Superhydrophobic coated apparatus for liquid purification by evaporative condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T; McNeany, Steve R; Dinsmore, Thomas V; Hunter, Scott R; Ivanov, Ilia N

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a first vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The first vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus simplifying maintenance of the apparatus.

  2. Direct Numerical Simulation of Multiphase flow over Realistic Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alame, Karim; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations are performed using the volume of fluid methodology, for turbulent channel flow of water over a realistic superhydrophobic surface, which traps air. The surface is obtained from scanned data of the real sprayed surface. Multiphase laminar Couette flow and turbulent channel cases are examined. Drag reduction for different interface heights are shown, and the effect of turbulence on multiphase flow over rough surfaces is discussed. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  3. Enhanced Thermal Transport of Surfaces with Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    water droplets placed on the surface of the lotus leaf is 160°.1 Superhydrophobic surfaces have potential applications in self-cleaning surfaces,2...modified from a hydrophilic chemistry (oxide) to a hydrophobic surface using a fluorinated (or protonated) self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Chemical...to be less than 170°. In a separate experiment, a polished Cu pipe was treated with hydrochloric acid, silver nitrate, and fluorinated SAM as above

  4. Drop impact upon micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Peichun; Pacheco, Sergio; Pirat, Christophe; Lefferts, Leon; Lohse, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally investigate drop impact dynamics onto different superhydrophobic surfaces, consisting of regular polymeric micropatterns and rough carbon nanofibers, with similar static contact angles. The main control parameters are the Weber number \\We and the roughness of the surface. At small \\We, i.e. small impact velocity, the impact evolutions are similar for both types of substrates, exhibiting Fakir state, complete bouncing, partial rebouncing, trapping of an air bubble, jetting, a...

  5. On slip flow and interfacial phenomena within superhydrophobic microchannels

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keeffe, Niall

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed The unique wetting properties of superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces have attracted a considerable interest in recent years. Their ability to repel liquids produces some remarkable characteristics such as spherical droplet formations with enhanced mobility, self cleaning properties, anti-sticking abilities and reduced drag on liquid flows. These wetting phenomena are directly attributed to the Cassie-Baxter wetting condition, where a SH surface supports a fluid on t...

  6. Fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic glass with fibered-silica network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province & Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Shi, Zhenwu, E-mail: zwshi@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province & Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Jiang, Yingjie; Xu, Chengyun; Wu, Zhuhui; Wang, Yanyan [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province & Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Peng, Changsi, E-mail: changsipeng@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province & Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic fibred-silica film with water contact angle of 166° and sliding angle of 1° was efficiently prepared using soot as template by CVD. • The film showed transmittance of 88% in visible range. • The superhydrophobic film possesses excellent mechanical robustness, chemical corrosion resistance, and thermal stability. • The superhydrophobic film showed outstanding self-cleaning behavior. - Abstract: In this paper, silica was deposited on the soot film pre-coated glass via chemical vapor deposition. Through calcination at 500 °C with the assistance of O{sub 2} airflow, the soot film was removed and a novel robust fibered-silica network film was then decorated onto the glass substrate. After modification with fluorosilane, the surface water contact angle (WCA) was 166° and sliding angle (SA) was 1° which behaves a good self-cleaning for the as-prepared glass. And its average transmittance was still over 88% in visible wavelength. Moreover, this fibered-silica coating showed a strong tolerance for heavy water droplets, acid/alkali corrosion, salt solution immersion and thermal treatment.

  7. Superhydrophobic Post Treatment and Coating Extenders for Improved Asset Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steven; Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz M.

    2015-01-01

    Launch structures, hardware, and ground support equipment, at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center in Florida, are exposed to a highly corrosive natural coastal marine environment. In addition, during launches, rocket exhaust deposition is also highly corrosive. Superhydrophobic coatings are being considered for additional corrosion protection on existing structures to enhance corrosion resistance and add an additional layer of protection against harsh environmental elements. These coatings have come into their own recently, and are now being investigated as corrosion protective coatings due to their water repelling capability. These coatings can be used on existing coatings, newly coated materials, or used on bare substrates. The coatings are not suitable for permanent corrosion protection, but can be used where additional corrosion control is desired or only when temporary corrosion control is needed, such as in hardware sitting on a launch pad for 30-45 days prior to a launch. In this study, superhydrophobic coatings were applied on various coated and uncoated substrates and exposed to the spaceport environment for various times up to 60 days. This paper highlights the current results of the superhydrophobic coatings performance evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements.

  8. Stable superhydrophilic coating on superhydrophobic porous media by functionalized nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Masoud; Taghi Sadeghi, Mohammad; Sadat Hosseini, Marzieh

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the hydrophilicity property of TiO2 nano-coating was improved by zinc acetate-assisted sol–gel method. The stable superhydrophilic coating was fabricated on a superhydrophobic mineral rock surface. The wettability of surface before and after coating was characterized by contact angle measurements. The n-heptane and water droplet contact angle was 0° and 168° respectively, so the untreated rock was superhydrophobic. After nano-treatment, the n-heptane and water contact angle changed to 172° and 0° respectively, so the superhydrophilic coating was formed on the superhydrophobic surface. The thermal, mechanical and salinity stability of the fabricated coatings was investigated. The coatings had high thermal and salinity stability; they also had moderate mechanical stability that was evaluated by abrasion test. The morphology and composition of synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Characterization of the coated surfaces was conducted by SEM and XRD analyses. Applications of these nano-coatings include surfaces where cleanliness is paramount such as in hospitals as well as the protection of public monuments and building facades from weathering. Novel industrial application includes wettability alteration of oil wet carbonate rock for enhanced oil recovery.

  9. Effect of Superhydrophobic Surface of Titanium on Staphylococcus aureus Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifu Tang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the systemic antibiotics prophylaxis, orthopedic implants still remain highly susceptible to bacterial adhesion and resulting in device-associated infection. Surface modification is an effective way to decrease bacterial adhesion. In this study, we prepared surfaces with different wettability on titanium surface based on TiO2 nanotube to examine the effect of bacterial adhesion. Firstly, titanium plates were calcined to form hydrophilic TiO2 nanotube films of anatase phase. Subsequently, the nanotube films and inoxidized titaniums were treated with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl-triethoxysilane (PTES, forming superhydrophobic and hydrophobic surfaces. Observed by SEM and contact angle measurements, the different surfaces have different characteristics. Staphylococcus aureus (SA adhesion on different surfaces was evaluated. Our experiment results show that the superhydrophobic surface has contact angles of water greater than 150∘ and also shows high resistance to bacterial contamination. It is indicated that superhydrophobic surface may be a factor to reduce device-associated infection and could be used in clinical practice.

  10. Superhydrophobic Effect on the Adsorption of Human Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibner, Evan S.; Barnthip, Naris; Chen, Weinan; Baumrucker, Craig R.; Badding, John V.; Pishko, Michael; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2009-01-01

    Analytical protocol greatly influences measurement of human-serum albumin (HSA) adsorption to commercial expanded polytetrafluororethylene (ePTFE) exhibiting superhydrophobic wetting properties. Degassing of buffer solutions and evacuation of ePTFE adsorbent to remove trapped air immediately prior to contact with protein solutions are shown to be essential. Results obtained with ePTFE as a prototypical superhydrophobic test material suggest that vacuum degassing should be applied in the measurement of protein adsorption to any surface exhibiting superhydrophobicity. Solution depletion quantified using radiometry (I-125 labeled HSA) or electrophoresis yield different measures of adsorption, with nearly four-fold higher surface concentrations of unlabeled HSA measured by the electrophoresis method. This outcome is attributed to the influence of the radiolabel on HSA hydrophilicity which decreases radiolabeled-HSA affinity for a hydrophobic adsorbent in comparison to unlabeled HSA. These results indicate that radiometry underestimates the actual amount of protein adsorbed to a particular material. Removal of radiolabeled HSA adsorbed to ePTFE by 3X serial buffer rinses also shows that the remaining “bound fraction” was about 35% lower than the amount measured by radiometric depletion. This observation implies that measurement of protein bound after surface rinsing significantly underestimates the actual amount of protein concentrated by adsorption into the surface region of a protein-contacting material. PMID:19135420

  11. Dynamic effects of bouncing water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Chae; Bhushan, Bharat

    2008-06-17

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have considerable technological potential for various applications due to their extreme water repellent properties. Superhydrophobic surfaces may be generated by the use of hydrophobic coating, roughness, and air pockets between solid and liquid. Dynamic effects, such as the bouncing of a droplet, can destroy the composite solid-air-liquid interface. The relationship between the impact velocity of a droplet and the geometric parameters affects the transition from the solid-air-liquid interface to the solid-liquid interface. Therefore, it is necessary to study the dynamic effect of droplets under various impact velocities. We studied the dynamic impact behavior of water droplets on micropatterned silicon surfaces with pillars of two different diameters and heights and with varying pitch values. A criterion for the transition from the Cassie and Baxter regime to the Wenzel regime based on the relationship between the impact velocity and the parameter of patterned surfaces is proposed. The trends are explained based on the experimental data and the proposed transition criterion. For comparison, the dynamic impact behavior of water droplets on nanopatterned surfaces was investigated. The wetting behavior under various impact velocities on multiwalled nanotube arrays also was investigated. The physics of wetting phenomena for bouncing water droplet studies here is of fundamental importance in the geometrical design of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  12. Superhydrophobic durable coating based on UV-photoreactive silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahum, T.; Dodiuk, H.; Dotan, A.; Kenig, S. [Department of Plastics Engineering, Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, 12 Anna Frank Street, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel); Lellouche, J. P. [Department of Chemistry, Nanomaterials Research Center, Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramar-Gan, 52900 (Israel)

    2015-05-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with contact angle (CA) >150 and sliding angle (SA) <10 have been aroused curiosity over the years due to their various applications. Superhydrophobicity can be obtained tailoring the chemistry and the roughness of the surface, mimicking the Lotus flower. Most superhydrophobic surfaces based on secondary bonding lose their roughness in harsh conditions and are unsuitable for practical applications. Photoreactive SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) based on benzophenone (BP) can be a very effective tool for formation of reactive species that function as a molecular bridge by covalent bonding between the NP and any polymer matrix with C-C and C-H bonds. The present work focused on thermoset radiation curing urethane acrylate. Upon UV irradiation reactive excited nπ* triplet benzophenone species are formed and react through hydrogen abstraction to form ketyl radicals which interact with a radicals from the UV irradiated polymer matrix to yield covalent bonding. Roughness was achieved by dipping the substrate in SiO{sub 2}@BPs NPs dispersion followed by irradiation. Fluoroalkylsilane was used to obtain hydrophobic top layer. AFM nano manipulation was used to verify the immobilization of NPs. Evaluation of durability was made using air flow at 300 km/hr. Preliminary results indicate the formation of super hydrophobic surfaces (CA>150 and SA<10) with improved stability.

  13. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An, E-mail: lian2010@lut.cn

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  14. Superhydrophobicity to minimize thrombogenic risk on mechanical heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, David; Vahabi, Hamed; Movafaghi, Sanli; Popat, Ketul; Kota, Arun K.; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2017-11-01

    A large number of prosthetic heart valves are implanted each year to treat heart valve disease, where half of the surgically replaced valves are mechanical heart valves (MHV)s. MHVs are at high risk for thrombosis and therefore require lifelong antithrombotic therapies, causing an increased bleeding risk that can lead to death. To alleviate this need, we investigate the potential of superhydrophobic surfaces in reducing the thrombotic risk. Particle imaging velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics are used to quantify shear stress in the presence of potential slip on the surface. Coagulation and cell adhesion are quantified by incubating blood under static conditions. We further evaluate a dynamic blood response in polydimethylsiloxane channels under complex shear conditions that mimic the hinge region of bileaflet mechanical heart valves, a region known to exhibit thrombosis. Overall, Shear stress is not reduced on a superhydrophobic bileaflet MHV. However, superhydrophobic surfaces significantly reduce the potential for platelet responses under static and dynamic blood flow conditions, a counterintuitive result when considering that hydrophobic surfaces are prone to protein and cell adhesion. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from National Institutes of Health (NIH) under Award Number R01HL119824 and F32HL129730. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.

  15. Fabrication and corrosion resistance of superhydrophobic magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Libang; Zhu, Yali; Fan, Weibo; Wang, Yanping; Qiang, Xiaohu; Liu, Yanhua

    2015-08-01

    A superhydrophobic magnesium alloy (AZ91) is successfully fabricated by sulfuric acid etching, AgNO3 treatment, and dodecyl mercaptan (DM) modification. The effect of the fabrication procedure, the concentration and treatment time of sulfuric acid, AgNO3, and DM on morphology, phase structure, surface wettability, and surface composition of the AZ91 is investigated in detail. Consequently, the optimal treatment parameters are selected, and the superhydrophobic magnesium alloy with a water contact angle of 154° and a sliding angle of 5° is fabricated. The acid etching endows the AZ91 surface with rough structure while the AgNO3 treatment results in more protrusions and grooves. Meanwhile, the long hydrophobic alkyl chains are self-assembled onto the rough AZ91 surface upon DM modification. As a result, the multilayer of netlike surface with protrusions and grooves together with the coral-like structure is obtained. Additionally, the magnesium alloy with higher water contact angle has better corrosion resistance, while the magnesium alloy with the superhydrophobic property has the best corrosion resistance.

  16. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Huanhuan; Zheng, Tingting; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three

  17. Self-healing superhydrophobic fluoropolymer brushes as highly protein-repellent coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Zhanhua; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with micro/nanostructures are widely used to prevent nonspecific adsorption of commercial polymeric and/or biological materials. Herein, a self-healing superhydrophobic and highly protein-repellent fluoropolymer brush was grafted onto nanostructured silicon by

  18. Identification of the mechanism that confers superhydrophobicity on 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, Ana M.; Llorca-Isern, Nuria; Rius-Ayra, Oriol

    2016-01-15

    This study develops a rapid method to confer superhydrophobicity on 316L stainless steel surfaces with an amphiphilic reagent such as dodecanoic acid. The highest contact angle (approaching 173°) was obtained after forming hierarchical structures with a non-aqueous electrolyte by an electrolytic process. Our goal was to induce superhydrophobicity directly on 316L stainless steel substrates and to establish which molecules cause the effect. The superhydrophobic behaviour is analysed by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The growth mechanism is analysed using FE-SEM, TOF-SIMS and XPS in order to determine the molecules involved in the reaction and the growth. The TOF-SIMS analysis revealed that the Ni{sup 2+} ions react with lauric acid to create an ester on the stainless steel surface. - Highlights: • This study develops a rapid and facile approach to impart superhydrophobicity properties to 316L stainless steel surfaces with an amphiphilic reagent such as dodecanoic acid. Surface character changes from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. • This process changes the surface character from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. • The process based on electrolysis of a nickel salt in lauric acid provides superhydrophobic behaviour in 316L stainless steel. • The growth mechanism is proposed as a mode island (Volmert- Weber mode). • TOF-SIMS and XPS provided the identification of the molecules involved in the surface modification reaction on AISI 316L inducing superhydrophobicity.

  19. Inkjet printing for direct micropatterning of a superhydrophobic surface: Toward biomimetic fog harvesting surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces with hydrophilic micro-sized patterns is highly desirable, but a one-step, mask-free method to produce such surfaces has not previously been reported. We have developed a direct method to produce superhydrophilic micropatterns on superhydrophobic surfaces based on inkjet printing technology. This work was inspired by the efficient fog-harvesting behavior of Stenocara beetles in the Namib Desert. A mussel-inspired ink consisting of an optimized solution of dopamine was applied directly by inkjet printing to superhydrophobic surfaces. Stable Wenzel\\'s microdroplets of the dopamine solution with well-defined micropatterns were obtained on these surfaces. Superhydrophilic micropatterns with well-controlled dimensions were then readily achieved on the superhydrophobic surfaces by the formation of polydopamine via in situ polymerization. The micropatterned superhydrophobic surfaces prepared by this inkjet printing method showed enhanced water collection efficiency compared with uniform superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces. This method can be used for the facile large-scale patterning of superhydrophobic surfaces with high precision and superior pattern stability and is therefore a key step toward patterning superhydrophobic surfaces for practical applications. This journal is

  20. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic polyurethane foam and its application for continuous oil removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Dong; Gu, Bin; Yuan, Wei-Feng; He, Qi

    2018-02-01

    A new polyurethane foam with superhydrophobicity and excellent lipophilicity is presented and demonstrated experimentally in this work. The superhydrophobic foam is synthesized by dip coating the polyurethane foam with a mixture solution of silicone resine and silicon dioxide nanoparticles. Its superhydrophobic and oleophilic capacity is characterized and verified via the SEM images, the water contact angle measurement, the adsorption tests and recyclability tests for water and some typical oils. Combining with the vacuum assisted oil-water separation technology (VAST), continuous recovery of oil spill at the lab scale is realized on the new superhydrophobic foam. Moreover, the break through pressure for water penetrating through the superhydrophobic foam is determined experimentally and referred as the maximum operation pressure in the VAST.

  1. Effect of superhydrophobicity on flashover characteristics of silicone rubber under wet conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic surface has aroused much interest among researchers due to the low adhesion between water and a substrate surface. This study focuses on the influence of the low adhesion of superhydrophobic surface on flashover characteristics under wet conditions. The flashover experiments were conducted under two different wet conditions. One was placing a constant volume droplet on the silicone rubber. The other one was that silicone rubber was wetted by salt fog. It was found that the adhesion between water droplets and a superhydrophobic surface was very low because of the presence of air cushion. Accordingly, water droplets were easy to slide on a superhydrophobic surface under the effect of electric filed. The sliding of droplets could provide a longer insulation path before flashover occurred. Results showed that flashover voltage could be improved greatly on a superhydrophobic silicone rubber surface.

  2. Laser synthesized super-hydrophobic conducting carbon with broccoli-type morphology as a counter-electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Rohan; Agarkar, Shruti; Debgupta, Joyashish; Shinde, Deodatta; Lefez, Benoit; Banerjee, Abhik; Jog, Jyoti; More, Mahendra; Hannoyer, Beatrice; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2012-10-01

    A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode.A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and equipment details, solar cell fabrication protocol, electrolyte spreading time measurement details, XPS spectra, electronic study, film adhesion test detailed analysis and field emission results. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32082g

  3. Nanotechnological Advances in Catalytic Thin Films for Green Large-Area Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Biran Ay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-area catalytic thin films offer great potential for green technology applications in order to save energy, combat pollution, and reduce global warming. These films, either embedded with nanoparticles, shaped with nanostructuring techniques, hybridized with other systems, or functionalized with bionanotechnological methods, can include many different surface properties including photocatalytic, antifouling, abrasion resistant and mechanically resistive, self-cleaning, antibacterial, hydrophobic, and oleophobic features. Thus, surface functionalization with such advanced structuring methods is of significance to increase the performance and wide usage of large-area thin film coatings specifically for environmental remediation. In this review, we focus on methods to increase the efficiency of catalytic reactions in thin film and hence improve the performance in relevant applications while eliminating high cost with the purpose of widespread usage. However, we also include the most recent hybrid architectures, which have potential to make a transformational change in surface applications as soon as high quality and large area production techniques are available. Hence, we present and discuss research studies regarding both organic and inorganic methods that are used to structure thin films that have potential for large-area and eco-friendly coatings.

  4. Rapid fabrication of large-area, corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic Mg alloy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenji; Song, Jinlong; Sun, Jing; Lu, Yao; Yu, Ziyuan

    2011-11-01

    A superhydrophobic magnesium (Mg) alloy surface was successfully fabricated via a facile electrochemical machining process, and subsequently covered with a fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) film. The surface morphologies and chemical compositions were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The results show hierarchal rough structures and an FAS film with a low surface energy on the Mg alloy surfaces, which confers good superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 165.2° and a water tilting angle of approximately 2°. The processing conditions, such as the processing time and removal rate per unit area at a constant removal mass per unit area, were investigated to determine their effects on the superhydrophobicity. Interestingly, when the removal mass per unit area is constant at approximately 11.10 mg/cm(2), the superhydrophobicity does not change with the removal rate per unit area. Therefore, a superhydrophobic Mg alloy surface can be rapidly fabricated based on this property. A large-area superhydrophobic Mg alloy surface was also fabricated for the first time using a small-area moving cathode. The corrosion resistance and durability of the superhydrophobic surfaces were also examined.

  5. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2012-09-12

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. The prediction of Los Angeles (LA) abrasion loss from some indirect tests is useful for practical applications. For this purpose, LA abrasion, electrical resistivity, density and porosity tests were carried out on 27 different rock types. LA abrasion loss values were correlated with electrical resistivity and a good corre-.

  7. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The prediction of Los Angeles (LA) abrasion loss from some indirect tests is useful for practical applications. For this purpose, LA abrasion, electrical resistivity, density and porosity tests were carried out on 27 different rock types. LA abrasion loss values were correlated with electrical resistivity and a good correlation ...

  8. Evaluation of abrasion resistance of pipe and pipe lining materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    This project summarizes an evaluation of pipe material resistance to abrasion over a 5-year period (2001-2006) at a site known to be abrasive. : The key focus of the project was to gather more information to compare against existing guidance to desig...

  9. Wear and abrasion resistance selection maps of biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Shahrouz; Miserez, Ali

    2013-08-01

    The mechanical design of biological materials has generated widespread interest in recent years, providing many insights into their intriguing structure-property relationships. A critical characteristic of load-bearing materials, which is central to the survival of many species, is their wear and abrasion tolerance. In order to be fully functional, protective armors, dentitious structures and dynamic appendages must be able to tolerate repetitive contact loads without significant loss of materials or internal damage. However, very little is known about this tribological performance. Using a contact mechanics framework, we have constructed materials selection charts that provide general predictions about the wear performance of biological materials as a function of their fundamental mechanical properties. One key assumption in constructing these selection charts is that abrasion tolerance is governed by the first irreversible damage at the contact point. The maps were generated using comprehensive data from the literature and encompass a wide range of materials, from heavily mineralized to fully organic materials. Our analysis shows that the tolerance of biological materials against abrasion depends on contact geometry, which is ultimately correlated to environmental and selective pressures. Comparisons with experimental data from nanoindentation experiments are also drawn in order to verify our predictions. With the increasing amount of data available for biological materials also comes the challenge of selecting relevant model systems for bioinspired materials engineering. We suggest that these maps will be able to guide this selection by providing an overview of biological materials that are predicted to exhibit the best abrasion tolerance, which is of fundamental interest for a wide range of applications, for instance in restorative implants and protective devices. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pendant bubble method for an accurate characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, William Yeong Liang; Ng, Tuck Wah; Neild, Adrian

    2011-12-06

    The commonly used sessile drop method for measuring contact angles and surface tension suffers from errors on superhydrophobic surfaces. This occurs from unavoidable experimental error in determining the vertical location of the liquid-solid-vapor interface due to a camera's finite pixel resolution, thereby necessitating the development and application of subpixel algorithms. We demonstrate here the advantage of a pendant bubble in decreasing the resulting error prior to the application of additional algorithms. For sessile drops to attain an equivalent accuracy, the pixel count would have to be increased by 2 orders of magnitude. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Robust Anti-Icing Performance of a Flexible Superhydrophobic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gong, Qihua; Zhan, Shihui; Jiang, Lei; Zheng, Yongmei

    2016-09-01

    A material with superhydrophobic and anti-ice/de-icing properties, which has a micro-/nanostructured surface, is produced by a straightforward method. This material comprises a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microstructure with ZnO nanohairs and shows excellent water and ice repellency even at low temperatures (-20 °C) and relatively high humidity (90%) for over three months. These results are expected to be helpful for designing smart, non-wetting materials that can be adapted to low-temperature environments for the development of anti-icing systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Liquid Droplet Impact Dynamics on Micro-Patterned Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo, Cristian; Maynes, Daniel; Crockett, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The video exhibits experimental qualitative and quantitative results of water/glycerol (50%/50% by mass) droplet impact on two types of micro-patterned superhydrophobic surfaces. The two types of surfaces used were 80% cavity fraction ribs and posts with a periodic spacing of 40 {\\mu}m and 32 {\\mu}m, respectively. All surfaces were manufactured through photolithography. The impact Weber number is used as the dynamic parameter to compare splash and rebound behaviors between the two types of su...

  13. Textured Al2024 alloy surface for super-hydrophobicity investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijuan; Chen, Miao; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin

    2008-01-01

    To mimic the lotus leaf structure, micro- and nanometer honeycomb-like porous hierarchical microstructures were constructed on the Al2024 alloy surface in which the average diameter of micro-pores was ca. 10 μm while those of nano-pores varied from 200 to 300 nm. Super-hydrophobicity was achieved with a water contact angle of 158° and the sliding angle of 4° by modifying the textured surface with HFTHTMS (HFTHTMS = (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyl) trimethoxysilane).

  14. Facile fabrication of iron-based superhydrophobic surfaces via electric corrosion without bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qinghe [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht100@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Chen, Tianchi [College of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Wei, Yan; Wei, Zhu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion without a bath. • It has a vital significance to the industrialization of the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on hard metal due to the advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, can be prepared in a large area, easy to construct in the field. • The preparation approach is so facile and time-saving that it delivers an opportunity to construct a superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate and provides the feasibility for industrial application of superhydrophobic surface. • The as-prepared surface has many excellent properties, like low adhesive property, anti-corrosion ability, mechanical durability and anti-icing performance. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surface is of wide application in the field of catalysis, lubrication, waterproof, biomedical materials, etc. The superhydrophobic surface based on hard metal is worth further study due to its advantages of high strength and wear resistance. This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion and studies the properties of as-prepared superhydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic properties were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the structure of the corrosion surface. The surface compositions were characterized by an Energy Dispersive Spectrum. The Electrochemical workstation was used to measure its anti-corrosion property. The anti-icing performance was characterized by a steam-freezing test in Environmental testing chamber. The SiC sandpaper and 500 g weight were used to test the friction property. The research result shows that the superhydrophobic surface can be successfully fabricated by electrocorrosion on

  15. Superhydrophobic aluminum alloy surfaces by a novel one-step process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleema, N; Sarkar, D K; Paynter, R W; Chen, X-G

    2010-09-01

    A simple one-step process has been developed to render aluminum alloy surfaces superhydrophobic by immersing the aluminum alloy substrates in a solution containing NaOH and fluoroalkyl-silane (FAS-17) molecules. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements have been performed to characterize the morphological features, chemical composition and superhydrophobicity of the surfaces. The resulting surfaces provided a water contact angle as high as ∼162° and a contact angle hysteresis as low as ∼4°. The study indicates that it is possible to fabricate superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces easily and effectively without involving the traditional two-step processes.

  16. Stable superhydrophobic surface: fabrication of interstitial cottonlike structure of copper nanocrystals by magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Li, Bo Wang, Yi Liu, Tian Tan, Xuemei Song, Er Li and Hui Yan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A stable superhydrophobic copper surface was obtained by radio-frequency magnetic sputtering on Si (100 and quartz substrates. The water contact angle and sliding angle of the superhydrophobic copper surface were 160.5° and 3±1.9°, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM photos show that the superhydrophobic surface structure comprises many uniform nanocrystals with a diameter of about 100 nm. A brief explanation of the formation of this special microstructure and the mechanism of its wettability were proposed.

  17. High Stability Performance of Superhydrophobic Modified Fluorinated Graphene Films on Copper Alloy Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A stable self-cleaning superhydrophobic modified fluorinated graphene surface with micro/nanostructure was successfully fabricated on copper substrates via drop coating process. Irregularly stacked island-like multilayered fluorinated graphene nanoflakes comprised the microstructure. The fabricated films exhibited outstanding superhydrophobic property with a water contact angle 167° and water sliding angle lower than 4°. The developed superhydrophobic surface showed excellent corrosion resistance with insignificant decrease of water contact angle 166° in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. This stable highly hydrophobic performance of the fluorinated graphene films could be useful in self-cleaning, antifogging, corrosion resistive coatings and microfluidic devices.

  18. Robust Superhydrophobic Foam: A Graphdiyne-Based Hierarchical Architecture for Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Zhou, Jingyuan; Du, Ran; Xie, Ziqian; Deng, Shibin; Liu, Rong; Liu, Zhongfan; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-06

    Robust superhydrophobic foam is fabricated by combining an ordered graphdiyne-based hierarchical structure with a low-surface-energy coating. This foam shows not only superhydrophobicity both in air (≈160.1°) and in oil (≈171.0°), but also high resistance toward abrasion cycles. Owing to its 3D porous structures and numerous superhydrophobic surfaces, it can easily separate oil from water with high efficiency and good recyclability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Superhydrophobic copper surfaces fabricated by fatty acid soaps in aqueous solution for excellent corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenlong; Hu, Yuanyuan; Bao, Wenda; Xie, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yiran; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2017-03-01

    A simple and safe one-step immersion method was developed to obtain the stable superhydrophobic copper surfaces with excellent corrosion resistance ability using fatty acids in water-medium instead of ethanol. An organic alkali, N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), was chosen to solve the poor solubility of fatty acids in water and the high Krafft point of carboxylate salts with inorganic counterions. The superhydrophobic property can be realized in a much quicker process (7.5 min) in aqueous solution than in ethanol (more than 2 d), which is universally feasible for the fabrication of superhydrophobic metal surfaces in industry scale, thereby greatly increasing the safety in industrial manufacture.

  20. Superhydrophobic activated carbon-coated sponges for separation and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hanxue; Li, An; Zhu, Zhaoqi; Liang, Weidong; Zhao, Xinhong; La, Peiqing; Deng, Weiqiao

    2013-06-01

    Highly porous activated carbon with a large surface area and pore volume was synthesized by KOH activation using commercially available activated carbon as a precursor. By modification with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), highly porous activated carbon showed superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 163.6°. The changes in wettability of PDMS- treated highly porous activated carbon were attributed to the deposition of a low-surface-energy silicon coating onto activated carbon (confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), which had microporous characteristics (confirmed by XRD, SEM, and TEM analyses). Using an easy dip-coating method, superhydrophobic activated carbon-coated sponges were also fabricated; those exhibited excellent absorption selectivity for the removal of a wide range of organics and oils from water, and also recyclability, thus showing great potential as efficient absorbents for the large-scale removal of organic contaminants or oil spills from water. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effect of superhydrophobic surface morphology on evaporative deposition patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicuangco, Mercy; Dash, Susmita; Weibel, Justin A.; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-05-01

    Prediction and active control of the spatial distribution of particulate deposits obtained from sessile droplet evaporation are vital in printing, nanostructure assembly, biotechnology, and other applications that require localized deposits. This Letter presents surface wettability-based localization of evaporation-driven particulate deposition and the effect of superhydrophobic surface morphology on the distribution of deposits. Sessile water droplets containing suspended latex particles are evaporated on non-wetting textured surfaces with varying microstructure geometry at ambient conditions. The droplets are visualized throughout the evaporation process to track the temporal evolution of contact radius and apparent contact angle. The resulting particle deposits on the substrates are quantitatively characterized. The experimental results show that superhydrophobic surfaces suppress contact-line deposition during droplet evaporation, thereby providing an effective means of localizing the deposition of suspended particles. A correlation between deposit size and surface morphology, explained in terms of the interface pressure balance at the transition between wetting states, reveals an optimum surface morphology for minimizing the deposit coverage area.

  2. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accardo, Angelo [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genova 16163 (Italy); Di Fabrizio, Enzo [KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology), Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); BIONEM Lab at University Magna Graecia, Campus Salvatore Venuta, Viale Europa 88100, Germaneto-Catanzaro (Italy); Limongi, Tania [KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology), Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Marinaro, Giovanni [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genova 16163 (Italy); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Riekel, Christian, E-mail: riekel@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2014-06-10

    A comprehensive review about the use of micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces as a tool for in situ X-ray scattering investigations of soft matter and biological materials. Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data.

  3. Superhydrophobicity in perfection: the outstanding properties of the lotus leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Ensikat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lotus leaves have become an icon for superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning surfaces, and have led to the concept of the ‘Lotus effect’. Although many other plants have superhydrophobic surfaces with almost similar contact angles, the lotus shows better stability and perfection of its water repellency. Here, we compare the relevant properties such as the micro- and nano-structure, the chemical composition of the waxes and the mechanical properties of lotus with its competitors. It soon becomes obvious that the upper epidermis of the lotus leaf has developed some unrivaled optimizations. The extraordinary shape and the density of the papillae are the basis for the extremely reduced contact area between surface and water drops. The exceptional dense layer of very small epicuticular wax tubules is a result of their unique chemical composition. The mechanical robustness of the papillae and the wax tubules reduce damage and are the basis for the perfection and durability of the water repellency. A reason for the optimization, particularly of the upper side of the lotus leaf, can be deduced from the fact that the stomata are located in the upper epidermis. Here, the impact of rain and contamination is higher than on the lower epidermis. The lotus plant has successfully developed an excellent protection for this delicate epistomatic surface of its leaves.

  4. Superhydrophobic chitosan-based coatings for textile processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, N.A., E-mail: NAI-72@yandex.ru [Ivanovo State Textile Academy, F. Engels Avenue 21, 153000 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Philipchenko, A.B. [Kazan State Medical University, Butlerova 49, 420012 Kazan, Tatarstan (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitosan nanoparticles can be used for design of the superhydrophobic anti-bacterial textile. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spraying the nanoparticle dispersion allows one to get multiscale textured coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relative number of fluoroanions per elementary unit of chitosan plays the crucial role in the structure of aggregates and coating wettability. - Abstract: A simple method to design the superhydrophobic anti-bacterial textile for biomedical applications was developed. For the coating formulation the spraying of nanoparticles dispersion over the textile sample was applied, allowing the way to get multiscale textured layer on a top of cotton fabric. The anti-bacterial functionality of coating is supported by using chitosan-based nanoparticles. In our approach the fabrication of nanoparticles was based on electrostatic interaction between amine group of chitosan and negatively charged fluoroanion. It was demonstrated that the relative number of fluoroanions per elementary unit of chitosan plays the crucial role in the structure of aggregates in the coating and its wettability as well as in durability of coatings in contact with aqueous media.

  5. Numerical simulations of drop impact on superhydrophobic structured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, Davide; Larentis, Stefano; Pugno, Nicola

    2011-11-01

    During the last decade drop impact dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces has been intensively investigated because of the incredible properties of water repellency exhibited by this kind of surfaces, mostly inspired by biological examples such as Lotus leave. Thanks to the recent progress in micro-fabrication technology is possible to tailor surfaces wettability defining specific pillar-like structured surfaces. In this work, the behavior of impinging drops on these pillar-like surfaces is simulated, characterizing temporal evolution of droplets contact radius and drop maximal deformation dependence on Weber number. Numerical simulations results are compared with theoretical and experimental results guaranteeing simulation reliability. Fingering patterns obtained from drop impact has been studied obtaining a correlation between number of fingers and Weber number. Drop fragmentation pattern obtained from simulations supports the proposed correlation. Different drop impact outcomes (e.g. rebound, fragmentation) on structured superhydrophobic surfaces are simulated, focusing on the influence of micro-structured surface geometrical pattern. This investigation is relevant in order to define design rules for possible reliable non wettable surfaces. Financial support by Alta Scuola Politecnica.

  6. Superhydrophobic ZnO networks with high water adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florica, Camelia; Preda, Nicoleta; Enculescu, Monica; Zgura, Irina; Socol, Marcela; Enculescu, Ionut

    2014-01-01

    ZnO structures were deposited using a simple chemical bath deposition technique onto interdigitated electrodes fabricated by a conventional photolithography method on SiO2/Si substrates. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO samples have a hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure. The scanning electron microscopy observations prove that the substrates are uniformly covered by ZnO networks formed by monodisperse rods. The ZnO rod average diameter and length were tuned by controlling reactants' concentration and reaction time. Optical spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that all the samples display bandgap values and emission bands typical for ZnO. The electrical measurements reveal percolating networks which are highly sensitive when the samples are exposed to ammonia vapors, a variation in their resistance with the exposure time being evidenced. Other important characteristics are that the ZnO rod networks exhibit superhydrophobicity, with water contact angles exceeding 150° and a high water droplet adhesion. Reproducible, easily scalable, and low-cost chemical bath deposition and photolithography techniques could provide a facile approach to fabricate such ZnO networks and devices based on them for a wide range of applications where multifunctionality, i.e., sensing and superhydrophobicity, properties are required. 81.07.-b; 81.05.Dz; 68.08.Bc.

  7. Superhydrophobic surface from Cu-Zn alloy by one step O2 concentration dependent etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weici; Chen, Miao; Liang, Shan; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Jianmin; Zhou, Feng

    2008-10-15

    The article reports on a very simple method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with Cu-Zn alloy via changing the local oxygen concentration and formation of oxygen difference cell, which can be readily realized by covering or contacting the Cu-Zn alloy surface with a glass slide. This superhydrophobic film comes from the formation of a flower-like hierarchical structure due to the accelerated alloy etching. In contrast, the white film grown in the un-covered area showed a much lower hydrophobicity due to its different morphology. These superhydrophobic surfaces or superhydrophobic-hydrophobic surfaces are expected to find applications in making self-cleaning alloy surface, in metal anticorrosion, and in biomineralization, etc.

  8. High Stability Performance of Superhydrophobic Modified Fluorinated Graphene Films on Copper Alloy Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abbas, Rafik; Elkhoshkhany, N; Hefnawy, Ahmed; Ebrahim, Shaker; Rahal, Aya

    2017-01-01

    ...° and water sliding angle lower than 4°. The developed superhydrophobic surface showed excellent corrosion resistance with insignificant decrease of water contact angle 166° in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution...

  9. Buoyancy increase and drag-reduction through a simple superhydrophobic coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gi Byoung; Patir, Adnan; Page, Kristopher; Lu, Yao; Allan, Elaine; Parkin, Ivan P

    2017-06-08

    A superhydrophobic paint was fabricated using 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (PFOTES), TiO 2 nanoparticles and ethanol. The paint has potential for aquatic application of a superhydrophobic coating as it induces increased buoyancy and drag reduction. Buoyance testing showed that the reduction of surface energy by superhydrophobic coating made it feasible that glass, a high density material, was supported by the surface tension of water. In a miniature boat sailing test, it was shown that the low energy surface treatment decreased the adhesion of water molecules to the surface of the boat resulting in a reduction of the drag force. Additionally, a robust superhydrophobic surface was fabricated through layer-by-layer coating using adhesive double side tape and the paint, and after a 100 cm abrasion test with sand paper, the surface still retained its water repellency, enhanced buoyancy and drag reduction.

  10. Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing of Robust Superhydrophobic Coating on Metallic Engineering Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuliang; Wang, Zhenlong; Wang, Yukui; Bai, Xuelin; Fu, Yong Qing; Guo, Bin; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Jia; Hu, PingAn

    2018-01-17

    Creating a robust superhydrophobic surface on the conventional engineering materials at mass production is of great importance for a self-cleaning, anti-icing, nonwetting surface and low flow resistance in industrial applications. Herein, we report a roll-to-roll strategy to create durable and robust superhydrophobic surfaces with designed micro-/nanoscale hierarchical structures on many conventional engineering materials by combining electrical discharge machining and coating of carbon nanoparticles, followed by oil penetration and drying. The treated surface shows good superhydrophobic properties with a static water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and slide angle of 3 ± 1°. The treated surface also exhibits good resilience and maintains the performance after being tested in various harsh conditions, including water flushing for several days, sand abrasion, scratching with sandpapers, and corrosive solution. Significantly, the superhydrophobic surfaces also show a high efficiency of self-cleaning properties even after oil contamination during applications.

  11. Facile preparation of self-healing superhydrophobic CeO2 surface by electrochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Hiraga, Takuya; Zhu, Chunyu; Tsuji, Etsushi; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Habazaki, Hiroki

    2017-11-01

    Herein we report simple electrochemical processes to fabricate a self-healing superhydrophobic CeO2 coating on Type 304 stainless steel. The CeO2 surface anodically deposited on flat stainless steel surface is hydrophilic, although high temperature-sintered and sputter-deposited CeO2 surface was reported to be hydrophobic. The anodically deposited hydrophilic CeO2 surface is transformed to hydrophobic during air exposure. Specific accumulation of contaminant hydrocarbon on the CeO2 surface is responsible for the transformation to hydrophobic state. The deposition of CeO2 on hierarchically rough stainless steel surface produces superhydrophobic CeO2 surface, which also shows self-healing ability; the surface changes to superhydrophilic after oxygen plasma treatment but superhydrophobic state is recovered repeatedly by air exposure. This work provides a facile method for preparing a self-healing superhydrophobic surface using practical electrochemical processes.

  12. Boundary slip study on hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces with dynamic atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Wang, Yuliang; Maali, Abdelhamid

    2009-07-21

    Slip length has been measured using the dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) method. Unlike the contact AFM method, the sample surface approaches an oscillating sphere with a very low velocity in the dynamic AFM method. During this process, the amplitude and phase shift data are recorded to calculate the hydrodynamic damping coefficient, which is then used to obtain slip length. In this study, a glass sphere with a large radius was glued to the end of an AFM cantilever to measure the slip length on rough surfaces. Experimental results for hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces show that the hydrodynamic damping coefficient decreases from the hydrophilic surface to the hydrophobic surface and from the hydrophobic one to the superhydrophobic one. The slip lengths obtained on the hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces are 43 and 236 nm, respectively, which indicates increasing boundary slip from the hydrophobic surface to the superhydrophobic one.

  13. Superhydrophobic, diatomaceous earth comprising bandages and method of making the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; D' Urso, Brian R.

    2017-01-10

    A bandage comprising a substrate having a first surface with a plurality of superhydrophobic particles attached to the first surface. The plurality of superhydrophobic particles can be porous diatomaceous earth particles having a hydrophobic layer conforming to the surfaces of the DE particles, where the hydrophobic layer is bound to the DE particles. The plurality of attached superhydrophobic particles can render the first surface superhydrophobic, while a second surface opposite the first surface can be hydrophilic or hydrophobic. The substrate can be breathable in order to maintain skin health for the tissue underlying the bandage. The substrate can be selected from porous films, apertured films, textiles, nonwoven materials, impregnated composites thereof, and combinations thereof.

  14. Superhydrophobic hBN-Regulated Sponges with Excellent Absorbency Fabricated Using a Green and Facile Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ying Zhou; Yao Wang; Tengfei Liu; Gang Xu; Guangming Chen; Huayi Li; Lichun Liu; Qiqi Zhuo; Jiaoxia Zhang; Chao Yan

    2017-01-01

    .... This superhydrophobic sponge (with a contact angle >150°) exhibits excellent absorption performance for oils and organic solvents, including good selectivity, high capacity (up to 175 g[ANO TELEIA]g-1...

