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Sample records for superheater test sections

  1. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.; Girshik, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, laboratory experiments were performed on a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings by exposing them to fireside corrosion tests which simulated a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, RA253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, Ta-modified 310, NF 709, 690 clad, 671 clad, and 800HT for up to approximately 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy were exposed for 4,483, 11,348, and 15,883 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after the full 15,883 hours of exposure. A previous topical report has been issued for the 4,483 hours of exposure.

  2. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings - phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In Phase I a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase II (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA-8511, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, 800HT, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy will be exposed for 4000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The results will be presented for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 4000 hours of exposure.

  3. Failure of steam superheater tube of reformer heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalaby, H.; Riad, W.; Rajab, M. [Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research P.O. Box 24885, 13109 Safat (Kuwait)

    2004-07-01

    During hydro-test and shutdown of hydrogen production unit, leak was observed at a local refinery on one convection section superheater steam tubes of a reformer. The leaky tube was pulled out and a complete failure investigation was conducted. The failure of the superheater tubes was attributed to oxygen pits that occurred during idle periods. During shutdowns, condensed moisture and atmospheric oxygen combined to produce the observed pits that are reddish in colors. It was recommended that proper procedures be followed during shutdown of the superheater to avoid water condensation and ingress of atmospheric oxygen. (authors)

  4. Superheater corrosion in biomass boiler - theories and tests in Vaestermalmsverket, Falun; Oeverhettarkorrosion i bioeldad panna - teorier och prov i Vaestermalmsverket, Falun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennquist, Eva-Marie

    2000-10-01

    It has lately been evident that a number of biomass-fired plants are experiencing major problems with corrosion of their superheaters. The major aim with this project is to contribute with increased knowledge in this area. The efforts to build up experience around different materials applicable for superheaters with high steam data is of great importance for future plants in Sweden. The main objective for 'Vaermeforsk' has been to transfer the experiences from this investigation to other boilers or plants with different types of fuel. This investigation has therefore been focused on the verification of SYCON's assumptions regarding the roles of chloride and alkali and the possibility of influencing/minimising superheater corrosion by optimisation of the fuel mix. Another important part was to verify that the boiler design, as such, does not create an unfavourable environment for the superheaters by producing reducing zones due to plume formation. Based on the above, the investigation has been divided into three loosely connected parts. (1) The role and reaction by chlorides in the deposits on a superheater, (2) Reducing environment - plume formation of non-combusted fuel, and (3) Choice of materials in the superheater. Serious corrosion has been detected in the superheater tubes of 'Vaestermalmsverket' in Falun. The material temperature was below 530 deg C. No serious inhomogeneous combustion problems or areas with reducing environments have been detected. The corrosion was therefore judged to be caused by alkali chlorides which condense on the superheater tubes. Tests with minor amounts of sulphur added to the biomass fuel have been shown to suppress the generation of alkali chlorides and their condensation on the superheater surfaces. A good correlation between calculated and measured values have been achieved. Very low corrosion rates have been measured on the test probes, constructed with different superheater material and placed in the

  5. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-01

    In Phase 1 a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347 RA-85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 Ta modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for approximately 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were assembled on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, the probe was installed in the reheater activity of the boiler and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The results will be presented for the preliminary metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 16,000 hours of exposure. Continued metallurgical and interpretive analysis is still on going.

  6. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L.; Krawchuk, M.T.; Van Weele, S.F. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A number of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings have previously been exposed in Phase I to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. This program is exposing samples of TP 347, RA-85H, HR-3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, NF-709, 690 clad, and 671 clad, which showed good corrosion resistance from Phase 1, to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and are being controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The exposure will continue for 4000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. After the three exposure times, the samples will be metallurgically examined to determine the wastage rates and mode of attack. The probes were commissioned November 16, 1994. The temperatures are being recorded every 15 minutes, and the weighted average temperature calculated for each sample. Each of the alloys is being exposed to a temperature in each of two temperature bands-1150 to 1260{degrees}F and 1260 to 1325{degrees}F. After 2000 hours of exposure, one of the corrosion probes was cleaned and the wall thicknesses were ultrasonically measured. The alloy performance from the field probes will be discussed.

  7. Analysis of Superheater Work Under Creep Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Duda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is work modelling of superheater SH3. It is made of the austenitic stainless steel Super 304H. Its design temperature T is 604 C, and the design pressure P acting on the inner surface of the pipes is 284 bar. The high temperature is the reason of the superheater work under creep conditions. In this article calculations of the optimally mounted coil superheater SH3 are presented. The calculations are carried out first on the basis of the applicable European standards and with the help of the Auto Pipe program. Then, calculations are performed using the ANSYS program based on conducted creep tests and proposed creep equation. The coefficients in creep equation are determined based on the research conducted at the Instytut Metalurgii Żelaza in Gliwice. The model approximates the creep strain as the function of time and stress and this function is presented in the form of a three-dimensional surface . The results of calculations by both methods will be compared and conclusions will be presented. The performed analyzes can estimate the superheater coil remnant life and the usage after the selected time of its operation.

  8. Superheater corrosion in biomass-fired power plants: Investigation of Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Carlsen, B; Biede, O

    2002-01-01

    condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. A test superheater was built into the straw......-fired Masnedø combined heat and power (CHP) plant to investigate corrosion at temperatures higher than that of the actual plant. The highest steam temperature investigated was 570°C. Various alloys of 12-22% chromium content were welded into this test loop. Their corrosion rates were similar and increased...... with temperature. The mechanism of attack was grain boundary attack as a precursor to selective chromium depletion of the alloy. In addition welds coupling various tubes sections were also investigated. It was seen that there was preferential attack around those welds that had a high nickel content. The welds...

  9. Non-contact Measurement of Remaining Thickness of Corroding Superheater Tubes. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borggreen, Kjeld; Storesund, Jan

    2007-12-15

    The Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) is a contactless thickness gauge for detection of corrosion on superheater tubes; it candidates as substitute for conventional manually operated contact UT transducers. It is the aim of the project to demonstrate the usefulness of two simple EMAT systems, Panametrics and Sonatest, for fast and reliable tube thickness inspections in difficult-to-access superheater sections. The present Phase 2 of the project involves testing of the systems on real compact superheaters in remote operation with the help of a mechanical manipulator designed and built for the purpose. The results are the following: - Both EMAT systems work well when tested in the field during handheld operation on tubes with a moderate thick layer of corrosion products and ash. The practical obtainable speed of cross-panel inspection of easily accessible panels is approximately 6 tubes per minute (6 thickness readings per minute). - The Sonatest system works well when tested in the field during remote operation on heavily corroded superheater tubes with thick ash layer. The Panametrics system was not found suitable for this type of field work. - The mechanical manipulator works well for cross-panel inspection of difficult-to-access superheater sections independent of the tube dimensions and the free space between the panels. In its present design it needs few improvements. - The practical obtainable speed of cross-panel inspection is 3 tubes per minute (3 thickness readings per minute). This speed is limited by the detection rate of the EMAT system and not by the travelling speed of the probe. - Scanning of tubes along their axis was never attempted, because the EMAT instruments were not capable of collecting data coming as a continuous stream. - It cannot be judged from visual alone and hardly from the service data, if a tube or a panel can be inspected by the magnetostrictive EMAT method or not. - The main contribution to failure of the EMAT inspection

  10. Results of examination of the TGMP-314 boiler superheaters of the power-generating units at Kashira state district power plant using a magnetic ferrite meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachev, V. A.; Pshechenkova, T. P.; Shumovskaya, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    The results of investigating the elemental composition of the scale and the metal of a tube circuit from the austenitic steel grade 12Cr18Ni12Ti are presented. The superheater is part of the high-pressure convection steam superheater of a TGMP-314 supercritical-pressure gas-and-oil-fired once-through boiler that had been operated for a long period of time. A structurally transformed layer, poor in iron, manganese, and chromium and rich in nickel was detected on the outer surface. The layer consisted predominantly of the FeNi3 phase with ferromagnetic properties. The heat-resistance test of the steel in contact with ash that simulated the combustion products of fuel oil showed that the higher the temperature and the longer the test time, the higher the content of the ferritic phase in the layer was. The established pattern of the structural transformations underlies a method for nondestructive control of the thermal nonuniformity and detection of "worst" tube circuits of superheaters from austenitic steel. The magnetic ferritometry complements the conventional selective thickness gauging that does not characterize the condition of the heating surfaces of hightemperature steel grades to the full extend. Data on damageability of high-pressure convection superheaters and low-pressure second-stage convection superheaters with rarefied tube banks of TGMP-314 boilers are presented. The damage is caused by overheating resulting from the nonuniform temperature field at the inlet and by the nonuniform flue gas velocity field in rarefied superheater banks. Sections of the tube circuits from the steel grade 12Cr18Ni12Ti, outlet superheater stages of the TGMP-314 boiler of the power-generating units at Kashira SDPP were examined using an MF-51NTs AKASKAN magnetic ferrite meter. Thermal nonuniformity was established and the "worst" superheater tube circuits were detected. It was shown that the zones with the "worst" and damaged tube circuits coincide. The results of examining

  11. Superheater failures in ultra supercritical boilers - cases from Fynsvaerket, Vestkraft, and Skaerbaekvaerket power plants; Ueberhitzerschaeden in Kesseln mit fortschrittlichen Dampfparametern - Fallbeispiele aus den Kraftwerken Fynsvaerket, Vestkraft und Skaerbaekvaerket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R.; Larsen, O.H.; Henriksen, N.

    1999-12-01

    Superheater and reheater failures are well known problems in existing power boilers and a potential problem of great importance in new ultra supercritical (USC) plants. Unexpected shut downs caused by leaking superheater and reheater tubes affect the availability of the plant and thereby the overall plant economics. Overheating due to an incorrect balance of the actual temperature level, heat flux and cooling causes most of the superheater and reheater failures. Elsam has been dealing with these problems for many years, and based on experience gained from in service plants and from different in-plant test facilities a powerful simulation calculation programme has been set up. Using this programme it has been possible to explain the failures, assess the remaining lifetime of superheater or reheater sections and make correct simulations and assessments of superheater and reheater design in new boilers with advanced steam parameters. A detailed description of this calculation programme has been given in former papers. In this paper, examples of such evaluations will be given describing three cases where severe superheater failures were experienced in supercritical once through boilers. (orig.) [German] Ueberhitzer- und Zwischenueberhitzerschaeden sind in bestehenden Kraftwerkskesseln bekannt und stellen ein potentielles Problem groesster Wichtigkeit in neuen Anlagen mit fortgeschrittenen Dampfparametern dar. Unerwartete Betriebsunterbrechungen durch Leckagen von Ueberhitzer- und Zwischenueberhitzerrohren beeintraechtigen die Kraftwerksverfuegbarkeit und dadurch die Wirtschaftlichkeit. Ueberhitzung als Folge von Temperaturschieflagen, von inkorrekten Waermestromdichten und Kuehlung verursacht die meisten Ueberhitzer- und Zwischenueberhitzerschaeden. ELSAM befasst sich seit vielen Jahren mit diesem Problem. Anhand der Erfahrungen aus den Anlagen in Betrieb und Ergebnissen von verschiedenen Teststaenden in Kraftwerken wurde ein leistungsfaehiges Computerprogramm

  12. Superheater corrosion in a boiler fired with refuse-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bakker, W.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Steinbeck, T. [United Power Association, Elk River, MN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The environment in the superheater of a boiler firing refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is very aggressive. The high wastage rate for the standard T-22 material necessitated a materials testing program. Simples of Types 304H, HR3C, T-22 chromized, 825 and 625 were assembled into tubular test sections and welded into the superheater tubing. After 1,180 hours the test sections were evaluated and the wastage rates calculated for each material. The chlorides contained in the RDF are believed to be the primary corrodent. The chlorine may be interacting with the metal samples as HCl, a low-melting-point eutectic or a combination of these. Of the six materials tested, Alloy 625 exhibited the best resistance--substantially better than the next-best Type 304. Alloy 825 and HR3C corroded approximately 1.5 times the rate of Type 304. The chromized layer on T-22 showed no resistance to the environment and was consumed in large areas.

  13. Non-contact Measurement of Remaining Thickness of Corroding Superheater Tubes. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borggreen, Kjeld; Storesund, Jan

    2006-10-15

    Corrosion of superheaters has become a severe problem in many biomass boilers and incineration plants. This new situation calls for frequent tube wall thickness testing of the superheaters during very short shut-downs. To meet this demand Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) candidates as substitute for conventional manually operated contact UT-transducers. The EMAT can contactlessly generate an ultrasonic wave in the interphase between the external oxide and the metal. This means that measurements can be undertaken much quicker and with a much higher coverage simultaneously, without preceding blast operations. It is the aim of the project to demonstrate the usefulness of two simple EMAT systems, Panametrics and Sonatest, for fast and reliable tube thickness inspections in difficult-to-access superheater sections. The present Phase 1 of the project involves testing of the performance of the two systems in laboratory with the following results: 1. Both instruments work well on plate, tube, and pipe samples assuming the presence of an external oxide layer formed at a temperature above approximately 400 deg C. 2. Both instruments work well on all types of ferritic and martensitic steels but not on austenitic steels. 3. Both instruments work well independent of the thickness of the active oxide layer. 4. Both instruments work well independent of tube diameter, wall thickness, and sample width. 5. Both instruments work well over a very large range of wall thicknesses. Minimum tube wall thickness is less than 1.8 mm. 6. The tolerable lift-off (free distance between transducer and tube surface) is 2.4 - 3.0 mm for Panametrics system and 3.6 - 4.8 mm for Sonatest's system. The tolerable lift-off is a measure of the thickness of ash deposits, which can be tolerated on the tube surface as well as the misplacement, which can be tolerated in case of remote tube testing. 7. The tolerable off-set between tube axis and probe axis is very large for both instruments (10

  14. Computer modeling of a convective steam superheater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Superheater is for generating superheated steam from the saturated steam from the evaporator outlet. In the case of pulverized coal fired boiler, a relatively small amount of ash causes problems with ash fouling on the heating surfaces, including the superheaters. In the convection pass of the boiler, the flue gas temperature is lower and ash deposits can be loose or sintered. Ash fouling not only reduces heat transfer from the flue gas to the steam, but also is the cause of a higher pressure drop on the flue gas flow path. In the case the pressure drop is greater than the power consumed by the fan increases. If the superheater surfaces are covered with ash than the steam temperature at the outlet of the superheater stages falls, and the flow rates of the water injected into attemperator should be reduced. There is also an increase in flue gas temperature after the different stages of the superheater. Consequently, this leads to a reduction in boiler efficiency. The paper presents the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the first stage superheater of both the boiler OP-210M using the commercial software. The temperature distributions of the steam and flue gas along the way they flow together with temperature of the tube walls and temperature of the ash deposits will be determined. The calculated steam temperature is compared with measurement results. Knowledge of these temperatures is of great practical importance because it allows to choose the grade of steel for a given superheater stage. Using the developed model of the superheater to determine its degree of ash fouling in the on-line mode one can control the activation frequency of steam sootblowers.

  15. Computer modeling of a convective steam superheater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trojan Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Superheater is for generating superheated steam from the saturated steam from the evaporator outlet. In the case of pulverized coal fired boiler, a relatively small amount of ash causes problems with ash fouling on the heating surfaces, including the superheaters. In the convection pass of the boiler, the flue gas temperature is lower and ash deposits can be loose or sintered. Ash fouling not only reduces heat transfer from the flue gas to the steam, but also is the cause of a higher pressure drop on the flue gas flow path. In the case the pressure drop is greater than the power consumed by the fan increases. If the superheater surfaces are covered with ash than the steam temperature at the outlet of the superheater stages falls, and the flow rates of the water injected into attemperator should be reduced. There is also an increase in flue gas temperature after the different stages of the superheater. Consequently, this leads to a reduction in boiler efficiency. The paper presents the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the first stage superheater of both the boiler OP-210M using the commercial software. The temperature distributions of the steam and flue gas along the way they flow together with temperature of the tube walls and temperature of the ash deposits will be determined. The calculated steam temperature is compared with measurement results. Knowledge of these temperatures is of great practical importance because it allows to choose the grade of steel for a given superheater stage. Using the developed model of the superheater to determine its degree of ash fouling in the on-line mode one can control the activation frequency of steam sootblowers.

  16. High-Temperature Graphitization Failure of Primary Superheater Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, D.; Ray, S.; Roy, H.; Mandal, N.; Shukla, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Failure of boiler tubes is the main cause of unit outages of the plant, which further affects the reliability, availability and safety of the unit. So failure analysis of boiler tubes is absolutely essential to predict the root cause of the failure and the steps are taken for future remedial action to prevent the failure in near future. This paper investigates the probable cause/causes of failure of the primary superheater tube in a thermal power plant boiler. Visual inspection, dimensional measurement, chemical analysis, metallographic examination and hardness measurement are conducted as the part of the investigative studies. Apart from these tests, mechanical testing and fractographic analysis are also conducted as supplements. Finally, it is concluded that the superheater tube is failed due to graphitization for prolonged exposure of the tube at higher temperature.

  17. A fault tolerant superheat control strategy for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a fault tolerant control (FTC) strategy is proposed for evaporator superheat control in supermarket refrigeration systems. Conventional control uses a pressure and temperature sensor for this purpose, however, the pressure sensor can fail to function. A contingency control strategy......, based on a maximum slope-seeking control method and only a single temperature sensor, is developed to drive the evaporator outlet temperature to a level that gives a suitable superheat of the refrigerant. The FTC strategy requires no a priori system knowledge or additional hardware and functions...... in a plug & play fashion. The strategy is outlined by means of procedural steps as well as a flow chart that also illustrates the process of automatic tuning of the maximum slope-seeking controller. Test results are furthermore presented for a display case in a full scale CO2 supermarket refrigeration...

  18. Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant

    2011-12-01

    the measured first melting point of fly ash deposits does not necessarily produce a step increase in corrosion rate. Corrosion rate typically accelerates at temperatures below the first melting temperature and mixed deposits may have a broad melting temperature range. Although the environment at a superheater tube surface is initially that of the ash deposits, this chemistry typically changes as the deposits mature. The corrosion rate is controlled by the environment and temperature at the tube surface, which can only be measured indirectly. Some results are counter-intuitive. Two boiler manufacturers and a consortium have developed models to predict fouling and corrosion in biomass boilers in order to specify tube materials for particular operating conditions. It would be very useful to compare the predictions of these models regarding corrosion rates and recommended alloys in the boiler environments where field tests will be performed in the current program. Manufacturers of biomass boilers have concluded that it is more cost-effective to restrict steam temperatures, to co-fire biofuels with high sulfur fuels and/or to use fuel additives rather than try to increase fuel efficiency by operating with superheater tube temperatures above melting temperature of fly ash deposits. Similar strategies have been developed for coal fired and waste-fired boilers. Additives are primarily used to replace alkali metal chloride deposits with higher melting temperature and less corrosive alkali metal sulfate or alkali aluminum silicate deposits. Design modifications that have been shown to control superheater corrosion include adding a radiant pass (empty chamber) between the furnace and the superheater, installing cool tubes immediately upstream of the superheater to trap high chloride deposits, designing superheater banks for quick replacement, using an external superheater that burns a less corrosive biomass fuel, moving circulating fluidized bed (CFB) superheaters from the

  19. Thermal Analysis of Superheater Platen Tubesin Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Falahatkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superheaters are among the most important components of boilers and have major importance due to this operation in high temperatures and pressures. Turbines are sensitive to the fluctuation of superheaterstemperature;therefore even the slightest fluctuation in the outlet vapor temperature from the superheaters does damage the turbine axis and fins. Examining the potential damages of combustion in the boilers and components such as the superheaters can have a vital contribution to the progression of the productivity of boiler, turbine and the power plant altogether it solutions are to be fund to improve such systems. In this study, the focus is on the nearest tube set of superheaters to the combustion chamber.These types of tubes are exposed to a wide range ofcombustion flames such that the most heat transfer to them is radiation type.Here, the 320 MW boiler of Isfahan power plant (Iran, the combustion chamber, 16 burners and the platensuperheater tubes were remodeled by CFD technique. The fluid motion, the heat transfer and combustion processes are analyzed. The two-equation turbulence model of k-εis adopted to measure the eddy viscosity. The eddy dissipation model is used to calculate the combustion as well as the P-1 radiation model to quantify the radiation. The overheated zones of superheater tubes and the combustion chamber are identified in order toimprove this problem by applying the radiation thermal shields and knees with porous crust which are introduced as the new techniques.

  20. Determination of superheat limit of liquids using fluctuation theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丹苓; 敬成君

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical superheat limit of liquids in homogeneous nucleate boiling is determined. A new hypothesis to define the superheat limit is proposed on the basis of the fluctuation theory in statistical thermodynamics. Using Gibbs canonical and grand canonical ensemble formulas, the superheat limit are derived. The numerical results are in good agreement with those in literature.

  1. Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant

    2011-12-01

    the measured first melting point of fly ash deposits does not necessarily produce a step increase in corrosion rate. Corrosion rate typically accelerates at temperatures below the first melting temperature and mixed deposits may have a broad melting temperature range. Although the environment at a superheater tube surface is initially that of the ash deposits, this chemistry typically changes as the deposits mature. The corrosion rate is controlled by the environment and temperature at the tube surface, which can only be measured indirectly. Some results are counter-intuitive. Two boiler manufacturers and a consortium have developed models to predict fouling and corrosion in biomass boilers in order to specify tube materials for particular operating conditions. It would be very useful to compare the predictions of these models regarding corrosion rates and recommended alloys in the boiler environments where field tests will be performed in the current program. Manufacturers of biomass boilers have concluded that it is more cost-effective to restrict steam temperatures, to co-fire biofuels with high sulfur fuels and/or to use fuel additives rather than try to increase fuel efficiency by operating with superheater tube temperatures above melting temperature of fly ash deposits. Similar strategies have been developed for coal fired and waste-fired boilers. Additives are primarily used to replace alkali metal chloride deposits with higher melting temperature and less corrosive alkali metal sulfate or alkali aluminum silicate deposits. Design modifications that have been shown to control superheater corrosion include adding a radiant pass (empty chamber) between the furnace and the superheater, installing cool tubes immediately upstream of the superheater to trap high chloride deposits, designing superheater banks for quick replacement, using an external superheater that burns a less corrosive biomass fuel, moving circulating fluidized bed (CFB) superheaters from the

  2. Single Temperature Sensor Superheat Control Using a Novel Maximum Slope-seeking Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Rasmussen, Henrik; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh;

    2013-01-01

    Superheating of refrigerant in the evaporator is an important aspect of safe operation of refrigeration systems. The level of superheat is typically controlled by adjusting the flow of refrigerant using an electronic expansion valve, where the superheat is calculated using measurements from...... a pressure and a temperature sensor. In this paper we show, through extensive testing, that the superheat or filling of the evaporator can actually be controlled using only a single temperature sensor. This can either reduce commissioning costs by lowering the necessary amount of sensors or add fault...... tolerance in existing systems if a sensor fails (e.g. pressure sensor). The solution is based on a novel maximum slope-seeking control method, where a perturbation signal is added to the valve opening degree, which gives additional information about the system for control purposes. Furthermore, the method...

  3. Superheater Tube Flat Wall Stationary Temperature Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parpiev A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The BKZ-220-100-9 steam generator platen superheater tube flat wall stationary temperature fields analysis have been made. The six steel grades, using in boiler fabrication, namely, St. 10, St. 20, 12H1MF, 15HM, 1H18N9T and 12H18N12T, have been used. The temperature curves calculation has been made by using outer and inner surface heat-transfer coefficients nine different combinations.

  4. Superheater fouling in a BFB boiler firing wood-based fuel blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, A.F.; Haasnoot, K.; Brem, G.

    2014-01-01

    Four different fuel blends have been fired in a 28 MWel BFB. Wood pellets (test 0) were not problematic for about ten years, contrary to a mixture of demolition wood, wood cuttings, compost overflow, paper sludge and roadside grass (test 1) which caused excessive fouling at a superheater bundle afte

  5. Nonlinear Superheat and Evaporation Temperature Control of a Refrigeration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Thybo, Claus; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes novel control of the superheat of the evaporator in a refrigeration system. A new model of the evaporator is developed and based on this model the superheat is transferred to a referred variable. It is shown that control of this variable leads to a linear system independent...

  6. Nonlinear Superheat Control of a Refrigeration Plant using Backstepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems. The main idea is to control the superheat by the compressor speed and capacity by the refrigerant flow. A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design...

  7. Automatic Tuning of the Superheat Controller in a Refrigeration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Thybo, Claus; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic tuning of the superheat control in a refrigeration system using a relay method. By means of a simple evaporator model that captures the important dynamics and non-linearities of the superheat a gain-scheduling that compensates for the variation of the process gain...

  8. Effect of superheat and electric field on saturated film boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vinod; Biswas, Gautam; Dalal, Amaresh

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this investigation is to study the influence of superheat temperature and applied uniform electric field across the liquid-vapor interface during film boiling using a coupled level set and volume of fluid algorithm. The hydrodynamics of bubble growth, detachment, and its morphological variation with electrohydrodynamic forces are studied considering the medium to be incompressible, viscous, and perfectly dielectric at near critical pressure. The transition in interfacial instability behavior occurs with increase in superheat, the bubble release being periodic both in space and time. Discrete bubble growth occurs at a smaller superheat whereas vapor columns form at the higher superheat values. Destabilization of interfacial motion due to applied electric field results in decrease in bubble separation distance and increase in bubble release rate culminating in enhanced heat transfer rate. A comparison of maximum bubble height owing to application of different intensities of electric field is performed at a smaller superheat. The change in dynamics of bubble growth due to increasing superheat at a high intensity of electric field is studied. The effect of increasing intensity of electric field on the heat transfer rate at different superheats is determined. The boiling characteristic is found to be influenced significantly only above a minimum critical intensity of the electric field.

  9. Neural network for prediction of superheater fireside corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, P. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula R and D Center, Karhula (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Superheater corrosion causes vast annual losses to the power companies. If the corrosion could be reliably predicted, new power plants could be designed accordingly, and knowledge of fuel selection and determination of process conditions could be utilized to minimize superheater corrosion. If relations between inputs and the output are poorly known, conventional models depending on corrosion theories will fail. A prediction model based on a neural network is capable of learning from errors and improving its performance as the amount of data increases. The neural network developed during this study predicts superheater corrosion with 80 % accuracy at early stage of the project. (orig.) 10 refs.

  10. Superheater corrosion in combustion of biofuels - a status; Oeverhettarkorrosion i bioeldade anlaeggningar - status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Pamela [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Kjoerk, Anders [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ljung, Per [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nystroem, Olle; Skog, Erik [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    In this report a survey of the status with regard to the current understanding of what is causing superheater corrosion in biofueled CHP boilers is made together with an assessment of where knowledge and resources need to be strengthened. A division in three areas has been made: * Type of units/combustion, * Biofuels/combustion, and * Superheater materials. As yet, the knowledge and the results gained remain to be amalgamated in an effort to grasp the complex casual connections and course of events leading to corrosion. So far there are indications of important underlying factors and causes and it is also possible to make qualitative statements about possible mechanisms: * With high enough superheater surface temperatures (due to high steam temperatures) low-melting point alkali compounds caught in the deposit will start to melt. * Potassium chloride has a distinct and crucial roll with regard to the percentage of fluid in ash and deposits. This in turn is decisive for transport of corrosive elements, e.g. chlorine, between the deposit and the metal(oxide). * Poor combustion with e.g. plume formation and reducing atmosphere. Staged combustion for NO{sub x}-reduction, fine particle fractions giving rise to uncontrolled suspension combustion and short retention times are factors that contribute to the problem, not least by moving combustion up into the superheater area of the boiler. * The superheater position in the upper part of the furnace, where it is exposed to flame and particle radiation may increase the surface temperature of the deposit by several tens of degrees, which may be vital. A position in radiation protected areas indicates decreased corrosion(rates). * Conventional superheater materials made from (ferritic) low chromium steels originally designed for use in coal combustion are not adequate. Test results indicate that more highly alloyed (austenitic) materials that are used in waste-fired plants will be necessary. * Test results have revealed

  11. Nonlinear Superheat and Evaporation Temperature Control of a Refrigeration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Thybo, Claus; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes novel control of the superheat of the evaporator in a refrigeration system. A new model of the evaporator is developed and based on this model the superheat is transferred to a referred variable. It is shown that control of this variable leads to a linear system independent...... of the working point. The model also gives a method for control of the evaporation temperature. The proposed method is validated by experimental results....

  12. Analysis of superheater's pipe wall overtemperature by fault tree diagnose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛德仁; 任浩仁; 陈坚红; 李蔚

    2002-01-01

    After research on a 2000t/h subcritical forced-circulation balanced v entilation were applied boiler and the structure and operation of its auxiliary system builds up this heat transfer model of a superheater's pipe wall and analy ze the effect of primary factors on the overtemperature of the pipe wall. Fault tree structure was used to uncover the multiplayer logic between the overtempera ture of the superheater's pipe wall and the faults.

  13. Superheater corrosion in biomass-fired power plants: Investigation of Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Carlsen, B; Biede, O

    2002-01-01

    condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. A test superheater was built into the straw......-fired Masnedø combined heat and power (CHP) plant to investigate corrosion at temperatures higher than that of the actual plant. The highest steam temperature investigated was 570°C. Various alloys of 12-22% chromium content were welded into this test loop. Their corrosion rates were similar and increased...... which had a similar composition to the tubes did not incur this type of corrosion. It is suggested that high temperature galvanic corrosion occurs due to the formation of molten chloride mixtures which serve as the electrolyte....

  14. Influence of the superheat associated to a semihermetic compressor of a transcritical CO2 refrigeration plant

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, D.; Torrella, E.; Cabello,R; Llopis, R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This work evaluates, from an energetic point of view, the effects of the superheat caused in the refrigerant by the electric motor cooling (SHSC) in a semihermetic compressor installed in an experimental refrigerating plant, which operates with CO2 as the working fluid in transcritical conditions. The analysis is based on 84 experimental tests which cover a wide range of operating conditions of the plant: three evaporating levels (0, -10, -17 ?C) at four compressor speeds ...

  15. Effects of Liquid Superheat on Droplet Disruption and Vaporization in Supersonic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    studies.’ .- 3 Model Structure The limiting approximation of model is that the droplets are modeled as non - evaporating , rigid spheres. The reason for...of the test fluids vary only slightly, and ethanol has the median density of the three fluids . The Newtonian equation for change in velocity due to... Evaporation at the Superheat Limit," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 31, No. 8, 1988, pp. 1687-1988. 14Ried, Robert C

  16. The first poroelastic test section in PERSUADE

    OpenAIRE

    BENDTSEN, Hans; Andersen, Bent; Kalman, Björn; Cesbron, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The PERSUADE project aims at developing poroelastic road surfacing (PERS). A small size field test of PERS was constructed before constructing full scale test sections to gain experience from mixing and laying the PERS material outside the laboratory and to monitor the performance of the pavement over a winter as well as to investigate the performance of the PERS by measuring the characteristics of the surface. The test section was constructed in Denmark on a ramp from a parking area with low...

  17. Stress and integrity analysis of steam superheater tubes of a high pressure boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Daniel Leite Cypriano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources that can lead to deterioration of steam superheater tubes of a high pressure boiler were studied by a stress analysis, focused on internal pressure and temperature experienced by the material at real operating conditions. Loss of flame control, internal deposits and unexpected peak charge are factors that generate loads above the design limit of tube materials, which can be subjected to strain, buckling, cracks and finally rupture in service. To evaluate integrity and dependability of these components, the microstructure of selected samples along the superheater was studied by optical microscopy. Associated with this analysis, dimensional inspection, nondestructive testing, hardness measurement and deposit examination were made to determine the resultant material condition after twenty three years of operation.

  18. Nonlinear FOPDT Model Identification for the Superheat Dynamic in a Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Sun, Zhen; Andersen, Casper

    2011-01-01

    An on-line nonlinear FOPDT system identification method is proposed and applied to model the superheat dynamic in a supermarket refrigeration system. The considered nonlinear FOPDT model is an extension of the standard FOPDT model by means that its parameters are time dependent. After......-dependent parameters. The proposed method is firstly tested through a number of numerical examples, and then applied to model the superheat dynamic in a supermarket refrigeration system based on experimental data. As shown in these studies, the proposed method is quite promising in terms of reasonable accuracy, large...... the considered system is discretized, the nonlinear FOPDT identification problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming problem, and then an identification algorithm is proposed by combining the Branch-and-Bound method and Least Square technique, in order to on-line identify these time...

  19. Section 608 Technician Certification Test Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifies some of the topics covered on Section 608 Technician Certification tests such as ozone depletion, the Clean Air Act and Montreal Protocol, Substitute Refrigerants and oils, Refrigeration and Recovery Techniques.

  20. Limit of Superheat of Polystyrene-Cyclohexane Solutions: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Howland Jennings

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory for the surface tension of polymer solutions is used along with classical nucleation theory to predict the temperature rise above the solvent limit of superheat due to addition of polymer.  Polystyrene, of 2000 and 4000 molecular weight, was added to cyclohexane and it produced a linear rise in the superheat to an extent that depends upon both molecular weight and concentration.  The theory is used in the athermal case (dT = 0 to give the additional temperature rise with respect to weight fraction.

  1. Test section configuration for aerodynamic testing in shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, W. J.; Presley, L. L.; Chapman, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study of the test section configuration required to minimize or alleviate interference effects on model flow produced by the presence of test section walls in the aerodynamic testing of two dimensional transonic airfoils in a shock tube. Tests at a nominal Mach number of 0.85 and a chord Reynolds number of 2,000,000 were carried out by means of schlieren photography and pressure measurements for several symmetric airfoil profiles using shock tube test sections with unmodified straight walls, contoured walls, and slotted walls with adjacent chambers. Results were compared with corresponding results from conventional wind tunnel tests of the airfoils. Results for the straight wall tests show major airfoil flow distortions. Results from contoured wall tests and those performed using a slotted wall test section developed in this study exhibit essential agreement with wind tunnel results. The collective results show that test sections for aerodynamic testing can be designed for shock tubes that will alleviate wall interference effects.

  2. SEM Investigation of Superheater Deposits from Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    , mature superheater deposit samples were extracted from two straw-fired boilers, Masnedø and Ensted, with fuel inputs of 33 MWth and 100 MWth, respectively. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) analyses were performed on the deposit samples. Different strategies...

  3. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Gelbard, Fred; Lenard, Roger X.

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  4. Nonlinear superheat and capacity control of a refrigeration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems. A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design of a nonlinear controller. The stability of the proposed method is validated theoretically by Lyapunov a...

  5. Current Status of Superheat Spray Modeling With NCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.; Bulzan, Dan L.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of liquid fuel behavior at superheat conditions is identified to be a topic of importance in the design of modern supersonic engines. As a part of the NASA's supersonics project office initiative on high altitude emissions, we have undertaken an effort to assess the accuracy of various existing CFD models used in the modeling of superheated sprays. As a part of this investigation, we have completed the implementation of a modeling approach into the national combustion code (NCC), and then applied it to investigate the following three cases: (1) the validation of a flashing jet generated by the sudden release of pressurized R134A from a cylindrical nozzle, (2) the differences between two superheat vaporization models were studied based on both hot and cold flow calculations of a Parker-Hannifin pressure swirl atomizer, (3) the spray characteristics generated by a single-element LDI (Lean Direct Injector) experiment were studied to investigate the differences between superheat and non-superheat conditions. Further details can be found in the paper.

  6. Superheater corrosion in combustion of biofuels - a status; Oeverhettarkorrosion i bioeldade anlaeggningar - status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Pamela [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Kjoerk, Anders [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ljung, Per [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nystroem, Olle; Skog, Erik [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    In this report a survey of the status with regard to the current understanding of what is causing superheater corrosion in biofueled CHP boilers is made together with an assessment of where knowledge and resources need to be strengthened. A division in three areas has been made: * Type of units/combustion, * Biofuels/combustion, and * Superheater materials. As yet, the knowledge and the results gained remain to be amalgamated in an effort to grasp the complex casual connections and course of events leading to corrosion. So far there are indications of important underlying factors and causes and it is also possible to make qualitative statements about possible mechanisms: * With high enough superheater surface temperatures (due to high steam temperatures) low-melting point alkali compounds caught in the deposit will start to melt. * Potassium chloride has a distinct and crucial roll with regard to the percentage of fluid in ash and deposits. This in turn is decisive for transport of corrosive elements, e.g. chlorine, between the deposit and the metal(oxide). * Poor combustion with e.g. plume formation and reducing atmosphere. Staged combustion for NO{sub x}-reduction, fine particle fractions giving rise to uncontrolled suspension combustion and short retention times are factors that contribute to the problem, not least by moving combustion up into the superheater area of the boiler. * The superheater position in the upper part of the furnace, where it is exposed to flame and particle radiation may increase the surface temperature of the deposit by several tens of degrees, which may be vital. A position in radiation protected areas indicates decreased corrosion(rates). * Conventional superheater materials made from (ferritic) low chromium steels originally designed for use in coal combustion are not adequate. Test results indicate that more highly alloyed (austenitic) materials that are used in waste-fired plants will be necessary. * Test results have revealed

  7. SSME Post Test Diagnostic System: Systems Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    An assessment of engine and component health is routinely made after each test firing or flight firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Currently, this health assessment is done by teams of engineers who manually review sensor data, performance data, and engine and component operating histories. Based on review of information from these various sources, an evaluation is made as to the health of each component of the SSME and the preparedness of the engine for another test or flight. The objective of this project - the SSME Post Test Diagnostic System (PTDS) - is to develop a computer program which automates the analysis of test data from the SSME in order to detect and diagnose anomalies. This report primarily covers work on the Systems Section of the PTDS, which automates the analyses performed by the systems/performance group at the Propulsion Branch of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This group is responsible for assessing the overall health and performance of the engine, and detecting and diagnosing anomalies which involve multiple components (other groups are responsible for analyzing the behavior of specific components). The PTDS utilizes several advanced software technologies to perform its analyses. Raw test data is analyzed using signal processing routines which detect features in the data, such as spikes, shifts, peaks, and drifts. Component analyses are performed by expert systems, which use 'rules-of-thumb' obtained from interviews with the MSFC data analysts to detect and diagnose anomalies. The systems analysis is performed using case-based reasoning. Results of all analyses are stored in a relational database and displayed via an X-window-based graphical user interface which provides ranked lists of anomalies and observations by engine component, along with supporting data plots for each.

  8. Problems With Section Two ITP TOEFL Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki Ananda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate (1 the difficulties faced by EFL university students with section two of the ITP, and (2 whether part A or part B was more difficult for them and why. A number of 26 students from two different universities, Syiah Kuala University and the State Islamic University Ar-Raniry were the samples for the test. The data was obtained from a multiple choice questionnaire test consisting of 46 questions, each with 4 answers to choose from. The results showed that inversions (12%, subject-verb agreements (10%, adverb clause connectors (7%, passives (6%, reduced adjective clauses (5%, parallel structures (5% and use of verbs (5% were the most difficult questions for the students. Furthermore, they felt that part B was more difficult than part A, as finding an error in a sentence was harder than completing a sentence from a multiple choice. Furthermore, the length of questions in part A did not affect the amount of time the students spent to complete part A and did not cause them to panic. Also, unfamiliar words in part A were not regarded as a problem by the students. Hence, TOEFL teachers and trainers are highly encouraged to pay more attention to doing study exercises for the seven topics with the highest percentages above in part A and also to more practice for part B.

  9. Alkali chloride induced corrosion of superheaters under biomass firing conditions: Improved insights from laboratory scale studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    to the formation of corrosive deposits (rich in alkali chlorides) on the surfaces of the superheaters. Accordingly, an extensive number of fundamental investigations have been undertaken to understand the basic mechanisms behind the alkali chloride induced high temperature corrosion of superheaters (for example...

  10. Deposit-related failures of boiler superheater tubing and steam piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotwica, D.J. [Betz Labs. Inc., The Woodlands, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Deposition in superheater tubing can originate from the carryover of water droplets into the superheater bank from the steam drum. Deposition occurs because the concentration of impurities present in the entrained water droplets can be several orders of magnitude greater than that present in steam alone. When the water flashes to steam in the superheater, salts, hardness species, and corrosion products dissolved or suspended in the water build-up on the internal surfaces of the superheater tubing. The detrimental effects of carryover deposition in superheater tubing has been shown to contribute to at least three types of failure: stress-corrosion cracking, overheating, and corrosion gouging. A case history illustrating each one of these failure mechanisms is presented.

  11. A Study of Aerodynamics in Kevlar-Wall Test Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kenneth Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study is undertaken to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of Kevlar-wall test sections and specifically those containing two-dimensional, lifting models. The performance of the Kevlar-wall test section can be evaluated against the standard of the hard-wall test section, which in the case of the Stability Wind Tunnel (SWT) at Virginia Tech can be alternately installed or replaced by the Kevlar-wall test section. As a first step towards the evaluation of the Kevlar-wall test section aer...

  12. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission - Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  13. Damage distribution and remnant life assessment of a super-heater outlet header used for long time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroyuki, Okamura [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Ryuichi, Ohotani [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Kazuya, Fujii [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Masashi, Nakashiro; Fumio, Takemasa; Hideo, Umaki; Tomiyasu, Masumura [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation on evaluating damage distribution to base metals and welded joints in the thickness direction and evaluate damage on ligaments. Thick wall tested sample was the superheater outlet header component long term serviced in high pressure and temperature condition in thermal power plant. The simulate unused steel of component material was made from sample by suitable heat treatment, and the extent of damage was assessed based on a comparison of nondestructive and destructive test results between simulate unused and aged samples. Damage evaluation was also made by FEM structural stress analysis. (orig./MM)

  14. Attainable superheat of argon-helium, argon-neon solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidakov, Vladimir G; Kaverin, Aleksey M; Andbaeva, Valentina N

    2008-10-16

    The method of lifetime measurement has been used to investigate the kinetics of spontaneous boiling-up of superheated argon-helium and argon-neon solutions. Experiments were made at a pressure of p = 1.5 MPa and concentrations up to 0.33 mol% in the range of nucleation rates from 10 (4) to 10 (8) s (-1) m (-3). The homogeneous nucleation regime has been distinguished. With good agreement between experimental data and homogeneous nucleation theory in temperature and concentration dependences of the nucleation rate, a systematic underestimation by 0.25-0.34 K has been revealed in superheat temperatures over the saturated line attained by experiment as compared with theoretical values calculated in a macroscopic approximation. The revealed disagreement between theory and experiment is connected with the dependence of the properties of new-phase nuclei on their size.

  15. Survey of the current state of knowledge of incipient boiling superheat in sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greer, B.

    1979-01-01

    Superheat data obtained by various investigators indicate that many parameters affect this phenomenon. Controlling parameters appear to be inert gas concentration, oxide concentration, system pressure, pressure-temperature history, rate of temperature rise, heat flux, flow rate, operating time on the system, surface conditions, and radiation. Of these, the two believed most influential in controlling incipient boiling superheat are the inert gas concentration and oxide concentration. Experimental results for the heat flux and rate of temperature rise appear to be the most inconsistent.

  16. Analysis of damage of superheaters from steel 12Kh1MF in operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priymak, E. Yu.; Tryakina, N. Yu.; Gryzunov, V. I.; Sokolov, S. O.

    2013-05-01

    Main cases of damage of superheaters from steel 12Kh1MF due to disturbance of the process of production of the tubes and due to creep, thermal fatigue, and short-term superheating are considered. The methods of metallographic analysis and scanning electron microscopy are used to determine the special features of their microstructure and fracture surfaces. The results obtained are used to develop an algorithm for detecting the causes of damage in superheaters produced from heat-resistant pearlitic steels.

  17. Phase Identification and Internal Stress Analysis of Steamside Oxides on Plant Exposed Superheater Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    During long-term, high-temperature exposure of superheater tubes in thermal power plants, various oxides are formed on the inner side (steamside) of the tubes, and oxide spallation is a serious problem for the power plant industry. Most often, oxidation in a steam atmosphere is investigated in laboratory experiments just mimicking the actual conditions in the power plant for simplified samples. On real plant-exposed superheater tubes, the steamside oxides are solely investigated microscopical...

  18. Evaluation tests for photovoltaic concentrator receiver sections and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodworth, J.R.; Whipple, M.L.

    1992-06-01

    Sandia has developed a third-generation set of specifications for performance and reliability testing of photovoltaic concentrator modules. Several new requirements have been defined. The primary purpose of the tests is to screen new concentrator designs and new production runs for susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Ultraviolet radiation testing of materials precedes receiver section and module performance and environmental tests. The specifications include the purpose, procedure, and requirements for each test. Recommendations for future improvements are presented.

  19. Superheater corrosion in kraft recovery boilers; Korrosion hos oeverhettare i sodapannor. En oeversikt och diskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, F. [AaF-IPK, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    Corrosion seems to be the most essential factor limiting the life and the availability of kraft recovery boilers. The steam temperature from the kraft recovery boiler has, seen from the view of electricity production and steam turbine operation, traditionally been kept moderate, especially in comparison with steam data from normal utility power plants. So the corrosion of the superheaters has been more a limitation for the temperature of the steam produced by the boiler than a life length limitation. Both the pressure and the temperature of the steam are limited by corrosion. The temperature of the boiling water, and hence the pressure, is limited by the corrosion in the lower furnace. The temperature of the steam is limited by the corrosion in the superheater. Kraft boiler superheater corrosion is here governed not only by the boiler design, but more by the mill chemistry and boiler operation practice. This report discusses the formation and the properties of the deposits and their relation to boiler operation and the corrosion of the superheater tube material. We have tried to understand the corrosion in the kraft boiler superheaters better by comparing with the experience from the utility boilers. 86 refs, 79 figs

  20. Lifetime evaluation of superheater tubes exposed to steam oxidation, high temperature corrosion and creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, N. [Elsamprojekt A/S, Faelleskemikerne, Fredericia (Denmark); Hede Larsen, O.; Blum, R. [I/S Fynsvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Odense (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Advanced fossil fired plants operating at high steam temperatures require careful design of the superheaters. The German TRD design code normally used in Denmark is not precise enough for the design of superheaters with long lifetimes. The authors have developed a computer program to be used in the evaluation of superheater tube lifetime based on input related to tube dimensions, material, pressure, steam temperature, mass flux, heat flux and estimated corrosion rates. The program is described in the paper. As far as practically feasible, the model seems to give a true picture of the reality. For superheaters exposed to high heat fluxes or low internal heat transfer coefficients as is the case for superheaters located in fluidized bed environments or radiant environments, the program has been extremely useful for evaluation of surface temperature, oxide formation and lifetime. The total uncertainty of the method is mainly influenced by the uncertainty of the determination of the corrosion rate. More precise models describing the corrosion rate as a function of tube surface temperature, fuel parameters and boiler parameters need to be developed. (au) 21 refs.

  1. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Davis

    2006-09-30

    Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

  2. Phase Identification and Internal Stress Analysis of Steamside Oxides on Plant Exposed Superheater Tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    During long-term, high-temperature exposure of superheater tubes in thermal power plants, various oxides are formed on the inner side (steamside) of the tubes, and oxide spallation is a serious problem for the power plant industry. Most often, oxidation in a steam atmosphere is investigated in la...... typically applied for superheaters, ferritic-martensitic X20CrMoV12-1 and lean austenitic stainless steel TP347H, respectively, are revealed by X-ray diffraction.......-exposed superheater tubes was proven in the current work; the challenges for depth-resolved phase analysis and phase-specific residual stress analysis at the inner side of the tubes with concave surface curvature are discussed. Essential differences between the steamside oxides formed on two different steels...

  3. Predictive functional control of an expansion valve for minimizing the superheat of an evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahsohi, H.; Place, S. [EDF R and D, Av. des Renardieres, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing (France); Changenet, C. [Universite de Lyon, ECAM, Laboratoire d' Energetique, 40 Montee Saint-Barthelemy, 69321 Lyon cedex 05 (France); Ligeret, C. [Schneider-Electric, 37 Quai Paul Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble (France); Lin-Shi, X. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Ampere, CNRS UMR5005, 24 avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2010-03-15

    In a previous paper, a Predictive Functional Control (PFC) method was proposed to control the evaporator superheat with an electronic expansion valve. It has been shown that superheat may be more accurately controlled by PFC than the conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control. In this paper, the proposed methodology is extended to regulate the condensing pressure. In order to study the influence of this control method on the Coefficient of Performance (COP), experiments are conducted on a refrigerating machine by changing the cooling capacity from 120 to 30 kW. As PFC improves disturbance rejection compared to a PID control, it is possible to reduce the superheat setting value and to prevent any unevaporated refrigerant liquid from reaching the compressor. As a consequence the use of PFC leads to an increase of COP which depends on operating conditions. (author)

  4. Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William

    2011-01-01

    "The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.

  5. A study of test section configuration for shock tube testing of transonic airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Two methods are investigated for alleviating wall interference effects in a shock tube test section intended for testing two-dimensional transonic airfoils. The first method involves contouring the test section walls to match approximate streamlines in the flow. Contours are matched to each airfoil tested to produce results close to those obtained in a conventional wind tunnel. Data from a previous study and the present study for two different airfoils demonstrate that useful results are obtained in a shock tube using a test section with contoured walls. The second method involves use of a fixed-geometry slotted-wall test section to provide automatic flow compensation for various airfoils. The slotted-wall test section developed exhibited the desired performance characteristics in the approximate Mach number range 0.82 to 0.89, as evidenced by good agreement obtained between shock tube and wind tunnel results for several airfoil flows.

  6. Evaporator Superheat Control With One Temperature Sensor Using Qualitative System Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Hillerup Lyhne, Casper; Baasch Sørensen, Erik;

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat control using only a single temperature sensor at the outlet of the evaporator, while eliminating the need for a pressure sensor. An inner loop controls the outlet temperature and an outer control loop provides a reference set point, which is based...

  7. Analysis of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Shaw, Peter; Przekop, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid wing body center section test article is an all-composite structure made of crown, floor, keel, bulkhead, and rib panels utilizing the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) design concept. The primary goal of this test article is to prove that PRSEUS components are capable of carrying combined loads that are representative of a hybrid wing body pressure cabin design regime. This paper summarizes the analytical approach, analysis results, and failure predictions of the test article. A global finite element model of composite panels, metallic fittings, mechanical fasteners, and the Combined Loads Test System (COLTS) test fixture was used to conduct linear structural strength and stability analyses to validate the specimen under the most critical combination of bending and pressure loading conditions found in the hybrid wing body pressure cabin. Local detail analyses were also performed at locations with high stress concentrations, at Tee-cap noodle interfaces with surrounding laminates, and at fastener locations with high bearing/bypass loads. Failure predictions for different composite and metallic failure modes were made, and nonlinear analyses were also performed to study the structural response of the test article under combined bending and pressure loading. This large-scale specimen test will be conducted at the COLTS facility at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  8. Finite Element Analysis and Test Results Comparison for the Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the comparison of test measurements and predictive finite element analysis results for a hybrid wing body center section test article. The testing and analysis efforts were part of the Airframe Technology subproject within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. Test results include full field displacement measurements obtained from digital image correlation systems and discrete strain measurements obtained using both unidirectional and rosette resistive gauges. Most significant results are presented for the critical five load cases exercised during the test. Final test to failure after inflicting severe damage to the test article is also documented. Overall, good comparison between predicted and actual behavior of the test article is found.

  9. Influence of Superheated Steam Temperature Regulation Quality on Service Life of Boiler Steam Super-Heater Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates influence of change in quality of superheated steam temperature regulations on service life of super-heater metal. А dependence between metal service life and dispersion value for different steel grades has been determined in the paper. Numerical values pertaining to increase of super-heater metal service life in case of transferring from manual regulation to standard system of automatic regulation (SAR have been determined and in case of transferring from standard SAR to improved SAR. The analysis of tabular data and plotted dependencies makes it possible to conclude that any change in conditions of convection super-heater metal work due to better quality of the regulation leads to essential increase of time period which is left till the completion of the service life of a super-heater heating surface.

  10. A new method for estimating heat flux in superheater and reheater tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purbolaksono, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, km 7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, Kajang 43009, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: judha@uniten.edu.my; Khinani, A.; Rashid, A.Z.; Ali, A.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, km 7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, Kajang 43009, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, J. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200, Selangor (Malaysia); Nordin, N.F. [TNB Research Sdn Bhd, No. 1 Lorong Air Hitam, Kajang 43000, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-10-15

    In this paper a procedure on how to estimate the heat flux in superheater and reheater tubes utilizing the empirical formula and the finite element modeling is proposed. An iterative procedure consisting of empirical formulae and numerical simulation is used to determine heat flux as both temperature and scale thickness increase over period of time. Estimation results of the heat flux over period of time for two different design temperatures of the steam and different heat transfer parameters are presented.