  15. Durable superhydrophobic PTFE films through the introduction of micro- and nanostructured pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao-Yao; Ge, Quan; Yang, Long-Lai; Shi, Xiao-Jun; Li, Jiao-Jiao; Yang, De-Quan; Sacher, Edward

    2015-06-01

    A superhydrophobic surface, highly water repellant and self-cleaning, is typically made by introducing micro- and nanoscale roughness onto the surface of a low surface energy material. Herein, we offer a new process of superhydrophobic film formation, accomplishing the same thing through the production of micro- and nanoscale surface porosities. Such a material is prepared by introducing zinc acetate (ZnAc2) and sodium chloride (NaCl) into a commercially available PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) emulsion. On drying, baking and washing with acetic acid, the PTFE film produced from the emulsion had both micro- and nanoscale surface porosities, and demonstrated superhydrophobic properties, with a static contact angle >150° and a slide angle 150°, but with a slide angle >10°. Based on XPS and SEM data, we explore herein the affect of chemistry and porosity on the mechanism of superhydrophobic surface formation, and the durability of that surface under abrasion.

  16. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Huanhuan; Zheng, Tingting; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three steps: abrasive paper scraping, adhesive tape bonding and 90° peeling. Scraping increases the roughness and enhence water contact angles (CAs) on polyolefin surfaces. It increases more when the scraped ...

  17. Aluminum surface modification with fluoroalkyl methacrylate-based copolymers to attain superhydrophobic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryuzgin, Evgeny V.; Klimov, Victor V.; Repin, Sergey A.; Navrotskiy, Alexander V.; Novakov, Ivan A.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a novel approach to create a superhydrophobic coating on an aluminum surface by attaching random copolymers that are based on glycidyl methacrylate and a number of fluoroalkyl methacrylates that contain 3-7 fluorine atoms in their monomer units. To texture the aluminum surface, short-term etching with hydrochloric acid solutions was used. The coatings that are based on glycidyl methacrylate and fluoroalkyl methacrylate copolymers maintain superhydrophobic properties for longer than 40 h under saturated vapor conditions.

  18. Towards bioinspired superhydrophobic poly(L-lactic acid) surfaces using phase inversion-based methods

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jun; Alves, N. M.; Mano, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    The water repellency and self-cleaning ability of many biological surfaces has inspired many fundamental and practical studies related to the development of synthetic superhydrophobic surfaces. However, the investigation of such substrates made of biodegradable polymers has been scarce. Simple approaches based on a single step, performed at room temperature (and pressure), were implemented to obtain superhydrophobic poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) surfaces via phase inversion-based ...

  19. Verification of icephobic/anti-icing properties of a superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyi; Xue, Jian; Wang, Qingjun; Chen, Qingmin; Ding, Jianfu

    2013-04-24

    Four aluminum surfaces with wettability varied from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic were prepared by combining an etching and a coating process. The surface wettability was checked in terms of water contact angle (CA) and sliding angle (SA) under different humidity at -10 °C. High-speed photography was applied to study water droplet impact dynamics on these surfaces. It was found that single and successive water droplets could rebound on the superhydrophobic surface and roll off at a tilt angle larger than 30° under an extremely condensing weather condition (-10 °C and relative humidity of 85-90%). In addition, the superhydrophobic surface showed a strong icephobic property, the ice adhesion on this surface was only 13% of that on the superhydrophilic surface, though they had a similar nano/microtopological structure. Moreover, this superhydrophobic surface displayed an excellent durability of the icephobic property. The ice adhesion only increased to 20% and 16% of that on the superhydrophobic surface after the surface was undergone 20 icing/ice-breaking cycles and 40 icing/ice-melting cycles, respectively. Surface profile and XPS studies on these surfaces indicated a minor damage of the surface nano/microstructure and the coating layer upon these multiple ice-breaking and ice-melting processes. Therefore, this superhydrophobic surface could be a good candidate for icephobic applications.

  20. Study on bouncing motion of a water drop collision on superhydrophobic surface under icing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tetsuro; Morita, Katsuaki; Kimura, Shigeo

    2017-11-01

    When micro droplets in the air are supercooled and collide with the object, they froze on the surface at the time of a collision and can be defined as icing. If supercooled water droplets collide with an airfoil of an aircraft in flight and shape changes, there is a danger of losing lift and falling. Recently, the ice protection system using a heater and Anti- / Deicing (superhydrophobic) coating is focused. In this system, colliding water droplets are melted by the heat of the heater at the tip of the blade, and the water droplet is bounced by the aerodynamic force on the rear superhydrophobic coating. Thus, it prevents the phenomenon of icing again at the back of the wing (runback ice). Therefore, it is possible to suppress power consumption of the electric heater. In that system, it is important to withdraw water droplets at an extremely superhydrophobic surface at an early stage. However, research on bouncing phenomenon on superhydrophobic surface under icing conditions are not done much now. Therefore, in our research, we focus on one drop supercooled water droplet that collides with the superhydrophobic surface in the icing phenomenon, and aim to follow that phenomenon. In this report, the contact time is defined as the time from collision of a water droplet to bouncing from the superhydrophobic surface, and various parameters (temperature, speed, and diameter) on water droplets under icing conditions are set as the water drop bouncing time (contact time) of the product.

  1. A robust superhydrophobic surface and origins of its self-cleaning properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Yu, Sirong

    2017-10-01

    A hierarchical surface was fabricated by electrodeposition of copper coating and chemical oxidation to form copper oxide, and the surface energy was lowered by chemical modification. The optimum parameters including seven days of chemical modification, 0.12 mol/L of (NH4)2S2O8, 2.5 mol/L of KOH and 60 °C of oxidation temperature were used to fabricate the superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle up to around 160° and a sliding angle about 3° on a steel substrate. Silver mirror effect and simple calculation showed that the wetting state between a water droplet and the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface was the Cassie state. This superhydrophobic surface had excellent self-cleaning properties for two different sizes (∼ 50 μm and 150 μm) of fly-ash cenospheres, and we gave the reason for its self-cleaning properties by the force involved at the interface. We also investigated the dynamics of water droplets impinging onto the superhydrophobic surface with different impact velocities, ranging from 0.31 m/s to 1.71 m/s, and found that all the water droplets could rebound from the superhydrophobic surface, with no trace of adhesion. In addition, a variety of tests were performed to assess the robustness of the superhydrophobic surfaces.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of superhydrophobic and superparamagnetic film based on maghemite-polystyrene composite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.D. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Polytechnic University, Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Daxue Road, Western University Science Park, Jinan 250353 (China); Liu, W.L., E-mail: wlliu@sdu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Polytechnic University, Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Daxue Road, Western University Science Park, Jinan 250353 (China); Xu, W.H.; Yao, J.S.; Zhao, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Polytechnic University, Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Daxue Road, Western University Science Park, Jinan 250353 (China); Wang, X.Q.; Wu, Y.Z. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maghemite nanoparticles were coated with silica. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polystyrene was grafted onto the surface of silica coated maghemite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rough surface shows superhydrophobic and superparamagnetic properties. - Abstract: We combine two abilities: the superhydrophobicity of lotus leaf and the magnetic property of {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. A superhydrophobic and superparamagnetic polystyrene/silica/maghemite (PS/SiO{sub 2}/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (PSVSF)) film was prepared by a three-step chemical procedure at mild conditions. The products exhibited superhydrophobicity and superparamagnetism after coating and modifying. Because PS and SiO{sub 2} supplied the low surface energy and roughness, respectively. In addition, the classic and a modified Cassie-Baxter relation were applied on the PSVSF films to verify the superhydrophobic performance. It indicates that the obtained superhydrophobic and superparamagnetic films are promising materials for numerous potential applications fields, including aerospace, electronic, biomedical, martial and defense-related areas.

  3. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Calcium Phosphate Coating on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy and Its Corrosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lashuang; Jiang, Yue; Zai, Wei; Li, Guangyu; Liu, Shaocheng; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Zhonghao

    2017-11-01

    A novel superhydrophobic calcium phosphate coating was prepared on a magnesium alloy substrate by a highly effective chemical conversion process and subsequent chemical modification. Different methods were employed to characterize the surface morphology and chemical composition as well as measure the wettability of the coating. It was demonstrated that the as-prepared superhydrophobic calcium phosphate coating has a typical three-level hierarchical structure consisted of micro-protrusions, submicro-lumps and nano-grains, conferring excellent superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 159°. The electrochemical measurements and appropriate equivalent circuit revealed that the corrosion-resistant performance of the superhydrophobic calcium phosphate coating was significantly improved as compared with that of the substrate, the corrosion potential of the superhydrophobic coating increases from -1.56 to -1.36 V, and its corrosion current density decreases from 1.29 × 10-4 to 1.3 × 10-6 A/cm2. The anti-corrosion mechanism of the superhydrophobic coating was also discussed. It can be indicated that the corrosion inhibitive properties of the coating are in accordance with its hydrophobicity, which is owing to the presence of a protective layer of air trapped in the grooves of the coating surface to isolate the underlying materials from the external environment.

  4. Salvinia-Effect-Inspired "Sticky" Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Meniscus-Confined Electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Deyin; Jiang, Youhua; Yu, Wentao; Jiang, Xiufen; Zhao, Xin; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Sun, Guangyi

    2017-11-28

    Inspired by the Salvinia effect, we report the fabrication and characterization of a novel "sticky" superhydrophobic surface sustaining a Cassie-Baxter wetting state for water droplets with high contact angles but strong solid-liquid retention. Unlike superhydrophobic surfaces mimicking the lotus or petal effect, whose hydrophobicity and droplet retention are typically regulated by hierarchical micro- and nanostructures made of a homogeneous material with the same surface energy, our superhydrophobic surface merely requires singular microstructures covered with a hydrophobic coating but creatively coupled with hydrophilic tips with different surface energy. Hydrophilic tips are selectively formed by meniscus-confined electrodeposition of a metal (e.g., nickel) layer on top of hydrophobic microstructures. During the electrodeposition process, the superhydrophobic surface retains its plastron so that the electrolyte cannot penetrate into the cavity of hydrophobic microstructures, consequently making the electrochemical reaction between solid and electrolyte occur only on the tip. In contrast to typical superhydrophobic surfaces where droplets are highly mobile, the "sticky" superhydrophobic surface allows a water droplet to have strong local pinning and solid-liquid retention on the hydrophilic tips, which is of great significance in many droplet behaviors such as evaporation.

  5. Fabrication of recyclable and durable superhydrophobic materials with wear/corrosion-resistance properties from kaolin and polyvinylchloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Mengnan, E-mail: mnanqu@gmail.com; Liu, Shanshan; He, Jinmei, E-mail: jinmhe@gmail.com; Feng, Juan; Yao, Yali; Ma, Xuerui; Hou, Lingang; Liu, Xiangrong

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The scraped debris can be recycled and easily reused to fabricate the superhydrophobic materials. • The obtained materials displayed liquid-repellent toward water and several other liquids of daily life. • The superhydrophobic materials can retain excellent chemical stability and mechanical durability after rigorous tests. • This as-prepared material can be regarded as a real superhydrophobic “material”, not just the superhydrophobic “surface”. - Abstract: In this study, mechanically stable and recyclable superhydrophobic materials were prepared from polyvinylchloride (PVC) and kaolin nanoparticles modified by stearic acid using a simple and low-cost drop-coating. The obtained materials displayed liquid-repellent toward water and several other liquids of daily life (such as orange juice, coffee, milk, coca cola and ink). These superhydrophobic materials showed remarkable robustness against sandpaper abrasion, UV-irradiation and ultrasonication test, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 60 abrasion cycles loaded of 500 g with sandpaper, 7 days UV-irradiation or 120 min ultrasonication test. The excellent durability against complex conditions was attributed to the hierarchical structure and strong interfacial adhesion of the materials. More significantly, the materials used in the coating could be recycled and reconstructed without losing its superhydrophobicity. The current superhydrophobic materials tolerate rigorous environment, opening a new avenue to a variety of practical applications.

  6. Facile and scalable preparation of highly wear-resistance superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shanshan; Liu, Ming [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Wu, Yiqiang, E-mail: wuyq0506@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Hunan Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Wood and Bamboo Resources, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Luo, Sha [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Qing, Yan, E-mail: qingyan0429@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Hunan Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Wood and Bamboo Resources, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Chen, Haibo [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Highly wear-resistance superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates was fabricated using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates was efficiently fabricated using nanoparticles modified by VTES. • The superhydrophobic surface exhibited a CA of 154° and a SAclose to 0°. • The superhydrophobic surface showed a durable and robust wear-resistance performance. - Abstract: In this study, an efficient, facile method has been developed for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES. The as-prepared superhydrophobic wood surface had a water contact angle of 154° and water slide angle close to 0°. Simultaneously, this superhydrophobic wood showed highly durable and robust wear resistance when having undergone a long period of sandpaper abrasion or being scratched by a knife. Even under extreme conditions of boiling water, the superhydrophobicity of the as-prepared wood composite was preserved. Characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that a typical and tough hierarchical micro/nanostructure was created on the wood substrate and vinyltriethoxysilane contributed to preventing the agglomeration of silica nanoparticles and serving as low-surface-free-energy substances. This superhydrophobic wood was easy to fabricate, mechanically resistant and exhibited long-term stability. Therefore, it is considered to be of significant importance in the industrial production of functional wood, especially for outdoor applications.

  7. Superhydrophobic Microporous Substrates via Photocuring: Coupling Optical Pattern Formation to Phase Separation for Process-Tunable Pore Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biria, Saeid; Hosein, Ian D

    2018-01-24

    We present a new approach to synthesize microporous surfaces through the combination of photopolymerization-induced phase separation and light pattern formation in photopolymer-solvent mixtures. The mixtures are irradiated with a wide-area light pattern consisting of high and low intensity regions. This light pattern undergoes self-focusing and filamentation, thereby preserving its spatial profile through the mixture. Over the course of irradiation, the mixture undergoes phase separation, with the polymer and solvent located in the bright and dark regions of the light profile, respectively, to produce a binary phase morphology with a congruent arrangement as the optical pattern. A congruently arranged microporous structure is attained upon solvent removal. The microporous surface structure can be varied by changing the irradiating light profile via photomask design. The porous architecture can be further tuned through the relative weight fractions of photopolymer and solvent in the mixture, resulting in porosities ranging from those with discrete and uniform pore sizes to hierarchical pore distributions. All surfaces become superhydrophobic (water contact angles >150°) when spray-coated with a thin layer of polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles. The water contact angles can be enhanced by changing the surface porosity via the processing conditions. This is a scalable and tunable approach to precisely control microporous surface structure in thin films to create functional surfaces and antiwetting coatings.

  8. Multiscale modification of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer for the analysis of biological mixtures in a super-hydrophobic drop

    KAUST Repository

    Coppedè, Nicola

    2016-03-18

    Conducting polymers are materials displaying high electrical conductivity, easy of fabrication, flexibility and biocompatibility, for this, they are routinely employed in organic electronics, printed electronics, and bioelectronics. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are a second generation of organic thin transistors, in which the insulator layer is an electrolyte medium and the conductive polymer is electrochemically active. OECT devices have been demonstrated in chemical and biological sensing: while accurate in determining the size of individual ions in solution, similar devices break down if challenged with complex mixtures. Here, we combine a conductive PEODOT:PSS polymer with a super-hydrophobic scheme to obtain a family of advanced devices, in which the ability to manipulate a biological solution couples to a precise texture of the substrate (which incorporates five micro-electrodes in a line, and each is a site specific measurement point), and this permits to realize time and space resolved analysis of a solution. While the competition between convection and diffusion in a super-hydrophobic drop operates the separation of different species based on their size and charge, the described device delivers the ability to register a similar difference. In the following, we demonstrate the device in the sensing of a solution in which CTAB and adrenaline are separated with good sensitivity, selectivity and reliability.

  9. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Accardo, Angelo

    2014-06-10

    Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data. 2014 International Union of Crystallography.

  10. Nanotextured Shrink Wrap Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Argon Plasma Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolie M. Nokes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a rapid, simple, and scalable approach to achieve superhydrophobic (SH substrates directly in commodity shrink wrap film utilizing Argon (Ar plasma. Ar plasma treatment creates a stiff skin layer on the surface of the shrink film. When the film shrinks, the mismatch in stiffness between the stiff skin layer and bulk shrink film causes the formation of multiscale hierarchical wrinkles with nano-textured features. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images confirm the presence of these biomimetic structures. Contact angle (CA and contact angle hysteresis (CAH measurements, respectively, defined as values greater than 150° and less than 10°, verified the SH nature of the substrates. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability to reliably pattern hydrophilic regions onto the SH substrates, allowing precise capture and detection of proteins in urine. Finally, we achieved self-driven microfluidics via patterning contrasting superhydrophilic microchannels on the SH Ar substrates to induce flow for biosensing.

  11. Silica Based Superhydrophobic Nanocoatings for Natural Rubber Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veromee Kalpana Wimalasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica based nonfluorinated superhydrophobic coatings for natural rubber surfaces have been developed. The coating was synthesized using nanosilica dispersion and a polychloroprene type binder as a compatibilizer. This nanocoating of silica was applied on to the surface of finished natural rubber gloves, by spray coating or dipped coating methods. The nanocoating demonstrates a water contact angle of more than 150° and sliding angle of 7°. The morphological features of the coating have been studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to understand the nature of surface functional groups. Both imaging techniques provided evidence for the presence of nanosized particles in the coating. Coated gloves demonstrated comparable mechanical properties and significantly better alcohol resistivity when compared to those of the uncoated gloves.

  12. Drop impact upon micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Peichun; Pacheco, Sergio; Pirat, Christophe; Lefferts, Leon; Lohse, Detlef

    2009-10-20

    We experimentally investigate drop impact dynamics onto different superhydrophobic surfaces, consisting of regular polymeric micropatterns and rough carbon nanofibers, with similar static contact angles. The main control parameters are the Weber number We and the roughness of the surface. At small We, i.e., small impact velocity, the impact evolutions are similar for both types of substrates, exhibiting Fakir state, complete bouncing, partial rebouncing, trapping of an air bubble, jetting, and sticky vibrating water balls. At large We, splashing impacts emerge forming several satellite droplets, which are more pronounced for the multiscale rough carbon nanofiber jungles. The results imply that the multiscale surface roughness at nanoscale plays a minor role in the impact events for small We less than or approximately equal 120 but an important one for large We greater than or approximately equal 120. Finally, we find the effect of ambient air pressure to be negligible in the explored parameter regime We less than or approximately equal 150.

  13. Raman spectroscopy for detection of stretched DNAs on superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica

    2014-05-01

    A novel approach for the study of low concentrated DNAs (60 pM) using microRaman spectroscopy is reported. A superhydrophobic substrate with array of microPillars is fabricated over which the sample was drop casted. The substrate concentrates the molecules in a very small area with higher molecular density, enabling to carry out the microRaman measurements. Two different DNAs (single strand and double strand) were used to investigate through Raman technique. A spectral Raman difference was found to distinguish the ssDNA and dsDNAs. The approach can be of interest for a wide variety of applications ranging from biological materials interactions characterization to the biomedical field. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Superhydrophobic Sands in Desert Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Reihmer, Joel W.

    2017-04-01

    A sustainable supply of fresh water for the human population is a global concern. Intriguingly, about 70% of the total fresh water consumed in the world annually is claimed by agriculture alone; this fraction is even higher in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where natural regeneration of groundwater is the slowest. Thus, there is a serious need for innovative materials and technologies to enhance the efficiency water usage in agriculture. To this end, plastic mulches have been employed across the developed world to minimize evaporative loss of water from top-soils. While plastic mulches are inexpensive, they do require specialized farm machinery for installation and long processing times. On one hand, plastic mulches have proven to increase crop yields, but on the other their non-biodegradability poses serious environmental concerns. In response, development of low-cost bio-/photo-degradable artificial mulches remains an area of intense research. In this thesis, we report on a novel superhydrophobic material exploiting inexpensive simple components to reduce the amount of water required for irrigation in agriculture by suppressing evaporative losses from the top-soil. Our material consists of ordinary beach sand coated with < 20 nm thick layer of paraffin wax. We synthesized and extensively characterized our material and applied them as mulches for tomato and barley plants at the KAUST greenhouse. We found that when a ~5 mm thick layer of superhydrophobic sand was placed onto the top-soil in pots, it dramatically suppressed evaporative losses and significantly enhanced the yields. Our preliminary field-scale experiments with tomatoes and barley crops at the Hada Al Sham site corroborate these results. Our approach might find applications in desert agriculture and other fields and alleviate water stress in the MENA region.

  15. Drop impact and rebound dynamics on an inclined superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Yong Han; Burton, James; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

    2014-10-14

    Due to its potential in water-repelling applications, the impact and rebound dynamics of a water drop impinging perpendicular to a horizontal superhydrophobic surface have undergone extensive study. However, drops tend to strike a surface at an angle in applications. In such cases, the physics governing the effects of oblique impact are not well studied or understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct an experiment to investigate the impact and rebound dynamics of a drop at various liquid viscosities, in an isothermal environment, and on a nanocomposite superhydrophobic surface at normal and oblique impact conditions (tilted at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°). This study considered drops falling from various heights to create normal impact Weber numbers ranging from 6 to 110. In addition, drop viscosity was varied by decreasing the temperature for water drops and by utilizing water-glycerol mixtures, which have similar surface tension to water but higher viscosities. Results revealed that oblique and normal drop impact behaved similarly (in terms of maximum drop spread as well as rebound dynamics) at low normal Weber numbers. However, at higher Weber numbers, normal and oblique impact results diverged in terms of maximum spread, which could be related to asymmetry and more complex outcomes. These asymmetry effects became more pronounced as the inclination angle increased, to the point where they dominated the drop impact and rebound characteristics when the surface was inclined at 60°. The drop rebound characteristics on inclined surfaces could be classified into eight different outcomes driven primarily by normal Weber number and drop Ohnesorge numbers. However, it was found that these outcomes were also a function of the receding contact angle, whereby reduced receding angles yielded tail-like structures. Nevertheless, the contact times of the drops with the coating were found to be generally independent of surface inclination.

  16. Design and Fabrication of a Hybrid Superhydrophobic-Hydrophilic Surface That Exhibits Stable Dropwise Condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Bikash; Mac Giolla Eain, Marc; Xu, QianFeng; Egan, Vanessa M; Punch, Jeff; Lyons, Alan M

    2015-10-28

    Condensation of water vapor is an essential process in power generation, water collection, and thermal management. Dropwise condensation, where condensed droplets are removed from the surface before coalescing into a film, has been shown to increase the heat transfer efficiency and water collection ability of many surfaces. Numerous efforts have been made to create surfaces which can promote dropwise condensation, including superhydrophobic surfaces on which water droplets are highly mobile. However, the challenge with using such surfaces in condensing environments is that hydrophobic coatings can degrade and/or water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces transition from the mobile Cassie to the wetted Wenzel state over time and condensation shifts to a less-effective filmwise mechanism. To meet the need for a heat-transfer surface that can maintain stable dropwise condensation, we designed and fabricated a hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface. An array of hydrophilic needles, thermally connected to a heat sink, was forced through a robust superhydrophobic polymer film. Condensation occurs preferentially on the needle surface due to differences in wettability and temperature. As the droplet grows, the liquid drop on the needle remains in the Cassie state and does not wet the underlying superhydrophobic surface. The water collection rate on this surface was studied using different surface tilt angles, needle array pitch values, and needle heights. Water condensation rates on the hybrid surface were shown to be 4 times greater than for a planar copper surface and twice as large for silanized silicon or superhydrophobic surfaces without hydrophilic features. A convection-conduction heat transfer model was developed; predicted water condensation rates were in good agreement with experimental observations. This type of hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface with a larger array of needles is low-cost, robust, and scalable and so could be used for heat

  17. The effect of composition and thermodynamics on the surface morphology of durable superhydrophobic polymer coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahum T

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tehila Nahum,1 Hanna Dodiuk,2 Samuel Kenig,2 Artee Panwar,1 Carol Barry,1 Joey Mead,1 1Department of Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA; 2Department of Polymers and Plastics Engineering, Shenkar College of Engineering Design and Art, Ramat Gan, Israel Abstract: Durable superhydrophobic coatings were synthesized using a system of silica nanoparticles (NPs to provide nanoscale roughness, fluorosilane to give hydrophobic chemistry, and three different polymer binders: urethane acrylate, ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, and epoxy. Coatings composed of different binders incorporating NPs in various concentrations exhibited different superhydrophobic attributes when applied on polycarbonate (PC and glass substrates and as a function of coating composition. It was found that the substrate surface characteristics and wettability affected the superhydrophobic characteristics of the coatings. Interfacial tension and spreading coefficient parameters (thermodynamics of the coating components were used to predict the localization of the NPs for the different binders’ concentrations. The thermodynamic analysis of the NPs localization was in good agreement with the experimental observations. On the basis of the thermodynamic analysis and the experimental scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy results, it was concluded that localization of the NPs on the surface was critical to provide the necessary roughness and resulting superhydrophobicity. The durability evaluated by tape testing of the epoxy formulations was the best on both glass and PC. Several coating compositions retained their superhydrophobicity after the tape test. In summary, it was concluded that thermodynamic analysis is a powerful tool to predict the roughness of the coating due to the location of NPs on the surface, and hence can be used in the design of superhydrophobic coatings. Keywords

  18. Reduced platelet adhesion and improved corrosion resistance of superhydrophobic TiO₂-nanotube-coated 316L stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoling; Yang, Yun; Hu, Ronggang; Lin, Changjian; Sun, Lan; Vogler, Erwin A

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated on 316L stainless steel (SS) to improve corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility of SS. Vertically-aligned superhydrophilic amorphous TNTs were fabricated on SS by electrochemical anodization of Ti films deposited on SS. Calcination was carried out to induce anatase phase (superhydrophilic), and fluorosilanization was used to convert superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. The morphology, structure and surface wettability of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle goniometry. The effects of surface wettability on corrosion resistance and platelet adhesion were investigated. The results showed that crystalline phase (anatase vs. amorphous) and wettability strongly affected corrosion resistance and platelet adhesion. The superhydrophilic amorphous TNTs failed to protect SS from corrosion whereas superhydrophobic amorphous TNTs slightly improved corrosion resistance of SS. Both superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic anatase TNTs significantly improved corrosion resistance of SS. The superhydrophilic amorphous TNTs minimized platelet adhesion and activation whereas superhydrophilic anatase TNTs activated the formation of fibrin network. On the contrary, both superhydrophobic TNTs (superhydrophobic amorphous TNTs and superhydrophobic anatase TNTs) reduced platelet adhesion significantly and improved corrosion resistance regardless of crystalline phase. Superhydrophobic anatase TNTs coating on SS surface offers the opportunity for the application of SS as a promising permanent biomaterial in blood contacting biomedical devices, where both reducing platelets adhesion/activation and improving corrosion resistance can be effectively combined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabrication and characterizations of thin film metallic glasses: Antibacterial property and durability study for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Jinn P., E-mail: jpchu@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tz-Yah; Li, Chia-Lin; Wang, Chen-Hao [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason S.C. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ming-Jen; Chang, Shih-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Chien [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10449, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-30

    Metallic glasses with the disordered atomic structure have unique properties of high strength, high toughness, good corrosion and abrasion resistances. These materials are thus potentially useful for medical application. In this work, we evaluate the antibacterial property and durability of materials sputter-coated with Zr-based (Zr{sub 53}Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 9}Ta{sub 5}) and Cu-based (Cu{sub 48}Zr{sub 42}Ti{sub 4}Al{sub 6}) thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs). Good adhesive coating of Zr-based TFMG on the dermatome gives rise to blade sharpness improvement of ∼ 27%, substantial surface roughness reduction of ∼ 66% and smoother incised wound on the pig skin. As compared to 48.8° on the bare Si wafer, the water contact angles of 119.5° and 106.6° for Zr- and Cu-based TFMGs, respectively, reveal the hydrophobic characteristic of the coated surfaces. The bacterial adhesion of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to both Zr- and Cu-based TFMGs is hindered to different extents. - Highlights: • Thin film metallic glass (TFMG) coatings are evaluated for medical application. • Good adhesive TFMG on the dermatome yields blade sharpness improvement of ∼ 27%. • A reduction of ∼ 66% in surface roughness is observed after coating with TFMG. • Water contact angle measurement reveals the hydrophobic characteristic for TFMGs. • Bacterial adhesion of E. coli and S. aureus to TFMGs is hindered.

  20. Thin-film sulfuric acid anodizing as a replacement for chromic acid anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenborn, K. J.; Emmons, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Chromic acid has long been used to produce a thin, corrosion resistant (Type I) coating on aluminum. Following anodizing, the hardware was sealed using a sodium dichromate solution. Sealing closes up pores inherent in the anodized coating, thus improving corrosion resistance. The thinness of the brittle coating is desirable from a fatigue standpoint, and chromium was absorbed by the coating during the sealing process, further improving corrosion resistance. Unfortunately, both chromic acid and sodium dichromate contain carcinogenic hexavalent chromium. Sulfuric acid is being considered as a replacement for chromic acid. Sulfuric acid of 10-20 percent concentration has traditionally been used to produce relatively thick (Types II and III) or abrasion resistant (Type III) coatings. A more dilute, that is five weight percent, sulfuric acid anodizing process, which produces a thinner coating than Type II or III, with nickel acetate as the sealant has been developed. The process was evaluated in regard to corrosion resistance, throwing power, fatigue life, and processing variable sensitivity, and shows promise as a replacement for the chromic acid process.

  1. Reversible Surface Properties of Polybenzoxazine/Silica Nanocomposites Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the reversible surface properties (hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity of a polybenzoxazine (PBZ thin film through simple application of alternating UV illumination and thermal treatment. The fraction of intermolecularly hydrogen bonded O–H⋯O=C units in the PBZ film increased after UV exposure, inducing a hydrophilic surface; the surface recovered its hydrophobicity after heating, due to greater O–H⋯N intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Taking advantage of these phenomena, we prepared a PBZ/silica nanocomposite coating through two simple steps; this material exhibited reversible transitions from superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity upon sequential UV irradiation and thermal treatment.

  2. Fabrication of recyclable and durable superhydrophobic materials with wear/corrosion-resistance properties from kaolin and polyvinylchloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mengnan; Liu, Shanshan; He, Jinmei; Feng, Juan; Yao, Yali; Ma, Xuerui; Hou, Lingang; Liu, Xiangrong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, mechanically stable and recyclable superhydrophobic materials were prepared from polyvinylchloride (PVC) and kaolin nanoparticles modified by stearic acid using a simple and low-cost drop-coating. The obtained materials displayed liquid-repellent toward water and several other liquids of daily life (such as orange juice, coffee, milk, coca cola and ink). These superhydrophobic materials showed remarkable robustness against sandpaper abrasion, UV-irradiation and ultrasonication test, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 60 abrasion cycles loaded of 500 g with sandpaper, 7 days UV-irradiation or 120 min ultrasonication test. The excellent durability against complex conditions was attributed to the hierarchical structure and strong interfacial adhesion of the materials. More significantly, the materials used in the coating could be recycled and reconstructed without losing its superhydrophobicity. The current superhydrophobic materials tolerate rigorous environment, opening a new avenue to a variety of practical applications.

  3. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Metal Surfaces with Self-Assembled Monolayers of Silane Derivatives Having Inter-Hydrogen Bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeon Hwa; Han, Moon Hee; Ahn, Yong Hyun [Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    In this study, we synthesized hexyl- and phenethyl-urea silanes and used them in the fabrication of superhydro-phobic surfaces on cupper deposited magnesium plates. This method is simple and cheap; in addition, the superhydro-phobic surfaces obtained were stable over a wide range of pH values. Thus, the silane derivatives synthesized in this study can serve as suitable alternatives to low surface energy materials such as fluorinated alkyl silane derivatives used in the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces. In recent times, there has been an increasing interest in superhydrophobic surfaces, as these surfaces have applications in various fields. Many different methods for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces have been reported; these include a sol-gel method, chemical etching, the application of a polymer, electrodeposition, and the use of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of organic materials.

  4. Anti-icing potential of superhydrophobic Ti6Al4V surfaces: ice nucleation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yizhou; Tao, Jie; Tao, Haijun; Chen, Shanlong; Pan, Lei; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-06

    On the basis of the icing-delay performance and ice adhesion strength, the anti-icing potential of the superhydrophobic surface has been well-investigated in the past few years. The present work mainly emphasized the investigations of ice nucleation and growth to fully explore the anti-icing potential of the superhydrophobic surface. We took the various surfaces ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic as the research objects and, combining the classical nucleation theory, discussed the ice nucleation behaviors of the water droplets on these sample surfaces under the condition of supercooling. Meanwhile, the macroscopical growth processes of ice on these surfaces were analyzed on the basis of the growth mechanism of the ice nucleus. It was found that the superhydrophobic surface could greatly reduce the solid-liquid interface nucleation rate, owing to the extremely low actual solid-liquid contact area caused by the composite micro-nanoscale hierarchical structures trapping air pockets, leading to the bulk nucleation dominating the entire ice nucleation at the lower temperatures. Furthermore, ice on the superhydrophobic surface possessed a lower macroscopical growth velocity as a result of the less ice nucleation rate and the insulating action of the trapped air pockets.

  5. High throughput laser texturing of super-hydrophobic surfaces on steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemini, Laura; Faucon, Marc; Romoli, Luca; Kling, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    Super-hydrophobic surfaces are nowadays of primary interest in several application fields, as for de-icing devices in the automotive and aerospace industries. In this context, laser surface texturing has widely demonstrated to be an easy one-step method to produce super-hydrophobic surfaces on several materials. In this work, a high average power (up to 40W), high repetition-rate (up to 1MHz), femtosecond infrared laser was employed to produce super-hydrophobic surfaces on 316L steel. The set of process and laser parameters for which the super-hydrophobic behavior is optimized, was obtained by varying the laser energy and repetition rate. The morphology of the textured surfaces was firstly analyzed by SEM and confocal microscope analyses. The contact angle was measured over time in order to investigate the effect of air environment on the hydrophobic properties and define the period of time necessary for the super-hydrophobic properties to stabilize. An investigation on the effect of after-processing cleaning solvents on the CA evolution was carried to assess the influence of the after-processing sample handling on the CA evaluation. Results show that the highest values of contact angle, that is the best hydrophobic behavior, are obtained at high repetition rate and low energy, this way opening up a promising scenario in terms of upscaling for reducing the overall process takt-time.

  6. A superhydrophobic surface with high performance derived from STA-APTES organic-inorganic molecular hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Fangfang; Zhao, Ning; Chen, Li; Xu, Jian; Tao, Qingsheng; Li, Jinyong; Ran, Chunbo

    2013-10-01

    The chemical originals of natural superhydrophobic surfaces are based on botanic or animal wax or fat, which have poor chemical and thermal resistance. Herein, we report a simple chemical modification of stearic acid (STA) with γ-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES), to obtain an organic-inorganic molecular hybrid STA-APTES compound. A flower-like hierarchically structured surface with superhydrophobicity can be obtained simply by casting the STA-APTES solution under ambient circumstance. The crystallization of the hydrocarbon chain from STA leads to the formation of the binary microstructure and reduces the surface tension, contributing to the superhydrophobicity of the as-formed surface. In addition, the condensation of Si(OCH2CH3)3 from APTES can lead to the cross-linking of the resultant surface, which endows the as-formed superhydrophobic surface with high performances, such as excellent thermal and solvent resistance, etc. This superhydrophobic surface prepared is superior to its many analogs in nature, promising a wide application especially in harsh circumstance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Superhydrophobic polyimide films with high thermal endurance via UV photo-oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. X. Song

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available UV photo-oxidation was first applied to fabricate superhydrophobic polyimide (PI films in combination with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS modification. During prolonged UV irradiation, commercial flat PI films evolved to form unique micro/nanostructures. Meanwhile, the root mean square (RMS surface roughness increased from 1.74 to 53.70 nm, leading to a gradual increase of WCA from 105.1 to 159.2° after FAS treatment. After 72 h of UV radiation exposure, the micro/nano-structured and FAS-modified PI films exhibited superhydrophobicity with water contact angle (WCA larger than 150° and sliding angle (SA less than 5°. The superhydrophobicity remained even after annealing at 350°C, which enabled stable utilization under elevated temperature. Stable micro/nanostructures and chemical bonding of FAS were found to contribute to the high thermal endurance. Moreover, the formation mechanism of the superhydrophobic PI films was investigated. The proposed UV photo-oxidation method provides a new route for the industrial fabrication of thermally stable superhydrophobic PI films.

  8. Superhydrophobic surface fabricated on iron substrate by black chromium electrodeposition and its corrosion resistance property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Key Lab of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resource, Chinese Academy of Science, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); Feng, Haitao [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); Key Lab of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resource, Chinese Academy of Science, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); Lin, Feng [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Yabin [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); Key Lab of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resource, Chinese Academy of Science, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); Wang, Liping [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dong, Yaping [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); Key Lab of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resource, Chinese Academy of Science, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); Li, Wu, E-mail: liwu2016@126.com [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); Key Lab of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resource, Chinese Academy of Science, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by black chromium electrodeposition and stearic acid modification. • The reaction process is simple, and of low cost, and no special instrument or environment is needed. • The obtained superhydrophobic surface presents good water repellency, and performs well at corrosion resistance. - Abstract: The fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on iron substrate is carried out through 20 min black chromium electrodeposition, followed by immersing in 0.05 M ethanolic stearic acid solution for 12 h. The resultant superhydrophobic complex film is characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), disperse Spectrometer (EDS), atomic force microscope (AFM), water contact angle (CA), sliding angle (SA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), and its corrosion resistance property is measured with cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the fabricated superhydrophobic film has excellent water repellency (CA, 158.8°; SA, 2.1°) and significantly high corrosion resistance (1.31 × 10{sup 6} Ω cm{sup −2}) and excellent corrosion protection efficiency (99.94%).

  9. Superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces in biology: evolution, structural principles and biomimetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlott, W; Mail, M; Neinhuis, C

    2016-08-06

    A comprehensive survey of the construction principles and occurrences of superhydrophobic surfaces in plants, animals and other organisms is provided and is based on our own scanning electron microscopic examinations of almost 20 000 different species and the existing literature. Properties such as self-cleaning (lotus effect), fluid drag reduction (Salvinia effect) and the introduction of new functions (air layers as sensory systems) are described and biomimetic applications are discussed: self-cleaning is established, drag reduction becomes increasingly important, and novel air-retaining grid technology is introduced. Surprisingly, no evidence for lasting superhydrophobicity in non-biological surfaces exists (except technical materials). Phylogenetic trees indicate that superhydrophobicity evolved as a consequence of the conquest of land about 450 million years ago and may be a key innovation in the evolution of terrestrial life. The approximate 10 million extant species exhibit a stunning diversity of materials and structures, many of which are formed by self-assembly, and are solely based on a limited number of molecules. A short historical survey shows that bionics (today often called biomimetics) dates back more than 100 years. Statistical data illustrate that the interest in biomimetic surfaces is much younger still. Superhydrophobicity caught the attention of scientists only after the extreme superhydrophobicity of lotus leaves was published in 1997. Regrettably, parabionic products play an increasing role in marketing.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Superhydrophobic Surfaces Developed by Mimicking Hierarchical Surface Morphology of Lotus Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay S. Latthe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The lotus plant is recognized as a ‘King plant’ among all the natural water repellent plants due to its excellent non-wettability. The superhydrophobic surfaces exhibiting the famous ‘Lotus Effect’, along with extremely high water contact angle (>150° and low sliding angle (<10°, have been broadly investigated and extensively applied on variety of substrates for potential self-cleaning and anti-corrosive applications. Since 1997, especially after the exploration of the surface micro/nanostructure and chemical composition of the lotus leaves by the two German botanists Barthlott and Neinhuis, many kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces mimicking the lotus leaf-like structure have been widely reported in the literature. This review article briefly describes the different wetting properties of the natural superhydrophobic lotus leaves and also provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art discussion on the extensive research carried out in the field of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces which are developed by mimicking the lotus leaf-like dual scale micro/nanostructure. This review article could be beneficial for both novice researchers in this area as well as the scientists who are currently working on non-wettable, superhydrophobic surfaces.

  11. Development of superhydrophobic surface on glass substrate by multi-step atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Duksun [Department of Applied Plasma Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Se Youn, E-mail: symoon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Plasma Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Quantum system Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    Superhydrophobic surface was prepared on a glass by helium based CH{sub 4} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8} atmospheric pressure plasmas, and its water wettability was investigated by a water droplet contact angle method. The water droplet spread over on the untreated glasses that showed the initial hydrophilic property of the glass surface. Then, the static contact angles became about 85° and 98° after a single step CH{sub 4} plasma treatment and a single step C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma treatment, respectively. The contact angle was remarkably increased to 152°, indicating a superhydrophobic property, after a sequential multi-step CH{sub 4} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma treatment. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the field emission scanning electron microscope measurements, it was found that the physical morphologies and the chemical compositions were depending on the substrate materials, which were important factors for the superhydrophobicity. - Highlights: • Development of rapid and simple method for superhydrophobic surface • Effects of atmospheric pressure plasma for superhydrophobic surface preparation • Observation of chemical and physical surface modification by atmospheric pressure plasma • Effects of substrate properties for plasma–surface interaction.

  12. Superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces in biology: evolution, structural principles and biomimetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mail, M.; Neinhuis, C.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the construction principles and occurrences of superhydrophobic surfaces in plants, animals and other organisms is provided and is based on our own scanning electron microscopic examinations of almost 20 000 different species and the existing literature. Properties such as self-cleaning (lotus effect), fluid drag reduction (Salvinia effect) and the introduction of new functions (air layers as sensory systems) are described and biomimetic applications are discussed: self-cleaning is established, drag reduction becomes increasingly important, and novel air-retaining grid technology is introduced. Surprisingly, no evidence for lasting superhydrophobicity in non-biological surfaces exists (except technical materials). Phylogenetic trees indicate that superhydrophobicity evolved as a consequence of the conquest of land about 450 million years ago and may be a key innovation in the evolution of terrestrial life. The approximate 10 million extant species exhibit a stunning diversity of materials and structures, many of which are formed by self-assembly, and are solely based on a limited number of molecules. A short historical survey shows that bionics (today often called biomimetics) dates back more than 100 years. Statistical data illustrate that the interest in biomimetic surfaces is much younger still. Superhydrophobicity caught the attention of scientists only after the extreme superhydrophobicity of lotus leaves was published in 1997. Regrettably, parabionic products play an increasing role in marketing. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science’. PMID:27354736

  13. One-step hydrothermal process to fabricate superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy with enhanced corrosion resistance and self-cleaning performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Libang; Zhu, Yali; Wang, Jing; Shi, Xueting

    2017-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces can exhibit anti-corrosion, anti-fogging, and self-cleaning performance due to their high water repellence. It is significant for industrial fabricating of superhydrophobic surface with a simple and environment-friendly method. Herein, a facile, environment-friendly, and cost-effective one-step hydrothermal route is proposed to fabricate the superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. The as-prepared superhydrophobic magnesium alloy surface presents the rough and hierarchical micro/nano- structure grafted with long hydrophobic alkyl chains via covalent bonds. Both electrochemical corrosion test and long term immersion in 3.5 wt.% of NaCl solution demonstrate that the superhydrophobic surface greatly improves the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy. Meanwhile, the superhydrophobic magnesium alloy exhibits excellent self-cleaning performance. It is supposed that this facile method and remarkable properties of resultant superhydrophobic magnesium alloys have a promising future in expanding the application of magnesium alloys.

  14. Spray-coating of superhydrophobic aluminum alloys with enhanced mechanical robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youfa; Ge, Dengteng; Yang, Shu

    2014-06-01

    A superhydrophobic aluminum alloy was prepared by one-step spray coating of an alcohol solution consisting of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (15-40 nm) and methyl silicate precursor on etched aluminum alloy with pitted morphology. The as-sprayed metal surface showed a water contact angle of 155° and a roll-off angle of 4°. The coating was subjected to repeated mechanical tests, including high-pressure water jetting, sand particles impacting, and sandpaper shear abrasion. It remained superhydrophobic with a roll-off angle aluminum alloy played an important role to enhance the coating mechanical robustness, where the nanoparticles could grab on the rough surface, specifically in the groove structures, in comparison with the smooth glass substrates spray coated with the same materials. Further, we showed that the superhydrophobicity could be restored by spray a new cycle of the nanocomposite solution on the damaged surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Facile Preparation of Nanostructured, Superhydrophobic Filter Paper for Efficient Water/Oil Separation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a facile and cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic filter paper and demonstrate its application for efficient water/oil separation. By coupling structurally distinct organosilane precursors (e.g., octadecyltrichlorosilane and methyltrichlorosilane to paper fibers under controlled reaction conditions, we have formulated a simple, inexpensive, and efficient protocol to achieve a desirable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface on conventional filter paper. The silanized superhydrophobic filter paper showed nanostructured morphology and demonstrated great separation efficiency (up to 99.4% for water/oil mixtures. The modified filter paper is stable in both aqueous solutions and organic solvents, and can be reused multiple times. The present study shows that our newly developed binary silanization is a promising method of modifying cellulose-based materials for practical applications, in particular the treatment of industrial waste water and ecosystem recovery.

  16. An Experimental Study of Drag Reduction in a Pipe with Superhydrophobic Coating at Moderate Reynolds Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally investigates drag reduction, durability for operations and effects for preventing microorganism from adhering to the surface when the superhydrophobic coating is applied on a solid surface. The experiments are divided into two parts. In the first part, a pipe flow system was established to measure the drag and to test the durability of the micro-structure of superhydrophobic coating at average speeds varying from 1m/sec to 6m/sec. In the second part, we tested the effect for preventing microorganism from adhering to the surface by putting the coated steel plates into sea water. There are four different superhydrophobic coatings in the present study. The experimental results were compared to those applied by ship paint usually used at CSBC.

  17. Transition States for Submerged Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Partially-Pinned Air-Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafreshi, Hooman; Hemeda, Ahmed; VCU Team

    2015-11-01

    The pressure at which a superhydrophobic surface transitions from the Cassie state to the Wenzel state is often referred to as the critical pressure. Our mathematical simulations have shown that the Cassie-to-Wenzel transition is a gradual process that takes place over a range of pressures as oppose to an event that happens at a certain pressure. During the transition period, the air-water interface may go through a series pinned, partially-pinned, and de-pinned states that depend on the geometry of the surface asperities. This in turn indicates that the drag-reduction effect produced by a submerged superhydrophobic surface can vary with the hydrostatic pressure, and is highly dependent on sharpness of the surface asperities. The study reported here reviews our recent discoveries in simulating the wetted area and drag reduction effect of superhydrophobic surfaces with different microstructures. National Science Foundation CMM 1029924 and CBET 1402655 programs.

  18. Cutting a drop of water pinned by wire loops using a superhydrophobic surface and knife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Yanashima

    Full Text Available A water drop on a superhydrophobic surface that is pinned by wire loops can be reproducibly cut without formation of satellite droplets. Drops placed on low-density polyethylene surfaces and Teflon-coated glass slides were cut with superhydrophobic knives of low-density polyethylene and treated copper or zinc sheets, respectively. Distortion of drop shape by the superhydrophobic knife enables a clean break. The driving force for droplet formation arises from the lower surface free energy for two separate drops, and it is modeled as a 2-D system. An estimate of the free energy change serves to guide when droplets will form based on the variation of drop volume, loop spacing and knife depth. Combining the cutting process with an electrofocusing driving force could enable a reproducible biomolecular separation without troubling satellite drop formation.

  19. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Huanhuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three steps: abrasive paper scraping, adhesive tape bonding and 90° peeling. Scraping increases the roughness and enhence water contact angles (CAs on polyolefin surfaces. It increases more when the scraped surface are bonded with adhesive types and then then 90° peeled. The CA variation depends on the types of polyolefin and abrasive paper. Superhydrophobic lowdensity polyethylene (LDPE, high-density polyethylene (HDPE and polypropylene (PP surfaces (CA>150° are obtained and they all exhibit very low adhesive force and high resistance to strong acids and bases.

  20. Optically transparent, superhydrophobic, biocompatible thin film coatings and methods for producing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Simpson, John T.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Trammell, Neil E.

    2017-09-05

    An optically transparent, hydrophobic coating, exhibiting an average contact angle of at least 100 degrees with a drop of water. The coating can be produced using low-cost, environmentally friendly components. Methods of preparing and using the optically transparent, hydrophobic coating.

  1. Fabrication of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic textiles for oil–water separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Chao-Hua, E-mail: xuech@zju.edu.cn [College of Resource and Environment, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); Shaanxi Research Institute of Agricultural Products Processing Technology, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); Ji, Peng-Ting; Zhang, Ping; Li, Ya-Ru; Jia, Shun-Tian [College of Resource and Environment, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic textiles were fabricated by a simple sol–gel coating using tetraethoxysilane and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyl disilazane as precursors. After coating, the fibers were decorated with -Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} functionalized SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, complimenting the microscale roughness inherent in the textile weave and lowering the surface energy. The textiles indicated superhydrophobic and superoleophilic property simultaneously. Utilizing these properties, a setup was designed using the textile as a screen mesh to filter oil through down to a collector and leave water drops rolling over, realizing continuous oil–water mixture separation.

  2. Fabrication of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic textiles for oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Ji, Peng-Ting; Zhang, Ping; Li, Ya-Ru; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2013-11-01

    Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic textiles were fabricated by a simple sol-gel coating using tetraethoxysilane and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyl disilazane as precursors. After coating, the fibers were decorated with sbnd Si(CH3)3 functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles, complimenting the microscale roughness inherent in the textile weave and lowering the surface energy. The textiles indicated superhydrophobic and superoleophilic property simultaneously. Utilizing these properties, a setup was designed using the textile as a screen mesh to filter oil through down to a collector and leave water drops rolling over, realizing continuous oil-water mixture separation.

  3. Long term studies on the chemical stability of a superhydrophobic silicone nanofilament coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Jan [Physikalisch-chemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich Irchel, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Artus, Georg R.J. [Physikalisch-chemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich Irchel, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Seeger, Stefan [Physikalisch-chemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich Irchel, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: sseeger@pci.unizh.ch

    2007-05-15

    We have performed extensive studies on the long term chemical stability of a superhydrophobic coating comprised of silicone nanofilaments. Durability was tested by immersion in various liquid media over a period of 6 months. The coating properties were monitored by static contact angle and sliding angle measurements. Changes in surface topography were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The coatings show an exceptional stability in organic solvents, neutral and mildly acidic aqueous solutions and mildly acidic detergent solutions. The superhydrophobic coating properties are stable for several days in mildly basic and strong acidic solutions but deteriorate fast under strong basic conditions.

  4. Numerical study of droplet impact and rebound on superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuan; Wu, Yanchen; Woerner, Martin; Frohnapfel, Bettina

    2017-11-01

    Droplet impact and rebound on superhydrophobic surface is an important process in many applications; among them are developing self-cleaning or anti-icing materials and limiting liquid film formation of Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) in exhaust gas pipe. In the latter field, rebound of DEF droplet from wall is desired as an effective mean for avoiding or reducing unwanted solid deposition. Our goal is to numerically study influence of surface wettability on DEF droplet impact and rebound behavior. A phase-field method is chosen, which was implemented in OpenFOAM by us and validated for wetting-related interfacial flow problems. In the present contribution we first numerically reproduce relevant experimental studies in literature, to validate the code for droplet impact and rebound problem. There we study droplet-surface contact time, maximum/instantaneous spreading factor and droplet shape evolution. Our numerical results show good agreement with experimental data. Next we investigate for DEF droplets the effects of diameter, impact velocity and surface wettability on rebound behavior and jumping height. Based on Weber number and equilibrium contact angle, two regimes are identified. We show that surface wettability is a deciding factor for achieving rebound event. This work is supported by Foundation ``Friedrich-und-Elisabeth Boysen Stiftung fuer Forschung und Innovation'' (BOY-127-TP1).

  5. Evaporation of particle-laden droplets on a superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Masoud; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally investigated the evaporation dynamics of water droplets suspended with minute particles of varying concentrations on a superhydrophobic surface. The contact angle, diameter, and height of the droplets decreased during the evaporation process. For pure water, the droplet went through a wetting transition from a partial wetting (Cassie-Baxter), with a large contact angle (>140°), to completely wetting (Wenzel) state, with a small contact angle. Unlike pure water, the nanofluid droplets maintain high contact angles (>100°) during evaporation. We found that the contact line was pinned, and an increase (10 %) in the weight fraction of nanoparticles led to a remarkable 40 % decrease in the total drying time. The nanofluid droplets left donut-shaped drying patterns. In these final drying structures, a shrinkage of the droplet height and base diameter was observed for nanofluids with lower concentrations. The results show that droplet evaporation rate and deposit pattern depend on the concentration of nanoparticles, implying the crucial influences of water evaporation and particle migration dynamics and time-scales.

  6. Directed Growth of Virus Nanofilaments on a Superhydrophobic Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2015-06-17

    The evaporation of single droplets of colloidal tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) nanoparticles on a superhydrophobic surface with a hexagonal pillar-pattern results in the formation of coffee-ring type residues. We imaged surface features by optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies. Bulk features were probed by raster-scan X-ray nanodiffraction. At ∼100 pg/μL nanoparticle concentration, the rim of the residue connects to neighboring pillars via fibrous extensions containing flow-aligned crystalline domains. At ∼1 pg/μL nanoparticle concentration, nanofilaments of ¥80 nm diameter and ∼20 μm length are formed, extending normal to the residue-rim across a range of pillars. X-ray scattering is dominated by the nanofilament form-factor but some evidence for crystallinity has been obtained. The observation of sheets composed of stacks of self-assembled nanoparticles deposited on pillars suggests that the nanofilaments are drawn from a structured droplet interface. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  7. Wetting and self-cleaning properties of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstner, Reiner; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Neinhuis, Christoph; Walzel, Peter

    2005-02-01

    The wetting and the self-cleaning properties (the latter is often called the "Lotus-Effect") of three types of superhydrophobic surfaces have been investigated: silicon wafer specimens with different regular arrays of spikes hydrophobized by chemical treatment, replicates of water-repellent leaves of plants, and commercially available metal foils which were additionally hydrophobized by means of a fluorinated agent. Water droplets rolled off easily from those silicon samples which had a microstructure consisting of rather slender spikes with narrow pitches. Such samples could be cleaned almost completely from artificial particulate contaminations by a fog consisting of water droplets (diameter range, 8-20 microm). Some metal foils and some replicates had two levels of roughening. Because of this, a complete removal of all particles was not possible using artificial fog. However, water drops with some amount of kinetic impact energy were able to clean these surfaces perfectly. A substrate where pronounced structures in the range below 5 microm were lacking could not be cleaned by means of fog because this treatment resulted in a continuous water film on the samples.

  8. Self-assembling particle-siloxane coatings for superhydrophobic concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Vivian, Ismael; Hejazi, Vahid; Kozhukhova, Marina I; Nosonovsky, Michael; Sobolev, Konstantin

    2013-12-26

    We report here, for the first time in the literature, a method to synthesize hydrophobic and superhydrophobic concrete. Concrete is normally a hydrophilic material, which significantly reduces the durability of concrete structures and pavements. To synthesize water-repellent concrete, hydrophobic emulsions were fabricated and applied on portland cement mortar tiles. The emulsion was enriched with the polymethyl-hydrogen siloxane oil hydrophobic agent as well as metakaolin (MK) or silica fume (SF) to induce the microroughness and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers to create hierarchical surfaces. Various emulsion types were investigated by using different mixing procedures, and single- and double-layer hydrophobic coatings were applied. The emulsions and coatings were characterized with optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and their wetting properties, including the water contact angle (CA) and roll-off angle, were measured. A theoretical model for coated and non-coated concrete, which can be generalized for other types of materials, was developed to predict the effect of surface roughness and composition on the CA. An optimized distance between the aggregates was found where the CA has the highest value. The maximal CA measured was 156° for the specimen with PVA fibers treated with MK based emulsion. Since water penetration is the main factor leading to concrete deterioration, hydrophobic water-repellent concretes have much longer durability then regular concretes and can have a broad range of applications in civil and materials engineering.

  9. Liquid-body resonance while contacting a rotating superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Matthew Lai Ho; Cheng, Michael; Katariya, Mayur; Muradoglu, Murat; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Zahidi, Alifa Afiah Ahmad; Yu, Yang; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2015-11-01

    We advance a scheme in which a liquid body on a stationary tip in contact with a rotating superhydrophobic surface is able to maintain resonance primarily from stick-slip events. With tip-to-surface spacing in the range 2.73 ≤ h liquid body was found to exhibit resonance independent of the speed of the drum. The mechanics were found to be due to a surface-tension-controlled vibration mode based on the natural frequency values determined. With spacing in the range 2.45 ≤ h liquid body was found to vary with rotation of the SH drum. This was due to the stick-slip events being able to generate higher energy fluctuations causing the liquid-solid contact areas to vary since the almost oblate spheroid shape of the liquid body had intrinsically higher surface energies. This resulted in the natural frequency perturbations being frequency- and amplitude-modulated over a lower frequency carrier. These findings have positive implications for microfluidic sensing.

  10. Design parameters for a robust superhydrophobic electrospun nonwoven mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Amit

    2012-02-14

    Electrospun nonwoven mats exhibiting extreme hydrophobicity have recently attracted much attention for their use in a wide range of applications. These materials are highly heterogeneous and irregular in structure, and accordingly, the design parameters of such materials need to be carefully chosen for obtaining higher apparent contact angles along with the robust composite solid-liquid-vapor interface. Here, we present two dimensionless design parameters, namely, the spacing ratio and pressure difference across the liquid-vapor interface, for enhancing the stability of the Cassie regime. These design parameters are essentially dependent upon the structural characteristics of the electrospun mat and equilibrium contact angle of the liquid. Interestingly, the stability of the composite interface is a trade-off between these dimensionless parameters. Moreover, the pressure difference across the interface can significantly increase by reducing the fiber diameter to nanoscale. The stability of the Cassie state in an electrospun nonwoven mat consisting of lower fiber volume fractions at the nanostructural scale can restore superhydrophobicity even after the impact of a rainfall.

  11. Fabrication of surface micro- and nanostructures for superhydrophobic surfaces in electric and electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Yonghao

    In our study, the superhydrophobic surface based on biomimetic lotus leave is explored to maintain the desired properties for self-cleaning. Parameters in controlling bead-up and roll-off characteristics of water droplets were investigated on different model surfaces. The governing equations were proposed. Heuristic study is performed. First, the fundamental understanding of the effect of roughness on superhydrophobicity is performed. The effect of hierarchical roughness, i.e., two scale roughness effect on roughness is investigated using systems of (1) monodisperse colloidal silica sphere (submicron) arrays and Au nanoparticle on top and (2) Si micrometer pyramids and Si nanostructures on top from KOH etching and metal assisted etching of Si. The relation between the contact area fraction and water droplet contact angles are derived based on Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equation for the systems and the two scale effect is explained regarding the synergistic combination of two scales. Previously the microscopic three-phase-contact line is thought to be the key factor in determining contact angles and hystereses. In our study, Laplace pressure was brought up and related to the three-phase-contact line and taken as a key figure of merit in determining superhydrophobicity. In addition, we are one of the first to study the effect of tapered structures (wall inclination). Combining with a second scale roughness on the tapered structures, stable Cassie state for both water and low surface energy oil may be achieved. This is of great significance for designing both superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity. Regarding the origin of contact angle hysteresis, study of superhydrophobicity on micrometer Si pillars was performed. The relation between the interface work of function and contact angle hysteresis was proposed and derived mathematically based on the Young-Dupre equation. The three-phase-contact line was further related to a secondary scale roughness induced. Based on

  12. Fabrication of superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface with excellent corrosion resistance by a facile and environment-friendly method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Libang; Che, Yanhui; Liu, Yanhua; Qiang, Xiaohu; Wang, Yanping

    2013-10-01

    This work develops a facile and environment-friendly method for preparing the superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface with excellent corrosion resistance. The superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface is fabricated by the boiling water treatment and stearic acid (STA) modification. Results show that the boiling water treatment endows the aluminium alloy surface with a porous and rough structure, while STA modification chemically grafts the long hydrophobic alkyl chains onto the aluminium alloy surface. Just grounded on the micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structure along with the hydrophobic chemical composition, the superhydrophobic aluminium alloy surface is endued the excellent corrosion resistance.

  13. Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Micropatterned Nanowire Arrays for High-Efficiency Jumping Droplet Condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Rongfu; Xu, Shanshan; Zhao, Dongliang; Lee, Yung-Cheng; Ma, Xuehu; Yang, Ronggui

    2017-12-27

    Self-propelled droplet jumping on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces is of interest for a variety of industrial applications including self-cleaning, water harvesting, power generation, and thermal management systems. However, the uncontrolled nucleation-induced Wenzel state of condensed droplets at large surface subcooling (high heat flux) leads to the formation of unwanted large pinned droplets, which results in the flooding phenomenon and greatly degrades the heat transfer performance. In this work, we present a novel strategy to manipulate droplet behaviors during the process from the droplet nucleation to growth and departure through a combination of spatially controlling initial nucleation for mobile droplets by closely spaced nanowires and promoting the spontaneous outward movement of droplets for rapid removal using micropatterned nanowire arrays. Through the optical visualization experiments and heat transfer tests, we demonstrate greatly improved condensation heat transfer characteristics on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface including the higher density of microdroplets, smaller droplet departure radius, 133% wider range of surface subcooling for droplet jumping, and 37% enhancement in critical heat flux for jumping droplet condensation, compared to the-state-of-art jumping droplet condensation on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces. The excellent water repellency of such hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces can be promising for many potential applications, such as anti-icing, antifogging, water desalination, and phase-change heat transfer.

  14. Mechanically robust superhydrophobic steel surface with anti-icing, UV-durability, and corrosion resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Xiong, Dangsheng; Deng, Yaling; Shi, Yan; Wang, Kun

    2015-03-25

    A superhydrophobic steel surface was prepared through a facile method: combining hydrogen peroxide and an acid (hydrochloric acid or nitric acid) to obtain hierarchical structures on steel, followed by a surface modification treatment. Empirical grid maps based on different volumes of H2O2/acid were presented, revealing a wettability gradient from "hydrophobic" to "rose effect" and finally to "lotus effect". Surface grafting has been demonstrated to be realized only on the oxidized area. As-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited excellent anti-icing properties according to the water-dripping test under overcooled conditions and the artificial "steam-freezing" (from 50 °C with 90% humidity to the -20 °C condition) test. In addition, the surfaces could withstand peeling with 3M adhesive tape at least 70 times with an applied pressure of 31.2 kPa, abrasion by 400 grid SiC sandpaper for 110 cm under 16 kPa, or water impacting for 3 h without losing superhydrophobicity, suggesting superior mechanical durability. Moreover, outstanding corrosion resistance and UV-durability were obtained on the prepared surface. This successful fabrication of a robust, anti-icing, UV-durable, and anticorrosion superhydrophobic surface could yield a prospective candidate for various practical applications.

  15. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surface of high adhesion fabricated with micronano binary structure on aluminum alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Jindan; Li, Shuyi; Liu, Jiaan; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2013-09-25

    Triggered by the microstructure characteristics of the surfaces of typical plant leaves such as the petals of red roses, a biomimetic superhydrophobic surface with high adhesion is successfully fabricated on aluminum alloy. The essential procedure is that samples were processed by a laser, then immersed and etched in nitric acid and copper nitrate, and finally modified by DTS (CH3(CH2)11Si(OCH3)3). The obtained surfaces exhibit a binary structure consisting of microscale crater-like pits and nanoscale reticula. The superhydrophobicity can be simultaneously affected by the micronano binary structure and chemical composition of the surface. The contact angle of the superhydrophobic surface reaches up to 158.8 ± 2°. Especially, the surface with micronano binary structure is revealed to be an excellent adhesive property with petal-effect. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surfaces show excellent stability in aqueous solution with a large pH range and after being exposed long-term in air. In this way, the multifunctional biomimetic structural surface of the aluminum alloy is fabricated. Furthermore, the preparation technology in this article provides a new route for other metal materials.

  16. Fabrication of bioinspired composite nanofiber membranes with robust superhydrophobicity for direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-06-03

    The practical application of membrane distillation (MD) for water purification is hindered by the absence of desirable membranes that can fulfill the special requirements of the MD process. Compared to the membranes fabricated by other methods, nanofiber membranes produced by electrospinning are of great interest due to their high porosity, low tortuosity, large surface pore size, and high surface hydrophobicity. However, the stable performance of the nanofiber membranes in the MD process is still unsatisfactory. Inspired by the unique structure of the lotus leaf, this study aimed to develop a strategy to construct superhydrophobic composite nanofiber membranes with robust superhydrophobicity and high porosity suitable for use in MD. The newly developed membrane consists of a superhydrophobic silica-PVDF composite selective skin formed on a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) porous nanofiber scaffold via electrospinning. This fabrication method could be easily scaled up due to its simple preparation procedures. The effects of silica diameter and concentration on membrane contact angle, sliding angle, and MD performance were investigated thoroughly. For the first time, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) tests demonstrate that the newly developed membranes are able to present stable high performance over 50 h of testing time, and the superhydrophobic selective layer exhibits excellent durability in ultrasonic treatment and a continuous DCMD test. It is believed that this novel design strategy has great potential for MD membrane fabrication.

  17. Application of Super-Hydrophobic Coating for Enhanced Water Repellency of Ballistic Fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that a superhydrophobic coating technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) increases the water repellency of ballistic fabric beyond that provided by existing water repellency treatments. This increased water repellency has the potential to provide durable ballistic fabric for body armor without adding significant weight to the armor or significant manufacturing cost. Specimens of greige and scoured ballistic fabric were treated with a superhydrophobic coating and their weights and degree of water repellency were compared to specimens of untreated fabric. Treatment of both greige and scoured ballistic fabrics yielded highly water repellent fabrics. Our measurements of the water droplet contact angles gave values of approximately 150 , near the lower limit of 160 for superhydrophobic surfaces. The coatings increased the fabric weights by approximately 6%, an amount that is many times less than the estimated weight increase in a conventional treatment of ballistic fabric. The treated fabrics retained a significant amount of water repellency following a basic abrasion test, with water droplet contact angles decreasing by 14 to 23 . Microscopic analysis of the coating applied to woven fabrics indicated that the coating adhered equally well to fibers of greige and scoured yarns. Future evaluation of the superhydrophobic water repellent treatment will involve the manufacture of shoot packs of treated fabric for ballistic testing and provide an analysis of manufacturing scale-up and cost-to-benefit considerations.

  18. Mussel-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces with enhanced corrosion resistance and dual-action antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hongchang; Li, Minglu; Li, Zhong; Lou, Yuntian; Huang, Luyao; Zhang, Dawei; Xu, Dake; Du, Cuiwei; Lu, Lin; Gao, Jin

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a multilayer antibacterial film was assembled onto 316L stainless steel via mussel-inspired depositions of polydopamine (PDA) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles followed by post-modification with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanethiol. The resulting surface exhibited excellent superhydrophobicity with hierarchical micro/nanostructures that were constructed by both PDA and Ag nanoparticles. The crystal structure and chemical composition of these surfaces were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed that the corrosion resistance of the as-prepared surfaces were sequentially increased after each step of the fabrication process. Compared with the surface covered with only Ag nanoparticles, the superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited substantially enhanced antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, resulting from the synergistic antibacterial actions of the superhydrophobic surface and Ag nanoparticles. The superhydrophobic surface exhibited lower cytotoxicity, compared to the surface covered with Ag nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Facile formation of biomimetic color-tuned superhydrophobic magnesium alloy with corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2011-03-15

    The design of color-tuned magnesium alloy with anticorrosive properties and damping capacity was created by means of a simple and inexpensive method. The vertically self-aligned nano- and microsheets were formed on magnesium alloy AZ31 by a chemical-free immersion process in ultrapure water at a temperature of 120 °C, resulting in the color expression. The color changed from silver with metallic luster to some specific colors such as orange, green, and orchid, depending on the immersion time. The color-tuned magnesium alloy showed anticorrosive performance and damping capacity. In addition, the colored surface with minute surface textures was modified with n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODS), leading to the formation of color-tuned superhydrophobic surfaces. The corrosion resistance of the color-tuned superhydrophobic magnesium alloy was also investigated using electrochemical potentiodynamic measurements. Moreover, the color-tuned superhydrophobic magnesium alloy showed high hydrophobicity not just for pure water but also for corrosive liquids, such as acidic, basic, and some aqueous salt solutions. In addition, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test was performed to investigate the adhesion of the color-tuned superhydrophobic film to the magnesium alloy surface.

  20. Tuning cell adhesion on polymeric and nanocomposite surfaces: Role of topography versus superhydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangi, Sepideh [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 36155-163, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hejazi, Iman [Department of Polymer Engineering & Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyfi, Javad, E-mail: Jseyfi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 36155-163, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hejazi, Ehsan [Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, Hossein Ali [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 19585-466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davachi, Seyed Mohammad [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    Development of surface modification procedures which allow tuning the cell adhesion on the surface of biomaterials and devices is of great importance. In this study, the effects of different topographies and wettabilities on cell adhesion behavior of polymeric surfaces are investigated. To this end, an improved phase separation method was proposed to impart various wettabilities (hydrophobic and superhydrophobic) on polypropylene surfaces. Surface morphologies and compositions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Cell culture was conducted to evaluate the adhesion of 4T1 mouse mammary tumor cells. It was found that processing conditions such as drying temperature is highly influential in cell adhesion behavior due to the formation of an utterly different surface topography. It was concluded that surface topography plays a more significant role in cell adhesion behavior rather than superhydrophobicity since the nano-scale topography highly inhibited the cell adhesion as compared to the micro-scale topography. Such cell repellent behavior could be very useful in many biomedical devices such as those in drug delivery and blood contacting applications as well as biosensors. - Highlights: • A novel method is presented for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces. • The presence of nanoparticles in non-solvent bath notably promoted phase separation. • Topography had a more notable impact on cell adhesion than superhydrophobicity. • Nano-scale topographical features highly impeded cell adhesion on polymer surfaces.

  1. Superhydrophobic Properties of Nanotextured Polypropylene Foils Fabricated by Roll-to-Roll Extrusion Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecka, Agnieszka; Murthy, Swathi; Sun, Ling

    2016-01-01

    etching with different processing gas flow rates. We provide a systematic study of the wetting properties for the fabricated surfaces and show that a controlled texture stretching effect in the R2R-EC process is instrumental to yield the superhydrophobic surfaces with water contact angles approaching 160......° and droplet roll-off angles below 10°....

  2. Water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic SiO2 nanocomposite films during icing/deicing cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazauskas, A.; Guobiene, A.; Prosycevas, I.; Baltrusaitis, V.; Grigaliunas, V.; Narmontas, P.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic (water contact angle value of 162 ± 1°) SiO2 nanocomposite films subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments, changes in SiO2 nanocomposite film surface morphology and their non-wetting characteristics. During the experiment,

  3. Anti-icing/frosting and self-cleaning performance of superhydrophobic aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Libang; Yan, Zhongna; Shi, Xueting; Sultonzoda, Firdavs

    2018-02-01

    Ice formation and frost deposition on cryogenic equipment and systems can result in serious problems and huge economic loss. Hence, it is quite necessary to develop new materials to prevent icing and frosting on cold surfaces in engineering fields. Here, a superhydrophobic aluminum alloy with enhanced anti-frosting, anti-icing, and self-cleaning performance has been developed by a facile one-step method. The anti-frosting/icing performance of superhydrophobic aluminum alloys is confirmed by frosting/icing time delay, consolidating and freezing temperature reduction, and lower amount of frost/ice adhesion. Meanwhile, the excellent self-cleaning performance is authenticated by the fact that simulated pollution particles can be cleaned out by rolling water droplets completely. Finally, based on the classical nucleation theory, anti-icing and anti-frosting mechanisms of the superhydrophobic aluminum alloys are deduced. Results show that grounded on "air cushion" and "heat insulation" effect, a larger nucleation barrier and a lower crystal growth rate can be observed, which, hence, inhibit ice formation and frost deposition. It can be concluded that preparing superhydrophobic surfaces would be an effective strategy for improving anti-icing, anti-frosting, and self-cleaning performance of aluminum alloys.

  4. Superhydrophobicity of biological and technical surfaces under moisture condensation: stability in relation to surface structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockenhaupt, Bernd; Ensikat, Hans-Jürgen; Spaeth, Manuel; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2008-12-02

    The stability of superhydrophobic properties of eight plants and four technical surfaces in respect to water condensation has been compared. Contact and sliding angles were measured after application of water drops of ambient temperature (20 degrees C) onto cooled surfaces. Water evaporating from the drops condensed, due to the temperature difference between the drops and the surface, on the cooled samples, forming "satellite droplets" in the vicinity of the drops. Surface cooling to 15, 10, and 5 degrees C showed a gradual decrease of superhydrophobicity. The decrease was dependent on the specific surface architecture of the sample. The least decrease was found on hierarchically structured surfaces with a combination of a coarse microstructure and submicrometer-sized structures, similar to that of the Lotus leaf. Control experiments with glycerol droplets, which show no evaporation, and thus no condensation, were carried out to verify that the effects with water were caused by condensation from the drop (secondary condensation). Furthermore, the superhydrophobic properties after condensation on cooled surfaces from a humid environment for 10 min were examined. After this period, the surfaces were covered with spherical water droplets, but most samples retained their superhydrophobicity. Again, the best stability of the water-repellent properties was found on hierarchically structured surfaces similar to that of the Lotus leaf.

  5. Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Micropatterned Nanowire Arrays for High-Efficiency Jumping Droplet Condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Rongfu; Xu, Shanshan; Zhao, Dongliang; Lee, Yung-Cheng; Ma, Xuehu [Liaoning; Yang, Ronggui [Buildings

    2017-12-13

    Self-propelled droplet jumping on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces is of interest for a variety of industrial applications including self-cleaning, water harvesting, power generation, and thermal management systems. However, the uncontrolled nucleation-induced Wenzel state of condensed droplets at large surface subcooling (high heat flux) leads to the formation of unwanted large pinned droplets, which results in the flooding phenomenon and greatly degrades the heat transfer performance. In this work, we present a novel strategy to manipulate droplet behaviors during the process from the droplet nucleation to growth and departure through a combination of spatially controlling initial nucleation for mobile droplets by closely spaced nanowires and promoting the spontaneous outward movement of droplets for rapid removal using micropatterned nanowire arrays. Through the optical visualization experiments and heat transfer tests, we demonstrate greatly improved condensation heat transfer characteristics on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface including the higher density of microdroplets, smaller droplet departure radius, 133% wider range of surface subcooling for droplet jumping, and 37% enhancement in critical heat flux for jumping droplet condensation, compared to the-state-of-art jumping droplet condensation on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces. The excellent water repellency of such hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces can be promising for many potential applications, such as anti-icing, antifogging, water desalination, and phase-change heat transfer.

  6. Low Drag Porous Ship with Superhydrophobic and Superoleophilic Surface for Oil Spills Cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Wang, He; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Xiaodong; He, Yi; Li, Longyang; Wu, Xuedong; Ren, Tianhui; Xue, Qunji

    2015-12-02

    To efficiently remove and recycle oil spills, we construct aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on the surface of the porous stainless steel wire mesh to fabricate a porous unmanned ship (PUS) with properties of superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity, and low drag by imitating the structure of nonwetting leg of water strider. The superhydrophobicity of the PUS is stable, which can support 16.5 cm water column with pore size of 100 μm. Water droplet can rebound without adhesion. In the process of oil/water separation, when the PUS contacts with oil, the oil is quickly pulled toward and penetrates into the PUS automatically. The superhydrophobicity and low water adhesion force of the PUS surface endow the PUS with high oil recovery capacity (above 94%) and drag-reducing property (31% at flowing velocity of 0.38m/s). In addition, the PUS has good corrosion resistance and reusability. We further investigate the wetting behavior of water and oil, oil recovery capacity, drag-reducing property, and corrosion resistance of the PUS after oil absorbed. The PUS surface changes significantly from superhydrophobic to hydrophobic after absorbing oil. However, the oil absorbed PUS possesses better drag-reducing property and corrosion resistance due to the changes of the motion state of the water droplets.

  7. Micro-, nano- and hierarchical structures for superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning and low adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Jung, Yong Chae; Koch, Kerstin

    2009-05-13

    Superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit extreme water-repellent properties. These surfaces with high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis also exhibit a self-cleaning effect and low drag for fluid flow. Certain plant leaves, such as lotus leaves, are known to be superhydrophobic and self-cleaning due to the hierarchical roughness of their leaf surfaces. The self-cleaning phenomenon is widely known as the 'lotus effect'. Superhydrophobic and self-cleaning surfaces can be produced by using roughness combined with hydrophobic coatings. In this paper, the effect of micro- and nanopatterned polymers on hydrophobicity is reviewed. Silicon surfaces patterned with pillars and deposited with a hydrophobic coating were studied to demonstrate how the effects of pitch value, droplet size and impact velocity influence the transition from a composite state to a wetted state. In order to fabricate hierarchical structures, a low-cost and flexible technique that involves replication of microstructures and self-assembly of hydrophobic waxes is described. The influence of micro-, nano- and hierarchical structures on superhydrophobicity is discussed by the investigation of static contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, droplet evaporation and propensity for air pocket formation. In addition, their influence on adhesive force as well as efficiency of self-cleaning is discussed.

  8. Fabrication of TiO2/PU Superhydrophobic Film by Nanoparticle Assisted Cast Micromolding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zheng, Jianyong; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Lotus-like surfaces have attracted great attentions in recent years for their wide applications in water repellency, anti-fog and self-cleaning. This paper introduced a novel process, nanoparticle assisted cast micromolding, to create polymer film with superhydrophobic surface. Briefly, waterborne polyurethane (WPU) sol and nano TiO2/WPU sol were each cast onto the featured surfaces of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps replicated from fresh lotus leaves. After being dried and peeled off from the stamps, PU and TiO2/WPU replica films were created respectively. To the former, only high hydrophobic property was observed with static water contact angle (WCA) at 142.5 degrees. While to the later, superhydrophobic property was obtained with WCA more than 150 degrees and slide angle less than 3 degrees. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed that the PU replica film only had the micro-papillas and the TiO2/PU replica film not only had micro papillas but also had a large number of nano structures distributed on and between the micro-papillas. Such nano and micro hierarchical structures were very similar with those on the natural lotus leaf surface, thus was the main reason for causing superhydrophobic property. Although an elastic PDMS stamp from lotus leaf was used in herein process, hard molds may also be used in theory. This study supplied an alternative technique for large scale production of polymeric films with superhydrophobic.

  9. Glaze Icing on Superhydrophobic Coating Prepared by Nanoparticles Filling Combined with Etching Method for Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Icing on insulators may cause flashover or even blackout accidents in the power transmission system. However, there are few anti-icing techniques for insulators which consume energy or manpower. Considering the water repelling property, the superhydrophobic surface is introduced for anti-icing of insulators. Among the icing forms, the glaze icing owns the highest density, strongest adhesion, and greatest risk to the power transmission system but lacks researches on superhydrophobic surface. In this paper, superhydrophobic surfaces with contact angle of 166.4°, contact angle hysteresis of 0.9°, and sliding angle of less than 1° are prepared by nanoparticle filling combined with etching method. The coated glass slide and glass insulator showed excellent anti-icing performance in the glaze icing test at −5°C. The superhydrophobicity and anti-icing property of the coatings benefit from the low surface energy and hierarchical rough structure containing micron scale pits and nanoscale coralloid bulges supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS characterization.

  10. Superhydrophobic gecko feet with high adhesive forces towards water and their bio-inspired materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Du, Jiexing; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Functional integration is an inherent characteristic for multiscale structures of biological materials. In this contribution, we first investigate the liquid-solid adhesive forces between water droplets and superhydrophobic gecko feet using a high-sensitivity micro-electromechanical balance system. It was found, in addition to the well-known solid-solid adhesion, the gecko foot, with a multiscale structure, possesses both superhydrophobic functionality and a high adhesive force towards water. The origin of the high adhesive forces of gecko feet to water could be attributed to the high density nanopillars that contact the water. Inspired by this, polyimide films with gecko-like multiscale structures were constructed by using anodic aluminum oxide templates, exhibiting superhydrophobicity and a strong adhesive force towards water. The static water contact angle is larger than 150° and the adhesive force to water is about 66 μN. The resultant gecko-inspired polyimide film can be used as a ``mechanical hand'' to snatch micro-liter liquids. We expect this work will provide the inspiration to reveal the mechanism of the high-adhesive superhydrophobic of geckos and extend the practical applications of polyimide materials.

  11. Superhydrophobic gecko feet with high adhesive forces towards water and their bio-inspired materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Du, Jiexing; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2012-02-07

    Functional integration is an inherent characteristic for multiscale structures of biological materials. In this contribution, we first investigate the liquid-solid adhesive forces between water droplets and superhydrophobic gecko feet using a high-sensitivity micro-electromechanical balance system. It was found, in addition to the well-known solid-solid adhesion, the gecko foot, with a multiscale structure, possesses both superhydrophobic functionality and a high adhesive force towards water. The origin of the high adhesive forces of gecko feet to water could be attributed to the high density nanopillars that contact the water. Inspired by this, polyimide films with gecko-like multiscale structures were constructed by using anodic aluminum oxide templates, exhibiting superhydrophobicity and a strong adhesive force towards water. The static water contact angle is larger than 150° and the adhesive force to water is about 66 μN. The resultant gecko-inspired polyimide film can be used as a "mechanical hand" to snatch micro-liter liquids. We expect this work will provide the inspiration to reveal the mechanism of the high-adhesive superhydrophobic of geckos and extend the practical applications of polyimide materials. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  12. Tunable hydrodynamic characteristics in microchannels with biomimetic superhydrophobic (lotus leaf replica) walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ranabir; Raj M, Kiran; Bhandaru, Nandini; Mukherjee, Rabibrata; Chakraborty, Suman

    2014-05-21

    The present work comprehensively addresses the hydrodynamic characteristics through microchannels with lotus leaf replica (exhibiting low adhesion and superhydrophobic properties) walls. The lotus leaf replica is fabricated following an efficient, two-step, soft-molding process and is then integrated with rectangular microchannels. The inherent biomimetic, superhydrophobic surface-liquid interfacial hydrodynamics, and the consequential bulk flow characteristics, are critically analyzed by the micro-particle image velocimetry technique. It is observed that the lotus leaf replica mediated microscale hydrodynamics comprise of two distinct flow regimes even within the low Reynolds number paradigm, unlike the commonly perceived solely apparent slip-stick dominated flows over superhydrophobic surfaces. While the first flow regime is characterized by an apparent slip-stick flow culminating in an enhanced bulk throughput rate, the second flow regime exhibits a complete breakdown of the aforementioned laminar and uni-axial flow model, leading to a predominantly no-slip flow. Interestingly, the critical flow condition dictating the transition between the two hydrodynamic regimes is intrinsically dependent on the micro-confinement effect. In this regard, an energetically consistent theoretical model is also proposed to predict the alterations in the critical flow condition with varying microchannel configurations, by addressing the underlying biomimetic surface-liquid interfacial conditions. Hence, the present research endeavour provides a new design-guiding paradigm for developing multi-functional microfluidic devices involving biomimetic, superhydrophobic surfaces, by judicious exploitation of the tunable hydrodynamic characteristics in the two regimes.

  13. UV protection filters by dielectric multilayer thin films on Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, M. M.; Azim, Osama A.; Abdel-Wahab, L. A.; Seddik, Mohamed M.

    2006-10-01

    The increasing use of Ultraviolet (UV) light in medicine, industrial environments, for cosmetic use, and even in consumer products necessitates that greater attention be paid to the potential hazards of this type of electromagnetic radiation. To avoid any adverse effects of exposure to this type of radiation, four suitable protection filters were produced to block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters was done by optical thin film technology using the absorbing property of UV radiation for the substrates and dielectric materials. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Titanium dioxide (Ti 2O 3), Hafnium dioxide (HfO 2), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO 2/Al 2O 3); deposition being achieved using an electron beam gun. The output results of the theoretical and experimental transmittance values for spectral band from 200 nm to 800 nm were discussed in four processes. To analyze the suitability for use in 'real world' applications, the test pieces were subjected to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance, and humidity) according to Military Standard MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A.

  14. Femtosecond pulsed laser textured titanium surfaces with stable superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bao-jia, E-mail: li_bjia@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Huang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Kong, Xia [Jiangsu Tailong Reduction Box Co. Ltd., Taixing 225400 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Textured Ti surfaces were obtained by facile and highly-efficient laser scanning. • Binary structures having micro-scale spikes and nano-scale ripples were formed. • Superhydrophilic Ti surfaces were obtained by single-step laser texturing. • The superhydrophilic Ti surfaces became superhydrophobic after silanization. • The superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic Ti surfaces showed stability in ambient air. - Abstract: A facile and highly-efficient laser scanning process coupled with a simple silanization modification was used to prepare textured titanium (Ti) surfaces with stable superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity. Femtosecond pulsed laser scanning along two mutually perpendicular directions led to the formation of binary structures featuring micrometer-scale spikes covered with nanometer-scale ripples. The period of the spikes significantly increased and the period of the ripples irregularly changed in the narrow range of 550–600 nm with the increase of laser fluence. The obtained laser-textured Ti surfaces were hydrophilic or even superhydrophilic, and the superhydrophilic laser-textured Ti surface using a laser fluence of 1.5 J/cm{sup 2} was observed to retain its wetting property after 30 days of storage in ambient atmosphere. After silanization, all the laser-textured Ti surfaces exhibited high hydrophobicity or superhydrophobicity, and the superhydrophobic laser-textured Ti surfaces using laser fluences of 1.5 and 1.8 J/cm{sup 2} remained stable when stored in air for over 30 days. The results imply the potential applications of these surfaces in a variety of fields.