  11. Premature failure of dissimilar metal weld joint at intermediate temperature superheater tube

    OpenAIRE

    Al Hajri, Mohammed; Anees U. Malik; MEROUFEL, Abdelkader; Al-Muaili, Fahd

    2015-01-01

    Dissimilar metal weld (DMW) joint between alloyed steel (AS) and stainless steel (SS) failed at one of intermediate temperature superheater (ITSH) tube in steam/power generation plant boiler. The premature failure was detected after a relatively short time of operation (8 years) where the crack propagated circumferentially from AS side through the ITSH tube. Apart from physical examination, microstructural studies based on optical microscopy, SEM and EDX analysis were performed. The results o...

  12. Effect of the melt superheat on equiaxed solidification of Al-20 wt% Cu alloy investigated by in situ synchrotron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shifeng; Yang, Guangyu; Xiao, Lei; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Jie, Wanqi

    2017-10-01

    Effect of the melt superheat on equiaxed solidification of Al-20 wt% Cu alloy was investigated by in-situ synchrotron radiography at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. For comparison, the corresponding DSC analysis was also conducted. It was found that the grain size decreased with increasing the melt superheat. The relationship between the final mean grain size and the melt superheat can be expressed as: d = 4919.3 × ΔT-0.33 . During solidification, the mean grain size increased sharply in the first 70 s, then reached the final grain size gradually. Furthermore, with increasing the melt superheat, the mean nucleation rate increased, which can be attributed to the fact that increasing the melt superheat led to an increase in nucleation undercooling, and the growth rate and the duration of free growth stage decreased. As the melt superheat increased from 100 °C to 160 °C, the mean nucleation rate increased by 78.2% while the mean growth rate only decreased by 19.3%, which indicated that the high mean nucleation rate and the consequent low mean growth rate may be the real reasons for grain refinement. The increased nucleation density caused earlier growth deceleration due to solutal impingement effects.

  13. Soft Sensor for Oxide Scales on the Steam Side of Superheater Tubes under Uneven Circumferential Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A soft sensor for oxide scales on the steam side of superheater tubes of utility boiler under uneven circumferential loading is proposed for the first time. First finite volume method is employed to simulate oxide scales growth temperature on the steam side of superheater tube. Then appropriate time and spatial intervals are selected to calculate oxide scales thickness along the circumferential direction. On the basis of the oxide scale thickness, the stress of oxide scales is calculated by the finite element method. At last, the oxide scale thickness and stress sensors are established on support vector machine (SMV optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO with time and circumferential angles as inputs and oxide scale thickness and stress as outputs. Temperature and stress calculation methods are validated by the operation data and experimental data, respectively. The soft sensor is applied to the superheater tubes of some power plant. Results show that the soft sensor can give enough accurate results for oxide scale thickness and stress in reasonable time. The forecasting model provides a convenient way for the research of the oxide scale failure.

  14. Microstructural characteristics of in situ Mg2Si/Al-Si composite by low superheat pouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiaofeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To control the morphology and size of the primary and eutectic Mg2Si phases in in situ Mg2Si/Al-Si composite and achieve a feasible and reliable technique to produce appropriate feedstock for the thixo-casting and rheo-casting of this type of material, three Al-Si matrix composites reinforced by 5wt.%, 9wt.% and 17wt.% Mg2Si with hypoeutectic, eutectic and hypereutectic compositions were prepared by the low superheat pouring (LSP process. The effects of the pouring temperature (superheat on the morphology and size distribution of primary phases (primary α-Al and Mg2Si, binary (α-Al + Mg2Si eutectic cell and eutectic Mg2Si were investigated. The experimental results show that low pouring temperature (superheat not only refines the grain structure of the primary α-Al and binary (α-Al + Mg2Si eutectic cell in three composites and promotes the formation of more non-dendritic structural semi-solid metal (SSM slurry of these phases; but also refines the primary and eutectic Mg2Si phases, which seems to be attributed to the creation of an ideal condition for the nucleation and the acquisition of a high survival of nuclei caused by the LSP process.

  15. Influence of surface roughness and melt superheat on HDA process to form a tritium permeation barrier on RAFM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purushothaman, J. [B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai 600048 (India); MTD, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Ramaseshan, R., E-mail: seshan@igcar.gov.in [TFCS, SND, MSG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Albert, S.K. [MTD, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Rajendran, R. [B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai 600048 (India); Gowrishankar, N. [IP Rings Ltd., Maraimalainagar, Chennai 603209 (India); Ramasubbu, V. [MTD, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Murugesan, S.; Dasgupta, Arup [PMG, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Jayakumar, T. [MTD, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface modified RAFMS samples were subjected to HDA and thermal oxidation. • Sample modified by SB process showed better coating and interface morphology. • Aluminized samples at 740 °C for 2 min showed Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 9}Si{sub 2} intermetallic phase. • Oxidized samples showed Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 8}Si, Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3} intermetallic phases. • A uniform permeation barrier Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was formed on the coating of oxidized HDA samples. - Abstract: The most optimal candidate material for fabrication of Test Blanket Module (TBM) in the installation of ITER and future fusion reactors is Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel, yet one of the major challenges that need to be addressed with RAFM is minimizing the loss of tritium in a reactor environment through the formation of tritium permeation barrier. One of the most promising methods for the tritium permeation barrier is through duplex coating with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe–Al which is well known to reduce tritium permeation rate by several orders of magnitude. The present work aims to form an alumina layer on RAFM steel by a two-step method, which consists of (i) Hot Dip Aluminizing (HDA) and (ii) conversion of Al into alumina by a subsequent oxidation process. In addition, the influence of surface roughness of the substrate, superheat condition of the Al alloy melt and its composition on microstructural properties of coating before and after oxidation were investigated using OM, SEM–EDS, XRD, indentation micro hardness and scratch test. The experimental results confirmed the formation of alumina layer on RAFM steel after the HDA and oxidation process. Moreover, the surface roughness of the substrate, melt superheat of Al alloy and its composition are found to have a significant influence on the microstructure, thickness, micro-hardness, nature of intermetallic compounds formed and adhesion strength of the coating.

  16. Application of Smith Controller in Superheater Steam Temperature Control%Smith预估器在过热气温控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海东; 孙建国; 刘翠兰

    2012-01-01

    To the time-delay control process,the principle of Smith predictor is introduced and analyzed. The new structure of a modified Smith predictor is given particularly. Based on the ITAE criteria, the tuning method of the modified Smith controller's parameters are introduced. Combine with Dalate Power plant #4 unit superheater steam temperature control to inquiry into test method of parameter of Smith controller controlling superheater steam temperature > and carried on comparison and tally up on effect after implementation and normal PID control effect.%针对过程控制滞后的问题,介绍Smith预估器的控制原理和应用,把一种改进的Smith预估控制器应用于发电厂过热气温控制.并利用ITAE优化准则给出了改进Smith预估控制器的参数整定方法.以达拉特发电厂#4机组过热汽温控制为例探讨Smith预估器对过热汽温控制时参数的整定方法,并对实施后的效果与常规PID控制效果进行比较和总结.

  17. Nonlinear Analysis and Preliminary Testing Results of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2015-01-01

    A large test article was recently designed, analyzed, fabricated, and successfully tested up to the representative design ultimate loads to demonstrate that stiffened composite panels with through-the-thickness reinforcement are a viable option for the next generation large transport category aircraft, including non-conventional configurations such as the hybrid wing body. This paper focuses on finite element analysis and test data correlation of the hybrid wing body center section test article under mechanical, pressure and combined load conditions. Good agreement between predictive nonlinear finite element analysis and test data is found. Results indicate that a geometrically nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately capture the behavior of the non-circular pressurized and highly-stressed structure when the design approach permits local buckling.

  18. 蒸汽过滤器疲劳强度与寿命分析%Fatigue Strength and Life Analysis of Steam Superheater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 靳慧

    2015-01-01

    The steam superheater is a kind of pressure vessel which heats the steam from the saturation temperature to the superheat temperature in the boiler steam.The equipment was designed by ASME code,the test was done under 7.1 MPa of hydrostatic pressure in the normal temperature to ensure the bearing capacity.But the working temperature of the steam superheater is about 350 ℃ and the elastic modulus and yield stress would change a lot.The test at working temperature are difficult to realize.The safety and reliability cannot be guaranteed only rely on the experimental research at room temperature. Now the finite element calculations can simulate more condition and can guarantee the safety of steam generator.The steam superheater which is from a synthetic ammonia plant were taken as object of study. The three dimensional elastic-plastic finite element model of steam superheater was established,the dis-placement deformation of the intersection line between the nozzle and cylinder was presented by ANSYS calculating and compared with the experimental results,which verified that the finite element model can be used;Then the steam filter under the real operating conditions was simulated by finite element method, stress distribution and fatigue strength of open hole area were obtained;At last,fatigue evaluation results were compared between ANSYS fatigue calculation result(ASME Ⅷ -2)and the calculation result based on the Rssian Federation national standard ГОСТР25859.%蒸汽过热器是将蒸汽从饱和温度进一步加热至过热温度的一种压力容器。该设备是根据ASME 规范设计,在常温7.1 MPa 静水压力下经过测试确保轴承的能力。但蒸汽过热器的工作温度约为350℃,弹性模量和屈服应力都会发生很大的变化,在工作温度下的试验难于实现,此时可以借助有限元分析软件提供参考。对某20万吨合成氨厂的蒸汽过热器大开孔壳体建立了三维弹塑性有限元模型,

  19. The Testing the Test Section of the Journal of Counseling and Development: Historical, Contemporary, and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Examines Testing the Test (TESTING) section of "Journal of Counseling and Development" and its past, present, and possible future. Organizes all past contributions to TESTING in tabular form as reference source. (Author)

  20. Demonstration tests for HTGR fuel elements and core components with test sections in HENDEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Hino, Ryutaro; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1995-03-01

    In the fuel stack test section (T{sub 1}) of the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL), thermal and hydraulic performances of helium gas flows through a fuel rod channel and a fuel stack have been investigated for the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) core thermal design. The test data showed that the turbulent characteristics appearing in the Reynolds number above 2000: no typical behavior in the transition zone, and friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in the fuel channel were found to be higher than those in a smooth annular channel. Heat transfer behavior of gas flow in a fuel element channel with blockage and cross-flow through a gap between upper and lower fuel elements stacked was revealed using the mock-up models. On the other hand, demonstration tests have been performed to verify thermal and hydraulic characteristics and structural integrity related to the core bottom structure using a full-scale test facility named as the in-core structure test section (T{sub 2}). The sealing performance test revealed that the leakage of low-temperature helium gas through gaps between the permanent reflector blocks to the core was very low level compared with the HTTR design value and no change of the leakage flow rate were observed after a long term operation. The heat transfer tests including thermal transient at shutdown of gas circulators verified good insulating performance of core insulation structures in the core bottom structure and the hot gas duct; the temperature of the metal portion of these structure was below the design value. Examination of the thermal mixing characteristics indicated that the mixing of the hot helium gas started at a hot plenum and finished completely at downstream of the outlet hot gas duct. The present results obtained from these demonstration tests have been practically applied to the detailed design works and licensing procedures of the HTTR. (J.P.N.) 92 refs.

  1. Nonlinear FOPDT Model Identification for the Superheat Dynamic in a Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Sun, Zhen; Andersen, Casper

    2011-01-01

    the considered system is discretized, the nonlinear FOPDT identification problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming problem, and then an identification algorithm is proposed by combining the Branch-and-Bound method and Least Square technique, in order to on-line identify these time......An on-line nonlinear FOPDT system identification method is proposed and applied to model the superheat dynamic in a supermarket refrigeration system. The considered nonlinear FOPDT model is an extension of the standard FOPDT model by means that its parameters are time dependent. After...

  2. Effect of melt superheat on microstructure of Al4Fe2Mn1.5 Monel alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fu; ZOU Jun-tao; WANG Xian-hui; FAN Zhi-kang

    2009-01-01

    The effect of melt superheat on microstructure of Al4Fe2Mn1.5 Monel alloy made by vacuum melting method was studied. The results show that the alloy consists of dendritic γ matrix and γ′ phase, wherein γ′ phase has two morphologies at different melt superheat. One is divorced eutectic γ′ which distributes in the interdendritic area, the other distributes dispersedly in single particle on the dendritic arm and exists in the petalform shape in the transition area between dendritic arm and interdendritic area. With the increase of superheat, the dendrite becomes finer, the primary dendritic arm is melted off and the secondary dendritic arm spacing decreases. The size of γ′ phase distributed on the dendritic arm becomes smaller and the divorced eutectic γ′ phase increases.

  3. Can the lifetime of the superheater tubes be predicted according to the fuel analyses? Assessment from field and laboratory data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmenoja, K. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Lifetime of the superheaters in different power boilers is more or less still a mystery. This is especially true in firing biomass based fuels (biofuels), such as bark, forest residues, and straw. Due to the unhomogeneous nature of the biofuels, the lifetime of the superheaters may vary from case to case. Sometimes the lifetime is significantly shorter than originally expected, sometimes no corrosion even in the hottest tubes is observed. This is one of the main reasons why the boiler operators often demand for a better predictability on the corrosion resistance of the materials to avoid unscheduled shutdowns. (orig.) 9 refs.

  4. Probabilistic approach to determining the optimum replacement of a superheater stage in 680 MW coal-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Robert; Star, Ruud van der [Nuon Power Generation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    The boiler of the NUON power plant HW08 that went into operation in 1993 is designed as Benson boiler and mainly fired with hard coal. A creep-related tube failure occurred in the tertiary superheater that had been due to increased wall temperature caused by steam side formation of oxide layers. The theoretical lifetime of the components was calculated with the aid of the results of steam side oxide measurements and condition evaluation of the tertiary superheater with the aid of tube samples. The objective is to establish an operation and maintenance schedule for the desired operating lifetime of 300,000 hours. (orig.)

  5. Wall Correction Model for Wind Tunnels with Open Test Section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2004-01-01

    In th paper we present a correction model for wall interference on rotors of wind turbines or propellers in wind tunnels. The model, that is based on a onedimensional momentum approach, is validated against results from CFD computations using a generalized actuator disc principle. Generally......, the corrections from the model are in very good agreement with the CFD computaions, demonstrating that one-dimensional momentum theory is a reliable way of predicting corrections for wall interference in wind tunnels with closed as well as open cross sections. Keywords: Wind tunnel correction, momentum theory...

  6. Overview of the computerized adaptive testing special section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Ponsoda

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentación de la sección monográfica sobre test adaptativos informatizados. Este artículo proporciona una visión conjunta de la sección especial de Psicológica sobre tests adaptativos informatizados. Se presenta también una breve introducción al tema. De cada artículo se muestran sus principales resultados, las conexiones con los demás trabajos de la sección especial y el tema de investigación con el que está más relacionado.

  7. Wall correction model for wind tunnels with open test section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2006-01-01

    In the paper we present a correction model for wall interference on rotors of wind turbines or propellers in wind tunnels. The model, which is based on a one-dimensional momentum approach, is validated against results from CFD computations using a generalized actuator disc principle. In the model...... the exchange of axial momentum between the tunnel and the ambient room is represented by a simple formula, derived from actuator disc computations. The correction model is validated against Navier-Stokes computations of the flow about a wind turbine rotor. Generally, the corrections from the model are in very...... good agreement with the CFD computations, demonstrating that one-dimensional momentum theory is a reliable way of predicting corrections for wall interference in wind tunnels with closed as well as open cross sections....

  8. Pre-oxidation and its effect on reducing high-temperature corrosion of superheater tubes during biomass firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Kvisgaard, M.; Montgomery, Melanie;

    2016-01-01

    Superheater tubes in biomass-fired power plants experience high corrosion rates due to condensation of corrosive alkali chloride-rich deposits. To explore the possibility of reducing the corrosion attack by the formation of an initial protective oxide layer, the corrosion resistance of pre-oxidis...

  9. Documentation of Stainless Steel Lithium Circuit Test Section Design. Suppl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Thomas J. (Compiler); Martin, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission-Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team was tasked by Naval Reactors Prime Contract Team (NRPCT) to design, fabricate, and test an actively pumped lithium (Li) flow circuit. This Li circuit takes advantage of work in progress at the EFF TF on a stainless steel sodium/potassium (NaK) circuit. The effort involved modifying the original stainless steel NaK circuit such that it could be operated with Li in place of NaK. This new design considered freeze/thaw issues and required the addition of an expansion tank and expansion/extrusion volumes in the circuit plumbing. Instrumentation has been specified for Li and circuit heaters have been placed throughout the design to ensure adequate operational temperatures and no uncontrolled freezing of the Li. All major components have been designed and fabricated prior to circuit redesign for Li and were not modified. Basic circuit components include: reactor segment, Li to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. The reactor segment, based on a Los Alamos National Laboratory 100-kW design study with 120 fuel pins, is the only prototypic component in the circuit. However, due to earlier funding constraints, a 37-pin partial-array of the core, including the central three rings of fuel pins (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in the full design), was selected for fabrication and test. This Technical Publication summarizes the design and integration of the pumped liquid metal Li flow circuit as of May 1, 2005. This supplement contains drawings, analysis, and calculations

  10. Documentation of Stainless Steel Lithium Circuit Test Section Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, T. J.; Martin, J. J.; Stewart, E. T.; Rhys, N. O.

    2010-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission-Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team was tasked by Naval Reactors Prime Contract Team (NRPCT) to design, fabricate, and test an actively pumped lithium (Li) flow circuit. This Li circuit takes advantage of work in progress at the EFF TF on a stainless steel sodium/potassium (NaK) circuit. The effort involved modifying the original stainless steel NaK circuit such that it could be operated with Li in place of NaK. This new design considered freeze/thaw issues and required the addition of an expansion tank and expansion/extrusion volumes in the circuit plumbing. Instrumentation has been specified for Li and circuit heaters have been placed throughout the design to ensure adequate operational temperatures and no uncontrolled freezing of the Li. All major components have been designed and fabricated prior to circuit redesign for Li and were not modified. Basic circuit components include: reactor segment, Li to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. The reactor segment, based on a Los Alamos National Laboratory 100-kW design study with 120 fuel pins, is the only prototypic component in the circuit. However, due to earlier funding constraints, a 37-pin partial-array of the core, including the central three rings of fuel pins (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in the full design), was selected for fabrication and test. This Technical Publication summarizes the design and integration of the pumped liquid metal Li flow circuit as of May 1, 2005.

  11. Premature failure of dissimilar metal weld joint at intermediate temperature superheater tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Hajri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilar metal weld (DMW joint between alloyed steel (AS and stainless steel (SS failed at one of intermediate temperature superheater (ITSH tube in steam/power generation plant boiler. The premature failure was detected after a relatively short time of operation (8 years where the crack propagated circumferentially from AS side through the ITSH tube. Apart from physical examination, microstructural studies based on optical microscopy, SEM and EDX analysis were performed. The results of the investigation point out the limitation of Carbides precipitation at the alloyed steel/welding interface. This is synonym of creep stage I involvement in the failure of ITSH. Improper post-welding operation and bending moment are considered as root causes of the premature failure.

  12. Low Superheat Pouring with a Shear Field in Rheocasting of Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hongmin; YANG Xiangjie; HU Bin

    2008-01-01

    A new rheocasting process,Low Superheat Pouring with a Shear Field(LSPSF),was developed to produce semi-solid slurry for the rheo-forming process.The LSPSF process is one of controlled nucleation and limited growth techniques in which effective nucleation rate is controlled by passive mixing and localized rapid cooling near the liquidus temperature;dendrite growth is limited by a much slower cooling process.The experimental results of rheocast Al-Cu alloy 201 and secondary diecasting alloy A380demonstrate that LSPSF process is capable of producing high-quality slurry in a matter of seconds.It is concluded that maximizing nucleation and nuclei survival directly lead to the grain refinement of the rheocasting microstructure,and high nuclei density combined with a slower cooling afterwards leads to a globular structure of primary phases.

  13. Correlation between molten vanadium salts and the structural degradation of HK-type steel superheater tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Nunes, Frederico; de Almeida, Luiz Henrique; Ribeiro, André Freitas

    2006-12-01

    HK steels are among the most used heat-resistant cast stainless steels, being corrosion-resistant and showing good mechanical properties at high service temperatures. These steels are widely used in reformer furnaces and as superheater tubes. During service, combustion gases leaving the burners come in contact with these tubes, resulting in corrosive attack and a large weight loss occurs due to the presence of vanadium, which forms low melting point salts, removing the protective oxide layer. In this work the external surface of a tube with dramatic wall thickness reduction was analyzed using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The identification of the phases was achieved by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. The results showed oxides arising from the external surface. In this oxidized region vanadium compounds inside chromium carbide particles were also observed, due to inward vanadium diffusion during corrosion attack. A chemical reaction was proposed to explain the presence of vanadium in the metal microstructure.

  14. Superheater corrosion improved utilization of gained experience; Oeverhettarkorrosion - baettre utnyttjande av projektresultat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Olle; Ehrstedt, Thomas [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Kjoerk, Anders [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Projects AB (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Superheater corrosion has been a problem in many biofuelled district heating and cogeneration plants. Even if this 'disease' easily can be diagnosed and the immediate mechanisms about how and why it develops are relatively well known, the underlying causes, which the individual plant owner has to live with, represent a diversity of complex causes and effects. The conditions may vary from plant to plant, a fact, which would normally represent a difficulty with regard to a full-fledged analysis, but often some common elements can be identified for a prefatory analysis. Analysis would be facilitated with access to a tool enabling a systematic gathering of plant operation data. Vaermeforsk (Thermal Engineering Research Institute) and its Chemical and Material Technology group have discussed the need of a database, which combines the requirements among plant owners/operators on one side and researchers/developers on the other. In this report a database meeting these requirements is presented. The database is based on Access 2000 and made available at the Vaermeforsk homepage (www.varmeforsk.se). It is a database where any piece of information is found in one specific site or memory within it. These sites/memories taking the form of tables are linked to each other. To be able to characterise a specific plant/boiler and specify the conditions of interest, detailed information is required. The database input is based on information that seems relevant with regard to output and which also can be quantified with reasonable effort. Data have been structured in five areas/domains covering: the plant, the superheater, the case(report), the material and the fuel. A case description/form, which constitutes the core of the database, is presented in the table 'Fall' (Case), where information/data related to steam data, standard fuel mix, deposit and flue gas analysis etc. plus information about corrosion for a certain superheater in a specific plant are

  15. Field Jet Erosion Tests on the Mississippi River Collocated Demonstration Section, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 15 -1 3 Field Jet Erosion Tests on the Mississippi River Collocated Demonstration Section, Plaquemines Parish...default. ERDC/GSL TR-15-13 June 2015 Field Jet Erosion Tests on the Mississippi River Collocated Demonstration Section, Plaquemines Parish...Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 ERDC/GSL TR-15-13 ii Abstract Field jet erosion tests (JETs) were

  16. Experimental research on heat transfer to liquid sodium and its incipient boiling wall superheat in an annulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Liquid sodium is mainly used as a cooling fluid in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), whose heat transfer, whether convective heat transfer or boiling heat transfer, is different from that of water. So it is important for both normal and accidental operations of LMFBR to perform experimental research on heat transfer to liquid sodium and its boiling heat transfer. This study deals with heat transfer with high temperature (300-700℃) and low Pe number (20~70) and heat transfer with low temperature (250~270℃) and high Pe number (125~860), and its incipient boiling wall superheat in an annulus. Research on heat transfer involves theoretical research and experiments on heat transfer to liquid sodium. It also focuses on the theoretical analysis and experimental research on its incipient boiling wall superheat at positive pressure in an annulus. Semiempirical correlations were obtained and they were well coincident with the experimental data.

  17. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2003-08-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a reasonably high alkali content, thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was well within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that the aggressive alkali-iron-trisulfate constituent was present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section C, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. The analysis of Test Section C followed much the same protocol that was employed in the assessment of Test Section A. Again, the focus was on determining and documenting the relative corrosion rates of the candidate materials. The detailed results of the investigation are included in this report as a series of twelve appendices. Each appendix is devoted to the performance of one of the candidate alloys. The table below summarizes metal loss rate for the worst case sample of each of the candidate materials for both Test Sections A and C

  18. Research on semi-solid slurry of a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy prepared by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The semi-solid slurry of a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy was manufactured by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The effects of pouring temperature and stirring power on the semi-solid slurry were investigated. The results indicated that the semi-solid slurry to satisfy rheocasting can be manufactured by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The pouring temperature (or superheat) and the stirring power remarkably affected the morphology of primary α-Al and the size of primary α-Al, and there is no obvious effect of stirring time on primary α-Al. Compared with the samples made by low superheat pouring with no stirring, the nucleation rate, particle morphology and grain size of primary α-Al in A356 were markedly improved by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. On the condition of weak electromagnetic stirring, the pouting temperature with low superheat can be suitably raised to reach the effectiveness obtained from the lower pouring temperature without stirring.

  19. Manufacture technique of semi-solid slurry of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng; MAO Wei-ming; ZHAO Zheng-duo

    2006-01-01

    The semi-solid slurry of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy was manufactured by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The effects of pouring temperature and stirring power on the semi-solid slurry making process were investigated. The results indicate that the semi-solid slurry to satisfy rheocasting requirement can be made by a combination of low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The pouring temperature (or superheat) and the stirring power significantly affect the morphology and the size of primary α-Al, while there is no obvious effect of the stirring time on primary α-Al. Compared with the samples made by low superheat pouring without stirring, the nucleation rate,particle morphology and grain size of primary α-Al in A356 Al alloy are markedly improved by a process of applying both low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. Under the condition of weak electromagnetic stirring applied, the pouring temperature with low superheat can be equivalerttly to reach the effectiveness obtained from the even lower pouring temperature without stirring.

  20. Manufacture technique of semi-solid slurry of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zheng

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The semi-solid slurry of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy was manufactured by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The effects of pouring temperature and stirring power on the semi-solid slurry making process were investigated. The results indicate that the semi-solid slurry to satisfy rheocasting requirement can be made by a combination of low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The pouring temperature (or superheat and the stirring power significantly affect the morphology and the size of primary α-Al, while there is no obvious effect of the stirring time on primary α-Al. Compared with the samples made by low superheat pouring without stirring, the nucleation rate, particle morphology and grain size of primary α-Al in A356 Al alloy are markedly improved by a process of applying both low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. Under the condition of weak electromagnetic stirring applied, the pouring temperature with low superheat can be equivalently to reach the effectiveness obtained from the even lower pouring temperature without stirring.

  1. An Investigation of Proposed Revisions to Section 3 of the TOEFL Test. TOEFL Research Report 47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedl, Mary; And Others

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) program is exploring a change in Section 3 of the TOEFL test that would replace the vocabulary subpart with additional reading comprehension questions. This study investigated the proposed revision in terms of the length and timing that would be necessary to address concerns of test speededness of…

  2. A computational approach for thermomechanical fatigue life prediction of dissimilarly welded superheater tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnasamy, Ram-Kumar; Seifert, Thomas; Siegele, Dieter [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a computational approach for fatigue life prediction of dissimilarly welded superheater tubes is presented and applied to a dissimilar weld between tubes made of the nickel base alloy Alloy617 tube and the 12% chromium steel VM12. The approach comprises the calculation of the residual stresses in the welded tubes with a multi-pass dissimilar welding simulation, the relaxation of the residual stresses in a post weld heat treatment (PWHT) simulation and the fatigue life prediction using the remaining residual stresses as initial condition. A cyclic fiscoplasticity model is used to calculate the transient stresses and strains under thermocyclic service loadings. The fatigue life is predicted with a damage parameter which is based on fracture mechanics. The adjustable parameters of the model are determined based on LCF and TMF experiments. The simulations show, that the residual stresses that remain after PWHT further relax in the first loading cycles. The predicted fatigue lives depend on the residual stresses and, thus, on the choice of the loading cycle in which the damage parameter is evaluated. It the first loading cycle, where residual stresses are still present, is considered, lower fatigue lives are predicted compared to predictions considering loading cycles with relaxed residual stresses. (orig.)

  3. Comparison between two rheocasting processes of damper cooling tube method and low superheat casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaoli; Ling Xiangjun; Wang Tongmin; Li Tingju

    2014-01-01

    To produce a high quality semisolid slurry that consists of fine primary particles uniformly suspended in the liquid matrix for rheoforming, chemical refining and electromagnetic or mechanical stirring are the two methods commonly used. But these two methods either contaminate the melt or incur high cost. In this study, the damper cooling tube (DCT) method was designed to prepare semisolid slurry of A356 aluminum alloy, and was compared with the low superheat casting (LSC) method - a conventional process used to produce casting slab with equiaxed dendrite microstructure for thixoforming route. A series of comparative experiments were performed at the pouring temperatures of 650 °C, 638 °C and 622 °C. Metal ographic observations of the casting samples were carried out using an optical electron microscope with image analysis software. Results show that the microstructure of semisolid slurry produced by the DCT process consists of spherical primary α-Al grains, while equiaxed grains microstructure is found in the LSC process. The lower the pouring temperature, the smal er the grain size and the rounder the grain morphology in both methods. The copious nucleation, which could be generated in the DCT, owing to the cooling and stirring effect, is the key to producing high quality semisolid slurry. DCT method could produce rounder and smal er α-Al grains, which are suitable for semisolid processing; and the equivalent grain size is no more than 60 µm when the pouring temperature is 622 °C.

  4. Comparison between two rheocasting processes of damper cooling tube method and low superheat casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To produce a high quality semisolid slurry that consists of fine primary particles uniformly suspended in the liquid matrix for rheoforming, chemical refining and electromagnetic or mechanical stirring are the two methods commonly used. But these two methods either contaminate the melt or incur high cost. In this study, the damper cooling tube (DCT method was designed to prepare semisolid slurry of A356 aluminum alloy, and was compared with the low superheat casting (LSC method - a conventional process used to produce casting slab with equiaxed dendrite microstructure for thixoforming route. A series of comparative experiments were performed at the pouring temperatures of 650 °C, 638 °C and 622 °C. Metallographic observations of the casting samples were carried out using an optical electron microscope with image analysis software. Results show that the microstructure of semisolid slurry produced by the DCT process consists of spherical primary α-Al grains, while equiaxed grains microstructure is found in the LSC process. The lower the pouring temperature, the smaller the grain size and the rounder the grain morphology in both methods. The copious nucleation, which could be generated in the DCT, owing to the cooling and stirring effect, is the key to producing high quality semisolid slurry. DCT method could produce rounder and smaller α-Al grains, which are suitable for semisolid processing; and the equivalent grain size is no more than 60 μm when the pouring temperature is 622 °C.

  5. Testing Cross-Sectional Correlation in Large Panel Data Models with Serial Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badi H. Baltagi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of testing cross-sectional correlation in large panel data models with serially-correlated errors. It finds that existing tests for cross-sectional correlation encounter size distortions with serial correlation in the errors. To control the size, this paper proposes a modification of Pesaran’s Cross-sectional Dependence (CD test to account for serial correlation of an unknown form in the error term. We derive the limiting distribution of this test as N , T → ∞ . The test is distribution free and allows for unknown forms of serial correlation in the errors. Monte Carlo simulations show that the test has good size and power for large panels when serial correlation in the errors is present.

  6. Wind tunnel testing of a full scale helicopter blade section with an upstream active Gurney flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loendersloot, R.; Freire Gomez, J.; Booker, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed on an aerofoil section comparable to that of a full scale helicopter blade section with an upstream active Gurney flap in the framework of the European project CleanSky ITD Green RotorCraft. A modified NACA0012 profile was used, with 23 Kulite pressure transducers em

  7. 76 FR 39110 - Medicare Program; Section 3113: The Treatment of Certain Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... classified (NOC)'' code but that would otherwise meet the criteria set forth in section 3113 for being a... Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code other than a not otherwise classified (NOC) code under such Coding... for diagnostic laboratory tests defined in section 3113(a)(2) but currently billed using NOC...

  8. The fabrication of a vanadium-stainless steel test section for MHD testing of insulator coatings in flowing lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, C.B.; Mattas, R.F.; Smith, D.L.; Chung, H.; Tsai, H.-C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, G.D.; Wille, G.W. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MO (United States). High Energy Systems; Johnson, W.R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Young, C. [Century Tubes, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    To test the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop reduction performance of candidate insulator coatings for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium Breeding Blanket, a test section comprised of a V- 4Cr-4Ti liner inside a stainless steel pipe was designed and fabricated. Theoretically, the MHD pressure drop reduction benefit resulting, from an electrically insulating coating on a vanadium- lined pipe is identical to the benefit derived from an insulated pipe fabricated of vanadium alone. A duplex test section design consisting of a V alloy liner encased in a SS pressure boundary provided protection for vanadium from atmospheric contamination during operation at high temperature and obviated any potential problems with vanadium welding while also minimizing the amount of V alloy material required. From the MHD and insulator coating- point of view, the test section outer SS wall and inner V alloy liner can be modeled simply as a wall having a sandwich construction. Two 52.3 mm OD x 2.9 m long V-alloy tubes were fabricated by Century Tubes from 64 mm x 200 mm x 1245 mm extrusions produced by Teledyne Wah Chang. The test section`s duplex structure was subsequently fabricated at Century Tubes by drawing down a SS pipe (2 inch schedule 10) over one of the 53.2 mm diameter V tubes.

  9. Integral test on activation cross section of tag gas nuclides using fast neutron spectrum fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-03-01

    Activation cross sections of tag gas nuclides, which will be used for the failed fuel detection and location in FBR plants, were evaluated by the irradiation tests in the fast neutron spectrum fields in JOYO and YAYOI. The comparison of their measured radioactivities and the calculated values using the JENDL-3.2 cross section set showed that the C/E values ranged from 0.8 to 2.8 for the calibration tests in YAYOI and that the present accuracies of these cross sections were confirmed. (author)

  10. New Tools to Prepare ACE Cross-section Files for MCNP Analytic Test Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Codes Group

    2016-06-17

    Monte Carlo calculations using one-group cross sections, multigroup cross sections, or simple continuous energy cross sections are often used to: (1) verify production codes against known analytical solutions, (2) verify new methods and algorithms that do not involve detailed collision physics, (3) compare Monte Carlo calculation methods with deterministic methods, and (4) teach fundamentals to students. In this work we describe 2 new tools for preparing the ACE cross-section files to be used by MCNP® for these analytic test problems, simple_ace.pl and simple_ace_mg.pl.

  11. Placement of Smart Grass reinforcement at test sections Groningen Sea dike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven, K.A.J.; Akkerman, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The present report deals with the application of a provisional Smart Grass Reinforcement (SGR) system in 2006 for full scale testing of increased overtopping at the Groningen sea dyke test section near Delfzijl, as envisaged in 2007. The SGR has been placed at two strips of 4 m wide: one primary str

  12. Pressure Distribution on a Wing Section with Slotted Flap in Free Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Georg

    1937-01-01

    The pressure distribution was measured in flight on a wing section with a slotted flap for several flap deflections, and the results obtained are presented. The test apparatus and the procedure employed in obtaining the results are also described. A Fieseler type F 5 R airplane was used for the tests.

  13. Influence of movable test section elements configuration on its drag and flow field uniformity at transonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkov, S. A.; Gorbushin, A. R.; Osipova, S. L.; Semenov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The report describes the results of flow field experimental research in TsAGI T-128 transonic wind tunnel. During the tests Mach number, stagnation pressure, test section wall perforation ratio, angles between the test section panels and mixing chamber flaps varied. Based on the test results one determined corrections to the free-stream Mach number related to the flow speed difference in the model location and in the zone of static pressure measurement on the test section walls, nonuniformity of the longitudinal velocity component in the model location, optimal position of the movable test section elements to provide flow field uniformity in the test section and minimize the test leg drag.

  14. Lexical patterns in the reading comprehension section of the toefl test

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Macmillan

    2014-01-01

    The TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) is currently one of the most widely accepted English language proficiency tests. Designed by the ETS (Educational Testing Service), the main purpose of the TOEFL is to determine whether the English language skills of a student applying to a North American college or university are adequate for enrollment into the selected program of study. This study will focus upon the third section of the TOEFL, Reading Comprehension, which consists of sever...

  15. Simulation of Model Force-Loading with Changing Its Position in the Wind Tunnel Test Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Bui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When planning and implementing an aerodynamic experiment, model sizes and its position in the test section of the wind tunnel (WT play very important role. The paper focuses on the value variations of the aerodynamic characteristics of a model through changing its position in the WT test section and on the attenuation of the velocity field disturbance in front of the model. Flow around aerodynamic model profile in the open test section of the low-speed WT T-500 is simulated at BMSTU Department SM3. The problem is solved in a two-dimensional case using the ANSYS Fluent package. The mathematical model of flow is based on the Reynolds equations closed by the SST turbulence model. The paper also presents the results of the experiment. Experiments conducted in WT T-500 well correlate with the calculated data and show the optimal position in the middle of the test section when conducting the weighing and drainage experiments. Disturbance of tunnel dynamic pressure (velocity head and flow upwash around the model profile and circular cylinder in the WT test section is analyzed. It was found that flow upstream from the front stagnation point on the body weakly depends on the Reynolds number and obtained results can be used to assess the level of disturbances in the flow around a model by incompressible airflow.

  16. Effect of electrolysis superheat degree on anticorrosion performance of 5Cu/(10NiO-NiFe2O4) cermet inert anode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    5Cu/(10NiO-NiFe2O4) cermet inert anodes were prepared by cold-pressing and sintering process, and the effect of superheat degree of melting K3AIF6-Na3AlF6-AlF3 on their anticorrosion performance was studied under electrolysis conditions. The results show that, the fluctuation of cell becomes small with increasing of superheat degree, which is helpful to inhibit the formation of cathodic encrustation; the concentration of impurities from inert anode in bath goes up to certain degree, but it is far smaller than those in traditional high-temperature bath. Increasing the superheat degree of melting K3AlF6-Na3AlF6-AlF3 has unconspicuous effect on the contents of impurities in cathodic aluminum. The total mass fractions of Fe, Ni and Cu in aluminum are 15.38% and15.09% respectively under superheat degree of 95 and 195 ℃C. From micro-topography of anode used view, increasing the superheat degree can aggravate corrosion of metal Cu in inert anode, and has negative influence on electrical conductivity of electrode to some extent.

  17. On-line Auto-Tuning of PI Control of the Superheat for a Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Andersen, Casper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2011-01-01

    An online PI auto-tuning method is proposed for superheat control for a type of supermarket refrigeration systems. The proposed procedure consists of three serial steps: Step-One uses one of the two proposed empirical methods, namely multi-step method and relay method, for modeling initialization...... controller is auto-tuned based on the obtained FOPDT model and the SIMC method in Step-Three. The proposed method is implemented on a real-sized physical system and the experimental results showed a promising potential to apply the proposed method into commercial development....

  18. On-line Auto-Tuning of PI Control of the Superheat for a Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Andersen, Casper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2011-01-01

    An online PI auto-tuning method is proposed for superheat control for a type of supermarket refrigeration systems. The proposed procedure consists of three serial steps: Step-One uses one of the two proposed empirical methods, namely multi-step method and relay method, for modeling initialization...... controller is auto-tuned based on the obtained FOPDT model and the SIMC method in Step-Three. The proposed method is implemented on a real-sized physical system and the experimental results showed a promising potential to apply the proposed method into commercial development....

  19. Water Impact Test and Simulation of a Composite Energy Absorbing Fuselage Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Sparks, Chad; Sareen, Ashish

    2003-01-01

    In March 2002, a 25-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section was conducted onto water. The purpose of the test was to obtain experimental data characterizing the structural response of the fuselage section during water impact for comparison with two previous drop tests that were performed onto a rigid surface and soft soil. For the drop test, the fuselage section was configured with ten 100-lb. lead masses, five per side, that were attached to seat rails mounted to the floor. The fuselage section was raised to a height of 10-ft. and dropped vertically into a 15-ft. diameter pool filled to a depth of 3.5-ft. with water. Approximately 70 channels of data were collected during the drop test at a 10-kHz sampling rate. The test data were used to validate crash simulations of the water impact that were developed using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic codes, MSC.Dytran and LS-DYNA. The fuselage structure was modeled using shell and solid elements with a Lagrangian mesh, and the water was modeled with both Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques. The fluid-structure interactions were executed using the fast general coupling in MSC.Dytran and the Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) coupling in LS-DYNA. Additionally, the smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) meshless Lagrangian technique was used in LS-DYNA to represent the fluid. The simulation results were correlated with the test data to validate the modeling approach. Additional simulation studies were performed to determine how changes in mesh density, mesh uniformity, fluid viscosity, and failure strain influence the test-analysis correlation.

  20. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-26

    This report contains appendix 2 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, Laboratory permeability, and compaction characteristics representative of Kaolin clays from the aiken, South Carolina vicinity. Included in this report are daily field reports Nos. 1 to 54. (KJD)

  1. Reflection plane tests of a wind turbine blade tip section with ailerons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.; Nyland, T. W.; Birchenough, A. G.; Jordan, F. L.; Campbell, N. K.

    1985-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Langley 30 by 60 foot Wind Tunnel on a full scale 7.31 m (24 ft) long tip section of a wind turbine rotor blade. The blade tip section was built with ailerons on the trailing edge. The ailerons, which spanned a length of 6.1 m (20 ft), were designed so that two types could be evaluated: the plain and the balanced. The ailerons were hinged on the suction surface at the 0.62 X chord station behind the leading edge. The purpose of the tests was to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of the blade section for: an angle of attack range from 0 deg to 90 deg aileron deflections from 0 deg to -90 deg, and Reynolds numbers of 0.79 and 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power. These data were then used to determine which aileron configuration had the most desirable rotor control and aerodynamic braking characteristics. Tests were also run to determine the effects of vortex generators, leading edge roughness, and the gaps between the aileron sections on the lift, drag, and chordwise force coefficients of the blade tip section.

  2. The cryogenic pumping section of KATRIN and the test experiment TRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Eichelhardt, F

    2011-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) employs a Cryogenic Pumping Section (CPS) at ~ 4.5 K to suppress the tritium penetration into the spectrometers. A test experiment (TRAP - Tritium Argon frost Pump) has been set up to investigate the tritium pumping performance of the CPS.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Tensile Test on Connection of Cold-formed Cut-curved Steel Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Mohd Syahrul Hisyam Mohd; Muftah, Fadhluhartini; Rahman, Nurul Farraheeda Abdul; Fakri Muda, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Cold-formed steel (CFS) is widely used as structural and non-structural components such as roof trusses and purlin. A CFS channel section with double intermediate web stiffener and lipped is chosen based on the broader usage in roof truss construction. CFS section is cut to form cold-formed pre-cut-curved steel section and lastly strengthened by several types of method or likely known as connection to establish the cold-formed cut-curved steel (CFCCS) section. CFCCS is proposed to be used as a top chord section in the roof truss system. The CFCCS is to resist the buckling phenomena of the roof truss structure and reduced the compression effect on the top chord. The tensile test connection of CFCCS section, especially at the flange element with eight types of connection by welding, plate with self-drilling screw and combination is investigated. The flange element is the weakest part that must be solved first other than the web element because they are being cut totally, 100% of their length for curving process. The testing is done using a universal testing machine for a tensile load. From the experiment, specimen with full welding has shown as a good result with an ultimate load of 13.37 kN and reported having 35.41% when compared with normal specimen without any of connection methods. Furthermore, the experimental result is distinguished by using Eurocode 3. The failure of a full welding specimen is due to breaking at the welding location. Additionally, all specimens with either full weld or spot weld or combination failed due to breaking on weld connection, but specimen with flange plate and self-drilling screw failed due to tilting and bearing. Finally, the full welding specimen is chosen as a good connection to perform the strengthening method of CFCCS section.

  4. Effect of superheat, mold, and casting materials on the metal/mold interfacial heat transfer during solidification in graphite-lined permanent molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, K. Narayan; Suresha, K. M.

    2004-10-01

    Heat transfer during the solidification of an Al-Cu-Si alloy (LM4) and commercial pure tin in single steel, graphite, and graphite-lined metallic (composite) molds was investigated. Experiments were carried out at three different superheats. In the case of composite molds, the effect of the thickness of the graphite lining and the outer wall on heat transfer was studied. Temperatures at known locations inside the mold and casting were used to solve the Fourier heat conduction equation inversely to yield the casting/mold interfacial heat flux transients. Increased melt superheats and higher thermal conductivity of the mold material led to an increase in the peak heat flux at the metal/mold interface. Factorial experiments indicated that the mold material had a significant effect on the peak heat flux at the 5% level of significance. The ratio of graphite lining to outer steel wall and superheat had a significant effect on the peak heat flux in significance range varying between 5 and 25%. A heat flux model was proposed to estimate the maximum heat flux transients at different superheat levels of 25 to 75 °C for any metal/mold combinations having a thermal diffusivity ratio (α R) varying between 0.25 and 6.96. The heat flow models could be used to estimate interfacial heat flux transients from the thermophysical properties of the mold and cast materials and the melt superheat. Metallographic analysis indicated finer microstructures for castings poured at increased melt superheats and cast in high-thermal diffusivity molds.

  5. Drop test and crash simulation of a civil airplane fuselage section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaochuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crashworthiness of a civil airplane fuselage section was studied in this paper. Firstly, the failure criterion of a rivet was studied by test, showing that the ultimate tension and shear failure loads were obviously affected by the loading speed. The relations between the loading speed and the average ultimate shear, tension loads were expressed by two logarithmic functions. Then, a vertical drop test of a civil airplane fuselage section was conducted with an actual impact velocity of 6.85 m/s, meanwhile the deformation of cabin frame and the accelerations at typical locations were measured. The finite element model of a main fuselage structure was developed and validated by modal test, and the error between the calculated frequencies and the test ones of the first four modes were less than 5%. Numerical simulation of the drop test was performed by using the LS-DYNA code and the simulation results show a good agreement with that of drop test. Deforming mode of the analysis was the same as the drop test; the maximum average rigid acceleration in test was 8.81g while the calculated one was 9.17g, with an error of 4.1%; average maximum test deformation at four points on the front cabin floor was 420 mm, while the calculated one was 406 mm, with an error of 3.2%; the peak value of the calculated acceleration at a typical location was 14.72g, which is lower than the test result by 5.46%; the calculated rebound velocity result was greater than the test result 17.8% and energy absorption duration was longer than the test result by 5.73%.

  6. Determining the Efficiency of Different Preoperative Difficult Intubation Tests on Patients Undergoing Caesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, İlker; İnal, Mehmet Turan; Memiş, Dilek; Turan, F Nesrin

    2017-04-13

    Pregnancy induced anatomical and physiological changes in the airway makes airway management difficult in obstetric patients, thus the preoperative evaluation of the airway is important for obstetric patients. The first aim was determine the effectiveness of the modified mallampati test, the interincisor, sternomental, thyromental distances, the upper limb bite tests and the second aim was to access the effectiveness of the combination of the upper limb bite test with the other tests in obstetric patients. Cross-sectional study. Two hundred and fifty pregnant women scheluded for caesarean section were analyzed. Age, height and weight of the patients were all collected. Preoperative airway evaluation was done by using modified mallampati test. The interincisor, sternomental and thyromental distances and the upper limb bite test was performed. The laryngoscopy difficulty was evaluated by Results:No statistically significant difference was found between age, height and weight (p>0.05). The modified mallampati test, interincisor, sternomental, and thyromental distances revealed a lower number than the number of easy intubations determined by the Cormack-Lehane classification and a higher number than the case number of difficult intubations (pthyromental distance tests were found as 73.08, 57.69, 84.62, 80.77, 88.46 and 90.62, 99.11, 83.04, 84.37 and 87.05. When the combinations were examined, the sensitivity and the specificity of the combination of the upper limb bite test with the modified mallampati test were found as 57.69 and 100. When the upper limb bite test was combined with the the interincisor distance, the sensitivity and the specificity were detected as 46.15 and 100. We found 93.75 and 95.30 values as the sensitivity and specificity of the combination of the upper limb bite test with the thyromental distance test. The sensitivity and the specificity of the combination of upper limb bite test with the modified mallampati test and interincisor distance test

  7. Production of A356 aluminum alloy wheels by thixo-forging combined with a low superheat casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuncheng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The A356 aluminum alloy wheels were produced by thixo-forging combined with a low superheat casting process. The as-cast microstructure, microstructure evolution during reheating and the mechanical properties of thixo-forged wheels made from the A356 aluminum alloy were studied. The results show that the A356 aluminum alloy round billet with fine, uniform and non-dendritic grains can be obtained when the melt is cast at 635 篊. When the round billet is reheated at 600 篊 for 60 min, the non-dendritic grains are changed into spherical ones and the round billet can be easily thixo-forged into wheels. The tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of the thixo-forged wheels with T6 heat treatment are 327.6 MPa, 228.3 MPa and 7.8%, respectively, which are higher than those of a cast wheel. It is suggested that the thixo-forging combined with the low superheat casting process is an effective technique to produce aluminum alloy wheels with high mechanical properties.

  8. Reliability of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Letícia C; Marques, Aline P; Barros, Paula B; Michaelsen, Stella M

    2014-01-01

    The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) was recently created to allow the development of treatments according to the specific balance system affected in each patient. The Brazilian version of the BESTest has not been specifically tested after stroke. To evaluate the intra- and inter-rater reliability and concurrent and convergent validity of the total score of the BESTest and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis after stroke. The study included 16 subjects (61.1 ± 7.5 years) with chronic hemiparesis (54.5 ± 43.5 months after stroke). The BESTest was administered by two raters in the same week and one of the raters repeated the test after a one-week interval. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess intra- and interrater reliability. Concurrent validity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and convergent validity with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC-Brazil) were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Both the BESTest total score (ICC=0.98) and the BESTest sections (ICC between 0.85 and 0.96) have excellent intrarater reliability. Interrater reliability for the total score was excellent (ICC=0.93) and, for the sections, it ranged between 0.71 and 0.94. The correlation coefficient between the BESTest and the BBS and ABC-Brazil were 0.78 and 0.59, respectively. The Brazilian version of the BESTest demonstrated adequate reliability when measured by sections and could identify what balance system was affected in patients after stroke. Concurrent validity was excellent with the BBS total score and good to excellent with the sections. The total scores but not the sections present adequate convergent validity with the ABC-Brazil. However, other psychometric properties should be further investigated.

  9. Reliability of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia C. Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest was recently created to allow the development of treatments according to the specific balance system affected in each patient. The Brazilian version of the BESTest has not been specifically tested after stroke. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intra- and inter-rater reliability and concurrent and convergent validity of the total score of the BESTest and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis after stroke. METHOD: The study included 16 subjects (61.1±7.5 years with chronic hemiparesis (54.5±43.5 months after stroke. The BESTest was administered by two raters in the same week and one of the raters repeated the test after a one-week interval. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was calculated to assess intra- and interrater reliability. Concurrent validity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS and convergent validity with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC-Brazil were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Both the BESTest total score (ICC=0.98 and the BESTest sections (ICC between 0.85 and 0.96 have excellent intrarater reliability. Interrater reliability for the total score was excellent (ICC=0.93 and, for the sections, it ranged between 0.71 and 0.94. The correlation coefficient between the BESTest and the BBS and ABC-Brazil were 0.78 and 0.59, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the BESTest demonstrated adequate reliability when measured by sections and could identify what balance system was affected in patients after stroke. Concurrent validity was excellent with the BBS total score and good to excellent with the sections. The total scores but not the sections present adequate convergent validity with the ABC-Brazil. However, other psychometric properties should be further investigated.

  10. How do people respond to self-test results? A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests, tests on medical conditions that can be performed by consumers without consulting a doctor first, are frequently used. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the safety of self-testing, as it may delay diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the case of inappropriate use of the test, or false-negative results. It is unclear whether self-tests stimulate appropriate follow-up behaviour. Our aim was to examine the frequency of self-test use, consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour. Methods A two step cross-sectional survey was designed. A random sample of 6700 Internet users in an existing Internet panel received an online questionnaire on the use of self-tests. Self-tests were defined as tests on body materials, initiated by consumers with the aim to diagnose a disease or risk factor. A second questionnaire on consumers' response to self-test results was sent to the respondents that were identified as a self-tester in the first questionnaire (n = 703. Results 18.1% (799/4416 of the respondents had ever performed a self-test, the most frequently used tests being those for diabetes (5.3%, kidney disease (4.9%, cholesterol (4.5%, urinary tract infection (1.9% and HIV/AIDS and Chlamydia (both 1.6%. A total of 78.1% of the testers with a normal test result and 81.4% of those with an abnormal result reported confidence in this result. Almost all (95.6% of the testers with a normal result felt reassured. After a normal result, 78.1% did not take any further action and 5.8% consulted a doctor. The corresponding figures after an abnormal test result were 9.3% and 72.2%, respectively. Conclusions Respondents who had performed a self-test seemed to base their follow-up behaviour on the result of the test. They had confidence in the test result, and were often reassured by a normal result. After an abnormal result, most self

  11. Tests on GFRP Pultruded Profiles with Channel Section Subjected to Web Crippling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Chen, Yu

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the web-crippling behavior in glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) pultruded profiles with channel section. A main bending main crack on the web is the main failure mode in the test. The effects of the loading positions, the supporting conditions and bearing lengths on the web crippling behavior of GFRP pultruded profiles with channel section are discussed. Specimens with interior bearing load have higher ultimate strength and all the specimens with loading conditions IG reached the highest ultimate strength but all ruptured. Ultimate strengths of GFRP pultruded profiles with channel section can not be enhanced by increasing the length of the bearing plate. Finite element models were developed to numerically simulate the test results in the terms of ultimate loads, failure modes and load-displacement curves. Based on the results of the parametric study, a number of design formulas are proposed in this paper to accurately predict web crippling ultimate capacity of pultruded GFRP channel sections under four loading and boundary conditions.

  12. Tests on GFRP Pultruded Profiles with Channel Section Subjected to Web Crippling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Chen, Yu

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the web-crippling behavior in glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) pultruded profiles with channel section. A main bending main crack on the web is the main failure mode in the test. The effects of the loading positions, the supporting conditions and bearing lengths on the web crippling behavior of GFRP pultruded profiles with channel section are discussed. Specimens with interior bearing load have higher ultimate strength and all the specimens with loading conditions IG reached the highest ultimate strength but all ruptured. Ultimate strengths of GFRP pultruded profiles with channel section can not be enhanced by increasing the length of the bearing plate. Finite element models were developed to numerically simulate the test results in the terms of ultimate loads, failure modes and load-displacement curves. Based on the results of the parametric study, a number of design formulas are proposed in this paper to accurately predict web crippling ultimate capacity of pultruded GFRP channel sections under four loading and boundary conditions.

  13. Sectional pipeline bundles. Design, fabrication and testing of a subsea pipeline connection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The tests of the prototype system indicated that the system is applicable for connecting pipeline bundle sections. The overall performance of the system is therefore concluded to be satisfactory. Some modifications are required though, for improving the reliability of the system to the level required for offshore North Sea application. The tests showed that connection of the pipeline bundle sections can be performed for alignment tolerances larger than those expected during a typical subsea installation. Pull-in of bundle end sections can be performed with pull-in wires deployed from surface. The offshore tests showed that handling of wires must be done with great care to avoid possibility for wire entanglement, especially if a fully diverless system is to be used. The flowline connection tool was found to be suitable for final alignment of the individual spool ends. It was demonstrated that face to face contact between the hub faces in the connector was obtained after tie-in. Pressure tests showed that the connector could be sealed by the tie-in force applied by the connection tool tie-in system. However, the standard connector clamp which was used, was found to be insuficient for maintaining the connector effectively sealed after removal of the pull-in force applied by the connection tool. Based on the results proposals for improvements of the system are included. Improvements are applicable to the current system for connection of bundle sections or for tie-in operations, relating to conventional pipelines. The improvements also includes a strong connection clamp suitable for subsea use. The connection clamp will replace the standard clamp devise used in this project. (au) EFP-96. 41 refs.

  14. Calibration of the Flow in the Test Section of the Research Wind Tunnel at DST Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    recently upgraded the Low Speed Wind Tunnel electrical control and model support systems. UNCLASSIFIED DST-Group-TN-1468 UNCLASSIFIED...1073. Defence Science and Technology Organisation , Melbourne, Australia. Erm, L. P. 2003 Calibration of the flow in the extended test section...of the low-speed wind tunnel at DSTO. DSTO-TR-1384. Defence Science and Technology Organisation , Melbourne, Australia. Erm, L. P. 2015

  15. Improving clinical cognitive testing: report of the AAN Behavioral Neurology Section Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffner, Kirk R; Gale, Seth A; Barrett, A M; Boeve, Bradley F; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H Branch; D'Esposito, Mark; Finney, Glen R; Gitelman, Darren R; Hart, John J; Lerner, Alan J; Meador, Kimford J; Pietras, Alison C; Voeller, Kytja S; Kaufer, Daniel I

    2015-09-08

    To evaluate the evidence basis of single-domain cognitive tests frequently used by behavioral neurologists in an effort to improve the quality of clinical cognitive assessment. Behavioral Neurology Section members of the American Academy of Neurology were surveyed about how they conduct clinical cognitive testing, with a particular focus on the Neurobehavioral Status Exam (NBSE). In contrast to general screening cognitive tests, an NBSE consists of tests of individual cognitive domains (e.g., memory or language) that provide a more comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Workgroups for each of 5 cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, language, and spatial cognition) conducted evidence-based reviews of frequently used tests. Reviews focused on suitability for office-based clinical practice, including test administration time, accessibility of normative data, disease populations studied, and availability in the public domain. Demographic and clinical practice data were obtained from 200 respondents who reported using a wide range of cognitive tests. Based on survey data and ancillary information, between 5 and 15 tests in each cognitive domain were reviewed. Within each domain, several tests are highlighted as being well-suited for an NBSE. We identified frequently used single-domain cognitive tests that are suitable for an NBSE to help make informed choices about clinical cognitive assessment. Some frequently used tests have limited normative data or have not been well-studied in common neurologic disorders. Utilizing standardized cognitive tests, particularly those with normative data based on the individual's age and educational level, can enhance the rigor and utility of clinical cognitive assessment. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. The effect of sample handling on cross sectional HIV incidence testing results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Laeyendecker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE(S: To determine if mishandling prior to testing would make a sample from a chronically infected subject appear recently infected when tested by cross-sectional HIV incidence assays. METHODS: Serum samples from 31 subjects with chronic HIV infection were tested. Samples were subjected to different handling conditions, including incubation at 4 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C, for 1, 3, 7 or 15 days prior to testing. Samples were also subjected to 1,3, 7 and 15 freeze-thaw cycles prior to testing. Samples were tested using the BED capture enzyme immuno assay (BED-CEIA, Vironostika-less sensitive (V-LS, and an avidity assay using the Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 plus O EIA (avidity assay. RESULTS: Compared to the sample that was not subjected to any mishandling conditions, for the BED-CEIA, V-LS and avidity assay, there was no significant change in test results for samples incubated at 4 °C or 25 °C prior to testing. No impact on test results occurred after 15 freeze-thaw cycles. A decrease in assay results was observed when samples were held for 3 days or longer at 37 °C prior to testing. CONCLUSIONS: Samples can be subjected up to 15 freeze-thaw cycles without affecting the results the BED-CEIA, Vironostika-LS, or avidity assays. Storing samples at 4 °C or 25 °C for up to fifteen days prior to testing had no impact on test results. However, storing samples at 37°C for three or more days did affect results obtained with these assays.

  17. Lexical patterns in the reading comprehension section of the toefl test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Macmillan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language is currently one of the most widely accepted English language proficiency tests. Designed by the ETS (Educational Testing Service, the main purpose of the TOEFL is to determine whether the English language skills of a student applying to a North American college or university are adequate for enrollment into the selected program of study. This study will focus upon the third section of the TOEFL, Reading Comprehension, which consists of several passages followed by questions with different testing purposes. An adaptation of Hoey's (1991 analytical system for the analysis of lexical cohesion in authentic texts will be used to identify bonds connecting reading comprehension questions on the test to key excerpts in the passages they are related to. A number of sample reading comprehension questions taken from practice tests produced by the ETS will be analyzed. The analysis will focus on the relationship between the testing purpose of each question and the type(s of lexical link involved in the identification of the correct answer.

  18. Lexical patterns in the reading comprehension section of the toefl test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Macmillan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language is currently one of the most widely accepted English language proficiency tests. Designed by the ETS (Educational Testing Service, the main purpose of the TOEFL is to determine whether the English language skills of a student applying to a North American college or university are adequate for enrollment into the selected program of study. This study will focus upon the third section of the TOEFL, Reading Comprehension, which consists of several passages followed by questions with different testing purposes. An adaptation of Hoey's (1991 analytical system for the analysis of lexical cohesion in authentic texts will be used to identify bonds connecting reading comprehension questions on the test to key excerpts in the passages they are related to. A number of sample reading comprehension questions taken from practice tests produced by the ETS will be analyzed. The analysis will focus on the relationship between the testing purpose of each question and the type(s of lexical link involved in the identification of the correct answer.

  19. Analytical Validation of AmpliChip p53 Research Test for Archival Human Ovarian FFPE Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Matthew J; McNamara, Andrew R; Nikoloff, D Michele; Nakao, Aki; Cheng, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene (TP53) is reported to be mutated in nearly half of all tumors and plays a central role in genome integrity. Detection of mutations in p53 can be accomplished by many assays, including the AmpliChip p53 Research Test. The AmpliChip p53 Research Test has been successfully used to determine p53 status in hematologic malignancies and fresh frozen solid tissues but there are few reports of using the assay with formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. The objective of this study was to describe analytical performance characterization of the AmpliChip p53 Research Test to detect p53 mutations in genomic DNA isolated from archival FFPE human ovarian tumor tissues. Method correlation with sequencing showed 96% mutation-wise agreement and 99% chip-wise agreement. We furthermore observed 100% agreement (113/113) of the most prevalent TP53 mutations. Workflow reproducibility was 96.8% across 8 samples, with 2 operators, 2 reagent lots and 2 instruments. Section-to-section reproducibility was 100% for each sample across a 60 μm region of the FFPE block from ovarian tumors. These data indicate that the AmpliChip p53 Research Test is an accurate and reproducible method for detecting mutations in TP53 from archival FFPE human ovarian specimens.

  20. Analytical Validation of AmpliChip p53 Research Test for Archival Human Ovarian FFPE Sections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Marton

    Full Text Available The p53 tumor suppressor gene (TP53 is reported to be mutated in nearly half of all tumors and plays a central role in genome integrity. Detection of mutations in p53 can be accomplished by many assays, including the AmpliChip p53 Research Test. The AmpliChip p53 Research Test has been successfully used to determine p53 status in hematologic malignancies and fresh frozen solid tissues but there are few reports of using the assay with formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. The objective of this study was to describe analytical performance characterization of the AmpliChip p53 Research Test to detect p53 mutations in genomic DNA isolated from archival FFPE human ovarian tumor tissues. Method correlation with sequencing showed 96% mutation-wise agreement and 99% chip-wise agreement. We furthermore observed 100% agreement (113/113 of the most prevalent TP53 mutations. Workflow reproducibility was 96.8% across 8 samples, with 2 operators, 2 reagent lots and 2 instruments. Section-to-section reproducibility was 100% for each sample across a 60 μm region of the FFPE block from ovarian tumors. These data indicate that the AmpliChip p53 Research Test is an accurate and reproducible method for detecting mutations in TP53 from archival FFPE human ovarian specimens.

  1. Drop test analysis of fuselage section of R80 commuter aircraft by using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggono, Agus Dwi; Ardianto, Adik Nofa Rochma Wahyu

    2017-04-01

    In commercial aerospace development, feasibility accidents design or crashworthiness is a major concern in aviation safety. Fuselage structure plays an important role in absorbing energy during an accident. The research aims are to determine drop test phenomenon on the fuselage, to investigate deformation occurred in the structure of the fuselage, and to know the influence of the airframe falls position to the stress strain which occurred in the structure of the fuselage. This research was conducted by varying the fall angle of the fuselage in a vertical position or 0° and 15°. Fuselage design was modeled by using SolidWorks. Then the model is imported to the Abaqus for drop test simulation. From the simulation results, it can be obtained the phenomenon of deformation on the structure of the fuselage when it comes in contact with the rigid ground. The high deformation occurs shows the structure capabilities in order to absorb the impact. It could be happened because the deformation is influenced by internal energy and strain energy. The various positions shows the structure capability in order to withstand impact loads during periods of 4-8 seconds and the maximum deformation was reached in 12 seconds. The experiment on the vertical position and the position falls of 15° angle was delivered the highest stress strain. The stress was 483 MPa in struts section, 400.78 MPa in skin section, 358.28 MPa in the floor and 483 MPa in the cargo frame section.

  2. On the influence of chlorides and sulphureous compounds on the corrosion of superheater tubes in boilers with special consideration on kraft recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Fredrik [AaF-IPK AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    This report reviews the thermochemistry of the most relevant corrosion reactions and mechanisms with chloride especially considering the kraft pulp mill recovery boiler. The flue gas side corrosion of superheater tubes is governed by the fuel constituents, and by the carryover particles and the gaseous impurities accompanying the flue gases and the local chemical conditions they cause on the superheater tube surface. A study made on coal-fired boilers in Germany has been interpreted so that the protective ability of the oxide layer on the tube surface of a superheater tube is limited, which causes a close to linear time dependence of the material loss due to corrosion. The thermochemistry of the reactions of the protective oxide layer itself with the components of the deposited carryover and the flue gas sulphur components seems thus to govern the mechanism of the corrosion. The corrosion in the recovery boiler is concluded to be more dependant on this combined action of carry-over and sulphureous oxides, so the presence of chlorides in the flue gases only influences the melting range properties of the sulphate deposits, but seems to exert less influence on the chemical reactions which attack the oxides of the passive layer. The thermochemistry also explains the formation of a sulphide layer often found between the deposits and the surface of the tube metal on superheater tubes as a result of reaction with sulpureous oxides from the flue gas and carbon in the carryover. The factors which in practice limit the superheater corrosion in the recovery boiler are interpreted as both material and process dependent. The main limiting factor for the steam temperature is still the melting range of the sulphate deposit. There seems thus to be little hope for the aim to raise the steam temperature of the kraft recovery boiler above the range which is already achievable with the presently available composite tubes 22 refs, 10 figs

  3. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-06-01

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  4. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, B.S.; Prakash, S. [GZS College of Engineering & Technology, Bathinda (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-06-15

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10A1-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  5. Failure problems in superheater spacers of steam generators; Problematica de fallas en espaciadores de sobrecalentadores de generadores de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon Nava, Jose G.; Martinez Villafane, Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Fuentes Samaniego, Raul [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Mojica Calderon, Cecilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    In this article the general aspects of the steam generator superheater fixed spacers failures are analyzed, emphasis is made on the influence several aspects such as the operation of the unit have, the appropriate execution of welds and the selection of binding materials. Likewise several recommendations are made to bring the failures to a minimum. [Espanol] En este articulo se analizan aspectos generales de fallas en espaciadores fijos de sobrecalentadores de generadores de vapor, y se hace hincapie en la influencia que tienen diversos aspectos tales como la operacion de la unidad, la adecuada ejecucion de soldaduras y la seleccion del material de aporte. Asimismo, se proponen algunas recomendaciones para reducir al minimo las fallas.

  6. Monte Carlo Predictions of Proton SEE Cross-Sections from Heavy Ion Test Data

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, Kai; Zhang, Zhan-Gang; Hou, Ming-Dong; Sun, You-Mei; Luo, Jie; Liu, Tian-Qi; Wang, Bin; Ye, Bing; Yin, Ya-Nan; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The limits of previous methods promote us to design a new approach (named PRESTAGE) to predict proton single event effect (SEE) cross-sections using heavy-ion test data. To more realistically simulate the SEE mechanisms, we adopt Geant4 and the location-dependent strategy to describe the physics processes and the sensitivity of the device. Cross-sections predicted by PRESTAGE for over twenty devices are compared with the measured data. Evidences show that PRESTAGE can calculate not only single event upsets induced by proton indirect ionization, but also direct ionization effects and single event latch-ups. Most of the PRESTAGE calculated results agree with the experimental data within a factor of 2-3.

  7. Low-frequency rotational noise in closed-test-section wind tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Marianne

    The effects of closed-section wind-tunnel walls on the sound field radiated from a helicopter rotor are investigated by means of numerical simulations, summarizing the findings reported by Mosher (1986). The techniques used to model the rotor and the test section (including geometry, wall absorption, and measurement location) are outlined, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs. It is found that first-harmonic acoustic measurements obtained in a hard-walled wind tunnel twice as wide as the rotor diameter do not accurately represent the free-field rotational noise, that the relationship between the sound-pressure levels in the wind tunnel and in the free field is complex, that multiple near-field measurements are needed to characterize the direct acoustic field of the rotor, and that absorptive linings are of little value in enlarging the accurate-measurement zone.

  8. Development and Testing of Neutron Cross Section Covariance Data for SCALE 6.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Williams, Mark L [ORNL; Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Dunn, Michael E [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Clarity, Justin B [ORNL; Jones, Elizabeth L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Neutron cross-section covariance data are essential for many sensitivity/uncertainty and uncertainty quantification assessments performed both within the TSUNAMI suite and more broadly throughout the SCALE code system. The release of ENDF/B-VII.1 included a more complete set of neutron cross-section covariance data: these data form the basis for a new cross-section covariance library to be released in SCALE 6.2. A range of testing is conducted to investigate the properties of these covariance data and ensure that the data are reasonable. These tests include examination of the uncertainty in critical experiment benchmark model keff values due to nuclear data uncertainties, as well as similarity assessments of irradiated pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel with suites of critical experiments. The contents of the new covariance library, the testing performed, and the behavior of the new covariance data are described in this paper. The neutron cross-section covariances can be combined with a sensitivity data file generated using the TSUNAMI suite of codes within SCALE to determine the uncertainty in system keff caused by nuclear data uncertainties. The Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data (VALID) maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains over 400 critical experiment benchmark models, and sensitivity data are generated for each of these models. The nuclear data uncertainty in keff is generated for each experiment, and the resulting uncertainties are tabulated and compared to the differences in measured and calculated results. The magnitude of the uncertainty for categories of nuclides (such as actinides, fission products, and structural materials) is calculated for irradiated PWR and BWR fuel to quantify the effect of covariance library changes between the SCALE 6.1 and 6.2 libraries. One of the primary applications of sensitivity/uncertainty methods within SCALE is the

  9. HIV testing and tolerance to gender based violence: a cross-sectional study in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gari

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64% and 268 women (56% had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19; tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32 and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80. In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families.

  10. Experimental Study of Quenching Process During Bottom Reflooding Using “Queen” Test Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Juarsa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenon of quenching of hot fuels in core during bottom reflooding following loca event is investigated in order to understand the performance cooling process. the study is conducted experimentally using queen test section which allow study of rod surface temperature histories based on which the heat fluxes are estimated. the visual observation is also done to study the boiling regimes. the test variables are initial rod temperature, i.e. 400oc, 500oc and 600oc, and coolant flow rate, i.e. 0,01kg/s, 0.02 kg/s and 0.04 kg/s with constant water inlet temperature of 30oc. the results shows different heat transfer regimes such as film boiling, transition boiling, nucleate boiling and convective single phase heat transfer regimes. for specified initial rod temperature, the higher flow rate provides high rewet velocity and higher maximum heat flux, then quenching process is more effective.

  11. Using Combined Diagnostic Test Results to Hindcast Trends of Infection from Cross-Sectional Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Rydevik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious disease surveillance is key to limiting the consequences from infectious pathogens and maintaining animal and public health. Following the detection of a disease outbreak, a response in proportion to the severity of the outbreak is required. It is thus critical to obtain accurate information concerning the origin of the outbreak and its forward trajectory. However, there is often a lack of situational awareness that may lead to over- or under-reaction. There is a widening range of tests available for detecting pathogens, with typically different temporal characteristics, e.g. in terms of when peak test response occurs relative to time of exposure. We have developed a statistical framework that combines response level data from multiple diagnostic tests and is able to 'hindcast' (infer the historical trend of an infectious disease epidemic. Assuming diagnostic test data from a cross-sectional sample of individuals infected with a pathogen during an outbreak, we use a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC approach to estimate time of exposure, and the overall epidemic trend in the population prior to the time of sampling. We evaluate the performance of this statistical framework on simulated data from epidemic trend curves and show that we can recover the parameter values of those trends. We also apply the framework to epidemic trend curves taken from two historical outbreaks: a bluetongue outbreak in cattle, and a whooping cough outbreak in humans. Together, these results show that hindcasting can estimate the time since infection for individuals and provide accurate estimates of epidemic trends, and can be used to distinguish whether an outbreak is increasing or past its peak. We conclude that if temporal characteristics of diagnostics are known, it is possible to recover epidemic trends of both human and animal pathogens from cross-sectional data collected at a single point in time.

  12. HPV testing in routine cervical screening: cross sectional data from the ARTISTIC trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, H C; Almonte, M; Wheeler, P; Desai, M; Gilham, C; Bailey, A; Sargent, A; Peto, J

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in primary cervical screening. This was a cross-sectional study from the recruitment phase of a prospective randomised trial. Women were screened for HPV in addition to routine cervical cytology testing. Greater Manchester, attendees at routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme. In all, 24 510 women aged 20–64 screened with liquid-based cytology (LBC) and HPV testing at entry. HPV testing in primary cervical screening. Type-specific HPV prevalence rates are presented in relation to age as well as cytological and histological findings at entry. In all, 24 510 women had adequate cytology and HPV results. Cytology results at entry were: 87% normal, 11% borderline or mild, 1.1% moderate and 0.6% severe dyskaryosis or worse. Prevalence of HPV decreased sharply with age, from 40% at age 20–24 to 12% at 35–39 and 7% or less above age 50. It increased with cytological grade, from 10% of normal cytology and 31% of borderline to 70% mild, 86% moderate, and 96% of severe dyskaryosis or worse. HPV 16 or HPV 18 accounted for 64% of infections in women with severe or worse cytology, and one or both were found in 61% of women with severe dyskaryosis but in only 2.2% of those with normal cytology. The majority of young women in Greater Manchester have been infected with a high-risk HPV by the age of 30. HPV testing is practicable as a primary routine screening test, but in women aged under 30 years, this would lead to a substantial increase in retesting and referral rates. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are more predictive of underlying disease, but other HPV types account for 30% of high-grade disease. PMID:16773068

  13. Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leta Tesfaye H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59 years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ≤44 years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

  14. Fabrication of Test Tubes for Coal Ash Corrosion Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Judkins, R.R.; Sikka, V.K.; Swindeman, R.W.; Wright, I.G.

    1999-05-11

    This paper deals with the fabrication of tube sections of four alloys for incorporating into test sections to be assembled by Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) for installation at Ohio Edison Power, Niles Plant. The primary purpose of the installation was to determine the corrosion behavior of ten different alloys for flue gas corrosion. Ohio Edison Power, Niles Plant is burning an Ohio coal containing approximately 3.4% S (dry basis) and approximately 0.4% alkali which causes chronic coal ash corrosion of the unit�s superheater tubing. The 2.5-in.-OD x 0.4in.-wall x 6-in-long sections of four alloys {type 304H coated with Fe3Al alloy FAS [developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)], 310 + Ta, modified 800H, and Thermie alloy} were fabricated at ORNL. Each alloy tubing was characterized in terms of chemical analysis and microstructure. The machined tubes of each of the alloys were inspected and shipped on time for incorporation into the test loop fabricated at B&W. Among the alloys fabricated, Thermie was the hardest to extrude and machine.

  15. Velocimetry modalities for secondary flows in a curved artery test section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Elkins, Christopher J.; Banko, Andrew J.; Plesniak, Michael W.; Eaton, John K.

    2014-11-01

    Secondary flow structures arise due to curvature-related centrifugal forces and pressure imbalances. These flow structures influence wall shear stress and alter blood particle residence times. Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques were implemented independently, under the same physiological inflow conditions (Womersley number = 4.2). A 180-degree curved artery test section with curvature ratio (1/7) was used as an idealized geometry for curved arteries. Newtonian blood analog fluids were used for both MRV and PIV experiments. The MRV-technique offers the advantage of three-dimensional velocity field acquisition without requiring optical access or flow markers. Phase-averaged, two-dimensional, PIV-data at certain cross-sectional planes and inflow phases were compared to phase-averaged MRV-data to facilitate the characterization of large-scale, Dean-type vortices. Coherent structures detection methods that included a novel wavelet decomposition-based approach to characterize these flow structures was applied to both PIV- and MRV-data. The overarching goal of this study is the detection of motific, three-dimensional shapes of secondary flow structures using MRV techniques with guidance obtained from high fidelity, 2D-PIV measurements. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-0828903, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  16. Utilization of Advanced Diagnostic Methods for Texture and Rut Depth Analysis on a Testing Pavement Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabej, Martin; Grinč, Michal; Kotek, Peter; Kováč, Matúš; Decký, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Qualitative characteristics of pavement in wide range reflects the pavement serviceability, which is a summary of the characteristics of the pavement, providing a fast, smooth, economical and especially safe driving of motor-vehicles. The target factor of pavement serviceability and safety of roads represents the quality of their surface properties. In the framework of research activities performed in the Research Centre founded under the auspices of University of Žilina, individual parameters of pavement serviceability were monitored by pavement surface scanning. This paper describes the creation of a 3D - road surface model and its analysis and evaluation from the viewpoint of two pavement serviceability parameters - the rut depth and texture. Measurements were performed on an experimental pavement section used contemporary in an Accelerated Pavement Testing experiment. The long-term goal is to ascertain functions predicting degradation of these two pavement serviceability parameters.

  17. Nucleate pool boiling investigation on a silicon test section with micro-fabricated cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanna, A.; Kenning, D.B.R.; Karayiannis, T.G. [Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Hutter, C.; Sefiane, K. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Nelson, R.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The basic mechanisms of nucleate boiling are still not completely understood, in spite of the many numerical and experimental studies dedicated to the topic. The use of a hybrid code allows reasonable computational times for simulations of a solid plate with a large population of artificial micro-cavities with fixed distribution. This paper analyses the guidelines for the design, through numerical simulations, of the location and sizes of micro-fabricated cavities on a new silicon test section immersed in FC-72 at the saturation temperature for different pressures with an imposed heat flux applied at the back of the plate. Particular focus is on variations of wall temperature around nucleation sites. (author)

  18. Utilization of Advanced Diagnostic Methods for Texture and Rut Depth Analysis on a Testing Pavement Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slabej Martin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative characteristics of pavement in wide range reflects the pavement serviceability, which is a summary of the characteristics of the pavement, providing a fast, smooth, economical and especially safe driving of motor-vehicles. The target factor of pavement serviceability and safety of roads represents the quality of their surface properties. In the framework of research activities performed in the Research Centre founded under the auspices of University of Žilina, individual parameters of pavement serviceability were monitored by pavement surface scanning. This paper describes the creation of a 3D - road surface model and its analysis and evaluation from the viewpoint of two pavement serviceability parameters - the rut depth and texture. Measurements were performed on an experimental pavement section used contemporary in an Accelerated Pavement Testing experiment. The long-term goal is to ascertain functions predicting degradation of these two pavement serviceability parameters.

  19. Characteristics Evaluation of a CO2-Caputuring Power Generation System with Reheat Cycle Utilizing Regenerative Oxygen-Combustion Steam-Superheater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    A new CO2-capturing power generation system is proposed that can be easily realized by applying conventional technologies. In the proposed system, the temperature of middle-pressure steam in a thermal power plant is raised by utilizing oxygen-combusting regenerative steam-superheater. The generated CO2 by combusting fuel in the superheater can be easily separated and captured from the exhaust gas at condenser outlet, and is liquefied. The superheated steam is used to drive a steam turbine power generation system. By adopting a high efficient combined cycle power generation system as an example, it has been shown that the proposed system can increase power output by 10.8%, decrease the CO2 emission amount of the total integrated system by 18.6% with power generation efficiency drop of 2.36% compared with the original power plant without CO2-capture, when superheated steam temperature is 750°C

  20. Effects of Degree of Superheat on the Running Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Waste Heat Recovery System for Diesel Engines under Various Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the variation law of engine exhaust energy under various operating conditions to improve the thermal efficiency and fuel economy of diesel engines. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system with internal heat exchanger (IHE was designed to recover waste heat from the diesel engine exhaust. The zeotropic mixture R416A was used as the working fluid for the ORC. Three evaluation indexes were presented as follows: waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR, and output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF. In terms of various operating conditions of the diesel engine, this study investigated the variation tendencies of the running performances of the ORC waste heat recovery system and the effects of the degree of superheat on the running performance of the ORC waste heat recovery system through theoretical calculations. The research findings showed that the net power output, WHRE, and ETEIR of the ORC waste heat recovery system reach their maxima when the degree of superheat is 40 K, engine speed is 2200 r/min, and engine torque is 1200 N·m. OEDWF gradually increases with the increase in the degree of superheat, which indicates that the required mass flow rate of R416A decreases for a certain net power output, thereby significantly decreasing the risk of environmental pollution.

  1. Influence of Electronic Expansion Valve on Evaporator Superheat Stability%电子膨胀阀对蒸发器过热度稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章晓龙; 李征涛; 陈忆; 高联斌

    2014-01-01

    为研究电子膨胀阀对蒸发器过热度稳定性的影响,建立了一套制冷系统控制试验台,试验得出电子膨胀阀的最小稳态过热度曲线,并在动态响应试验中得出蒸发器增益与时间常数、延迟时间与蒸发温度和过热度的关联性,从而为电子膨胀阀的控制优化提供参考。%To research the EEV’s effect on the stability of the evaporator superheat,the refrigeration control system experiment is built.The experiment show that the EEV has its own minimum steady-state superheat curve,and the dynamic response experi-ment gets the relationship between the evaporator gain,time constant,delay time and evaporating temprature,superheat,then it helps to built the better contol system of EEV.

  2. The Near Mallett Unit Foveal Suppression Test: a cross-sectional study to establish test norms and relationship with other optometric tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sosena T W; Evans, Bruce J W

    2007-01-01

    When the binocular system comes under prolonged stress in decompensated heterophoria, a small suppression area can develop at the fovea. This foveal suppression (FS) may be an adaptation to eliminate symptoms. The near Mallett unit (NMU) is a hand-held instrument that contains a binocular status test for detecting and quantifying FS. We measured FS in a cross-sectional study of 131 patients to investigate the normal range of responses. A ratio scoring method was devised which considers the number of letters read with dichoptic viewing when binocularly fused (b) and under monocular (m) conditions, using the formula 100 x (m - b)/m. The 95th percentile value of the FS ratios was calculated as the limit of the normal range and this gave a value for the right eye (RE; 33%), left eye (LE; 43%) and total (38%). This result shows that statistically significant FS occurs when a patient can read approximately one line further in the test monocularly, compared to under fused dichoptic conditions. A statistically significant correlation was found between absolute values of horizontal aligning prism (associated heterophoria on the NMU) and FS ratio. Some limitations of the FS test and unexpected results became apparent during our research and an abnormal result on the test does not always indicate a binocular vision anomaly. Nonetheless, we feel that the test can provide useful information when the results are taken in the context of other clinical tests. Our results are used to develop recommendations and clinical guidelines for using the FS test, and to make suggestions for improvements in future designs of the test.

  3. Test of statistical model cross section calculations for $\\alpha$-induced reactions on $^{107}$Ag at energies of astrophysical interest

    OpenAIRE

    C. Yalcin; Gyürky, Gy.; Rauscher, T.; Kiss, G G; Özkan, N.; Güray, R T; Z. Halász; Szücs, T.; Fülöp, Zs.; Z. Korkulu; Somorjai, E.

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical reaction rates, which are mostly derived from theoretical cross sections, are necessary input to nuclear reaction network simulations for studying the origin of $p$ nuclei. Past experiments have found a considerable difference between theoretical and experimental cross sections in some cases, especially for ($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$) reactions at low energy. Therefore, it is important to experimentally test theoretical cross section predictions at low, astrophysically relevant energies...

  4. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  5. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing an ionization chamber with gaseous samples and measurements of the (n, alpha) reaction cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Gledenov, Yu M; Salatskii, V I; Sedyshev, P V; Andrzejewski, J; Szalanski, P

    1999-01-01

    A new ionization chamber with gaseous samples (GIC) has been designed and tested on the thermal and resonance neutron beams of FLNP's neutron sources. The exposed gas volume serves as a target for neutrons. The obtained thermal cross sections for the sup 1 sup 7 O(n, alpha) sup 1 sup 4 C, sup 2 sup 1 Ne(n, alpha) sup 1 sup 8 O and sup 3 sup 6 Ar(n, alpha) sup 3 sup 3 S reactions are (233+-12) mb, (0.18+-0.09) mb and (5.43+-0.27) mb, respectively. These measurements have been performed on a pure beam of thermal neutrons from the high flux reactor IBR-2; and they demonstrated high efficiency and reliability of the method. Compared to samples on substrates, the application of gaseous samples makes the beam background essentially lower, and what is more important, the background component is totally absent due to the absence of Li and B microimpurities in gaseous samples while they do present in the samples on substrates. The method is also applicable to measurements with resonance neutrons. The recovery capabili...

  7. Thin-section CT imaging that correlates with pulmonary function tests in obstructive airway disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hiroaki, E-mail: arakawa@dokkyomed.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kita-Kobayashi, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine (Japan); Fukushima, Yasutugu [Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University (Japan); Kaji, Yasushi [Department of Radiology, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kita-Kobayashi, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify independent CT findings that correlated with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with obstructive airway diseases. Materials and methods: Sixty-eight patients with obstructive airway disease and 29 normal subjects (mean age, 52 years; 36 men and 61 women) underwent inspiratory and expiratory thin-section CT and PFTs. Patient with obvious emphysema was excluded. Two radiologists independently reviewed the images and semi-quantitatively evaluated lung attenuation (mosaic perfusion, air trapping) and airway abnormalities (extent and severity of bronchial wall thickening and bronchiectasis, bronchiolectasis or centrilobular nodules, mucous plugging). Univariate, multivariate and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed with CT findings and PFTs. Results: Forty-two patients showed obstructive PFTs, 26 symptomatic patients showed near-normal PFTs. On univariate analysis, air trapping and bronchial wall thickening showed highest correlation with obstructive PFTs such as FEV1.0/FVC, MMEF and FEF75 (r ranged from -0.712 to -0.782; p < 0.001), while mosaic perfusion and mucous plugging showed moderate correlation, and bronchiectasis, bronchiolectasis and nodules showed the least, but significant, correlation. Multiple logistic analyses revealed air trapping and bronchial wall thickening as the only significant independent determinants of obstructive PFTs. ROC analysis revealed the cut-off value of air trapping for obstructive PFTs to be one-third of whole lung (area under curve, 0.847). Conclusions: Our study confirmed air trapping and bronchial wall thickening are the most important observations when imaging obstructive PFTs. The cut-off value of air trapping for identifying obstructive PFTs was one-third of lung irrespective of inspiratory CT findings.

  8. Assumption tests regarding the ‘narrow’ rectangles dimensions of the open thin wall sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanta, E.; Panait, C.; Sabau, A.; Barhalescu, M.; Dascalescu, A. E.

    2016-08-01

    Computer based analytic models that use the strength of materials theory are inheriting the accuracy given by the basic simplifying hypotheses. The according assumptions were rationally conceived hundreds of years ago in an age when there was no computing instrument, therefore the minimization of the necessary volume of calculi was an important requirement. An initial study was an attempt to evaluate how ‘thin’ may be the walls of an open section in order to have accurate results using the analytic calculus method. In this initial study there was compared the calculus of the rectangular sections loaded by twisting moments vs. a narrow section under the same load. Being compared analytic methods applied for a simple shape section, a more thorough study was required. In this way, we consider a thin wall open section loaded by a twisting moment, section which is discretized in ‘narrow’ rectangles. The ratio of the sides of the ‘narrow’ rectangles is the variable of the study. We compare the results of the finite element analysis to the results of the analytic method. The conclusions are important for the development of computer based analytic models which use parametrized sections for which different sets of calculus relations may be used.

  9. Report on 240Am(n,x) surrogate cross section test measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ressler, J J; Burke, J T; Gostic, J; Bleuel, D; Escher, J E; Henderson, R A; Koglin, J; Reed, T; Scielzo, N D; Stoyer, M A

    2012-02-01

    The main goal of the test measurement was to determine the feasibility of the {sup 243}Am(p,t) reaction as a surrogate for {sup 240}Am(n,f). No data cross section data exists for neutron induced reactions on {sup 240}Am; the half-life of this isotope is only 2.1 days making direct measurements difficult, if not impossible. The 48-hour experiment was conducted using the STARS/LIBERACE experimental facility located at the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in August 2011. A description of the experiment and results is given. The beam energy was initially chosen to be 39 MeV in order to measure an equivalent neutron energy range from 0 to 20 MeV. However, the proton beam was not stopped in the farady cup and the beam was deposited in the surrounding shielding material. The shielding material was not conductive, and a beam current, needed for proper tuning of the beam as well as experimental monitoring, could not be read. If the {sup 240}Am(n,f) surrogate experiment is to be run at LBNL, simple modifications to the beam collection site will need to be made. The beam energy was reduced to 29 MeV, which was within an energy regime of prior experiments and tuning conditions at STARS/LIBERACE. At this energy, the beam current was successfully tuned and measured. At 29 MeV, data was collected with both the {sup 243}Am and {sup 238}U targets. An example particle identification plot is shown in Fig. 1. The triton-fission coincidence rate for the {sup 243}Am target and {sup 238}U target were measured. Coincidence rates of 0.0233(1) cps and 0.150(6) cps were observed for the {sup 243}Am and {sup 238}U targets, respectively. The difference in count rate is largely attributed to the available target material - the {sup 238}U target contains approximately 7 times more atoms than the {sup 243}Am. A proton beam current of {approx}0.7 nA was used for measurements on both targets. Assuming a full experimental run under similar conditions, an estimate for the

  10. Evaluation of the COPD Assessment Test and GOLD patient types: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Campos JL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jose Luis Lopez-Campos,1,2,* Alberto Fernandez-Villar,3,* Carmen Calero-Acuña,1 Cristina Represas-Represas,3 Cecilia Lopez-Ramírez,1 Virginia Leiro Fernández,3 Juan Jose Soler-Cataluña,2,4 Ricard Casamor5 On behalf of the On-Sint study group 1Unidad Médico-Quirúrgica de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain; 2CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; 3Servicio de Neumología, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Vigo (IBIV, Complexo Hospitalario de Vigo, Vigo, Spain; 4Servicio de Neumología Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, Spain; 5Departamento Médico de Novartis Farmacéutica, Barcelona, Spain *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The COPD Assessment Test (CAT has been recently developed to quantify COPD impact in routine practice. However, no relationship with other measures in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD strategy has been evaluated. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship of the CAT with other GOLD multidimensional axes, patient types, and the number of comorbidities.Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (On-Sint study. The CAT score was administered to all participants at the inclusion visit. A GOLD 2011 strategy consisting of modified Medical Research Council scale (MRC scores was devised to study the relationship between the CAT, and GOLD 2011 axes and patient types. The relationship with comorbidities was assessed using the Charlson comorbidity index, grouped as zero, one to two, and three or more.Results: The CAT questionnaire was completed by 1,212 patients with COPD. The CAT maintained a relationship with all the three axes, with a ceiling effect for dyspnea and no distinction between mild and

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING RESULT IN CHINESE PROFICIENCY TEST (HSK LEVEL 6: READING SECTION AND PREPARATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the author’s personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING RESULT IN CHINESE PROFICIENCY TEST (HSK LEVEL 6 READING SECTION AND PREPARATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese proficiency test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the authors personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  13. Comparison of tuberculin skin test and quantiferon-TB gold in tube test for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in health care workers: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkanat, Erkan; Kaya, Hatice; Sezer, Ogun; Caliskan, Tayfun; Kilic, Erol; Ciftci, Faruk; Gumus, Seyfettin; Kartaloglu, Zafer

    2016-03-01

    To compare the diagnostic efficacy and agreement of the traditional tuberculin skin test with QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test for latent tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers. The cross-sectional analytical study was conducted between March 1 and 31, 2008, at a specialist tuberculosis hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, and comprised healthcare workers who had been employed for at least one year at the hospital and volunteered to take part. Tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test were both performed simultaneously and their results were compared Using SPSS 12. Out of 34 subjects, 20(58.8%) had a positive tuberculin skin test, and 7(20.6%) had a positive QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test. The two tests agreed in only 15(44.1%) cases and disagreed in 19(55.9%). In 16(47.1%) subjects, the QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test was negative and tuberculin skin testwas positive, while in 3(8.8%) participants QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test was positive and tuberculin skin test was negative. Kappa test revealed discordance between the two tests (k=-0.13; p=0.92). Latent tuberculosis infection prevalence was higher based on tuberculin skin test than QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test. The results of the two tests were discordant.

  14. Indo-Soviet experiment on an MHD generator test section at the Soviet U-O/sub 2/ facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Bapat, A.V.; Das, A.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

    1982-09-01

    This paper summarizes the major results of the joint Indo-Soviet experiment for testing the Indian MHD generator channel section, designed and fabricated at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, which was carried out at the U-02 facility in Moscow, USSR, in May 1980. The total test duration was 65 hours and included electrophysical tests and life tests under applied electric fields. The main purpose of the tests was to substantiate the physical concepts, computer codes, design features and special processing techniques involved in the development of MHD generators for the Indian pilot plant at Tiruchirapalli. The experimental observations on the phenomena of heat transfer to the walls, gas dynamics in the channel, electrical characteristics of the generator and near-electrode processes including the analysis of arc spots correlate with the theoretical estimates based on present uderstanding of the physical processes occuring in similar MHD generators. The post-operational inspection of the channel section and extensive investigation of materials through microscopic analysis, chemical analysis and x-ray analysis are also reported in this paper. The joint test programme has clearly demonstrated the definite operating capability of the test section and has given sufficient information and encouragement for building better and improved channels for the future.

  15. Comparison of ALE and SPH Simulations of Vertical Drop Tests of a Composite Fuselage Section into Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fuchs, Yvonne T.

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of multi-terrain impact has been identified as an important research area for improved prediction of rotorcraft crashworthiness within the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Aeronautics Program on Rotorcraft Crashworthiness. As part of this effort, two vertical drop tests were conducted of a 5-ft-diameter composite fuselage section into water. For the first test, the fuselage section was impacted in a baseline configuration without energy absorbers. For the second test, the fuselage section was retrofitted with a composite honeycomb energy absorber. Both tests were conducted at a nominal velocity of 25-ft/s. A detailed finite element model was developed to represent each test article and water impact was simulated using both Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approaches in LS-DYNA, a nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Analytical predictions were correlated with experimental data for both test configurations. In addition, studies were performed to evaluate the influence of mesh density on test-analysis correlation.

  16. Equity in HIV testing: evidence from a cross-sectional study in ten Southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steven

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing with counseling is an integral component of most national HIV and AIDS prevention strategies in southern Africa. Equity in testing implies that people at higher risk for HIV such as women; those who do not use condoms consistently; those with multiple partners; those who have suffered gender based violence; and those who are unable to implement prevention choices (the choice-disabled are tested and can have access to treatment. Methods We conducted a household survey of 24,069 people in nationally stratified random samples of communities in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We asked about testing for HIV in the last 12 months, intention to test, and about HIV risk behaviour, socioeconomic indicators, access to information, and attitudes related to stigma. Results Across the ten countries, seven out of every ten people said they planned to have an HIV test but the actual proportion tested in the last 12 months varied from 24% in Mozambique to 64% in Botswana. Generally, people at higher risk of HIV were not more likely to have been tested in the last year than those at lower risk, although women were more likely than men to have been tested in six of the ten countries. In Swaziland, those who experienced partner violence were more likely to test, but in Botswana those who were choice-disabled for condom use were less likely to be tested. The two most consistent factors associated with HIV testing across the countries were having heard about HIV/AIDS from a clinic or health centre, and having talked to someone about HIV and AIDS. Conclusions HIV testing programmes need to encourage people at higher risk of HIV to get tested, particularly those who do not interact regularly with the health system. Service providers need to recognise that some people are not able to implement HIV preventive actions and may not feel empowered to get themselves

  17. The relationship between Test Takers’ Multiple Intelligences and Their Performance on the Reading Sections of TOEFL and IELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Alemi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the hypothetical relationship between the multiple intelligences of test takers and their performance on the reading sections of TOEFL and IELTS. Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences suggests that intelligence is not a single and solely inborn capacity, rather a multiple construct which is only partly genetic, and can be crystallized or paralyzed over one’s lifetime. Based on the theory, there are eight types of intelligence: linguistic, mathematical, musical, bodily, spatial, intrapersonal, interpersonal and naturalist, but the list is not exhaustive. The multiple intelligences of test takers were estimated by means of MIDAS, the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales, developed by Shearer (1994. Subsequently, the bias detection for the reading section of TOEFL was carried out on 90 participants, and this subtest was found to correlate positively with linguistic and logical intelligences. By the same token, 89 out of the 163 participants in the study were included in the analysis of the relationship between the multiple intelligences of test takers and their performance on the reading section of IELTS, and this test proved biased toward linguistic and spatial intelligences. The implications concern the inadequacy of the definition of language proficiency .Moreover, Measurement-Driven Instruction courses and preparatory materials of the two proficiency tests, TOEFL and IELTS, can benefit from the results of the study by being designed in such a way as to represent the intelligences which are positively correlated with performance on the tests in question.

  18. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Crashworthy Composite Fuselage Section with Energy-Absorbing Seats and Dummies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    A 25-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section was conducted with two energy-absorbing seats occupied by anthropomorphic dummies to evaluate the crashworthy features of the fuselage section and to determine its interaction with the seats and dummies. The 5-ft diameter fuselage section consists of a stiff structural floor and an energy-absorbing subfloor constructed of Rohacel foam blocks. The experimental data from this test were analyzed and correlated with predictions from a crash simulation developed using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic computer code, MSC.Dytran. The anthropomorphic dummies were simulated using the Articulated Total Body (ATB) code, which is integrated into MSC.Dytran.

  19. Test of statistical model cross section calculations for $\\alpha$-induced reactions on $^{107}$Ag at energies of astrophysical interest

    CERN Document Server

    Yalcin, C; Rauscher, T; Kiss, G G; Özkan, N; Güray, R T; Halász, Z; Szücs, T; Fülöp, Zs; Korkulu, Z; Somorjai, E

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical reaction rates, which are mostly derived from theoretical cross sections, are necessary input to nuclear reaction network simulations for studying the origin of $p$ nuclei. Past experiments have found a considerable difference between theoretical and experimental cross sections in some cases, especially for ($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$) reactions at low energy. Therefore, it is important to experimentally test theoretical cross section predictions at low, astrophysically relevant energies. The aim is to measure reaction cross sections of $^{107}$Ag($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$)$^{111}$In and $^{107}$Ag($\\alpha$,n)$^{110}$In at low energies in order to extend the experimental database for astrophysical reactions involving $\\alpha$ particles towards lower mass numbers. Reaction rate predictions are very sensitive to the optical model parameters and this introduces a large uncertainty into theoretical rates involving $\\alpha$ particles at low energy. We have also used Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations to s...

  20. Summary of Benefits under the Educational Assistance Test Program Section 901 of Public Law 96-342. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Veterans Affairs, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Section 901 is an Educational Assistance Test Program created by the Department of Defense Authorization Act of 1981 (Public Law 96-342) to individuals who entered on active duty after September 30, 1980, and before October 1, 1981 (or before October 1, 1982, if entry was under a delayed enlistment contract signed between September 30, 1980, and…

  1. Testing for sexually transmitted infections in general practice: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Gary M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care is an important provider of sexual health care in England. We sought to explore the extent of testing for chlamydia and HIV in general practice and its relation to associated measures of sexual health in two contrasting geographical settings. Methods We analysed chlamydia and HIV testing data from 64 general practices and one genitourinary medicine (GUM clinic in Brent (from mid-2003 to mid-2006 and 143 general practices and two GUM clinics in Avon (2004. We examined associations between practice testing status, practice characteristics and hypothesised markers of population need (area level teenage conception rates and Index of Multiple Deprivation, IMD scores. Results No HIV or chlamydia testing was done in 19% (12/64 of general practices in Brent, compared to 2.1% (3/143 in Avon. In Brent, the mean age of general practitioners (GPs in Brent practices that tested for chlamydia or HIV was lower than in those that had not conducted testing. Practices where no HIV testing was done had slightly higher local teenage conception rates (median 23.5 vs. 17.4/1000 women aged 15-44, p = 0.07 and served more deprived areas (median IMD score 27.1 vs. 21.8, p = 0.05. Mean yearly chlamydia and HIV testing rates, in practices that did test were 33.2 and 0.6 (per 1000 patients aged 15-44 years in Brent, and 34.1 and 10.3 in Avon, respectively. In Brent practices only 20% of chlamydia tests were conducted in patients aged under 25 years, compared with 39% in Avon. Conclusions There are substantial geographical differences in the intensity of chlamydia and HIV testing in general practice. Interventions to facilitate sexually transmitted infection and HIV testing in general practice are needed to improve access to effective sexual health care. The use of routinely-collected laboratory, practice-level and demographic data for monitoring sexual health service provision and informing service planning should be more widely evaluated.

  2. Cross-sectional study of serum antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in cats tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Mary G; Murphy, Alice J; Vrable, Ruth A; Vanzo, Nicole E; Lewis, Stacy K; Sheline, Katherine D; Kaneene, John B; Mansfield, Linda S

    2002-08-15

    To determine apparent seroprevalence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in a population of domestic cats previously tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Cross-sectional study. Serum from 196 domestic cats. Banked serum samples submitted to the Michigan State University Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory for T. gondii diagnostic testing were tested for antibodies against S. neurona by use of an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test and a western blot test. Submission records were analyzed to determine descriptive statistics and test for associations between positive results of a test for S. neurona and other variables in the data set. 10 of 196 (5%) samples yielded positive results for antibodies against S. neurona by use of western blot analysis, whereas 27 samples yielded positive results by use of the IFA. No association was found between S. neurona western blot test results and T. gondii test results, age, sex, or the reason for T. gondii testing. The S. neurona IFA titer was positively and significantly associated with positive results of western blot analysis. Domestic cats are not likely to play a substantial role as intermediate hosts in the natural life cycle of S. neurona. Results indicate that natural infection of domestic cats may occur, and small animal practitioners should be aware of this fact when evaluating cats with neurologic disease. The S. neurona IFA test had lower specificity than western blot analysis.

  3. Visualization of flaws within heavy section ultrasonic test blocks using high energy computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, M.B.; Ross, D.M.; Janucik, F.X.; Friedman, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States); Yancey, R.N. [Advanced Research and Applications Corp., Dayton, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The feasibility of high energy computed tomography (9 MeV) to detect volumetric and planar discontinuities in large pressure vessel mock-up blocks was studied. The data supplied by the manufacturer of the test blocks on the intended flaw geometry were compared to manual, contact ultrasonic test and computed tomography test data. Subsequently, a visualization program was used to construct fully three-dimensional morphological information enabling interactive data analysis on the detected flaws. Density isosurfaces show the relative shape and location of the volumetric defects within the mock-up blocks. Such a technique may be used to qualify personnel or newly developed ultrasonic test methods without the associated high cost of destructive evaluation. Data is presented showing the capability of the volumetric data analysis program to overlay the computed tomography and destructive evaluation (serial metallography) data for a direct, three-dimensional comparison.

  4. Resilient Modulus of Freeze-Thaw Affected Granular Soils for Pavement Design and Evaluation. Part 2. Field Validation Tests at Winchendon, Massachusetts, Test Sections,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    techniques to express the resil- on the riding qualities, integrity , and durability of ient modulus Mr as a function of density, soil pavements are...in the second series of tests in ciated instrumentation integrates the velocity sig- February 1979, when the test soils were frozen. As nal and reads...analysis of the six test sections are sum- Radius (m) •0 0 2 04 0 6 08 1 0 o E 400 Actual Basin - -- j/ / Calculoated Baosin 00 .. ~~~~~ ~~1200 1 1

  5. High temperature (salt melt) corrosion tests with ceramic-coated steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schütz, Adelheid [University Bayreuth, Metals and Alloys, Ludwig-Thoma-Str. 36b, D-95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Günthner, Martin; Motz, Günter [University Bayreuth, Ceramic Materials Engineering, L.-Thoma-Str. 36b, D-95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Greißl, Oliver [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Schelmenwasenstraße 13-15, D-70567 Stuttgart (Germany); Glatzel, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.glatzel@uni-bayreuth.de [University Bayreuth, Metals and Alloys, Ludwig-Thoma-Str. 36b, D-95447 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    Thermal recycling of refuse in waste-to-energy plants reduces the problems connected to waste disposal, and is an alternative source of electric energy. However, the combustion process in waste incinerators results in a fast degradation of the steam-carrying superheater steel tubes by corrosive attack and abrasive wear. Higher firing temperatures are used to increase their efficiency but lead to higher corrosion rates. It is more economical to apply protective coatings on the superheater steel tubes than to replace the base material. In-situ tests were conducted in a waste-to-energy plant first in order to identify and quantify all involved corrosive elements. Laboratory scale experiments with salt melts were developed accordingly. The unprotected low-alloyed steel displayed substantial local corrosion. Corrosion was predominant along the grain boundaries of α-ferrite. The corrosion rate was further increased by FeCl{sub 3} and a mixture of HCL and FeCl{sub 3}. Coatings based on pre-ceramic polymers with specific filler particles were engineered to protect superheater tubes. Tests proved their suitability to protect low-alloYed steel tubes from corrosive attack under conditions typical for superheaterS in waste incinerators, rendering higher firing temperatures in waste-to-energy plants possible. - Highlights: • Corrosion wall thickness losses of 400 μm/2 weeks occurred in a waste incinerator. • Abrasion is a major problem on superheater tubes in waste incinerators. • Laboratory salt melt tests can simulate metal corrosion in waste incinerators. • Corrosion protection coatings for steel (temperature: max. 530 °C) were developed. • Higher steam temperatures are possible in WIs with the developed coatings.