  15. Superhydrophobic properties induced by sol-gel routes on copper surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, M.; Veronesi, F.; Boveri, G.; Guarini, G.; Motta, A.; Zanoni, R.

    2017-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are attracting increasing attention in different fields such as energy, transportation, building industry and electronics, as they exhibit many interesting properties such as high water repellence, anti-fogging, anti-corrosion, anti-fouling and self-cleaning abilities. Here, superhydrophobic nanostructured hybrid materials obtained by depositing alumina nanoparticles on copper surfaces via dip coating in Al2O3 sol are presented. Two different preparation routes were explored, based on either an alcoholic or an aqueous Al2O3 sol, and the resulting wetting properties were compared. Wettability measurements showed that when the alcoholic sol is used superhydrophobicity is attained, with values of water contact angle very close to the upper limit of 180°, while highly hydrophobic coatings are obtained with the aqueous sol. These findings were further supported by electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which revealed that the surface layer deposited on Cu is more homogenous and richer in alumina nanoparticles when the alcoholic sol was used. Durability of the superhydrophobic coating was assessed by performing ageing tests in chemically aggressive environments. A remarkable resistance is displayed by the superhydrophobic coating in acid environment, while alkaline conditions severely affect its properties. Such behaviors were investigated by XPS and FE-SEM measurements, which disclosed the nature of the surface reactions under the different conditions tested. The present results underline that a thorough investigation of surface morphology, chemical composition and wetting properties reveals their strongly connection and helps optimizing the combination of substrate nanostructuring and suitable chemical coating for an improved durability in different aggressive environments.

  16. Fabrication of Corrosion Resistance Micro-Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Anodized Aluminum in a One-Step Electrodeposition Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ying Huang; Dilip K Sarkar; X-Grant Chen

    2016-01-01

    ...) surface to superhydrophobic, having a water contact angle of 160°. The corrosion current densities of the anodized and aluminum alloy surfaces are found to be 200 and 400 nA/cm2, respectively...

  17. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  18. One step phase separation process to fabricate superhydrophobic PVC films and its corrosion prevention for AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Na; Li, Jicheng; Bai, Ningning; Xu, Lan; Li, Qing, E-mail: liqingswu@163.com

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Independent superhydrophobic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film was prepared by phase separation process. • The superhydrophobic PVC film showed excellent stability in acid, alkali and salt corrosive solutions. • This film was prepared on magnesium surface protecting it from corrosion. • This method was simple and universal. - Abstract: A one step, simple fabrication method to prepare independent superhydrophobic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coating is reported in this paper. The rough surface structure and low surface energy could be simply obtained only by a phase separation process. The independent PVC superhydrophobic film was also applied on AZ91D magnesium alloy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle measurements, electrochemical test and adhesion tests have been performed to characterize the surface morphology, wettability, anti-corrosion and adhesion strength of independent PVC film and superhydrophobic magnesium alloy respectively. The results indicated that whether it was the PVC film or superhydrophobic magnesium, they show static contact angles higher than 150°, excellent anti-corrosion effect and adhesion strength. We believed that the presented method could provide a straightforward and simple route to fabricate low-cost and anti-corrosion coating on various substrate materials. Moreover, this one step process may find potential application in the field of industry because of its simplicity and universality.

  19. A Robust Epoxy Resins @ Stearic Acid-Mg(OH)2 Micronanosheet Superhydrophobic Omnipotent Protective Coating for Real-Life Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-06-29

    Superhydrophobic coating has extremely high application value and practicability. However, some difficult problems such as weak mechanical strength, the need for expensive toxic reagents, and a complex preparation process are all hard to avoid, and these problems have impeded the superhydrophobic coating's real-life application for a long time. Here, we demonstrate one kind of omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating via a simple antideposition route and one-step superhydrophobization process. The whole preparation process is facile, and expensive toxic reagents needed. This omnipotent coating can be applied on any solid substrate with great waterproof ability, excellent mechanical stability, and chemical durability, which can be stored in a realistic environment for more than 1 month. More significantly, this superhydrophobic coating also has four protective abilities, antifouling, anticorrosion, anti-icing, and flame-retardancy, to cope with a variety of possible extreme natural environments. Therefore, this omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating not only satisfies real-life need but also has great application potential in many respects.

  20. Superhydrophobic Surface by Replication of Laser Micromachined Pattern in Epoxy/Alumina Nanoparticle Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Psarski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained by superposition of microstructure—defined by replication of laser micromachined masters, with nanostructure—created by durable epoxy/γ-Al2O3 nanoparticle composite, used for replication. Hierarchical surface topography thus obtained consisted of hexagonally spaced microcavities and nanoparticle agglomerates, exposed on the replica surface by radio frequency (RF air plasma etching. Surface topography was further enhanced by rims around the microcavity edges, resulting from nanosecond laser micromachining defects in aluminum masters. Subsequent wet chemical hydrophobization with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorotetradecyltriethoxysilane (PFTDTES provided superhydrophobic behavior in replicas with a microcavity spacing of 30 μm, as indicated by a water contact angle of 160° and a sliding angle of 8°. The preparation method is relatively simple, inexpensive, and potentially scalable.

  1. Facile approach in fabricating superhydrophobic ZnO/polystyrene nanocomposite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yongquan; Zheng, Yansheng; Hu, Chuanbo; Wang, Yong; He, Yi; Gong, Yong; Mo, Qian

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we report a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating modified-ZnO/polystyrene superhydrophobic surface on the cotton textiles. The surface wettability and topology of coating were characterized by contact angle measurement, Scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The results showed that the hydrophobic CH3 and CF2 group was introduced into ZnO particles via modification, the ZnO nanoparticles were modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. When the weight ratio of modified-ZnO to polystyrene was 7:3, the ZnO/polystyrene composite coating contact angle was 158°, coating surface with hierarchical micro/nano structures. Furthermore, the superhydrophobic cotton texiles have a very extensive application prospect in water-oil separation.

  2. Superhydrophobic wind turbine blade surfaces obtained by a simple deposition of silica nanoparticles embedded in epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmouch, Rachid; Ross, Guy G.

    2010-11-01

    Samples of wind turbine blade surface have been covered with a superhydrophobic coating made of silica nanoparticles embedded in commercial epoxy paint. The superhydrophobic surfaces have a water contact angle around 152°, a hysteresis less than 2° and a water drop sliding angle around 0.5°. These surfaces are water repellent so that water drops cannot remain motionless on the surface. Examination of coated and uncoated surfaces with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, together with measurements of water contact angles, indicates that the air trapped in the cavity enhances the water repellency similarly to the lotus leaf effect. Moreover, this new coating is stable under UVC irradiation and water pouring. The production of this nanoscale coating film being simple and low cost, it can be considered as a suitable candidate for water protection of different outdoor structures.

  3. Fabrication of a Superhydrophobic Surface with Adjustable Hydrophobicity and Adhesivity Based on a Silica Nanotube Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jaeeun; Son, Sang Jun [Gachon Univ., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle > 150 .deg. has attracted great interest from both fundamental and practical aspects. In this study, we demonstrated that hydrophobicity of a silica nanotube (SNT) array can be easily controlled by the SNT aspect ratio. In addition, the adhesive and anti-adhesive properties were controlled without modifying the hydrophobic surface. Various silica structures on a polydimethylsiloxane substrate were prepared using the desired alumina template. Bundle-arrayed and bowl arrayed silica surfaces exhibited extraordinary superhydrophobicity due to the large frontal surface area and hierarchical micro/nanostructure. As the strategy used in this study is biocompatible and a wide range of hydrophobicities are capable of being controlled by the SNT aspect ratio, a hydrophobic surface composed of an SNT array could be an attractive candidate for bioapplications, such as cell and protein chips.

  4. Fabrication of non-modified metallic superhydrophobic surfaces with temperature insensitivity and self-healing ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Shanlin; Yu, Xinquan; Zhang, Youfa

    2016-07-01

    Metallic hierarchical texture was prepared by nickel-cobalt electro-deposition and subsequent replacement reaction to coat silver. Due to energetically favorable hydrocarbon adsorption on the silver film, contact angle of the surface increased gradually over time after exposure to laboratory air. The substrate became superhydrophobic after three days to aqueous droplets with various pH values. It was found that the surface remained stable after exposing to extreme temperatures in the wide range from -196 °C to 200 °C. Importantly, self-healing of superhydrophobicity can be easily accomplished and repeated in an ambient environment while hydrocarbon desorption occurred under high temperature. Furthermore, this approach can be easily applied to other conductive substrates.

  5. Superhydrophobic conductive textiles with antibacterial property by coating fibers with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Chen, Jia; Yin, Wei; Jia, Shun-Tian; Ma, Jian-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were produced on cotton fibers by reduction of [Ag(NH3)2]+ complex with glucose. Further modification of the fibers coated by Ag NPs with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane led to superhydrophobic cotton textiles. Scanning electron microscopy images of the textiles showed that the treated fibers were covered with uniform Ag NPs, which generate a dual-size roughness on the textiles favouring the formation of superhydrophobic surfaces, and the Ag NPs formed dense coating around the fibers rendering the intrinsic insulating cotton textiles conductive. Antibacterial test showed that the as-fabricated textiles had high antibacterial activity against the gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli. These multifunctional textiles might find applications in biomedical electronic devices.

  6. Preliminary study on different technological tools and polymeric materials towards superhydrophobic surfaces for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, A.; Ramiro, J.; Belforte, L.

    2013-11-01

    Nature-inspired fabrication of micro-structured superhydrophobic plastic film was aimed in this work in order to achieve smart materials with self-cleaning properties. Replicas of silicon masters were fabricated from different mixtures of base elements and by different processes. Corresponding microstructures were investigated by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy and spectrophotometric analysis. Independently of the technology employed, the obtained films exhibited high contact angle value (larger than 150°), but while the acrylic polymers presented strong demoulding drawbacks, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films had good properties in terms of both contact angle and optical transparency. The results showed that most of the patterns realized by replica moulding and hot-embossing (on PDMS and polypropylene (PP), respectively) produced superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces.

  7. Metal Enhanced Fluorescence on Super-Hydrophobic Clusters of Gold Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Battista, Edmondo

    2016-12-15

    We used optical lithography, electroless deposition and deep reactive ion etching techniques to realize arrays of super-hydrophobic gold nanoparticles arranged in a hierarchical structure. At the micro-scale, silicon-micro pillars in the chip permit to manipulate and concentrate biological solutions, at the nano-scale, gold nanoparticles enable metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) effects, whereby fluorescence signal of fluorophores in close proximity to a rough metal surface is amplified by orders of magnitude. Here, we demonstrated the device in the analysis of fluorescein derived gold-binding peptides (GBP-FITC). While super-hydrophobic schemes and MEF effects have been heretofore used in isolation, their integration in a platform may advance the current state of fluorescence-based sensing technology in medical diagnostics and biotechnology. This scheme may be employed in protein microarrays where the increased sensitivity of the device may enable the early detection of cancer biomarkers or other proteins of biomedical interest.

  8. Fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy substrates by RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a method of fabricating super-hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy substrate. The etching of aluminum surfaces has been performed using Beck's dislocation etchant for different time to create micrometer-sized irregular steps. An optimised etching time of 50 s is found to be essential before polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE coating, to obtain a highest water contact angle of 165±2° with a lowest contact angle hysteresis as low as 5±2°. The presence of patterned microstructure as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM together with the low surface energy ultrathin RF-sputtered PTFE films renders the aluminum alloy surfaces highly super-hydrophobic.

  9. Fabrication of self-healing super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminium alloy substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to fabricate a super-hydrophobic surface with a self-healing ability on an aluminium alloy substrate. The coatings are obtained by combining a two-step process (first, the substrate is immersed in a solution of HCl, HF and H2O, and then in boiling water and succeeding surface fluorination with a solution of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene and a fluoroalkyl silane. The morphological features and chemical composition were studied by scanning electron micrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The prepared super-hydrophobic aluminium surfaces showed hierarchical structures forming pores, petals and particles with a contact angle of 161° and a sliding angle of 3°.

  10. The preparation of Nepenthes Bio-inspired superhydrophobic surface primary microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jieqiong; Ma, Mingwei; Jing, Xian

    2017-12-01

    4Wetting phenomenon is an important phenomenon in nature, and it is related to our daily life closely. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to study wettability surface. Recently, based on the observation and measurement of Nepenthes surface, we realized the liquid or insects will roll down from the surface almost without resistance resulted from the lunate-shaped microstructure and its composite microstructure, which can make the surface possess superhydrophobic properties. Nepenthes Bio-inspired superhydrophobic primary microstructure was fabricated by the two-photon polymerization using femtosecond laser and characterized by developering are still stable after washing observed by Zygo. The lunate are still intact after washing, so the character of hydrophobicity can be maintained. We demonstrate that our approach provide a novel way to fabricate such primary microstructures on the glass using femtosecond laser two-photon polymerization for practical applications in related area. 97714025@qq.com

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Graphene Superhydrophobic Fibrous Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Moradi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy to induce superhydrophobicity via introducing hierarchical structure into the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF film was explored in this study. For this purpose nanofibrous composite films were prepared by electrospinning of PVDF and PVDF/graphene blend solution as the main precursors to produce a net-like structure. Various spectroscopy and microscopy methods in combination with crystallographic and wettability tests were used to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized films. Mechanical properties have been studied using a universal stress-strain test. The results show that the properties of the PVDF nanofibrous film are improved by compositing with graphene. The incorporation of graphene flakes into the fibrous polymer matrix changes the morphology, enhances the surface roughness, and improves the hydrophobicity by inducing a morphological hierarchy. Superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle of about 160° can be achieved for the PVDF/graphene electrospun nanocomposite film in comparison to PVDF pristine film.

  12. Facile Fabrication of a Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Coating with Aluminate Coupling Agent Modified Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A superhydrophobic coating was fabricated from the dispersion of unmodified kaolin particles and aluminate coupling agent in anhydrous ethanol. Through surface modification, water contact angle of the coating prepared by modified kaolin particles increased dramatically from 0° to 152°, and the sliding angle decreased from 90° to 3°. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology. A structure composed of micro-nano hierarchical component, combined with the surface modification by aluminate coupling agent which reduced the surface energy greatly, was found to be responsible for the superhydrophobicity. The method adopted is relatively simple, facile, and cost-effective and can potentially be applied to large water-repellent surface coatings.

  13. Oblique impacts of water drops onto hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces: outcomes, timing, and rebound maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, C.; Villa, F.; Marengo, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on water drop oblique impacts onto hydrophobic and superhydrophobic tilted surfaces, with the objective of understanding drop impact dynamics and the conditions for drop rebound on low wetting surfaces. Drop impact experiments were performed with millimetric water drops with Weber numbers in the range 25 definition of six different impact regimes: deposition, rivulet, sliding, rolling, partial rebound, and rebound. For superhydrophobic surfaces, surface tilting generally enhanced drop rebound and shedding from the surface, either by reducing drop rebound time up to 40 % or by allowing drop rebound even when impalement occurred in the vicinity of the impact region. On hydrophobic surfaces, rebound was never observed for tilt angles higher than 45°.

  14. Towards bioinspired superhydrophobic poly(L-lactic acid) surfaces using phase inversion-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Alves, Natália M; Mano, João F

    2008-09-01

    The water repellency and self-cleaning ability of many biological surfaces has inspired many fundamental and practical studies related to the development of synthetic superhydrophobic surfaces. However, the investigation of such substrates made of biodegradable polymers has been scarce. Simple approaches based on a single step, performed at room temperature (and pressure), were implemented to obtain superhydrophobic poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) surfaces via phase inversion-based methods, without addition of low-surface-energy compounds. Water contact angles above 150 degrees were obtained using some processing conditions. In such cases scanning electronic microscopy micrographs of such surfaces revealed a clear rough texture composed by leafy clusters with micro-nano binary structures. Such materials could be used in specific environmental and biomedical applications, namely in implantable materials or in antibacterial or antithrombogenic surfaces.

  15. Superhydrophobic surfaces allow probing of exosome self organization using X-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Accardo, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Drops of exosome dispersions from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells were dried on a superhydrophobic PMMA substrate. The residues were studied by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering using both a synchrotron radiation micrometric beam and a high-flux table-top X-ray source. Structural differences between healthy and cancerous cells were detected in the lamellar lattices of the exosome macro-aggregates. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Synthesis of polymeric fluorinated sol–gel precursor for fabrication of superhydrophobic coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qianqian; Yan, Yuheng; Yu, Miao; Song, Botao; Shi, Suqing, E-mail: shisq@nwu.edu.cn; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A polymeric fluorinated sol–gel precursor PFT is designed to fabricate superhydrophobic coatings. • The superhydrophobicity could be governed by the concentration of PFT. • Bio-mimicking self-cleaning property similar to lotus leaves could also be achieved. - Abstract: A fluorinated polymeric sol–gel precursor (PFT) is synthesized by copolymerization of 2,3,4,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-bis(trifluorinated methyl)pentyl methacrylate (FMA) and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (TSMA) to replace the expensive long chain fluorinated alkylsilanes. The fluorinated silica sol is prepared by introducing PFT as co-precursor of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the sol–gel process with ammonium hydroxide as catalyst, which is then used to fabricate superhydrophobic coating on glass substrate through a simple dip-coating method. The effects of PFT concentrations on the chemical structure of the formed fluorinated silica, the surface chemical composition, surface morphology, wetting and self-cleaning properties of the resultant fluorinated silica coatings were studied by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle measurements (WCA). The results show that the fluorinated silica sols are successfully obtained. The size and size distribution of the fluorinated silica particles are found greatly dependent on the concentration of PFT, which play a crucial role in the surface morphology of the corresponding fluorinated silica coatings. The suitable PFT concentration added in the sol–gel stage, i.e. for F-sol-1 and F-sol-2, is helpful to achieve both the low surface energy and multi-scaled microstructures, leading to the formation of the superhydrophobic coatings with bio-mimicking self-cleaning property similar to lotus leaves.

  17. Adhesion and Spreading of Human Fibroblasts on Superhydrophobic Fep-Teflon

    OpenAIRE

    Busscher, H. J.; Stokroos, I.; Golverdingen, J. G.; Shakenraad, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Adhesion and spreading of human fibroblasts was studied on hydrophobized and hydrophilized FEPTeflon, and compared with adhesion and spreading on untreated FEP-Teflon and Tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). Superhydrophobic FEP-Teflon was prepared by ion etching followed by oxygen glow-discharge. Hydrophilic PEP-Teflon was prepared by ion etching only. Water contact angles of the modified surfaces were 140- 1500 and 5-10° for the hydrophobic and the hydrophilic variant, respectively. (Untreate...

  18. Hydrodynamic Drag Force Measurement Of A Functionalized Surface Exhibiting Superhydrophobic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    resiliency of this surface treatment . 14. SUBJECT TERMS superhydrophobic, superhydrophilic, Femto-second laser surface processing , skin friction drag...and Y. Kunitake, Frictional drag reduction with air lubricant over a super- water -repellent surface, Journal of Marine Science and Technology , vol...properties being extended to a variety of metallic substrates through the process of ablation due to femto-second laser surface processing (FLSP), it is

  19. Fast, active droplet interaction: coalescence and reactive mixing controlled by electrowetting on a superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Angelo; Mecarini, Federico; Leoncini, Marco; Brandi, Fernando; Di Cola, Emanuela; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2013-02-07

    A novel electrowetting-on-dielectrics (EWOD) device in open planar geometry allows probing of droplet mixing on a superhydrophobic substrate under quasi contact-free conditions. We demonstrate a droplet-based microreactor with integrated convective-flow mixing for the reactive-mixing of CaCl(2)/Na(2)CO(3) solutions. The device provides unique conditions for scattering, spectroscopy and imaging probes requiring an unobstructed droplet-access.

  20. Underwater restoration and retention of gases on superhydrophobic surfaces for drag reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C.; Kim, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Superhydrophobic (SHPo) surfaces have shown promise for passive drag reduction because their surface structures can hold a lubricating gas film between the solid surface and the liquid in contact with it. However, the types of SHPo surfaces that would produce any meaningful amount of reduction get wet under liquid pressure or at surface defects, both of which are unavoidable in the real world. In this Letter, we solve the above problem by (1) discovering surface structures that allow the rest...

  1. Preparation of Robust Superhydrophobic Halloysite Clay Nanotubes via Mussel-Inspired Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Meng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel and convenient bio-inspired modification strategy was used to create stable superhydrophobic structures on halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs surfaces. The polydopamine (PDA nanoparticles can firmly adhere on HNTs surfaces in a mail environment of pH 8.5 via the oxidative self-polymerization of dopamine and synthesize a rough nano-layer assisted with vitamin M, which provides a catechol functional platform for the secondary reaction to graft hydrophobic long-chain alkylamine for preparation of hierarchical micro/nano structures with superhydrophobic properties. The micromorphology, crystal structure, and surface chemical composition of the resultant superhydrophobic HNTs were characterized by field emission scanning electron (FE-SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The as-formed surfaces exhibited outstanding superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (CA of 156.3 ± 2.3°, while having little effect on the crystal structures of HNTs. Meanwhile, the resultant HNTs also showed robust stability that can conquer various harsh conditions including strong acidic/alkaline solutions, organic solvents, water boiling, ultrasonic cleaning, and outdoor solar radiation. In addition, the novel HNTs exhibited excellent packaged capabilities of phase change materials (PCMs for practical application in thermal energy storage, which improved the mass fractions by 22.94% for stearic acid and showed good recyclability. These HNTs also exhibited good oil/water separation ability. Consequently, due to the superior merits of high efficiency, easy operation, and non-toxicity, this bionic surface modification approach may make HNTs have great potentials for extensive applications.

  2. Superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces in biology: evolution, structural principles and biomimetic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Barthlott, W.; Mail, M.; Neinhuis, C.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the construction principles and occurrences of superhydrophobic surfaces in plants, animals and other organisms is provided and is based on our own scanning electron microscopic examinations of almost 20 000 different species and the existing literature. Properties such as self-cleaning (lotus effect), fluid drag reduction (Salvinia effect) and the introduction of new functions (air layers as sensory systems) are described and biomimetic applications are discussed: s...

  3. Air?water interface of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Moosmann, Markus; Schimmel, Thomas; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Mail, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Underwater air retention of superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces is of increasing interest for technical applications. Persistent air layers (the Salvinia effect) are known from biological species, for example, the floating fern Salvinia or the backswimmer Notonecta. The use of this concept opens up new possibilities for biomimetic technical applications in the fields of drag reduction, antifouling, anticorrosion and under water sensing. Current knowledge regarding the shape of...

  4. In Situ Determination of the Water Condensation Mechanisms on Superhydrophobic and Superhydrophilic Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Montero, Manuel; Lopez-Santos, Carmen; Filippin, A Nicolas; Rico, Victor J; Espinos, Juan P; Fraxedas, Jordi; Perez-Dieste, Virginia; Escudero, Carlos; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R; Borras, Ana

    2017-07-05

    One-dimensional (1D) nanostructured surfaces based on high-density arrays of nanowires and nanotubes of photoactive titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) present a tunable wetting behavior from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic states. These situations are depicted in a reversible way by simply irradiating with ultraviolet light (superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic) and storage in dark. In this article, we combine in situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and near ambient pressure photoemission analysis (NAPP) to understand this transition. These experiments reveal complementary information at microscopic and atomic level reflecting the surface wettability and chemical state modifications experienced by these 1D surfaces upon irradiation. We pay special attention to the role of the water condensation mechanisms and try to elucidate the relationship between apparent water contact angles of sessile drops under ambient conditions at the macroscale with the formation of droplets by water condensation at low temperature and increasing humidity on the nanotubes' surfaces. Thus, for the as-grown nanotubes, we reveal a metastable and superhydrophobic Cassie state for sessile drops that tunes toward water dropwise condensation at the microscale compatible with a partial hydrophobic Wenzel state. For the UV-irradiated surfaces, a filmwise wetting behavior is observed for both condensed water and sessile droplets. NAPP analyses show a hydroxyl accumulation on the as-grown nanotubes surfaces during the exposure to water condensation conditions, whereas the water filmwise condensation on a previously hydroxyl enriched surface is proved for the superhydrophilic counterpart.

  5. Superhydrophobic and Slippery Lubricant-Infused Flexible Transparent Nanocellulose Films by Photoinduced Thiol-Ene Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiaqi; Fang, Wenwen; Welle, Alexander; Feng, Wenqian; Filpponen, Ilari; Rojas, Orlando J; Levkin, Pavel A

    2016-12-14

    Films comprising nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) are suitable substrates for flexible devices in analytical, sensor, diagnostic, and display technologies. However, some major challenges in such developments include their high moisture sensitivity and the complexity of current methods available for functionalization and patterning. In this work, we present a facile process for tailoring the surface wettability and functionality of NFC films by a fast and versatile approach. First, the NFC films were coated with a layer of reactive nanoporous silicone nanofilament by polycondensation of trichlorovinylsilane (TCVS). The TCVS afforded reactive vinyl groups, thereby enabling simple UV-induced functionalization of NFC films with various thiol-containing molecules via the photo "click" thiol-ene reaction. Modification with perfluoroalkyl thiols resulted in robust superhydrophobic surfaces, which could then be further transformed into transparent slippery lubricant-infused NFC films that displayed repellency against both aqueous and organic liquids with surface tensions as low as 18 mN·m-1. Finally, transparent and flexible NFC films incorporated hydrophilic micropatterns by modification with OH, NH2, or COOH surface groups, enabling space-resolved superhydrophobic-hydrophilic domains. Flexibility, transparency, patternability, and perfect superhydrophobicity of the produced nanocellulose substrates warrants their application in biosensing, display protection, and biomedical and diagnostics devices.

  6. Controlling the Adhesion of Superhydrophobic Surfaces Using Electrolyte Jet Machining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xin; Lu, Yao; Zhou, Shining; Gao, Mingqian; Song, Jinlong; Xu, Wenji

    2016-04-01

    Patterns with controllable adhesion on superhydrophobic areas have various biomedical and chemical applications. Electrolyte jet machining technique (EJM), an electrochemical machining method, was firstly exploited in constructing dimples with various profiles on the superhydrophobic Al alloy surface using different processing parameters. Sliding angles of water droplets on those dimples firstly increased and then stabilized at a certain value with the increase of the processing time or the applied voltages of the EJM, indicating that surfaces with different adhesion force could be obtained by regulating the processing parameters. The contact angle hysteresis and the adhesion force that restricts the droplet from sliding off were investigated through experiments. The results show that the adhesion force could be well described using the classical Furmidge equation. On account of this controllable adhesion force, water droplets could either be firmly pinned to the surface, forming various patterns or slide off at designed tilting angles at specified positions on a superhydrophobic surface. Such dimples on superhydrophopbic surfaces can be applied in water harvesting, biochemical analysis and lab-on-chip devices.

  7. One-step fabrication of superhydrophobic hierarchical structures by femtosecond laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukosuyev, Maxym V.; Lee, Jason [Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria (Canada); Cho, Seong Jin; Lim, Geunbae [Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Martin B.G., E-mail: mbgjun@uvic.ca [Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface patterns by femtosecond laser ablation in open air. • Micron scale ridge-like structure with superimposed submicron convex features. • Hydrophobic or even superhydrophobic behavior with no additional silanization. - Abstract: Hydrophobic surface properties are sought after in many areas of research, engineering, and consumer product development. Traditionally, hydrophobic surfaces are produced by using various types of coatings. However, introduction of foreign material onto the surface is often undesirable as it changes surface chemistry and cannot provide a long lasting solution (i.e. reapplication is needed). Therefore, surface modification by transforming the base material itself can be preferable in many applications. Femtosecond laser ablation is one of the methods that can be used to create structures on the surface that will exhibit hydrophobic behavior. The goal of the presented research was to create micro and nano-scale patterns that will exhibit hydrophobic properties with no additional post treatment. As a result, dual scale patterned structures were created on the surface of steel aluminum and tungsten carbide samples. Ablation was performed in the open air with no subsequent treatment. Resultant surfaces appeared to be strongly hydrophobic or even superhydrophobic with contact angle values of 140° and higher. In conclusion, the nature of surface hydrophobicity proved to be highly dependent on surface morphology as the base materials used are intrinsically hydrophilic. It was also proven that the hydrophobicity inducing structures could be manufactured using femtosecond laser machining in a single step with no subsequent post treatment.

  8. Active gas replenishment and sensing of the wetting state in a submerged superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Ben P; Bartlett, Philip N; Wood, Robert J K

    2017-02-15

    Previously superhydrophobic surfaces have demonstrated effective drag reduction by trapping a lubricious gas layer on the surface with micron-sized hydrophobic features. However, prolonged reduction of drag is hindered by the dissolution of the gas into the surrounding water. This paper demonstrates a novel combination of superhydrophobic surface design and electrochemical control methods which allow quick determination of the wetted area and a gas replenishment mechanism to maintain the desirable gas filled state. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to measure the capacitance of the surface which is shown to be proportional to the solid/liquid interface area. To maintain a full gas coverage for prolonged periods the surface is held at an electrical potential which leads to hydrogen evolution. In the desired gas filled state the water does not touch the metallic area of the surface, however after gas has dissolved the water touches the metal which closes the electrochemical circuit causing hydrogen to be produced replenishing the gas in the surface and returning to the gas filled state; in this way the system is self-actuating. This type of surface and electrochemical control shows promise for applications where the gas filled state of superhydrophobic surfaces must be maintained when submerged for long periods of time.

  9. Fabrication of Aluminum-based Superhydrophobic Coating by Anodization and Research on Stability and Corrosion Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Shun-li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al can be easily contaminated or damaged after exposure in damp environments, which can adversely affect its aesthetic appearance and desired functionalities. To improve its corrosion resistance, a superhydrophobic coating was fabricated on Al by electrochemical anodization followed by modification with myristic acid. The surface morphology and chemical composition were characterized by using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM with attached energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS. The surface wettability, mechanical stability as well as corrosion resistance were also investigated by contact angle measuring system, sandblasting test and electrochemical measurements. The results show that the optimal Al-based superhydrophobic coating with a static water contact angle of (155.2±0.5° and a sliding angle of (3.5±1.3° is obtained at the anodization voltage of 20V. The corresponding corrosion current density (Icorr is reduced by 2 orders of magnitude and the corrosion potential (Ecorr shifts from -0.629V to -0.570V compared to the bare Al substrate, indicating excellent corrosion resistance. Besides, the as-prepared optimal Al-based superhydrophobic coating also suggests good mechanical stability.

  10. Superhydrophobic Polyimide via Ultraviolet Photooxidation: The Evolution of Surface Morphology and Hydrophobicity under Different Ultraviolet Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photooxidation has recently been developed to fabricate superhydrophobic polyimide (PI films in combination with fluoroalkylsilane modification. However, it remains unclear whether the surface morphology and hydrophobicity are sensitive to technical parameters such as UV intensity and radiation environment. Herein, we focus on the effects of UV intensity on PI surface structure and wettability to gain comprehensive understanding and more effective control of this technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM results showed that UV intensity governed the evolutionary pattern of surface morphology: lower UV intensity (5 mW/cm2 facilitated in-plane expansion of dendritic protrusions while stronger UV (10 and 15 mW/cm2 encouraged localized growth of protrusions in a piling-up manner. Surface roughness and hydrophobicity maximized at the intensity of 10 mW/cm2, as a consequence of the slowed horizontal expansion and preferred vertical growth of the protrusions when UV intensity increased. Based on these results, the mechanism that surface micro/nanostructures developed in distinct ways when exposed to different UV intensities was proposed. Though superhydrophobicity (water contact angle larger than 150° can be achieved at UV intensity not less than 10 mW/cm2, higher intensity decreased the effectiveness. Therefore, the UV photooxidation under 10 mW/cm2 for 72 h is recommended to fabricate superhydrophobic PI films.

  11. Microtexturing of the conductive PEDOT:PSS Polymer for superhydrophobic organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco

    2014-01-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are bioinspired, nanotechnology artifacts, which feature a reduced friction coefficient, whereby they can be used for a number of very practical applications including, on the medical side, the manipulation of biological solutions. In this work, we integrated superhydrophobic patterns with the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, one of the most used polymers in organic electronics because highly sensitive to ionized species in solution. In doing so, we combined geometry and materials science to obtain an advanced device where, on account of the superhydrophobicity of the system, the solutions of interest can be manipulated and, on account of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer, the charged molecules dispersed inside can be quantitatively measured. This original substrate preparation allowed to perform electrochemical measurements on ionized species in solution with decreasing concentration down to 10 -7 molar. Moreover, it was demonstrated the ability of the device of realizing specific, combined time and space resolved analysis of the sample. Collectively, these results demonstrate how a tight, interweaving integration of different disciplines can provide realistic tools for the detection of pathologies. The scheme here introduced offers breakthrough capabilities that are expected to radically improve both the pace and the productivity of biomedical research, creating an access revolution. 2014 Francesco Gentile et al.

  12. Controllable fabrication of lotus-leaf-like superhydrophobic surface on copper foil by self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhiqing; Wang, Xian; Bin, Jiping; Wang, Menglei; Peng, Chaoyi; Xing, Suli; Xiao, Jiayu; Zeng, Jingcheng; Chen, Hong

    2014-09-01

    A novel approach was developed to fabricate a lotus-leaf-like superhydrophobic surface on a copper foil by simple self-assembly method with the assistance of the porous PDMS template which was used to adjust the oxidized parts of the copper foil surface before self-assembly. The results showed a series of beautiful flower-like microstructures resulting from the self-assembly of cupric stearate that were distributed at regular intervals on the as-prepared copper foil surface similar to the papillae of lotus leaf surface. The water contact angle of the as-prepared copper surface was up to 161° and its sliding angle was only 3°. Its great superhydrophobicity could be kept unchanged after 6 months in air. The formation mechanism of the lotus-leaf-like structure was discussed. This simple and low-cost method is expected to be applied to design and prepare complicated superhydrophobic surfaces with beautiful regular microstructures on different substrates such as stainless steel, zinc, and so on.

  13. Design of a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic film using cured fluoropolymer@silica hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Street, Wuhan, 430073 (China); Pi, Pihui; Yang, Zhuo-ru [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Lu, Zhong [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Street, Wuhan, 430073 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchenhku@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Street, Wuhan, 430073 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cured fluoropolymer@silica hybrid was coated on stainless steel mesh. • The hybrid film showed superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity by adjusting silica dosage. • The hybrid film exhibited good thermal stability and excellent oil/water separation efficiency. - Abstract: Recently, considerable efforts have been made on superhydrophobic–superoleophilic filter to satisfy the requirements of the applications to oil/water separation. In this work, we obtained a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic film by coating cured fluoropolymer@silica hybrid on stainless steel mesh. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) were used to determine the chemical composition and thermal stability of the sample. The effect of silica nanoparticles (NPs) concentration on the surface property of the hybrid film was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle analyzer. The results indicate that silica NPs not only enhance the thermal stability, but also strengthen the hydrophobicity and oleophilicity of the film. When 20 wt% silica NPs was added into the thermosetting fluoropolymer, the hybrid film shows both superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity owing to the large surface roughness factor (RMS) and porous structure. Moreover, the hybrid film could be used to separate water from different oils effectively. When the pore size of the mesh is less than 300 μm, the oil/water separation efficiency of the film reaches above 99%, which shows a great potential application to dehydrate fuel oils.

  14. Fabrication and Corrosion Resistance of Superhydrophobic Hydroxide Zinc Carbonate Film on Aluminum Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic hydroxide zinc carbonate (HZC films were fabricated on aluminum substrate through a convenient in situ deposition process. Firstly, HZC films with different morphologies were deposited on aluminum substrates through immersing the aluminum substrates perpendicularly into aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate hexahydrate and urea. Secondly, the films were then modified with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS: CH3(CF26(CH23Si(OCH33 molecules by immersing in absolute ethanol solution containing FAS. The morphologies, hydrophobicity, chemical compositions, and bonding states of the films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, water contact angle measurement (CA, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, respectively. It was shown by surface morphological observation that HZC films displayed different microstructures such as microporous structure, rose petal-like structure, block-shaped structure, and pinecone-like structure by altering the deposition condition. A highest water contact angle of 156.2° was obtained after FAS modification. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum substrate was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. The EIS measurements’ results revealed that the superhydrophobic surface considerably improved the corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  15. Controlling the Adhesion of Superhydrophobic Surfaces Using Electrolyte Jet Machining Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xin; Lu, Yao; Zhou, Shining; Gao, Mingqian; Song, Jinlong; Xu, Wenji

    2016-04-05

    Patterns with controllable adhesion on superhydrophobic areas have various biomedical and chemical applications. Electrolyte jet machining technique (EJM), an electrochemical machining method, was firstly exploited in constructing dimples with various profiles on the superhydrophobic Al alloy surface using different processing parameters. Sliding angles of water droplets on those dimples firstly increased and then stabilized at a certain value with the increase of the processing time or the applied voltages of the EJM, indicating that surfaces with different adhesion force could be obtained by regulating the processing parameters. The contact angle hysteresis and the adhesion force that restricts the droplet from sliding off were investigated through experiments. The results show that the adhesion force could be well described using the classical Furmidge equation. On account of this controllable adhesion force, water droplets could either be firmly pinned to the surface, forming various patterns or slide off at designed tilting angles at specified positions on a superhydrophobic surface. Such dimples on superhydrophopbic surfaces can be applied in water harvesting, biochemical analysis and lab-on-chip devices.

  16. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic and high-glossy copper coating on aluminum substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; He, Yuantao; Wu, Zhongqiang; Miao, Jing; Yang, Fang; Lu, Zhong

    2018-03-01

    Superhydrophobic metal coatings have been extensively studied in recent years because of their significant potential applications. Unfortunately, most of them lost the original metallic luster due to the micro/nano binary structures. In this paper, a facile method was developed to prepare a superhydrophobic and high-glossy copper coating on aluminum substrates. The bionic lotus leaf surfaces were constructed by electroless plating method and further modified with octadecanethiol. The wettability and gloss could be tuned by the concentration of the precursor. With the increase of CuSO4 concentration, the surface roughness of the coating raised, thus resulting in increase of contact angle and decrease of glossiness. When the CuSO4 concentration was 30 mmol/L, the coating exhibited a sub-micro/nano binary structure, in which 20-30 nm protuberances were grown on 300-500 nm mastoids. Such special morphology endowed the coating with superhydrophobic and high-glossy properties, and the coating also showed ultra-low water adhesion and stable dynamic water repellence.

  17. One pot synthesis of opposing 'rose petal' and 'lotus leaf' superhydrophobic materials with zinc oxide nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Myo Tay Zar; Hornyak, Gabor L; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-02-01

    The synthesis in one pot(1) of opposing 'rose petal' and 'lotus leaf' superhydrophobic materials from commercially available superhydrophilic cloth substrates of varying texture is described for the first time. Surfaces of 'rough' textured cloth and 'smooth' textured cloth were simultaneously rendered superhydrophobic by growing zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods by a hydrothermal process in the same chemical bath. Contact angle hysteresis and water pendant drop tests revealed strong water adhesion to ZnO microrod-treated rough cloth. The combination of water contact angle >150° and strong adhesion is indicative of the 'rose petal effect' with potential for water pinning. Smooth cloth with ZnO nanorods exhibited no adhesion to water droplets with facilitative roll-off. The combination of water contact angle >150° and weak to no adhesion with water is indicative of the 'lotus leaf effect' with potential for self-cleaning. Pendant water drop tests indicated cohesive failure of water on rough cloth coated with ZnO nanorods. Natural rose petals demonstrated adhesive failure between the petal surface and water droplet. A parsimonious explanation is presented. We also describe the development of superhydrophobic clothes without the need for special conditions or further chemical modification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Robust hybrid elastomer/metal-oxide superhydrophobic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshian, Sasha; Jokinen, Ville; Franssila, Sami

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of hybrid material: a nanostructured elastomer covered by a hard photoactive metal-oxide thin film resembling the exoskeleton of insects. It has extreme water repellency and fast self-recovery after damage. A new fabrication method for replicating high aspect ratio, hierarchical re-entrant aluminum structures into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is presented. The method is based on a protective titania layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the aluminum templa...

  19. Influence of the type of solvent on the development of superhydrophobicity from silane-based solution containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, M.; Abenojar, J.; Martinez, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are very appealing for numerous industrial applications due to their self-cleaning capacity. Although there are different methods to manufacture superhydrophobic surfaces, some of them do not keep the aesthetic appearance of the neat surface. Sol-gel processes are a valid alternative when transparent coatings are desired. The main goal of this research is to study the viability of this method by making superhydrophobic coatings from silane-based solution containing SiO2 nanoparticles. The effect of using different solvents is investigated, as well as the role played by the different components of the solution (silane, nanoparticles and solvent). Solutions of methyltrimethoxisilane (MTS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 1% of SiO2 (%wt) were prepared with different solvents (ethanol, ethanol/water and white spirit). The hydrophobicity of the developed coatings is studied using contact angle measurements, while the aesthetic appearance is evaluated with gloss and color measurements. Also, infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DSL), and surface tension measurements are used to study the silane solutions. The results show that the capacity of solvents to promote the dispersion of the nanoparticles is crucial to ensuring superhydrophobicity, since these agglomerates provide the micro- and nano- surface roughness required to get a hierarchical structure. However, the combined use of silanes and nanoparticles is key to make a superhydrophobic surface because physical (the surface roughness provided by nanoparticles) and chemical characteristics (hydrophobicity provided by silanes) are coupled.

  20. Hierarchically structured superhydrophobic coatings fabricated by successive Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of micro-/nano-sized particles and surface silanization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, P-S; Yang, Y-M; Lee, Y-L [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2007-11-21

    The present study demonstrates the creation of a stable, superhydrophobic surface by coupling of successive Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) depositions of micro- and nano-sized (1.5 {mu}m/50 nm, 1.0 {mu}m/50 nm, and 0.5 {mu}m/50 nm) silica particles on a glass substrate with the formation of a self-assembled monolayer of dodecyltrichlorosilane on the surface of the particulate film. Particulate films, in which one layer of 50 nm particles was deposited over one to five sublayers of larger micro-sized particles, with hierarchical surface roughness and superhydrophobicity, were successfully fabricated. Furthermore, the present 'two-scale' (micro- and nano-sized particles) approach is superior to the previous 'one-scale' (micro-sized particles) approach in that both higher advancing contact angle and lower contact angle hysteresis can be realized. Experimental results revealed that the superhydrophobicity exhibited by as-fabricated particulate films with different sublayer particle diameters increases in the order of 0.5 {mu}m>1.0 {mu}m>1.5 {mu}m. However, no clear trend between sublayer number and surface superhydrophobicity could be discerned. An explanation of superhydrophobicity based on the surface roughness introduced by two-scale particles is also proposed.