  6. Experimental test of the non-reproducibility of cross sections in dissipative reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Dong Yu Chuan; Tian Wen Dong; Li Song Lin; Li Zhi Chang; Lu Xiu Qin; Zhao Kui; Fu Chang Bo; Liu Jian Cheng; Jiang Hua; Hu Gui Qing

    2002-01-01

    Two independent measurements of cross sections for the sup 1 sup 9 F + sup 9 sup 3 Nb dissipative heavy ion collisions have been performed at incident energies from 100 to 108 MeV in steps of 250 keV. In the two measurements, two independently prepared targets were used. All other experimental conditions were identical in both experiments. The data indicate that non-reproducibility of the non-self-averaging oscillation is yielded in the two measurements. This supports the recent theoretical predictions of spontaneous coherence, slow phase randomization and extreme sensitivity in highly excited complex quantum systems

  7. Testing New Actinide Cross Sections Proposed for ENDF/B-VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Robert E.

    2005-05-01

    Our Nuclear Physics Group has worked over the last several years to improve the ENDF/B actinide cross sections, especially as measured against the famous series of fast-spectrum critical experiments performed at Los Alamos under such names as Godiva, Jezebel, the Flattops, and Bigten. The new evaluations include changes in the high-energy fission cross sections, nubar, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering, fission spectra, and delayed neutrons that combine to significantly improve the calculated results for the Los Alamos critical assemblies. As a happy byproduct of this work, we found that the new evaluations also removed about half of a long-standing discrepancy in calculations of thermal-reactor critical experiments using lattices of low-enriched uranium oxide rods. In the meantime, work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has resulted in new proposed resonance parameters for U238. When these low-energy data are combined with the new high-energy data from Los Alamos, they have the effect of removing most of the rest of the problem for thermal lattices. Although more work will be done at both Los Alamos and Oak Ridge, including making the evaluations consistent with the new standards, the results presented in this talk provide promise that ENDF/B-VII will result in good improvements for users at both high and low neutron energies.

  8. Normal inter-limb differences during the straight leg raise neurodynamic test: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Benjamin S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The straight leg raise (SLR neurodynamic test is commonly used to examine the sensitivity of the lower quarter nervous system to movement. Range of motion during the SLR varies considerably, due to factors such as age, sex and activity level. Knowing intra-individual, inter-limb differences may provide a normative measure that is not influenced by such demographic characteristics. This study aimed to determine normal asymmetries between limbs in healthy, asymptomatic individuals during SLR testing and the relationship of various demographic characteristics. Methods The limb elevation angle was measured using an inclinometer during SLR neurodynamic testing that involved pre-positioning the ankle in plantar flexion (PF/SLR and neutral dorsiflexion (DF/SLR. Phase 1 of the study included 20 participants where the ankle was positioned using an ankle brace replicating research testing conditions. Phase 2 included 20 additional participants where the ankle was manually positioned to replicate clinical testing conditions. Results The group average range of motion during PF/SLR was 57.1 degrees (SD: 16.8 degrees on the left and 56.7 degrees (SD: 17.2 degrees on the right while during DF/SLR the group average was 48.5 degrees (SD: 16.1 degrees on the left and 48.9 degrees (SD: 16.4 degrees on the right. The range of motion during SLR was moderately correlated to weight (−0.40 to −0.52, body mass index (−0.41 to −0.52, sex (0.40 to 0.42 and self-reported activity level (0.50 to 0.57. Intra-individual differences between limbs for range of motion during PF/SLR averaged 5.0 degrees (SD: 3.5 degrees (95% CI: 3.8 degrees, 6.1 degrees and during DF/SLR averaged 4.1 degrees (SD: 3.2 degrees (95% CI: 3.1 degrees, 5.1 degrees but were not correlated with any demographic characteristic. There were no significant differences between Phase 1 and Phase 2. Conclusions Overall range of motion during SLR was related to sex, weight, BMI and

  9. Scaling Tests of the Cross Section for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Camacho, C; Mazouz, M; Ferdi, C; Gavalian, G; Kuchina, E; Amarian, M; Aniol, K A; Beaumel, M; Benaoum, H; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; De Jager, C W; Deur, A; Feuerbach, R; Fieschi, J M; Frullani, S; Garçon, M; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Gómez, J; Gueye, P; Guichon, P A M; Guillon, B; Hansen, O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jiang, X; Jo, H S; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Le Rose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Lu, H J; Margaziotis, D J; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R; Michel, B; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Nanda, S; Nelyubin, V V; Potokar, M; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R D; Real, J S; Reitz, B; Roblin, Y; Roche, J; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K J; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Ulmer, P E; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2006-01-01

    We present the first measurements of \\vec{e}p->epg cross section in the deep virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) regime and the valence quark region (x_{Bj}=0.36). From JLab E00-110, we extract the imaginary part of the Bethe-Heitler (BH)--DVCS interference terms, to order twist-3 for Q^2 = 1.5, 1.9, and 2.3 GeV^2, and the real part of the BH-DVCS interference terms at Q^2 = 2.3 GeV^2. We present the first model-independent measurement of linear combinations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and GPD integrals up to twist-3 approximation. The validity of this approximation is strongly supported by the absence of Q^2-variation of the extracted terms -- thereby constraining the size of higher twist contributions to our observables.

  10. Field test results for steam oxidation of TP347H FG - growth of inner oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Jianmin, Jia; Larsen, OH;

    2005-01-01

    A series of field tests have been conducted with TP347H FG in test superheater loops in coal-fired and biomass fired boilers of steam pressure 256 and 91 bar respectively. The exposure times are from 3,500 to 30,000 hours and the temperature range is from 450-630¢XC. The morphology, composition...

  11. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2007-12-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that

  12. Scaling Tests of the Cross Section for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Munoz Camacho; Alexandre Camsonne; Malek Mazouz; Catherine Ferdi; Gagik Gavalian; Elena Kuchina; Moscov Amaryan; Konrad Aniol; Matthieu Beaumel; Hachemi Benaoum; Pierre Bertin; Michel Brossard; Jian-Ping Chen; Eugene Chudakov; Brandon Craver; Francesco Cusanno; Kees de Jager; Alexandre Deur; Robert Feuerbach; Jean Fieschi; Salvatore Frullani; Michel Garcon; Franco Garibaldi; Olivier Gayou; Ronald Gilman; Javier Gomez; Paul Gueye; Pierre Guichon; Benoit Guillon; Jens-ole Hansen; David Hayes; Douglas Higinbotham; Timothy Holmstrom; Charles Hyde-Wright; Hassan Ibrahim; Ryuichi Igarashi; Xiaodong Jiang; Hyon-Suk Jo; Lisa Kaufman; Aidan Kelleher; Ameya Kolarkar; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Geraud Laveissiere; John LeRose; Richard Lindgren; Nilanga Liyanage; Hai-jiang Lu; Demetrius Margaziotis; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Kathy McCormick; Robert Michaels; Bernard Michel; Bryan Moffit; Peter Monaghan; Sirish Nanda; Vladimir Nelyubin; Milan Potokar; Yi Qiang; Ronald Ransome; Jean-Sebastien Real; Bodo Reitz; Yves Roblin; Julie Roche; Franck Sabatie; Arunava Saha; Simon Sirca; Karl Slifer; Patricia Solvignon; Ramesh Subedi; Vincent Sulkosky; Paul Ulmer; Eric Voutier; Kebin Wang; Lawrence Weinstein; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Xiaochao Zheng; Lingyan Zhu

    2006-07-27

    We present the first measurements of {rvec e}p {yields} ep{gamma} cross section in the deep virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) regime and the valence quark region (x{sub Bj} = 0.36). From JLab E00-110, we extract the imaginary part of the Bethe-Heitler (BH)--DVCS interference terms, to order twist-3 for Q{sup 2} = 1.5, 1.9, and 2.3 GeV{sup 2}, and the real part of the BH-DVCS interference terms at Q{sup 2}2 = 2.3 GeV{sup 2}. We present the first model-independent measurement of linear combinations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and GPD integrals up to twist-3 approximation. The validity of this approximation is strongly supported by the absence of Q{sup 2}-variation of the extracted terms--thereby constraining the size of higher twist contributions to our observables.

  13. Hydraulic impact end effector final test report. Automation and robotics section, ER/WM-AT Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, S.

    1994-02-18

    One tool being developed for dislodging and fragmenting the hard salt cake waste in the single-shell nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, is the hydraulic impact end effector (HIEE). This total operates by discharging 11-in. slugs of water at ultrahigh pressures. The HIEE was designed, built, and initially tested in 1992. Work in 1993 included advanced developments of the HIEE to further investigate its fragmentation abilities and to determine more effective operating procedures. These tests showed that more fragmentation can be achieved by increasing the charge pressure of 40 kpsi to 55 kpsi and by the use of different operating procedures. The size of the material and the impact energy of the water slug fired from the HIEE are believed to be major factors in material fragmentation. The material`s ability to fracture also appears to depend on the distance a fracture or crack line must travel to a free surface. Thus, larger material is more difficult to fracture than smaller material. Discharge pressures of 40 kpsi resulted in little penetration or fracturing of the material. At 55 kpsi, however, the size and depth of the fractures increased. Nozzle geometry had a significant effect on fragment size and quantity. Fragmentation was about an order of magnitude greater when the HIEE was discharged into drilled holes rather than onto the material surface. Since surface shots tend to create craters, a multi-shot procedure, coupled with an advanced nozzle design, was used to drill (crater) deep holes into large material. With this procedure, a 600-lb block was reduced to smaller pieces without the use of any additional equipment. Through this advanced development program, the HIEE has demonstrated that it can quickly fragment salt cake material into small, easily removable fragments. The HIEE`s material fragmentation ability can be substantially increased through the use of different nozzle geometries and operating procedures.

  14. Psychosocial determinants of HIV testing across stages of change in Spanish population: a cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster-RuizdeApodaca, Maria Jose; Laguia, Ana; Molero, Fernando; Toledo, Javier; Arrillaga, Arantxa; Jaen, Angeles

    2017-03-07

    The goal of this research is to study the psychosocial determinants of HIV-testing as a function of the decision or change stage concerning this health behavior. The determinants considered in the major ongoing health models and the stages contemplated in the Precaution Adoption Process Model are analysed. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1,554 people over 16 years of age living in Spain by a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI). The sample design was randomised, with quotas of sex and age. The survey measured various psychosocial determinants of health behaviors considered in the main cognitive theories, the interviewees' stage of change concerning HIV-testing (lack of awareness, decision not to act, decision to act, action, maintenance, and abandonment), and the signal for the action of getting tested or the perceived barriers to being tested. Approximately two thirds of the population had not ever had the HIV test. The predominant stage was lack of awareness. The most frequently perceived barriers to testing were related to the health system and to the stigma. We also found that the psychosocial determinants studied differed depending on the respondents' stage of change. Perception of risk, perceived self-efficacy, proximity to people who had been tested, perceived benefits of knowing the diagnosis, and a positive instrumental and emotional attitude were positively associated with the decision and maintenance of testing behavior. However, unrealistic underestimation of the risk of HIV infection, stereotypes about the infection, and the perceived severity of HIV were associated with the decision not to be tested. There are various sociocognitive and motivational profiles depending on people's decision stage concerning HIV-testing. Knowing this profile may allow us to design interventions to influence the psychosocial determinants that characterise each stage of change.

  15. Semiquantitative fecal calprotectin test in postinfectious and non-postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana-Elisabeta David

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:The presence of a certain degree of inflammation in the gut wall is now accepted in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Fecal calprotectin is considered to be a reliable test for detecting intestinal inflammation. Our aim was to assess the presence of inflammation in postinfectious IBS (PI-IBS, compared with non-postinfectious IBS (NPI-IBS. A secondary objective was to determine the usefulness of a rapid fecal calprotectin test in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD.DESIGN AND SETTING:This was a cross-sectional study. Patients with IBS and IBD at a single tertiary gastroenterology center were prospectively included in this study.METHODS:116 patients with Rome III IBS score (76 females; 48 ± 12 years were investigated; 24 patients (15 females had PI-IBS. Intestinal inflammation was assessed using the semiquantitative fecal calprotectin test. The results were expressed as T1, T2 or T3 according to the severity of inflammation ( 60 μg/g. Using the same test, we evaluated 20 patients with IBD (12 males; 47 ± 13 years.RESULTS:None of the patients with IBS had a T2 or T3 positive test. Among PI-IBS patients, 33% had a T1 positive test. Among NPI-IBS patients, 9.8% had a T1 positive test, which was significantly different to PI-IBS. The calprotectin test was positive in all IBD patients: 80% with T3, 10% with T2 and 10% with T1.CONCLUSIONS:Using a semiquantitative test for fecal calprotectin, positive tests were more frequent in PI-IBS patients than in NPI-IBS patients.

  16. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Eun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver function tests (LFTs can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. Methods We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Results Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI, alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST. On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Conclusions Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  17. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Hwang, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyun Young; Ahn, So Yeon; Lee, Jaebong; Lee, Sang Hyub; Park, Young Soo; Hwang, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2012-10-18

    Liver function tests (LFTs) can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI), alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST). On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  18. Experimental differential cross sections, level densities, and spin cutoffs as a testing ground for nuclear reaction codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Massey, T. N.; Siem, S.

    2013-11-01

    Proton double-differential cross sections from 59Co(α,p)62Ni, 57Fe(α,p)60Co, 56Fe(7Li,p)62Ni, and 55Mn(6Li,p)60Co reactions have been measured with 21-MeV α and 15-MeV lithium beams. Cross sections have been compared against calculations with the empire reaction code. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the Gilbert and Cameron [A. Gilbert and A. G. W. Cameron, Can. J. Phys.0008-420410.1139/p65-139 43, 1446 (1965)] level density model is best to reproduce experimental data. Level densities and spin cutoff parameters for 62Ni and 60Co above the excitation energy range of discrete levels (in continuum) have been obtained with a Monte Carlo technique. Excitation energy dependencies were found to be inconsistent with the Fermi-gas model.

  19. High-Temperature Behavior of a NiCr-Coated T91 Boiler Steel in the Platen Superheater of Coal-Fired Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatha, Sukhpal Singh; Sidhu, Hazoor S.; Sidhu, Buta S.

    2013-06-01

    Ni-20Cr coating was deposited on T91 boiler tube steel by high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process to enhance high-temperature oxidation resistance. High-temperature performance of bare, as well as HVOF-coated steel specimens was evaluated for 1500 h under in the platen superheater zone of coal-fired boiler, where the temperature was around 900 °C. Experiments were carried out for 15 cycles, each of 100-h duration followed by 1-h cooling at ambient temperature. The extent of degradation of the specimens was assessed by the thickness loss and depth of internal corrosion attack. Ni-20Cr-coated steel performed better than the uncoated steel in actual boiler environment. The improved degradation resistance of Ni-20Cr coating can be attributed to the presence of Cr2O3 in the top oxide scale and dense microstructure.

  20. [Flow field test on the tangential section of polypropylene tubular membrane module annular gap in rotating linear tangential flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengduan; Chen, Wenmei; Li, Jianming; Jiang, Guangming

    2002-07-01

    A new type of polypropylene tubular membrane apparatus of rotating cross flow was designed to study experimentally the flow field characteristics of the tangential section of the membrane annular gap. The authors designed rotary linear tangential flow tubular membrane separator and its test system for the first time. Through the system, the flow field of rotary linear tangential flow with the advanced Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was tested for the first time. A lot of streamlines and vorticity maps of the tangential section of separator in different operation conditions were obtained. The velocity distribution characteristics were analyzed quantitatively: 1. At non-vortex area, no matter how the operation parameters change, the velocity near to rotary tangential flow entrance was higher than the velocity far from entrance at the same radial coordinates. At vortex area, generally the flow velocity of inner vortex was lower than the outer vortex. At the vortex center, the velocity was lowest, the tangential velocity were equal to zero generally. At the vortex center zone, the tangential velocity was less than the axial velocity. 2. Under test operations, the tangential velocity and axial velocity of vortices borders are 1-2 times of average axial velocity of membrane module annular gap. The maximum tangential velocity and axial velocity of ellipse vortices were 2-6 times of average axial velocity of membrane module annular gap. 3. The vortices that are formed on the tangential section, there existed mass transfer between inner and outer parts of fluid. Much fluid of outer vortices got into the inner ones, which was able to prevent membrane tube from particles blocking up very soon.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and preferences regarding genetic testing for smoking cessation. A cross-sectional survey among Dutch smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerecnik, Chris; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Vries, Hein; van Schayck, Constant P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Recent research strongly suggests that genetic variation influences smokers' ability to stop. Therefore, the use of (pharmaco) genetic testing may increase cessation rates. This study aims to assess the intention of smokers concerning undergoing genetic testing for smoking cessation and their knowledge, attitudes and preferences about this subject. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Database internet research company of which every inhabitant of the Netherlands of ≥12 years with an email address and capable of understanding Dutch can become a member. Participants 587 of 711 Dutch smokers aged ≥18 years, daily smokers for ≥5 years and smoke on average ≥10 cigarettes/day (response rate=83%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Smokers' knowledge, attitudes and preferences and their intention to undergo genetic testing for smoking cessation. Results Knowledge on the influence of genetic factors in smoking addiction and cessation was found to be low. Smokers underestimated their chances of having a genetic predisposition and the influence of this on smoking cessation. Participants perceived few disadvantages, some advantages and showed moderate self-efficacy towards undergoing a genetic test and dealing with the results. Smokers were mildly interested in receiving information and participating in genetic testing, especially when offered by their general practitioner (GP). Conclusions For successful implementation of genetic testing for smoking in general practice, several issues should be addressed, such as the knowledge on smoking cessation, genetics and genetic testing (including advantages and disadvantages) and the influence of genetics on smoking addiction and cessation. Furthermore, smokers allocate their GPs a crucial role in the provision of information and the delivery of a genetic test for smoking; however, it is unclear whether GPs will be able and willing to take on this role. PMID:22223839

  2. Work-related stress is associated with impaired neuropsychological test performance: a clinical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often complain about impaired concentration and memory. However, it is undetermined how widespread these impairments are, and which cognitive domains are most long-term stress sensitive. Previous studies show inconsistent results and are difficult to synthesize. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether patients with work-related stress complaints have cognitive impairments compared to a matched control group without stress. Our secondary aim was to examine whether the level of self-reported perceived stress is associated with neuropsychological test performance. We used a broad neuropsychological test battery to assess 59 outpatients with work-related stress complaints (without major depression) and 59 healthy controls. We matched the patients and controls pairwise by sex, age and educational level. Compared to controls, patients generally showed mildly reduced performance across all the measured domains of the neuropsychological test battery. However, only three comparisons reached statistical significance (p tests of prospective memory, speed and complex working memory. There were no statistical significant associations between self-reported perceived stress level and neuropsychological test performance. In conclusion, we recommend that cognitive functions should be considered when evaluating patients with work-related stress complaints, especially when given advice regarding return to work. Since this study had a cross-sectional design, it is still uncertain whether the impairments are permanent. Further study is required to establish causal links between work-related stress and cognitive deficits.

  3. Heat transfer results and operational characteristics of the NASA Lewis Research Center hot section cascade test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, H. J.; Yeh, F. C.; Fronek, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center gas turbine hot section test facility has been developed to provide a real-engine environment with well known boundary conditions for the aerothermal performance evaluation/verification of computer design codes. The initial aerothermal research data obtained are presented and the operational characteristics of the facility are discussed. This facility is capable of testing at temperatures and pressures up to 1600 K and 18 atm which corresponds to a vane exit Reynolds number range of 0.5 x 1 million to 2.5 x 1 million based on vane chord. The component cooling air temperature can be independently modulated between 330 and 700 K providing gas-to-coolant temperature ratios similar to current engine application. Research instrumentation of the test components provide conventional pressure and temperature measurements as well as metal temperatures measured by IR-photography. The primary data acquisition mode is steady state through a 704 channel multiplexer/digitizer. The test facility was configured as an annular cascade of full coverage film cooled vanes for the initial series of research tests.

  4. A linear laser scanner to measure cross-sectional shape and area of biological specimens during mechanical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergari, Claudio; Pourcelot, Philippe; Holden, Laurène; Ravary-Plumioën, Bérangère; Laugier, Pascal; Mitton, David; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2010-10-01

    Measure of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of biological specimens is a primary concern for many biomechanical tests. Different procedures are presented in literature but besides the fact that noncontact techniques are required during mechanical testing, most of these procedures lack accuracy or speed. Moreover, they often require a precise positioning of the specimen, which is not always feasible, and do not enable the measure of the same section during tension. The objective of this study was to design a noncontact, fast, and accurate device capable of acquiring CSA of specimens mounted on a testing machine. A system based on the horizontal linear displacement of two charge-coupled device reflectance laser devices next to the specimen, one for each side, was chosen. The whole measuring block is mounted on a vertical linear guide to allow following the measured zone during sample tension (or compression). The device was validated by measuring the CSA of metallic rods machined with geometrical shapes (circular, hexagonal, semicircular, and triangular) as well as an equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in static condition. We also performed measurements during mechanical testing of three SDFTs, obtaining the CSA variations until tendon rupture. The system was revealed to be very fast with acquisition times in the order of 0.1 s and interacquisition time of about 1.5 s. Measurements of the geometrical shapes yielded mean errors lower than 1.4% (n=20 for each shape) while the tendon CSA at rest was 90.29 ± 1.69 mm(2) (n=20). As for the tendons that underwent tension, a mean of 60 measures were performed for each test, which lasted about 2 min until rupture (at 20 mm/min), finding CSA variations linear with stress (R(2)>0.85). The proposed device was revealed to be accurate and repeatable. It is easy to assemble and operate and capable of moving to follow a defined zone on the specimen during testing. The system does not need precise centering of the sample

  5. Sectional model test study on vortex-excited resonance of vehicle-bridge system of Shanghai Bridge over Yangtse River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHOU; Yaojun GE

    2009-01-01

    It is necessary to study how vehicles influence the vortex-excited resonance of vehicle-bridge systems,because lock-in wind speed is low and vortex-excited resonance is sensitive to any change in the main girder sections. Based on the Shanghai Bridge over the Yangtse River, the vortex-excited resonance of a 1:60 scale sectional model was tested in a TJ-lwind tunnel, with or without vehicles at the attack angle of 0°, + 3 and -3°,respectively. The conversion relationships between the resonant amplitudes of the sectional model and that of the prototype bridge were also established by mode shape correction. The result indicates that: 1) for the bridge with vehicles, the vertical vortex-excited resonance is accom-panied by torsion vibration with the same frequency, and vice versa, 2) the amplitude of vortex-excited resonance of the bridge with vehicles is much larger than that of the bridge without vehicles, and 3) the lock-in wind speed of the vortex-excited resonance becomes smaller due to the disturbance of vehicles. It is obvious that vehicles bring about changes in the aerodynamic shape of the main girder.Therefore, the influence of vehicles on vortex-excited resonance performance of vehicle-bridge systems, in terms of both amplitude and mode, should not be ignored.

  6. Testing a self-determination theory model of children’s physical activity motivation: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding children’s physical activity motivation, its antecedents and associations with behavior is important and can be advanced by using self-determination theory. However, research among youth is largely restricted to adolescents and studies of motivation within certain contexts (e.g., physical education). There are no measures of self-determination theory constructs (physical activity motivation or psychological need satisfaction) for use among children and no previous studies have tested a self-determination theory-based model of children’s physical activity motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of scores derived from scales adapted to measure self-determination theory constructs among children and test a motivational model predicting accelerometer-derived physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional data from 462 children aged 7 to 11 years from 20 primary schools in Bristol, UK were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of adapted behavioral regulation and psychological need satisfaction scales. Structural equation modelling was used to test cross-sectional associations between psychological need satisfaction, motivation types and physical activity assessed by accelerometer. Results The construct validity and reliability of the motivation and psychological need satisfaction measures were supported. Structural equation modelling provided evidence for a motivational model in which psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with intrinsic and identified motivation types and intrinsic motivation was positively associated with children’s minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions The study provides evidence for the psychometric properties of measures of motivation aligned with self-determination theory among children. Children’s motivation that is based on enjoyment and inherent satisfaction of physical activity is

  7. Testing a self-determination theory model of children's physical activity motivation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Edwards, Mark J; Thompson, Janice L

    2013-09-26

    Understanding children's physical activity motivation, its antecedents and associations with behavior is important and can be advanced by using self-determination theory. However, research among youth is largely restricted to adolescents and studies of motivation within certain contexts (e.g., physical education). There are no measures of self-determination theory constructs (physical activity motivation or psychological need satisfaction) for use among children and no previous studies have tested a self-determination theory-based model of children's physical activity motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of scores derived from scales adapted to measure self-determination theory constructs among children and test a motivational model predicting accelerometer-derived physical activity. Cross-sectional data from 462 children aged 7 to 11 years from 20 primary schools in Bristol, UK were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of adapted behavioral regulation and psychological need satisfaction scales. Structural equation modelling was used to test cross-sectional associations between psychological need satisfaction, motivation types and physical activity assessed by accelerometer. The construct validity and reliability of the motivation and psychological need satisfaction measures were supported. Structural equation modelling provided evidence for a motivational model in which psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with intrinsic and identified motivation types and intrinsic motivation was positively associated with children's minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The study provides evidence for the psychometric properties of measures of motivation aligned with self-determination theory among children. Children's motivation that is based on enjoyment and inherent satisfaction of physical activity is associated with their objectively-assessed physical

  8. Experimental investigation of the two-phase flow regimes and pressure drop in horizontal mini-size rectangular test section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazhary, Amr Mohamed; Soliman, Hassan M.

    2012-10-01

    An experimental study was conducted in order to investigate two-phase flow regimes and fully developed pressure drop in a mini-size, horizontal rectangular channel. The test section was machined in the form of an impacting tee junction in an acrylic block (in order to facilitate visualization) with a rectangular cross-section of 1.87-mm height on 20-mm width on the inlet and outlet sides. Pressure drop measurement and flow regime identification were performed on all three sides of the junction. Air-water mixtures at 200 kPa (abs) and room temperature were used as the test fluids. Four flow regimes were identified visually: bubbly, plug, churn, and annular over the ranges of gas and liquid superficial velocities of 0.04 ≤ JG ≤ 10 m/s and 0.02 ≤ JL ≤ 0.7 m/s, respectively, and a flow regime map was developed. Accuracy of the pressure-measurement technique was validated with single-phase, laminar and turbulent, fully developed data. Two-phase experiments were conducted for eight different inlet conditions and various mass splits at the junction. Comparisons were conducted between the present data and former correlations for the fully developed two-phase pressure drop in rectangular channels with similar sizes. Wide deviations were found among these correlations, and the correlations that agreed best with the present data were identified.

  9. Knowledge and perceptions of couples' voluntary counseling and testing in urban Rwanda and Zambia: a cross-sectional household survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April L Kelley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most incident HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur between cohabiting, discordant, heterosexual couples. Though couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT is an effective, well-studied intervention in Africa, <1% of couples have been jointly tested. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in Kigali, Rwanda (n = 600 and Lusaka, Zambia (n = 603 to ascertain knowledge, perceptions, and barriers to use of CVCT. RESULTS: Compared to Lusaka, Kigali respondents were significantly more aware of HIV testing sites (79% vs. 56%; had greater knowledge of HIV serodiscordance between couples (83% vs. 43%; believed CVCT is good (96% vs. 72%; and were willing to test jointly (91% vs. 47%. Stigma, fear of partner reaction, and distance/cost/logistics were CVCT barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Though most respondents had positive attitudes toward CVCT, the majority were unaware that serodiscordance between cohabiting couples is possible. Future messages should target gaps in knowledge about serodiscordance, provide logistical information about CVCT services, and aim to reduce stigma and fear.

  10. Experimental result of BWR post-CHF tests. Critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Anoda, Yoshinari [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Iwaki, Chikako [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    Authors performed post-CHF experiments under wider pressure ranges of 2 MPa - 18 MPa, wider mass flux ranges of 33 kg/m{sup 2}s - 1651 kg/m{sup 2}s and wider superheat of heaters up to 500 K in comparison to experimental ranges at previous post-CHF experiments. Data on boiling transition, critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient were obtained. Used test section was 4x4-rod bundle with heaters, which diameter and length were the same as those of BWR nuclear fuels. As the result of the experiments, it was found that the boiling transition occurred just below several grid spacers, and that the fronts of the boiling transition region proceeded lower with increase of heated power. Heat transfer was due to nucleate boiling above grid spacers, while it was due to film boiling below grid spacers. Consequently, critical heat flux is affected on the distance from the grid spacers. Critical heat flux above the grid spacers was about 15% higher than that below the grid spacers, by comparing them under the same local condition. Heat transfer by steam turbulent flow was dominant to post-CHF heat transfer, when superheat of heaters was sufficiently high. Then, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was predicted with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. On the other hand, when superhead of heaters was not sufficiently high, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was higher than the prediction with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. Mass flux effect on post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was described by standardization of post-CHF heat transfer coefficient with the prediction for single-phase flow. However, pressure effect, superheat effect and effect of position were not described. Authors clarified that those effects could be described with functions of heater temperature and position. Post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was lowest just blow the grid spacers, and it increased with the lower positions. It increased by about 30% in one span of

  11. Testing an OMERACT MRI scoring system for peripheral psoriatic arthritis in cross-sectional and longitudinal settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, Fiona; Lassere, Marissa; Duer-Jensen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to measure articular inflammation and damage in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). We evaluated the reliability of a new OMERACT PsA MRI scoring system, PsAMRIS, in PsA fingers. METHODS: In 2 separate studies, MRI scans were...... obtained from patients with clinical evidence of synovitis or dactylitis of the fingers. For the first cross-sectional study, images were obtained at one timepoint. For the second longitudinal study, images were obtained at 2 timepoints, 6 weeks apart. Scans were scored using PsAMRIS in an international......, reliability for change scores was acceptable only for synovitis and tenosynovitis. CONCLUSION: Further development and testing of the PsAMRIS is planned to improve its performance as a clinical and research tool to identify and measure pathology in peripheral joint PsA....

  12. Numerical Modeling of a Thermal-Hydraulic Loop and Test Section Design for Heat Transfer Studies in Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Daniel

    A numerical tool for the simulation of the thermal dynamics of pipe networks with heat transfer has been developed with the novel capability of modeling supercritical fluids. The tool was developed to support the design and deployment of two thermal-hydraulic loops at Carleton University for the purpose of heat transfer studies in supercritical and near-critical fluids. First, the system was characterized based on its defining features; the characteristic length of the flow path is orders of magnitude larger than the other characteristic lengths that define the system's geometry; the behaviour of the working fluid in the supercritical thermodynamic state. An analysis of the transient thermal behaviour of the model's domains is then performed to determine the accuracy and range of validity of the modeling approach for simulating the transient thermal behaviour of a thermal-hydraulic loop. Preliminary designs of three test section geometries, for the purpose of heat transfer studies, are presented in support of the overall design of the Carleton supercritical thermal-hydraulic loops. A 7-rod-bundle, annular and tubular geometries are developed with support from the new numerical tool. Materials capable of meeting the experimental requirements while operating in supercritical water are determined. The necessary geometries to satisfy the experimental goals are then developed based on the material characteristics and predicted heat transfer behaviour from previous simulation results. An initial safety analysis is performed on the test section designs, where they are evaluated against the ASME Boiler, Pressure Vessel, and Pressure Piping Code standard, required for safe operation and certification.

  13. Factors associated with continuing emergence of β-thalassemia major despite prenatal testing: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Sabbah H

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Haleama Al Sabbah,1 Sarah Khan,1 Abdallah Hamadna,2 Lamia Abu Ghazaleh,2 Anwar Dudin,2 Bashar Adnan Karmi3 1College of Natural and Health Sciences, Zayed University, Dubai, UAE; 2Faculty of Medicine, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine; 3Thalassemia Patients’ Friends Society, Ramallah, Palestine Purpose: Health care initiatives focusing on prenatal testing and premarital genetic screening aiming to reduce the incidence of β-thalassemia have emerged during the last decade. In Palestine, 4% of the population are known thalassemia carriers with new cases continuing to appear despite the availability of prenatal testing. This study aims to identify factors that influence the decision to retain or abort fetuses affected by β-thalassemia in Palestine. Methods: Convenience sampling was used to select 32 women (72 fetuses who were at risk of having a baby with β-thalassemia. A questionnaire on prenatal testing, test results, pregnancy outcomes, and factors influencing the decision to terminate the pregnancy were used for this cross-sectional study. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Among the fetuses screened, 36 (50% were thalassemia carriers and 20 (28% had β-thalassemia; 17 (85% affected fetuses were aborted. Religious beliefs were the most cited reason for opposing abortion while prior experience with β-thalassemia patients and awareness programs promoted abortions. Mothers who opted to retain an affected fetus had modest educational attainment. Higher educational level was significantly associated with the decision to abort an affected fetus (p<0.05. Conclusion: A religious consensus is needed on the abortion of fetuses affected by β-thalassemia. Improving female education and increasing awareness on thalassemia could help reduce the incidence of β-thalassemia in Palestine and around the world. Keywords: abortion, Islam, fetus, awareness

  14. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements and Groove Chambers Tests in the PEP-II Beam Line Straights Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivi, M.T.F.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Markiewicz, T; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Seeman, J.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2008-07-03

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders such as ILC and CLIC [1, 2]. In the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed vacuum chambers with rectangular grooves in a straight magnetic-free section to test this promising possible electron cloud mitigation technique. We have also installed a special chamber to monitor the secondary electron yield of TiN and TiZrV (NEG) coating, Copper, Stainless Steel and Aluminum under the effect of electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R&D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the ILC damping ring, the latest results on in situ secondary electron yield conditioning and recent update on the groove tests in PEP-II.

  15. Prediction of wall temperature diversification of superheater and reheater tubes%过热器/再热器管道壁面温度的预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鸿; 赵志渊; 林振娴

    2011-01-01

    为了得到过热器/再热器管壁温度分布特性,通过对过热器/再热器管道的传热过程进行研究,并与经验公式相结合建立具有氧化膜的炉管传热的物理模型.分析在不同的管道几何尺寸、烟气温度、蒸汽流量和温度的情况下,管道外壁温度、氧化层/基体界面温度和氧化层/蒸汽界面温度的变化过程,最后定量地解释管道外壁温度、氧化膜/基体温度随运行时间增长而升高的原因,得到了它们的温升系数Aw和以与氧化层引起的温升系数B之间的关系为:B=α1Aw+α2An(其中,α1和α2分别为管外壁、氧化层/基体界面对氧化膜增长的敏感程度).%In order to get the wall temperature distribution characteristics of superheater/reheater tubes, a heat-transfer physical model of tubes with the oxide film was established by studying the heat transfer process of superheater/reheater tubes and the empirical formula. The temperature changing processes of tube outer-wall, the oxide scale/substrate interface and the oxide scale/steam interface were analyzed at different tube geometries, gas temperatures, steam flows, pressures and temperatures. Finally, the reason why the tube outer-wall temperature and the oxide scale/substrate interface temperature increase with the increase of the running time is quantitative interpreted, and the relationship between Av, An and B is as follows: 5 = a1Aw +a2A, in which a, and a2 represent the sensitivity of tube outer-wall and the interface between oxide scale and substrate to the growth of oxide scale.

  16. 16 CFR 1633.13 - Tests for guaranty purposes, compliance with this section, and “one of a kind” exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests for guaranty purposes, compliance with this section, and âone of a kindâ exemption. 1633.13 Section 1633.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... mattresses. (1)(i) A mattress set manufactured in accordance with a physician's written prescription...

  17. Fast neutron spectrum unfolding of a TRIGA Mark II reactor and measurement of spectrum-averaged cross sections. Integral tests of differential cross sections of neutron threshold reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S.; Hossain, S.M.; Khan, R. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology (INST); Sudar, S. [Debrecen Univ. (Hungary). Inst. of Experimental Physics; Zulquarnain, M.A. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Qaim, S.M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM-5)

    2013-07-01

    The spectrum of fast neutrons having energies from 0.5 to 20 MeV in the core of the 3MW TRIGA Mark II reactor at Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, was unfolded by activating several metal foils to induce threshold nuclear reactions covering the whole spectrum, and then doing necessary iterative calculations utilizing the activation results and the code SULSA. The analysed shape of the spectrum in the TRIGA core was found to be similar to that of the pure {sup 235}U-fission spectrum, except for the energies between 0.5 and 1.5 MeV, where it was slightly higher than the fission spectrum. Spectrum-averaged cross sections were determined by integral measurements. The integral values measured in this work were compared with the recommended values for a pure fission spectrum as well as with the integrated data deduced from measured and evaluated excitation functions of a few reactions given in some data files. The good agreement between integral measurements and integrated data in case of well-investigated reactions shows that the fast neutron field at the TRIGA Mark II reactor can be used for validation of evaluated data of neutron threshold reactions. (orig.)

  18. Quantitative sensory tests before and 1(1/2) years after orthognathic surgery: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, L; Arima, T; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Neumann-Jensen, B; Svensson, P

    2010-05-01

    Quality control is very important in relation to invasive and lengthy treatments, such as integrated orthodontic and surgical correction of dentofacial deformities. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare self-reported somatosensory disturbances and quantitative sensory testing (QST) findings between two groups of patients and a healthy control group (n = 24); one group (n = 21) scheduled for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery (BOS) (pre-op) and one group (n = 24) examined 1(1/2) years after BOS (post-op). Self-reported data on pain and somatosensory disturbances were collected, and QST was performed at six trigeminal and one extratrigeminal site. Sensitivity to brush stroke, tactile stimuli, pinprick, two-point-discrimination threshold (2P-DT), pinch pain threshold (PiPT) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) was evaluated. Results were analysed with anovas, Spearman's Correlation, and chi square tests. Eight per cent of post-op patients reported intra-oral, 46% extra-oral, and 46% no somatosensory disturbances. Sensitivity to brush stroke, pinprick and 2P-DT was significantly increased at all examination sites in the post-op patients compared with healthy controls (P 0.071). Pinch pain threshold were decreased in pre-op patients compared with controls (P < 0.040). Self-reported somatosensory disturbances were not correlated with QST findings. In conclusion; 1(1/2) years after BOS, a large proportion of patients reported somatosensory disturbances and was hypersensitive to mechanical stimuli when compared with pre-op patients and healthy controls. Pre-op patients showed minor somatosensory changes. In addition to patients serving as their own control in prospective studies, a healthy control group and extratrigeminal control sites should be included in future studies.

  19. State feedback controller with subordinate mass flow control as optimized temperature control for superheaters; Zustandsregler mit unterlagerter Massenstrom-Regelung als optimierte Temperaturregelung fuer einen Ueberhitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, W. [Kraftwerk Pleinting der Bayernwerk AG Konventionelle Waermekraftwerke GmbH (Germany). Abt. Elektro- und Leittechnik; Mann, J. [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU)

    1998-12-31

    During a boiler construction change at the power station Pleinting Unit 2 the heating surfaces of the superheater were enlarged. Due to these changes in the temperature control loop, the temperature deviations could no longer be regulated satisfactorily by the hitherto installed conventional controllers. Using state feedback controllers thereafter, these deviations were reduced considerably. The configuring and parameter setting of the used state feedback controllers was extremely easy because only one tuning factor was needed. So further optimizations with customer benefits could be worked out: The state feedback control was supplemented by an enthalpy calculation with subordinate mass flow control. Thus, it has become possible to inject water into saturated steam during start-ups in case of high temperature deviations. The achieved results are verified by time trends measured at the plant. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei einem Kesselumbau im Kraftwerk Pleinting Block 2 wurden die Heizflaechen der Ueberhitzer und damit die Aufwaermspannen vergroessert. Aufgrund der dadurch veraenderten Temperaturregelstrecke konnten die Temperaturstoerungen mit der konventionellen Regelung nicht mehr zufriedenstellend ausgeregelt werden. Mit dem Einsatz von Zustandsreglern wurden diese Regelabweichungen wesentlich verringert. Die Projektierung und Parametrierung der verwendeten Zustandsregler gestaltete sich durch die Verwendung von nur einem Einstellfaktor aeusserst einfach. So konnte dann das Augenmerk auf weiteres Optimierungspotential mit Kundennutzen gelegt werden: Die Zustandsregelung wurde um eine Enthalpie-Rechnung mit unterlagerter Massenstromregelung ergaenzt, um waehrend des Anfahrens bei hohen Temperaturbweichungen in Sattdampf einspritzen zu koennen. Die erzielten Ergebnisse sind durch in der Anlage gemessene Kurven belegt. (orig.)

  20. Influence of Melt Superheat, Sr Modifier, and Al-5Ti-1B Grain Refiner on Microstructural Evolution of Secondary Al-Si-Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmonov, Jovid; Timelli, Giulio; Bonollo, Franco

    2016-11-01

    The role of impurity elements and melt superheat on the efficiency of Sr modification, grain refinement with Al-Ti-B and the precipitation behavior of intermetallic phases in a secondary Al-7Si-3Cu-0.3Mg alloy were investigated. Metallographic and thermal analysis techniques were used to quantitatively examine the macro- and microstructural changes occurring with modifier and grain refiner additions at various pouring temperatures. The results indicate how the Sr modification and grain refinement with Al-Ti-B can be effective enough despite the presence of impurity elements in the material and the variation of pouring temperature. A slight poisonous effect of impurities, in particular, Zr and V, in the grain refinement efficiency can be eventually induced due to their action in promoting the formation of primary AlSiTi compounds. Moreover, grain refiner addition exerted a pronounced influence on the precipitation sequence of Fe-rich phases. The TiB2 particles appeared to promote the formation of Al5FeSi during solidification by acting as a favorable nucleation site.

  1. Properties of thick welded joints on superheater collectors made from new generation high alloy martensitic creep-resisting steels for supercritical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, Janusz; Zielinski, Adam [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice (Poland); Pasternak, Jerzy [Boiler Engineering Company RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The continuously developing power generation sector, including boilers with supercritical parameters, requires applications of new creep-resistant steel grades for construction of boilers steam superheater components. This paper presents selected information, experience within the field of research and implementation of a new group of creep-resistant as X10CrMoVNb9-1(P91), X10CrWMoVNb9-2(P92) and X12CrCoWVNb12-2-2(VM12) grades, containing 9-12%Cr. During welding and examination process the results of mechanical properties, requested level for base material and welded joints, as well as: tensile strength, impact strength and technological properties have been evaluated. Additional destructive examinations, with evaluation of structure stability, hardness distribution, for base material and welded joints after welding, heat treatment, again process have been determined. Recommendations due to the implementation influence of operating parameters of the main boiler components are part of this paper. (orig.)

  2. Recommendations for the shallow-crack fracture toughness testing task within the HSST (Heavy-Section Steel Technology) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, T.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Recommendations for Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program's investigation into the influence of crack depth on the fracture toughness of a steel prototypic of those in a reactor pressure vessel are included in this report. The motivation for this investigation lies in the fact that probabilistic fracture mechanics evaluations show that shallow flaws play a dominant role in the likelihood of vessel failure, and shallow-flaw specimens have exhibited an elevated toughness compared with conventional deep-notch fracture toughness specimens. Accordingly, the actual margin of safety of vessels may be greater than that predicted using existing deep-notch fracture-toughness results. The primary goal of the shallow-crack project is to investigate the influence of crack depth on fracture toughness under conditions prototypic of a reactor vessel. A limited data base of fracture toughness values will be assembled using a beam specimen of prototypic reactor vessel material and with a depth of 100 mm (4 in.). This will permit comparison of fracture-toughness data from deep-cracked and shallow-crack specimens, and this will be done for several test temperatures. Fracture-toughness data will be expressed in terms of the stress-intensity factor and crack-tip-opening displacement. Results of this investigation are expected to improve the understanding of shallow-flaw behavior in pressure vessels, thereby providing more realistic information for application to the pressurized-thermal shock issues. 33 refs., 17 figs.

  3. Wind sensitivity studies of a non-return wind tunnel, with a 216- by 432-mm (8.5- by 17.0-inch) test section, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, W. T.; Mort, K. W.; Piazza, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The study to develop inlet and exit treatments which would minimize the effect of external wind on the test-section flow quality of a nonreturn wind tunnel is reported. The investigation was conducted in the Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel which served as the wind source. Several inlets and two exits were tested at wind directions ranging from 0 to 180 degrees and at wind-to-test-section velocity ratios between zero and one. For the best inlet configuration the flow quality was good, with a velocity deviation in each of the three directions generally less than 1/2 knot (0.26 m/sec) for wind velocities of 15 knots (7.7 m/sec) or less. The loss in total pressure due to the inlet treatment was low: about 0.03 of the test-section dynamic pressure.

  4. Wind sensitivity studies of a non-return wind tunnel with a 216- by 432-mm (8.5- by 17.0-inches) test section, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, W. T.; Mort, K. W.; Piazza, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The refinement of inlet and exit treatments were studied which would minimize the effect of external wind on the test-section flow quality of a nonreturn wind tunnel. The investigation was conducted in the Ames Research Center 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel which served as the wind source. Several inlets and two exits were tested at wind directions ranging from 0 to 180 degrees and at wind-to-test-section velocity ratios from zero to somewhat greater than one. For the best inlet configuration the flow quality was good, with a velocity deviation in each of the three component directions generally less. The loss in total pressure due to the inlet treatment was low: about 0.035 of the test-section dynamic pressure for the no-wind case.

  5. Safety and feasibility of maximal physical testing in rheumatic diseases: a cross-sectional study with 5,910 assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Rodrigo Branco; Gualano, Bruno; Filho, Carlos Merege; Almeida, Murilo Groschitz; Perandini, Luiz Augusto; Dassouki, Thalita; Sá-Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to report on the safety and feasibility of the application of maximal physical tests in a heterogeneous cohort of rheumatic patients. This is a 5-year retrospective descriptive report on the incidence of events associated with maximal physical testing from 536 patients, totalizing 5,910 tests. Tests were classified as cardiopulmonary, muscle strength, and physical functioning tests. Any adverse events during the tests and limiting factors incurring in tests cancellation were reported. Eighteen out of 641 cardiopulmonary exercise tests had an adverse occurrence, with cardiac disturbance (1.4% of total tests) being the most prevalent. Moreover, 14 out of 641 tests were not feasible. Out of 3,478 tests comprising leg press, bench press, knee extension, and handgrip tests, 15 tests had an adverse event. The most common occurrence was joint pain (0.4% of total tests), which was also the most frequent factor precluding testing (0.5% of total tests). Forty-five out of 3,478 (1.3%) of the tests were not feasible. There was a very low incidence of events (0.2%) during the physical functioning tests. Joint pain was the only adverse event during the tests, whereas physical limitations were the most important barriers for the execution of the tests (1.1% of total tests). The incidence of limiting events in this test was 1.6% (n = 29). This report brings new data on the safety and feasibility of maximal physical testing in rheumatic patients. The physical tests described in this study may be applied for testing rheumatic patients both in research and clinical setting.

  6. Test materials for discipline «Psychology of management». Section 3. Working group as an object of control

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshina I. G.

    2011-01-01

    The author has developed tests to test knowledge of students for the subject «Psychology of Management». Tests can be used as an intermediate or final control, as well as for students' independent work.

  7. Simulation of the flow past a model in the closed test section of a low-speed wind tunnel and in the free stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, V. T.; Lapygin, V. I.

    2015-05-01

    The flow around a model in the closed test section of a low-speed wind tunnel has been analyzed in 2D approximation. As the contour of the nozzle, test section, and diffuser, the contour of the T-324 wind tunnel, of the Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ITAM SB RAS, Novosibirsk), in its symmetry plane was adopted. A comparison of experimental with calculated data on the distribution of velocities and dynamic pressures in the test section is given. The effect due to the sizes of a model installed in the test section on the values of the aerodynamic coefficients of the model is analyzed. As the aerodynamic model, the NASA0012 airfoil and the circular cylinder were considered. For the airfoil chord length b = 20 % of nozzle height, the values of the aerodynamic coefficients of the airfoil in the free stream and in the test section proved to be close to each other up to the angle of attack a = 7°, which configuration corresponds to blockage-factor value ξ ≈ 7 %. The obtained data are indicative of the expedience of taking into account, in choosing the model scale, not only the degree of flow passage area blockage by the model but, also, the length of the well-streamlined model. In the case of a strongly blunted body with a high drag-coefficient value, the admissible blockage factor ξ may reach a value of 10 %.

  8. Examining Testlet Effects in the TestDaF Listening Section: A Testlet Response Theory Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Testlets are subsets of test items that are based on the same stimulus and are administered together. Tests that contain testlets are in widespread use in language testing, but they also share a fundamental problem: Items within a testlet are locally dependent with possibly adverse consequences for test score interpretation and use. Building on…

  9. [Development of the right ear advantage in dichotic listening test: comparison of the findings by cross-sectional and longitudinal studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, T; Yamamoto, M; Hirose, T

    1990-12-01

    The right ear advantage in dichotic listening test for VCV word pairs was investigated using both longitudinal and cross-sectional methods with children whose age ranged from four to six. The degree of a right ear advantage and the population of those who showed a right ear advantage increased with age in the cross-sectional method. In the longitudinal method, however, the above findings could not be confirmed. These results suggest that the application of dichotic listening test may be inappropriate to young children.

  10. Desire for predictive testing for Alzheimer's disease and impact on advance care planning: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheffrin, Meera; Stijacic Cenzer, Irena; Steinman, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    .... Using a nationally representative sample, we explored who would take a free and definitive test predictive of Alzheimer's disease, and examined how using such a test may impact advance care planning...

  11. Computer Measuring and Controlling System for Temperature Field at R1/R2 Test Section in ESPRESSO Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Fei; WU; Chun-liang; SHEN; Feng-yang; GU; Chun-xing

    2012-01-01

    <正>ESPRESSO loop was the one of the sodium loops imported from Italy by the Fast Reactor of the China Institute of Atomic Energy, which would do necessary sodium experiments for developing core (include fuel rod assemblies, control rod assemblies) or for testing before domestic and foreign components into the reactor, i.e., the high temperature durability test, and the thermal shock test to test the

  12. The usefulness of a free self-test for screening albuminuria in the general population: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we evaluated the usefulness of a free self-test for screening albuminuria in the general population. Methods Dutch adults were invited by the Dutch Kidney Foundation to order a free albuminuria self-test, consisting of three semi quantitative dipstick tests, via the Internet. Results were classified in negative, low-positive and high-positive. In case of a positive test result, the tester was recommended to visit a GP for supplementary examination and/or treatment. Participants of the programme were sent a questionnaire for evaluation by e-mail eight weeks after receiving the self-test. Results During the first 30 days of the self-test programme, 996,927 self-tests were ordered. In total, 71,714 participants completed the questionnaire: 79% had a negative test result and 21% had a positive test result (20% low-positive and 1% high-positive. Of the positive testers, 25% visited a GP after testing for albuminuria. Among the 3,983 participants who visited a GP, 193 new diseases were detected: 25 chronic renal failure, 152 hypertension and 31 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Using a free self-test for screening albuminuria in the general population resulted in a large response and a number of newly detected diseases. However, we found a very high percentage of positive testers of which probably a large part is false positive. Furthermore, only a small part of the positive testers visited a GP for additional examination and/or treatment. The efficiency of such a campaign could be increased by embedding the testing in health care to reduce the number of false-positive results and to ensure follow-up and treatment in case of a positive test result.

  13. The usefulness of a free self-test for screening albuminuria in the general population: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielen, Markus MJ; Schellevis, François G; Verheij, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study we evaluated the usefulness of a free self-test for screening albuminuria in the general population. Methods Dutch adults were invited by the Dutch Kidney Foundation to order a free albuminuria self-test, consisting of three semi quantitative dipstick tests, via the Internet. Results were classified in negative, low-positive and high-positive. In case of a positive test result, the tester was recommended to visit a GP for supplementary examination and/or treatment. Participants of the programme were sent a questionnaire for evaluation by e-mail eight weeks after receiving the self-test. Results During the first 30 days of the self-test programme, 996,927 self-tests were ordered. In total, 71,714 participants completed the questionnaire: 79% had a negative test result and 21% had a positive test result (20% low-positive and 1% high-positive). Of the positive testers, 25% visited a GP after testing for albuminuria. Among the 3,983 participants who visited a GP, 193 new diseases were detected: 25 chronic renal failure, 152 hypertension and 31 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Using a free self-test for screening albuminuria in the general population resulted in a large response and a number of newly detected diseases. However, we found a very high percentage of positive testers of which probably a large part is false positive. Furthermore, only a small part of the positive testers visited a GP for additional examination and/or treatment. The efficiency of such a campaign could be increased by embedding the testing in health care to reduce the number of false-positive results and to ensure follow-up and treatment in case of a positive test result. PMID:19818129

  14. Triaging borderline/mild dyskaryotic Pap cytology with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology testing: Cross-sectional and longitudinal outcome study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Uijterwaal (Margot); B.I. Witte (Birgit); F.J. van Kemenade (Folkert); D.C. Rijkaart (Dorien); R. de Ridder (Rogier); J. Berkhof (Johannes); G.A.M.A. Balfoort-Van Der Meij (G. A M A); M.C.G. Bleeker; P.J.F. Snijders (Peter); C.J.L.M. Meijer (Chris J. L.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Women with borderline/mildly dyskaryotic (BMD) cytology smears are currently followed up with repeat testing at 6 and 18 months. The objective of this study is to analyse the cross-sectional and longitudinal performance of p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology for the detection of

  15. ENDF/B-VII.1 Neutron Cross Section Data Testing with Critical Assembly Benchmarks and Reactor Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, A. C.; MacFarlane, R. E.; Mosteller, R. D.; Kiedrowski, B. C.; Frankle, S. C.; Chadwick, M. B.; McKnight, R. D.; Lell, R. M.; Palmiotti, G.; Hiruta, H.; Herman, M.; Arcilla, R.; Mughabghab, S. F.; Sublet, J. C.; Trkov, A.; Trumbull, T. H.; Dunn, M.

    2011-12-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is the latest revision to the United States' Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF). The ENDF library is currently in its seventh generation, with ENDF/B-VII.0 being released in 2006. This revision expands upon that library, including the addition of new evaluated files (was 393 neutron files previously, now 423 including replacement of elemental vanadium and zinc evaluations with isotopic evaluations) and extension or updating of many existing neutron data files. Complete details are provided in the companion paper [M. B. Chadwick et al., "ENDF/B-VII.1 Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Cross Sections, Covariances, Fission Product Yields and Decay Data," Nuclear Data Sheets, 112, 2887 (2011)]. This paper focuses on how accurately application libraries may be expected to perform in criticality calculations with these data. Continuous energy cross section libraries, suitable for use with the MCNP Monte Carlo transport code, have been generated and applied to a suite of nearly one thousand critical benchmark assemblies defined in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project's International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. This suite covers uranium and plutonium fuel systems in a variety of forms such as metallic, oxide or solution, and under a variety of spectral conditions, including unmoderated (i.e., bare), metal reflected and water or other light element reflected. Assembly eigenvalues that were accurately predicted with ENDF/B-VII.0 cross sections such as unmoderated and uranium reflected 235U and 239Pu assemblies, HEU solution systems and LEU oxide lattice systems that mimic commercial PWR configurations continue to be accurately calculated with ENDF/B-VII.1 cross sections, and deficiencies in predicted eigenvalues for assemblies containing selected materials, including titanium, manganese, cadmium and tungsten are greatly reduced. Improvements are also confirmed for selected

  16. ENDF/B-VII.1 Neutron Cross Section Data Testing with Critical Assembly Benchmarks and Reactor Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, A.C.; Herman, M.; Kahler,A.C.; MacFarlane,R.E.; Mosteller,R.D.; Kiedrowski,B.C.; Frankle,S.C.; Chadwick,M.B.; McKnight,R.D.; Lell,R.M.; Palmiotti,G.; Hiruta,H.; Herman,M.; Arcilla,R.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Sublet,J.C.; Trkov,A.; Trumbull,T.H.; Dunn,M.

    2011-12-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is the latest revision to the United States Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF). The ENDF library is currently in its seventh generation, with ENDF/B-VII.0 being released in 2006. This revision expands upon that library, including the addition of new evaluated files (was 393 neutron files previously, now 423 including replacement of elemental vanadium and zinc evaluations with isotopic evaluations) and extension or updating of many existing neutron data files. Complete details are provided in the companion paper [M. B. Chadwick et al., 'ENDF/B-VII.1 Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Cross Sections, Covariances, Fission Product Yields and Decay Data,' Nuclear Data Sheets, 112, 2887 (2011)]. This paper focuses on how accurately application libraries may be expected to perform in criticality calculations with these data. Continuous energy cross section libraries, suitable for use with the MCNP Monte Carlo transport code, have been generated and applied to a suite of nearly one thousand critical benchmark assemblies defined in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project's International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. This suite covers uranium and plutonium fuel systems in a variety of forms such as metallic, oxide or solution, and under a variety of spectral conditions, including unmoderated (i.e., bare), metal reflected and water or other light element reflected. Assembly eigenvalues that were accurately predicted with ENDF/B-VII.0 cross sections such as unmoderated and uranium reflected {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu assemblies, HEU solution systems and LEU oxide lattice systems that mimic commercial PWR configurations continue to be accurately calculated with ENDF/B-VII.1 cross sections, and deficiencies in predicted eigenvalues for assemblies containing selected materials, including titanium, manganese, cadmium and tungsten are greatly reduced. Improvements are also

  17. Community engagement in sexual health and uptake of HIV testing and syphilis testing among MSM in China: a cross-sectional online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiange P. Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: HIV and syphilis testing are suboptimal among MSM in China. Community engagement may be useful for promoting testing in China and should be considered in intervention development and delivery. Further research is needed to better understand the role of LMIC community engagement in HIV interventions.

  18. ENDF/B-VII.1 Neutron Cross Section Data Testing with Critical Assembly Benchmarks and Reactor Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Macfarlane, R E [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mosteller, R D [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kiedrowski, B C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Frankle, S C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chadwick, M. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mcknight, R D [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Lell, R M [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Palmiotti, G [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Hiruta, h [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Herman, Micheal W [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Arcilla, r [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Mughabghab, S F [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Sublet, J C [Culham Science Center, Abington, UK; Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia; Trumbull, T H [Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory; Dunn, Michael E [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is the latest revision to the United States' Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF). The ENDF library is currently in its seventh generation, with ENDF/B-VII.0 being released in 2006. This revision expands upon that library, including the addition of new evaluated files (was 393 neutron files previously, now 423 including replacement of elemental vanadium and zinc evaluations with isotopic evaluations) and extension or updating of many existing neutron data files. Complete details are provided in the companion paper [1]. This paper focuses on how accurately application libraries may be expected to perform in criticality calculations with these data. Continuous energy cross section libraries, suitable for use with the MCNP Monte Carlo transport code, have been generated and applied to a suite of nearly one thousand critical benchmark assemblies defined in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project's International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. This suite covers uranium and plutonium fuel systems in a variety of forms such as metallic, oxide or solution, and under a variety of spectral conditions, including unmoderated (i.e., bare), metal reflected and water or other light element reflected. Assembly eigenvalues that were accurately predicted with ENDF/B-VII.0 cross sections such as unrnoderated and uranium reflected (235)U and (239)Pu assemblies, HEU solution systems and LEU oxide lattice systems that mimic commercial PWR configurations continue to be accurately calculated with ENDF/B-VII.1 cross sections, and deficiencies in predicted eigenvalues for assemblies containing selected materials, including titanium, manganese, cadmium and tungsten are greatly reduced. Improvements are also confirmed for selected actinide reaction rates such as (236)U; (238,242)Pu and (241,243)Am capture in fast systems. Other deficiencies, such as the overprediction of Pu solution system critical

  19. Effect of foot placements during sit to stand transition on timed up and go test in stroke subjects: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Abraham M; Karnad, Shreekanth D; Nayak, Akshatha; Suresh, B V; Mithra, Prasanna; Unnikrishnan, B

    2017-01-01

    Timed up and go (TUG) test is been used as a screening tool for the assessment of risk of falling in individuals following stroke. Though TUG test is a quick test, it has fair sensitivity compared to other tests. This study was carried out to obtain and compare test scores for different types of foot placements during sit to stand transition in stroke subjects. A Cross-sectional study with purposive sampling included 28 post stroke subjects who were able to walk 6 meter with or without assistance. Timed Up and Go test was carried out with four different types of foot placements and scores were recorded. The data were compared using Kruskal-Wallis One way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. There were comparable differences between asymmetric 1 test strategy which involved affected extremity to be placed behind the unaffected and other test strategies (Z = -4.457,-3.848,-4.458; p = 0.000). The initial foot placements during sit to stand transition influenced the time taken to complete the test which was significantly higher in asymmetric 1 strategy, Incorporation of the initial foot placement mainly asymmetric 1 strategy into conventional TUG test would help in identifying accurately the subject's functional mobility and postural stability.

  20. The Association Between Fall History and Physical Performance Tests in the Community-Dwelling Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Chul; Chon, Jinmann; Kim, Hee Sang; Lee, Jong Ha; Yoo, Seung Don; Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Seung Ah; Han, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hyun Seok; Lee, Bae Youl; Soh, Yun Soo; Won, Chang Won

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the association between baseline characteristics, three physical performance tests and fall history in a sample of the elderly from Korean population. A total of 307 participants (mean age, 76.70±4.85 years) were categorized into one of two groups, i.e., fallers and non-fallers. Fifty-two participants who had reported falling unexpectedly at least once in the previous 12 months were assigned to the fallers group. Physical performance tests included Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go test. The differences between the two study groups were compared and we analyzed the correlations between fall histories and physical performance tests. SPPB demonstrated a significant association with fall history. Although the BBS total scores did not show statistical significance, two dynamic balance test items of BBS (B12 and B13) showed a significant association among fallers. This study suggests that SPPB and two dynamic balance test items of the BBS can be used in screening for risk of falls in an ambulatory elderly population.

  1. Community views about routine HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment in Botswana: signs of progress from a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokoena Thamie

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Botswana government began providing free antiretroviral therapy (ART in 2002 and in 2004 introduced routine HIV testing (RHT in government health facilities, aiming to increase HIV testing and uptake of ART. There have been concerns that the RHT programme might be coercive, lead to increased partner violence, and drive people away from government health services. Methods We conducted a household survey of 1536 people in a stratified random sample of communities across Botswana, asking about use and experience of government health services, views about RHT, views about ART, and testing for HIV in the last 12 months. Focus groups further discussed issues about ART. Results Some 81% of respondents had visited a government clinic within the last 24 months. Of these 92% were satisfied with the service, 96% felt they were treated with respect and 90% were comfortable about confidentiality. Almost all respondents said they would choose a government clinic for treatment of AIDS. Nearly one half (47% thought they were at risk of HIV. Those who had experienced partner violence within the last 12 months were more likely to think themselves at risk. One half of those who had visited a government facility in the last 24 months were offered HIV tests, and nearly half were tested. A few (8% of those who were not asked thought they were tested. Most people (79% had heard of RHT and 94% were in favour of it. Over one half (55% of the entire sample had been tested for HIV within the last 12 months, one half of these through RHT. Women were more likely to have been tested. Nearly everyone (94% had heard of ART and thought it could help AIDS. Focus groups identified problems of access to ART due to distance from treatment centres and long queues in the centres. Conclusion Public awareness and approval of RHT was very high. The high rate of RHT has contributed to the overall high rate of HIV testing. The government's programme to increase HIV

  2. Antenatal care and uptake of HIV testing among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayleen K L Gunn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current guidelines recommend inclusion of HIV testing in routine screening tests for all pregnant women. For this reason, antenatal care (ANC represents a vital component of efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV. To elucidate the relationship between ANC services and HIV testing among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, we undertook an analysis of data from four countries. Methods: Four countries (Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria and Uganda were purposively selected to represent unique geographical regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Using Demographic and Health Survey datasets, weighted crude and adjusted logistic regression models were used to explore factors that influenced HIV testing as part of ANC services. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Arizona. Results: Pooled results showed that 60.7% of women received HIV testing as part of ANC. Ugandan women had the highest rate of HIV testing as part of ANC (81.5% compared with women in Mozambique (69.4%, Nigeria (54.4% and Congo (45.4%. Difficulty reaching a health facility was a barrier in Congo and Mozambique but not Nigeria or Uganda. HIV testing rates were lower in rural areas, among the poorest women, the least educated and those with limited knowledge of HIV. In every country, crude regression analyses showed higher odds of being tested for HIV if women received their ANC services from a skilled attendant compared with an unskilled attendant. After adjusting for confounders, women in the total sample had 1.78 (99% CI: 1.45–2.18 times the odds of having an HIV test as part of their ANC if they went to a skilled attendant compared with an unskilled attendant. Conclusions: There is a need for integration of HIV testing into routine ANC service to increase opportunities for PMTCT programmes to reach HIV-positive pregnant women. Attention should be paid to the expansion of outreach services for women in rural settings

  3. Resillient modulus of freez-thaw affected granular soils for pavement design and evaluation. Part 1: Laboratory tests on soils from Winchendon, Massachusetts, test sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, D.; Bentley, D.; Durell, G.; Johnson, T.

    1986-07-01

    This is the first of a series of four reports about laboratory and field testing of various granular road and airfield subgrades. This report details the acquisition, testing and analysis of six soils from a test site in Winchendon, Massachusetts. Repeated load triaxial tests were done on frozen and thawed soils to characterize the variations in the their resilient properties throughout the seasons. Linear regression yielded empirical equations relating the resilient modulus to applied stress, unfrozen water content (for frozen soils), moisture tension (for thawed soils) and density. Equipment and test procedures (given in detail) were developed that allowed simulation in the laboratory of the gradual recovery of stiffness that occurs in the field after thawing. The resilient moduli were strongly dependent on soil state, dropping at least two orders of magnitude upon thawing. For all soils the moduli increased with increasing confining stress, generally decreased with increasing principal stress ratio, and increased with increasing moisture tension levels. The resilient moduli increased by a factor of approximately two as the materials recovered from the effects of a freeze-thaw cycle. The recovery process is well modeled as a function of soil moisture tension level. The stress sensitivity did not appear to be a function of the soil moisture tension level. The report also includes tabulations of all the repeated load triaxial test data.

  4. Commissioning of the STAR test section for experimental simulation of loss of coolant accident using the EC-208 instrumented fuel assembly of the IEA-R1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maprelian, Eduardo; Torres, Walmir M.; Prado, Adelk C.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Franca, Renato L.; Santos, Samuel C.; Macedo, Luiz A.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: emaprel@ipen.br, E-mail: wmtorres@ipen.br, E-mail: acprado@ipen.br, E-mail: umbehaun@ipen.br, E-mail: rlfranca@ipen.br, E-mail: samuelcs@ipen.br, E-mail: lamacedo@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The three basic safety functions of Research Reactors (RR) are the safe shutdown of the reactor, the proper cooling of the decay heat of the fuel elements and the confinement of radioactive materials. Compared to Nuclear Power Reactors, RR power release is small, yet its three safety functions must be met to ensure the integrity of the reactor. During a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in pool type RR, partial or complete loss of pool water may occur, with consequent partial or complete uncovering of the fuel assemblies. In such an accident, the decay heat removal safety function must not be compromised. The Test Section for Experimental Simulation of Loss of Coolant Accident (STAR) is in commissioning phase. This test section will provide experimental data on partial and total uncovering of the EC-208 instrumented fuel assembly (IFA) irradiated in the IEA-R1. Experimental results will be useful in validation of computer codes for RR safety analysis, particularly on heat removal efficiency aspects (safety function) in accident conditions. STAR comprises a base on which is installed the IFA, the cylindrical stainless steel hull, the compressed air system for the test section emptying and refilling, and the instrumentation for temperature and level measurements. The commissioning tests or pre-operational check, consist of several preliminary tests to verify experimental procedures, the difficulties during assembling of STAR in the pool, the difficulties in control the emptying and refilling velocities, as well as, the repeatability capacity, tests of equipment, valves and systems and tests of instrumentation and data acquisition system. Safety, accuracy and easiness of operation will be checked. (author)

  5. Field test corrosion experiences when co-firing straw and coal: 10 year status within Elsam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus Berg; Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, Ole Hede

    2007-01-01

    to 575 degrees C and for the flue gas from 1025 to 1300 degrees C. All these test tubes have been removed during the last three years at one year intervals for corrosion studies. The corrosion studies performed on all investigated tubes included measurements of the corrosion attack, light optical...... sulphate on superheater tubes resulting in increased corrosion rates. From field experimental results this paper show, that by co-firing straw with coal, corrosion rates can be brought down to an acceptable level. This paper firstly deals with the results from a demonstration program co-firing coal...... and straw at the 150 MW pulverized coal fired boiler Studstrup unit 1. Two exposure series lasting 3000 hours each were performed for co-firing 10 and 20% of straw (% energy basis) with coal. Using built in test tubes in the hot end of the actual superheaters and air/water cooled corrosion probes...

  6. 某电厂锅炉前屏过热器爆管原因分析及处理%The Cause Analysis and Processing for Tube Explosion of the Boiler’s Front Platen Superheater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛民·阿斯哈尔

    2015-01-01

    During the operation of the power plant boiler, the leakage of four kinds of tubes in the boiler (economizer tube, water cooling wal tube, superheater tube and reheater tube) is the main cause of the unplanned outage. So, to prevent the leakage and explosion of boiler is significant for ensuring safely and economical operation of the generator unit. In this paper, the cause, processing and preventive measures for the tube explosion of the boiler’s front platen superheater are analyzed.%在电站锅炉运行中,锅炉四管(省煤器,水冷壁,过热器,再热器)的泄漏是造成机组非计划停运的主要原因,由此可见认真做好防止锅炉受热面的泄漏和爆破工作,对保证机组安全稳定经济运行是十分关键的。本文主要分析引起某电厂锅炉前屏过热器爆破的原因、处理及应该采取的预防措施。

  7. 77 FR 28340 - Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume Chemical Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... acute toxicity, bacterial reverse mutation, and chromosomal damage for C.I. Pigment Blue 61 by removing...]phenyl]amino]- (CAS No. 1324-76-1), also known as C.I. Pigment Blue 61. EPA is basing its decision to... amendment revokes some of the testing requirements for C.I. Pigment Blue 61. EPA is basing its decision...

  8. 78 FR 27860 - Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume Chemical Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... toxicity, mammalian acute toxicity, bacterial reverse mutation, and chromosomal damage for C.I. Pigment...), also known as C.I. Pigment Blue 61. After publication in the Federal Register of a final rule requiring testing for C.I. Pigment Blue 61, EPA received adequate, existing studies which eliminated the need...

  9. 77 FR 28281 - Withdrawal of Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... issue of March 16, 2012 (77 FR 15609) (FRL-9335-6). If you have questions regarding the applicability of... One High Production Volume Chemical Substance AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... production volume chemicals (HPV1). * * * * * (j) * * * Table 2--Chemical Substances and Testing...

  10. Investigating the Value of Section Scores for the "TOEFL iBT"® Test. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-21. ETS Research Report RR-13-35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sinharay, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the value of reporting the reading, listening, speaking, and writing section scores for the "TOEFL iBT"® test, focusing on 4 related aspects of the psychometric quality of the TOEFL iBT section scores: reliability of the section scores, dimensionality of the test, presence of distinct score profiles, and the…

  11. Exploratory study to induce fan noise in the test section of the NASA Langley full-scale wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver, I. L.; Hayden, R. E.; Myles, M. M.; Murray, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    Measures to reduce the intensity of fan noise in the NASA Langley 30 ft x 60 ft subsonic wind tunnel were sought. Measurements were first performed to document existing aerodynamic and acoustic conditions. The purpose of these experiments was to (1) obtain the transfer function between the sound power output of the fan and the sound pressure on the test platform, (2) evaluate the sound attenuation around the tunnel circuit, (3) measure simultaneously the flow profile and the turbulence spectrum of the inflow to the fan and the noise on the test platform, and (4) perform flow observations and identify secondary noise sources. Subsequently, these data were used to predict (1) the relative contribution of the major aerodynamic parameters to total fan noise and (2) the effect of placing a dissipative silencer in the collector duct upstream of the fan. Promising noise control measures were identified and recommendations were made on how to evaluate them.

  12. Comparison of Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Cross-Sectional Delayed-Type Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; de Sousa, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas Nogueira, Betânia Mara; Gomes, Luciana Inácia; Oliveira, Edward; Assis, Tália Santana Machado; de Mendonça, Andréa Laender Pessoa; Pinto, Bruna Fernandes; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Rabello, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of invasive and non-invasive tests for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in a large series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In this delayed-type cross-sectional study, 113 HIV-infected symptomatic patients were evaluated by an adjudication committee after clinical follow-up to establish the presence or absence of VL as the target condition (reference test). The index tests were recombinant K39 antigen-based immunochromatographic test (rK39), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), prototype kit of direct agglutination test (DAT-LPC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in peripheral blood. Compared with parasitological test and adjudication committee diagnosis or latent class model analyses, IFAT and rk39 dipstick test presented the lowest sensitivity. DAT-LPC exhibited good overall performance, and there was no statistical difference between DAT-LPC and qPCR diagnosis accuracy. Real-time PCR emerges as a less invasive alternative to parasitological examination for confirmation of cases not identified by DAT. PMID:23836568

  13. Analytical results of a long-term aquifer test conducted near the Rio Grande, Albuquerque, New Mexico, with a section on piezometric-extensometric test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Conde R.; Heywood, Charles E.

    2001-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque, New Mexico, is interested in gaining a better understanding, both quantitative and qualitative, of the aquifer system in and around Albuquerque. Currently (2000), the City of Albuquerque and surrounding municipalities are completely dependent on ground-water reserves for their municipal water supply. This report presents the results of a long-term aquifer test conducted near the Rio Grande in Albuquerque. The long-term aquifer test was conducted during the winter of 1994-95. The City of Albuquerque Griegos 1 water production well was pumped continuously for 54 days at an average pumping rate of 2,331 gallons per minute. During the 54-day pumping and a 30-day recovery period, water levels were recorded in a monitoring network that consisted of 3 production wells and 19 piezometers located at nine sites. These wells and piezometers were screened in river alluvium and (or) the upper and middle parts of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. In addition to the measurement of water levels, aquifer-system compaction was monitored during the aquifer test by an extensometer. Well-bore video and flowmeter surveys were conducted in the Griegos 1 water production well at the end of the recovery period to identify the location of primary water- producing zones along the screened interval. Analytical results from the aquifer test presented in this report are based on the methods used to analyze a leaky confined aquifer system and were performed using the computer software package AQTESOLV. Estimated transmissivities for the Griegos 1 and 4 water production wells ranged from 10,570 to 24,810 feet squared per day; the storage coefficient for the Griegos 4 well was 0.0025. A transmissivity of 13,540 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 0.0011 were estimated from the data collected from a piezometer completed in the production interval of the Griegos 1 well.

  14. Muscular activity and torque of the foot dorsiflexor muscles during decremental isometric test: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Muñoz, Maria; González-Sánchez, Manuel; Martín-Martín, Jaime; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2017-06-01

    To analyse the torque variation level that could be explained by the muscle activation (EMG) amplitude of the three major foot dorsiflexor muscles (tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), extensor hallucis longus (EHL)) during isometric foot dorsiflexion at different intensities. In a cross-sectional study, forty-one subjects performed foot dorsiflexion at 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) with the hip and knee flexed 90° and the ankle in neutral position (90° between leg and foot). Three foot dorsiflexions were performed for each intensity. Outcome variables were: maximum (100% MVC) and relative torque (75%, 50%, 25% MVC), maximum and relative EMG amplitude. A linear regression analysis was calculated for each intensity of the isometric foot dorsiflexion. The degree of torque variation (dependent variable) from the independent variables explain (EMG amplitude of the three major foot dorsiflexor muscles) the increases when the foot dorsiflexion intensity is increased, with values of R(2) that range from 0.194 (during 25% MVC) to 0.753 (during 100% MVC). The reliability of the outcome variables was excellent. The EMG amplitude of the three main foot dorsiflexors exhibited more variance in the dependent variable (torque) when foot dorsiflexion intensity increases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Status of coal ash corrosion resistant materials test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, D.K.; Meisenhelter, D.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1999-07-01

    In November of 1998, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) began development of a system to permit testing of several advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam conditions of 1100 F and higher in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B and W, and First Energy's Ohio Edison jointly fund the project. CONSOL Energy Company is also participating as an advisor. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. The coal-ash corrosion resistant materials test program will provide full scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater and reheater tube materials. These newer materials may be capable of operating at higher steam temperatures while resisting external/fire-side corrosion. For high sulfur coal applications, this is a key issue for advanced cycle pulverized coal-fired plants. Fireside corrosion is also a critical issue for many existing plants. Previous testing of high temperature materials in the United States has been based primarily on using laboratory test coupons. The test coupons did not operate at conditions representative of a high sulfur coal-fired boiler. Testing outside of the United States has been with low sulfur coal or natural gas firing and has not addressed corrosion issues. This test program takes place in an actual operating boiler and is expected to confirm the performance of these materials with high sulfur coal. The system consists of three identical sections, each containing multiple pieces of twelve different materials. They are cooled by reheater steam, and are located just above the furnace exit in Ohio Edison's Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. After one year of operation, the first section will be removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation. The second and third sections will operate for

  16. Cross sectional study of performance indicators for English Primary Care Trusts: testing construct validity and identifying explanatory variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilford Richard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The performance of Primary Care Trusts in England is assessed and published using a number of different performance indicators. Our study has two broad purposes. Firstly, to find out whether pairs of indicators that purport to measure similar aspects of quality are correlated (as would be expected if they are both valid measures of the same construct. Secondly, we wanted to find out whether broad (global indicators correlated with any particular features of Primary Care Trusts, such as expenditure per capita. Methods Cross sectional quantitative analysis using data from six 2004/05 PCT performance indicators for 303 English Primary Care Trusts from four sources in the public domain: Star Rating, aggregated Quality and Outcomes Framework scores, Dr Foster mortality index, Dr Foster equity index (heart by-pass and hip replacements, NHS Litigation Authority Risk Management standards and Patient Satisfaction scores from the Star Ratings. Forward stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine the effect of Primary Care Trust characteristics on performance. Results Star Rating and Quality and Outcomes Framework total, both summary measures of global quality, were not correlated with each other (F = 0.66, p = 0.57. There were however positive correlations between Quality and Outcomes Framework total and patient satisfaction (r = 0.61, p Conclusion Performance assessment in healthcare remains on the Government's agenda, with new core and developmental standards set to replace the Star Ratings in 2006. Yet the results of this analysis provide little evidence that the current indicators have sufficient construct validity to measure the underlying concept of quality, except when the specific area of screening is considered.

  17. Will an unsupervised self-testing strategy for HIV work in health care workers of South Africa? A cross sectional pilot feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Pant Pai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In South Africa, stigma, discrimination, social visibility and fear of loss of confidentiality impede health facility-based HIV testing. With 50% of adults having ever tested for HIV in their lifetime, private, alternative testing options are urgently needed. Non-invasive, oral self-tests offer a potential for a confidential, unsupervised HIV self-testing option, but global data are limited. METHODS: A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2012 in health care workers based at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. An innovative, unsupervised, self-testing strategy was evaluated for feasibility; defined as completion of self-testing process (i.e., self test conduct, interpretation and linkage. An oral point-of-care HIV test, an Internet and paper-based self-test HIV applications, and mobile phones were synergized to create an unsupervised strategy. Self-tests were additionally confirmed with rapid tests on site and laboratory tests. Of 270 health care workers (18 years and above, of unknown HIV status approached, 251 consented for participation. FINDINGS: Overall, about 91% participants rated a positive experience with the strategy. Of 251 participants, 126 evaluated the Internet and 125 the paper-based application successfully; completion rate of 99.2%. All sero-positives were linked to treatment (completion rate:100% (95% CI, 66.0-100. About half of sero-negatives were offered counselling on mobile phones; completion rate: 44.6% (95% CI, 38.0-51.0. A majority of participants (78.1% were females, aged 18-24 years (61.4%. Nine participants were found sero-positive after confirmatory tests (prevalence 3.6% 95% CI, 1.8-6.9. Six of nine positive self-tests were accurately interpreted; sensitivity: 66.7% (95% CI, 30.9-91.0; specificity:100% (95% CI, 98.1-100. INTERPRETATION: Our unsupervised self-testing strategy was feasible to operationalize in health care workers in South Africa. Linkages were successfully

  18. Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method: a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Archana; Mburu, Gitau; Shivkumar, Poonam Varma; Sharma, Pankhuri; Campbell, Fiona; Behera, Jagannath; Dargan, Ritu; Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Mehra, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV self-testing can increase coverage of essential HIV services. This study aimed to establish the acceptability, concordance and feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing among pregnant women in rural India. Methods A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted among 202 consenting pregnant women in a rural Indian hospital between August 2014 and January 2015. Participants were provided with instructions on how to self-test using OraQuick® HIV antibody test, and subsequently asked to self-test under supervision of a community health worker. Test results were confirmed at a government-run integrated counselling and testing centre. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on patient demographics and the ease, acceptability and difficulties of self-testing. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 35 participants to understand their experiences. Results In total, 202 participants performed the non-invasive, oral fluid-based, rapid test under supervision for HIV screening. Acceptance rate was 100%. Motivators for self-testing included: ease of testing (43.4%), quick results (27.3%) and non-invasive procedure (23.2%). Sensitivity and specificity were 100% for 201 tests, and one test was invalid. Concordance of test result interpretation between community health workers and participants was 98.5% with a Cohen's Kappa (k) value of k=0.566 with p<0.001 for inter-rater agreement. Although 92.6% participants reported that the instructions for the test were easy to understand, 18.7% required the assistance of a supervisor to self-test. Major themes that emerged from the qualitative interviews indicated the importance of the following factors in influencing acceptability of self-testing: clarity and accessibility of test instructions; time-efficiency and convenience of testing; non-invasiveness of the test; and fear of incorrect results. Overall, 96.5% of the participants recommended that the OraQuick® test kits should become

  19. 平大桥钢—混凝土结合段模型试验%Model Test of Steel and Concrete Joint Section of Dongping Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占玉林; 赵人达; 毛学明; 董碧霞

    2011-01-01

    To study the whole process mechanical behavior of steel and concrete joint sections, in accordance with the actual Dongping Bridge and on the principle of equivalence, the model test of a steel and concrete joint section was designed and carried out. The scale of the model is 1:2. 5. The part of the concrete girder rib is the T-shape section and the transition at the joint section is the concrete-filled steel box cross beam. At the connection interface of the steel and concrete, the PBL shear connectors were used and the longitudinal prestressing tendons were arranged as well to join in the action of the shear connectors. In the model test, three stages of the static load, fatigue load and failure load were applied. The results of the test indicate that under the designed load, the joint section has good strength and rigidity and the stress levels are low. Under the fatigue load, microcracks appear in the surface of the concrete of the joint section, however, the global rigidity of the structure is still all right and relatively to the designed load, the failure load has rather high safety margin.%为研究钢-混凝土结合段全过程受力性能,结合东平大桥实桥,根据等效原则设计并完成了一榀钢-混凝土结合段模型试验.模型比例采用1∶2.5,混凝土梁肋部分为T形截面,结合段采用钢箱混凝土横梁过渡.钢与混凝土粘结界面采用PBL剪力连接件构造,并辅以纵向预应力筋共同作用.试验过程进行了静力、疲劳和破坏3个阶段的加载.试验结果表明:设计荷载作用下,结合段具有良好的强度和刚度,应力水平较低;疲劳荷载作用下,结合段的混凝土表层会有微小裂纹出现,但结构整体刚度依然良好;破坏荷载相对于设计荷载具有较高的安全储备.

  20. Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Utility of Pulmonary Function Tests in Predicting Emphysema in Ever-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Kheradmand

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former over the age of 40. CT of thorax was used to quantify the low attenuation area (% emphysema, and to measure the standardized airway wall thickness. PFTs were used individually and in combination to predict their ability to discriminate radiographic emphysema. Significant emphysema (>7% was detected in 122 (54% subjects. Twenty six (21% emphysema subjects had no evidence of airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio 23% emphysema showed airflow obstruction. The sensitivity and specificity of spirometry for detecting radiographic emphysema were 79% and 75%, respectively. Standardized airway wall thickness was increased in subjects with airflow obstruction, but did not correlate with emphysema severity. In this cohort of lifetime ever-smokers, PFTs alone were inadequate for diagnosing emphysema. Airway wall thickness quantified by CT morphometry was associated with airflow limitation, but not with emphysema indicating that the heterogeneous nature of lung disease in smokers may represent distinct phenotypes.

  1. Fall prediction in thai elderly with timed up and go and tandem walk test: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantanachai, Thanwarat; Pichaiyongwongdee, Sopa; Jalayondeja, Chutima

    2014-07-01

    To examine the timed up and go (TUG) and tandem walk test (TWT) as fall prediction assessments in Thai elderly. Elderly subjects aged between 60 and 86 years and living in Nakhonpathom and Samutsakhon provinces were classified as fallers and non-fallers by self-report in the past six months. The TUG and TWT were used to predict falls. The optimal cutoff score and validity indexes were determined by plotting the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and crosstabs analysis. One hundred and sixty-one elderly subjects were classified as fallers (7 males and 43 females) and non-fallers (24 males and 87 females). The area under the curve (AUC) of ROC were 0.62 (95% CI = 0.59, 0.76; p = 0.0001) for TUG and 0.605 (95% CI = 0.514, 0.696; p = 0.033) for TWT error score. The cutoff scores were 10.5 seconds for TUG (74% sensitivity and 57.7% specificity) and five scores for TWT error (62% sensitivity and 55% specificity). TUG and TWT error were useful tools to explain faller status in Thai community-dwelling for theelderly. TWT time was not sensitive enough to detect the elders who were at risk of falls.

  2. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) KidsHealth > For Parents > Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) A A A What's in this ... babies in the United States are delivered via cesarean section (C-section). Even if you're envisioning a ...

  3. Tuberculosis patients' reasons for, and suggestions to address non-uptake of HIV testing: a cross-sectional study in the Free State Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters Edwin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa endorses the global policy shift from primarily client-initiated voluntary counselling and testing (VCT to routine/provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC. The reason for this policy shift has been to facilitate uptake of HIV testing amongst at-risk populations in high-prevalence settings. Despite ostensible implementation of routine/PITC, uptake amongst tuberculosis (TB patients in this country remains a challenge. This study presents the reasons that non-tested TB patients offered for their refusal of HIV testing and reflects on all TB patients' suggestions as to how this situation may be alleviated. Methods In February-March 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 600 TB patients across 61 primary health care facilities in four sub-districts in the Free State. Patient selection was done proportionally to the numbers registered at each facility in 2007. Data were subjected to bivariate tests and content analysis of open-ended questions. Results Almost one-third (32.5% of the respondents reported that they had not undertaken HIV testing, with the most often offered explanation being that they were 'undecided' (37.0%. Other self-reported reasons for non-uptake included: fear (e.g. of testing HIV-positive, 19.0%; perception of being at low risk of HIV infection (13.4%; desire first to deal with TB 'on its own' (12.5%; and because HIV testing had not been offered to them (12.0%. Many patients expressed the need for support and motivation not only from health care workers (33.3%, but also from their significant others (56.6%. Patients further expressed a need for (increased dissemination of TB-HIV information by health care workers (46.1%. Conclusions Patients did not undergo HIV testing for various patient-/individual-related reasons. Non-uptake of HIV testing was also due to health system limitations such as the non-offer of HIV testing. Other measures may be necessary to supplement routine

  4. Nondestructive life assesment based on carbide phase analysis of 12Cr1MoV high temperature superheater tube%基于碳化物相分析法的12Cr1MoV过热器管寿命无损评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜勇; 巩建鸣; 叶有俊; 耿鲁阳

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the ratio of carbides phases(M23C6/M3C) R and Larson-Miller parameter P of 12Cr1MoV low alloy steel was investigated by means of aging treatment test,creep rupture test,carbide phase analysis using electrolytic extraction method and X-ray diffraction.The remaining life of a 140000 h old 12Cr1MoV high temperature superheater tube was evaluated by using both the carbide phase analysis method proposed in this paper and Larson-Miller method.The results show the deviation of these two methods is about 16%-19% of whole life,and the carbide phase analysis method is more safety.%采用时效试验、持久试验、电解萃取试验以及碳化物相X射线衍射分析,建立了12Cr1MoV高温过热器管中碳化物相比值(M23C6/M3C)R与Larson-Miller参数P的关系方程,并同时利用该方程和传统的L-M方法对一根已服役140000 h的12Cr1MoV高温过热器管进行剩余寿命预测,结果表明,两者剩余寿命预测结果差值占总寿命的16%~19%,且碳化物相分析法的预测结果偏安全。

  5. Clients’ perceptions and satisfaction with HIV counselling and testing: A cross-sectional study in 56 HCT sites in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Matseke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Client satisfaction serves as a predictor for acceptance of HIV counselling and testing (HCT services. Therefore, the study of clients’ perception and satisfaction may offer insights on how to improve HCT programmes. Aim and setting: The aim of this study was to assess clients’ satisfaction with HCT as well as describe perceived barriers to and facilitators of HIV testing by HCT clients in South Africa.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted through interviews with 498 clients purposefully selected at the end of an HCT visit at 56 HCT sites throughout the country. Results: All the 498 study participants had tested for HIV with 98.8% receiving their results. Most (88.2% reported testing for HIV before. The vast majority (75.5% of clients reported that they had decided to be tested for HIV by themselves. High levels of satisfaction with HCT service (89.8%, low levels (27.7% of difficulty in making the decision to have an HIV test and high levels of perceived confidentiality (94.6% of the HIV test results were reported in this study. The most cited perceived barrier to HIV testing was lack of awareness about the HCT service (98%, while staff attitudes (37%, confidentiality (29.6% and privacy (23.6% were perceived facilitators. In multivariate logistic regression, staff attitude was significantly associated with client satisfaction (p < 0.05.Conclusion: High levels of client satisfaction with HCT services were observed. Various barriers to and facilitators of – including staff attitude – HCT were identified which can help guide the improvement of HCT services in South Africa.

  6. Clients’ perceptions and satisfaction with HIV counselling and testing: A cross-sectional study in 56 HCT sites in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matseke, Gladys; Mohlabane, Neo

    2016-01-01

    Background Client satisfaction serves as a predictor for acceptance of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) services. Therefore, the study of clients’ perception and satisfaction may offer insights on how to improve HCT programmes. Aim and setting The aim of this study was to assess clients’ satisfaction with HCT as well as describe perceived barriers to and facilitators of HIV testing by HCT clients in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted through interviews with 498 clients purposefully selected at the end of an HCT visit at 56 HCT sites throughout the country. Results All the 498 study participants had tested for HIV with 98.8% receiving their results. Most (88.2%) reported testing for HIV before. The vast majority (75.5%) of clients reported that they had decided to be tested for HIV by themselves. High levels of satisfaction with HCT service (89.8%), low levels (27.7%) of difficulty in making the decision to have an HIV test and high levels of perceived confidentiality (94.6%) of the HIV test results were reported in this study. The most cited perceived barrier to HIV testing was lack of awareness about the HCT service (98%), while staff attitudes (37%), confidentiality (29.6%) and privacy (23.6%) were perceived facilitators. In multivariate logistic regression, staff attitude was significantly associated with client satisfaction (p < 0.05). Conclusion High levels of client satisfaction with HCT services were observed. Various barriers to and facilitators of – including staff attitude – HCT were identified which can help guide the improvement of HCT services in South Africa. PMID:27608674

  7. Two-phase mixture simulation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid heat transfer in a non-uniform heat addition test section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbassi, Yasser; Shirani, Amir Saeed [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Engineering

    2016-11-15

    Results of a numerical investigation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Water nanofluid heat transfer are presented. The two-phase mixture model is used to study the effects of Reynolds number and nanoparticle concentrations on nanofluid heat transfer in flow around an annulus test section. Non-uniform heat flux is assumed as heat boundary condition on annuli inner wall. Annuli wall and bulk temperature profiles, Local and averaged heat transfer coefficient profiles, local and averaged Nusselt number profiles are presented as functions of nanoparticle volume concentrations and Reynolds numbers. Both laminar and turbulent flow regimes are simulated.

  8. Fireside corrosion and steamside oxidation of 9-12% Cr martensitic steels exposed for long term testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Jensen, S. A.; Rasmussen, F.

    2009-01-01

    To obtain long term corrosion and steam oxidation data for the 9-12%Cr ferritic steels, test tube sections have been exposed in Amager 3 and Avedore 1 coal fired power plants in Denmark (formerly run by ENERGI E2). Thus direct comparisons can be made for T91 and T92 for the 9% Cr steels and X20Cr......MoV121 and HCM12 for the 12% Cr steels. The test tubes were welded in as part of the existing final superheaters in actual plants and exposure has been conducted over a ten year period (1994-2005). Compared to the older steel types, T92 and HCM12 utilise tungsten to improve their creep strength. From...... of the corroded layers has been investigated using light optical and scanning electron microscopy. The fireside corrosion rate for the T92 and HCM12 steels are comparable to those of T91, however X20CrMoV121 has a higher fireside corrosion rate after the longest exposure time. For steamside oxidation, it was HCM...

  9. Ash particle erosion on steam boiler convective section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuronen, V.

    1997-12-31

    In this study, equations for the calculation of erosion wear caused by ash particles on convective heat exchanger tubes of steam boilers are presented. A new, three-dimensional test arrangement was used in the testing of the erosion wear of convective heat exchanger tubes of steam boilers. When using the sleeve-method, three different tube materials and three tube constructions could be tested. New results were obtained from the analyses. The main mechanisms of erosion wear phenomena and erosion wear as a function of collision conditions and material properties have been studied. Properties of fossil fuels have also been presented. When burning solid fuels, such as pulverized coal and peat in steam boilers, most of the ash is entrained by the flue gas in the furnace. In bubbling and circulating fluidized bed boilers, particle concentration in the flue gas is high because of bed material entrained in the flue gas. Hard particles, such as sharp edged quartz crystals, cause erosion wear when colliding on convective heat exchanger tubes and on the rear wall of the steam boiler. The most important ways to reduce erosion wear in steam boilers is to keep the velocity of the flue gas moderate and prevent channelling of the ash flow in a certain part of the cross section of the flue gas channel, especially near the back wall. One can do this by constructing the boiler with the following components. Screen plates can be used to make the velocity and ash flow distributions more even at the cross-section of the channel. Shield plates and plate type constructions in superheaters can also be used. Erosion testing was conducted with three types of tube constructions: a one tube row, an in- line tube bank with six tube rows, and a staggered tube bark with six tube rows. Three flow velocities and two particle concentrations were used in the tests, which were carried out at room temperature. Three particle materials were used: quartz, coal ash and peat ash particles. Mass loss

  10. Community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among adolescents in Zimbabwe following primary healthcare-based provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling: A cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Simms

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Children living with HIV who are not diagnosed in infancy often remain undiagnosed until they present with advanced disease. Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC in health facilities is recommended for high-HIV-prevalence settings, but it is unclear whether this approach is sufficient to achieve universal coverage of HIV testing. We aimed to investigate the change in community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among older children and adolescents following implementation of PITC in Harare, Zimbabwe.Over the course of 2 years (January 2013-January 2015, 7 primary health clinics (PHCs in southwestern Harare implemented optimised, opt-out PITC for all attendees aged 6-15 years. In February 2015-December 2015, we conducted a representative cross-sectional survey of 8-17-year-olds living in the 7 communities served by the study PHCs, who would have had 2 years of exposure to PITC. Knowledge of HIV status was ascertained through a caregiver questionnaire, and anonymised HIV testing was carried out using oral mucosal transudate (OMT tests. After 1 participant taking antiretroviral therapy was observed to have a false negative OMT result, from July 2015 urine samples were obtained from all participants providing OMTs and tested for antiretroviral drugs to confirm HIV status. Children who tested positive through PITC were identified from among survey participants using gender, birthdate, and location. Of 7,146 children in 4,251 eligible households, 5,486 (76.8% children in 3,397 households agreed to participate in the survey, and 141 were HIV positive. HIV prevalence was 2.6% (95% CI 2.2%-3.1%, and over a third of participants with HIV were undiagnosed (37.7%; 95% CI 29.8%-46.2%. Similarly, among the subsample of 2,643 (48.2% participants with a urine test result, 34.7% of those living with HIV were undiagnosed (95% CI 23.5%-47.9%. Based on extrapolation from the survey sample to the community, we estimated that PITC over 2 years identified

  11. Mechanosensitivity during lower extremity neurodynamic testing is diminished in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Benjamin S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM and diabetic symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSP impact multiple modalities of sensation including light touch, temperature, position sense and vibration perception. No study to date has examined the mechanosensitivity of peripheral nerves during limb movement in this population. The objective was to determine the unique effects T2DM and DSP have on nerve mechanosensitivity in the lower extremity. Methods This cross-sectional study included 43 people with T2DM. Straight leg raise neurodynamic tests were performed with ankle plantar flexion (PF/SLR and dorsiflexion (DF/SLR. Hip flexion range of motion (ROM, lower extremity muscle activity and symptom profile, intensity and location were measured at rest, first onset of symptoms (P1 and maximally tolerated symptoms (P2. Results The addition of ankle dorsiflexion during SLR testing reduced the hip flexion ROM by 4.3° ± 6.5° at P1 and by 5.4° ± 4.9° at P2. Individuals in the T2DM group with signs of severe DSP (n = 9 had no difference in hip flexion ROM between PF/SLR and DF/SLR at P1 (1.4° ± 4.2°; paired t-test p = 0.34 or P2 (0.9° ± 2.5°; paired t-test p = 0.31. Movement induced muscle activity was absent during SLR with the exception of the tibialis anterior during DF/SLR testing. Increases in symptom intensity during SLR testing were similar for both PF/SLR and DF/SLR. The addition of ankle dorsiflexion induced more frequent posterior leg symptoms when taken to P2. Conclusions Consistent with previous recommendations in the literature, P1 is an appropriate test end point for SLR neurodynamic testing in people with T2DM. However, our findings suggest that people with T2DM and severe DSP have limited responses to SLR neurodynamic testing, and thus may be at risk for harm from nerve overstretch and the information gathered will be of limited clinical value.

  12. The role of urine pregnancy testing in facilitating access to antenatal care and abortion services in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moodley Jennifer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective confirmation of pregnancy is a basic component of reproductive health services. It is a prerequisite for accessing antenatal care (AnC if the pregnancy is wanted and abortion services if the pregnancy is unwanted. This study examined the role of urine pregnancy testing in the timing of presentation for pregnancy-care. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted among 158 women presenting for antenatal care and 164 women presenting for abortion at public sector clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Results The median gestational age at first presentation was 23 weeks for AnC clients and 13 weeks for abortion clients. Obtaining a urine pregnancy test of one's own accord was associated with a decrease in the gestational age at presentation of 3.6 and 1.4 weeks for antenatal and abortion clients, respectively, independently of all other factors. Conclusion Given the proven clinical benefit and public health impact of early presentation for antenatal and abortion services, strategies to decrease gestational age at presentation for pregnancy care should be given priority. 'Fast-track' urine pregnancy testing services should be established in public sector clinics in South Africa.

  13. Experimental Testing of Innovative Cold-Formed "GEB" Section / Badania Eksperymentalne Innowacyjnego Kształtownika Giętego Na Zimno Typu "Geb"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowicz, Agnieszka; Urbańska-Galewska, Elżbieta; Gordziej-Zagórowska, Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    One of the major advantages of light gauge steel structures made of cold-formed steel sections is their low weight so the production of typical single-storey steel structures of this kind of profiles is still rising. The well known profiles, e.o. Z-sections, C-sections and the so called hat-sections studied and described in the literature, are used mainly as purlins or truss components. A new profile GEB was patented for the use for primary load-bearing member in fabricated steel frames. According to the code [1] every novel cross section should be tested to assign the deformation shape and bearing capacity. The paper deals with the numerical and experimental research of bearing capacity of cold formed GEB profiles. The deformation shape and limit load was obtained from bending tests. The GEB cross section bearing capacity was also determined according to codes [1, 2]. Jedną z najważniejszych zalet lekkich konstrukcji metalowych, wytwarzanych z kształtowników giętych na zimno, jest ich mała masa, dlatego też, producenci coraz częściej wykorzystują możliwości profili giętych do wytwarzania typowych konstrukcji halowych w budownictwie systemowym. Proces gięcia na zimno, pozwala na formowanie różnego rodzaju przekrojów poprzecznych, które mogą być wykorzystywane jako elementy konstrukcji. Typowe kształty elementów. tzn. Z, C oraz tzw. przekroje kapeluszowe, które zostały przebadane i opisane w literaturze, wykorzystuje się głównie jako płatwie lub części składowe wiązarów kratowych. Nowo opatentowany przekrój typu GEB ma być wykorzystany jako element nośny konstrukcji ramowych. W związku z tym innowacyjny kształt oraz parametry geometryczne przekroju takiego kształtownika, związane z możliwością jego wyprodukowania oraz z warunkami nośności, stateczności oraz sztywności, muszą być optymalne. Według normy PN-EN 1993-1-3, każdy nowo uformowany przekrój powinien być przebadany pod kątem nośności elementu i formy

  14. Influence of family history on the willingness of outpatients to undergo genetic testing for salt-sensitive hypertension: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Taro; Okayama, Masanobu; Ae, Ryusuke; Harada, Masanori; Kajii, Eiji

    2017-07-17

    It is unclear whether family medical history influences the willingness to undergo genetic testing. This study aimed to determine how family history affected the willingness to undergo genetic testing for salt-sensitive hypertension in patients with and without hypertension. Cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. Six primary care clinics and hospitals in Japan. Consecutive 1705 outpatients aged >20 years, 578 of whom had hypertension. The primary outcome variable was the willingness to undergo genetic testing to determine the risk of salt-sensitive hypertension, and the secondary variables were age, sex, education level, family history and concerns about hypertension. Factors associated with a willingness to undergo genetic testing were evaluated in patients with and without hypertension using a logistic regression model. In the hypertension and non-hypertension groups, 323 (55.9%) and 509 patients (45.2%), respectively, were willing to undergo genetic testing. This willingness was related with a high level of education (adjusted OR (ad-OR): 1.81, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.93), family history of stroke (1.55, 1.04 to 2.31) and concerns about hypertension (2.04, 1.27 to 3.28) in the hypertension group, whereas in the non-hypertension group, it was influenced by education level (ad-OR: 1.45, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.86), family history of hypertension (1.52, 1.17 to 1.98) and concerns about hypertension (2.03, 1.53 to 2.68). The influence of family history on the willingness to undergo genetic testing for risk of salt-sensitivity hypertension differed between participants with and without hypertension. In particular, participants without hypertension wished to know their likelihood of developing hypertension, whereas those with hypertension were interested to know the risk of stroke (a complication of hypertension). Family history could help better counsel patients about genetic testing on the basis of their medical history. © Article author(s) (or their

  15. Validation of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test in a low- and middle-income country cross-sectional emergency centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Claire; Wyatt, Gail; Williams, John K; Stein, Dan J; Sorsdahl, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    Given the high prevalence and detrimental consequences of alcohol or other drug (AOD) use in low- and middle-income countries, a screening tool for early detection in health care, including emergency care, is critical. We set out to validate the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) for the South African context. We interviewed emergency centre patients (n = 200) in Cape Town for this cross-sectional study conducted from January to March 2013 utilising a questionnaire battery, including the ASSIST and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and screening properties of the ASSIST (receiver operating characteristic analysis) were examined utilising the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview AOD use modules as the gold standard. Cronbach's alpha for alcohol and illicit drugs ranged from 0.81 to 0.95 indicating good internal consistency. ASSIST cut-off scores show a good sensitivity and specificity for discrimination particularly when distinguishing between substance use and abuse, rather than dependence. For alcohol, the area under the curve was 0.94 for distinguishing between use and abuse, and this dropped to 0.68 for distinguishing between abuse and dependence, while the statistic remained high for both use/abuse and abuse/dependence for illicit drugs: 0.95 and 0.96. AOD abuse was associated with cut-off scores below the World Health Organization recommended levels, in keeping with various international studies suggesting that individuals with lower scores be offered interventions. The ASSIST was found to be useful for South African health care and holds promise for cost-effective task-shifting approaches in lower resourced settings. [van der Westhuizen C, Wyatt G, Williams JK, Stein DJ, Sorsdahl K. Validation of  the  Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test in a low- and middle-income country cross-sectional emergency centre study. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016

  16. Execution of diagnostic testing has a stronger effect on emergency department crowding than other common factors: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahisa Kawano

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of execution of diagnostic tests in the emergency department (ED and other common factors on the length of ED stay to identify those with the greatest impacts on ED crowding. METHODS: Between February 2010 and January 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional, single-center study in the ED of a large, urban, teaching hospital in Japan. Patients who visited the ED during the study period were enrolled. We excluded (1 patients scheduled for admission or pharmaceutical prescription, and (2 neonates requiring intensive care transferred from other hospitals. Multivariate linear regression was performed on log-transformed length of ED stay in admitted and discharged patients to compare influence of diagnostic tests and other common predictors. To quantify the range of change in length of ED stay given a unit change of the predictor, a generalized linear model was used for each group. RESULTS: During the study period, 55,285 patients were enrolled. In discharged patients, laboratory blood tests had the highest standardized β coefficient (0.44 among common predictors, and increased length of ED stay by 72.5 minutes (95% CI, 72.8-76.1 minutes. In admitted patients, computed tomography (CT had the highest standardized β coefficient (0.17, and increased length of ED stay by 32.7 minutes (95% CI, 40.0-49.9 minutes. Although other common input and output factors were significant contributors, they had smaller standardized β coefficients in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Execution of laboratory blood tests and CT had a stronger influence on length of ED stay than other common input and output factors.