  1. Fabrication of superhydrophobic nano-aluminum films on stainless steel meshes by electrophoretic deposition for oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe; Jiang, Deyi; Wei, Zhibo; Chen, Jie; Jing, Jianfeng

    2018-01-01

    Stainless steel meshes with superhydrophobic surfaces were successfully fabricated via a facile electrophoretic deposition process. The surface morphology and chemical compositions were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). After stearic acid modification, the obtained nano-aluminum films on stainless steel meshes showed an excellent superhydrophobic properties with a water contact angle of 160° ± 1.2° and a water sliding angle of less than 5°. In addition, on the basis of the superhydrophobic meshes, a simple, continuous oil-water separation apparatus was designed, and the oil-water separation efficiency was up to 95.8% ± 0.9%. Meanwhile, after 20 oil-water separation cycles, the separation efficiency without significant reduction suggested the stable performance of superhydrophobic stainless steel meshes on the oil-water separation. Moreover, the flow rate of oil-water mixture and effective separation length were investigated to determine their effects on the oil-water separation efficiency, respectively. Our work provides a cost-efficient method to prepare stable superhydrophobic nano-Al films on stainless steel meshes, and it has promising practical applications on oil-water separation.

  2. Facile and scalable preparation of highly wear-resistance superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shanshan; Liu, Ming; Wu, Yiqiang; Luo, Sha; Qing, Yan; Chen, Haibo

    2016-11-01

    In this study, an efficient, facile method has been developed for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES. The as-prepared superhydrophobic wood surface had a water contact angle of 154° and water slide angle close to 0°. Simultaneously, this superhydrophobic wood showed highly durable and robust wear resistance when having undergone a long period of sandpaper abrasion or being scratched by a knife. Even under extreme conditions of boiling water, the superhydrophobicity of the as-prepared wood composite was preserved. Characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that a typical and tough hierarchical micro/nanostructure was created on the wood substrate and vinyltriethoxysilane contributed to preventing the agglomeration of silica nanoparticles and serving as low-surface-free-energy substances. This superhydrophobic wood was easy to fabricate, mechanically resistant and exhibited long-term stability. Therefore, it is considered to be of significant importance in the industrial production of functional wood, especially for outdoor applications.

  3. Facile fabrication of nano-structured silica hybrid film with superhydrophobicity by one-step VAFS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yi; Yue, Renliang; Liu, Gang; Yang, Jie; Ni, Yong; Wu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yunfa

    2013-01-01

    Here we report a novel one-step vapor-fed aerosol flame synthesis (VAFS) method to attain silica hybrid film with superhydrophobicity on normal glass and other engineering material substrates using hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor. The deposited nano-structured silica films represent excellent superhydrophobicity with contact angle larger than 150° and sliding angle below 5°, without any surface modification or other post treatments. SEM photographs proved that flame-made SiO2 nanoparticles formed dual-scale surface roughness on the substrates. It was confirmed by FTIR and XPS that the in situ formed organic fragments on the particle surface as species like (CH3)xSiO2-x/2 (x = 1, 2, 3) which progressively lowered the surface energy of fabricated films. Thus, these combined dual-scale roughness and lowered surface energy cooperatively produced superhydrophobic films. IR camera had been used to monitor the real-time flame temperature. It is found that the inert dilution gas inflow played a critical role in attaining superhydrophobicity due to its cooling and anti-oxidation effect. This method is facile and scalable for diverse substrates, without any requirement of complex equipments and multiple processing steps. It may contribute to the industrial fabrication of superhydrophobic films.

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrid superhydrophobic surfaces using methyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane sol-gel derived materials in emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiu-Fang; Wang, Kun; Pi, Pi-Hui; Yang, Jin-Xin; Cai, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Li-juan; Qian, Yu; Yang, Zhuo-Ru; Zheng, Da-feng; Cheng, Jiang

    2011-11-01

    By applying alkaline-catalyzed co-hydrolysis and copolycondensation reactions of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) in organic siloxane modified polyacrylate emulsion (OSPA emulsion), we are able to demonstrate the potential for developing a sol-gel derived organic-inorganic hybrid emulsion for a superhydrophobic surface research. TEOS and MTES derived sol-gel moieties can be designed for a physical roughness and hydrophobic characteristic (Si-CH3) of the hybrid superhydrophobic surface, while OSPA emulsion can be endowed for good film-forming property. The effect of formulation parameters on superhydrophobicity and film-forming property was analyzed. The water contact angle (WCA) on the sol-gel derived hybrid film is determined to be 156°, and the contact angle hysteresis is 5° by keeping the mole ratio of TEOS:MTES:C2H5OH:NH3·H2O:AMP-95 at 1:4:30:10:0.63 and the mass percentage of OSPA emulsion at 25%. The nanoparticle-based silica rough surface is observed as the mole ratio of MTES/TEOS at 4:1. The sol-gel derived organic-inorganic hybrid emulsion shows remarkable film-forming property when the mole ratio of MTES/TEOS reaches or exceeds 4:1. With the primer coating, the performance of superhydrophobic film achieve actual use standard. It reveals that this new procedure is an effective shortcut to obtain a superhydrophobic surface with potential applications.

  5. Nano-engineering of superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces for anti-corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chanyoung

    Metal corrosion is a serious problem, both economically and operationally, for engineering systems such as aircraft, automobiles, pipelines, and naval vessels. In such engineering systems, aluminum is one of the primary materials of construction due to its light weight compared to steel and good general corrosion resistance. However, because of aluminum's relatively lower resistance to corrosion in salt water environments, protective measures such as thick coatings, paints, or cathodic protection must be used for satisfactory service life. Unfortunately, such anti-corrosion methods can create other concerns, such as environmental contamination, protection durability, and negative impact on hydrodynamic efficiency. Recently, a novel approach to preventing metal corrosion has emerged, using superhydrophobic surfaces. Superhydrophobic surfaces create a composite interface to liquid by retaining air within the surface structures, thus minimizing the direct contact of the liquid environment to the metal surface. The result is a highly non-wetting and anti-adherent surface that can offer other benefits such as biofouling resistance and hydrodynamic low friction. Prior research with superhydrophobic surfaces for corrosion applications was based on irregular surface roughening and/or chemical coatings, which resulted in random surface features, mostly on the micrometer scale. Such microscale surface roughness with poor controllability of structural dimensions and shapes has been a critical limitation to deeper understanding of the anti-corrosive effectiveness and optimized application of this approach. The research reported here provides a novel approach to producing controlled superhydrophobic nanostructures on aluminum that allows a systematic investigation of the superhydrophobic surface parameters on the corrosion resistance and hence can provide a route to optimization of the surface. Electrochemical anodization is used to controllably modulate the oxide layer

  6. Modification of UV absorption profile of polymer film reflectors to increase solar-weighted reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Gary; Gee, Randall C.; White, David

    2017-05-02

    Provided are reflective thin film constructions including a reduced number of layers, which provides for increased solar-weighted hemispherical reflectance and durability. Reflective films include those comprising an ultraviolet absorbing abrasion resistant coating over a metal layer. Also provided are ultraviolet absorbing abrasion resistant coatings and methods for optimizing the ultraviolet absorption of an abrasion resistant coating. Reflective films disclosed herein are useful for solar reflecting, solar collecting, and solar concentrating applications, such as for the generation of electrical power.

  7. Tunable adhesion of superoleophilic/superhydrophobic poly (lactic acid) membrane for controlled-release of oil soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ailin; Liu, Fu; Xiong, Zhu; Yang, Qing

    2017-11-01

    Superhydrophobic membranes with tunable adhesion have attracted intense interests for various engineering applications. In this work, superhydrophobic sustainable poly (lactic acid) (PLA) porous membrane with tunable adhesive force from 101μN to 29μN was successfully fabricated via one-step phase separation method. The incorporation of Perfluoro-1-decene (PFD) into the PLLA/PDLA membrane via the in situ polymerization can facilely tune the PLLA/PDLA stereocomplex crystallization during phase inversion, which consequently caused the unique morphology blooming evolution from bud to full-blown state. The resulted membrane showed tunable pore size, porosity, surface area, surface roughness and superhydrophobicity, which enabled the membrane with controlled-release of oil soluble drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The evaluation of hierarchical structured superhydrophobic coatings for the alleviation of insect residue to aircraft laminar flow surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Mariana; Young, Trevor M.

    2014-09-01

    Surface contamination caused by insects on laminar flow wing surfaces causes a disruption of the flow, resulting in an increase in drag and fuel consumption. Consequently, the use of superhydrophobic coatings to mitigate insect residue adhesion was investigated. A range of hierarchical superhydrophobic coatings with different surface chemistry and topography was examined. Candidate coatings were characterized in terms of their morphology and hydrophobic properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static and dynamic contact angle measurements, respectively. Arithmetic mean surface roughness (Ra) values were measured using profilometry. Only superhydrophobic coatings with a specific topography showed complete mitigation against insect residue adhesion. A surface which exhibited a specific microstructure (Ra = 5.26 μm) combined with a low sliding angle (SA = 7.6°) showed the best anti-contamination properties. The dynamics of an insect impact event and its influence on the wetting and adhesion mechanisms of insect residue to a surface were discussed.

  9. The evaluation of hierarchical structured superhydrophobic coatings for the alleviation of insect residue to aircraft laminar flow surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Mariana [Department of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Young, Trevor M., E-mail: Trevor.Young@ul.ie [Department of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2014-09-30

    Surface contamination caused by insects on laminar flow wing surfaces causes a disruption of the flow, resulting in an increase in drag and fuel consumption. Consequently, the use of superhydrophobic coatings to mitigate insect residue adhesion was investigated. A range of hierarchical superhydrophobic coatings with different surface chemistry and topography was examined. Candidate coatings were characterized in terms of their morphology and hydrophobic properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static and dynamic contact angle measurements, respectively. Arithmetic mean surface roughness (R{sub a}) values were measured using profilometry. Only superhydrophobic coatings with a specific topography showed complete mitigation against insect residue adhesion. A surface which exhibited a specific microstructure (R{sub a} = 5.26 μm) combined with a low sliding angle (SA = 7.6°) showed the best anti-contamination properties. The dynamics of an insect impact event and its influence on the wetting and adhesion mechanisms of insect residue to a surface were discussed.

  10. Preparation of Stable Superhydrophobic Coatings on Wood Substrate Surfaces via Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine and Electroless Deposition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaili Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA chemistry and electroless deposition approaches were used to prepare stable superhydrophobic coatings on wood surfaces. The as-formed PDA coating on a wood surface exhibited a hierarchical micro/nano roughness structure, and functioned as an “adhesive layer” between the substrate and a metallic film by the metal chelating ability of the catechol moieties on PDA, allowing for the formation of a well-developed micro/nanostructure hierarchical roughness. Additionally, the coating acted as a stable bridge between the substrate and hydrophobic groups. The morphology and chemical components of the prepared superhydrophobic wood surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The PDA and octadecylamine (OA modified surface showed excellent superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (CA of about 153° and a rolling angle (RA of about 9°. The CA further increased to about 157° and RA reduced to about 5° with the Cu metallization. The superhydrophobic material exhibited outstanding stability in harsh conditions including ultraviolet aging, ultrasonic washing, strong acid-base and organic solvent immersion, and high-temperature water boiling. The results suggested that the PDA/OA layers were good enough to confer robust, degradation-resistant superhydrophobicity on wood substrates. The Cu metallization was likely unnecessary to provide significant improvements in superhydrophobic property. However, due to the amazing adhesive capacity of PDA, the electroless deposition technique may allow for a wide range of potential applications in biomimetic materials.

  11. Thin book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...

  12. Predicting shape and stability of air-water interface on superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of pores with arbitrary shapes and depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, B.; Tafreshi, H. Vahedi; Gad-el-Hak, M.; Tepper, G. C.

    2012-01-01

    An integro-differential equation for the three dimensional shape of air-water interface on superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of pores with arbitrary shapes and depths is developed and used to predict the static critical pressure under which such surfaces depart from the non-wetting state. Our equation balances the capillary forces with the pressure of the air entrapped in the pores and that of the water over the interface. Stability of shallow and deep circular, elliptical, and polygonal pores is compared with one another and a general conclusion is drawn for designing pore shapes for superhydrophobic surfaces with maximum stability.

  13. Influence of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces on reducing aerodynamic insect residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K. Ghokulla; Milionis, Athanasios; Loth, Eric; Farrell, Thomas E.; Crouch, Jeffrey D.; Berry, Douglas H.

    2017-01-01

    Insect fouling during takeoff, climb and landing can result in increased drag and fuel consumption for aircrafts with laminar-flow surfaces. This study investigates the effectiveness of various hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces in reducing residue of insects on an aerodynamic surface at relatively high impact speeds (about 45 m/s). An experimental setup consisting of a wind tunnel and a method to inject live flightless fruit flies was used to test the effectiveness of various surfaces against insect fouling. Insect fouling was analyzed based on residue area and height from multiple impacts. In general most of the residue area was due to the hemolymph spreading while most of the residue height was due to adhesion of exoskeleton parts. Hydrophobic and especially superhydrophobic surfaces performed better than a hydrophilic aluminum surface in terms of minimizing the residue area of various insect components (exoskeleton, hemolymph, and red fluid). Surfaces with reduced wettability and short lateral length scales tended to have the smallest residue area. Residue height was not as strongly influenced by surface wettability since even a single exoskeleton adhered to the surface upon impact was enough to produce a residue height of the order of one mm. In general, the results indicate that hemolymph spread needs to be avoided (e.g. by having reduced wettability and short lateral correlation lengths) in order to minimize the residue area, while exoskeleton adherence needs to be avoided (e.g. by having oleophobic properties and micro/nano roughness) in order to minimize the residue height. In particular, two of the superhydrophobic coatings produced substantial reduction in residue height and area, relative to the baseline surface of aluminum. However, the surfaces also showed poor mechanical durability on the high-speed insect impact location. This suggests that although low wettability materials show great insect anti-fouling behavior, their durability needs to

  14. Enhanced Coalescence-Induced Droplet-Jumping on Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces in the Absence of Microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Maeda, Yota; Lv, Fengyong; Takata, Yasuyuki; Orejon, Daniel

    2017-10-11

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are receiving increasing attention due to the enhanced condensation heat transfer, self-cleaning, and anti-icing properties by easing droplet self-removal. Despite the extensive research carried out on this topic, the presence or absence of microstructures on droplet adhesion during condensation has not been fully addressed yet. In this work we, therefore, study the condensation behavior on engineered superhydrophobic copper oxide surfaces with different structural finishes. More specifically, we investigate the coalescence-induced droplet-jumping performance on superhydrophobic surfaces with structures varying from the micro- to the nanoscale. The different structural roughness is possible due to the specific etching parameters adopted during the facile low-cost dual-scale fabrication process. A custom-built optical microscopy setup inside a temperature and relative humidity controlled environmental chamber was used for the experimental observations. By varying the structural roughness, from the micro- to the nanoscale, important differences on the number of droplets involved in the jumps, on the frequency of the jumps, and on the size distribution of the jumping droplets were found. In the absence of microstructures, we report an enhancement of the droplet-jumping performance of small droplets with sizes in the same order of magnitude as the microstructures. Microstructures induce further droplet adhesion, act as a structural barrier for the coalescence between droplets growing on the same microstructure, and cause the droplet angular deviation from the main surface normal. As a consequence, upon coalescence, there is a decrease in the net momentum in the out-of-plane direction, and the jump does not ensue. We demonstrate that the absence of microstructures has therefore a positive impact on the coalescence-induced droplet-jumping of micrometer droplets for antifogging, anti-icing, and condensation heat transfer applications.

  15. Superhydrophobic nature of nanostructures on an indigenous Australian eucalyptus plant and its potential application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poinern GEJ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gérrard Eddy Jai Poinern, Xuan Thi Le, Derek FawcettMurdoch Applied Nanotechnology Research Group, Department of Physics, Energy Studies and Nanotechnology, School of Engineering and Energy, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western AustraliaAbstract: In this preliminary study, the morphology and nanostructured features formed by the epicuticular waxes of the mottlecah (Eucalyptus macrocarpa leaf were investigated and quantified. The surface features formed by the waxes give the leaf remarkable wetting and self-cleaning properties that enhance the plant's survival in an arid climate. This paper also provides experimental evidence of the self-assembly properties of the epicuticular waxes. Analysis of the water contact angle measurements gave a mean static contact angle of 162.00 ± 6.10 degrees, which clearly indicated that the mottlecah's leaf surface was superhydrophobic. Detailed field emission scanning electron microscopy examination revealed that the surface was covered by bumps approximately 20 µm in diameter and regularly spaced at a distance of around 26 µm. The bumps are capped by nanotubules/pillars with an average diameter of 280 nm at the tips. Self-cleaning experiments indicated that the mottlecah's leaf could be effectively cleaned by a fine spray of water droplets that rolled over the surface picking up contaminants. Field emission scanning electron microscopy investigation of extracted epicuticular waxes revealed that the waxes were capable of self-reassembly and formed features similar to those of the original leaf surface. Furthermore, also reported is a simple technique for surface treating one side of a planar surface to produce a superhydrophobic surface that can be used as a planar floatation platform for microdevices.Keywords: superhydrophobic, nanopillars, epicuticular waxes, self-cleaning, floatation, micro-fluidic

  16. UV-curable nanocasting technique to prepare bioinspired superhydrophobic organic-inorganic composite anticorrosion coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A UV-curing technique was used to develop advanced anticorrosive coatings made of a poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA/silica composite (PSC with bioinspired Xanthosoma sagittifolium leaf-like superhydrophobic surfaces. First of all, a transparent soft template with negative patterns of xanthosoma sagittifolium leaf can be fabricated by thermally curing the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS pre-polymer in molds at 60°C for 4 h, followed by detaching PDMS template from the surface of natural leaf. PSC coatings with biomimetic structures can be prepared by performing the UV-radiation process upon casting UV-curable precursor with photo-initiator onto cold-rolled steel (CRS electrode under PDMS template. Subsequently, UV-radiation process was carried out by using light source with light intensity of 100 mW/cm2 with exposing wavelength of 365 nm. Surface morphologies of the as-synthesized hydrophobic PMMA (HP and superhydrophobic PSC (SPSC coatings showed a large number of micro-scaled mastoids, each decorated with many nano-scaled wrinkles that were systematically investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The contact angles of water droplets on the sample surfaces can be increased from ~81 and 103° on PMMA and PSC surfaces to ~148 and 163° on HP and SPSC surfaces, respectively. The SPSC coating was found to provide an advanced corrosion protection effect on CRS electrodes compared to that of neat PMMA, PSC, and HP coatings based on a series of electrochemical corrosion measurements in 3.5 wt% NaCl electrolyte. Enhanced corrosion protection of SPSC coatings on CRS electrodes can be illustrated by that the silica nanoparticles on the small papillary hills of the bioinspired structure of the surface further increased the surface roughness, making the surface exhibit superior superhydrophobic, and thus leading to much better anticorrosion performance.

  17. Self-cleaning performance of superhydrophobic hybrid nanocomposite coatings on Al with excellent corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, V., E-mail: alaguraj2@rediffmail.com; Mohan Raj, R., E-mail: chem_mohan@rediffmail.com

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) coatings were formed on Al by anodization and electro-polymerisation techniques. • The superhydrophobic coating was fabricated on copolymer by electrodeposition of zinc stearate. • The superhydrophobicity mechanism relies on morphologies and chemical components on surface is the key factor. • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate coated Al has excellent corrosion resistance and good self-cleaning performance. - Abstract: Protective ceramic-PANI, ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coatings were formed on Al surface by the processes involving anodization, electropolymerisation and electrodeposition under optimum conditions. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were evaluated by ATR-IR and XRD studies. SEM studies performed on nanocomposite coatings reveal that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating shows a cauliflower-like cluster with crack-free morphology compared to ceramic-PANI and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) nanocomposite coatings. The mechanical properties of different nanocomposite coatings were measured using Vicker microhardness tester and Taber Abrasion tester. The ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite has higher mechanical stability. The corrosion resistance of the coatings measured by Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, shows that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coated aluminum has higher corrosion resistance than other coatings and bare Al. Wettability studies prove that superhydrophobic nature of ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating with contact angle of 155.8° is responsible for good self-cleaning property and excellent corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  18. Injection molded superhydrophobic surfaces based on microlithography and black silicon processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    This work is concerned with the design, development, and testing of nanostructured polymer surfaces with self-cleaning properties that can be manufactured by injection molding. In particular, the superimposed micro- and nanometer length scales of the so-called Lotus effect were investigated...... in detail with an engineering perspective on choice of materials and manufacturability by injection molding. Microscope slides with superhydrophobic properties were succesfully fabricated. Preliminary results indicate a contact angle increase from 95° for the unstructured polymer to a maximum 150...

  19. What Happened when a Superhydrophobic Surface was Immersed in Water? A Study by Optical Transmission Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Smistrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    as the lifespan of their superhydrophobicity. We show that transitions between the three wetting states (Cassie, Cassieimpregnating, and Wenzel) occur at a certain pressure threshold. Below this threshold, the transitions between the Cassie and the Cassie-impregnating states are reversible, while above...... the threshold, irreversible transitions to the Wenzel state start to occur. The transitions between the different wetting states can be explained by taking into account both the Young-Laplace equation for the water menisci in the cavities and the diffusion of dissolved gas molecules in the water. In addition...

  20. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Mayser, Matthias J; Bohn, Holger F; Meike Reker; Wilhelm Barthlott

    2014-01-01

    Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect) are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a hig...

  1. Simple and eco-friendly fabrication of superhydrophobic textile for oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jintao; Geng, Guihong

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material was successfully prepared by the coating of Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) onto the surface of cotton textile and subsequent hydrophobic modification. The formation of PVA with rough structure and hydrophobicity was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy and investigation of the wetting behavior of water on the textile. The coated textile is water repellant and can be used as a material for separating various oil/water mixture with a high separation efficiency up to 91%. Due to its simple fabrication process, low cost, excellent recyclability and durability, and high separation efficiency, the as-prepared textile can be considered as promising material for practical oil/water separation.

  2. Superhydrophobic hierarchical structure carbon mesh films for oil/water separation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaoxia; Huang, Xing; Wang, Lisheng

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we showed that a superoleophobic mesh with the self-cleaning ability could be readily prepared by a facile spray-coating method on stainless steel mesh. Poly(methyl methacrylate) was employed to provide a stable strength between carbon nanotubes and steel mesh surface. The effect of opening size of these steel meshes on surface wetting has been investigated. The dynamics of liquid droplets was investigated as well. The as-prepared meshes exhibited both superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity and could effectively separate water from the oil and water mixture. The present study contributes to the development of oil and water separation materials for marine industrial application.

  3. Bioinspired superhydrophobic carbonaceous hairy microstructures with strong water adhesion and high gas retaining capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Qin, Minglei; Wang, Anjie; Kim, Dongpyo

    2013-09-06

    Various hydrophobic hairy carbonaceous fibers are obtained by a low-temperature CVD process on catalyst-patterned surface patches which are selectively coated with silica to make the surface superhydrophobic and yet allow strong water adhesion for the "Salvinia effect". The versatility of the functional hairy fiber surfaces is demonstrated with a liquid barrier grid for cell microarray, a gas retaining capability under water/liquid for a membrane-free microfluidic chemical process, and functionalized papillae for cell immobilization with green algae. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis of superhydrophobic silica nanofibrous membranes with robust thermal stability and flexibility via in situ polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Raza, Aikifa; Si, Yang; Mao, Xue; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S.

    2012-09-01

    Superhydrophobic silica nanofibrous membranes exhibiting robust thermal stability and flexibility were prepared by a facile combination of electrospun silica nanofibers and a novel in situ polymerized fluorinated polybenzoxazine (F-PBZ) functional layer that incorporated SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs). By using F-PBZ/SiO2 NP modification, the pristine hydrophilic silica nanofibrous membranes were endowed with superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (WCA) of up to 161°. Surface morphological studies have revealed that the wettability of resultant membranes could be manipulated by tuning the surface composition as well as the hierarchical structures. Quantitative fractal dimension analysis using the N2 adsorption method has confirmed the correlation between hierarchical roughness and WCA for the modified membranes. Furthermore, the as-prepared membranes exhibited high thermal stability (450 °C), good flexibility (0.0127 gf cm), and comparable tensile strength (2.58 MPa), suggesting their use as promising materials for a variety of potential applications in high-temperature filtration, self-cleaning coatings, catalyst carriers, etc., and also provided new insight into the design and development of functional nanofibrous membranes through F-PBZ modification.Superhydrophobic silica nanofibrous membranes exhibiting robust thermal stability and flexibility were prepared by a facile combination of electrospun silica nanofibers and a novel in situ polymerized fluorinated polybenzoxazine (F-PBZ) functional layer that incorporated SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs). By using F-PBZ/SiO2 NP modification, the pristine hydrophilic silica nanofibrous membranes were endowed with superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (WCA) of up to 161°. Surface morphological studies have revealed that the wettability of resultant membranes could be manipulated by tuning the surface composition as well as the hierarchical structures. Quantitative fractal dimension analysis using the N2

  5. Marine antifouling from thin air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Jaimys; Wu, Alex H F; Vucko, Matthew J; Lamb, Robert N

    2014-10-01

    The dynamic relationship between the settlement behaviour of marine biota (cells, spores, larvae) and the longevity of an entrapped air layer (plastron) on submersed superhydrophobic surfaces was systematically investigated. Plastron lifetime decreased with increasing hydrophobic polymer loadings, and was correlated with the settlement rate of a range of fouling species of varying length scale, motility and hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface preference. The results show that the level of fouling on immersed superhydrophobic surfaces was greater when plastron lifetimes were minimal, regardless of the length scale, motility and the surface preference of the organisms. This is the first direct demonstration of the broad-spectrum attachment-inhibiting properties of a plastron on an immersed superhydrophobic surface.

  6. Highly flexible, transparent and self-cleanable superhydrophobic films prepared by a facile and scalable nanopyramid formation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Jong-Kweon; Lee, Deug-Woo; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Kim, Jong-Man

    2014-01-01

    A facile and scalable technique to fabricate optically transparent, mechanically flexible and self-cleanable superhydrophobic films for practical solar cell applications is proposed. The superhydrophobic films were fabricated simply by transferring a transparent porous alumina layer, which was prepared using an anodic aluminium oxidation (AAO) technique, onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film with a UV-curable polymer adhesive layer, followed by the subsequent formation of alumina nano pyramids (NPs) through the time-controlled chemical etching of the transferred porous alumina membrane (PAM). It was found experimentally that the proposed functional films can ensure the superhydrophobicity in the Cassie-Baxter wetting mode with superior water-repellent properties through a series of experimental observations including static contact angle (SCA), contact angle hysteresis (CAH), sliding behaviour on the tilted film, and dynamic behaviour of the liquid droplet impacting on the film. In addition to the superior surface wetting properties, an optical transmittance of ~79% at a light wavelength of 550 nm was achieved. Furthermore, there was no significant degradation in both the surface wetting properties and morphology even after 1500-cycles of repetitive bending tests, which indicates that the proposed superhydrophobic film is mechanically robust. Finally, the practicability of the proposed self-cleanable film was proven quantitatively by observing the changes in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a photovoltaic device covering the film before and after the cleaning process.

  7. Facile Fabrication and Characterization of a PDMS-Derived Candle Soot Coated Stable Biocompatible Superhydrophobic and Superhemophobic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, R; Majhy, B; Sen, A K

    2017-09-13

    We report a simple, inexpensive, rapid, and one-step method for the fabrication of a stable and biocompatible superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface. The proposed surface comprises candle soot particles embedded in a mixture of PDMS+n-hexane serving as the base material. The mechanism responsible for the superhydrophobic behavior of the surface is explained, and the surface is characterized based on its morphology and elemental composition, wetting properties, mechanical and chemical stability, and biocompatibility. The effect of %n-hexane in PDMS, the thickness of the PDMS+n-hexane layer (in terms of spin coating speed) and sooting time on the wetting property of the surface is studied. The proposed surface exhibits nanoscale surface asperities (average roughness of 187 nm), chemical compositions of soot particles, very high water and blood repellency along with excellent mechanical and chemical stability and excellent biocompatibility against blood sample and biological cells. The water contact angle and roll-off angle is measured as 160° ± 1° and 2°, respectively, and the blood contact angle is found to be 154° ± 1°, which indicates that the surface is superhydrophobic and superhemophobic. The proposed superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface offers significantly improved (>40%) cell viability as compared to glass and PDMS surfaces.

  8. A facile strategy for the fabrication of a bioinspired hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned surface for highly efficient fog-harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuchao

    2015-08-10

    Fog water collection represents a meaningful effort in the places where regular water sources, including surface water and ground water, are scarce. Inspired by the amazing fog water collection capability of Stenocara beetles in the Namib Desert and based on the recent work in biomimetic water collection, this work reported a facile, easy-to-operate, and low-cost method for the fabrication of hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned hybrid surface toward highly efficient fog water collection. The essence of the method is incorporating a (super)hydrophobically modified metal-based gauze onto the surface of a hydrophilic polystyrene (PS) flat sheet by a simple lab oven-based thermal pressing procedure. The produced hybrid patterned surfaces consisted of PS patches sitting within the holes of the metal gauzes. The method allows for an easy control over the pattern dimension (e.g., patch size) by varying gauze mesh size and thermal pressing temperature, which is then translated to an easy optimization of the ultimate fog water collection efficiency. Given the low-cost and wide availability of both PS and metal gauze, this method has a great potential for scaling-up. The results showed that the hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned hybrid surfaces with a similar pattern size to Stenocara beetles’s back pattern produced significantly higher fog collection efficiency than the uniformly (super)hydrophilic or (super)hydrophobic surfaces. This work contributes to general effort in fabricating wettability patterned surfaces and to atmospheric water collection for direct portal use.

  9. Fast wettability transition from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic laser-textured stainless steel surfaces under low-temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chi-Vinh; Chun, Doo-Man

    2017-07-01

    Recently, the fabrication of superhydrophobic metallic surfaces by means of pulsed laser texturing has been developed. After laser texturing, samples are typically chemically coated or aged in ambient air for a relatively long time of several weeks to achieve superhydrophobicity. To accelerate the wettability transition from hydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity without the use of additional chemical treatment, a simple annealing post process has been developed. In the present work, grid patterns were first fabricated on stainless steel by a nanosecond pulsed laser, then an additional low-temperature annealing post process at 100 °C was applied. The effect of 100-500 μm step size of the textured grid upon the wettability transition time was also investigated. The proposed post process reduced the transition time from a couple of months to within several hours. All samples showed superhydrophobicity with contact angles greater than 160° and sliding angles smaller than 10° except samples with 500 μm step size, and could be applied in several potential applications such as self-cleaning and control of water adhesion.

  10. Experimental and numerical investigations of the impingement of an oblique liquid jet onto a superhydrophobic surface: energy transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibar, Ali, E-mail: alikibar@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical and Material Technologies, Kocaeli University, 41285, Arslanbey Campus, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents the theory of impinging an oblique liquid jet onto a vertical superhydrophobic surface based on both experimental and numerical results. A Brassica oleracea leaf with a 160° apparent contact angle was used for the superhydrophobic surface. Distilled water was sent onto the vertical superhydrophobic surface in the range of 1750–3050 Reynolds number, with an inclination angle of 20°−40°, using a circular glass tube with a 1.75 mm inner diameter. The impinging liquid jet spread onto the surface governed by the inertia of the liquid and then reflected off the superhydrophobic surface due to the surface energy of the spreading liquid. Two different energy approaches, which have time-scale and per-unit length, were performed to determine transformation of the energy. The kinetic energy of the impinging liquid jet was transformed into the surface energy with an increasing interfacial surface area between the liquid and air during spreading. Afterwards, this surface energy of the spreading liquid was transformed into the reflection kinetic energy. (paper)

  11. Uniting Superhydrophobic, Superoleophobic and Lubricant Infused Slippery Behavior on Copper Oxide Nano-structured Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujjain, Sanjeev Kumar; Roy, Pritam Kumar; Kumar, Sumana; Singha, Subhash; Khare, Krishnacharya

    2016-10-01

    Alloys, specifically steel, are considered as the workhorse of our society and are inimitable engineering materials in the field of infrastructure, industry and possesses significant applications in our daily life. However, creating a robust synthetic metallic surface that repels various liquids has remained extremely challenging. The wettability of a solid surface is known to be governed by its geometric nano-/micro structure and the chemical composition. Here, we are demonstrating a facile and economical way to generate copper oxide micro-nano structures with spherical (0D), needle (1D) and hierarchical cauliflower (3D) morphologies on galvanized steel substrates using a simple chemical bath deposition method. These nano/micro textured steel surfaces, on subsequent coating of a low surface energy material display excellent superhydrophobic, superoleophobic and slippery behavior. Polydimethylsiloxane coated textured surfaces illustrate superhydrophobicity with water contact angle about 160°(2) and critical sliding angle ~2°. When functionalized with low-surface energy perfluoroalkylsilane, these surfaces display high repellency for low surface tension oils as well as hydrocarbons. Among them, the hierarchical cauliflower morphology exhibits re-entrant structure thereby showing the best superoleophobicity with contact angle 149° for dodecane. Once infused with a lubricant like silicone oil, they show excellent slippery behavior with low contact angle hysteresis (~ 2°) for water drops.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid jet impingement on superhydrophobic and hydrophobic convex surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibar, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to examine the vertical impingement a round liquid jet on the edges of horizontal convex surfaces that were either superhydrophobic or hydrophobic. The experiments examine the effects on the flow behaviour of curvature, wettability, inertia of the jet, and the impingement rate. Three copper pipes with outer diameters of 15, 22, and 35 mm were investigated. The pipes were wrapped with a piece of a Brassica oleracea leaf or a smooth Teflon sheet, which have apparent contact angles of 160° and 113°. The Reynolds number ranged from 1000 to 4500, and the impingement rates of the liquid jets were varied. Numerical results show good agreement with the experimental results for explaining flow and provide detailed information about the impingement on the surfaces. The liquid jet reflected off the superhydrophobic surfaces for all conditions. However, the jet reflected or deflected off the hydrophobic surface, depending on the inertia of the jet, the curvature of the surface, and the impingement rate. The results suggest that pressure is not the main reason for the bending of the jet around the curved hydrophobic surface.

  13. Applicability of Cassie-Baxter equation for superhydrophobic fluoropolymer-silica composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Ugur; Elif Cansoy, C.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, surface topographies and wettabilities of flat and composite rough films of perfluoro-styrene (TM/S) random copolymers with silica particles were investigated. The water and oil repellencies of flat TM/S copolymer and rough silica-TM/S composite surfaces were studied with varying perfluoro and silica contents. Increase in silica content resulted in an increase in water contact angle values; water contact angle values increased from 113° up to 170°, and the resultant surfaces were showing extremely superhydrophobic behavior depending on their silica contents. However a decrease in hexadecane contact angles from 61° to 25° depending on both silica %wt and perfluoro content of the TM/S copolymer was seen. Applicability of Cassie-Baxter equation was also investigated for TM/S copolymer films with silica particles. The results showed that Cassie-Baxter equation cannot be used for superhydrophobic surfaces, however, can be applied to oleophilic surfaces with caution. The oil repellencies of TM/S flat films in the terms of contact angle hysteresis was also compared with perfluoroethyl alkyl methacrylate-methyl methacrylate copolymer (TM/MMA) by using oil drops with varying surface tensions between 20.9 mN/m and 26.9 mN/m. The surface oleophobicities were changed according to the characteristics of the functional groups of MMA and S. The dependency of work of adhesion results of TM/S flat surfaces on wt.% of perfluoroalkyl content was also examined.

  14. Tri-bore PVDF hollow fibers with a super-hydrophobic coating for membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kang-Jia

    2016-04-26

    Membranes with good mechanical strength, high vapor flux and outstanding anti-wetting properties are essential for membrane distillation (MD) applications. In this work, porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tri-bore hollow fiber membranes with super-hydrophobicity are developed to achieve these desired properties. The tri-bore hollow fiber offers better mechanical strength than the conventional single-bore fiber. To improve its anti-wetting properties, Teflon® AF 2400 is coated on the membrane surface. The effects of coating on membrane morphology, performance and anti-wetting properties have been thoroughly investigated. With an optimal coating condition (0.025 wt% of Teflon® AF 2400, 30 s), a super-hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 151o is achieved. The resultant membrane shows an increase of 109% in liquid entry pressure (LEP) with a slight sacrifice of 21% in flux. Long term direct contact MD tests have confirmed that the Teflon® AF 2400 coated membrane has enhanced stability with an average flux of 21 kg m-2 h-1 and rejection of 99.99% at 60 °° C for desalination application.

  15. Understanding the Formation of Anisometric Supraparticles: A Mechanistic Look Inside Droplets Drying on a Superhydrophobic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Marcel; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Gradzielski, Michael

    2016-07-12

    Evaporating drops of nanoparticle suspensions on superhydrophobic surfaces can give anisotropic superaparticles. Previous studies implied the formation of a stiff shell that collapses, but the exact mechanism leading to anisotropy was unclear so far. Here we report on a new experiment using confocal laser scanning microscopy for a detailed characterization of particle formation from droplets of aqueous colloidal dispersions on superhydrophobic surfaces. In a customized setup, we investigated droplets of fumed silica suspensions using two different fluorescent dyes for independently marking silica and the water phase. Taking advantage of interfacial reflection, we locate the drop-air interface and extract normalized time-resolved intensity profiles for dyed silica throughout the drying process. Using comprehensive image analysis we observe and quantify shell-like interfacial particle accumulation arising from droplet evaporation. This leads to a buildup of a stiff fumed silica mantle of ∼20 μm thickness that causes deformation of the droplet throughout further shrinkage, consequently leading to the formation of solid anisometric fumed silica particles.

  16. Effect of drop volume and surface statistics on the superhydrophobicity of randomly rough substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afferrante, L.; Carbone, G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a simple theoretical approach is developed with the aim of evaluating shape, interfacial pressure, apparent contact angle and contact area of liquid drops gently deposed on randomly rough surfaces. This method can be useful to characterize the superhydrophobic properties of rough substrates, and to investigate the contact behavior of impacting drops. We assume that (i) the size of the apparent liquid–solid contact area is much larger than the micromorphology of the substrate, and (ii) a composite interface is always formed at the microscale. Results show apparent contact angle and liquid–solid area fraction are slightly influenced by the drop volume only at relatively high values of the root mean square roughness h rms, whereas the effect of volume is practically negligible at small h rms. The main statistical quantity affecting the superhydrophobic properties is found to be the Wenzel roughness parameter r W, which depends on the average slope of the surface heights. Moreover, transition from the Cassie–Baxter state to the Wenzel one is observed when r W reduces below a certain critical value, and theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, the present method can be conveniently exploited to evaluate the occurrence of pinning phenomena in the case of impacting drops, as the Wenzel critical pressure for liquid penetration gives an estimation of the maximum impact pressure tolerated by the surface without pinning occurring.

  17. Spray-coated fluorine-free superhydrophobic coatings with easy repairability and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weici; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xinjie; Zhou, Feng

    2009-08-01

    The present paper reports a very simple and low-cost fluorine-free superhydrophobic coating prepared by spray-coating metal alkylcarboxylates, for example, Cu[CH(3)(CH(2))(10)COO](2), onto virtually any substrates. Superhydrophobicity with a static water contact angle of about 160 degrees and a sliding angle of 5 degrees was achieved from the proper precursor concentration. The advantages of the present approach include the cheap and fluorine-free raw materials, environmentally benign solvents, an industrial implementation method, and easy repairability and applicability so as to make a great application potential in practice. The hydrophobicity of coatings and the adhesion to water were found to be dependent on the surface morphology that was governed by the precursor concentrations from which coatings were prepared. The static wetting behavior of water droplets with different sizes gentlly deposited on the coatings was studied in more detail and correlated to theories, i.e., Wenzel's and Cassie's models. The results indicated that nanoribbon-textured coatings prepared from low precursor concentration (0.02 M) exhibited a transition from the metastable Cassie-Baxter state to the Wenzel state with increments in the droplet volume, and eventually droplets firmly stick to the surface even when the droplet was gently deposited on the surface. Surface coatings with dual roughness at both microscale and nanometer scale were formed as the concentration (0.04 M) was increased and conferred a stable Cassie state, even for increased droplet size and increased droplet deposit speed.

  18. Preparation of Superhydrophobic Film on Ti Substrate and Its Anticorrosion Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic films were fabricated on a titanium substrate with or without anodizing by using a self-assembling method. Firstly, the pretreatments of mechanical polishing/anodizing or mechanical polishing only were conducted, respectively. Subsequently, the preparation of polydopamine film layer, deposition of nano-silver particles, and post modification of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol were performed on the surface of the pretreated substrate. The surface morphologies, compositions, wettability, and corrosion resistance of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS, water contact angle measurements, and electrochemical tests, respectively. Meanwhile, the effect of the deposition time in the silver nitrate solution on the hydrophobicity of the specimen surface was investigated. The result showed that with the increase of deposition time, the hydrophobic property enhanced gradually. The surface deposited for 7 h exhibited an optimum hydrophobic effect, which was characterized with a large water contact angle (WCA of 154°, and the surface was rather rough and covered by a relatively uniform layer of micro-nano silver particles. The excellent hydrophobicity was attributed to a rough stratified microstructure along with the low surface energy. The electrochemical measurements showed that the existence of the superhydrophobic film can effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti samples.

  19. Micro/nano engineering on stainless steel substrates to produce superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckford, Samuel; Zou Min, E-mail: mzou@uark.edu

    2011-12-30

    Creating micro-/nano-scale topography on material surfaces to change their wetting properties has been a subject of much interest in recent years. Wenzel in 1936 and Cassie and Baxter in 1944 proposed that by microscopically increasing the surface roughness of a substrate, it is possible to increase its hydrophobicity. This paper reports the fabrication of micro-textured surfaces and nano-textured surfaces, and the combination of both on stainless steel substrates by sandblasting, thermal evaporation of aluminum, and aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) of amorphous silicon (a-Si). Meanwhile, fluorinated carbon films were used to change the chemical composition of the surfaces to render the surfaces more hydrophobic. These surface modifications were investigated to create superhydrophobic surfaces on stainless steel substrates. The topography resulting from these surface modifications was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and surface profilometry. The wetting properties of these surfaces were characterized by water contact angle measurement. The results of this study show that superhydrophobic surfaces can be produced by either micro-scale surface texturing or nano-scale surface texturing, or the combination of both, after fluorinated carbon film deposition.

  20. A facile method for preparation superhydrophobic paper with enhanced physical strength and moisture-proofing property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Yang, Jin; Li, Pan; Lan, Tianqing; Peng, Lincai

    2017-03-15

    We proposed a green and facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic paper in this study, which is layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles/sodium alginate (ALG) multilayers on paper surface followed by an adsorption treatment of colloidal carnauba wax. The formation of TiO2/ALG multilayers on paper surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The wetting property of modified paper was investigated by water contact angle (WCA) measurement. Moreover, the modified paper tensile strength has been evaluated. The results showed that WCA of paper modified with a wax-treated (TiO2/ALG)3.5 multilayer reached up to 151.5°, and this obtained superhydrophobic paper exhibited improved tensile strength (increased by 4.1% compared to the pristine paper), excellent moisture-proofing property and high strength stability under high relative humidity condition, which might has a great potential for use in the liquid paper packaging and moisture-proof paper packaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coalescence-induced droplet jumping on superhydrophobic surfaces: Effects of droplet mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfall, Joram; Figueiredo, Patric; Kneer, Reinhold; Rohlfs, Wilko; Pischke, Philipp

    2017-12-01

    On low-adhesion surfaces, coalescing droplets can spontaneously jump off, known as coalescence-induced droplet jumping. It is observed on a variety of synthetic and natural superhydrophobic surfaces, and gives rise to a range of applications, such as self-cleaning condensers, anti-icing coatings, and thermal diodes. Through three-dimensional simulations, this paper demonstrates the fluid dynamics of droplet jumping upon binary unequal-sized-droplet coalescence. Parametric studies show the influence of droplet mismatch, viscosity, and contact angle on jumping velocities, where liftoff regimes are defined on the basis of Ohnesorge number and droplet size ratio. Because of the strong asymmetric flow behavior, the well-known small conversion efficiency for equal-sized-droplet jumping, where around 6 % of the released surface energy is convertible into translational kinetic energy, is further reduced for unequal-sized-droplet jumping. The findings offer insights into their fluid dynamics and give a starting point for further modeling of dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  2. Superhydrophobic NiTi shape memory alloy surfaces fabricated by anodization and surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shih-Fu; Wang, Kuang-Kuo; Hsu, Yen-Chi

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of superhydrophobic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) surfaces using an environmentally friendly method based on an economical anodizing process. Perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane was used to reduce the surface energy of the anodized surfaces. The wettability, morphology, composition, and microstructure of the surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface of the treated NiTi SMA exhibited superhydrophobicity, with a water contact angle of 150.6° and sliding angle of 8°. The anodic film on the NiTi SMA comprised of TiO2 and NiO, as well as traces of TiCl3. In addition, before the NiTi SMA was anodized, it underwent a surface mechanical attrition treatment to grain-refine its surface. This method efficiently enhanced the growth rate of the anodic oxide film, and improved the hydrophobic uniformity of the anodized NiTi-SMA-surface.

  3. Robust superhydrophobic needle-like nanostructured ZnO surfaces prepared without post chemical-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayi, Elmira; Norouzbeigi, Reza

    2017-12-01

    Robust superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces with micro/nano hybrid hierarchical structures were synthesized on the stainless steel mesh by a facile single-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method without using further low surface energy materials. The Taguchi L16 experimental design was applied to evaluate the effects of reaction time, type and concentration of the additive, type of the chelating agent, and the molar ratio of the chelating agent to the initial zinc (II) ions. The prepared sample at the optimal conditions exhibited a sustainable and time-independent superhydrophobic behavior with the water contact angle (WCA) of 162.8° ± 2.5° and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of 1.8° ± 0.5°. The XRD, SEM, TEM and FTIR analyses were used to characterize the prepared samples. Surface characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated accumulation of micro/nano branched ZnO needles on the substrate with the average diameters of ∼85 nm. After 20 abrasion cycles the optimum sample indicated an excellent mechanical robustness via exposure to the pressure of 4.7 kPa. A suitable chemical resistance to the acidic and basic droplets with the pH range of 4 and 9 was observed.

  4. Sticky superhydrophobic filter paper developed by dip-coating of fluorinated waterborne epoxy emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangxuan; Wen, Xiufang; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

    2012-09-01

    A superhydrophobic and superoleophilic coating for oil filter paper was synthesized based on waterborne bisphenol-A novolac epoxy emulsion. The benzoic acid (BA) and maleic anhydride (MA) were used as modification agents to give the epoxy resin hydrophilic groups (carboxyl) and Cdbnd C double bonds. And the fluorinated waterborne epoxy emulsion was prepared by free radical solution polymerization of dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA) monomer. The covalent bound low free energy fluorinated chains in the monomer reduce the surface energy of solidification polymers sufficiently to give rise to superhydrophobic behavior while conserving superoleophilicity. Surfaces prepared show a sticky property, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 152° for a 5 μL droplet that does not slid off even when the sample is held upside down. This synthetic emulsion is simple and convenient as impregnating agent for filter paper, which can be considered as a suitable candidate for various substrates such as cotton textiles, E-glass and artificial fiber, and so on.

  5. Fabrication of an Anisotropic Superhydrophobic Polymer Surface Using Compression Molding and Dip Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Min Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many studies of anisotropic wetting surfaces with directional structures inspired from rice leaves, bamboo leaves, and butterfly wings have been carried out because of their unique liquid shape control and transportation. In this study, a precision mechanical cutting process, ultra-precision machining using a single crystal diamond tool, was used to fabricate a mold with microscale directional patterns of triangular cross-sectional shape for good moldability, and the patterns were duplicated on a flat thermoplastic polymer plate by compression molding for the mass production of an anisotropic wetting polymer surface. Anisotropic wetting was observed only with microscale patterns, but the sliding of water could not be achieved because of the pinning effect of the micro-structure. Therefore, an additional dip coating process with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecythricholosilanes, and TiO2 nanoparticles was applied for a small sliding angle with nanoscale patterns and a low surface energy. The anisotropic superhydrophobic surface was fabricated and the surface morphology and anisotropic wetting behaviors were investigated. The suggested fabrication method can be used to mass produce an anisotropic superhydrophobic polymer surface, demonstrating the feasibility of liquid shape control and transportation.

  6. Structurally colored films with superhydrophobicity and wide viewing angles based on bumpy melanin-like particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bo; Shen, Huifang

    2018-01-01

    Non-iridescent structural colors and lotus effect universally existing in the nature provide a great inspiration for artificially developing angle-independent and high hydrophobic structurally colored films. To this end, a facile strategy is put forward for achieving superhydrophobic structurally colored films with wide viewing angles and high visibility based on bumpy melanin-like polydopamine-coated polystyrene particles. Here, hierarchical and amorphous structures are assembled in a self-driven manner due to particles' protrusive surfaces. The superhydrophobicity of the structurally colored films, with water contact angle up to 151°, is realized by combining the hierarchical surface roughness with a dip-coating process of polydimethylsiloxane-hexane solution, while angle-independence revealed in the films is ascribed to amorphous arrays. In addition, benefited from an essential light-absorbing property and high refractive index of polydopamine, the visibility of as-prepared colored films is fundamentally enhanced. Moreover, the mechanical robustness of the films is considerably boosted by inletting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. This fabrication strategy might provide an opportunity for promoting the open-air application of structurally colored coatings.

  7. Superhydrophobic PAN nanofibers for gas diffusion layers of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Mohammad; Hwang, Gisuk; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered to be the promising alternatives of natural resources for generating electricity and power. An optimal water management in the gas diffusion layers (GDL) is critical to high fuel cell performance. Its basic functions include transportation of the reactant gas from flow channels to catalyst effectively, draining out the liquid water from catalyst layer to flow channels, and conducting electrons with low humidity. In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was dissolved in a solvent and electrospun at various conditions to produce PAN nanofibers prior to the stabilization at 280 °C for 1 hour in the atmospheric pressure and carbonization at 850 °C for 1 hour. The surface hydrophobicity values of the carbonized PAN nanofibers were adjusted using superhydrophobic and hydrophilic agents. The thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of the new GDLs depicted much better results compared to the conventionally used ones. The water condensation tests on the surfaces (superhydrophobic and hydrophilic) of the GDL showed a crucial step towards improved water managements in the fuel cell. This study may open up new possibilities for developing high- performing GDL materials for future PEM fuel cell applications.

  8. Use of the string method to find minimal energy paths of droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kellen

    2012-11-01

    Interest in superhydrophobic surfaces has increased due to interesting advances in science and engineering. Here we use a diffuse interface model for droplets on topographically and chemically patterned surfaces. We then apply the constrained string method to examine the transition of droplets between different metastable/stable states. The string method finds the minimal energy paths (MEPs) which correspond to the most probable transition pathways between the metastable/stable states in the configuration space. In the case of a hydrophobic surface we determine the MEP corresponding to the transition between the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel states. Additionally, we realize critical droplet morphologies along the MEP associated with saddle points of the free-energy potential and the energy barrier of the free energy. We analyze and compare the MEPs and free-energy barriers for a variety of surface geometries, droplets sizes, and static contact angles ranging. We demonstrate the string method as a useful tool in the study of droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by presenting a numerical study that finds MEPs in configuration space, critical droplet morphologies and free-energy barriers which in turn give us a greater understanding of the free-energy landscape.

  9. Anti-Icing Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Controlling Entropic Molecular Interactions to Design Novel Icephobic Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ramachandran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tribology involves the study of friction, wear, lubrication, and adhesion, including biomimetic superhydrophobic and icephobic surfaces. The three aspects of icephobicity are the low ice adhesion, repulsion of incoming water droplets prior to freezing, and delayed frost formation. Although superhydrophobic surfaces are not always icephobic, the theoretical mechanisms behind icephobicity are similar to the entropically driven hydrophobic interactions. The growth of ice crystals in saturated vapor is partially governed by entropically driven diffusion of water molecules to definite locations similarly to hydrophobic interactions. The ice crystal formation can be compared to protein folding controlled by hydrophobic forces. Surface topography and surface energy can affect both the icephobicity and hydrophobicity. By controlling these properties, micro/nanostructured icephobic concrete was developed. The concrete showed ice adhesion strength one order of magnitude lower than regular concrete and could repel incoming water droplets at −5 °C. The icephobic performance of the concrete can be optimized by controlling the sand and polyvinyl alcohol fiber content.

  10. Super-hydrophobic multi-walled carbon nanotube coatings for stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Francesco; Castrucci, Paola; Scarselli, Manuela; Nanni, Francesca; Cacciotti, Ilaria; De Crescenzi, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    We have taken advantage of the native surface roughness and the iron content of AISI 316 stainless steel to directly grow multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) random networks by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at low-temperature (\\lt 1000{}^\\circ C) without the addition of any external catalysts or time-consuming pre-treatments. In this way, super-hydrophobic MWCNT films on stainless steel sheets were obtained, exhibiting high contact angle values (154{}^\\circ ) and high adhesion force (high contact angle hysteresis). Furthermore, the investigation of MWCNT films with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals a two-fold hierarchical morphology of the MWCNT random networks made of hydrophilic carbonaceous nanostructures on the tip of hydrophobic MWCNTs. Owing to the Salvinia effect, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic composite surface of the MWCNT films supplies a stationary super-hydrophobic coating for conductive stainless steel. This biomimetical inspired surface not only may prevent corrosion and fouling, but also could provide low friction and drag reduction.

  11. The Geometry-Induced Superhydrophobic Property of Carpet-like Zinc Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li-Xing; Deng, Yuan; Wang, Yao

    2013-10-01

    Carpet-like zinc films with unique nanowires are fabricated by using a simple physical evaporation method. The definite morphologies of the films endow the superhydrophobic material with a contact angle of about 157.9°, and by additional modification of CF3(CF2)7CH2CH2Si(OCH3)3 the water adhesive force could be tuned from 58.3 μN to 14.6 μN. In order to analyze the controllable adhesion of superhydrophobic Zn films, we study the microstructure and chemical compositions of the films by x-ray diffraction SEM, TEM, HRTEM and EDAX. Furthermore, a model based on the balance of micro-surface energy is proposed to illustrate the relationship of the geometry and wettability properties of the films. The model provides new insights into how to design-oriented microchannels and micro-protuberance on material surfaces, which is of benefit for controlling their ability of caught-collection in air bubbles and water-pinning collection.

  12. Rinse-resistant superhydrophobic block copolymer fabrics by electrospinning, electrospraying and thermally-induced self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Li, Xin; Wu, Yang; Liao, Guoxing; Johnston, Priscilla; Topham, Paul D.; Wang, Linge

    2017-11-01

    An inherent problem that restricts the practical application of superhydrophobic materials is that the superhydrophobic property is not sustainable; it can be diminished, or even lost, when the surface is physically damaged. In this work, we present an efficient approach for the fabrication of superhydrophobic fibrous fabrics with great rinse-resistance where a block copolymer has been electrospun into a nanofibrous mesh while micro-sized beads have been subsequently electrosprayed to give a morphologically composite material. The intricate nano- and microstructure of the composite was then fixed by thermally annealing the block copolymer to induce self-assembly and interdigitation of the microphase separated domains. To demonstrate this approach, a polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-polystyrene (SEBS) nanofibrous scaffold was produced by electrospinning before SEBS beads were electrosprayed into this mesh to form a hierarchical micro/nanostructure of beads and fibers. The effects of type and density of SEBS beads on the surface morphology and wetting properties of composite membranes were studied extensively. Compared with a neat SEBS fibrous mesh, the composite membrane had enhanced hydrophobic properties. The static water contact angle increased from 139° (±3°) to 156° (±1°), while the sliding angle decreased to 8° (±1°) from nearly 90°. In order to increase the rinse-resistance of the composite membrane, a thermal annealing step was applied to physically bind the fibers and beads. Importantly, after 200 h of water flushing, the hierarchical surface structure and superhydrophobicity of the composite membrane were well retained. This work provides a new route for the creation of superhydrophobic fabrics with potential in self-cleaning applications.

  13. Elaboration de revetements nanocomposites avec des proprietes superhydrophobes, semi-conductrices et photocatalytiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madidi, Fatima Zahra

    Les lignes aeriennes de transport et de distribution de l'energie electrique sont souvent exposees a diverses contraintes. Parmi celles-ci, la pollution des isolateurs constitue l'un des facteurs de premiere importance dans la fiabilite du transport d'energie. En effet, la presence de pollution sur les isolateurs lorsqu'elle est humidifiee entraine la diminution de leur performance electrique en favorisant l'apparition d'arcs de contournement. De telles pannes peuvent parfois causer des impacts socioeconomiques importants. Par ailleurs, le developpement de nouveaux revetements pour ces isolateurs peut s'averer un moyen efficace pour les proteger contre l'apparition de l'arc de contournement. Les revetements superhydrophobes ont fait l'objet de nombreuses etudes au cours de ces dernieres annees. Ces surfaces sont preparees en combinant une rugosite nano-microstructuree avec une faible energie de surface. En outre, de telles surfaces ont de nombreuses applications si elles sont durables et n'ont pas d'effets nocifs sur l'environnement. L'objectif principal de la presente etude vise d'abord l'elaboration de revetements superhydrophobes, puis l'etude de leur duree de vie, leurs proprietes dielectriques et photocatalytiques. Une grande variete de materiaux a faible energie de surface peuvent etre utilises pour le developpement de ces revetements. Dans cette recherche, le caoutchouc de silicone (CS) est employe car il presente de nombreuses proprietes, notamment une forte hydrophobie, une resistance aux rayonnements ultraviolets, et une bonne tenue au feu sans degagement de produits toxiques. Toutefois, le point faible de ces materiaux est la degradation de leurs proprietes hydrophobes. Afin d'ameliorer certaines proprietes du caoutchouc de silicone, des nanoparticules seront additionnees au polymere de base. La technique d'elaboration des revetements consiste a ajouter des nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane (TiO2) au polymere de base, par des methodes ayant un

  14. Determination of structural, mechanical and corrosion properties of Nb2O5 and (NbyCu 1-y)Ox thin films deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates for dental implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, M; Kalisz, M; Wojcieszak, D; Grobelny, M; Mazur, P; Kaczmarek, D; Domaradzki, J

    2015-02-01

    In this paper comparative studies on the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties of Nb2O5/Ti and (NbyCu1-y)Ox/Ti alloy systems have been investigated. Pure layers of niobia and niobia with a copper addition were deposited on a Ti6Al4V titanium alloy surface using the magnetron sputtering method. The physicochemical properties of the prepared thin films were examined with the aid of XRD, XPS SEM and AFM measurements. The mechanical properties (i.e., nanohardness, Young's modulus and abrasion resistance) were performed using nanoindentation and a steel wool test. The corrosion properties of the coatings were determined by analysis of the voltammetric curves. The deposited coatings were crack free, exhibited good adherence to the substrate, no discontinuity of the thin film was observed and the surface morphology was homogeneous. The hardness of pure niobium pentoxide was ca. 8.64GPa. The obtained results showed that the addition of copper into pure niobia resulted in the preparation of a layer with a lower hardness of ca. 7.79 GPa (for niobia with 17 at.% Cu) and 7.75 GPa (for niobia with 25 at.% Cu). The corrosion properties of the tested thin films deposited on the surface of titanium alloy depended on the composition of the thin layer. The addition of copper (i.e. a noble metal) to Nb2O5 film increased the corrosion resistance followed by a significant decrease in the value of corrosion currents and, in case of the highest Cu content, the shift of corrosion potential towards the noble direction. The best corrosion properties were obtained from a sample of Ti6Al4V coated with (Nb0.75Cu0.25)Ox thin film. It seems that the tested materials could be used in the future as protection coatings for Ti alloys in biomedical applications such as implants. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Nanowire Transfer Enabled by Incomplete Wetting and Mechanical Tearing for Low-Cost Flexible Bactericidal Surfaces withMulti-Scale Superhydrophobicity

    OpenAIRE

    ABINASH TRIPATHY; ARVIND KUMAR; SYAMA SREEDHARAN; GIRISH MURALIDHARAN; AMITAVA PRAMANIK; DIPANKAR NANDI; PROSENJIT SEN

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report a large-area fabrication of a flexible superhydrophobic bactericidal surface decorated with copper hydroxide nanowires. This involves a simple two-step method which involves growth followed by transfer of the nanowires onto the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface by mechanical peeling. Additional roughness in PDMS is obtained through incomplete wetting of the nanoscale gaps which leads to multi-scale superhydrophobicity with contact angle of 169° ...

  16. Superomniphobic Surfaces for Military Applications: Nano- and Micro-Fabrication Methods. Chapter 2: Investigation of Wear for Superhydrophobic Surfaces and Development of New Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    revêtement superhydrophobe polyvalent pouvant être appliqué sur des matériaux lisses et rugueux, dans une gamme allant du verre et de l’aluminium au carton...superhydrophobe polyvalent pouvant être appliqué sur des matériaux lisses et rugueux, dans une gamme allant du verre et de l’aluminium au carton et au bois, en

  17. Loss of superhydrophobicity of hydrophobic micro/nano structures during condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, HangJin; Hwang, Kyung Won; Kim, DongHyun; Kiyofumi, Moriyama; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan; Ahn, Ho Seon

    2015-04-23

    Condensed liquid behavior on hydrophobic micro/nano-structured surfaces is a subject with multiple practical applications, but remains poorly understood. In particular, the loss of superhydrophobicity of hydrophobic micro/nanostructures during condensation, even when the same surface shows water-repellant characteristics when exposed to air, requires intensive investigation to improve and apply our understanding of the fundamental physics of condensation. Here, we postulate the criterion required for condensation to form from inside the surface structures by examining the grand potentials of a condensation system, including the properties of the condensed liquid and the conditions required for condensation. The results imply that the same hydrophobic micro/nano-structured surface could exhibit different liquid droplet behavior depending on the conditions. Our findings are supported by the observed phenomena: the initiation of a condensed droplet from inside a hydrophobic cavity, the apparent wetted state changes, and the presence of sticky condensed droplets on the hydrophobic micro/nano-structured surface.

  18. Heat Transfer through a Condensate Droplet on Hydrophobic and Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Shreyas; Cha, Hyeongyun; Orejon, Daniel; Nawaz, Kashif; Singla, Nitish; Yeung, Yip Fun; Park, Deokgeun; Kang, Dong Hoon; Chang, Yujin; Takata, Yasuyuki; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2016-08-09

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms governing vapor condensation on nonwetting surfaces is crucial to a wide range of energy and water applications. In this paper, we reconcile classical droplet growth modeling barriers by utilizing two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical simulations to study individual droplet heat transfer on nonwetting surfaces (90° condensation. To verify our simulation results, we study condensed water droplet growth using optical and environmental scanning electron microscopy on biphilic samples consisting of hydrophobic and nanostructured superhydrophobic regions, showing excellent agreement with the simulations for both constant base area and constant contact angle growth regimes. Our results demonstrate the importance of resolving local heat transfer effects for the fundamental understanding and high fidelity modeling of phase change heat transfer on nonwetting surfaces.

  19. Polymethylsilsesquioxane-cellulose nanofiber biocomposite aerogels with high thermal insulation, bendability, and superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Gen; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Abe, Kentaro; Yano, Hiroyuki; Maeno, Ayaka; Kaji, Hironori; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2014-06-25

    Polymethylsilsesquioxane-cellulose nanofiber (PMSQ-CNF) composite aerogels have been prepared through sol-gel in a solvent containing a small amount of CNFs as suspension. Since these composite aerogels do not show excessive aggregation of PMSQ and CNF, the original PMSQ networks are not disturbed. Composite aerogels with low density (0.020 g cm(-3) at lowest), low thermal conductivity (15 mW m(-1) K(-1)), visible light translucency, bending flexibility, and superhydrophobicity thus have been successfully obtained. In particular, the lowest density and bending flexibility have been achieved with the aid of the physical supporting effect of CNFs, and the lowest thermal conductivity is comparable with the original PMSQ aerogels and standard silica aerogels. The PMSQ-CNF composite aerogels would be a candidate to practical high-performance thermal insulating materials.

  20. Fabrication of hierarchically structured superhydrophobic PDMS surfaces by Cu and CuO casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Christopher P.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2015-10-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films decorated with hierarchically structured pillars are cast from large area copper and copper oxide negative molds. The molds are fabricated using a single patterning step and electroplating. The process of casting structured PDMS films is simpler and cheaper than alternatives based on deep reactive ion etching or laser roughening of bulk silicone. Texture imparted to the pillars from the mold walls renders the PDMS films superhydrophobic, with the contact angle/hysteresis of the most non-wetting surfaces measuring 164°/9° and 158°/10° for surfaces with and without application of a low surface energy coating. The usefulness of patterned PDMS films as a "self-cleaning" solar cell module covering is demonstrated and other applications are discussed.

  1. Detection of Heavy-metal Ions Based on Evaporative Concentration Using a Super-hydrophobic Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagimachi, Isao; Nashida, Norihiro; Iwasa, Koichiro; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    A concentrator chip which could detect a variety of heavy-metal ions was fabricated. To improve the detection sensitivity, a droplet of a sample solution was concentrated evaporatively using a super-hydrophobic surface formed with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) beads. The system consists of a working electrode at the center, surrounded by an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry was conducted using concentrator chips with different working electrode materials. A significant increase in peak height was observed as the sensitive area decreased and the volume of the droplet increased. When a 5-μl droplet was used, the detection limit for lead, cadmium, and arsenic ions was 1 ppb.

  2. Raman on suspended DNA: Novel super-hydrophobic approach for structural studies

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica

    2016-12-24

    The A- and B-form are two of the most common structural conformations of double strand DNA present in nature and they can interchange on the basis of the helices hydration [1,2]. Herein we demonstrate that the use of non-destructive techniques such as Raman spectroscopy coupled with the use of a super-hydrophobic device, allows the clear identification of the DNA hydration state, of the backbone (phosphate + deoxyribose sugar) conformation and of the nucleotides. There is a wide prospect for an increase of knowledge in biomolecules using this combined approach resulting in a significant impact in the study of more complex supramolecular assemblies and of fine chemical variation along the genomic loci undergoing to epigenetic variations.

  3. Ultra lightweight PMMA-based composite plates with robust super-hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareo, Paola; De Gregorio, Gian Luca; Manca, Michele; Pianesi, Maria Savina; De Marco, Luisa; Cavallaro, Francesco; Mari, Margherita; Pappadà, Silvio; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2011-11-15

    Extremely lightweight plates made of an engineered PMMA-based composite material loaded with hollow glass micro-sized spheres, nano-sized silica particles and aluminum hydroxide prismatic micro-flakes were realized by cast molding. Their interesting bulk mechanical properties were combined to properly tailored surface topography compatible with the achievement of a superhydrophobic behavior after the deposition of a specifically designed hydrophobic coating. With this aim, we synthesized two different species of fluoromethacrylic polymers functionalized with methoxysilane anchoring groups to be covalently grafted onto the surface protruding inorganic fillers. By modulating the feed composition of the reacting monomers, it was possible to combine the hydrophobic character of the polymer with an high adhesion strength to the substrate and hence to maximize both the water contact angle (up to 157°) and the durability of the easy-to-clean effect (up to 2000 h long outdoor exposure). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel method to prepare superhydrophobic, UV resistance and anti-corrosion steel surface

    KAUST Repository

    Isimjan, Tayirjan T.

    2012-11-01

    Both TiO 2 and SiO 2 coated steel surfaces containing micro- and nanoscale binary structures with different surface roughness were successfully fabricated by means of a facile layer by layer deposition process followed by heat treatment. The resulting surfaces were modified by the low free energy chemical PTES (1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane). The experimental results of wettability exhibit that such modified surfaces have a strong repulsive force to water droplets, their static contact angles exceed 165°, receding angle>160°, advanced angles>170° and slide angle<1°. The resulting surfaces not only exhibit superhydrophobic properties but also show strong UV resistance (after coating SiO 2 on top of TiO 2) and strong stability to various solvents including 0.01% HCl solution. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Reinforced Superhydrophobic Coating on Silicone Rubber for Longstanding Anti-Icing Performance in Severe Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Boinovich, Ludmila B; Bezdomnikov, Alexey A; Chulkova, Elizaveta V; Emelyanenko, Kirill A

    2017-07-19

    We present a simple method for fabricating the superhydrophobic coatings on composite silicone rubber used for electrical outdoor applications. The coating is characterized by contact angles as high as 170° and is mechanically durable in contact with the aqueous phase. We discuss the impact of mechanical durability of the surface texture on the anti-icing performance of the coating on the basis of the experimental data on freezing delay of sessile aqueous droplets. A set of complementary data obtained in laboratory and outdoor experiments on freezing delay time, variation of wettability and practical work of adhesion for supercooled aqueous sessile droplets, impacting behavior of droplets at low negative temperatures, as well as the results of snow and ice accumulation in outdoor experiments indicate the very prospective icephobic properties of the developed coating.

  6. Computer simulations of phase field drops on super-hydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Livio

    2017-09-01

    We present a novel quasi-Newton continuation procedure that efficiently solves the system of nonlinear equations arising from the discretization of a phase field model for wetting phenomena. We perform a comparative numerical analysis that shows the improved speed of convergence gained with respect to other numerical schemes. Moreover, we discuss the conditions that, on a theoretical level, guarantee the convergence of this method. At each iterative step, a suitable continuation procedure develops and passes to the nonlinear solver an accurate initial guess. Discretization performs through cell-centered finite differences. The resulting system of equations is solved on a composite grid that uses dynamic mesh refinement and multi-grid techniques. The final code achieves three-dimensional, realistic computer experiments comparable to those produced in laboratory settings. This code offers not only new insights into the phenomenology of super-hydrophobicity, but also serves as a reliable predictive tool for the study of hydrophobic surfaces.

  7. Raman study of lysozyme amyloid fibrils suspended on super-hydrophobic surfaces by shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Manola

    2017-05-19

    The shear flow generated at the rim of a drop evaporating on a micro-fabricated super-hydrophobic surface has been used to suspend and orient single/few lysozyme amyloid fibrils between two pillars for substrate-free characterization. Micro Raman spectroscopy performed on extended fibers evidenced a shift of the Amide I band main peak to the value attributed to β-sheet secondary structure, characteristic of the amyloid fibers. In addition, given the orientation sensitivity of the anisotropic molecule, the Raman signal of the main secondary structure was nicely enhanced for a fiber alignment parallel to the polarization direction of the laser. The substrate-free sample generated by this suspending technique is suitable for other structural analysis methods, where fiber crystals are investigated. It could be further employed for generation of arrays and patterns in a controllable fashion, where bio-compatible material is needed.

  8. Temperature-induced coalescence of colliding binary droplets on superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Nan; Huang, Bin; Dong, Lining; Quan, Xiaojun; Hong, Fangjun; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-03-07

    This report investigates the impact of droplet temperature on the head-on collision of binary droplets on a superhydrophobic surface. Understanding droplet collision is critical to many fundamental processes and industrial applications. There are many factors, including collision speed, collision angle, and droplet composition, that influence the outcome of the collision between binary droplets. This work provides the first experimental study of the influence of droplet temperature on the collision of binary droplets. As the droplet temperature increases, the possibility increases for the two droplets to coalesce after collision. The findings in this study can be extended to collision of droplets under other conditions where control of the droplet temperature is feasible. Such findings will also be beneficial to applications that involve droplet collision, such as in ink-jet printing, steam turbines, engine ignition, and spraying cooling.

  9. Coalescence-Induced Jumping of Multiple Condensate Droplets on Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Patel, Ravi S; Weibel, Justin A; Garimella, Suresh V

    2016-01-04

    Coalescence-induced jumping of condensate droplets from a superhydrophobic surface with hierarchical micro/nanoscale roughness is quantitatively characterized. Experimental observations show that the condensate droplet jumping is induced by coalescence of multiple droplets of different sizes, and that the coalesced droplet trajectories typically deviate from the surface normal. A depth-from-defocus image processing technique is developed to track the out-of-plane displacement of the jumping droplets, so as to accurately measure the droplet size and velocity. The results demonstrate that the highest jumping velocity is achieved when two droplets coalesce. The jumping velocity decreases gradually with an increase in the number of coalescing droplets, despite the greater potential surface energy released upon coalescence. A general theoretical model that accounts for viscous dissipation, surface adhesion, line tension, the initial droplet wetting states, and the number and sizes of the coalescing droplets is developed to explain the trends of droplet jumping velocity observed in the experiments.

  10. Self-assembling of large ordered DNA arrays using superhydrophobic patterned surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciasca, G; Businaro, L; Papi, M; Notargiacomo, A; Chiarpotto, M; De Ninno, A; Palmieri, V; Carta, S; Giovine, E; Gerardino, A; De Spirito, M

    2013-12-13

    In this paper we present a simple and robust method to realize highly ordered arrays of stretched and suspended DNA molecules over the millimeter length scale. To this end we used an ad hoc designed superhydrophobic surface made of high aspect-ratio silicon pillars, where we deposited a droplet containing genomic DNA. A precise positioning of DNA strands was achieved by shaping the silicon pillars so that sharpened features resembling tips were included. Such features allowed us to accurately control the droplet de-wetting dynamics, pinning DNA strands in a well-defined position above pillars. The proposed technique has the potential to positively impact on the development of novel DNA chips for genetic analysis.

  11. Underwater Restoration and Retention of Gases on Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choongyeop; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Superhydrophobic (SHPo) surfaces have shown promise for passive drag reduction because their surface structures can hold a lubricating gas film between the solid surface and the liquid in contact with it. However, the types of SHPo surfaces that would produce any meaningful amount of reduction get wet under liquid pressure or at surface defects, both of which are unavoidable in the real world. In this Letter, we solve the above problem by (1) discovering surface structures that allow the restoration of a gas blanket from a wetted state while fully immersed underwater and (2) devising a self-controlled gas-generation mechanism that maintains the SHPo condition under high liquid pressures (tested up to 7 atm) as well as in the presence of surface defects, thus removing a fundamental barrier against the implementation of SHPo surfaces for drag reduction.

  12. Study of superhydrophobic electrosprayed catalyst layers using a localized reference electrode technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, A. M.; Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Folgado, M. A.; Brightman, E.; Hinds, G.

    2016-09-01

    The performance of electrosprayed cathode catalyst layers in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is studied using a localized reference electrode technique. Single cells with an electrosprayed cathode catalyst layer show an increase of >20% in maximum power density under standard testing conditions, compared with identical cells assembled with a conventional, state-of-the-art, gas diffusion cathode. When operated at high current density (1.2 A cm-2) the electrosprayed catalyst layers show more homogeneous distribution of the localized cathode potential, with a standard deviation from inlet to outlet of gas diffusion cathode. Higher performance and homogeneity of cell response is attributed to the superhydrophobic nature of the macroporous electrosprayed catalyst layer structure, which enhances the rate of expulsion of liquid water from the cathode. On the other hand, at low current densities (catalyst layers. The optimum performance may be obtained with electrosprayed catalyst layers employing a high Pt/C catalyst ratio.

  13. Synthesis and texturization processes of (super)-hydrophobic fluorinated surfaces by atmospheric plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Hubert, Julie; Dufour, Thierry; Vandencasteele, Nicolas; Reniers, François; Viville, Pascal; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Raes, M; Terryn, Herman

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and texturization processes of fluorinated surfaces by means of atmospheric plasma are investigated and presented through an integrated study of both the plasma phase and the resulting material surface. Three methods enhancing the surface hydrophobicity up to the production of super-hydrophobic surfaces are evaluated: (i) the modification of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface, (ii) the plasma deposition of fluorinated coatings and (iii) the incorporation of nanoparticles into those fluorinated films. In all the approaches, the nature of the plasma gas appears to be a crucial parameter for the desired property. Although a higher etching of the PTFE surface can be obtained with a pure helium plasma, the texturization can only be created if O2 is added to the plasma, which simultaneously decreases the total etching. The deposition of CxFy films by a dielectric barrier discharge leads to hydrophobic coatings with water contact angles (WCAs) of 115{\\textdegree}, but only the filamentary argon d...

  14. Superhydrophobic, antiadhesive, and antireflective surfaces mediated by hybrid biomimetic salvinia leaf with moth-eye structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cho-Yun; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Yang, Cho-Yu; Sung, Cheng-Kuo; Yu, Peichen; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we successfully demonstrate multifunctional surfaces based on scaffolding biomimetic structures, namely, hybrid salvinia leaves with moth-eye structures (HSMSs). The novel fabrication process employs scalable polystyrene nanosphere lithography and a lift-off process. Systematic characterizations show the biomimetic HSMS exhibiting superhydrophobic, self-cleaning, antiadhesive, and antireflective properties. Furthermore, the resulting surface tension gradient (known as the Marangoni effect) leads to a superior air retention characteristic in the HSMS under water droplet impact, compared with the traditional hybrid lotus leaf with a moth-eye structure (HLMS). Such results and learnings pave the way towards the attainment and mass deployment of dielectric surfaces with multiple functionalities for versatile biological and optoelectronic applications.

  15. Superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces: Wetting and wear properties of different CVD-generated coating types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, M.; Streller, F.; Simon, F.; Frenzel, R.; White, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    In view of generating superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces, this work presents further results for the combination of anodic oxidation as the primary pretreatment method and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) variants for chemical modification producing coatings of 250-1000 nm thickness. In detail, CVD involved the utilisation of i - hexafluoropropylene oxide as precursor within the hot filament CVD process for the deposition of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) coatings at alternative conditions (PTFE-AC) and ii - 1,3,5-trivinyltrimethylcyclotrisiloxane for the deposition of polysiloxane coatings (PSi) by initiated CVD. The substrate material was Al Mg1 subjected to usual or intensified sulphuric acid anodisation pretreatments (SAAu, SAAi, respectively) affording various degrees of surface micro-roughness (SAAu standardised artificial weathering and/or mild wear testing. Superhydrophobicity (SH) was observed with the system SAAi + PTFE-AC similarly to former findings with the standard hot filament CVD PTFE coating variant (SAAi + PTFE-SC). The results indicated that the specific coating morphology made an important contribution to the water-repellency, because even some of the SAAu-based samples tended to reveal SH. Subjecting samples to weathering treatment resulted in a general worsening of the wetting behaviour, primarily limited to the receding contact angles. These tendencies were correlated with the chemical composition of the sample surfaces as analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wear tests showed, as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement, that the PTFE coatings were relatively sensitive to friction. This was connected with a dramatic deterioration of the water-repelling properties. PSi-coated surfaces generally showed rather poor water-repellency, but this coating type was surprisingly resistant towards the applied friction test. From these findings it may be concluded that the combination of hydrophobic fluorine

  16. Air–water interface of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Moosmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Underwater air retention of superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces is of increasing interest for technical applications. Persistent air layers (the Salvinia effect are known from biological species, for example, the floating fern Salvinia or the backswimmer Notonecta. The use of this concept opens up new possibilities for biomimetic technical applications in the fields of drag reduction, antifouling, anticorrosion and under water sensing. Current knowledge regarding the shape of the air–water interface is insufficient, although it plays a crucial role with regards to stability in terms of diffusion and dynamic conditions. Optical methods for imaging the interface have been limited to the micrometer regime. In this work, we utilized a nondynamic and nondestructive atomic force microscopy (AFM method to image the interface of submerged superhydrophobic structures with nanometer resolution. Up to now, only the interfaces of nanobubbles (acting almost like solids have been characterized by AFM at these dimensions. In this study, we show for the first time that it is possible to image the air–water interface of submerged hierarchically structured (micro-pillars surfaces by AFM in contact mode. By scanning with zero resulting force applied, we were able to determine the shape of the interface and thereby the depth of the water penetrating into the underlying structures. This approach is complemented by a second method: the interface was scanned with different applied force loads and the height for zero force was determined by linear regression. These methods open new possibilities for the investigation of air-retaining surfaces, specifically in terms of measuring contact area and in comparing different coatings, and thus will lead to the development of new applications.

  17. Synthesis of a fluorine-free polymeric water-repellent agent for creation of superhydrophobic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Keke; Yu, Miao; Li, Qianqian; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Xiting; Quan, Miao; Liu, Zhengtang; Shi, Suqing; Gong, Yongkuan

    2017-12-01

    A non-fluorinated polymeric alkylsilane, poly(isobutyl methacrylate-co-3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane) (PIT), is designed and synthesized to replace the commercial long-chain perfluoroalkylsilane (FAS) water-repellent agent. The superhydrophobic polyester fabrics are prepared by anchoring sol-gel derived silica nanoparticles onto alkali-treated polyester fabric surfaces and subsequently hydrophobilizing with PIT, using FAS as control. The surface chemical composition, surface morphology, wetting behavior and durability of the modified polyester fabrics are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS) and video-based contact angle goniometer, respectively. The results show that a porous silica layer could be successfully fabricated onto the surface of polyester fabric through base-catalyzed sol-gel process with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as precursor, incorporating additional nanostructured roughness essential for superhydrophobicity. At the same time, such a silica primer layer could provide both secondary reactive moieties (-Si - OH) for the subsequent surface hydrophobization and acceptable adhesion at the silica-polyester fabric interface. When silica modified polyester fabric (SiO2@ fabric) is hydrophobized by PIT solution (10 mg/mL), excellent water-repellency could be obtained. The water contact angle is up to 154° and the sliding angle is about 5°. Compared with small molecule water-repellent agent FAS, PIT modified SiO2@ fabric exhibits greatly improved solvent resistance under ultra-sonication, abrasion and simulated laundering durability. The anti-stain property of PIT-modified SiO2@ fabric is also evaluated by using different aqueous colored solutions.

  18. Air-water interface of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Markus; Schimmel, Thomas; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Mail, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Underwater air retention of superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces is of increasing interest for technical applications. Persistent air layers (the Salvinia effect) are known from biological species, for example, the floating fern Salvinia or the backswimmer Notonecta. The use of this concept opens up new possibilities for biomimetic technical applications in the fields of drag reduction, antifouling, anticorrosion and under water sensing. Current knowledge regarding the shape of the air-water interface is insufficient, although it plays a crucial role with regards to stability in terms of diffusion and dynamic conditions. Optical methods for imaging the interface have been limited to the micrometer regime. In this work, we utilized a nondynamic and nondestructive atomic force microscopy (AFM) method to image the interface of submerged superhydrophobic structures with nanometer resolution. Up to now, only the interfaces of nanobubbles (acting almost like solids) have been characterized by AFM at these dimensions. In this study, we show for the first time that it is possible to image the air-water interface of submerged hierarchically structured (micro-pillars) surfaces by AFM in contact mode. By scanning with zero resulting force applied, we were able to determine the shape of the interface and thereby the depth of the water penetrating into the underlying structures. This approach is complemented by a second method: the interface was scanned with different applied force loads and the height for zero force was determined by linear regression. These methods open new possibilities for the investigation of air-retaining surfaces, specifically in terms of measuring contact area and in comparing different coatings, and thus will lead to the development of new applications.

  19. Air–water interface of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Thomas; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Mail, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Underwater air retention of superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces is of increasing interest for technical applications. Persistent air layers (the Salvinia effect) are known from biological species, for example, the floating fern Salvinia or the backswimmer Notonecta. The use of this concept opens up new possibilities for biomimetic technical applications in the fields of drag reduction, antifouling, anticorrosion and under water sensing. Current knowledge regarding the shape of the air–water interface is insufficient, although it plays a crucial role with regards to stability in terms of diffusion and dynamic conditions. Optical methods for imaging the interface have been limited to the micrometer regime. In this work, we utilized a nondynamic and nondestructive atomic force microscopy (AFM) method to image the interface of submerged superhydrophobic structures with nanometer resolution. Up to now, only the interfaces of nanobubbles (acting almost like solids) have been characterized by AFM at these dimensions. In this study, we show for the first time that it is possible to image the air–water interface of submerged hierarchically structured (micro-pillars) surfaces by AFM in contact mode. By scanning with zero resulting force applied, we were able to determine the shape of the interface and thereby the depth of the water penetrating into the underlying structures. This approach is complemented by a second method: the interface was scanned with different applied force loads and the height for zero force was determined by linear regression. These methods open new possibilities for the investigation of air-retaining surfaces, specifically in terms of measuring contact area and in comparing different coatings, and thus will lead to the development of new applications. PMID:28875104

  20. A simple, one-step hydrothermal approach to durable and robust superparamagnetic, superhydrophobic and electromagnetic wave-absorbing wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanwei; Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Chao; Fan, Bitao; Sun, Qingfeng; Jin, Chunde; Xiong, Ye; Chen, Yipeng

    2016-10-01

    In this work, lamellar MnFe2O4 was successfully planted on a wood surface through the association of hydrogen bonds via the one-pot hydrothermal method. Simultaneously, the fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17) on the surface of the MnFe2O4 layer formed long-chain or network macromolecules through a poly-condensation process and provided a lower surface energy on the wood surface. The MnFe2O4/wood composite (FMW) presented superior superparamagnetism, superhydrophobicity and electromagnetic wave absorption performance. The results indicated a saturation magnetization of the FMW with excellent superparamagnetism of 28.24 emu·g-1. The minimum value of reflection loss of the FMW reached -8.29 dB at 16.39 GHz with a thickness of 3 mm. Even after mechanical impact and exposure to corrosive liquids, the FMW still maintained a superior superhydrophobicity performance.