  17. Screening for colorectal cancer and advanced colorectal neoplasia in kidney transplant recipients: cross sectional prevalence and diagnostic accuracy study of faecal immunochemical testing for haemoglobin and colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael G; Teo, Edward; Cole, Stephen R; Chan, Choy-Yoke; McDonald, Stephen P; Russ, Graeme R; Young, Graeme P; Bampton, Peter A; Coates, P Toby

    2012-07-25

    To investigate whether screening kidney transplant recipients aged over 50 years for colorectal cancer with a faecal immunochemical test for haemoglobin might be justified, by determining the prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia and evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of faecal haemoglobin testing compared with colonoscopy in a population of kidney transplant recipients at otherwise average risk. Cross sectional prevalence and diagnostic accuracy study with index test of faecal haemoglobin and reference standard of colonoscopy. Outpatient clinics in metropolitan and regional hospitals in South Australia. 229 kidney transplant recipients aged 50 years and over, who were at least 6 months (mean 9.0 (SD 8.4) years) post-transplant and otherwise at average risk of colorectal cancer, completed the study between June 2008 and October 2011. Faecal immunochemical testing (Enterix Insure) for human haemoglobin, followed by colonoscopy with histological evaluation of retrieved samples. Prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia, defined as an adenoma at least 10 mm in diameter, villous features, high grade dysplasia, or colorectal cancer; sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of faecal haemoglobin testing for advanced neoplasia compared with colonoscopy. Advanced colorectal neoplasia was found in 29 (13%, 95% confidence interval 9% to 18%) participants, including 2% (n=4) with high grade dysplasia and 2% (n=5) with colorectal cancer. Faecal testing for haemoglobin was positive in 12% (n=28); sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for advanced neoplasia were 31.0% (15.3% to 50.8%), 90.5% (85.6% to 94.2%), 32.1% (15.9% to 52.4%), and 90.1% (85.1% to 93.8%). Colonoscopy was well tolerated, with no significant adverse outcomes. To identify one case of advanced neoplasia, 8 (6 to 12) colonoscopies were needed. Kidney transplant recipients aged over 50 years have a high prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia. Faecal haemoglobin

  18. HIV incidence in rural South Africa: comparison of estimates from longitudinal surveillance and cross-sectional cBED assay testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Bärnighausen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The BED IgG-Capture Enzyme Immunoassay (cBED assay, a test of recent HIV infection, has been used to estimate HIV incidence in cross-sectional HIV surveys. However, there has been concern that the assay overestimates HIV incidence to an unknown extent because it falsely classifies some individuals with non-recent HIV infections as recently infected. We used data from a longitudinal HIV surveillance in rural South Africa to measure the fraction of people with non-recent HIV infection who are falsely classified as recently HIV-infected by the cBED assay (the long-term false-positive ratio (FPR and compared cBED assay-based HIV incidence estimates to longitudinally measured HIV incidence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the long-term FPR in individuals with two positive HIV tests (in the HIV surveillance, 2003-2006 more than 306 days apart (sample size n = 1,065. We implemented four different formulae to calculate HIV incidence using cBED assay testing (n = 11,755 and obtained confidence intervals (CIs by directly calculating the central 95(th percentile of incidence values. We observed 4,869 individuals over 7,685 person-years for longitudinal HIV incidence estimation. The long-term FPR was 0.0169 (95% CI 0.0100-0.0266. Using this FPR, the cross-sectional cBED-based HIV incidence estimates (per 100 people per year varied between 3.03 (95% CI 2.44-3.63 and 3.19 (95% CI 2.57-3.82, depending on the incidence formula. Using a long-term FPR of 0.0560 based on previous studies, HIV incidence estimates varied between 0.65 (95% CI 0.00-1.32 and 0.71 (95% CI 0.00-1.43. The longitudinally measured HIV incidence was 3.09 per 100 people per year (95% CI 2.69-3.52, after adjustment to the sex-age distribution of the sample used in cBED assay-based estimation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In a rural community in South Africa with high HIV prevalence, the long-term FPR of the cBED assay is substantially lower than previous estimates. The c

  19. Availability and price of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the public and private health sectors in 2011: results from 10 nationally representative cross-sectional retail surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyer, Stephen; Shewchuk, Tanya; Tougher, Sarah; Ye, Yazoume; Mann, Andrea G; Willey, Barbara A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Taylor, Mark; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Mberu, Blessing; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Juma, Elizabeth; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Diap, Graciela; Bruxvoort, Katia; Ansong, Daniel; Hanson, Kara; Arnold, Fred; Goodman, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    To describe the state of the public and private malaria diagnostics market shortly after WHO updated its guidelines for testing all suspected malaria cases prior to treatment. Ten nationally representative cross-sectional cluster surveys were conducted in 2011 among public and private health facilities, community health workers and retail outlets (pharmacies and drug shops) in nine countries (Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar surveyed separately). Eligible outlets had antimalarials in stock on the day of interview or had stocked antimalarials in the past 3 months. Three thousand four hundred and thirty-nine rapid diagnostic test (RDT) products from 39 manufacturers were audited among 12,197 outlets interviewed. Availability was typically highest in public health facilities, although availability in these facilities varied greatly across countries, from 15% in Nigeria to >90% in Madagascar and Cambodia. Private for-profit sector availability was 46% in Cambodia, 20% in Zambia, but low in other countries. Median retail prices for RDTs in the private for-profit sector ranged from $0.00 in Madagascar to $3.13 in Zambia. The reported number of RDTs used in the 7 days before the survey in public health facilities ranged from 3 (Benin) to 50 (Zambia). Eighteen months after WHO updated its case management guidelines, RDT availability remained poor in the private sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the ongoing importance of the private sector as a source of fever treatment, the goal of universal diagnosis will not be achievable under current circumstances. These results constitute national baselines against which progress in scaling-up diagnostic tests can be assessed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Metallographic studies of electron beam welded copper plates. EBSD studies of the cross-sections and determination of EBSD reference curves by EB-welded tensile test samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhula, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    This work is part of Posiva's spent nuclear fuel disposal canister sealing development. Posiva has welded series of plate welding experiments at Patria Aviation Facilities. At Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science (TUT DMS) metallographic and electron microscopy studies of electron beam welded copper samples have been carried out. In this report a part of the welding test program is analyzed. The results of the cross-sections of the test welds X436-X440 and X453-X458 are presented here together with the methods used. These two sets of welds were conducted to study the effects of welding speed, annealing temperature and the presence of cosmetic pass. The aim of this study was to estimate the residual stresses present in the EB-welds using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. For this task various EBSD reference curves with tensile test samples were constructed: the recrystallized, substructured and deformed fractions of grains, the occurrence of 1.5 deg C and 2.5 deg C misorientations, the average of mean intra-grain misorientation AMIS, and the hardness could be related to the applied strain. It was found that the hardness was higher if there was a cosmetic pass on the weld. The welding speed and the annealing temperature did not seem to have a noticeable effect on the measured properties. The estimated residual stresses were mainly very low, in the range 27-34 MPa. In the values estimated based on the hardness reference curve, the maximum residual stress was 58.7 MPa (in X455A). (orig.)

  1. Population normative data for the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cognitive test battery from Latin America, India and China: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Ana Luisa; Albanese, Emiliano; Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; de Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Yang, Fang; Gaona, Ciro; Joteeshwaran, AT; Rodriguez, Guillermina; de la Torre, Gabriela Rojas; Williams, Joseph D; Stewart, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background 1) To report site-specific normative values by age, sex and educational level for four components of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cognitive test battery; 2) to estimate the main and interactive effects of age, sex, and educational level by site; and 3) to investigate the effect of site by region and by rural or urban location. Methods Population-based cross-sectional one phase catchment area surveys were conducted in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China and India. The protocol included the administration of the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSI 'D', generating the COGSCORE measure of global function), and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) verbal fluency (VF), word list memory (WLM, immediate recall) and recall (WLR, delayed recall) tests. Only those free of dementia were included in the analysis. Results Older people, and those with less education performed worse on all four tests. The effect of sex was much smaller and less consistent. There was a considerable effect of site after accounting for compositional differences in age, education and sex. Much of this was accounted for by the effect of region with Chinese participants performing better, and Indian participants worse, than those from Latin America. The effect of region was more prominent for VF and WLM than for COGSCORE and WLR. Conclusion Cognitive assessment is a basic element for dementia diagnosis. Age- and education-specific norms are required for this purpose, while the effect of gender can probably be ignored. The basis of cultural effects is poorly understood, but our findings serve to emphasise that normative data may not be safely generalised from one population to another with quite different characteristics. The minimal effects of region on COGSCORE and WLR are reassuring with respect to the cross-cultural validity of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis, which uses only these elements of the 10/66 battery. PMID

  2. Effect of home-based HIV counselling and testing on stigma and risky sexual behaviours: serial cross-sectional studies in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Muganzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large, district-wide, home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT programme was implemented in Bushenyi district of Uganda from 2004 to 2007. This programme provided free HBHCT services to all consenting adults of Bushenyi district and had a very high uptake and acceptability. We measured population-level changes in knowledge of HIV status, stigma and HIV-risk behaviours before and after HBHCT to assess whether widespread HBHCT had an effect on trends of risky sexual behaviours and on stigma and discrimination towards HIV. Methods: Serial cross-sectional surveys were carried out before and after the implementation of HBHCT programme in Bushenyi district of Uganda. A total of 1402 randomly selected adults (18 to 49 years were interviewed in the baseline survey. After the implementation, a different set of randomly selected 1562 adults was interviewed using the same questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, whether respondents had ever tested for HIV and stigma and discrimination towards HIV/AIDS. Results: The proportion of people who had ever tested for HIV increased from 18.6% to 62% (p<0.001. Among people who had ever tested, the proportion of people who shared HIV test result with a sexual partner increased from 41% to 57% (p<0.001. The proportion of persons who wanted infection status of a family member not to be revealed decreased from 68% to 57% (p<0.001. Indicators of risk behaviour also improved; the proportion of people who exchanged money for sex reduced from 12% to 4% (p<0.001, who used a condom when money was exchanged during a sexual act increased from 39% to 80% (p<0.001 and who reported genital ulcer/discharge decreased from 22% to 10% (p<0.001. Conclusion: These data suggest that HBHCT rapidly increased the uptake of HCT and may have led to reduction in high-risk behaviours at population level as well as reduction in stigma and discrimination. Because HBCT programmes

  3. The importance of accounting for the area of the medullary cavity in cross-sectional geometry: A test based on the femoral midshaft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparacello, V S; Pearson, O M

    2010-12-01

    In cross-sectional geometric (CSG) studies, both the subperiosteal and endosteal contours are considered important factors in determining bone bending rigidity. Recently, regression equations predicting CSG properties from a section's external dimensions were developed in a world-wide sample of human long bones. The results showed high correlations between some subperiosteally derived and actual CSG parameters. We present a theoretical model that further explores the influence of endosteal dimensions on CSG properties. We compare two hypothetical femoral midshaft samples with the same total subperiosteal area but with percentages of cortical bone at the opposite ends of published human variation for population sample means. Even in this relatively uncommon scenario, the difference between the samples in the resultant means for predicted femoral polar second moment of area (J) appears to be modest: power analysis indicates that a minimum sample size of 61 is needed to detect the difference 90% of the time via a t-test. Moreover, endosteal area can be predicted--although with substantial error--from periosteal area. Despite this error, including this relationship in subperiosteally derived estimates of J produces sample mean estimates close to true mean values. Power analyses reveal that when similar samples are used to develop prediction equations, a minimum sample of hundreds or more may be needed to distinguish a predicted mean J from the true mean J. These results further justify the use of regression equations estimating J from periosteal contours when analyzing behaviorally induced changes in bone rigidity in ancient populations, when it is not possible to measure endosteal dimensions. However, in other situations involving comparisons of individual values, growth trends, and senescence, where relative cortical thickness may vary greatly, inclusion of endosteal dimensions is still important. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Conversion Research at UNH: From Fundamental Studies of Hydrofoil Sections, to Moderate Reynolds Number Turbine Tests in a Tow Tank, to Open Water Deployments at Tidal Energy Test Sites (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.; Nedyalkov, I.; Rowell, M.; Dufresne, N.; Lyon, V.

    2013-12-01

    We report on research related to MHK turbines at the Center for Ocean Renewable Energy (CORE) at the University of New Hampshire (UNH). The research projects span varies scales, levels of complexity and environments - from fundamental studies of hydrofoil sections in a high speed water tunnel, to moderate Reynolds number turbine tests with inflow and wake studies in a large cross-section tow tank, to deployments of highly instrumented process models at tidal energy test sites in New England. A concerted effort over the past few years has brought significant new research infrastructure for marine hydrokinetic energy conversion online at UNH-CORE. It includes: a high-speed cavitation tunnel with independent control of velocity and pressure; a highly accurate tow mechanism, turbine test bed and wake traversing system for the 3.7m x 2.4m cross-section UNH tow tank; a 10.7m x 3.0m tidal energy test platform which can accommodate turbines up to 1.5m in diameter, for deployments at the UNH-CORE Tidal Energy Test Site in Great Bay Estuary, NH, a sheltered 'nursery site' suitable for intermediate scale tidal energy conversion device testing with peak currents typically above 2 m/s during each tidal cycle. Further, a large boundary layer wind tunnel, the new UNH Flow Physics Facility (W6.0m x H2.7m xL72m) is being used for detailed turbine wake studies, producing data and insight also applicable to MHK turbines in low Froude number deployments. Bi-directional hydrofoils, which perform equally well in either flow direction and could avoid the use of complex and maintenance-intensive yaw or blade pitch mechanisms, are being investigated theoretically, numerically and experimentally. For selected candidate shapes lift, drag, wake, and cavitation inception/desinence are measured. When combined with a cavitation inception model for MHK turbines, this information can be used to prescribe turbine design/operational parameters. Experiments were performed with a 1m diameter and 1m

  5. Installation test involving two cryomagnets. A short straight section is positioned next to a cryodipole using a remote-controlled Transfer Equipment Set provided by the Slovakian company ZTS VVU Kosice.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2004-01-01

    Installation test involving two cryomagnets. A short straight section is positioned next to a cryodipole using a remote-controlled Transfer Equipment Set provided by the Slovakian company ZTS VVU Kosice.

  6. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  7. Assessment methodology of power station boiler superheater based on risk-based inspection technology%基于风险检验技术的电站锅炉过热器评定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘富君; 孔帅; 凌张伟; 郑慕林; 钱岳强; 金南辉; 王强; 李翔

    2011-01-01

    The risk assessment methodology based on risk-based inspection (RBI) was analyzed in order to evaluate the risk situation of the power station boiler superheater to establish the reasonable management, and maintenance strategy and reduce the non-plan shutdowns. The failure mechanism of power station boiler was analyzed, and the creep damage factor computing technical module and high-temperature smoke erosion thinning technical module for power station boiler tubes were conducted. The failure probability correction factor was presented based on the remaining life, considering China's national condition, including the extended service and initial material defects etc. Moreover, the proper financial risk calculation method was established to assess the risk consequence, and the grade distinguish rule was established. The risk level was evaluated through the failure possibility and consequence quantitative analysis and calculation of a superheater, and the reasonable management and maintenance strategy was established.%为了科学评价电站锅炉过热器的风险状况,制定合理的管理和维护策略,减少非计划停炉,研究基于风险检验(RBI)技术的过热器风险评定方法.研究过热器炉管的失效机理,建立适用于过热器炉管的高温烟气冲蚀因子和高温蠕变因子计算方法;结合我国超期服役、炉管材料初始缺陷等情况,提出基于剩余寿命参量的失效可能性修正系数;进一步确定合理的经济损失法来计算炉管失效后果,建立失效后果等级划分准则.通过对某末级过热器炉管失效的可能性和失效后果进行定量分析和计算,评定了炉管风险等级,制定了合理的管理和维护策略.

  8. Long term testing of materials for tube shielding, stage 2; Laangtidsprovning av tubskyddsmaterial, etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norling, Rikard; Hjoernhede, Anders; Mattsson, Mattias

    2012-02-15

    Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers are commonly used for combustion of biomass and are used to some extent for Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants as well. The superheaters of the latter are for obvious reasons more prone to suffer from high temperature corrosion caused by the corrosive species in the fuel, mainly chlorides. Frequently the final (hottest) superheater is positioned in the loop seal, where the circulating bed material is returned to the furnace after being separated from the flue gas by a cyclone. The environment in the loop seal is relatively free of chlorides, since these primarily follow the flue gas into the convection pass. Hence, higher steam temperature can be allowed without excessive damage to the final superheater. On the other hand the superheaters, which are located in the convection pass, are more exposed to the corrosive species of the flue gas. Further, they are eroded by particles entrained in the gas flow. Particles and condensing gaseous species are to a large extent deposited on the superheaters, which limits the heat transfer and promotes corrosion. The deposits are regularly removed e.g. by soot blowers. The pressurized steam from soot blowers causes additional erosion damage to that caused by entrained particles. It shall be noted that the actual damage is caused by a combined mechanism of erosion and corrosion denoted erosion-corrosion, which usually results in dramatically accelerated wear. To avoid excessive erosion damage on the superheater tubes the first tube row of each bundle is protected by tube shielding. In its simplest form the shields are made from a steel sheet that has been bent into a semi-circular half-cylinder shell. These shields are attached onto the wind-side of the tubes by hangers. A typical material for tube shielding is the austenitic high temperature resistant stainless steel 253MA. Life of tube shielding depends on numerous factors such as boiler design, superheater location, fuel and operating

  9. Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella from Slaughtered Bovines and Ovines in Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64% (8 bovines and 5 ovines were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92% comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69% of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  10. Experimental studies on effect of wire coiled coil matrix turbulators with and without bonding on the wall of the test section of concentric tube heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvam S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of bonding and without bonding of wire coiled coil matrix turbulator on the heat transfer for a fully developed turbulent flow. Experiments are conducted by maintaining constant wall temperature. Tests are performed on 3 different wire coiled coil matrix turbulators of different pitches of 5, 10 and 15 mm without bonding of the turbulator. Three similar types of heat exchangers are fabricated and the wire coiled coil matrix turbulators with different pitches of 5, 10 and 15mm are inserted in the heat exchangers and bonding is done on the surface of the tube section. Results have indicated that the heat transfer rate enhances inversely with the pitch of the wire coiled coil matrix turbulator with bonding. With a pitch of 5 mm, the turbulators without bonding have resulted in almost 25.4% enhancement when compared with plain tube. On the other hand, for pitches of 10 mm and 15 mm the enhancement were 20.7% and 16.8%, respectively. The empirical correlations developed for turbulators with and without bonding results in ±6% deviation for Nusselt number and ±3% for friction factor. Similarly with a pitch of 5 mm, the turbulators with bonding have resulted in almost 42% enhancement. For pitches of 10mm and 15mm the enhancements were 34.7% and 25%, respectively.

  11. Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella from Slaughtered Bovines and Ovines in Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Abe; Kemal, Jelalu; Alemayehu, Haile; Habte Mariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64%) (8 bovines and 5 ovines) were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92%) comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69%) of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  12. Records of wells, test borings, and some measured geologic sections near the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) is a 3 ,336-acre tract of land in northern Cattaraugus County, NY, about 30 mi south of Buffalo. In 1963, 247 acres within the WNYNSC was developed for a nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant and ancillary facilities, including (1) a receiving and storage facility to store fuel prior to reprocessing, (2) underground storage tanks for liquid high-level radioactive wastes from fuel reprocessing, (3) a low-level wastewater treatment plant, and (4) two burial grounds for shallow burial of solid radioactive waste. A series of geologic and hydrologic investigations was done as part of the initial development and construction of the facilities by numerous agencies during 1960-62; these produced a large quantity of well data, some of which are difficult to locate or obtain. This report is a compilation of well and boring data collected during this period. The data include records of 236 wells, geologic logs of 145 wells and 167 test borings, and descriptions of 20 measured geologic sections. Two oversized maps show locations of the reported data. (USGS)

  13. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Instrument: Flight Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) Acceptance Thermal Vacuum Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Charles; Butler, Dan; Ku, Jentung; Grob, Eric; Swanson, Ted; Nikitkin, Michael; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two loop heat pipes (LHPs) are to be used for tight thermal control of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument, planned for flight in late 2001. The LHPs are charged with Propylene as a working fluid. One LHP will be used to transport 110 W from a laser to a radiator, the other will transport 160 W from electronic boxes to a separate radiator. The application includes a large amount of thermal mass in each LHP system and low initial startup powers. The initial design had some non-ideal flight design compromises, resulted in a less than ideal charge level for this design concept with a symmetrical secondary wick. This less than ideal charge was identified as the source of inadequate performance of the flight LHPs during the flight thermal vacuum test in October of 2000. We modified the compensation chamber design, re-built and charged the LHPs for a final LHP acceptance thermal vacuum test. This test performed March of 2001 was 100% successful. This is the last testing to be performed on the LHPs prior to instrument thermal vacuum test. This sensitivity to charge level was shown through varying the charge on a Development Model Loop Heat Pipe (DM LHP) and evaluating performance at various fill levels. At lower fills similar to the original charge in the flight units, the same poor performance was observed. When the flight units were re-designed and filled to the levels similar to the initial successful DM LHP test, the flight units also successfully fulfilled all requirements. This final flight Acceptance test assessed performance with respect to startup, low power operation, conductance, and control heater power, and steady state control. The results of the testing showed that both LHPs operated within specification. Startup on one of the LHPs was better than the other LHP because of the starter heater placement and a difference in evaporator design. These differences resulted in a variation in the achieved superheat prior to startup. The LHP with

  14. A Cross-sectional Study of Current Doctors' Performance in a Modified Version of a Medical School Admission Aptitude Test: The UKCAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmur, James P; Lone, Nazir I; Stone, Oliver D; Webb, David J; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    The 2-hour long United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) is used by many universities in the United Kingdom as part of their selection process for undergraduate medical and dentistry degrees. We aimed to compare the performance of senior doctors in primary and secondary care and across a range of specialties, in a modified version of the medical school entrance examination-the mUKCAT. Lay people were also included in the study. Despite its widespread use, this is the first study that examines the performance of senior clinicians in the UKCAT.The study used a prospective cross-sectional design. It used mock questions from the UKCAT website to generate an mUKCAT that was anticipated to take 15 minutes to complete. In all, 167 doctors at consultant, general practitioner (GP), or specialty trainee grade and 26 lay people took part.The overall mean mUKCAT score of all participants was 2486 (69.1%). Of the total cohort, 126 (65.3%) scored above our designated threshold of 2368 and were deemed to have passed the mUKCAT. Excluding lay people, 113 (67.7%) of the 167 doctors scored above that threshold. Medical specialty was associated with overall score (P = 0.003), with anesthetists/intensive care physicians scoring highest (n = 20, mean score 2660) and GPs scoring lowest (n = 38, mean score 2302). Academics outperformed nonacademics (mean score of academics, n = 44 vs nonacademics, n = 123: 2750 vs 2406; P < 0.001). Those clinicians in senior management positions scored lower than those in "standard" roles (mean score of senior management, n = 31 vs standard roles, n = 136: 2332 vs 2534, mean difference 202, 95% confidence interval 67-337, P = 0.004).In the situational judgement section, there was no evidence that specialty was associated with score (P = 0.15). Academics exhibited greater situational judgement than their nonacademic colleagues (academics vs nonacademics: 69.8 vs 63.6%; P = 0.01).The majority of senior

  15. The design, construction and Heavy Vehicle Simulator testing results on Roller Compacted Concrete test sections at the CSIR Innovation Site and on a full-scale test road at Rayton

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, Louw

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Expanded Public Works Program (EPWP). The goals and objectives of the EPWP are to alleviate unemployment, targeting especially women, the youth and the disabled (Gauteng Provincial Government. 2007). This goal will be achieved by creating work... used for the compaction of all the layers (Du Plessis et al, 2013). The RCC was subjected to a range of loading conditions and moisture regimes while being tested with the HVS in channelized, bi-direction trafficking mode in the center of the slab...

  16. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-410A Alternatives R-32, DR-5, and L-41a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Mahderekal, Isaac [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2013-02-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares performance of alternative refrigerants R32, DR-5, and L-41A to that of refrigerant R-410A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for air-conditioning and heat pump applications. Compressor calorimeter tests were performed to evaluate the performance of the lower-GWP alternative refrigerants in place of the common refrigerant R-410A in a 36,000 Btu/hr compressor calorimeter using a compressor having a nominal rated capacity of 21,300 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of 10 F to 55 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. The tests showed that performance of these three lower-GWP alternative refrigerants is comparable to that of R-410A. For the 20 F superheat and 15 F subcooling test conditions, EERs of R32, DR-5, and L-41A were 90% to 99%, 96% to 99%, and 94% to 101%, respectively, compared to that of R-410A. Similarly, cooling capacities of R32, DR-5, and L-41A were 98% to 103%, 92% to 96%, and 84% to 92%, respectively, compared to that of R-410A.

  17. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mexican Welders Occupationally Exposed to Welding-Fumes Using the Micronucleus Test on Exfoliated Oral Mucosa Cells: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Jara-Ettinger

    Full Text Available An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders.We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls. Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age.Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor.Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject.

  18. Prostate specific antigen testing is associated with men's psychological and physical health and their healthcare utilisation in a nationally representative sample: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flahavan, Evelyn M; Drummond, Frances J; Bennett, Kathleen; Barron, Thomas I; Sharp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    ...) testing in primary care. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between PSA testing and the psychological and physical health, and healthcare utilisation of men in a population where PSA testing is widespread...

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of a modular accelerating structure of travelling waves sections for high gradient tests (MECCANO); Etude theorique et experimentale d`une structure acceleratrice a ondes progressives demontable pour des tests fort gradient (Structure dite ``MECCANO``)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanudet, M

    1996-06-04

    A modular system, MECCANO, has been developed at the Laboratoire de l`Accelerateur Lineaire d`Orsay to study the physical and technical phenomena of high electric fields in travelling waves structures in the context of future linear colliders which can reach TeV energies. The behaviour of the electric field inside the section MECCANO is considered from the theoretical point of view with numerical simulations and analytical representations and from the experimental side with low and high power measurements. An infinite and uniform structure is classically described by series of RLC resonant circuits. The basic RF properties of the fundamental mode are given. For a finite section, the matching of a forward or backward travelling wave of any phase advance per cell is also represented by means of RLC circuits. The variations of the reflection and transmission properties of the structure with frequency and a new procedure to match couplers have been modelled and experimentally verified. The electromagnetic behaviour of each cavity and of the whole structure have been studied, the fundamental and first high order modes have been simulated by 2D or 3D codes and measured at low power. The matching of the phase, the amplitude and the reflection level of the accelerator is described. This procedure is found to be extremely delicate due to the abrupt changes in the geometry of the cavities. The structure has been tested at fields superior to 150 MV/m. The behaviour of some materials and surface layers subject to high gradients are presented. (author) 46 refs.

  20. Results of recent KROTOS FCI tests. Alumina vs. corium melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhtiniemi, I.; Magallon, D.; Hohmann, H. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Center

    1998-01-01

    Recent results from KROTOS fuel-coolant interaction experiments are discussed. Five tests with alumina were performed under highly subcooled conditions, all of these tests resulted in spontaneous steam explosions. Additionally, four tests were performed at low subcooling to confirm, on one hand, the suppression of spontaneous steam explosions under such conditions and, on the other hand, that such a system is still triggerable using an external initiator. The other test parameters in these alumina tests included the melt superheat and the initial pressure. All the tests in the investigated superheat range (150 K - 750 K) produced a steam explosion and no evidence of the explosion suppression by the elevated initial pressure (in the limited range of 0.1 - 0.375 MPa) was observed in the alumina tests. The corium test series include a test with 3 kg of melt under both subcooled and near saturated conditions at ambient pressure. Two additional tests were performed with subcooled water; one test was performed at an elevated pressure of 0.2 MPa with 2.4 kg of melt and another test with 5.1 kg of melt at ambient pressure. None of these tests with corium produced a propagating energetic steam explosion. However, propagating low energy (about twice the energy of the trigger pulse) events were observed. All corium tests produced significantly higher water level swells during the mixing phase than the corresponding alumina tests. Present experimental evidence suggests that the water depletion in the mixing zone suppresses energetic steam explosions with corium melts at ambient pressure and in the present pour geometry. Processes that could produce such a difference in void generation are discussed. (author)

  1. Status of the FARO/KROTOS melt-coolant interactions tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magallon, D.; Huhtiniemi, I.; Annunziato, A.; Yerkess, A.; Hohmann, Y.H. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre Safety Technology Institute, Ispra (Austria)

    1996-03-01

    Results of FARO test L-19 are reported. It involved 155 kg of 80 w% UO{sub 2}+20 w% ZrO{sub 2} at 3073 K quenched in 338-kg, 1-m-depth water at saturation at 5.0 MPa (i.e., 537 K). The test is compared with two former tests (L-06 and L-08) performed in similar conditions (1-m-depth water) but with reduced quantities of test (18 and 44 kg, respectively) and with test L-14, performed with a similar quantity of melt (125 kg) but in 2-m-depth water. No fundamental differences with the former tests have been observed. Particularly, the quenching rate per unit melt mass was of the same order (0.5 MW). On the contrary, the portion of melt which remained as a cake on the bottom was larger (50% against a maximum of 30% in the previous tests). The possible reasons for these discrepancies are discussed. Recalculations of test L-19 by using COMETA and TEXAS are also reported and commented. Results from a new set of KROTOS tests conducted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 2} to investigate further the differences already observed with corium melt are presented and discussed. In these tests the effect of men superheat, water subcooling and ambient pressure on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water system behaviour have been tested. In contrast with corium experiments, the results demonstrated that spontaneous explosions occur in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water system over all the range of parameters tested in highly subcooled conditions. Some TEXAS results for the latest KROTOS Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} test, in which a violent steam explosion did occur, are presented and compared with experiment. During some KROTOS experiments there are large deformations of the bottom plate and hold-down bolts. Use is made of the 2-D axisymmetric code SEURBNUK-EURDYN to analyse these deformations of the test section and some results are presented.

  2. Test beam measurements for the upgrade of the CMS pixel detector and measurement of the top quark mass from differential cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spannagel, Simon

    2016-05-15

    In this dissertation, two different topics are addressed which are vital for the realization of modern high-energy physics experiments: detector development and data analysis. The first part focuses on the development and characterization of silicon pixel detectors. To account for the expected increase in luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider, the pixel detector of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment will be replaced by an upgraded detector with new front-end electronics. Comprehensive test beam studies are presented which have been conducted to verify the design and to quantify the performance of the new front-end in terms of tracking efficiency and spatial resolution. The tracking efficiency has been determined to be 99.7{sup +0.3}{sub -0.5} %, while the spatial resolution has been measured to be (4.80±0.29) μm and (7.99±0.23) μm along the 100 μm and 150 μm pixel pitch, respectively. Furthermore, a new cluster interpolation method is proposed which utilizes the third central moment of the cluster charge distribution and achieves improvements of the position resolution of up to 40% over the conventional center of gravity algorithm. In the second part of the thesis, an alternative measurement of the top quark mass is presented. The mass is measured from the normalized differential production cross sections of dileptonic top quark pair events with an additional jet. The measurement is performed on data recorded by the CMS experiment at √(s)=8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb{sup -1}. Using theoretical predictions at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD, the top quark pole mass is measured to be m{sup pole}{sub t}= 168.2{sup +4.7}{sub -2.1} GeV with a precision of about 2.0%. The measurement is in agreement with other measurements of the top quark pole mass within the assigned uncertainties.

  3. Statistical test of reproducibility and operator variance in thin-section modal analysis of textures and phenocrysts in the Topopah Spring member, drill hole USW VH-2, Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.M.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Broxton, D.E.

    1989-06-01

    A thin-section operator-variance test was given to the 2 junior authors, petrographers, by the senior author, a statistician, using 16 thin sections cut from core plugs drilled by the US Geological Survey from drill hole USW VH-2 standard (HCQ) drill core. The thin sections are samples of Topopah Spring devitrified rhyolite tuff from four textural zones, in ascending order: (1) lower nonlithophysal, (2) lower lithopysal, (3) middle nonlithophysal, and (4) upper lithophysal. Drill hole USW-VH-2 is near the center of the Crater Flat, about 6 miles WSW of the Yucca Mountain in Exploration Block. The original thin-section labels were opaqued out with removable enamel and renumbered with alpha-numeric labels. The sliders were then given to the petrographer operators for quantitative thin-section modal (point-count) analysis of cryptocrystalline, spherulitic, granophyric, and void textures, as well as phenocryst minerals. Between operator variance was tested by giving the two petrographers the same slide, and within-operator variance was tested by the same operator the same slide to count in a second test set, administered at least three months after the first set. Both operators were unaware that they were receiving the same slide to recount. 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. A Birth-cohort testing intervention identified hepatitis c virus infection among patients with few identified risks: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Southern, William N.; Norton, Brianna; Steinman, Meredith; DeLuca, Joseph; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Smith, Bryce D.; Litwin, Alain H.

    2015-01-01

    Background International guidelines and U.S. guidelines prior to 2012 only recommended testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients at risk, but adherence to guidelines is poor, and the majority of those infected remain undiagnosed. A strategy to perform one-time testing of all patients born during 1945–1965, birth cohort testing, may diagnose HCV infection among patients whose risk remains unknown. We sought to determine if a birth-cohort testing intervention for HCV antibody...

  5. Assessing the sensitivity and specificity of First Response HIV-1-2 test kit with whole blood and serum samples: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Boadu, Raymond; Darko, George; Nortey, Priscilla; Akweongo, Patricia; Sarfo, Bismark

    2016-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Rapid diagnostic Test (RDT) kits are the preferred assays for HIV testing in many countries. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission, Know Your Status Campaigns, Blood-Safety, Voluntary Counseling and Testing are major strategies adapted to control transmission of the virus and the pivot of these interventions is either screening or diagnosing individuals through testing. There are reports of inconsistent sensitivity and specificity with whole ...

  6. Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electrical cables - Part 4 Methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds. Section Two

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1990-01-01

    Gives the methods for measurement of elongation at break after pre-conditioning, for wrapping test after pre-conditioning, for wraping test after thermal ageing in air, for measurement of mass increase, for long-term stability test and for measurement of copper-catalysed oxidative degradation, which apply to polyolefin insulations.

  7. Temperature dependent O3 absorption cross sections for GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2: I. Re-analysis of Flight Model Data and Retrieval Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehade, Wissam; Weber, Mark; Gorshelev, Victor; Serdyuchenko, Anna; Burrows, John P.

    For a long term coverage of global O3 measurements from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imag-ing Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY), GOME1, and GOME2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), high quality absorption cross section spectra is a pre-requisite. Laboratory measurements of cross section spectra of O3 (at 203K, 223K, 243K, 273K and 293K) were performed using CATGAS (Calibration Apparatus for Trace Gas Absorption Spec-troscopy) under representative in-flight conditions with SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 spectrom-eters to obviate the need of an instrumental slit function correction. For the data acquired from the CATGAS campaigns, a re-analysis is carried out to improve the overestimation in the total O3 retrieval by SCIAMACHY and GOME2 using the flight model (FM) reference data from SCIAMACHY and GOME2, respectively, with respect to GOME1. The reanalysis attempts to re-evaluate the concatenation of ozone optical density measurements obtained from CATGAS measurements and applying new ways to absolutely calibrate the cross-.sections using absolute reference cross-section data at reference wavelengths, Finally, a satellite retrieval error analy-sis will be performed to validate the updated satellite reference cross-sections. The updated reference data can be used for combining the data from the three instruments (plus the two upcoming GOME-2) generating a consisting long-term dataset of total ozone.

  8. β-tubulin paralogue tubC is frequently misidentified as the benA gene in Aspergillus section Nigri taxonomy: primer specificity testing and taxonomic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubka, V.; Kolarik, M.

    2012-01-01

    β-tubulin (benA, tub-2) and calmodulin (caM) are crucial genes in the taxonomy of Aspergillus section Nigri. Widely used β-tubulin primers are not specific for the benA gene for some taxa and preferentially amplify the tubC paralogue. Sequences of the tubC paralogue are widely combined with benA seq

  9. Social Media Engagement and HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bolin; Liu, Chuncheng; Durvasula, Maya; Tang, Weiming; Pan, Stephen; Saffer, Adam J; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-07-19

    Many interventions find that social media engagement with health promotion materials can translate into behavioral changes. However, only a few studies have examined the ways in which specific actions on various social media platforms are correlated with health behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine the association between social media use and HIV testing behaviors among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). In July 2016, a Web-based survey was conducted to recruit MSM in 8 Chinese cities through Blued (Blue City Holdings Ltd.), the world's largest gay mobile phone app. Data on sociodemographic variables, social media use platforms and behaviors, sexual behaviors, and HIV testing histories were collected. HIV testing-related social media use was defined as having ever engaged with HIV testing content on social media, which was further divided into observing (ie, receiving), endorsing (eg, liking and sharing), and contributing (eg, posting or commenting on HIV testing materials). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to determine the best division of HIV testing-related social media use. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the association between HIV testing-related social media use and HIV testing behaviors. A total of 2105 individuals participated in the survey. Among them, 46.75% (984) were under the age of 24 years, 35.43% (746) had high school education or less, and 47.74% (587) had condomless sex in the last 3 months. More than half of the respondents (58.14%, 1224/2105) reported HIV testing-related social media use. Additionally, HIV testing-related social media use, especially on multifunctional platforms such as WeChat, was found to be associated with recent HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.32, 95% CI 1.66-3.24). Contributing on social media was correlated with recent HIV testing (aOR 2.10, 95% CI 1.40-3.16), but neither observing (aOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.38-1.15) nor endorsing (aOR 1.29, 95

  10. Quality of Social Media and Web-Based Information Regarding Inappropriate Nuclear Cardiac Stress Testing and the Choosing Wisely Campaign: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, David E; Baxter, Diana; Markham, Merry J; Beyth, Rebecca J

    2017-05-04

    The World Wide Web and social media provide the public with access to medical information unlike any other time in human history. However, the quality of content related to cardiac stress testing is not well understood. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of content on the Internet relating to the use of cardiac nuclear stress testing and the Choosing Wisely campaign. We searched the World Wide Web, Google Video (including YouTube), and Twitter for information relating to these two topics. Searches were performed using English language terms from a computer in the United States not logged into any personal user accounts. Search results were reviewed for discussion of specific topics including radiation risk, accuracy of testing, alternative testing options, and discouragement of inappropriate test use. We evaluated a total of 348 items of content from our searches. Relevant search results for Choosing Wisely were fewer than for other search terms (45 vs 303). We did not find any content which encouraged inappropriate testing (ie, screening in low risk individuals or testing prior to low risk operations). Content related to Choosing Wisely was more likely to discourage inappropriate testing than search results for other terms (29/45, 64% vs 12/303, 4.0%, odds ratio 43.95, 95% CI 17.6-112.2, Ptests consistently discouraged inappropriate testing. The Choosing Wisely content was more likely to discourage inappropriate testing, less relevant content was available. Generating authoritative content on the Internet relating to judicious use of medical interventions may be an important role for the Choosing Wisely campaign.

  11. Sexual health risks, service use, and views of rapid point-of-care testing among men who have sex with men attending saunas: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Jeremy; Ingle, Suzanne M; Burton, David; Woodman-Bailey, Adam; Horner, Paddy; Jeal, Nikki

    2016-03-01

    Guidelines highlight the need to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) and novel point-of-care testing provides new possibilities for delivery of care. However, it is unclear how point-of-care testing should be used to best effect. This study aimed to increase understanding of sexual risk-taking behaviour, service use, and attitudes to point-of-care testing among MSM sauna clients. Data were collected within two saunas for MSM in south west England using a self-completion survey (n = 134). Though this sample of MSM sauna clients are at high risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection, the testing frequency among the majority of those reporting unprotected anal intercourse is not in keeping with national guidelines. For almost all participants the introduction of rapid point-of-care testing for both genital and blood-borne infection was likely to increase testing and for the majority NHS specialist services was the preferred setting.

  12. Cross-sectional study of community serostatus to highlight undiagnosed HIV infections with oral fluid HIV-1/2 rapid test in non-conventional settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Vidoni, Gianmarino; Clemente, Felice; Mabellini, Chiara; Belloni, Teresa; Nozza, Silvia; Brignolo, Livia; Negri, Silvia; Rusconi, Stefano; Schlusnus, Karin; Dorigatti, Fernanda; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2013-04-01

    The submerged portion of undiagnosed HIV infection in Italy is about 30% of subjects found seropositive. This fact represents one of the most important public health problems hindering the control of infection progression. This means we need to fight unawareness and social stigma and promote easy and friendly access to HIV test. We developed a Prevention Program called “EASY test Project”, offering a new rapid HIV test on oral fluid, to evaluate the acceptability of an alternative, free and anonymous test available in different settings (on board a “Motor Home” at public events, Points of Care, STDs outpatient prevention units and GP surgeries). From December 2008 to December 2012 we performed 7,865 HIV saliva tests, with 50 new infections found (0.6% of the total) out of 140,000 informed subjects. From the self-reported characteristics of respondents, the population approaching the EAST test project was represented by males (70%) aged between 20 and 50 years, 61% with a medium-high education level, 62% homosexuals (MSM), 88% reported unsafe sexual behaviours, and 48% had never undergone an HIV screening test. In five years of the Prevention Program, 100% of subjects interviewed gave a general favorable consent in approaching rapid and not invasive screening, immediate return of the result, and a timely specialized approach and treatment of HIV positive subjects. Results from our study confirm that the rapid and alternative test may contribute to HIV prevention strategies and to the control of the spread of infection and HIV disease progression by reaching a larger population, particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain or are not preferred.

  13. Screening for physical inactivity among adults: the value of distance walked in the six-minute walk test. A cross-sectional diagnostic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Accelerometry provides objective measurement of physical activity levels, but is unfeasible in clinical practice. Thus, we aimed to identify physical fitness tests capable of predicting physical inactivity among adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: Diagnostic test study developed at a university laboratory and a diagnostic clinic. METHODS: 188 asymptomatic subjects underwent assessment of physical activity levels through accelerometry, ergospirometry on treadmill, body composition from bioelectrical impedance, isokinetic muscle function, postural balance on a force platform and six-minute walk test. We conducted descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression including age, sex, oxygen uptake, body fat, center of pressure, quadriceps peak torque, distance covered in six-minute walk test and steps/day in the model, as predictors of physical inactivity. We also determined sensitivity (S, specificity (Sp and area under the curve of the main predictors by means of receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity was 14%. The mean number of steps/day (≤ 5357 was the best predictor of physical inactivity (S = 99%; Sp = 82%. The best physical fitness test was a distance in the six-minute walk test and ≤ 96% of predicted values (S = 70%; Sp = 80%. Body fat > 25% was also significant (S = 83%; Sp = 51%. After logistic regression, steps/day and distance in the six-minute walk test remained predictors of physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: The six-minute walk test should be included in epidemiological studies as a simple and cheap tool for screening for physical inactivity.

  14. Association between sexual role and HIV status among Peruvian men who have sex with men seeking an HIV test: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sarah A; Galea, Jerome T; Prudden, Holly J; Calvo, Gino; Sánchez, Hugo; Brown, Brandon

    2016-08-01

    In Latin America, sexual role, sexual identity and sexual practices are intricately related; the roles activo, pasivo and moderno often encompass sexual identity and sexual practices. We aimed to understand the association between sexual role and HIV status in Peruvian men who have sex with men. HIV-testing services at Epicentro Salud, a Peruvian gay men's health centre, were paired with clinic data on demographics and sexual behaviour. Bidirectional stepwise logistic regression was conducted to determine associations between sexual role and HIV status. Of 366 clients who underwent HIV testing, 86 (23.5%) tested positive. There was a strong association between sexual role ('activo' or typically insertive, 'pasivo' or typically receptive, 'moderno' or typically versatile) and a positive HIV test (p = 0.002). Compared to clients with an activo role, those who reported a pasivo (OR = 6.14) and moderno (OR = 6.26) role were more likely to test positive for HIV. Sexual role was associated with sexual identity (gay, straight and bisexual) and gender of partners in the past six months. Self-reported pasivo and moderno sexual roles were strongly associated with a positive HIV test result. Further research should examine differences in sexual practices between sexual role groups.

  15. A time and imaging cost analysis of low-risk ED observation patients: a conservative 64-section computed tomography coronary angiography "triple rule-out" compared to nuclear stress test strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuwa, Kevin M; Halpern, Ethan J; Shofer, Frances S

    2011-02-01

    The study aimed to examine time and imaging costs of 2 different imaging strategies for low-risk emergency department (ED) observation patients with acute chest pain or symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. We compared a "triple rule-out" (TRO) 64-section multidetector computed tomography protocol with nuclear stress testing. This was a prospective observational cohort study of consecutive ED patients who were enrolled in our chest pain observation protocol during a 16-month period. Our standard observation protocol included a minimum of 2 sets of cardiac enzymes at least 6 hours apart followed by a nuclear stress test. Once a week, observation patients were offered a TRO (to evaluate for coronary artery disease, thoracic dissection, and pulmonary embolus) multidetector computed tomography with the option of further stress testing for those patients found to have evidence of coronary artery disease. We analyzed 832 consecutive observation patients including 214 patients who underwent the TRO protocol. Mean total length of stay was 16.1 hours for TRO patients, 16.3 hours for TRO plus other imaging test, 22.6 hours for nuclear stress testing, 23.3 hours for nuclear stress testing plus other imaging tests, and 23.7 hours for nuclear stress testing plus TRO (P TRO and TRO + other test compared to stress test ± other test). Mean imaging times were 3.6, 4.4, 5.9, 7.5, and 6.6 hours, respectively (P TRO and TRO + other test compared to stress test ± other test). Mean imaging costs were $1307 for TRO patients vs $945 for nuclear stress testing. Triple rule-out reduced total length of stay and imaging time but incurred higher imaging costs. A per-hospital analysis would be needed to determine if patient time savings justify the higher imaging costs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Laboratory tests in the clinical risk management of potential drug-drug interactions: a cross-sectional study using drug-dispensing data from 100 Dutch community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Arjen F J; De Koning, Fred H P; De Smet, Peter A G M; Van Solinge, Wouter W; Egberts, Toine C G

    2009-01-01

    Patient safety and the life cycle of a drug are negatively influenced by the still increasing occurrence of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Clinical risk management of potential DDIs is required in patients using drugs to influence the benefit-risk profile positively. Information about laboratory test results, in particular, may be useful in the assessment of potential DDIs for the individual patient. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency and nature of laboratory tests required for the assessment of the clinical relevance of potential DDIs in Dutch community pharmacies. In addition, the nature and clinical relevance of these potential DDIs is analysed. All patients from 100 Dutch community pharmacies using, according to dispensing information, two or more drugs concomitantly on a specified date (Wednesday, 4 April 2007), were included (n = 223,019). The anonymous dispensing data of the included patients were analysed against a list of DDIs requiring laboratory tests for the assessment of their clinical relevance. The number of patients at risk for these potential DDIs with severe adverse reactions was calculated. The frequency of potential DDIs requiring laboratory tests were stratified by age, sex and degree of polypharmacy. Of the included patients, 24.4% had one or more potential DDIs (n = 54,427). In 9.0% of the included patients, one or more laboratory tests for the assessment of clinical relevance of the potential DDI were required (n = 19,968). The frequency of DDIs requiring laboratory tests increased with increasing age and number of drugs, but was not related to sex. The most commonly required laboratory tests were for renal function (42.2%), electrolytes (20.1%) and coagulation (13.1%). The percentage of patients at risk for potential DDIs requiring laboratory tests with adverse reaction category F (serious, irrecoverable disablement or death) was 2.5%; category E (increased risk of failure of life-saving therapy) was 0

  17. Social Media Engagement and HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuncheng; Durvasula, Maya; Tang, Weiming; Pan, Stephen; Saffer, Adam J; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-01-01

    Background Many interventions find that social media engagement with health promotion materials can translate into behavioral changes. However, only a few studies have examined the ways in which specific actions on various social media platforms are correlated with health behaviors. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between social media use and HIV testing behaviors among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods In July 2016, a Web-based survey was conducted to recruit MSM in 8 Chinese cities through Blued (Blue City Holdings Ltd.), the world’s largest gay mobile phone app. Data on sociodemographic variables, social media use platforms and behaviors, sexual behaviors, and HIV testing histories were collected. HIV testing–related social media use was defined as having ever engaged with HIV testing content on social media, which was further divided into observing (ie, receiving), endorsing (eg, liking and sharing), and contributing (eg, posting or commenting on HIV testing materials). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to determine the best division of HIV testing–related social media use. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the association between HIV testing–related social media use and HIV testing behaviors. Results A total of 2105 individuals participated in the survey. Among them, 46.75% (984) were under the age of 24 years, 35.43% (746) had high school education or less, and 47.74% (587) had condomless sex in the last 3 months. More than half of the respondents (58.14%, 1224/2105) reported HIV testing–related social media use. Additionally, HIV testing–related social media use, especially on multifunctional platforms such as WeChat, was found to be associated with recent HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.32, 95% CI 1.66-3.24). Contributing on social media was correlated with recent HIV testing (aOR 2.10, 95% CI 1.40-3.16), but neither observing (aOR 0

  18. 开口试验段优化设计数值模拟%Numerical Investigation about Optimal Design of Open-Jet Rectangular Test Section in Low Speed Wind Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛成华; 任泽斌; 彭强

    2012-01-01

    为提高某低速风洞开口试验段流场品质,采用计算流体力学方法,结合适当的边界条件,对不同设计方案进行了模拟.数值模拟结果显示:采用集气扩散段能有效提高开口试验段流场均匀性;在试验段入口前加装蜂窝器和阻尼网,对提高试验段流场均匀性和方向场、降低湍流度有重要作用.对试验段尺寸与收集器设计的进一步研究表明,延长试验段前入口区长度、增大试验段口径、改变集气扩散段位置与尺寸都能够有效提高模型区流场品质.通过比较,得出了较为合理的匹配参数,流场指标达到了设计要求.%In order improve flow quality of the specific open-jet test section, the design technology of a cer- tain low speed wind tunnel open-jet test section was studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It presents the control equations and boundary conditions for numerical simulation. Then the details of nu- merical results about the different configurations were given. Comparing with full open-jet test section, the velocity uniformity of model region is evidently improved by use of collector. Honeycomb and screens have profound function on the velocity field such as uniformity, direction field and turbulence level. Further in- vestigation on the size of test section and collector indicates that the flow quality of model region is signifi- cantly improved when several measures are implemented such as extending the entrance length before test section, increasing the test section caliber and the changing location and size of the collector. Combination of satisfactory parameters, which can produce a more uniform velocity profile to arrive at the expected lev- el, was obtained based on numerical results.

  19. Testing relationships between DSM-5 Section III maladaptive traits and measures of self and interpersonal impairment in Italian community dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Somma, Antonella; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-07-01

    In order to study the relationships between DSM-5 Section III maladaptive personality traits and personality dysfunction, 312 Italian community dwelling adults completed the Italian translations of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Measure of Disordered Personality Functioning Scale (MDPF); participants were also administered the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen (IPDS). Consistent with previous findings, 22 (88.0%) PID-5 maladaptive trait scales showed moderate and significant correlations with MDPF Non Coping (median r value = .32), and Non Cooperativeness, (median r value = .24) scales. Regression analyses showed that PID-5 trait scales explained roughly 59% and 35% of the variance in MDPF Non Coping and Non Cooperativeness scales, respectively. PID-5 traits were significantly associated also with the IPDS total score, adjusted R2 = .45, p personality dysfunction, lending further support to the criterion validity of the PID-5. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. 5-Megawatt solar-thermal test facility: environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-30

    An Environmental Assessment of the 5 Megawatt Solar Thermal Test Facility (STTF) is presented. The STTF is located at Albuquerque, New Mexico. The facility will have the capability for testing scale models of major subsystems comprising a solar thermal electrical power plant. The STTF capabilities will include testing a solar energy collector subsystem comprised of heliostat arrays, a receiver subsystem which consists of a boiler/superheater in which a working fluid is heated, and a thermal storage subsystem which includes tanks of high heat capacity material which stores thermal energy for subsequent use. The STTF will include a 200-foot receiver tower on which experimental receivers will be mounted. The Environmental Assessment describes the proposed STTF, its anticipated benefits, and the environment affected. It also evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with STTF construction and operation.