  1. Corrosion Resistance of the Superhydrophobic Mg(OH2/Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Coatings on Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of the Mg(OH2/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH composite were formed by a combined co-precipitation method and hydrothermal process on the AZ31 alloy substrate in alkaline condition. Subsequently, a superhydrophobic surface was successfully constructed to modify the composite coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate using stearic acid. The characteristics of the composite coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electronic microscope (SEM and contact angle (CA. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization, the electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS, the test of hydrogen evolution and the immersion test. The results showed that the superhydrophobic coatings considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of the LDH coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate.

  2. Facile Preparation of a Robust and Durable Superhydrophobic Coating Using Biodegradable Lignin-Coated Cellulose Nanocrystal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingda; Lyu, Shaoyi

    2017-01-01

    It is a challenge for a superhydrophobic coating to overcome the poor robustness and the rough surface structure that is usually built using inorganic particles that are difficult to degrade. In this study, a robust superhydrophobic coating is facilely prepared by using commercial biodegradable lignin-coated cellulose nanocrystal (L-CNC) particles after hydrophobic modification to build rough surface structures, and by choosing two different adhesives (double-sided tape and quick-setting epoxy) to support adhesion between the L-CNC particles and the substrates. In addition to excellent self-cleaning and water repellence properties, the resulting coatings show outstanding mechanical strength and durability against sandpaper abrasion, finger-wipe, knife-scratch, water jet, UV radiation, high temperature, and acidic and alkali solutions, possessing a wide application prospect. PMID:28906449

  3. Highly efficient and large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic alumina surface with strong stability based on self-congregated alumina nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shan; Tian, Dong; Yang, Xiaojun; Deng, Wenli

    2014-04-09

    In this study, a large-area superhydrophobic alumina surface with a series of superior properties was fabricated via an economical, simple, and highly effective one-step anodization process, and subsequently modified with low-surface-energy film. The effects of the anodization parameters including electrochemical anodization time, current density, and electrolyte temperature on surface morphology and surface wettability were investigated in detail. The hierarchical alumina pyramids-on-pores (HAPOP) rough structure which was produced quickly through the one-step anodization process together with a low-surface-energy film deposition [1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PDES) and stearic acid (STA)] confer excellent superhydrophobicity and an extremely low sliding angle. Both the PDES-modified superhydrophobic (PDES-MS) and the STA-modified superhydrophobic (STA-MS) surfaces present fascinating nonwetting and extremely slippery behaviors. The chemical stability and mechanical durability of the PDES-MS and STA-MS surfaces were evaluated and discussed. Compared with the STA-MS surface, the as-prepared PDES-MS surface possesses an amazing chemical stability which not only can repel cool liquids (water, HCl/NaOH solutions, around 25 °C), but also can show excellent resistance to a series of hot liquids (water, HCl/NaOH solutions, 30-100 °C) and hot beverages (coffee, milk, tea, 80 °C). Moreover, the PDES-MS surface also presents excellent stability toward immersion in various organic solvents, high temperature, and long time period. In particular, the PDES-MS surface achieves good mechanical durability which can withstand ultrasonication treatment, finger-touch, multiple fold, peeling by adhesive tape, and even abrasion test treatments without losing superhydrophobicity. The corrosion resistance and durability of the diverse-modified superhydrophobic surfaces were also examined. These fascinating performances makes the present method suitable for large

  4. Rapid fabrication of superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film with excellent energy-release characteristics and long-term storage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Xiang; Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: zhouxiang@njust.edu.cn; Hao, Gaozi; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: superfine_jw@126.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film is prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. • The deposition system and kinetics of electrophoretic deposition process are investigated to optimize parameters to obtain smooth films. • Energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic films are significantly improved for both fresh and aged samples. • Superhydrophobic films exhibit excellent long-time storage stability both in natural and accelerated aging test. • A preignition reaction is found to enhance the energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic nanothermite film. - Abstract: One of the challenges for the application of energetic materials is their energy-retaining capabilities after long-term storage. In this study, we report a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. Different concentrations of dispersion solvents and additives are investigated to optimize the deposition parameters. Meanwhile, the dependence of deposition rates on nanoparticle concentrations is also studied. The surface morphology and chemical composition are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A static contact angles as high as 156° shows the superhydrophobicity of the nanothermite film. Natural and accelerated aging tests are performed and the thermal behavior is analyzed. Thermal analysis shows that the surface modification contributes to significantly improved energy-release characteristics for both fresh and aged samples, which is supposed to be attributed to the preignition reaction between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell and FAS-17. Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film exhibits excellent long-time storage stability with 83.4% of energy left in

  5. Vapor-Liquid Sol-Gel Approach to Fabricating Highly Durable and Robust Superhydrophobic Polydimethylsiloxane@Silica Surface on Polyester Textile for Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Jing; Liao, Xiaofeng; Zeng, Xingrong

    2017-08-23

    Large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent durability by simple techniques has been of considerable interest for its urgent practical application in oil-water separation in recent years. Herein, we proposed a facile vapor-liquid sol-gel approach to fabricating highly durable and robust superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane@silica surfaces on the cross-structure polyester textiles. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that the silica generated from the hydrolysis-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) gradually aggregated at microscale driven by the extreme nonpolar dihydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS(OH)). This led to construction of hierarchical roughness and micronano structures of the superhydrophobic textile surface. The as-fabricated superhydrophobic textile possessed outstanding durability in deionized water, various solvents, strong acid/base solutions, and boiling/ice water. Remarkably, the polyester textile still retained great water repellency and even after ultrasonic treatment for 18 h, 96 laundering cycles, and 600 abrasion cycles, exhibiting excellent mechanical robustness. Importantly, the superhydrophobic polyester textile was further applied for oil-water separation as absorption materials and/or filter pipes, presenting high separation efficiency and great reusability. Our method to construct superhydrophobic textiles is simple but highly efficient; no special equipment, chemicals, or atmosphere is required. Additionally, no fluorinated slianes and organic solvents are involved, which is very beneficial for environment safety and protection. Our findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate organic-inorganic superhydrophobic surfaces with strong durability and robustness for practical applications in oil spill accidents and industrial sewage emission.

  6. Study of abrasive resistance of foundries models obtained with use of additive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol’khovik, Evgeniy

    2017-10-01

    A problem of determination of resistance of the foundry models and patterns from ABS (PLA) plastic, obtained by the method of 3D printing with using FDM additive technology, to abrasive wear and resistance in the environment of foundry sand mould is considered in the present study. The description of a technique and equipment for tests of castings models and patterns for wear is provided in the article. The manufacturing techniques of models with the use of the 3D printer (additive technology) are described. The scheme with vibration load was applied to samples tests. For the most qualitative research of influence of sandy mix on plastic, models in real conditions of abrasive wear have been organized. The results also examined the application of acrylic paintwork to the plastic model and a two-component coating. The practical offers and recommendation on production of master models with the use of FDM technology allowing one to reach indicators of durability, exceeding 2000 cycles of moulding in foundry sand mix, are described.

  7. The influence of aluminum and carbon on the abrasion resistance of high manganese steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholz, Samuel August

    Abrasive wear testing of lightweight, austenitic Fe-Mn-Al-C cast steel has been performed in accordance with ASTM G65 using a dry sand, rubber wheel, abrasion testing apparatus. Testing was conducted on a series of Fe-30Mn-XAl-YC-1Si-0.5Mo chemistries containing aluminum levels from 2.9 to 9.5 wt.% and carbon levels from 0.9 to 1.83 wt.%. Solution treated materials having an austenitic microstructure produced the highest wear resistance. Wear resistance decreased with higher aluminum, lower carbon, and higher hardness after age hardening. In the solution treated condition the wear rate was a strong function of the aluminum to carbon ratio and the wear rate increased with a parabolic dependence on the Al/C ratio, which ranged from 1.8 to 10.2. Examination of the surface wear scar revealed a mechanism of plowing during abrasion testing and this method of material removal is sensitive to work hardening rate. Work hardening behavior was determined from tensile tests and also decreased with increasing Al/C ratio and after aging hardening. The loss of wear resistance is related to short range ordering of Al and C in the solution treated materials and kappa-carbide precipitation in age hardened materials and both contribute to planar slip and lower work hardening rates. A high carbon tool steel (W1) and a bainitic low alloy steel (SAE 8620) were also tested for comparison. A lightweight steel containing 6.5 wt.% Al and 1.2 wt.% C has wear resistance comparable to within 5% of the bainitic SAE 8620 steel forging currently used for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle track shoe and this cast Fe-Mn-Al-C steel, at equivalent tensile properties, would be 10% lighter.

  8. Predicting the Abrasion Resistance of Tool Steels by Means of Neurofuzzy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Lisjak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work considers use neurofuzzy set theory for estimate abrasion wear resistance of steels based on chemical composition, heat treatment (austenitising temperature, quenchant and tempering temperature, hardness after hardening and different tempering temperature and volume loss of materials according to ASTM G 65-94. Testing of volume loss for the following group of materials as fuzzy data set was taken: carbon tool steels, cold work tool steels, hot work tools steels, high-speed steels. Modelled adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is compared to statistical model of multivariable non-linear regression (MNLR. From the results it could be concluded that it is possible well estimate abrasion wear resistance for steel whose volume loss is unknown and thus eliminate unnecessary testing.

  9. Sealing ability, water sorption, solubility and toothbrushing abrasion resistance of temporary filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C M; Zanchi, C H; Rodrigues-Junior, S A; Moraes, R R; Pontes, L S; Bueno, M

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate marginal seal, water sorption, solubility and loss of mass after brushing of several temporary filling materials. For marginal seal, Class I cavities, including endodontic access preparations, were made in human molar teeth and restored using one or other of several temporary filling materials (n = 10): zinc oxide/calcium sulphate-based cement (Cavit, 3M,ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), zinc oxide/eugenol cement (IRM, Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE, USA), glass ionomer cement (Vidrion R, SSWhite, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) or a dimethacrylate-based filling (Bioplic, Biodinâmica, Londrina, PR, Brazil). Dye penetration was assessed after thermocycling and immersion in 0.5% basic fuchsine solution. For water sorption, solubility and loss of mass analyses, disc-shaped specimens were made. Water sorption and solubility were evaluated by mass alteration after storage in distilled water for 7 days (n = 7). Loss of mass was calculated based on the difference of mass after abrasion with a toothbrush (n = 5), and surfaces were analysed by SEM. Data of water sorption, solubility and loss of mass were submitted to anova and Tukey's test, and marginal sealing data to Kruskal-Wallis test (P Cavit had the greatest water sorption and solubility. Vidrion R and Bioplic had the lowest solubility. Loss of mass after brushing was higher for Cavit, followed by Bioplic, IRM and Vidrion R. Cavit and Vidrion R were worn aggressively by brushing. The resin-based temporary filling Bioplic produced the best marginal seal, and was associated with the lowest water sorption, solubility and loss of mass.

  10. Abrasion-resistant concrete mix designs for precast bridge deck panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The report documents laboratory investigations undertaken to develop high performance concrete (HPC) for precast and pre-stressed bridge deck components that would reduce the life-cycle cost of bridges by improving the studded tire wear (abrasion) re...

  11. Application of polymer-powder slurry for fabrication of abrasion resistant coatings on tool materials

    OpenAIRE

    G. Matula

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Development of a new generation tool materials on the basis of M2 high speed-steel or 41Cr4 steel covered with the carbides. Application of pressureless forming of powder as a manufacturing method of anti-wear coatings gives the possibility to produce this materials with relative low cost of production.Design/methodology/approach: Powder metallurgy, pressureless forming of powder, sintering, microstructure examination, X-ray dispersive energy examination, hardness examination.Finding...

  12. Optimization of casting conditions for heat and abrasion resistant large grey iron castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Lee

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation technology was applied for optimizing the casting design and conditions in large cast iron castings for marine engine. By the simulation of mold filling and solidification sequences the problems of the previous casting conditions were analyzed and marked improvements for large cylinder liner parts were derived from these results. Especially the amount and positions of chills were optimized to increase the mechanical properties and to minimize the shrinkage and microporosity in the castings. Ultrasonic testing, penetration testing and mechanical property testing were carried out for the parts with the modified casting conditions. It showed that no defects in the castings were found and the productivity could be distinctly increased.The mechanical properties satisfied also the specification demanded.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF THE COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGY OF THE ABRASION-RESISTANT CAST-IRONS MELTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Garost

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhе methods of the service durability increase of wear resistant cast irons are analyzed. There are developed the compositions of economically-alloyed cast irons with low content of nickel and other deficient elements, being exploited both in cast and in thermotreated state. The composition of antifriction gray cast iron with increased exploitation characteristics is offered.

  14. A Novel Approach to Highly Damage Tolerant and Abrasion Resistant EVA Gloves Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of the spacesuit pressure garment, the EVA glove incorporates a silicone pad on the palm for protection of the bladder from cuts and punctures. Repeated...

  15. Micro-abrasion resistance of thermochemically treated steels in aqueous solutions : mechanisms, maps, materials selection

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, M. T.; Stack, M. M.; Matijevic, B.; Rocha, L. A.; Ariza, E.

    2008-01-01

    The area of micro-abrasion is an interesting and relatively recent area in tribo-testing methodologies, where small particles of less than 10 mm are employed between interacting surfaces. It is topical for a number of reasons; its direct relation to the mechanisms of the wear process in bio-tribological applications, ease in conducting tests and the good repeatability of the test results. It has widespread applications in conditions used in the space and offshore industries to bio-en...

  16. Longitudinal pressure-driven flows between superhydrophobic grooved surfaces: Large effective slip in the narrow-channel limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Ory; Yariv, Ehud

    2017-07-01

    The gross amplification of the fluid velocity in pressure-driven flows due to the introduction of superhydrophobic walls is commonly quantified by an effective slip length. The canonical duct-flow geometry involves a periodic structure of longitudinal shear-free stripes at either one or both of the bounding walls, corresponding to flat-meniscus gas bubbles trapped within a periodic array of grooves. This grating configuration is characterized by two geometric parameters, namely the ratio κ of channel width to microstructure period and the areal fraction Δ of the shear-free stripes. For wide channels, κ ≫1 , this geometry is known to possess an approximate solution where the dimensionless slip length λ , normalized by the duct semiwidth, is small, indicating a weak superhydrophobic effect. We here address the other extreme of narrow channels, κ ≪1 , identifying large O (κ-2) values of λ for the symmetric configuration, where both bounding walls are superhydrophobic. This velocity enhancement is associated with an unconventional Poiseuille-like flow profile where the parabolic velocity variation takes place in a direction parallel (rather than perpendicular) to the boundaries. Use of matched asymptotic expansions and conformal-mapping techniques provides λ up to O (κ-1) , establishing the approximationλ ˜κ-2Δ/33 +κ-1Δ/2π ln4 +⋯, which is in excellent agreement with a semianalytic solution of the dual equations governing the respective coefficients of a Fourier-series representation of the fluid velocity. No similar singularity occurs in the corresponding asymmetric configuration, involving a single superhydrophobic wall; in that geometry, a Hele-Shaw approximation shows that λ =O (1 ) .

  17. Functionalization of Biodegradable PLA Nonwoven Fabric as Superoleophilic and Superhydrophobic Material for Efficient Oil Absorption and Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jincui; Xiao, Peng; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Hanlin; Dai, Liwei; Song, Liping; Huang, Youju; Zhang, Jiawei; Chen, Tao

    2017-02-22

    Although the construction of superwettability materials for oil/water separation has been developed rapidly, the postprocess of the used separation materials themselves is still a thorny problem due to their nondegradation in the natural environment. In this work, we reported the functionalization of polylactic acid (PLA) nonwoven fabric as superoleophilic and superhydrophobic material for efficient treatment of oily wastewater with eco-friendly post-treatment due to the well-known biodegradable nature of PLA matrix.

  18. Super-hydrophobic multilayer coatings with layer number tuned swapping in surface wettability and redox catalytic anti-corrosion application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Junaid Ali; Tang, Shaochun; Meng, Xiangkang

    2017-06-30

    The wetting characteristic of a metal surface can be controlled by employing different coating materials and external stimuli, however, layer number (n) modulated surface swapping between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity in a multilayer structure to achieve prolonged anti-corrosion ability was not taken into consideration. In this study, we proposed a layer-by-layer (LbL) spin assembled polyaniline-silica composite/tetramethylsilane functionalized silica nanoparticles (PSC/TMS-SiO2) coating with the combined effect of super-hydrophobicity and enhanced anti-corrosion ability. Interestingly, the hierarchical integration of two coating materials with inherently different surface roughness and energy in a multilayer structure allows the wetting feature to swap from hydrophobic to hydrophilic state by modulating n with decreasing hydrophilicity. The samples with odd n (TMS-SiO2 surface) are hydrophobic while the samples with even n (PSC surface) exhibits the hydrophilic character. The TMS-SiO2 content was optimized to achieve super-hydrophobic coating with significantly high water contact angle (CA) 153° ± 2° and small sliding angle (SA) 6° ± 2°. Beside its self-cleaning behavior, the electro-active PSC/TMS-SiO2 coating also exhibits remarkably enhanced corrosion resistance against aggressive media. The corrosion resistance of the coating was remained stable even after 240 h of exposure, this enhancement is attributed to super-hydrophobicity and anodic shift in corrosion potential.

  19. A facile method for the fabrication of a superhydrophobic polydopamine-coated copper foam for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Li, Guangji; Wang, Liying; Chen, Zhifeng; Lin, Yinlei

    2017-08-01

    A simple dip-coating method was explored to construct hierarchical structures on a 3D copper foam (CF) surface by combining the intrinsic properties of mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) and a 3D metal structure. The CF substrate was sequentially modified with PDA and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and then coupled with n-dodecyl mercaptan (NDM) to create a durable superhydrophobic CF for oil/water separation. The morphology, chemical composition and wettability of the fabricated modified CF surface were characterized. The modified CF surface possesses an increased roughness and exhibits superhydrophobicity, with water contact angle values greater than 150°. The PDA coating on the CF surface can reduce silver ions and anchor the formed NPs onto the surface to construct the hierarchical structure of the superhydrophobic CF. Furthermore, the oil/water separation properties were also investigated. The modified CF can separate a series of oil/water mixtures with a high efficiency and relatively high intrusion pressure. More importantly, the modified CF retains its high efficiency after 30 repeated uses (more than 98% for a dodecane/water mixture), exhibiting excellent durability. The mechanism of oil/water separation is also discussed. The results of this study indicate that the modified CF can serve as a promising candidate for the large-scale separation of oily pollutants from water.

  20. Preparation of Raspberry-like Superhydrophobic SiO2 Particles by Sol-gel Method and Its Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Gui-Long

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry‐like SiO2 particles with a nano‐micro‐binary structure were prepared by a simple sol‐gel method using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES as precursors. The chemical components and morphology of the SiO2 particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT‐IR and a Transmission electron microscope (TEM. The surface topography and wetting behaviour of the raspberry‐like SiO2 surface were observed with a Scanning electron microscope (SEM and studied by the water/oil contact angle (CA, respectively. The thermal stability of the prepared SiO2 particles was characterized by TGA analysis. The results show that the highly dispersed SiO2 particles initially prepared by the sol‐gel method turn into raspberry‐like particles with during the aging process. The raspberry‐like SiO2 particles show superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity across a wide range of pH values. The SiO2 particles were thermally stable up to 475°C, while above this temperature the hydrophobicity decreases and finally becomes superhydrophobic when the temperature reaches 600°C. The raspberry‐like SiO2 particles which were prepared have potential applications in the fields of superhydrophobic surfaces, water‐oil separation, anti‐corrosion and fluid transportation.

  1. Hierarchically structured superhydrophobic flowers with low hysteresis of the wild pansy (Viola tricolor – new design principles for biomimetic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Schulte

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchically structured flower leaves (petals of many plants are superhydrophobic, but water droplets do not roll-off when the surfaces are tilted. On such surfaces water droplets are in the “Cassie impregnating wetting state”, which is also known as the “petal effect”. By analyzing the petal surfaces of different species, we discovered interesting new wetting characteristics of the surface of the flower of the wild pansy (Viola tricolor. This surface is superhydrophobic with a static contact angle of 169° and very low hysteresis, i.e., the petal effect does not exist and water droplets roll-off as from a lotus (Nelumbo nucifera leaf. However, the surface of the wild pansy petal does not possess the wax crystals of the lotus leaf. Its petals exhibit high cone-shaped cells (average size 40 µm with a high aspect ratio (2.1 and a very fine cuticular folding (width 260 nm on top. The applied water droplets are in the Cassie–Baxter wetting state and roll-off at inclination angles below 5°. Fabricated hydrophobic polymer replicas of the wild pansy were prepared in an easy two-step moulding process and possess the same wetting characteristics as the original flowers. In this work we present a technical surface with a new superhydrophobic, low adhesive surface design, which combines the hierarchical structuring of petals with a wetting behavior similar to that of the lotus leaf.

  2. Fabrication of a novel superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface by one-step electrodeposition method for continuous oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Meisu; Jiang, Meihuizi; Zhang, Yanzong; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Yang, Gang; He, Yan; Wang, Lilin; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai

    2018-03-01

    A novel superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface was fabricated by one-step electrodeposition on stainless steel meshes, and the durability and oil/water separation properties were assessed. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and optical contact angle measurements were used to characterize surface morphologies, chemical compositions, and wettabilities, respectively. The results indicated that the as-prepared mesh preformed excellent superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity with a high water contact angle (WCA) of 162 ± 1° and oil contact angle of (OCA) 0°. Meanwhile, the as-prepared mesh also exhibited continuous separation capacity of many kinds of oil/water mixtures, and the separation efficiency for lubrication oil/water mixture was about 98.6%. In addition, after 10 separation cycles, the as-prepared mesh possessed the WCAs of 155 ± 2°, the OCAs of 0° and the separation efficiency of 97.8% for lubrication oil/water mixtures. The as-prepared mesh also retained superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties after abrading, immersing in salt solutions and different pH solutions.

  3. Covalent layer-by-layer grafting (LBLG) functionalized superhydrophobic stainless steel mesh for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Hongjie; Sun, Yongli; Zhang, Luhong; Xu, Lidong; Hao, Li; Yang, Huawei

    2017-06-01

    A superhydrophobic and superoleophilic stainless steel (SS) mesh for oil/water separation has been developed by using a novel, facile and inexpensive covalent layer-by-layer grafting (LBLG) method. Hierarchical micro/nanostructure surface was formed through grafting the (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (SCA), polyethylenimine (PEI) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) onto the mesh in sequence, accompanied with SiO2 nanoparticles subtly and firmly anchored in multilayers. Superhydrophobic characteristic was realized by self-assembly grafting of hydrophobic groups onto the surface. The as-prepared mesh exhibits excellent superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 159°. Moreover, with a low sliding angle of 4°, it shows the ;lotus effect; for self-cleaning. As for application evaluation, the as-prepared mesh can be used for large-scale separation of oil/water mixtures with a relatively high separation efficiency after 30 times reuse (99.88% for n-octane/water mixture) and a high intrusion pressure (3.58 kPa). More importantly, the mesh exhibited excellent stability in the case of vibration situation, long-term storage as well as saline corrosion conditions, and the compatible pH range was determined to be 1-13. In summary, this work provides a brand new method of modifying SS mesh in a covalent LBLG way, and makes it possible to introduce various functionalized groups onto the surface.

  4. Femtosecond laser ablated durable superhydrophobic PTFE films with micro-through-holes for oil/water separation: Separating oil from water and corrosive solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jiale; Fang, Yao; Chen, Feng; Huo, Jinglan; Yang, Qing; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun

    2016-12-01

    Separating the mixture of water and oil by the superhydrophobic porous materials has attracted increasing research interests; however, the surface microstructures and chemical composition of those materials are easily destroyed in a harsh environment, resulting in materials losing the superhydrophobicity as well as the oil/water separation function. In this paper, a kind of rough microstructures was formed on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sheet by femtosecond laser treatment. The rough surfaces showed durable superhydrophobicity and ultralow water adhesion even after storing in various harsh environment for a long time, including strong acid, strong alkali, and high temperature. A micro-through-holes array was further generated on the rough superhydrophobic PTFE film by a subsequent mechanical drilling process. The resultant sample was successfully applied in the field of oil/water separation due to the inverse superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. The designed separation system is also very efficient to separate the mixtures of oil and corrosive acid/alkali solutions, exhibiting the strong potential for practical application.

  5. One-step preparation of superhydrophobic acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer coating for ultrafast separation of water-in-oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wanshun; Long, Mengying; Zhou, Qiannan; Wen, Ni; Deng, Wenli

    2017-09-23

    Superhydrophobic membranes with opposite wettability toward water and oil are able to separate water-in-oil emulsions. By constructing porous and hierarchal-structured superhydrophobic coating on filter paper, we hope a quick separation process could be achieved due to the acceleration of both demulsification and penetration process. Here, superhydrophobic coatings were prepared by simply spraying environmental and cost-effective acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) colloid in dichloromethane onto filter paper. The morphologies and wettability of the obtained coatings were carefully studied. Moreover, the separation performances in dealing with various surfactant-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions (SSWOE) were also investigated to verify our hypothesis. The morphologies of the ABS coatings varied with its weight concentration in dichloromethane and they changed from porous and plain surface into porous and hierarchal-structured surface. Besides, the hydrophobicity of the above coatings varied form hydrophobic to superhydrophobic. Moreover, the resulted superhydrophobic membranes show great separation capability in separating various span 80-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions with oil filtrate purities larger than 99.90% and huge penetration fluxes whose maximum is over 13,000L/(m(2)h). Thus, we envision that such membrane can be a practical candidate in dealing with water-in-oil emulsions to obtain pure oils. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effects of surface topography and vibrations on wetting: Superhydrophobicity, icephobicity and corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul

    Concrete and metallic materials are widely used in construction and water industry. The interaction of both these materials with water and ice (or snow) produces undesirable results and is therefore of interest. Water that gets absorbed into the pores of dry concrete expands on freezing and can lead to crack formation. Also, the ice accretion on concrete surfaces such as roadways can have disastrous consequence. Metallic components used in the water industry undergo corrosion due to contact with aqueous corrosive solutions. Therefore, it is desirable to make concrete water/ice-repellent, and to make metallic surfaces corrosion-resistant. Recent advances in micro/nanotechnology have made it possible to design functional micro/nanostructured surfaces with micro/nanotopography providing low adhesion. Some examples of such surfaces are superhydrophobic surfaces, which are extremely water repellent, and icephobic surfaces, which have low ice adhesion, repel incoming water droplets before freezing, or delay ice nucleation. This dissertation investigates the effects of surface micro/nanotopography and small amplitude fast vibrations on the wetting and adhesion of concrete with the goal of producing hydrophobic and icephobic concrete, and on the wetting of metallic surfaces to prevent corrosion. The relationship between surface micro/nanotopography and small fast vibrations is established using the method of separation of motions. Both these small scale effects can be substituted by an effective force or energy. The structure-property relationships in materials and surfaces are established. Both vibrations as well as surface micro/nanopatterns can affect wetting properties such as contact angle and surface free energy. Hydrophobic engineered cementitious composite samples are produced by controlling their surface topography and surface free energy. The surface topography is controlled by varying the concrete mixture composition. The surface free energy of concrete is

  7. A Comprehensive Model of Electric-Field-Enhanced Jumping-Droplet Condensation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbarah, Patrick; Li, Zhaoer; Pauls, Alexander; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2015-07-21

    Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding positively charged water droplets via coalescence-induced droplet jumping at length scales below the capillary length and allowing the use of external electric fields to enhance droplet removal and heat transfer, in what has been termed electric-field-enhanced (EFE) jumping-droplet condensation. However, achieving optimal EFE conditions for enhanced heat transfer requires capturing the details of transport processes that is currently lacking. While a comprehensive model has been developed for condensation on micro/nanostructured surfaces, it cannot be applied for EFE condensation due to the dynamic droplet-vapor-electric field interactions. In this work, we developed a comprehensive physical model for EFE condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces by incorporating individual droplet motion, electrode geometry, jumping frequency, field strength, and condensate vapor-flow dynamics. As a first step toward our model, we simulated jumping droplet motion with no external electric field and validated our theoretical droplet trajectories to experimentally obtained trajectories, showing excellent temporal and spatial agreement. We then incorporated the external electric field into our model and considered the effects of jumping droplet size, electrode size and geometry, condensation heat flux, and droplet jumping direction. Our model suggests that smaller jumping droplet sizes and condensation heat fluxes require less work input to be removed by the external fields. Furthermore, the results suggest that EFE electrodes can be optimized such that the work input is minimized depending on the condensation heat flux. To analyze overall efficiency, we defined an incremental coefficient of performance and showed that it is very high (∼10(6)) for EFE condensation. We finally proposed mechanisms

  8. Superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces: Wetting and wear properties of different CVD-generated coating types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, M., E-mail: michael.thieme@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Streller, F., E-mail: streller@seas.upenn.edu [Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Simon, F., E-mail: frsimon@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden, Postfach 120 411, 01005 Dresden (Germany); Frenzel, R., E-mail: frenzelr@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden, Postfach 120 411, 01005 Dresden (Germany); White, A.J. [GVD Corporation, 45 Spinelli Place, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    In view of generating superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces, this work presents further results for the combination of anodic oxidation as the primary pretreatment method and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) variants for chemical modification producing coatings of 250–1000 nm thickness. In detail, CVD involved the utilisation of i – hexafluoropropylene oxide as precursor within the hot filament CVD process for the deposition of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) coatings at alternative conditions (PTFE-AC) and ii – 1,3,5-trivinyltrimethylcyclotrisiloxane for the deposition of polysiloxane coatings (PSi) by initiated CVD. The substrate material was Al Mg1 subjected to usual or intensified sulphuric acid anodisation pretreatments (SAAu, SAAi, respectively) affording various degrees of surface micro-roughness (SAAu < SAAi) to the oxidic layers. Performance characteristics were evaluated in the original as-coated states and after standardised artificial weathering and/or mild wear testing. Superhydrophobicity (SH) was observed with the system SAAi + PTFE-AC similarly to former findings with the standard hot filament CVD PTFE coating variant (SAAi + PTFE-SC). The results indicated that the specific coating morphology made an important contribution to the water-repellency, because even some of the SAAu-based samples tended to reveal SH. Subjecting samples to weathering treatment resulted in a general worsening of the wetting behaviour, primarily limited to the receding contact angles. These tendencies were correlated with the chemical composition of the sample surfaces as analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wear tests showed, as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement, that the PTFE coatings were relatively sensitive to friction. This was connected with a dramatic deterioration of the water-repelling properties. PSi-coated surfaces generally showed rather poor water-repellency, but this coating type was surprisingly

  9. Fabrication of semi-transparent superoleophobic thin film from fabrics and nanoparticle-based hierarchical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishizawa S.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Superoleophobic thin films have many potential applications including fluid transfer, fluid power systems, stain resistant and antifouling materials, and microfluidics among others. Transparency is also desired with superhydrophobicity for their numerous applications; however transparency and oleophobicity are almost incompatible relationship with each other in the point of surface structure. Because oleophobicity required rougher structure at nano-micro scale than hydrophobicity, and these rough structure brings light scattering. So far, there is very few report of the compatible of transparency and superoleophobicity. In this report, we proposed the see-through type fabrics using the nanoparticle-based hierarchical structure thin film for improving both of oleophobicity and transparency. The vacant space between fibrils of fabrics has two important roles: the one is to through the light, another one is to introduce air layer to realize Cassie state of liquid droplet on thin film. To realize the low surface energy and nanoscale rough structure surface on fibrils, we used the spray method with perfluoroalkyl methacrylic copolymer (PMC, silica nano particles and volatile solvent. From the SEM image, the hierarchical structures of nanoparticle were formed uniformly on the fabrics. The transparency of thin film obtained was approximately 61% and the change of transparency between pre-coated fabrics and coated was 11%. From investigation of the surface wettability, the contact angles of oils (rapeseed oil and hexadecane and water droplet on the fabricated film were over 150 degree.

  10. Robust Fluorine-Free Superhydrophobic Amino-Silicone Oil/SiO2Modification of Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Membranes for Waterproof-Breathable Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Junlu; Xu, Yue; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2017-05-03

    Superhydrophobic waterproof-breathable membranes have attracted considerable interest owing to their multifunctional applications in self-cleaning, anti-icing, anticorrosion, outdoor tents, and protective clothing. Despite the researches pertaning to the construction of superhydrophobic functional membranes by nanoparticle finishing have increased drastically, the disconnected particle component is easy to fall off from the membranes under deformation and wear conditions, which has restricted their wide use in practice. Here, robust superhydrophobic microporous membranes were prepared via a facile and environmentally friendly strategy by dip-coating amino-silicone oil (ASO) onto the electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes, followed by SiO 2 nanoparticles (SiO 2 NPs) blade coating. Compared with hydrophilic PAN membranes, the modified membranes exhibited superhydrophobic surface with an advancing water contact angle up to 156°, after introducing ASO as low surface energy substance and SiO 2 NPs as filler to reduce the pore size and construct the multihierarchical rough structure. Varying the concentrations of ASO and SiO 2 NPs systematically, the PAN electrospun membranes modified with 1 wt % ASO and 0.1 wt % SiO 2 NPs were endowed with good water-resistance (74.3 kPa), relative low thermal conductivity (0.0028 W m -1 K -1 ), modest vapor permeability (11.4 kg m -2 d -1 ), and air permeability (20.5 mm s -1 ). Besides, the inorganic-organic hybrid coating of ASO/SiO 2 NPs could maintain its superhydrophobicity even after 40 abrasion cycles. The resulting membranes were found to resist variations on the pH scale from 0 to 12, and retained their water repellent properties when exposed to harsh acidic and alkali conditions. This facile fabrication of durable fluorine-free superhydrophobic membranes simultaneous with good waterproof-breathable performance provides the advantages for potential applications in self-cleaning materials and versatile protective

  11. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surface on Polydopamine-coated Al Plate by Using Modified SiO{sub 2} Nanoparticles/Polystyrene Nano-Composite Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Songho; Lee, Woohee; Ahn, Yonghyun [Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    A superhydrophobic Al surface has been fabricated by coating with polydopamine, followed by coating with a modified silica nanoparticles/PS composite solution. The role of polydopamine layer is to improve the adhesion of the modified silica nanoparticles. This platform is an ideal structure for attaching various nano/micro particles. Aluminum is an important industrial metal, and the superhydrophobic surface of Al plates has potential applications in various fields. Aluminum is a relatively lightweight, soft, and durable metal with good thermal conductivity and excellent corrosion resistance.

  12. Tailoring super-hydrophobic properties of electrochemical biosensor for early cancer detection

    KAUST Repository

    Malara, Natalia

    2016-08-08

    In this paper, we demonstrate an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) based on the conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS for the analysis of the cell culture medium upon interaction with circulating cells isolated form peripheral blood sampling of health, sub-clinical and cancer patients. The device comprises arrays of super-hydrophobic micro-pillars in which a finite number of pillars incorporates nano-electrodes for site specific measurements of a solution. Due to its nano-scale architecture, the device realizes time and space resolved measurement of biological solution. Tumor metabolism could produce reactive species able to determine a different electronic behavior of correspondent microenviroment. On this basis, the device here presented the changes in the ESR signals was used to identify electronic changes occurring in the analysis of different type of microenvironment. Our results demonstrate that the device is able to register significative difference to differentiate healthy individuals form cancer patients, through an easy blood sampling. In conclusion, these preliminary data are suggestive of a novel test potentially useful to early identification of subjects at risk to development cancer disease.

  13. The Five Ws (and one H of Super-Hydrophobic Surfaces in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gentile

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Super-hydrophobic surfaces (SHSs are bio-inspired, artificial microfabricated interfaces, in which a pattern of cylindrical micropillars is modified to incorporate details at the nanoscale. For those systems, the integration of different scales translates into superior properties, including the ability of manipulating biological solutions. The five Ws, five Ws and one H or the six Ws (6W, are questions, whose answers are considered basic in information-gathering. They constitute a formula for getting the complete story on a subject. According to the principle of the six Ws, a report can only be considered complete if it answers these questions starting with an interrogative word: who, why, what, where, when, how. Each question should have a factual answer. In what follows, SHSs and some of the most promising applications thereof are reviewed following the scheme of the 6W. We will show how these surfaces can be integrated into bio-photonic devices for the identification and detection of a single molecule. We will describe how SHSs and nanoporous silicon matrices can be combined to yield devices with the capability of harvesting small molecules, where the cut-off size can be adequately controlled. We will describe how this concept is utilized for obtaining a direct TEM image of a DNA molecule.

  14. Continuum Modeling of a Water Droplet sitting on a Vibrating Superhydrophobic Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Yao, Chun-Wei

    2017-11-01

    Because of the complex, multiscale nature, modeling of droplet-surface interaction remains a challenge. To understand the underlying mechanisms is important for application design. The interactions among liquid-gas-solid molecules dominate the contact line dynamics, and determines the stationary and dynamic contact angles. We propose a novel numerical method to handle the droplet on a superhydrophobic surface, and validate our model with experiments on a 3mm water droplet sitting on a vibrating surface. Different cases have been investigated for validating our methods and understanding of the vibration mechanism of droplet shedding. Although the vibration-induced wetting transition was investigated in recent studies, the vibration mechanism of droplet shedding has not yet been fully understood. This research quantitatively considers the effect of vibration on droplet shedding under various vibration resonance conditions, providing a possible way to effectively shed droplet off surfaces in condensation applications. The authors thank the Center for Advances in Port Management at LU for funding and HPC support.

  15. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Mayser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m2 depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes.

  16. Surface Property and Stability of Transparent Superhydrophobic Coating Based on SiO2-Polyelectrolyte Multilayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunisa JINDASUWAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial superhydrophobic films were deposited onto a glass slide by performing layer-by-layer deposition of 3.5 bilayers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride/ poly(acrylic acid polyelectrolyte, followed by a layer of SiO2 nanoparticles of various amounts to enhance the surface roughness and a fluorosilane to reduce the surface free energy. Higher SiO2 content incorporated into the films resulted in rougher surface and higher water contact angle. The total surface free energy determined by using the Owens-Wendt equation dramatically decreased from 31.46 mJ·m-2 for the film having the relatively flat surface to only 1.16 mJ·m-2 for the film having the highest surface roughness of 60.2 ± 1.1 nm. All the films were optically transparent and had excellent adhesion based on the peel test. Indoor and accelerated weathering tests revealed good weathering stability.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12952

  17. Highly reusable and superhydrophobic spongy graphene aerogels for efficient oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanzheng; Jiang, Shenlin; Xiao, Qi; Chen, Chuanliang; Li, Buyin

    2017-08-02

    Graphene aerogels (GAs) are three-dimensional (3D) graphene sponges with unique wettability and have demonstrated the potential for reducing contamination from oil spills and chemical accidents. Herein, we report new polyurethane (PU) sponge-reinforced GAs with low surface energy, high sorption capacity and excellent recyclability for use as efficient oil sorbents. Spongy graphene aerogels (SGAs) with a hierarchical porous morphology were produced by simply freeze-casting reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to form compacted macroscale sponges. This novel micro-structure benefits from the advantages of embedded graphene and presents reversible large-strain deformation (90%), high compressive strength (63 kpa) and viscoelastic stability. These superior properties, in addition to super-hydrophobicity, endow the aerogels with excellent recyclability without deteriorating the oil absorption performance. Furthermore, SGA has selective and high-volume absorbability (>100%) and can efficiently separate oil from water under continuous pumping action. The excellent absorption performance and robust mechanical properties make this graphene material promising for the large-scale recovery of spilled oil.

  18. Fabrication of polydopamine-coated superhydrophobic fabrics for oil/water separation and self-cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhanglian; Miyazaki, Koji; Hori, Teruo

    2016-05-01

    We report a fabric coating method inspired the superhydrophobic properties of lotus leaves and the strong adhesion of the adhesive proteins in mussels. Dopamine, which mimics the single units of the adhesive mussel proteins, was polymerized in an alkaline aqueous solution to coat the surface of fabrics. The versatile reactivity of polydopamine allows subsequent Ag deposition to form a lotus-leaf-like rough structure on the fabric surface. The composite fabric exhibited high water repellence after fluorination. Because dopamine can adhere to all kinds of materials, this method can be applied to many fabrics regardless of their properties and chemical compositions using a universal process. The modified fabrics exhibited excellent anti-wetting and self-cleaning properties with contact angles of >150° and sliding angles lower than 9°. The fabrics also efficiently separated oil from oil/water mixtures under various conditions. Our method is versatile and simple compared with other hydrophobic treatment methods, which usually only work on one type of fabric.

  19. Both antireflection and superhydrophobicity structures achieved by direct laser interference nanomanufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Yue, Yong; Li, Dayou; Qiu, Renxi; Maple, Carsten

    2014-06-01

    Inspired by nature, a number of techniques have been developed to fabricate the bionic structures of lotus leaves and moth eyes in order to realize the extraordinary functions of self-cleaning and antireflection. Compared with the existing technologies, we present a straightforward method to fabricate well-defined micro and nano artificial bio-structures in this work. The proposed method of direct laser interference nanomanufacturing (DLIN) takes a significant advantage of high efficiency as only a single technological procedure is needed without pretreatment, mask, and pattern transfer processes. Meanwhile, the corresponding structures show both antireflection and superhydrophobicity properties simultaneously. The developed four-beam nanosecond laser interference system configuring the TE-TE-TE-TE and TE-TE-TE-TM polarization modes was set up to generate periodic micro cone and hole structures with a huge number of nano features on the surface. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the periodic microcone structure exhibits excellent properties with both a high contact angle (CA = 156.3°) and low omnidirectional reflectance (5.9-15.4%). Thus, DLIN is a novel and promising method suitable for mass production of self-cleaning and antireflection surface structures.

  20. Communication: anti-icing characteristics of superhydrophobic surfaces investigated by quartz crystal microresonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonchan; Yim, Changyong; Jeon, Sangmin

    2015-01-28

    We investigated the anti-icing characteristics of superhydrophobic surfaces with various morphologies by using quartz crystal microresonators. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) or ZnO nanorods were synthesized directly on gold-coated quartz crystal substrates and their surfaces were rendered hydrophobic via chemical modifications with octyltrichlorosilane (OTS), octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS), or octadecanethiol (ODT). Four different hydrophobic nanostructures were prepared on the quartz crystals: ODT-modified hydrophobic plain gold (C18-Au), an OTS-modified AAO nanostructure (C8-AAO), an ODS-modified AAO nanostructure (C18-AAO), and ODT-modified ZnO nanorods (C18-ZnO). The water contact angles on the C18-Au, C8-AAO, C18-AAO, and C18-ZnO surfaces were measured to be 91.4°, 147.2°, 156.3°, and 157.8°, respectively. A sessile water droplet was placed on each quartz crystal and its freezing temperature was determined by monitoring the drastic changes in the resonance frequency and Q-factor upon freezing. The freezing temperature of a water droplet was found to decrease with decreases in the water contact radius due to the decreases in the number of active sites available for ice nucleation.