  1. Effect of Fuselage and Tail Surfaces on Low-speed Yawing Characteristics of a Swept-wing Model as Determined in Curved-flow Test Section of Langley Stability Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, John D; Jaquet, Byron M; Cowan, John W

    1951-01-01

    Results are presented of a wind-tunnel investigation made to determine the influence of the fuselage and tail surfaces on the rotary derivatives in yawing flight of a transonic-airplane configuration having 45 degrees sweptback wing and tail surfaces. The tests were run in the curved-flow test section of the Langley stability tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.07 X 10 to the sixth power and consisted of balance measurements throughout the angle-of-attack range for several flight-path radii of curvature. The results are compared with data from forced-oscillation and free-oscillation tests, and a description of testing techniques used is included.

  2. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-410A Alternative: R-32/134a Mixture Using a Scroll Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares the performance of lower-GWP alternative refrigerant R-32 + R-134a mixture, to that of refrigerant R-410A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for air-conditioning and heat pump applications. These comparisons were carried out via compressor calorimeter tests performed on a compressor designed for refrigerant R-410A and having a nominal rated capacity of 21,300 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of 10 F to 55 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat, and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. The tests showed that the discharge temperature of the alternative refrigerant was higher than that of R-410A at all test conditions. Also, the energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of compressor using the alternative refrigerant were slightly lower in comparison to that of R-410A.

  3. ASME Section VIII Recertification of a 33,000 Gallon Vacuum-jacketed LH2 Storage Vessel for Densified Hydrogen Testing at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, Adam M.; Notardonato, William U.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) has been developed at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. GODU-LH2 has three main objectives: zero-loss storage and transfer, liquefaction, and densification of liquid hydrogen. A cryogenic refrigerator has been integrated into an existing, previously certified, 33,000 gallon vacuum-jacketed storage vessel built by Minnesota Valley Engineering in 1991 for the Titan program. The dewar has an inner diameter of 9.5 and a length of 71.5; original design temperature and pressure ranges are -423 F to 100 F and 0 to 95 psig respectively. During densification operations the liquid temperature will be decreased below the normal boiling point by the refrigerator, and consequently the pressure inside the inner vessel will be sub-atmospheric. These new operational conditions rendered the original certification invalid, so an effort was undertaken to recertify the tank to the new pressure and temperature requirements (-12.7 to 95 psig and -433 F to 100 F respectively) per ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. This paper will discuss the unique design, analysis and implementation issues encountered during the vessel recertification process.

  4. Isolating and using sections of bovine mesenteric artery and vein as a bioassay to test for vasoactivity in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, James L; Barnes, Adam J

    2014-10-07

    Mammalian gastrointestinal systems are constantly exposed to compounds (desirable and undesirable) that can have an effect on blood flow to and from that system. Changes in blood flow to the small intestine can result in effects on the absorptive functions of the organ. Particular interest in toxins liberated from feedstuffs through fermentative and digestive processes has developed in ruminants as an area where productive efficiencies could be improved. The video associated with this article describes an in vitro bioassay developed to screen compounds for vasoactivity in isolated cross-sections of bovine mesenteric artery and vein using a multimyograph. Once the blood vessels are mounted and equilibrated in the myograph, the bioassay itself can be used: as a screening tool to evaluate the contractile response or vasoactivity of compounds of interest; determine the presence of receptor types by pharmacologically targeting receptors with specific agonists; determine the role of a receptor with the presence of one or more antagonists; or determine potential interactions of compounds of interest with antagonists. Through all of this, data are collected real-time, tissue collected from a single animal can be exposed to a large number of different experimental treatments (an in vitro advantage), and represents vasculature on either side of the capillary bed to provide an accurate picture of what could be happening in the afferent and efferent blood supply supporting the small intestine.

  5. Effectiveness of diagnostic screening tests in mass screening for COPD using a cooperative regional system in a region with heavy air pollution: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaki, Kenji; Ikeda, Hisao; Fukuda, Takeshi; Yuki, Fumiko; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Kawano, Yuhei; Kawasaki, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a cooperative healthcare model for early detection and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods This was a cross-sectional observational study. We performed diagnosis of COPD at 4 public health centres in Ōmuta, Japan from March 2015 to March 2016, by adding screening for COPD at the time of routine medical evaluations. All patients aged over 40 years were eligible to participate. Among 397 eligible patients, 293 agreed to participate in the study. Results The estimated prevalence of COPD in Ōmuta was 10% among patients aged over 40 years and was 17% among smokers. Among those who were screened, over half of them had questionnaire scores over the cut-off of 17 points and decreased FEV1/FVC%, indicating COPD (p>0.05). 30 patients with suspected COPD were referred for further investigation at a local central hospital, but only 6 underwent further medical examinations. Conclusions The combination of a COPD questionnaire and medical examination is effective as a COPD screening tool. Future research should investigate behavioural interventions for smoking cessation that can be offered in a cooperative model, as well as for improving participation in COPD screening and for encouraging early presentation for treatment in those suspected of having COPD. PMID:28082365

  6. Investigation of deuterium cross section data by integral testing: ZED-2 measurements of high-enriched uranium fuel substituted into a natural uranium core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atfield, J.E.; Kozier, K.S.; Roubtsov, D.; Zeller, M.B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Historical ZED-2 measurements of an HEU fuel rod substituted into a lattice of NU rods were analysed to determine their reactivity sensitivity to differences between the neutron elastic scattering cross-sections of deuterium from different evaluated nuclear data libraries. The differences in the deuterium nuclear data concern the angular probability distribution at neutron energies below 3.2 MeV. These ZED-2 experiments were selected due to the presence of HEU fuel in D{sub 2}O, since analyses of other critical experiments involving solutions of HEU fluoride in D{sub 2}O show substantial sensitivity (~10 mk) to these differences in the deuterium nuclear data. This analysis shows that the existing ZED-2 HEU experiments are insufficiently sensitive to resolve the discrepancy between the different deuterium data libraries. Further analysis of hypothetical configurations with high sensitivity shows that the sensitivity to the angular probability distribution of deuterium is strongly correlated with the leakage of fast neutrons, and it is recommended that further experiments to address this deuterium nuclear data issue be designed/evaluated to maximize this quantity. (author)

  7. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF ATTENDEES OF AN INTEGRATED COUNSELLING & TESTING CENTRE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rout

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pandemic AIDS is one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Awareness generation and lifestyle modification are the main preventive and control measures for HIV/AIDS. So, socio - demographic profile and pattern of risk behaviour of populati on must be understood, for implementing Targeted Intervention towards high risk groups & bridge populations. OBJECTIVES: To explore various socio - demographic profile of clients attending ICTC; to determine source of referral of clients & to identify risk b ehaviour pattern of the attendees. MATERIALS & METHODS: Institution based descriptive cross sectional study from February 2014 - April 2014 . Data collected according to Helsinki Declaration of 1975; revised in 2000 and analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0. Resul ts were expressed in simple proportions. RESULTS: out of 1567 attendees, 1019 (65.03% were males and 548 (34.97% were females with 9.31% total seropositivity. 2.62% of clients attended ICTC on their own will. Those who either did not responded or risk un known to them, showed 16.44% seropositivity. CONCLUSION: In absence of prophylactic & curative treatment, more & more community based epidemiological studies should be conducted, for Behavioural Change Communication (BCC in respect to socio - demographic st rata and to interrupt & control transmission of the deadly disease.

  8. Associations of the stair climb power test with muscle strength and functional performance in people with COPD: A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J.; MacIntyre, Donna L.

    2010-01-01

    : The observational design of the study and the use of a relatively small convenience sample limit the generalizability of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: The SCPT is a simple and safe test associated with measures of functional performance in people with COPD. People with COPD show deficits on the SCPT. However, the SCPT...... torque (r =.46) and strongly associated (r=.68) with the 6MWT. In people who were healthy, the association of the SCPT with knee extensor muscle torque tended to be stronger (r =.66); however, no significant relationship between the SCPT and measures of functional performance was found. LIMITATIONS...

  9. Evaluation of the Acoustic Measurement Capability of the NASA Langley V/STOL Wind Tunnel Open Test Section with Acoustically Absorbent Ceiling and Floor Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The single source location used for helicopter model studies was utilized in a study to determine the distances and directions upstream of the model accurate at which measurements of the direct acoustic field could be obtained. The method used was to measure the decrease of sound pressure levels with distance from a noise source and thereby determine the Hall radius as a function of frequency and direction. Test arrangements and procedures are described. Graphs show the normalized sound pressure level versus distance curves for the glass fiber floor treatment and for the foam floor treatment.

  10. Testing for the endogenous nature between women's empowerment and antenatal health care utilization: evidence from a cross-sectional study in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaky, Hassan H M; Armanious, Dina M; Hussein, Mohamed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Women's relative lack of decision-making power and their unequal access to employment, finances, education, basic health care, and other resources are considered to be the root causes of their ill-health and that of their children. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the interactive relation between women's empowerment and the use of maternal health care. Two model specifications are tested. One assumes no correlation between empowerment and antenatal care while the second specification allows for correlation. Both the univariate and the recursive bivariate probit models are tested. The data used in this study is EDHS 2008. Factor Analysis Technique is also used to construct some of the explanatory variables such as the availability and quality of health services indicators. The findings show that women's empowerment and receiving regular antenatal care are simultaneously determined and the recursive bivariate probit is a better approximation to the relationship between them. Women's empowerment has significant and positive impact on receiving regular antenatal care. The availability and quality of health services do significantly increase the likelihood of receiving regular antenatal care.

  11. Development and Testing of the VITAMIN-B7/BUGLE-B7 Coupled Neutron-Gamma Multigroup Cross-Section Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risner, Joel M [ORNL; Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL; Miller, Thomas Martin [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Dunn, Michael E [ORNL; Parks, Benjamin T [NRC

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s Regulatory Guide 1.190 states that calculational methods used to estimate reactor pressure vessel (RPV) fluence should use the latest version of the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF). The VITAMIN-B6 fine-group library and BUGLE-96 broad-group library, which are widely used for RPV fluence calculations, were generated using ENDF/B-VI data, which was the most current data when Regulatory Guide 1.190 was issued. We have developed new fine-group (VITAMIN-B7) and broad-group (BUGLE-B7) libraries based on ENDF/B-VII. These new libraries, which were processed using the AMPX code system, maintain the same group structures as the VITAMIN-B6 and BUGLE-96 libraries. Verification and validation of the new libraries was accomplished using diagnostic checks in AMPX, unit tests for each element in VITAMIN-B7, and a diverse set of benchmark experiments including critical evaluations for fast and thermal systems, a set of experimental benchmarks that are used for SCALE regression tests, and three RPV fluence benchmarks. The benchmark evaluation results demonstrate that VITAMIN-B7 and BUGLE-B7 are appropriate for use in LWR shielding applications, and meet the calculational uncertainty criterion in Regulatory Guide 1.190.

  12. Development and testing of the VITAMIN-B7/BUGLE-B7 coupled neutron-gamma multigroup cross-section libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risner, J.M.; Wiarda, D.; Miller, T.M.; Peplow, D.E.; Patton, B.W.; Dunn, M.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, MS 6170, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6170 (United States); Parks, B.T. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Mail Stop O10-B3, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.190 states that calculational methods used to estimate reactor pressure vessel (RPV) fluence should use the latest version of the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF). The VITAMIN-B6 fine-group library and BUGLE-96 broad-group library, which are widely used for RPV fluence calculations, were generated using ENDF/B-VI.3 data, which was the most current data when Regulatory Guide 1.190 was issued. We have developed new fine-group (VITAMIN-B7) and broad-group (BUGLE-B7) libraries based on ENDF/B-VII.0. These new libraries, which were processed using the AMPX code system, maintain the same group structures as the VITAMIN-B6 and BUGLE-96 libraries. Verification and validation of the new libraries were accomplished using diagnostic checks in AMPX, 'unit tests' for each element in VITAMIN-B7, and a diverse set of benchmark experiments including critical evaluations for fast and thermal systems, a set of experimental benchmarks that are used for SCALE regression tests, and three RPV fluence benchmarks. The benchmark evaluation results demonstrate that VITAMIN-B7 and BUGLE-B7 are appropriate for use in RPV fluence calculations and meet the calculational uncertainty criterion in Regulatory Guide 1.190. (authors)

  13. Testing for the Endogenous Nature between Women’s Empowerment and Antenatal Health Care Utilization: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan H. M. Zaky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women’s relative lack of decision-making power and their unequal access to employment, finances, education, basic health care, and other resources are considered to be the root causes of their ill-health and that of their children. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the interactive relation between women’s empowerment and the use of maternal health care. Two model specifications are tested. One assumes no correlation between empowerment and antenatal care while the second specification allows for correlation. Both the univariate and the recursive bivariate probit models are tested. The data used in this study is EDHS 2008. Factor Analysis Technique is also used to construct some of the explanatory variables such as the availability and quality of health services indicators. The findings show that women’s empowerment and receiving regular antenatal care are simultaneously determined and the recursive bivariate probit is a better approximation to the relationship between them. Women’s empowerment has significant and positive impact on receiving regular antenatal care. The availability and quality of health services do significantly increase the likelihood of receiving regular antenatal care.

  14. Fertility intentions and use of contraception among monogamous couples in northern Malawi in the context of HIV testing: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert L N Dube

    Full Text Available Knowledge of HIV status may influence fertility desires of married men and women. There is little knowledge about the importance of this influence among monogamously married couples and how knowledge of HIV status influences use of contraception among these couples.We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of interview data collected between October 2008 and September 2009 on men aged 15-59 years and women aged 15-49 years who formed 1766 monogamously married couples within the Karonga Prevention Study demographic surveillance study in northern Malawi.5% of men and 4% of women knew that they were HIV positive at the time of interview and 81% of men and 89% of women knew that they were HIV negative. 73% of men and 83% of women who knew that they were HIV positive stated that they did not want more children, compared to 35% of men and 38% of women who knew they were HIV negative. Concordant HIV positive couples were more likely than concordant negative couples to desire to stop child bearing (odds ratio 11.5, 95%CI 4.3-30.7, after adjusting for other factors but only slightly more likely to use contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio 1.5 (95%CI 0.8-3.3.Knowledge of HIV positive status is associated with an increase in the reported desire to cease childbearing but there was limited evidence that this desire led to higher use of contraception. More efforts directed towards assisting HIV positive couples to access and use reproductive health services and limit HIV transmission among couples are recommended.

  15. 'Sterility Testing of Blood Components and Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products' (Munich, April 29, 2010) Organized by the DGTI Section 'Safety in Hemotherapy' - Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Beate; Grabein, Beatrice

    2011-10-01

    Neither screening method completely detects all clinically relevant bacterial contaminations. The effect of sampling time and volume as well as standardization of the assay applied has also to be taken into account. Therefore, minimizing the risk of contamination during manufacture by measures such as donor selection, skin disinfection, division, and processing within closed systems remains crucial. In this context new concepts in sterility testing, especially with instable advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), are needed as well as reassessment of pathogen inactivation techniques. At present hemovigilance data indicate that shortening the shelf life of platelet concentrates as introduced in Germany 2008 reduced the risk of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections to the same extent as bacterial screening as done in Canada or the Netherlands. The evolving methodological progress, e.g. by standardizing culture methods or enhancing detection systems, requires careful follow-up in parallel to hemovigilance data in order to ensure optimal bacterial safety in hemotherapy.

  16. Development on Performance Testing System of Superheat-resisting Canned Motor Pump without Hydrocooling%屏蔽泵性能测试的自动化控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆福; 王新华; 李剑峰; 董新蕊; 刘春波; 马永超

    2007-01-01

    针对无水冷超耐热屏蔽电泵的工作特性,研制开发了屏蔽电泵性能实验装置及测试系统,简述了测试系统的组成及主要功能模块.详细介绍了性能参数的测量方法及传感器选型依据,介绍了测试系统的数据采集、输出控制、数据传输和I/O通信等功能模块的实现方法及编程思想.实验表明,开发的测试系统能够很方便地实现屏蔽电泵性能实验的数据采集、存储、处理、输出控制、曲线绘制、报表生成、打印等功能,从而实现了屏蔽电泵性能测试的微机化和信息化,大大提高了屏蔽电泵性能实验的效率和可靠性,满足了屏蔽电泵实际生产的需要.

  17. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil, Janneke P; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R

    2017-09-21

    There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were collected in four different studies among the general population (S1-2) and sexual risk groups (S3-4). S1-Amsterdam residents participating in representative population-based surveys (2008 and 2012; n=6044) drawn from the municipality register; S2-Participants of a population-based study stratified by ethnicity drawn from the municipality register of Amsterdam (2011-2015; n=17 603); S3-Men having sex with men (MSM) participating in an HIV observational cohort study (2008 and 2013; n=597) and S4-STI clinic clients participating in a cross-sectional survey (2007-2012; n=5655). Prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants. The prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage in the preceding 6-12 months varied between 1% and 2% across studies. Chlamydia self-tests were most commonly used, except among MSM in S3. Chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage increased over time among the representative sample of Amsterdam residents (S1) and chlamydia self-test usage increased over time among STI clinic clients (S4). Self-test usage was associated with African Surinamese or Ghanaian ethnic origin (S2), being woman or MSM (S1 and 4) and having had a higher number of sexual partners (S1-2). Among those in the general population who tested for HIV/STI in the preceding 12 months, 5-9% used a self-test. Despite low HIV/STI self-test usage, we observed increases over time in chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage. Furthermore, self-test usage was higher among high-risk individuals in the general population. It is important to continue monitoring self-test usage and informing the public about the unknown quality of available self-tests in the Netherlands and about the pros

  18. Cytohistological correlation and accuracy of the pap smear test in diagnosis of cervical lesions: a hospital based cross-sectional study from Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Naik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical carcinoma is one of the most common causes of mortality among women.Early detection can be done by Papanicolaou (Papsmear test - a simplest, safe, cost effective and non invasive procedure. The main objective of this study was to categorize Pap smears for cytohistologicalexamination as well as clinically correlate to analyze sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of Pap smear. Methods In this prospective study 417 Pap smears performed, cytohistological correlation was done in 104 cases because patients had undergone both Pap smear and cervical biopsy.Detailed history was taken and clinical examination was done. Pap smear sample was collected from cervix and reporting was made according to Bethesda 2001 classification.Cytological findings were correlated with histopathology. Results Overall concordance rate was 60.7%. Concordance rate for malignancy was 100%, for inflammatory lesions 70.8% and for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 33.3%. Common age group presented for screening was40-50 years.Commonest clinical presentationwas bleeding per vaginum. Conclusion The study provides good cyto-histopathology correlation in detecting high grade lesions and malignancy. Although Pap smear sensitivity was low but can be increased by adequate sampling and avoiding technical errors.Bethesda system is strongly recommended for adequacy of sampling to minimize inconsistency.Regular screening should be advised to the patients for the early detection of cervical carcinoma.

  19. Test Beam Measurements for the Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector and Measurement of the Top Quark Mass from Differential Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Spannagel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, two different topics are addressed which are vital for the realization ofmodern high-energy physics experiments: detector development and data analysis. The first partfocuses on the development and characterization of silicon pixel detectors. To account for theexpected increase in luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider, the pixel detector of the CompactMuon Solenoid (CMS) experiment will be replaced by an upgraded detector with new front-endelectronics. Comprehensive test beam studies are presented which have been conducted to verifythe design and to quantify the performance of the new front-end in terms of tracking efficiency+0.3and spatial resolution. The tracking efficiency has been determined to be 99.7 −0.5 %, whilethe spatial resolution has been measured to be (4.80 ± 0.29) µm and (7.99 ± 0.23) µm along the100 µm and 150 µm pixel pitch, respectively. Furthermore, a new cluster interpolation method isproposed which utilizes the third central moment of the cluster charge d...

  20. Diagnostic Value of the Urine Mucus Test in Childhood Masturbation among Children below 12 Years of Age: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarin Keihani Doust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood masturbation (CM is considered a variant of normal sexual behavior; however, it is commonly misdiagnosed as epilepsy and movement disorders. As the first study from Iran, we analyzed a large population of infants and children with CM in a case-control study and evaluated the value of mucus in urine analysis as an alternative diagnostic tool for CM. Methods: A total of 623 children referred to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital for an evaluation of seizure or movement disorders were studied between 2008 and 2011. Totally, 359 children were found to have masturbatory behaviors (Group A and the rest (264 were assigned to Group B. CM was diagnosed by direct observation. Collected data comprised demographic characteristics, clinical and neurodevelopmental examinations, laboratory findings (particularly urine analysis, and electrocardiography. Results: The age of the children with CM was below 12 years old, and the girl-to-boy ratio was 7:1. Mucus in urine was positive in 357 (99.44% children in Group A and 22 (8.3% in Group B (P<0.001. A significant correlation was found between the presence of mucus in urine and masturbatory behaviors (P<0.001. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the presence of mucus in urine can be used as an alternative laboratory test in children with CM below 12 years old and even in infants (≤24 months old. Further studies are needed to confirm the results.

  1. Performance of coagulation tests in patients on therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban. A cross-sectional pharmacodynamic study based on peak and trough plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francart, Suzanne J; Hawes, Emily M; Deal, Allison M; Adcock, Dorothy M; Gosselin, Robert; Jeanneret, Cheryl; Friedman, Kenneth D; Moll, Stephan

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of anticoagulation status during rivaroxaban therapy is desirable in certain clinical situations. It was the study objective to determine coagulation tests most useful for assessing rivaroxaban's anticoagulant effect. Peak and trough blood samples from 29 patients taking rivaroxaban 20 mg daily were collected. Mass spectrometry and various coagulation assays were performed. "On-therapy range" was defined as the rivaroxaban concentrations determined by LC-MS/MS. A "misprediction percentage" was calculated based on how often results of each coagulation assay were in the normal reference range, while the rivaroxaban concentration was in the "on-therapy" range. The on-therapy range was 8.9-660 ng/ml. The misprediction percentages for prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), using multiple reagents and coagulometers, ranged from 10%-52% and 31%-59%, respectively. PT, aPTT and activated clotting time (ACT) were insensitive to trough rivaroxaban: 59%, 62%, and 80% of samples had a normal result, respectively. Over 95% of PT and ACT values were elevated at peak. Four different rivaroxaban calibrated anti-Xa assays had R² values >0.98, demonstrating strong correlations with rivaroxaban drug levels. In conclusion, PT, aPTT and ACT are often normal in patients on therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban. However, PT and ACT may have clinical utility at higher drug plasma levels. Rivaroxaban calibrated anti-factor Xa assays can accurately identify low and high on-therapy rivaroxaban drug levels and, therefore, have superior utility in all clinical situations where assessment of anticoagulation status may be beneficial.

  2. Parents Support Implementation of HIV Testing and Counseling at School: Cross-Sectional Study with Parents of Adolescent Attending High School in Gauteng and North West Provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgatle, Mathildah

    2016-01-01

    Background. A formative assessment of the implementation of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) at school showed high acceptability and willingness to test among learners. However, the success of the proposed HTC depends on the support and acceptability of key stakeholders, including the parents. The aim of the study was to assess the opinions and acceptability of the implementation of HTC at school among parents of adolescents in high school. Methods. This was a cross-sectional household survey conducted with parents of adolescents attending high schools in educational districts in North West and Gauteng provinces, South Africa. Results. A total of 804 parents participated, and 548 (68.3%) were biological mothers, 85 (10.6%) were fathers, and the remaining were other relatives including grandmothers. Almost all (n = 742, 92.9%) parents were in support of implementation and provision of HTC at school, 701 (87.7%) would allow their children to be tested at school, 365 (46%) felt that parental consent was not needed to test at school, and 39.4% preferred to receive the HIV test results with their children. Conclusion. Parents accept the roll-out of an HTC program at school and have a role to play in supporting children who test positive for HIV.

  3. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-404A Alternatives ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and R32 + R-134a Mixture using a Scroll Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares the performance of four lower-GWP alternative refrigerants, ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and R-32 + R-134a mixture, to that of refrigerant R-404A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for medium temperature refrigeration applications. These comparisons were carried out via compressor calorimeter tests performed on a compressor designed for refrigerant R-404A and having a nominal rated capacity of 23,500 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of -10 F to 35 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat, and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 10 F to 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. However, the cooling capacities reported in this study are normalized for 0 F subcooling. The tests showed that the compressor energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity with all four alternative refrigerants tested are higher at higher saturation suction and saturation discharge temperature and lower at lower saturation suction and saturation discharge temperature, compared to that of R-404A. Discharge temperatures of all the alternative refrigerants were higher than that of R-404A at all test conditions.

  4. Distributed Computer Testing System for Self- ignite Catch Fire Section Under Well%井下自然发火区监测计算机集散系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳丰田; 赵兴君

    2000-01-01

    This paper expounds the principle of distributed computer testing system for self- ignite catch fire section under well. The system adopted separation control, muster operation,classification manage and dis join father design principle. Achiving data acquisition, store, analysis and far -distance transmission. Its software package can draw distributingure figure of self- ignitecatch fire section under well and etc. It has important significance for well and true griping estate of self- ignite catch fire section under well.%阐述了井下自然发火区监测计算机集散系统的原理及系统组成,该系统采用了分散控制、集中操作、分级管理和分而自治的设计原则。实现了数据的自动采集、存储、分析及远距离传送。其软件包括可绘制井下自然发火区分布图等,对及时准确地掌握井下自然发火区的状态有重要意义。

  5. Critical Strain Rate of Uniform Deformation in Cross Section at Diffusion Dominated Superplastic Tensile Test%扩散控制超塑性拉伸断面均匀收缩的临界应变速率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张诗昌; 罗敏; 杨倩; 陈伟

    2012-01-01

    A parameter named λ was put forward and an equation was deduced to characterize the uniform deformation of superplastic tensile test under the conditions of difiusion dominated deformation. By solving the equation at λ=0, a critical strain rate εcn of uniform deformation was got ten. The results show that εcn is direct proportion to strain and diffusion coefficient and inversely proportion to the cross section area of undeformed specimens. The results of the tested A of AZ31 alloy under superplastic tensile show that A is becoming significant small and the cross section of the specimen tends to be uniform deformation when strain rate is near εcn.%引入了一个衡量超塑性拉伸断面收缩均匀性的特征参数λ,在假设变形以扩散为主的条件下,导出了λ的表达式.令λ=0时,得到断面均匀收缩的临界应变速率(.εcn).(.εcn)与扩散系数和应变量成正比,与试样原始截面积成反比.对AZ31镁合金超塑性拉伸特征参数λ值的测定结果表明;当应变速率越接近于临界应变速率,λ越小,试样越接近均匀变形.

  6. Results of Section 4 Chemical Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires that data be developed on the effect of chemical substances and mixtures on health and the environment. This data...

  7. Attitudes to routine HIV counselling and testing, and knowledge about prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional survey among antenatal attendees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byamugisha Robert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing rates have exceeded 90% among the pregnant women at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in Mbale District, eastern Uganda, since the introduction of routine antenatal counselling and testing for HIV in June 2006. However, no documented information was available about opinions of pregnant women in eastern Uganda about this HIV testing approach. We therefore conducted a study to assess attitudes of antenatal attendees towards routine HIV counselling and testing at Mbale Hospital. We also assessed their knowledge about mother to child transmission of HIV and infant feeding options for HIV-infected mothers. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of 388 women, who were attending the antenatal clinic for the first time with their current pregnancy at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital from August to October 2009. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Makerere University College of Health Sciences, the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology, and Mbale Hospital. Results The majority of the antenatal attendees (98.5%, 382/388 had positive attitudes towards routine HIV counselling and testing, and many of them (more than 60% had correct knowledge of how mother to child transmission of HIV could occur during pregnancy, labour and through breastfeeding, and ways of preventing it. After adjusting for independent variables, having completed secondary school (odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.9, having three or more pregnancies (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5 and belonging to a non-Bagisu ethnic group (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.7 were associated with more knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding as one of the measures for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Out of 388 antenatal attendees, 386 (99.5% tested for HIV and 382 (98.5% received same-day HIV test results

  8. Trends and factors in human immunodeficiency virus and/or hepatitis C virus testing and infection among injection drug users newly entering methadone maintenance treatment in Guangdong Province, China 2006-2013: a consecutive cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Liu, Yu; Zou, Xia; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li

    2017-07-13

    To assess trends and related factors in HIV and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody testing and infection among injection drug users (IDUs) newly entering methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Guangdong Province, China. Consecutive cross sectional surveys were conducted in 14 MMT clinics from July 2006 to December 2013 in Guangdong Province, China. IDUs were excluded if they were re-enrolled or referred from other MMT clinics. Trend tests were used to examine HIV and/or HCV testing and infection, sociodemographic characteristics, drug use related behaviours and the past 3 month sexual behaviours on enrolment. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify correlates of HIV and/or HCV testing and infection. 7539 IDUs with an average age of 35.6±6.2 years were newly enrolled with a history of injection for an average of 11.8±4.9 years. The average frequency of injection before enrolment had been increasing. HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV dual testing increased from 2006 to 2013 (ptrend0.05) until reaching a peak in 2011, excluding the first year. Associating with fellow drug users 1-4 times during the past month, injecting for 15+ years and having multiple sexual partners during the past 3 months predicted higher percentages for HIV and/or HCV testing (ptests (pdrug use and sharing needles or sharing more frequently were major risk factors for HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV co-infection (p<0.05). The prevalence of HIV and HCV were high and quite stable among new IDU entrants in MMT. Publicising MMT, routine screening, and behavioural and structural interventions is needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. 剖面沉降测试仪提高测试精度方法研究%Research on the Ways to Improve the Test Accuracy of the Sectional Settlement Inclinometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马天鸽; 孙铁成; 马国海; 王福文

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the uneven-settlement-caused deformation between the transverse and the longitudinal sections of the roadbed is an important part of the content of the monitoring of the subgrade.With the application of the inclinometer to the measurement of the vertical settlement in the cross section of the subgrade taken into account,the principle of the servo acceleration-type inclinometer is briefly introduced in the paper.The results of the measurement of some practical projects show:①the factors that affect the accuracy of the sectional-settlement inclinometer include environmental factors,the instrument itself,and the human factor;②the key factor of the tests performed with the sectional-settlement inclinometer lies in the fact that the position of the measuring points should be the same in both the positive and negative tests;③with the distance to be measured becoming longer and the error in the initial elevation gradually increasing,the effects on the accuracy of the values of the measured settlement will be greater.%路基的横、纵断面不均匀沉降变形是路基监测的一项重要内容,针对测试仪在路基横断面竖向沉降测试中的应用,简要介绍了伺服加速度式测斜仪的原理,工程实例测试表明:影响剖面沉降测试仪测试精度的因素主要包括环境因素、仪器本身和人为的因素;剖面沉降测试的关键因素是正反向测试的测点位置相同;随着测试距离的增大,所产生的初始高程误差增加,对沉降测值影响越大。

  10. Combination of the H1 and ZEUS inclusive cross-section measurements at proton beam energies of 460 GeV and 575 GeV and tests of low Bjorken-x phenomenological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, Pavel

    2013-06-15

    A combination is presented of the inclusive neutral current e{sup {+-}}p scattering cross section data collected by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations during the last months of the HERA II operation period with proton beam energies E{sub p} of 460 and 575 GeV. The kinematic range of the cross section data covers low absolute four-momentum transfers squared, 1.5 GeV{sup 2} {<=} Q{sup 2} {<=} 110 GeV{sup 2}, small values of Bjorken-x, 2.8.10{sup -5} {<=} x {<=} 1.5.10{sup -2}, and high inelasticity y {<=} 0.85. The combination algorithm is based on the method of least squares and takes into account correlations of the systematic uncertainties. The combined data are used in the QCD fits to extract the parton distribution functions. The phenomenological low-x dipole models are tested and parameters of the models are obtained. A good description of the data by the dipole model taking into account the evolution of the gluon distribution is observed. The longitudinal structure function F{sub L} is extracted from the combination of the currently used H1 and ZEUS reduced proton beam energy data with previously published H1 nominal proton beam energy data of 920 GeV. A precision of the obtained values of F{sub L} is improved at medium Q{sup 2} compared to the published results of the H1 collaboration.

  11. Study of the longitudinal vehicle distance limit of a tied arch bridge section during the loading test%系杆拱桥拱肋截面荷载试验的纵向车距限值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱恒雅

    2013-01-01

    Bridge loading test is the most reliable method of determining its bearing capacity. It is Necessary to impose restrictions on the operate miss, in order to make the whole process of loading test more economic, safer and more reliable, and it is more difficult to control the test vehicle arrangement. This thesis takes a tied arch bridge arch-sectional loading test as a case, simulates different load efficiency and using MIDAS software when longitudinal wheelbase changes. The study shows when the longitudinal wheelbase is 2.8-5.0m, the loading efficiencies meet the design requirements. That is to say the layout error of the vehicle distance should not exceed 1.0m during actual operations.%桥梁荷载试验是确定桥梁承载能力的最可靠手段,为了使整个荷载试验过程能够更经济、安全、可靠,必须对现场实际操作误差进行一定的限制,而试验车布置时的纵向轮轴距比较难把握。本文以某系杆拱桥跨中拱肋截面荷载试验为例,在常规设计的基础上,采用MIDAS计算软件模拟计算在不同纵向车轮轴距时的荷载效率的变化情况,从而得到纵向车轮轴距一般在2.8m-5.0m才能保证荷载效率满足设计要求,也就是说实际操作时,车距布置误差不超过1.0m为宜。

  12. Predictors of HIV-test utilization in PMTCT among antenatal care attendees in government health centers: institution-based cross-sectional study using health belief model in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workagegn F

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fikremariam Workagegn, Getachew Kiros, Lakew Abebe Health Education and Behavioral Sciences Department, Public and Medical Sciences College, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is the most dramatic epidemic of the century that has claimed over two decades more than 3 million deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily affected and accounts for nearly 70% of all cases. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is responsible for 20% of all HIV transmissions. With no preventive interventions, 50% of HIV infections are transmitted from HIV-positive mothers to newborns. HIV-testing is central to prevent vertical transmission. Despite, awareness campaigns, prevention measures, and more recently, promotion of antiviral regimens, the prevalence of cases and deaths is still rising and the prevalence of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT voluntary counseling test (VCT use remains low. This study identifies predictors and possible barriers of HIV-testing among antenatal care attendees based on the health belief model (HBM in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: The study was an institution-based cross-sectional survey conducted from September 1 to September 30, 2013. A total of 308 individuals were interviewed using structured questionnaires adopted and modified from similar studies. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. A logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HIV-test use. Results: In spite of satisfactory knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission, participants are still at high risk of contracting the infection, wherein only 51.8% tested for HIV; among the married, only 84.1% and among the gestational age of third trimester, 34.1% mothers tested for HIV. Based on the HBM, failure to use PMTCT-HIV-test was related to its perceived lack of net benefit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.34, confidence interval [CI] [0.19–0.58], P<0.001, but

  13. HPV testing in first-void urine provides sensitivity for CIN2+ detection comparable with a smear taken by a clinician or a brush-based self-sample: cross-sectional data from a triage population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, A; Del Pino, M; Molijn, A; Rodriguez, A; Torné, A; de Koning, M; Ordi, J; van Kemenade, F; Jenkins, D; Quint, W

    2017-08-01

    To compare the sensitivity of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and genotype detection in self-collected urine samples in the morning (U1), and later on (U2), brush-based self-samples (SS), and clinician-taken smears (CTS) for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+) in a colposcopic referral population. Cross-sectional single-centre study. A colposcopy clinic in Spain. A cohort of 113 women referred for colposcopy after an abnormal Pap smear. Women undergoing colposcopy with biopsy for abnormal Pap smears were sent a device (Colli-Pee™, Novosanis, Wijnegem, Belgium) to collect U1 on the morning of colposcopy. U2, CTS, and SS (Evalyn brush™, Rovers Medical Devices B.V., Oss, the Netherlands) were also analysed. All samples were tested for HPV DNA using the analytically sensitive SPF10-DEIA-LiPA25 assay and the clinically validated GP5+/6+-EIA-LMNX. Histologically confirmed CIN2+ and hrHPV positivity for 14 high-risk HPV types. Samples from 91 patients were analysed. All CIN3 cases (n = 6) tested positive for hrHPV in CTS, SS, U1, and U2 with both HPV assays. Sensitivity for CIN2+ with the SPF10 system was 100, 100, 95, and 100%, respectively. With the GP5+/6+ assay, sensitivity was 95% in all sample types. The sensitivities and specificities for both tests on each of the sample types did not significantly differ. There was 10-14% discordance on hrHPV genotype. CIN2+ detection using HPV testing of U1 shows a sensitivity similar to that of CTS or brush-based SS, and is convenient. There was substantial to almost excellent agreement between all samples on genotype with both hrHPV assays. There was no advantage in testing U1 compared with U2 samples. Similar CIN2+ sensitivity for HPV testing in first-void urine, physician-taken smear and brush-based self-sample. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Production and Testing of the VITAMIN-B6 Fine Group and the BUGLE-93 Broad-Group Neutron/Photon Cross-Section Libraries Derived from ENDF/B-VI Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.E.

    2001-04-19

    A revised multigroup cross-section library based on Release 3 of ENDF/B-VI data has been produced and tested for light-water-reactor shielding and reactor pressure vessel dosimetry applications. This new broad-group library, which is designated BUGLE-96, represents an improvement over the BUGLE-93 data library released in February 1994 and replaces the data package for BUGLE-93 in the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (formerly RSIC). The processing methodology is the same as that used for producing BUGLE-93 and is consistent with ANSI/ANS 6.1.2. The ENDF data were first processed into a fine-group, pseudo-problem-independent format and then collapsed into the final broad-group format. The fine-group library, which is designated VITAMIN-B6, contains 120 nuclides. The BUGLE-96 47-neutron-group/20-gamma-ray-group library contains the same 120 nuclides processed as infinitely dilute and collapsed using a weighting spectrum typical of a concrete shield. Additionally, nuclides processed with resonance self-shielding and weighted using spectra specific to BWR and PWR material compositions and reactor models are available. As an added feature of BUGLE-96, cross-section sets having upscatter data for four thermal neutron groups are included. The upscattering data should improve the application of BUGLE-96 to the calculation of more accurate thermal fluences, although more computer time will be required. Several new dosimetry response functions and kerma factors for all 120 nuclides are also included in the library. The incorporation of feedback from users has resulted in a data library that addresses a wider spectrum of user needs.

  15. Field test results for steam oxidation of TP347H FG - growth of inner oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Jianmin, Jia; Larsen, OH

    2005-01-01

    A series of field tests have been conducted with TP347H FG in test superheater loops in coal-fired and biomass fired boilers of steam pressure 256 and 91 bar respectively. The exposure times are from 3,500 to 30,000 hours and the temperature range is from 450-630¢XC. The morphology, composition...... inner oxide presumably due to the formation of a more chromium rich Fe-Cr-Ni oxide at grain boundaries. At temperatures over 610¢XC, there is a decrease in inner oxide thickness. A thicker inner oxide is observed at the lower pressures compared to similar temperature ranges at higher pressures....... The effect of temperature, exposure time and pressure are discussed....

  16. A cross-sectional study of the availability and price of anti-malarial medicines and malaria rapid diagnostic tests in private sector retail drug outlets in rural Western Kenya, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioko, Urbanus; Riley, Christina; Dellicour, Stephanie; Were, Vincent; Ouma, Peter; Gutman, Julie; Kariuki, Simon; Omar, Ahmeddin; Desai, Meghna; Buff, Ann M

    2016-07-12

    Although anti-malarial medicines are free in Kenyan public health facilities, patients often seek treatment from private sector retail drug outlets. In mid-2010, the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) was introduced to make quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) accessible and affordable in private and public sectors. Private sector retail drug outlets stocking anti-malarial medications within a surveillance area of approximately 220,000 people in a malaria perennial high-transmission area in rural western Kenya were identified via a census in September 2013. A cross-sectional study was conducted in September-October 2013 to determine availability and price of anti-malarial medicines and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in drug outlets. A standardized questionnaire was administered to collect drug outlet and personnel characteristics and availability and price of anti-malarials and RDTs. Of 181 drug outlets identified, 179 (99 %) participated in the survey. Thirteen percent were registered pharmacies, 25 % informal drug shops, 46 % general shops, 13 % homesteads and 2 % other. One hundred sixty-five (92 %) had at least one ACT type: 162 (91 %) had recommended first-line artemether-lumefantrine (AL), 22 (12 %) had recommended second-line dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), 85 (48 %) had sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), 60 (34 %) had any quinine (QN) formulation, and 14 (8 %) had amodiaquine (AQ) monotherapy. The mean price (range) of an adult treatment course for AL was $1.01 ($0.35-4.71); DHA-PPQ was $4.39 ($0.71-7.06); QN tablets were $2.24 ($0.12-4.71); SP was $0.62 ($0.24-2.35); AQ monotherapy was $0.42 ($0.24-1.06). The mean AL price with or without the AMFm logo did not differ significantly ($1.01 and 1.07, respectively; p = 0.45). Only 17 (10 %) drug outlets had RDTs; 149 (84 %) never stocked RDTs. The mean RDT price was $0.92 ($0.24-2.35). Most outlets never stocked RDTs; therefore, testing prior to

  17. 激光雷达散射截面的比对测量法及其精度检测%Relative measurement of laser radar cross section and its accuracy test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲卫东; 杜自强; 薛建国; 薛挺; 王娟锋

    2011-01-01

    The relative measurement is commonly used in measurement of laser radar cross section (LRCS) of a field target. It is effected by some factors, such as light beam mode of laser in measuring system, stability of laser power, atmospheric absorption, scattering and turbulence, laser reflection of background, circuit noise, etc. Laser beam mode is most important in these factors, causing the accuracy of LRCS measurement hard to test objectively. In order to solve this problem, the relative measurement of LRCS and its test system were introduced firstly. Then the effect of laser beam mode on system accuracy was discussed. Finally, the test method of system accuracy that combined shadowing method by using extinction cloth and laser spot image analyzing method was introduced. In addition, how to reduce the effect of light beam mode on system accuracy was analyzed.%野外目标激光雷达散射截面(LRCS)的测量通常使用比对测量方法.该方法受到测量系统激光光束模式,激光功率稳定性,大气吸收、散射和湍流,背景的激光漫反射回波,系统探测电路噪声等因素的影响.其中,测量系统激光光束模式是最重要的影响因素,造成了比对测量方法中LRCS测量精度难以客观、全面检测的问题.因此,在介绍LRCS的比对测量法及测试系统的基础上,分析了光束模式对系统LRCS测量精度的影响,提出了消光布遮蔽法和光斑分析法相结合的系统LRCS测量精度检测方法.最后,对实际应用中如何减小光斑模式的影响以提高系统LRCS测量精度进行了分析.

  18. 46 CFR 61.05-20 - Boiler safety valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler safety valves. 61.05-20 Section 61.05-20 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-20 Boiler safety valves. Each safety valve for a drum, superheater, or reheater of a boiler shall be tested at the interval specified by table 61.05-10....

  19. Section Preequating under the Equivalent Groups Design without IRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongwen; Puhan, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a section preequating (SPE) method (linear and nonlinear) under the randomly equivalent groups design. In this equating design, sections of Test X (a future new form) and another existing Test Y (an old form already on scale) are administered. The sections of Test X are equated to Test Y, after adjusting for the…

  20. ANALYSIS OF CROSS-SECTIONAL FAILURE MODES OF RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE FLEXURAL FATIGUE TEST%再生混凝土抗折疲劳试验断面破坏形态分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红兵; 许永强; 夏博; 张尧

    2016-01-01

    根据不同再生骨料取代率的再生混凝土在反复荷载作用下的断面破坏形态,分析影响再生混凝土抗折强度、抗折疲劳寿命的材料因素。对再生骨料取代率为0、30%、50%、70%的再生混凝土进行抗折强度试验以及应力水平为0�6、0�7、0�8的抗折疲劳试验。断面破坏形式表明:随着再生骨料取代率的提高,再生混凝土抗折强度越来越小,疲劳寿命逐渐降低,断面的两种破坏形式(骨料与砂浆之间的黏结破坏、骨料断裂破坏)的面积均呈线性递减趋势。为降低试件中再生集料附近区域产生应力集中的几率,建议生产再生混凝土时采取提高再生骨料强度、优化再生骨料加工工艺、增强再生粗骨料与砂浆之间的黏结等措施。%Based on the recycled concrete ( different recycled aggregate replacement ratio) specimen’ s damage mode under repeated loads, the material factors which can influence recycled concrete flexural strength, flexural fatigue life can be analyzed. Recycled concrete specimens of 0, 30%, 50%, 70% regeneration replacement⁃rate were poured, and flexural strength tests performed as well as the flexural fatigue test with stress level being 0�6,0�7,0�8. Cross⁃sectional failure morphology showed that with the increasing of recycled aggregate rate, recycled concrete’ s flexural strength became smaller, and the fatigue life decreased, the section area of two kinds of failure modes ( the bond failure between aggregate and mortar,aggregate fracture) showed a linear decreasing trend. To reduce the probability stress concentration around the recycled aggregate, it was recommended that the strength of recycled aggregate should be improved, recycled aggregate processing technology be optimized and the bonding between the recycled coarse aggregate and mortar be enhanced etc during the production of recycled concrete.

  1. C-section - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100191.htm C-section - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cesarean Section A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  2. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  3. Field test study of methods for supporting large-section inclined shaft in gravel layer%卵砾石层大断面斜井井筒支护方法现场试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛学超; 杨仁树; 孙忠辉; 刘成良; 董聚才

    2009-01-01

    China lacks construction experiences with common methods in inclined mine shaft of thick gravel layer. Combined with construction practices of the first inclined mines of Cailiao and Huifeng in Yili coal mine, the supporting programme is designed and quite a few supporting trials have been studied due to abundant water and non-aqueous sites. According to the field test results, the deformation of trestle gets larger and it is more difficulty to support in the abundant water site; The temporary support of beam joined with reinforced concrete is an effective method to support the large section inclined shaft in non-aqueous gravel layer. The deformation and the pressure grow rapidly while the shaft is in the abundant water gravel; it is proved that forepoling supporting together with the temporary support and reinforced concrete can control the surrounding's deformation and keep its stability. It is inferred by site test results that significant errors might occur when it is applied to calculating the pressure of gravel layer surrounding by Terzaghi and Coulomb earth pressure theory.%我国缺少在巨厚卵砾石层中采用普通施工方法掘进煤矿斜井井筒的成熟支护经验.结合伊犁一矿材料斜井和回风斜井的施工过程,设计了现场支护试验方案,对不含水和含水卵砾石层大断面斜井井筒的多种支护方法进行了试验.研究结果表明,含水与不含水卵砾石层斜井井筒相比,其支架变形量和支护难度显著变大;架棚临时支护结合钢筋混凝土永久井壁支护是不含水卵砾石层大断面斜井井筒有效的支护方法;含水卵砾石层地压显现明显,采用超前支护、架棚临时支护和钢筋混凝土永久井壁支护相结合的方法可以实现围岩稳定.由试验推断,库仑和太沙基土压力理论用于计算卵砾石层围岩压力误差显著.

  4. Conditional CAPM and Cross-Sectional Pricing Tests:An Empirical Study on Chinese Stock Market%条件CAPM与横截面定价检验:基于中国股市的经验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宜峰; 王燕鸣; 张颜江

    2012-01-01

    CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) has been widely adopted in the finance theory. However, some studies have shown that CAPM theory is ineffective at explaining the "size effect" and the "book-to-market effect" from cross-sectional returns. Among all models to improve CAPM, Fama and French ' s three-factor model has higher explanative power for cross-sectional average returns. The CAPM was derived in a hypothetical economy in which investors live for only one period. Therefore, studies based on CAPM theory often assume that market beta ( systematic risk loading) remains constant over time. In the real world investors live for many periods. Therefore, a firm's systematic risk is likely to vary over the business cycle and the beta value to measure the systematic risk changes over time. In consideration of the reality, this paper assumes that the market portfolio is conditionally mean-variance efficient, the expected return on an asset is linear with its conditional beta in every period, and conditional beta varies with state variables. This paper has three research objectives. There are several classical pricing models in the international literatures and practices, including CAPM, consumption CAPM, three-factor model and investment-based model. The first objective is to test how these models perform in Chinese stock market. This study assumes that conditional betas vary with Shanghai Interbank Offered Rate ( L) , generalized money supply growth rate (△lnAf) , consumption growth rate ( △lnC) , fixed assets investment growth rate ( △ln/) and consumer price index ( CPI). The second objective is to explore the ability of conditional CAPM to explain the cross section of average stock returns. In the conditional CAPM setting, conditional beta is a function of state variables. Thus, the time-series of conditional betas, which reflect the varying pattern of asset systematic risks during business cycle, can be obtained from the function. The third objective is to

  5. Birth after cesarean section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velemínský, Miloš; Velemínský, Miloš; Piskorzová, Martina; Bašková, Martina; Tóthová, Valérie; Stránský, Pravoslav

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The number of incoming expectant women who have previously experienced cesarean section has increased. This work sought to find the frequency and connections between vaginal deliveries, cesarean sections, and iterative cesarean sections from 2004 to 2008. Material/Methods In all, 828 women with previous cesarean sections were included. From this group, 8282 vaginal deliveries were performed. During these years, 828 women had a history of the cesarean section; in these women, iterative cesarean sections were indicated. To evaluate knowledge of educational material designed for women being prepared for the iterative delivery, we used information compiled on experience from 2002 to 2003; the same approach was used to evaluate the nursing process on interventions and diagnoses of cesarean sections. Results From 2004 to 2008, 11 279 deliveries were performed in the Perinatological Center in České Budějovice; this was significant (Pcesarean section. The number of iterative cesarean sections in women who had already experienced the cesarean section (828) and delivered by cesarean section again is 620. Other data were not significant. Only 2 to 3 pregnancies next to the first cesarean section were statistically significant in 2004 and 2005. Conclusions If a trial of labor after cesarean does not proceed to vaginal birth, the woman will need support and encouragement to express feelings about another cesarean birth. PMID:21278695

  6. Sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver on-sun test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, C E; Moreno, J B; Diver, R B; Moss, T A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW{sub t} parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver thermal efficiency was about 90% when operated at full power and 800{degree}C. Stable sodium boiling was promoted by the addition of 35 equally spaced artificial cavities in the wetted absorber surface. High incipient boiling superheats following cloud transients were suppressed passively by the addition of small amounts of xenon gas to the receiver volume. Stable boiling without excessive incipient boiling superheats was observed under all operating conditions. The receiver developed a leak during performance evaluation, terminating the testing after accumulating about 50 hours on sun. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, infrared thermography, x-ray studies of the boiling behavior, and a postmortem analysis.

  7. High temperature corrosion in straw-fired power plants: Influence of steam/metal temperature on corrosion rates for TP347H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Biede, O; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    The corrosion in straw-fired boilers has been investigated at various straw-fired power plants in Denmark. Water/air-cooled probes, a test superheater and test sections removed from the actual superheater have been utilised to characterise corrosion and corrosion rates. This paper describes...... the corrosion rates measured for the TP347H type steel. The corrosion morphology at high temperature consists of grain boundary attack and selective attack of chromium. The corrosion rate increases with calculated metal temperature (based on steam temperature), however there is great variation within...... these results. In individual superheaters, there are significant temperature variations i.e. higher temperature in middle banks compared to the outer banks, higher temperature in leading tubes, which have a high impact on corrosion. In a single loop the assumption that heat uptake (and heat flux) is linear...

  8. High temperature corrosion in straw-fired power plants: Influence of steam/metal temperature on corrosion rates for TP347H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Biede, O; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    The corrosion in straw-fired boilers has been investigated at various straw-fired power plants in Denmark. Water/air-cooled probes, a test superheater and test sections removed from the actual superheater have been utilised to characterise corrosion and corrosion rates. This paper describes...... the corrosion rates measured for the TP347H type steel. The corrosion morphology at high temperature consists of grain boundary attack and selective attack of chromium. The corrosion rate increases with calculated metal temperature (based on steam temperature), however there is great variation within...... these results. In individual superheaters, there are significant temperature variations i.e. higher temperature in middle banks compared to the outer banks, higher temperature in leading tubes, which have a high impact on corrosion. In a single loop the assumption that heat uptake (and heat flux) is linear...

  9. Component Test Facility (Comtest) Phase 1 Engineering For 760°C (1400°F) Advanced Ultrasupercritical (A-USC) Steam Generator Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Paul [Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc., Barberton, OH (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) performed a Pre-Front End Engineering Design (Pre-FEED) of an A-USC steam superheater for a proposed component test program achieving 760°C (1400°F) steam temperature. This would lead to follow-on work in a Phase 2 and Phase 3 that would involve detail design, manufacturing, construction and operation of the ComTest. Phase 1 results have provided the engineering data necessary for proceeding to the next phase of ComTest. The steam generator superheater would subsequently supply the steam to an A-USC prototype intermediate pressure steam turbine. The ComTest program is important in that it will place functioning A-USC components in operation and in coordinated boiler and turbine service. It is also important to introduce the power plant operation and maintenance personnel to the level of skills required and provide the first background experience with hands-on training. The project will provide a means to exercise the complete supply chain events required in order to practice and perfect the process for A-USC power plant design, supply, manufacture, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance. Representative participants will then be able to transfer knowledge and recommendations to the industry. ComTest is conceived in the manner of using a separate standalone plant facility that will not jeopardize the host facility or suffer from conflicting requirements in the host plant’s mission that could sacrifice the nickel alloy components and not achieve the testing goals. ComTest will utilize smaller quantities of the expensive materials and reduce the risk in the first operational practice for A-USC technology in the United States. Components at suitable scale in ComTest provide more assurance before putting them into practice in the full size A-USC demonstration plant.