  1. Preparing superhydrophobic copper surfaces with rose petal or lotus leaf property using a simple etching approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talesh Bahrami, H. R.; Ahmadi, B.; Saffari, H.

    2017-05-01

    A facile chemical etching process is developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper surfaces. In the first step, cleaned copper surfaces immersed in ferric chloride (FeCl3) solutions with specific concentrations for different times. Etched surfaces exhibit the maximum contact angle of 140°. They have large sliding angle and water droplets stuck to the surface even if they were turned upside down which is well-known as rose petal effect. After stearic acid modification of etched surfaces, their contact angle slightly increased to above 150° and sliding angle decreased to smaller than 10° in some cases, which is same as lotus plant leaves property against water. Inspecting SEM images of etched surfaces reveals that many micro-nano structures forming blossom like buildings with curved petals of nanoscale thicknesses are formed. The micro-nano structures sizes and shapes affecting surface hydrophobicity are regulated by controlling reaction times and etchant solution concentrations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis is done on a sample before and after of the etching process where patterns indicate that the same compositions present on the sample.

  2. Drag reductions and the air-water interface stability of superhydrophobic surfaces in rectangular channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxian; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei

    2016-11-01

    Flow in a rectangular channel with superhydrophobic (SH) top and bottom walls was investigated experimentally. Different SH surfaces, including hierarchical structured surfaces and surfaces with different micropost sizes (width and spacing) but the same solid fraction, were fabricated and measured. Pressure loss and flow rate in the channel with SH top and bottom walls were measured, with Reynolds number changing from 700 to 4700, and the corresponding friction factor for the SH surface was calculated. The statuses of the air plastron on different SH surfaces were observed during the experiment. In our experiment, compared with the experiment for the smooth surface, drag reductions were observed for all SH surfaces, with the largest drag reduction of 42.2%. It was found that the hierarchy of the microstructure can increase the drag reduction by decreasing the solid fraction and enhancing the stability of the air-water interface. With a fixed solid fraction, the drag reduction decreases as the post size (width and spacing) increases, due to the increasing curvature and instability effects of the air-water interface. A correlation parameter between the contact angle hysteresis, the air-water interface stability, and the drag reduction of the SH surfaces was found.

  3. Superhydrophobic hBN-Regulated Sponges with Excellent Absorbency Fabricated Using a Green and Facile Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Yao; Liu, Tengfei; Xu, Gang; Chen, Guangming; Li, Huayi; Liu, Lichun; Zhuo, Qiqi; Zhang, Jiaoxia; Yan, Chao

    2017-03-01

    The world faces severe environmental, human and ecological problems when major oil spills and organic discharges are released into the environment. And so it is imperative to develop tools and high performance innovative materials that can efficiently absorb these organic discharges. Furthermore, green, facile methods to produce these advanced materials are also needed. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel porous supersponge based on melamine coated with hBN. This superhydrophobic sponge (with a contact angle >150°) exhibits excellent absorption performance for oils and organic solvents, including good selectivity, high capacity (up to 175 g·g-1) and extraordinary recyclability (less than 20% decline after 30 cycles of absorption/squeezing). The synthetic procedure required only ultrasonication and immersion of the sponge in aqueous hBN solution, being a green, cost-effective and scalable production methodology. By virtue of the straightforward and cost-effective fabrication method, along with the excellent absorption performance, hBN-decorated sponges have great promise for real world practical application in the field of oil spills and organic leakage cleanup.

  4. Ultrafast Laser Pulses for Structuring Materials at Micro/Nano Scale: From Waveguides to Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Correa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current demand for fabricating optical and photonic devices displaying high performance, using low-cost and time-saving methods, prompts femtosecond (fs-laser processing as a promising methodology. High and low repetition femtosecond lasers enable surface and/or bulk modification of distinct materials, which can be used for applications ranging from optical waveguides to superhydrophobic surfaces. Herein, some fundamental aspects of fs-laser processing of materials, as well as the basics of their most common experimental apparatuses, are introduced. A survey of results on polymer fs-laser processing, resulting in 3D waveguides, electroluminescent structures and active hybrid-microstructures for luminescence or biological microenvironments is presented. Similarly, results of fs-laser processing on glasses, gold and silicon to produce waveguides containing metallic nanoparticles, analytical chemical sensors and surface with modified features, respectively, are also described. The complexity of fs-laser micromachining involves precise control of material properties, pushing ultrafast laser processing as an advanced technique for micro/nano devices.

  5. Development of superhydrophobic fabrics by surface fluorination and formation of CNT-induced roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Hee Shim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobictextile material having self-cleaning function was developed by employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs and water-repellent agents.Hydrophobic fabrics were prepared on 100% polyester woven fabrics withvarious yarn diameters and yarn types. The wetting behavior of fabrics withdifferent treatments was compared for: siloxanerepellent, fluorocarbon repellent, and CNT added fluorocarbon repellent. Drawn textured yarn (DTY fabrics exhibited higher contactangle (CA than filament yarn fabrics due to the larger surface roughness contributed by the textured yarn. Fabrics treated with fluorocarbon presentedlarger CA and lower shedding angle than those treated with siloxane,because of the lower surface energy of fluorocarbon repellent. Specimens madeof 50 denier DTY and treated with CNT-Teflon AF® showed the mostsuperhydrophobic characteristics in the study, producing the static contactangle>150° and the shedding angle<15°. CNT on fabric surface contributedto the nano-scale surface roughness to hold the air traps like papillae oflotus leaf, giving superhydrophobic characteristics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5762

  6. Critical size ratio for coalescence-induced droplet jumping on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Ruixin; Liang, Qianqing; Jiang, Rui; Zheng, Yi; Lan, Zhong; Ma, Xuehu

    2017-08-01

    The mechanism of coalescence-induced droplet jumping on superhydrophobic surfaces has been relatively well-established over the years. Most of the related studies are only considering the coalescence process of equal-sized water droplets. However, the coalescence of droplets with different sizes is actually more frequently encountered and the effect of the size ratio on droplet jumping is very crucial to the hydrodynamics of this process. In this work, the effect of the initial droplet size ratio on coalescence-induced jumping of two water droplets is investigated experimentally and numerically. For the previously reported jumping droplet sizes (˜1-100 μm), it is found that the critical droplet size ratio below which the jumping does not occur is about 0.56. The results agree well with the experimental data as the size ratios of observed jumping events collapse into the predicted jumping regime. These findings will gain insights into droplet jumping which has great potential in a number of industrial processes.

  7. Suppression of Coalescence-Induced Droplet-Jumping on Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yota; Zhang, Peng; Lv, Fengyong; Askounis, Alexandros; Sheng, Biao; Takata, Yasuyuki; Orejon, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are receiving increasing attention due to their enhanced condensation performance, which is owed to the ability to shed-off the condensate either by gravity or by coalescence-induced droplet-jumping. In this work we study the effect of microstructures on coalescence-induced droplet-jumping phenomenon. The frequency of the droplet-jumping events is found to decrease when increasing the density and the size of the microstructures. In addition, important differences in the droplet size distribution and in the number of coalescing droplets involved in the jumping events are reported. In the presence of microstructures, bigger and greater number of droplets are required to coalesce for the jump to ensue. Furthermore, we report the suppression of the droplet-jumping performance of droplets in size similar to that of the microstructures. We propose that microstructures introduce a droplet an angular deviation from the main surface normal so, upon coalescence, droplets sitting on the side of the microstructures will not fully contribute to the jump in the out-of-plane direction. As consequence the heat transfer performance due to small jumping droplets is reduced in the presence of microstructures. The authors acknowledge the support of WPI-I2CNER and KAKENHI JSPS.

  8. A Review on Development and Applications of Bio-Inspired Superhydrophobic Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ishaq; Kan, Chi-wai

    2016-01-01

    Bio-inspired engineering has been envisioned in a wide array of applications. All living bodies on Earth, including animals and plants, have well organized functional systems developed by nature. These naturally designed functional systems inspire scientists and engineers worldwide to mimic the system for practical applications by human beings. Researchers in the academic world and industries have been trying, for hundreds of years, to demonstrate how these natural phenomena could be translated into the real world to save lives, money and time. One of the most fascinating natural phenomena is the resistance of living bodies to contamination by dust and other pollutants, thus termed as self-cleaning phenomenon. This phenomenon has been observed in many plants, animals and insects and is termed as the Lotus Effect. With advancement in research and technology, attention has been given to the exploration of the underlying mechanisms of water repellency and self-cleaning. As a result, various concepts have been developed including Young’s equation, and Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter theories. The more we unravel this process, the more we get access to its implications and applications. A similar pursuit is emphasized in this review to explain the fundamental principles, mechanisms, past experimental approaches and ongoing research in the development of bio-inspired superhydrophobic textiles. PMID:28774012

  9. Drop Impact on Oblique Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Two-Tier Roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Hao, Pengfei; He, Feng

    2017-04-11

    This paper investigates the complex physical phenomenon of oblique drop impact on superhydrophobic substrates with two-tier roughness (patterned with varied submillimeter-scale posts and coated with nanoparticles). Experimental results show that the impact Weber number of drops and the solid fraction of the submillimeter-scale post structures are crucial for the outcomes of oblique drop collisions. Water droplets with 10 surface solid fraction decreases, four possible bouncing patterns occur in sequence: sliding rebound, stretched rebound, penetration rebound, and breakup rebound. We demonstrate that the stretched rebound, in which the drops bounce off the surface rapidly in an elongated shape without tangential retraction, allows a 10%∼30% reduction of contact time compared with conventional sliding rebound on oblique surfaces. Three types of stretched rebound are observed on substrates with moderate solid fraction (0.1 patterns. These findings are believed to provide valuable guidance to the design of self-cleaning and anti-icing surfaces under oblique liquid impacts where rapid drop shedding is profitable.

  10. Investigations of Air Perfusion through Porous Media and Super-Hydrophobic Surface Active Gas Replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Marc; Gose, James W.; Golovin, Kevin; Ceccio, Steven L.; Tuteja, Anish

    2015-11-01

    Super-hydrophobic (SH) materials have been used successfully to generate reduced skin-friction in laminar flows. Success in the laminar regime has led researchers to try SH materials in turbulent flows. More often than not, this has been unsuccessful at providing meaningful skin-friction drag reduction, and has even generated increased drag. This failure is frequently attributed to the wetting of an SH surface or equivalently the transition from the Cassie-Baxter to the Wenzel state. The result is fluid flow over an essentially roughened surface. In this investigation the researchers aim to perfuse small amounts of gas through porous media, including sintered and foam metals, to attain skin-friction drag reduction in a fully-developed turbulent channel flow. As air is perfused through porous media, the solid - liquid interaction at the interface transitions to a solid - liquid - gas interaction. This can result in an interface that functions similarly to SH materials. Controlled air perfusion that provides the necessary replenishment of lost gas at the interface might prevent wetting, and thus eliminate or reduce the effect of the roughness on the flow. This latter possibility is investigated by perfusing small amounts of gas through porous media with and without SH coatings. To quantify the effectiveness of this method, pressure drop is used to infer friction drag along the surface in a fully-developed turbulent channel flow. The authors recognize the support of ONR.

  11. Superhydrophobicity of the gecko toe pad: biological optimization versus laboratory maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Alyssa Y; Subarajan, Shairani; Jain, Dharamdeep; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2016-08-06

    While many gecko-inspired hierarchically structured surfaces perform as well as or better than the natural adhesive system, these designs often fail to function across a variety of contexts. For example, the gecko can adhere to rough, wet and dirty surfaces; however, most synthetic mimics cannot maintain function when faced with a similar situation. The solution to this problem lies in a more thorough investigation of the natural system. Here, we review the adhesive system of the gecko toe pad, as well as the far less-well-studied anti-adhesive system that results from the chemistry and structure of the toe pad (superhydrophobicity). This paradoxical relationship serves as motivation to study functional optimization at the system level. As an example, we experimentally investigate the role of surface lipids in adhesion and anti-adhesion, and find a clear performance trade-off related to shear adhesion in air on a hydrophilic surface. This represents the first direct investigation of the role of surface lipids in gecko adhesion and anti-adhesion, and supports the argument that a system-level approach is necessary to elucidate optimization in biological systems. Without such an approach, bioinspired designs will be limited in functionality and context, especially compared to the natural systems they mimic.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Superhydrophobic PVDF and PVDF-HFP nanofibrous mats with antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spasova, M.; Manolova, N. [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St, bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Markova, N. [Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St, bl. 26, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Rashkov, I., E-mail: rashkov@polymer.bas.bg [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St, bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New PVDF and PVDF-HFP nanofibers decorated with ZnO nanoparticles and a model drug. • The nanofibrous materials were fabricated by one-pot electrospinning. • The obtained materials are superhybrophobic and possess antibacterial properties. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic nanofibrous materials of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) were prepared by one-pot electrospinning technique. The mats were decorated with ZnO nanoparticles with silanized surface and a model drug – 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinolinol (5Cl8HQ). The obtained hybrid nanofibrous materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurements, mechanical and microbiological tests. The results showed that the incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into PVDF and PVDF-HFP nanofibers increased the hydrophobicity (contact angle 152°), improved the thermal stability and imparted to the nanofibrous materials anti-adhesive and antimicrobial properties. The mats containing the model drug possessed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results suggested that the obtained hybrid mats could find potential biomedical applications requiring antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties.

  13. The five Ws (and one H) of super-hydrophobic surfaces in medicine

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, F.

    2014-05-05

    Super-hydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) are bio-inspired, artificial microfabricated interfaces, in which a pattern of cylindrical micropillars is modified to incorporate details at the nanoscale. For those systems, the integration of different scales translates into superior properties, including the ability of manipulating biological solutions. The five Ws, five Ws and one H or the six Ws (6W), are questions, whose answers are considered basic in information-gathering. They constitute a formula for getting the complete story on a subject. According to the principle of the six Ws, a report can only be considered complete if it answers these questions starting with an interrogative word: who, why, what, where, when, how. Each question should have a factual answer. In what follows, SHSs and some of the most promising applications thereof are reviewed following the scheme of the 6W. We will show how these surfaces can be integrated into bio-photonic devices for the identification and detection of a single molecule. We will describe how SHSs and nanoporous silicon matrices can be combined to yield devices with the capability of harvesting small molecules, where the cut-off size can be adequately controlled. We will describe how this concept is utilized for obtaining a direct TEM image of a DNA molecule. 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  14. Skin-friction Drag Reduction in Turbulent Channel Flow with Idealized Superhydrophobic Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratsegari, Amirreza; Akhavan, Rayhaneh

    2013-11-01

    Skin-friction drag reduction by super-hydrophobic (SH) surfaces was investigated using Lattice Boltzmann DNS in turbulent channel flow with SH longitudinal microgrooves on both walls. The liquid/gas interfaces in the SH microgrooves were modeled as flat, shear-free surfaces. Drag reductions (DR) ranging from 5 % to 47 % were observed for microgrooves of size 4 base flow wall units. It is shown that in both laminar and turbulent flow, DR scales as DR =Us /Ub + ɛ . In laminar flow, where DR is purely due to surface slip, ɛ = 0 . In turbulent flow, ɛ remains negligible when the slip length is smaller than the thickness of the viscous sublayer. For DR > 40 % , where the effect of surface slip can be felt in the buffer layer, ɛ attains a small non-zero value. Analysis of turbulence statistics and turbulence kinetic energy budgets confirms that outside of a layer of size approximately one slip length from the walls, the turbulence dynamics proceeds as in regular channel flow with no-slip walls.

  15. Effects of morphology parameters on anti-icing performance in superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Binh; Park, Seungchul; Lim, Hyuneui

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we report the contributions of actual ice-substrate contact area and nanopillar height to passive anti-icing performance in terms of adhesion force and freezing time. Well-textured nanopillars with various parameters were fabricated via colloidal lithography and a dry etching process. The nanostructured quartz surface was coated with low-energy material to confer water-repellent properties. These superhydrophobic surfaces were investigated to determine the parameters essential for reducing adhesion strength and delaying freezing time. A well-textured surface with nanopillars of very small top diameter, regardless of height, could reduce adhesion force and delay freezing time in a subsequent de-icing process. Small top diameters of nanopillars also ensured the metastable Cassie-Baxter state based on energy barrier calculations. The results demonstrated the important role of areal fraction in anti-icing efficiency, and the negligible contribution of texture height. This insight into icing phenomena should lead to design of improved ice-phobic surfaces in the future.

  16. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, Matthias J; Bohn, Holger F; Reker, Meike; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect) are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m(2) depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes.

  17. Effective preparation of magnetic superhydrophobic Fe3O4/PU sponge for oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeng-Tian; Lin, Bo; Jiang, Li-Wang; Lin, En-Chao; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tang, Yi-Wen; He, Fu-An; Li, De-Hao

    2018-01-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles were modified by tetraethoxysilane and different amounts of trimethoxy (1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl) silane in sequence to obtain the magnetic nanoparticles with low surface energy, which could be used to construct the superhydrophobic surfaces for PU sponge, cotton fabric, and filter paper by a simple drop-coating method. Particularly, all the resultant Fe3O4/PU sponges containing different fluoroalkylsilane-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles possessed both high water repellency with contact angle in the range of 150.2-154.7° and good oil affinity, which could not only effectively remove oil from water followed by convenient magnetic recovery but also easily realize the oil-water separation as a filter only driven by gravity. The Fe3O4/PU sponges showed high absorption capability of peanut oil, pump oil, and silicone oil with the maximum absorptive capacities of 40.3, 39.3, and 46.3 g/g, respectively. Such novel sponges might be a potential candidate for oil-water separation as well as oil absorption and transportation accompanied by the advantages of simple process, remote control by magnetic field, and low energy consumption.

  18. Hemodynamic Performance and Thrombogenic Properties of a Superhydrophobic Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, David L.; Vahabi, Hamed; Bui, Hieu; Movafaghi, Sanli; Moore, Brandon; Kota, Arun K.; Popat, Ketul; Dasi, Lakshmi P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explore how blood-material interactions and hemodynamics are impacted by rendering a clinical quality 25 mm St. Jude Medical Bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) superhydrophobic (SH) with the aim of reducing thrombo-embolic complications associated with BMHVs. Basic cell adhesion is evaluated to assess blood-material interactions, while hemodynamic performance is analyzed with and without the SH coating. Results show that a SH coating with a receding contact angle (CA) of 160º strikingly eliminates platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the surface. Alternatively, many platelets attach to and activate on pyrolytic carbon (receding CA=47), the base material for BMHVs. We further show that the performance index increases by 2.5% for coated valve relative to an uncoated valve, with a maximum possible improved performance of 5%. Both valves exhibit instantaneous shear stress below 10 N/m2 and Reynolds Shear Stress below 100 N/m2. Therefore, a SH BMHV has the potential to relax the requirement for antiplatelet and anticoagulant drug regimens typically required for patients receiving MHVs by minimizing blood-material interactions, while having a minimal impact on hemodynamics. We show for the first time that SH-coated surfaces may be a promising direction to minimize thrombotic complications in complex devices such as heart valves. PMID:27098219

  19. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  20. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  1. Fabrication of durable fluorine-free superhydrophobic polyethersulfone (PES) composite coating enhanced by assembled MMT-SiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiguang; Wang, Huaiyuan; Liu, Zhanjian; Zhu, Yixing; Wu, Shiqi; Wang, Chijia; Zhu, Yanji

    2017-02-01

    A durable fluorine-free polyethersulfone (PES) superhydrophobic composite coating with excellent wear-resistant and anti-corrosion properties has been successfully fabricated by combining sol-gel and spray technology. The robust micro/nano-structures of the prepared surface were established by introducing binary montmorillonite-silica (MMT-SiO2) assembled composite particles, which were formed by in-situ growth of SiO2 on MMT surfaces via sol-gel. Combined with the low surface energy of amino silicon oil (APDMS), the fluorine-free superhydrophoic PES coating was obtained with high water contact angle 156.1 ± 1.1° and low sliding angle 4.8 ± 0.7°. The anti-wear of the final PES/APDMS/MMT-SiO2 superhydrophobic coating can reach up to 60,100 cycles, which is outdistancing the pure PES coating (6800 cycles) and the PES/MMT/SiO2 coating prepared by simple physical mixture (18,200 cycles). The enhanced wear resistance property can be mainly attributed to the lubrication performance of APDMS and stable interface bonding force between the MMT surface and SiO2. Simultaneously, potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy exhibited the outstanding anti-corrosion property of PES/APDMS/MMT-SiO2 composite coating, with low corrosion current (1.6 × 10-10 A/cm2) and high protection efficiency (99.999%) even after 30 d immersion process. These test results show that this durable superhydrophobic PES composite coating can be hopefully to provide the possibility of industrial application.

  2. Shear shedding of drops and the use of superhydrophobic surfaces in microgravity: PFC and ground based results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Andrew; Amirfazli, Alidad

    In free fall, the absence of gravity poses many challenges for fluid handling systems. One such example of this is condensers. On earth, the condensed liquid is removed from the tilted condenser plate by gravity forced shedding. In microgravity, proposed solutions include the use of surfaces with gradients in wettability [1], the use of electrowetting [2], and shearing airflow [3]. In this talk, shear shedding results for a variety of surface (hydrophilic to superhydrophobic (extremely water repelling)) will be presented. Surface science and aerodynamics are used to reveal fundamental parameters controlling incipient motion for drops exposed to shearing airflow. It is found that wetting parameters such as contact angle and surface tension are very influential in determining the minimum required air velocity for drop shedding. Based on experimental results for drops of water and hexadecane (0.5-100 l) on PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic aluminum surface, an exponential function is proposed that relates the critical air velocity for shedding to the ratio of drop base length to projected area. The results for the water systems can be collapsed to a self similar curve by normalization, which also explains results from other researchers. Since shedding from superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) is seen to be easier compared to other surfaces, the behaviour of SHS is also probed in this talk. SHS have space-based applications to shedding, self cleaning, anti-icing (spacecraft launch/re-entry), anti-fouling, fluid actuation, and decreased fluid friction. The mechanism for SHS is understood to be the existence of an air layer between large portions of the drop and solid. The first concrete visual evidence of this was gained performing a parabolic flight experiment with the ESA. Results of this experi-ment will be discussed, showing the extreme water repelling potential of SHS in microgravity, and demonstrating how the wetting behaviours seen (partial penetration, transition

  3. Composite coating with synergistic effect of biomimetic epoxy thermoset morphology and incorporated superhydrophobic silica for corrosion protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Ji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, potential anticorrosive coating resulted from the composite with synergistic effect of biomimetic epoxy thermoset (BET morphology and incorporated superhydrophobic silica microspheres was presented. First of all, superhydrophobic methyl-modified silica (MS microspheres were synthesized by performing the conventional base-catalyzed sol-gel process of MTMS and APTMS. The as-prepared MS microspheres were identified as having an average particle size of ~1 µm in diameter. The as-prepared MS microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR, 29Si and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Morphological properties of MS microspheres and BET-silica composite coating were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Subsequently, 3 wt% of MS microspheres were incorporated into an epoxy slurry of DGEBA/T-403 in dimetyl acetamide (DMAc, followed by performing the programmed heating through nanocasting technique with PDMS as soft template materials for pattern transfer by using leaf of Xanthosoma Sagittifolium as natural template, leading to the formation of artificial biomimetic composite coating. The appearance/dispersion capability of silica microspheres in BET coating was confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and Si-mapping. The roughness level of BET and BEC-3% were detected by AFM. The BETsilica composite was found to exhibit a contact angle (CA of ~153°, revealing the synergistic effect of biomimetic epoxy morphology and incorporated superhydrophobic MS microspheres, which is found to be more hydrophobic than that of neat epoxy thermoset (CA = 81°. Corrosion protection of as-prepared coatings was demonstrated by performing a series of electrochemical measurements (Tafel, Nyquists and Bode plots upon CRS electrodes in saline condition. It should be noted that the BET coatings upon CRS electrode revealed an effectively enhanced corrosion protection as compared

  4. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellieu, Louis; Sarrazin, Michaël; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-07-01

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  5. The design of superhydrophobic stainless steel surfaces by controlling nanostructures: A key parameter to reduce the implantation of pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzaud, Jérôme; Tarrade, Jeanne; Celia, Elena; Darmanin, Thierry; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Guittard, Frédéric; Herry, Jean-Marie; Guilbaud, Morgan; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noëlle

    2017-04-01

    Reducing bacterial adhesion on substrates is fundamental for various industries. In this work, new superhydrophobic surfaces are created by electrodeposition of hydrophobic polymers (PEDOT-F4 or PEDOT-H8) on stainless steel with controlled topographical features, especially at a nano-scale. Results show that anti-bioadhesive and anti-biofilm properties require the control of the surface topographical features, and should be associated with a low adhesion of water onto the surface (Cassie-Baxter state) with limited crevice features at the scale of bacterial cells (nano-scale structures). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Fast and low-cost method to fabricate large-area superhydrophobic surface on steel substrate with anticorrosion and anti-icing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht100@126.com; Sun, Qinghe; Zhu, Wei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Chen, Tianchi [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-07-15

    A facile and quick fabrication method was proposed to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces on iron substrate by chemical immersion and subsequent stearic acid modification. The association between wettability and surface morphology was studied through altering the copper ion concentration and immersion time. Surface tension instrument, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical workstation were used to characterize the wettability, physical morphology, chemical composition, and corrosion resistance ability of the prepared film. Results showed that both the rough micro/nanostructures and low surface energy material play critical roles in surface wettability. The superhydrophobic film achieved a better anticorrosion property compared to barrier iron by analysis of open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and Nyquist plots. In addition, the superhydrophobic surface showed excellent performance of acid and alkali resistance, anti-icing, and self-cleaning through a series of environmental tests. This study provides a valid method for quick-preparation of the stable superhydrophobic surfaces, which has a promising application in steel buildings and facilities.

  7. Enhance performance of micro direct methanol fuel cell by in situ CO2 removal using novel anode flow field with superhydrophobic degassing channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junsheng; Luo, Ying; Zheng, Sheng; Wang, Dazhi

    2017-05-01

    Capillary blocking caused by CO2 bubbles in anode flow field (AFF) is one of the bottlenecks for performance improvement of a micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC). In this work, we present a novel AFF structure with nested layout of hydrophilic fuel channels and superhydrophobic degassing channels which can remove most of CO2 from AFF before it is released to the fuel channels. The new AFFs are fabricated on Ti substrates by using micro photochemical etching combined with anodization and fluorination treatments. Performance of the μDMFCs with and without superhydrophobic degassing channels in their AFF is comparatively studied. Results show that the superhydrophobic degassing channels can significantly speed up the exhaust of CO2 from the AFF. CO2 clogging is not observed in the new AFFs even when their comparison AFFs have been seriously blocked by CO2 slugs under the same operating conditions. 55% and 60% of total CO2 produced in μDMFCs with N-serpentine and N-spiral AFF can be respectively removed by the superhydrophobic degassing channels. The power densities of the μDMFCs equipped with new serpentine and spiral AFFs are respectively improved by 30% and 90% compared with those using conventional AFFs. This means that the new AFFs developed in this work can effectively prevent CO2-induced capillary blocking in the fuel channels, and finally significantly improve the performance of the μDMFCs.

  8. A sturdy self-cleaning and anti-corrosion superhydrophobic coating assembled by amino silicon oil modifying potassium titanate whisker-silica particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chongjiang; Wang, Huaiyuan; Liu, Zhanjian; Zhang, Wenbo; Wang, Chijia; Tao, Ruifeng; Li, Meiling; Zhu, Yanji

    2018-03-01

    A sturdy self-cleaning and anticorrosion superhydrophobic coating based on poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) matrix has been successfully fabricated by combination of sol-gel and spraying technology without using any fluorine materials. The prepared coating possessed excellent superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle (WCA) (161 ± 1.2)° and slide angle (SA) (2 ± 1.5)°, which was ascribed to the synergistic effect of low-surface energy material amino silicon oil (ASO) and the binary potassium titanate whisker-silica (PTW-SiO2) composite particles formed by in-situ growth of SiO2 on modified PTW via sol-gel. Moreover, The PPS/ASO/PTW-SiO2 superhydrophobic coating exhibited decent self-cleaning property with clean surface even after 100 times immersion in muddy solution. The abrasion test demonstrated that the mechanical stability of prepared coating was about 2 times of the pure PPS coating. Simultaneously, the potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy testified the excellent corrosion resistance of prepared coating with the performance of lower corrosion current (1.289 × 10-10 A/cm2) and high protection efficiency (99.999%) even after immersion in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution for 28 days. It is believed that this sturdy self-cleaning and anti-corrosion superhydrophobic coating might have a promising application prospect in industry.

  9. Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard; Zhou, S James; Ding, Yong; Bikson, Ben

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes progress made during Phase I and Phase II of the project: "Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process," under contract DE-FE-0000646. The objective of this project is to develop a practical and cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} separation and capture for pre-combustion coal-based gasification plants using a membrane contactor/solvent absorption process. The goals of this technology development project are to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO{sub 2} from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants with less than 10% increase in the cost of energy services. Unlike conventional gas separation membranes, the membrane contactor is a novel gas separation process based on the gas/liquid membrane concept. The membrane contactor is an advanced mass transfer device that operates with liquid on one side of the membrane and gas on the other. The membrane contactor can operate with pressures that are almost the same on both sides of the membrane, whereas the gas separation membranes use the differential pressure across the membrane as driving force for separation. The driving force for separation for the membrane contactor process is the chemical potential difference of CO{sub 2} in the gas phase and in the absorption liquid. This process is thus easily tailored to suit the needs for pre-combustion separation and capture of CO{sub 2}. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and PoroGen Corporation (PGC) have developed a novel hollow fiber membrane technology that is based on chemically and thermally resistant commercial engineered polymer poly(ether ether ketone) or PEEK. The PEEK membrane material used in the membrane contactor during this technology development program is a high temperature engineered plastic that is virtually non-destructible under the operating conditions encountered in typical gas absorption applications. It can withstand contact with most of the common treating

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Polyacetal & Design and Preparation of Superhydrophobic Photocatalytic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan

    controlled and thus the rate of photocatalytic reactions can be increased. In addition, the fraction of TiO2 particles that become fully embedded in the polymer surface, and so inaccessible to photocatalysis reactions, can be reduced through lamination process control, thereby reducing costs. In Chapter 4 and Chapter 5, a general approach is presented to incorporating particles into a superhydrophobic surface that catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species. Superhydrophobic photocatalytic surfaces are prepared using hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles and hydrophobic Silicon-Phthalocyanine photosensitizer particles. A stable Cassie state was maintained, even on surfaces fabricated with hydrophilic TiO2 particles, due to significant hierarchical roughness. A triple phase photogenerator is designed and fabricated. By printing the surface on a porous support, oxygen could be flowed through the plastron resulting in significantly higher photooxidation rates relative to a static ambient. Photooxidation of Rhodamine B and BSA were studied on TiO2-containing surfaces and singlet oxygen was trapped on surfaces incorporating Silicon-Phthalocyanine photosensitizer particles. Catalyst particles could be isolated in the plastron to avoid contamination by the solution. This approach may prove useful for water purification and medical devices where isolation of the catalyst particle from the solution is necessary and so Cassie stability is required. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  11. Microscopic droplet formation and energy transport analysis of condensation on scalable superhydrophobic nanostructured copper oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, GuanQiu; Alhosani, Mohamed H; Yuan, ShaoJun; Liu, HaoRan; Ghaferi, Amal Al; Zhang, TieJun

    2014-12-09

    Utilization of nanotechnologies in condensation has been recognized as one opportunity to improve the efficiency of large-scale thermal power and desalination systems. High-performance and stable dropwise condensation in widely-used copper heat exchangers is appealing for energy and water industries. In this work, a scalable and low-cost nanofabrication approach was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper oxide (CuO) nanoneedle surfaces to promote dropwise condensation and even jumping-droplet condensation. By conducting systematic surface characterization and in situ environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) condensation experiments, we were able to probe the microscopic formation physics of droplets on irregular nanostructured surfaces. At the early stages of condensation process, the interfacial surface tensions at the edge of CuO nanoneedles were found to influence both the local energy barriers for microdroplet growth and the advancing contact angles when droplets undergo depinning. Local surface roughness also has a significant impact on the volume of the condensate within the nanostructures and overall heat transfer from the vapor to substrate. Both our theoretical analysis and in situ ESEM experiments have revealed that the liquid condensate within the nanostructures determines the amount of the work of adhesion and kinetic energy associated with droplet coalescence and jumping. Local and global droplet growth models were also proposed to predict how the microdroplet morphology within nanostructures affects the heat transfer performance of early-stage condensation. Our quantitative analysis of microdroplet formation and growth within irregular nanostructures provides the insight to guide the anodization-based nanofabrication for enhancing dropwise and jumping-droplet condensation performance.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Coalescence-Induced Jumping of Multidroplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Initial Droplet Arrangement Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Liang, Qianqing; Jiang, Rui; Zheng, Yi; Lan, Zhong; Ma, Xuehu

    2017-06-27

    The coalescence-induced droplet jumping on superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) has attracted considerable attention over the past several years. Most of the studies on droplet jumping mainly focus on two-droplet coalescence events whereas the coalescence of three or more droplets is actually more frequent and still remains poorly understood. In this work, a 3D lattice Boltzmann simulation is carried out to investigate the effect of initial droplet arrangements on the coalescence-induced jumping of three equally sized droplets. Depending on the initial position of droplets on the surface, the droplet coalescence behaviors can be generally classified into two types: one is that all droplets coalesce together instantaneously (concentrated configuration), and the other is that the initial coalesced droplet sweeps up the third droplet in its moving path (spaced configuration). The critical Ohnesorge number, Oh, for the transition of inertial-capillary-dominated coalescence to inertially limited-viscous coalescence is found to be 0.10 for droplet coalescence on SHSs with a contact angle of 160°. The jumping droplet velocity for concentrated multidroplet coalescence at Oh ⩽ 0.10 still follows the inertial-capillary scaling with an increased prefactor, which indicates a viable jumping droplet velocity enhancement scheme. However, the droplet jumping velocity is drastically reduced for the spaced configuration compared to that for the aforementioned concentrated configuration. Because Oh exceeds 0.10, the effects of initial droplet arrangements on multidroplet jumping become weaker as viscosity plays a key role in the merging process. This work will provide effective guidelines for the design of functional SHSs with enhanced droplet jumping for a wide range of industrial applications.

  13. Multimode multidrop serial coalescence effects during condensation on hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Paxson, Adam T; Anand, Sushant; Chen, Xuemei; Wang, Zuankai; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2013-01-22

    The prospect of enhancing the condensation rate by decreasing the maximum drop departure diameter significantly below the capillary length through spontaneous drop motion has generated significant interest in condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS). The mobile coalescence leading to spontaneous drop motion was initially reported to occur only on hierarchical SHS, consisting of both nanoscale and microscale topological features. However, subsequent studies have shown that mobile coalescence also occurs on solely nanostructured SHS. Thus, recent focus has been on understanding the condensation process on nanostructured surfaces rather than on hierarchical SHS. In this work, we investigate the impact of microscale topography of hierarchical SHS on the droplet coalescence dynamics and wetting states during the condensation process. We show that isolated mobile and immobile coalescence between two drops, almost exclusively focused on in previous studies, are rare. We identify several new droplet shedding modes, which are aided by tangential propulsion of mobile drops. These droplet shedding modes comprise of multiple droplets merging during serial coalescence events, which culminate in formation of a drop that either departs or remains anchored to the surface. We directly relate postmerging drop adhesion to formation of drops in nanoscale as well as microscale Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter wetting states. We identify the optimal microscale feature spacing of the hierarchical SHS, which promotes departure of the highest number of microdroplets. This optimal surface architecture consists of microscale features spaced close enough to enable transition of larger droplets into micro-Cassie state yet, at the same time, provides sufficient spacing in-between the features for occurrence of mobile coalescence.

  14. Thin Film Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L.

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques. Key Features * Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes * Introduces new topics, and several key topics presented in the original volume are updated * Emphasizes practical applications of major thin film deposition and etching processes * Helps readers find the appropriate technology for a particular application

  15. Static and dynamic characterization of robust superhydrophobic surfaces built from nano-flowers on silicon micro-post arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Longquan

    2010-09-01

    Superhydrophobic nano-flower surfaces were fabricated using MEMS technology and microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) of carbon nanotubes on silicon micro-post array surfaces. The nano-flower structures can be readily formed within 1-2 min on the micro-post arrays with the spacing ranging from 25 to 30 μm. The petals of the nano-flowers consisted of clusters of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Patterned nano-flower structures were characterized using various microscopy techniques. After MPCVD, the apparent contact angle (160 ± 0.2°), abbreviated as ACA (defined as the measured angle between the apparent solid surface and the tangent to the liquid-fluid interface), of the nano-flower surfaces increased by 139% compared with that of the silicon micro-post arrays. The measured ACA of the nano-flower surface is consistent with the predicted ACA from a modified Cassie-Baxter equation. A high-speed CCD camera was used to study droplet impact dynamics on various micro/nanostructured surfaces. Both static testing (ACA and sliding angle) and droplet impact dynamics demonstrated that, among seven different micro/nanostructured surfaces, the nano-flower surfaces are the most robust superhydrophobic surfaces. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Very Low Hysteresis Prepared by Aggregation of Silica Nanoparticles During In Situ Urea-Formaldehyde Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Anubhav; Jensen, David S; Gupta, Vipul; Johnson, Brian I; Evans, Delwyn; Telford, Clive; Linford, Matthew R

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method for the preparation of superhydrophobic materials by in situ aggregation of silica nanoparticles on a surface during a urea-formaldehyde (UF) polymerization. This is a one-step process in which a two-tier topography is obtained. The polymerization is carried out for 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min on silicon shards. Silicon surfaces are sintered to remove the polymer. SEM and AFM show both an increase in the area covered by the nanoparticles and their aggregation with increasing polymerization time. Chemical vapor deposition of a fluorinated silane in the presence of a basic catalyst gives these surfaces hydrophobicity. Deposition of this low surface energy silane is confirmed by the F 1s signal in XPS. The surfaces show advancing water contact angles in excess of 160 degrees with very low hysteresis (polymerization times for 7 nm and 14 nm silica, respectively. Depositions are successfully demonstrated on glass substrates after they are primed with a UF polymer layer. Superhydrophobic surfaces can also be prepared on unsintered substrates.

  17. Geometrical Patterning of Super-Hydrophobic Biosensing Transistors Enables Space and Time Resolved Analysis of Biological Mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco

    2016-01-12

    PEDOT:PSS is a conductive polymer that can be integrated into last generation Organic Electrochemical Transistor (OECT) devices for biological inspection, identification and analysis. While a variety of reports in literature demonstrated the chemical and biological sensitivity of these devices, still their ability in resolving complex mixtures remains controversial. Similar OECT devices display good time dynamics behavior but lack spatial resolution. In this work, we integrated PEDOT:PSS with patterns of super-hydrophobic pillars in which a finite number of those pillars is independently controlled for site-selective measurement of a solution. We obtained a multifunctional, hierarchical OECT device that bridges the micro- to the nano-scales for specific, combined time and space resolved analysis of the sample. Due to super-hydrophobic surface properties, the biological species in the drop are driven by convection, diffusion, and the externally applied electric field: the balance/unbalance between these forces will cause the molecules to be transported differently within its volume depending on particle size thus realizing a size-selective separation. Within this framework, the separation and identification of two different molecules, namely Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromid (CTAB) and adrenaline, in a biological mixture have been demonstrated, showing that geometrical control at the micro-nano scale impart unprecedented selectivity to the devices.

  18. One-step fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic surface by electrodeposition on magnesium alloy and its corrosion inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xue, Jingze; Luo, Dan; Wang, Huiyuan; Gong, Xu; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2017-04-01

    A facile, rapid and one-step electrodeposition process has been employed to construct a superhydrophobic surface with micro/nano scale structure on a Mg-Sn-Zn (TZ51) alloy, which is expected to be applied as a biodegradable biomedical implant materials. By changing the electrodeposition time, the maximum contact angle of the droplet was observed as high as 160.4°±0.7°. The characteristics of the as-prepared surface were conducted by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Besides, the anti-corrosion performance of the coatings in stimulated body fluid (SBF) solution were investigated by electrochemical measurement. The results demonstrated that the anti-corrosion property of superhydrophobic surface was greatly improved. This method show beneficial effects on the wettability and corrosion behavior, and therefore provides a efficient route to mitigate the undesirable rapid corrosion of magnesium alloy in favor of application for clinical field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An in situ polymerization approach for the synthesis of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic nanofibrous membranes for oil-water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanwei; Si, Yang; Raza, Aikifa; Yang, Liping; Mao, Xue; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong

    2012-12-21

    Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic nanofibrous membranes exhibiting robust oil-water separation performance were prepared by a facile combination of electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers and a novel in situ polymerized fluorinated polybenzoxazine (F-PBZ) functional layer that incorporated silica nanoparticles (SiO(2) NPs). By employing the F-PBZ/SiO(2) NPs modification, the pristine hydrophilic CA nanofibrous membranes were endowed with a superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 161° and a superoleophilicity with the oil contact angle of 3°. Surface morphological studies have indicated that the wettability of resultant membranes could be manipulated by tuning the surface composition as well as the hierarchical structures. The quantitative hierarchical roughness analysis using the N(2) adsorption method has confirmed the major contribution of SiO(2) NPs on enhancing the porous structure, and a detailed correlation between roughness and solid-liquid interface pinning is proposed. Furthermore, the as-prepared membranes exhibited fast and efficient separation for oil-water mixtures and excellent stability over a wide range of pH conditions, which would make them a good candidate in industrial oil-polluted water treatments and oil spill cleanup, and also provided a new insight into the design and development of functional nanofibrous membranes through F-PBZ modification.

  20. Selective on site separation and detection of molecules in diluted solutions with super-hydrophobic clusters of plasmonic nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco T.

    2014-01-01

    Super-hydrophobic surfaces are bio-inspired interfaces with a superficial texture that, in its most common evolution, is formed by a periodic lattice of silicon micro-pillars. Similar surfaces reveal superior properties compared to conventional flat surfaces, including very low friction coefficients. In this work, we modified meso-porous silicon micro-pillars to incorporate networks of metal nano-particles into the porous matrix. In doing so, we obtained a multifunctional-hierarchical system in which (i) at a larger micrometric scale, the super-hydrophobic pillars bring the molecules dissolved in an ultralow-concentration droplet to the active sites of the device, (ii) at an intermediate meso-scale, the meso-porous silicon film adsorbs the low molecular weight content of the solution and, (iii) at a smaller nanometric scale, the aggregates of silver nano-particles would measure the target molecules with unprecedented sensitivity. In the results, we demonstrated how this scheme can be utilized to isolate and detect small molecules in a diluted solution in very low abundance ranges. The presented platform, coupled to Raman or other spectroscopy techniques, is a realistic candidate for the protein expression profiling of biological fluids. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.