  10. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  11. Sustainable Design of EPA's Campus in Research Triangle Park, NC—Environmental Performance Specifications in Construction Contracts—Section 01445 Testing for Indoor Air Quality, Baseline IAQ, and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    More information on testing for maximum indoor pollutant concentrations for acceptance of the facility, as well as requirements for Independent Materials Testing of specific materials anticipated to have major impact on indoor air quality.

  12. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10...

  13. Top Cross Section Ratios as Test of Lepton Universality in Charged Weak Decays in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}+7$ TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Jody David

    In this thesis partial production cross sections of t t events are measured in four channels, dened by the nal state leptons from the decay of the W bosons and the triggering lepton, using 5 : 6 fb -1of data taken with the ATLAS detector at p s = 7 TeV. The di-lepton channel is dened as having one electron and one muon in the nal state. The lepton plus tau channels are dened as having a nal state electron or muon and one hadronically decaying tau. Partial cross sections for these channels are estimated, and ratios of partial cross sections, dened with the same triggering lepton, are calculated. The di-lepton events are divided into two non-exclusive channels dened by the presence of a trigger matched lepton. The production cross-sections of t t events with nal states including an electron and a hadronically decaying tau, or an electron and a muon, were measured and used to calculate their ratio R e = 0 : 65 +0 : 12 -0.10 (stat.) + - 0.18(syst.). The cross section ratio R e measured in data is compared to that...

  14. Top Cross Section Ratios as Test of Lepton Universality in Charged Weak Decays in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}+7$ TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Jody David

    In this thesis partial production cross sections of t t events are measured in four channels, dened by the nal state leptons from the decay of the W bosons and the triggering lepton, using 5 : 6 fb -1of data taken with the ATLAS detector at p s = 7 TeV. The di-lepton channel is dened as having one electron and one muon in the nal state. The lepton plus tau channels are dened as having a nal state electron or muon and one hadronically decaying tau. Partial cross sections for these channels are estimated, and ratios of partial cross sections, dened with the same triggering lepton, are calculated. The di-lepton events are divided into two non-exclusive channels dened by the presence of a trigger matched lepton. The production cross-sections of t t events with nal states including an electron and a hadronically decaying tau, or an electron and a muon, were measured and used to calculate their ratio R e = 0 : 65 +0 : 12 -0.10 (stat.) + - 0.18(syst.). The cross section ratio R e measured in data is compared to that...

  15. Report of material and equipment section`s activities at New York Shipbuilding Corporation during fabrication of AXC 167 1/2 starting May 18, 1951. Part 7, Section 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.R.

    1954-04-28

    This document provides Part VII, Section III and Section IV of the report of the Material and Equipment Section`s activities at the New York Shipbuilding Corporation. The fabrication, inspection, and testing of reactor components is detailed.

  16. 'Active' Thin Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, M.R.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Optical microscopy using thin sections has become more and more important over the last decade to study concrete. Unfortunately, this technique is not capable of studying actually hydrating cement paste. At Delft University of Technology a new technique has been developed using 'active' thin section

  17. Debate: Nationalism or Sectionalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Forrest; Genovese, Eugene D.

    1987-01-01

    McDonald contends that in the 1820s economic and technological changes were creating sectional differences in the United States while the political arena declined in influence. Genovese argues, however, that from the earliest days of the republic different ways of life in the north and south led to a sectional division changing the political…

  18. Light Imaging Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Light Imaging Section is to give NIAMS scientists access to state-of-the-art light imaging equipment and to offer training and assistance at all...

  19. Learn About Section 508

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find out about EPA's commitment to making its websites and other electronic and information technology (EIT) products accessible, learn what Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act covers and why, and how to make your EIT 508 compliant.

  20. What is Section 508?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section of the Rehabilitation Act required federal agencies to develop, procure, maintain, and use information and communications technology (ICT) that is accessible to people with disabilities, whether or not they work for the government.

  1. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  2. Abstract sectional category

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, F; Garcia, P; Murillo, A; Remedios, J

    2011-01-01

    We study, in an abstract axiomatic setting, the notion of sectional category of a morphism. From this, we unify and generalize known results about this invariant in different settings as well as we deduce new applications.

  3. Flow Cytometry Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary goal of the Flow Cytometry Section is to provide the services of state-of-the-art multi-parameter cellular analysis and cell sorting for researchers and...

  4. ULTRATHIN FROZEN SECTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, W.; Leduc, Elizabeth H.

    1967-01-01

    A relatively simple method for obtaining ultrathin, frozen sections for electron microscopy has been developed. Tissues, cultured cells, and bacteria may be employed. They are fixed in 1.25–4% glutaraldehyde for 1–4 hr, are washed overnight in buffer at 3°C, and are embedded in 20% thiolated gelatin or pure gelatin. Before sectioning they are partially dehydrated in 50% glycerol, frozen in liquid nitrogen on a modified tissue holder, and subsequently maintained at -70°C with dry ice. Finally, they are sectioned very rapidly with glass knives on a slightly modified Porter-Blum MT-1 microtome in a commercial deep-freeze maintained at -35°C and are floated in the trough of the knife on a 40% solution of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The sections are picked up in plastic loops and transferred to distilled water at room temperature for thawing and removal of the DMSO, placed on grids coated with Formvar and carbon, air-dried, and stained with phosphotungstic acid, sodium silicotungstate, or a triple stain of osmium tetroxide, uranyl acetate, and lead. Large flat sections are obtained in which ultrastructural preservation is good. They are particularly useful for cytochemical studies. PMID:4167504

  5. PRES 2012 special section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Wang, Qiuwang;

    2013-01-01

    This Special Section provides introduction to the 15th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2012). In this editorial introduction, the editors are highlighting the individual articles included in this issue and discussing the m...... the main points. The main areas of this issue can be summarised as: Process Integration for Energy Saving, Integrating Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Optimisation issues.......This Special Section provides introduction to the 15th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2012). In this editorial introduction, the editors are highlighting the individual articles included in this issue and discussing...

  6. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview What to Expect ... section Overview 2 of 6 sections The Basics: Colorectal Cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a ...

  7. The Golden Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runion, Garth E.

    The Golden Section, also known as the "Golden Mean" and the "Divine Proportion," is a ratio found in art and nature that has mathematical properties. This book explores these geometric and algebraic properties in a variety of activities. Construction problems, designs using the pentagon and pentagram, and opportunities to work…

  8. Operationsteknikker ved section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabakke, Anna J M; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Krebs, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Caesarean section (CS) is a common surgical procedure, and in Denmark 21% of deliveries is by CS. There is an increasing amount of scientific evidence to support the different surgical techniques used at CS. This article reviews the literature regarding CS techniques. There is still a lack of evi...

  9. Sectional dentures revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karir, Naveen; Hindocha, Vishali; Walmsley, A Damien

    2012-04-01

    Sectional dentures are constructed in separate parts which join together intra-orally to create a single prosthesis. They are used to exploit undercuts around teeth, hard and soft tissues which require more than one path of insertion, and are usually of split pin or locking bolts design. By using two case studies, we aim to illustrate the provision of sectional dentures and to which situations their uses are best suited. A 30-year-old male was referred to the Department of Prosthetics at the Birmingham Dental Hospital for a replacement upper partial cobalt chrome denture of a Kennedy Class IV bounded saddle. The patient had a history of failed upper cobalt chrome removable partial dentures owing to loss of retention and poor stability over the previous 12 months. A 40-year-old female patient was referred by her GDP for restoration of a bounded saddle in the lower right quadrant with a history of intolerance to previous dentures. These two cases demonstrate the successful use of sectional dentures in the aesthetic zone. Although more technically demanding, they lie well within the scope of general practice and offer patients alternative solutions from dental implants and bridgework. These cases highlight the importance of the use of alternative prosthetic techniques which can be simple and achievable for all practitioners. Sectional dentures are a treatment modality for the edentulous space where the presence of one or more undercuts prevents restoration by more conventional techniques. This paper highlights some of the situations in which sectional dentures can be employed and emphasizes their use in general practice.

  10. Comparative evaluation of validity and cost-benefit analysis of rapid diagnostic test (RDT kits in diagnosis of dengue infection using composite reference criteria: A cross-sectional study from south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhanker Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: It was concluded that in dengue outbreak, Panbio IgM capture RDT alone is reliable and easily available test which can be used in acute phase of dengue infection in any resource limited set up. NS1 capture rates by any of the other three RDTs might not be reliable for the diagnosis of acute dengue infection.

  11. Three-section expiratory CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; de Bruijne, Marleen; Hartmann, Ieneke C. J.;

    2012-01-01

    . Longitudinal follow-up was performed with three sections. All images were deidentified and randomized, and TA was scored with the Brody II system and a new quantitative system. Statistical analysis included the Wilcoxon signed rank test, calculation of Spearman and intraclass correlation coefficients, and use...... of three-section and linear mixed models.Results: For the Brody II system, the intraclass correlation coefficient for set 1 versus those for sets 2 through 7 was 0.75 versus 0.87; however, mean scores from sets 6 and 7 were significantly lower than the mean score from set 1 (P = .01 and P ..., respectively). For the quantitative system, the number of sections did not affect TA assessment (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.82-0.88; P > .13 for all). CT and PFT estimates were not correlated (rs = 20.19 to 0.09, P = .43-.93). No change in TA over time was found for CT or PFT (P > .16 for all...

  12. The geriatric depression scale and the timed up and go test predict fear of falling in community-dwelling elderly women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Bruno de Souza; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria da Cruz; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Kirkwood, Renata Noce

    2016-03-03

    Fear of falling is a common and potentially disabling problem among older adults. However, little is known about this condition in older adults with diabetes mellitus. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of the fear of falling on clinical, functional and gait variables in older women with type 2 diabetes and to identify which variables could predict the fear of falling in this population. Ninety-nine community-dwelling older women with type 2 diabetes (aged 65 to 89 years) were stratified in two groups based on their Falls Efficacy Scale-International score. Participants with a score Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the five times sit-to-stand test (5-STS) and handgrip strength. Gait parameters were obtained using the GAITRite® system. Participants with a fear of falling were frailer and presented more depressive symptoms and worse performance on the TUG and 5-STS tests compared with those without a fear of falling. The group with the fear of falling also walked with a lower velocity, cadence and step length and increased step time and swing time variability. The multivariate regression analysis showed that the likelihood of having a fear of falling increased 1.34 times (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.11-1.61) for a one-point increase in the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) score and 1.36 times (OR 1.36, 95 % CI 1.07-1.73) for each second of increase in the TUG performance. The fear of falling in community-dwelling older women with type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with frailty, depressive symptoms and dynamic balance, functional mobility and gait deficits. Furthermore, both the GDS-15 and the TUG test predict a fear of falling in this population. Therefore, these instruments should be considered during the assessment of diabetic older women with fear of falling.

  13. DNA Isolation from Paraffin Sections by an Adjusted One-Step Protocol and its Qualification Test by PCR%一步法分离石蜡切片DNA的改进与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭剑桥; 雷平; 杨秦; 朱敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:改进一种以含蛋白酶K的裂解液作用于石蜡包埋处理的细胞、分离DNA粗提液用于PCR扩增的实验方案。方法石蜡包埋组织切片经常规脱蜡处理,用蛋白酶K裂解液洗脱细胞,55℃消化3 h后离心,吸取上清液;分光光度法检测DNA酶裂解液质量和浓度;以之为模板分别扩增人线粒体基因微卫星多态D310区、ATPase6基因区和核基因HBB、BRCA1等的DNA片段,琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测分析PCR扩增情况,并测序验证扩增产物。结果以石蜡切片的DNA裂解粗提液为模板,扩增目的DNA片段阳性率可达100%;获得序列分析验证。结论改进的蛋白酶K裂解液一步洗脱消化法操作简单、过程快捷、费用低廉,能快速有效地分离石蜡组织切片DNA,用于后续PCR扩增检测,具有较高效率。%Objective To improve a simple method to extract DNA from tissues fixed in paraffin sections by direct digestion with proteinase K lysis buffer. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were routinely deparaf-finized and then the tissues were washed off for the glass slides using digestion buffer with proteinase K and transferred into a 1. 5 mL microtube for each sample. After incubation at 55 ℃ for 3 h,the supernatant containing DNA was transferred into a new tube. The DNA concentration and A260/280 values of the lysate were assayed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Amplifi-cation of the mitochondrial DNA fragment flanking D310 microsatellite region,part of the ATPase6 gene as well as nuclear genes HBB and BRCA1 were performed,and PCR amplification following detection with agarose gel electrophoresis was ana-lyzed. Results As shown by agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis, all the target mtDNA fragments were successfully amplified by PCR using the DNA lysate directly as template. Conclusion A simple-manipulation,rap-id-procedure and low-cost method for DNA separation from paraffin sections was presented here

  14. 方钢管混凝土压弯构件滞回性能的试验研究%Tests of hysteresis behaviors of concrete filled steel tubular beam-columns with square sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶忠; 韩林海

    2001-01-01

    以轴压比和含钢率为试验参数,进行了7个方钢管混凝土压弯构件在往复荷载作用下的荷载-位移滞回性能的试验研究,所得滞回曲线的图形都具有较好的饱满性,没有明显的捏缩现象,且和数值计算结果吻合良好。还利用已有的恢复力模型对构件进行了滞回曲线的理论计算,并和试验结果进行了分析对比,结果表明二者基本吻合。%Seven concrete filled steel tubular beam-columns with squaresections subjected to cyclic lateral loads are introduced in the paper. The test results show that the hysteretic curves of the beam-columns are plump in shapes, and have no significant pinch phenomenon. The tested curves are in good agreement with those of numerical calculation. Finally, a kind of restoring force model is applied to predict the load-deformation hysteretic curves.

  15. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  16. Altitude characteristics of plasma turbulence excited with the Tromso superheater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuth, F.T.; Elder, J.H. (Geospace Research Inc., El Segundo, CA (United States)); Stubbe, P.; Kohl, H. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)); Sulzer, M.P. (Arecibo Observatory (Puerto Rico)); Rietveld, M.T. (EISCAT Scientific Association, Ramfjordbotn (Norway))

    1994-01-01

    Langmuir/ion turbulence excited with the upgraded high-power (1.2-GW effective radiated power) HF heating facility at Tromso, Norway, has been recently studied with the European Incoherent Scatter VHF and UHF incoherent scatter radars. In this report the authors focus on the altitudinal development of the turbulence observed at the highest HF power levels available. Quite remarkably, the observed plasma turbulence plunges downward in altitude over timescales of tens of seconds following HF beam turn-on; the bottom altitude is generally reached after [approximately]30 s. This phenomenon has a well-defined HF power threshold. It is most likely caused by changes in the electron density profile brought about by HF heating of the electron gas. If this is the case, then the heat source must be nonlinearly dependent on HF power. Overall, the characteristics of the Tromso turbulence are quite distinctive when compared to similar high-resolution measurements made at Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico. After HF transmissions have been made for tens of seconds at Tromso, billowing altitude structures are often seen, in sharp contrast to layers of turbulence observed at Arecibo. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Adaptive Superheat Control of a Refrigeration Plant using Backstepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    . A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design of an adaptive nonlinear controller.  The stability of the proposed method is validated theoretically by Lyapunov analysis and experimental results shows the performance of the system for a wide range...

  18. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  19. Technical Letter Report Assessment of Ultrasonic Phased Array Testing for Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressurizer Surge Line Piping Welds and Thick Section Primary System Cast Piping Welds JCN N6398, Task 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Morra, Marino; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2008-07-21

    Research is being conducted for the NRC at PNNL to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods for the inspection of LWR components. The scope of this research encompasses primary system pressure boundary materials including cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS), dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), piping with corrosion-resistant cladding, weld overlays, and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This interim technical letter report (TLR) provides a synopsis of recent investigations at PNNL aimed at evaluating the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of CASS welds in nuclear reactor piping. A description of progress, recent developments and interim results are provided.

  20. Pheochromocytoma after Cesarean Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshineh, Elham; Shahraki, Azar Danesh; Sheikhalian, Somaye; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumor. There are a very few reported cases of clinical pheochromocytoma. Here, we report a 27-year-old woman para 1 live 1 with chief complaint of headache, confusion, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after cesarean section. She was anxious and had palpitation. On physical examination, fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, high blood pressure, and right thyroid nodule were found. She was managed as pregnancy-induced hypertension at first. In laboratory data, epinephrine, norepinephrine, metanephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid were increased in 24 h urine collection. An adrenal mass was detected in abdominal computed tomography. Regarding clinical and paraclinical findings, pheochromocytoma was diagnosed. The patient received medical treatment, but it was not effective; hence, she underwent adrenalectomy. PMID:27076898

  1. Pheochromocytoma after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Naghshineh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumor. There are a very few reported cases of clinical pheochromocytoma. Here, we report a 27-year-old woman para 1 live 1 with chief complaint of headache, confusion, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after cesarean section. She was anxious and had palpitation. On physical examination, fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, high blood pressure, and right thyroid nodule were found. She was managed as pregnancy-induced hypertension at first. In laboratory data, epinephrine, norepinephrine, metanephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid were increased in 24 h urine collection. An adrenal mass was detected in abdominal computed tomography. Regarding clinical and paraclinical findings, pheochromocytoma was diagnosed. The patient received medical treatment, but it was not effective; hence, she underwent adrenalectomy.

  2. Multiple-type human papillomavirus (HPV) infections: a cross-sectional analysis of the prevalence of specific types in 309,000 women referred for HPV testing at the time of cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Elizabeth Louise; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Bliss, Robin L; Downs, Levi S

    2013-09-01

    To determine the frequency of multiple-type cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and whether any types are involved in multiple-type infections more or less frequently than might be expected if these infections occur randomly. In this retrospective analysis of type-specific HPV testing, results from women 18 to 65 years old with samples collected between July 2007 and May 2011 were considered.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the presence of each of the 24 most prevalent HPV types, adjusting for one other HPV type, age, laboratory region, and age-by-region interactions. Human papillomavirus infection was present in 74,543 (24.1%) of 309,471 women and 65,492 (21.1%) were positive for one of the top 24 most prevalent HPV types. The most common HPV type was type 16, occurring in 4.1% of the entire sample. A total of 14,181 women were positive for 2 or more HPV types (4.6% of entire sample and 19.0% of HPV-positive sample). Two-way HPV type comparisons were analyzed. Types 52, 53, 81, and 83 were more likely to occur in multiple infections with other types; and types 16, 58, and 66 were less likely to occur in multiple infections with other types. Human papillomavirus types 72 and 81 have the strongest positive relationship (odds ratio, 5.2; 95% confidence interval, 3.6-7.4). Human papillomavirus types 33 and 66 have the strongest negative relationship (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.6). In this population, multiple-type HPV infections were present in 4.6% of all women. Our findings suggest that there may be both competitive and cooperative interactions between HPV types.

  3. Prediction of Cardiorespiratory Fitness by the Six-Minute Step Test and Its Association with Muscle Strength and Power in Sedentary Obese and Lean Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Pinheiro Carvalho

    Full Text Available Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is a hallmark characteristic in obese and lean sedentary young women. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak prediction from the six-minute step test (6MST has not been established for sedentary females. It is recognized that lower-limb muscle strength and power play a key role during functional activities. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiorespiratory responses during the 6MST and CPX and to develop a predictive equation to estimate VO2peak in both lean and obese subjects. Additionally we aim to investigate how muscle function impacts functional performance. Lean (LN = 13 and obese (OB = 18 women, aged 20-45, underwent a CPX, two 6MSTs, and isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength and power evaluations. Regression analysis assessed the ability to predict VO2peak from the 6MST, age and body mass index (BMI. CPX and 6MST main outcomes were compared between LN and OB and correlated with strength and power variables. CRF, functional capacity, and muscle strength and power were lower in the OB compared to LN (<0.05. During the 6MST, LN and OB reached ~90% of predicted maximal heart rate and ~80% of the VO2peak obtained during CPX. BMI, age and number of step cycles (NSC explained 83% of the total variance in VO2peak. Moderate to strong correlations between VO2peak at CPX and VO2peak at 6MST (r = 0.86, VO2peak at CPX and NSC (r = 0.80, as well as between VO2peak, NSC and muscle strength and power variables were found (p<0.05. These findings indicate the 6MST, BMI and age accurately predict VO2peak in both lean and obese young sedentary women. Muscle strength and power were related to measures of aerobic and functional performance.

  4. 基于截面和时序GRS检验的流动性定价研究%Liquidity Pricing Research Based on Cross-Section and Time Series GRS Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锋; 霍德明

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the role of liquidity in pricing stock returns in the Chinese stock market,by using a sample of A-share listed companies from Jan.1st,1996 to Dec.31st,2010.In the Fama-MacBeth regression,liquidity is significant after controlling for other factors and firm characteristics.In the time-series regression of characteristic-sorted portfolios,all liquidity loadings are almost significant and significant intercepts decrease dramatically.After adding the liquidity in regression models,the extreme ranges and the mean pricing errors decrease monotonically.The significant GRS Tests reveal that there are some other potential risk factors.%以1996年1月1日至2010年12月31日所有A股上市公司为样本,分析了流动性在股票回报定价中的作用。在Fama-MacBeth截面回归分析中,当控制了其他风险因子和特征变量后,流动性的定价作用仍然显著。在按特征变量分组的投资组合时间序列分析中,流动性载荷统计上显著,且显著的回归截距项明显减少。在稳健性检验中,加入流动性因子后,模型截距项的极差和平均定价误差均单调减少。当然GRS统计量的显著性表明,还存在其他潜在的风险定价因子。

  5. Lucky guess or knowledge: a cross-sectional study using the Bland and Altman analysis to compare confidence-based testing of pharmacological knowledge in 3rd and 5th year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT approach to investigate whether decision quality improves during undergraduate medical education. 3rd- and 5th-year students attended formative multiple-choice exams on pharmacological issues. Students were asked to indicate their confidence in a given answer. Correctness of answers was scored binary (1-correct; 0-wrong) and confidence levels were transformed to an ordinal scale (guess: 0; rather unsure: 0.33; rather sure: 0.66; very sure: 1). 5th-year students gave more correct answers (73 ± 16 vs. 49 ± 13 %, p confident regarding the correctness of their answers (0.61 ± 0.18 vs. 0.46 ± 0.13, p students (r = 0.81 vs. r = 0.52), but agreement of confidence and correctness ('centration') was lower. By combining the Bland-and-Altman approach with categories of decision-quality we found that 5th-year students were more likely to be 'well-informed' (41 vs. 5 %), while more 3rd-students were 'uninformed' (24 vs. 76 %). Despite a good correlation of exam results and confidence in given answers increased knowledge might be accompanied by a more critical view at the own abilities. Combining the statistical Bland-and-Altman analysis with a theoretical approach to decision-quality, more advanced students are expected to apply correct beliefs, while their younger fellows are rather at risk to hesitate or to act amiss.

  6. 14 CFR Section 8 - General

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Section 8 Section 8 Aeronautics and... Section 8 General (a) The profit and loss accounts are designed to reflect, through natural groupings, the... activities, are set forth in section 7, Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts. (d) The prescribed system of...

  7. 14 CFR Section 4 - General

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Section 4 Section 4 Aeronautics and... Section 4 General (a) The balance sheet accounts are designed to show the financial condition of the air... prescribed in this system of accounts for each air carrier group are set forth in Section 3, Chart of Balance...

  8. 40 CFR 86.204-94 - Section numbering; construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Section numbering; construction. 86.204-94 Section 86.204-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.204-94 Section...

  9. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  10. Industrial Section Convenor's Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, M.; Riboni, P.

    2002-11-01

    recently into the areas of interest of our community (Hourdakis and Intrasoft) and the examples of an Industry historically committed to a strong R&D effort (SAES-Getters). Finally a case of involvement of industry in a "Big Science" project (CMS) completed the palette of the contributions to this Industry Section. The full set of transparencies of the lectures, are filed and made available at the conference site: .

  11. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  12. Activities: Sectioning a Regular Tetrahedron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletsky, Evan M., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Worksheets are provided for use by students in grades 8 and above when sectioning a tetrahedron. Lesson objectives include the discovery of generalizations regarding the cross-sections of a tetrahedron. (MK)

  13. Section for qualitative methods (Letter)

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Z.; Madill, A.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative research methods are increasingly used in all areas of psychology. We have proposed a new Section – the Qualitative Methods in Psychology Section – for anyone with an interest in using these research methods.

  14. First on-sun test of NaK pool-boiler solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J. B.; Andraka, C. E.; Moss, T. A.; Cordeiro, P. G.; Dudley, V. E.; Rawlinson, K. S.

    During 1989-1990, a refluxing liquid-metal pool-boiler solar receiver designed for dish/Stirling application at 75 kW(sub t) throughput was successfully demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories. Significant features of this receiver included (1) boiling sodium as the heat transfer medium, and (2) electric-discharge-machined (EDM) cavities as artificial nucleation sites to stabilize boiling. Following this first demonstration, a second-generation pool-boiler receiver that brings the concept closer to commercialization has been designed, constructed, and successfully tested. For long life, the new receiver is built from Haynes Alloy 230. For increased safety factors against film boiling and flooding, the absorber area and vapor-flow passages have been enlarged. To eliminate the need for trace heating, sodium has been replaced by the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. To reduce manufacturing costs, the receiver has a powdered-metal coating instead of EDM cavities for stabilization of boiling. To control incipient-boiling superheats, especially during hot restarts, it contains a small amount of xenon. In this paper, we present the receiver design and report the results of on-sun tests using a nominal 75 kW(sub t) test-bed concentrator to characterize boiling stability, hot-restart behavior, and thermal efficiency at temperatures up to 750 C. We also report briefly on late results from an advanced-concepts pool-boiler receiver.

  15. Heavy vehicle simulator testing of trial sections for CALTRANS.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available ) for conducting pavement studies for CALTRANS. The main objectives of the work were to evaluate the rutting behaviour of a dense-grades Asphalt Concrete (AC) overlay subjected to channelized traffic at 25 deg C and 40 deg C compared with its behaviour under...

  16. Scheduling a C-Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... and develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a ...

  17. 14 CFR Section 5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Section 5 Section 5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section...

  18. 46 CFR Section 1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. Section 1 Section 1 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS FEDERAL PORT CONTROLLERS Section 1 Purpose. This part prescribes the standard form of the service agreement to be entered into by the...

  19. 46 CFR Section 1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. Section 1 Section 1 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS RESTRICTIONS UPON THE TRANSFER OR CHANGE IN USE OR IN TERMS GOVERNING UTILIZATION OF PORT FACILITIES Section 1 Definitions. As used in this...

  20. 14 CFR Section 02 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Section 02 Section 02 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 02 ...

  1. Having a C-Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Labor & birth > Having a c-section Having a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... at least 39 weeks of pregnancy. What is a c-section? Most babies are born through vaginal ...

  2. Modeling golden section in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanling Zeng; Guozhao Wang

    2009-01-01

    Plants are complex structures, changing their shapes in response to environmental factors such as sunlight, water and neighboring plants. However, some mathematical rules can be found in their growth patterns, one of which is the golden section. The golden section can be observed in branching systems, phyllotaxis, flowers and seeds, and often the spiral arrangement of plant organs. In this study, tree, flower and fruit models have been generated by using the corresponding golden section characteristics, resulting in more natural patterns. Furthermore, the golden section can be found in the bifurcate angles of trees and lobed leaves, extending the golden section theory.

  3. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Pap ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 5 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  4. Youssef’s Syndrome following Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Birge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Youssef’s syndrome is characterized by cyclic hematuria (menouria, absence of vaginal bleeding (amenorrhea, and urinary incontinence due to vesicouterine fistula (VUF, the least common of the urogynecological fistulas. Youssef’s syndrome has a variable clinical presentation. A vesicouterine fistula is an abnormal pathway between the bladder and the uterus. The most common cause is lower segment Cesarean section. Conservative treatment may be appropriate in some cases, but surgery is the definitive treatment. Vesicouterine fistula should be suspected in cases presenting with urinary incontinence even years after Cesarean section. Diagnostic tests as well as necessary appropriate surgery should be performed on cases with suspected vesicouterine fistula. We present a 40-year-old multiparous woman with vesicouterine fistula after primary Cesarean section; she presented with urinary incontinence, hematuria, and amenorrhea 1 year after the birth. Here, we discuss our case with the help of previously published studies found in the literature.

  5. B-test in late pregnancy on the thickness of the lower uterine segment cesarean section scar significance%B超检测妊娠晚期子宫下段瘢痕厚度对再次剖宫产的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春风

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the B-test trimester uterine segment cesarean section scar vicious value again. Methods In accordance with scar thickness is<3mm, 94 cases of cesarean section will be divided into maternal<3mm group and ≥ 3mm each group 47 cases. Comparison of two blood loss, the number of cases of postpartum hemorrhage and oxytocin usage to re-evaluation of the value of B-test cesarean scar thickness. Results <3mm group blood loss was 336.9 ± 118.4mL, the number of cases of postpartum hemorrhage in 9 cases (19.15%), oxytocin usage was 90.1±18.7 U, significantly higher than the index≥3mm group(P<0.05). Conclusion B-test scar thickness can effectively guide cesarean section has important clinical significance.%目的:探讨B超检测妊娠晚期子宫下段瘢痕厚度对再次剖宫产的价值。方法将94例再次剖宫产孕产妇按照子宫下段瘢痕厚度分为<3 mm组和≥3 mm组各47例,比较2组术中出血量、产后出血例数和缩宫素使用量,以评价B超检测瘢痕厚度对再次剖宫产的价值。结果<3 mm组术中出血量为(336.9±118.4)mL,产后出血例数有9例(19.15%),缩宫素使用量为(90.1±18.7)U,均明显高于≥3 mm组(P<0.01)。结论通过B超检测子宫瘢痕厚度可以有效地指导再次剖宫产,具有重要的临床意义。

  6. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  7. TSCA Section 21 Petition for Section 8(a) Partial Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    This petition requests EPA to amend the TSCA Section 8 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) partially exempted chemical list set forth in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) regulations at 40 C.F.R. Section 711.6(b)(1).

  8. Carbonaceous Chondrite Thin Section Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R.; Righter, K.

    2017-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites have long posed a challenge for thin section makers. The variability in sample hardness among the different types, and sometimes within individual sections, creates the need for an adaptable approach at each step of the thin section making process. This poster will share some of the procedural adjustments that have proven to be successful at the NASA JSC Meteorite Thin Section Laboratory. These adjustments are modifications of preparation methods that have been in use for decades and therefore do not require investment in new technology or materials.

  9. Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

    2009-04-30

    components for gas turbine engines. Significant technical progress has been made towards maturation of the EBC and CMC technologies for incorporation into gas turbine engine hot-section. Promising EBC candidates for longer life and/or higher temperature applications relative to current state of the art BSAS-based EBCs have been identified. These next generation coating systems have been scaled-up from coupons to components and are currently being field tested in Solar Centaur 50S engine. CMC combustor liners were designed, fabricated and tested in a FT8 sector rig to demonstrate the benefits of a high temperature material system. Pretest predictions made through the use of perfectly stirred reactor models showed a 2-3x benefit in CO emissions for CMC versus metallic liners. The sector-rig test validated the pretest predictions with >2x benefit in CO at the same NOx levels at various load conditions. The CMC liners also survived several trip shut downs thereby validating the CMC design methodology. Significant technical progress has been made towards incorporation of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and environmental barrier coatings (EBC) technologies into gas turbine engine hot-section. The second phase of the program focused on the demonstration of a reverse flow annular CMC combustor. This has included overcoming the challenges of design and fabrication of CMCs into 'complex' shapes; developing processing to apply EBCs to 'engine hardware'; testing of an advanced combustor enabled by CMCs in a PW206 rig; and the validation of performance benefits against a metal baseline. The rig test validated many of the pretest predictions with a 40-50% reduction in pattern factor compared to the baseline and reductions in NOx levels at maximum power conditions. The next steps are to develop an understanding of the life limiting mechanisms in EBC and CMC materials, developing a design system for EBC coated CMCs and durability testing in an engine environment.

  10. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  11. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  12. The total charm cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  13. Particle sizes from sectional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlas, Zbynek; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new statistical method for obtaining information about particle size distributions from sectional data without specific assumptions about particle shape. The method utilizes recent advances in local stereology. We show how to estimate separately from sectional data the variance due t...

  14. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  15. Caesarean section: an historical riddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S K

    2001-01-01

    Etymologically, the word 'Caesar' originates from the Latin word 'Caedaere' meaning - 'to cut'. So cutting remains the core point, but little is known about the real origin of the history of Caesarean Section. There is evidence that, the ancient Hindus excelled in surgery and many operations were performed, including caesarean section. This operation was mentioned several times in the Mishnah of Rabbi Judah, the first large commentary on the Hebrew Bible. There are also several mythological anecdotes in Hindu, Buddhist and Greek mythologies. The myth of caesarean section did not even escape the keen eyes of William Skakespeare. The landmarks, treatises and the advancement in this operative procedure are presented in this article.

  16. Cesarean section by maternal request

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAPHAEL CÂMARA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cesarean section by maternal request is the one performed on a pregnant woman without medical indication and without contraindication to vaginal delivery. There is great controversy over requested cesarean section. Potential risks include complications in subsequent pregnancies, such as uterine rupture, placenta previa and accreta. Potential benefits of requested cesareans include a lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage in the first cesarean and fewer surgical complications compared with vaginal delivery. Cesarean section by request should never be performed before 39 weeks.

  17. Modeling and analysis of ground target radiation cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiang; LOU GuoWei; LI XingGuo

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the passive millimeter wave (MMW) radiometer detection, the ground target radiation cross section is modeled as the new token for the target MMW radiant characteristics. Its ap-plication and actual testing are discussed and analyzed. The essence of passive MMW stealth is target radiation cross section reduction.

  18. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  19. Ecoregion sections of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological sections within California deserts. These deserts occupy the southeastern portion of California and include two ecoregional...

  20. US Forest Service Ecological Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ecological section boundaries within the conterminous United States. The map service contains regional geographic delineations for...

  1. Active-beam cross-sectional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Ortega-Morales, Miguel

    2000-06-01

    A finite-element based analysis for modeling active composite beams with embedded anisotropic actuation is presented. It is derived from three-dimensional electroelasticity, where the original problem is reduced via the variational asymptotic method. The resulting cross-sectional analysis takes into consideration passive and active anisotropic and nonhomogeneous materials, and represents general (thin-walled, thick-walled, solid) cross-sectional geometries. The formulation requires neither the costly use of 3-D finite element discretization nor the loss of accuracy inherent to any simplified representation of the cross section. The developed formulation is numerically implemented in VABS-A, and several numerical and experimental tests cases are used to support validation of the proposed theory. Also, the effect of the presence of a core in originally hallow configurations is presented and counter-intuitive conclusions are discussed. The generality of the method and accuracy of the results increase confidence at the design stage that the active beam structure will perform as expected and, consequently, should lower costs from experimental tests and further adjustments.

  2. TEST STUDY ON HYSTERETIC BEHAVIOR OF PEC COLUMNS (STRONG AXIS) FABRICATED WITH CRIMPING THIN-WALLED BUILT-UP SECTION%新型卷边钢板组合截面PEC柱(强轴)滞回性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方有珍; 马吉; 陆承铎; 曲延全; 申林

    2013-01-01

    In order to alleviate the mechanics defects of PEC columns fabricated with thin-walled built-up sections as the biaxial unequal flexural stiffness and concentration of local buckling in flanges, new PEC columns fabricated with crimping thin-walled built-up sections were put forward. The transverse steel sheet links-spacing was taken as a primary design parameter, 4 specimens were designed and fabricated by full-scale. The tests of specimens were conducted with constant axial compression and low-cycle lateral reversed loading in the column strong axis, the local buckling in the flange of a crimping thin-walled built-up section and the crack forming and crushing of concrete were investigated, the load-displacement hysteretic curves were obtained. Base on the test results, the specimens' relative performance were analyzed, including the load-carrying capacity, lateral stiffness, the seismic ductility and energy-dissipation capacity, the deformation pattern and failure mode. The conclusion showed that all specimens exhibited soundly deformation and energy-dissipation capacity resulted from the post-buckling performance of crimping flanges were utilized fully; the failure mode is primarily induced by the local buckling region growing in flanges of crimping thin-walled built-up sections with large-area crushing and spalling of concrete at the corner region of a column.%为进一步改善现行薄壁钢板组合截面PEC柱构件双向不等刚度和翼缘局部屈曲过于集中等力学性能缺陷,该文提出了采用翼缘钢板卷边的新型卷边钢板组合截面PEC柱类型.以拉结板条间距作为基本参数,对4个按新型卷边钢板组合截面强轴布置的足尺试件进行了恒定竖向荷载下的水平低周反复荷载试验,观察了试验过程中PEC柱卷边钢板组合截面翼缘钢板局部屈曲和混凝土部分裂缝开展与压溃发展过程,得到了试件的荷载-位移滞回曲线.根据试验结果分析了PEC柱的承载力、

  3. BUGJEFF311.BOLIB (JEFF-3.1.1 and BUGENDF70.BOLIB (ENDF/B-VII.0 – Generation Methodology and Preliminary Testing of two ENEA-Bologna Group Cross Section Libraries for LWR Shielding and Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescarini Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format, dedicated to LWR shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry applications, were generated following the methodology recommended by the US ANSI/ANS-6.1.2-1999 (R2009 standard. These libraries, named BUGJEFF311.BOLIB and BUGENDF70.BOLIB, are respectively based on JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data and adopt the same broad-group energy structure (47 n + 20 γ of the ORNL BUGLE-96 similar library. They were respectively obtained from the ENEA-Bologna VITJEFF311.BOLIB and VITENDF70.BOLIB libraries in AMPX format for nuclear fission applications through problem-dependent cross section collapsing with the ENEA-Bologna 2007 revision of the ORNL SCAMPI nuclear data processing system. Both previous libraries are based on the Bondarenko self-shielding factor method and have the same AMPX format and fine-group energy structure (199 n + 42 γ as the ORNL VITAMIN-B6 similar library from which BUGLE-96 was obtained at ORNL. A synthesis of a preliminary validation of the cited BUGLE-type libraries, performed through 3D fixed source transport calculations with the ORNL TORT-3.2 SN code, is included. The calculations were dedicated to the PCA-Replica 12/13 and VENUS-3 engineering neutron shielding benchmark experiments, specifically conceived to test the accuracy of nuclear data and transport codes in LWR shielding and radiation damage analyses.

  4. A test investigation on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the evaporation section in a separating type heat pipe%分离型热管蒸发段流动特性和传热特性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉琴

    2001-01-01

    对分离型热管管内蒸发段流动特性和传热特性进行了试验研究:在保证热管工作效率及安全性的前提下,分离型热管蒸发段工质流动形式除单相液流和泡状流(低热流密度时为弹状流)外,在蒸发段上部约有42%~50%的不稳定飞溅降膜区;合理充液率随热流密度的增加而减少;随着热流密度的增加,核态沸腾区及飞溅降膜区的换热系数均增加,蒸发段总换热系数也增加。%A test investigation was mode of the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the evaporation section in a separating type heat pipe. Under the condition of guaranteeing the work rate and safety of the heat pipe, there was an unstable, splashing falling film zone of about 42%~50% in the top of the evaporation sectionbesides the single - phase liquid flow and bubble liquid flow in the evaporating section of the separating type heat pipe (or elastic flow in the low heat flow density). The reasonable filling - liquid rate was reduced with the increase of the density of the heat flow; and with the increase of the density of the heat flow, the heat transfer coefficients in the nucleated boiling zone and the splashing falling film zone were increased, the total heat transfer coetticients in the evaporation was also increased.

  5. Assessing Inter-Model Continuity Between the Section II and Section III Conceptualizations of Borderline Personality Disorder in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Chloe M; Simms, Leonard J

    2017-03-02

    DSM-5 includes 2 competing models of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in Sections II and III. Empirical comparisons between these models are required to understand and improve intermodel continuity. We compared Section III BPD traits to Section II BPD criteria assessed via semistructured interviews in 455 current/recent psychiatric patients using correlation and regression analyses, and also evaluated the incremental predictive power of other Section III traits. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that self-harm would incrementally predict BPD Criterion 5 over the Section III traits. Results supported Section III BPD traits as an adequate representation of traditional BPD symptomatology, although modifications that would increase intermodel continuity were identified. Finally, we found support for the incremental validity of suspiciousness, anhedonia, perceptual dysregulation, and self-harm, suggesting possible gaps in the Section III PD trait definitions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. GRE math tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three GRE Math Tests! The GRE math section is not easy. There is no quick fix that will allow you to ""beat"" the section. But GRE math is very learnable. If you study hard and master the techniques in this book, your math score will improve--significantly! The GRE cannot be ""beaten."" But it can be mastered--through hard work, analytical thought, and by training yourself to think like a test writer. Many of the problems in this book are designed to prompt you to think like a test writer. For example, you will find ""Duals."" These are pairs of similar problems in which only one prop

  7. Main Girder Type Selection for Maputo Bridge in Mozambique Based on Sectional Model Wind Tunnel Test%基于节段模型风洞试验的莫桑比克马普托大桥主梁选型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 樊泽民; 王骑; 孟令亮; 魏雪涛; 李元博

    2014-01-01

    为合理确定主跨680 m 的莫桑比克马普托大桥的主梁形式,利用节段模型风洞试验,分别研究了扁平钢箱梁、钢箱叠合梁和工字型叠合梁的气动性能。结果表明:扭转刚度较弱的工字型叠合梁颤振风速远低于检验风速,且涡激振动也不满足舒适性要求,在设计中不宜采用;钢箱叠合梁尽管颤振风速较高,但其在钢箱顶面凸起的混凝土桥面板会造成气流分离和漩涡脱落,可能存在较大涡激振动振幅的隐患,可在设计中选择性采用;扁平钢箱梁断面颤振临界风速高,且无明显涡激振动,为该大跨度悬索桥的优选主梁形式。试验结果还显示,若设置宽0.5 m 的风嘴导流板可进一步提高钢箱梁断面的颤振临界风速,但由于导流板直接影响造价并增加后期养护费用,而节段模型试验结果一般偏于保守,因此最后的取舍需要参考三维颤振计算或全桥气弹模型风洞试验结果。若在其斜腹板上外挂直径90 cm 的过桥水管,将显著弱化颤振性能和涡振性能,因此在设计中不宜采用。%To select a rational main girder type for the Maputo Bridge in Mozambique which is projected to have a main span of 680 m ,the aerodynamic behavior of three types of main girder ,in-cluding the flat steel box girder ,steel-concrete composite box girder and I-shaped composite girder were examined by the sectional model wind tunnel test .The results of the test indicate that the I-shaped composite girder with intrinsic low torsional stiffness is not a favorable solution in the de -sign ,for its flutter wind speed is much smaller than the testing wind speed and its vortex -induced vibration is not able to meet the requirements of physical and psychological comfort as well .The steel-concrete composite box girder can withstand higher flutter wind speed ,but the concrete deck slab humps on top of the steel box are prone to cause airflow

  8. [Cesarean section and eye disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karska-Basta, Izabella; Tarasiewicz, Marta; Kubicka-Trząska, Agnieszka; Miniewicz, Joanna; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a growing tendency for cesarean birth has been noted both, in Poland and worldwide. Non-obstetric problems constitute a large part of indications for cesarean section. Many ophthalmologists and obstetricians still believe that high myopia, the presence of peripheral retinal degenerations, history of retinal detachment surgery, diabetic retinopathy, or glaucoma are indications for surgical termination of pregnancy. However, these recommendations are not evidence-based. The literature offers no proof that high myopia and previous retinal surgery increase the risk of retinal detachment during spontaneous vaginal delivery. There is only one indication for cesarean section in myopic patients, i.e. the presence of choroidal neovascularization, which can cause subretinal bleeding with acute visual loss. Prolonged and intensified Valsalva maneuver during labor in patients with an active proliferative diabetic retinopathy may be an indication for an elective cesarean section. Uterine contractions during the second stage of vaginal delivery lead to a marked elevation of intraocular pressure. Intraocular pressure fluctuations during the delivery may damage retinal ganglion cells, resulting in further progression of visual field. Thus, glaucoma associated with advanced visual field changes is the next ophthalmic indication for cesarean section. The report presents the current state of knowledge concerning the effect of pregnancy on pre-existing ocular disorders and the influence of physiological changes on the clinical course of these diseases during the stages of natural delivery. The authors discuss also the ophthalmic indications for cesarean section.

  9. Rising rates of Caesarean sections: an audit of Caesarean sections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Caesarean section (CS) rates are increasing worldwide; rates in the private ... data were pooled and used to analyse the clinical information. .... labour – very sparingly and judiciously in the presence of poor progress ... Laboratory data .... Broomberg conducted a retrospective analysis of CS rates among white.

  10. Primary cesearean section in multigravidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Arogya Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Complications may occur in women who previously had a normal vaginal delivery requiring interventions in the form of caesarean section and is not uncommon. Though to a small extent, they are contributing to rise is total caesarean section rates seen. There are many cases where a caesarean becomes mandatory for her. The fact that a multipara who has had one or more vaginal deliveries should be regarded as an optimistic historical fact, not as diagnostic-criteria for spontaneous delivery of the pregnancy at hand. A parous woman needs good obstetric care to improve maternal and neonatal outcome and still keeping caesarean section to a lower rate. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(11.000: 3849-3852

  11. Testing? Testing? In Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    The assumptions behind secondary school literature course tests--whether asking students to recall aspects of literary works, to relate literary works to each other, or to analyze unfamiliar literary works--are open to question. They fail to acknowledge some of the most important aspects of literature which, if properly taught, should provide a…

  12. Test Under Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s national college entrance examination, regarded as a make-or-break test by many students, leaves much to be desired “We’ve bribed the exam supervisors, paying each one 20,000 yuan. They will make everything go smooth during the exams,” Li Feng, a teacher from No.2 High School in

  13. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  14. Multicollinearity in cross-sectional regressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Jørgen; Mur, Jesùs

    2006-10-01

    The paper examines robustness of results from cross-sectional regression paying attention to the impact of multicollinearity. It is well known that the reliability of estimators (least-squares or maximum-likelihood) gets worse as the linear relationships between the regressors become more acute. We resolve the discussion in a spatial context, looking closely into the behaviour shown, under several unfavourable conditions, by the most outstanding misspecification tests when collinear variables are added to the regression. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed. The conclusions point to the fact that these statistics react in different ways to the problems posed.

  15. The intensity of immunogold labeling of deplasticized acrylic sections compared to deplasticized epoxy sections-Theoretical deductions and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, Sverre-Henning; Reinholt, Finn P

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the level of immunogold labeling of deplasticized acrylic sections and deplasticized epoxy sections. Pure protein gels of IgG, albumin and thyroglobulin were produced by glutaraldehyde fixation and embedded in non-crosslinked acrylic resin (Technovit 9100) and epoxy resin (Epon 812), respectively. Ultrathin sections of acrylic and epoxy resin were separately deplasticized in 2-methoxyethyl acetate (MEA) and sodium ethoxide. Quantitative immunogold labeling was performed with anti-IgG, anti-albumin and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies on sections of the corresponding protein gels. For all antibodies tested, the intensity of labeling for deplasticized acrylic sections was significantly higher (two to four times) than for the corresponding deplasticized epoxy sections. The results fit with a theoretically deduced relation: the quotient of the labeling of two deplasticized sections of different resins is equivalent to the square root of the quotient of the labeling of the similar sections not exposed to any kind of pre-treatment. The practical significance of the results is that immunolabeling of deplasticized non-crosslinked acrylic resin results in more intense immunogold labeling than deplasticized epoxy sections. Deplasticizing is most useful when the requirements for ultrastructural preservation according to conventional criteria are moderate. Our theoretically deduced results also indicate that deplasticized Technovit (or other non-crosslinked acrylic resins) sections will be significantly better suited for immunolabeling at the light microscopic level than deplasticized epoxy sections.

  16. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  17. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  18. 26 CFR 1.141-2 - Private activity bond tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... test and private security or payment test of section 141(b) or the private loan financing test of section 141(c). The private business use and private security or payment tests are described in §§ 1.141-3... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Private activity bond tests. 1.141-2 Section...

  19. 影响研究生日语考试知识运用部分难度因素分析%A Factor Analysis of the Difficulty in the Use Section of the National Entrance Test of Japanese for Graduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫

    2014-01-01

    日语知识运用是研究生日语考试的一个重要组成部分。本文以2006-2010年该部分试题为研究对象,根据考后反馈的统计数据,借助于分析统计软件,分析影响试题难度的因素包含哪些方面,以及如何设置合理的难度。结果显示:该部分试题难度受文章的题材、体裁和考点的影响,与文章长度没有明显的关系。在分析考生试卷中出现的问题的基础上,提出了应该重视词汇特别是外来词的学习、培养学生全面的语法知识、将语言知识的学习与阅读能力的培养相结合等建议。最后,对研究生日语考试未来的发展方向进行了说明。%The Use Section is an important part of the National Entrance Test of Japanese for Graduates. Based on feedback statistics from this part between 2006 and 2010, this paper analyses the difficulty of content and the method of setting the rational difficulty. It shows that the difficulty is influenced by the type and subject of the article, and the designed point, but no clear relation is found with the length of the paper. In accordance with the problems which the test-takers had, we should pay attention to the learning of foreign words, and entire grammar, and combine the study of knowledge use with reading ability. In the end, we illustrate the direction of the Japanese Test in the future.

  20. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  1. Having a C-Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... section? Anesthesia: Most likely you can have regional anesthesia (like an epidural or spinal block) that let’s you stay awake for your baby’s birth. This means you’re numb from below your breasts all the way ... need general anesthesia. General anesthesia makes you go to sleep during ...

  2. Vacuum-assisted cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQuivey RW

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ross W McQuivey,1 Jon E Block2 1Clinical Innovations, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Independent consultant, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: There has been a dramatic rise in the frequency of cesarean sections, surpassing 30% of all deliveries in the US. This upsurge, coupled with a decreasing willingness to allow vaginal birth after cesarean section, has resulted in an expansion of the use of vacuum assistance to safely extract the fetal head. By avoiding the use of a delivering hand or forceps blade, the volume being delivered through the uterine incision can be decreased when the vacuum is used properly. Reducing uterine extensions with their associated complications (eg, excessive blood loss in difficult cases is also a theoretical advantage of vacuum delivery. Maternal discomfort related to excessive fundal pressure may also be lessened. To minimize the risk of neonatal morbidity, proper cup placement over the “flexion point” remains essential to maintain vacuum integrity and reduce the chance of inadvertent detachment and uterine extensions. Based on the published literature and pragmatic clinical experience, utilization of the vacuum device is a safe and effective technique to assist delivery during cesarean section. Keywords: cesarean section, vacuum, forceps, birth, delivery

  3. Vibratome sections of difficult tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    After 1 hours of aldehyde fixation, 4 to 20 hours of soaking in 2% BSA (bovine serum albumin) solution and another 17 hours in the same fixative, the vibratome will produce smooth, even sections from agar embedded guinea pig thyroid, skeletal muscle or larynx with the same ease as it will from soft...

  4. Revolutionizing Cross-sectional Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Luo, Liangping; Lin, Wentao; Li, Zhiyu; Zhong, Xin; Shi, Changzheng; Newman, Tony; Zhou, Yi; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging is so important that, six Nobel Prizes have been awarded to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance alone because it revolutionized clinical diagnosis. The BigBrain project supported by up to 1 billion euro each over a time period of 10 years predicts to "revolutionize our ability to understand internal brain organization" (Evan 2013). If we claim that cross-sectional imaging diagnosis is only semi-quantitative, some may believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient that we can observe the changes of this cross-sectional image next time. If we claim that BigBrain will make no difference in clinical medicine, then few would believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient to scan this part of the image and compare it with that from the BigBrain. If we claim that the BigBrain Project and the Human Brain Project have defects in their key method, one might believe it. But this is true. The key lies in the reconstruction of any cross-sectional image along any axis. Using Ga...

  5. Neonatology and the caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, R; Minghetti, D

    2012-10-01

    The origins of the use of the Caesarean section date far back in human history. Traces of this procedure can be found in Greek mythology and in the history of Ancient Rome. Many documents about the history of religion make reference to a delivery from the abdomen.

  6. Special Section: Educating Elderly Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Bernice A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four articles in this special section report on (1) Arizona curriculum for home-based caregivers of the elderly in rural communities (Epstein, Koenig); (2) educational programs for nursing home caregivers (Marsden); (3) extension programs for helping low-income elderly with money management (Koonce); and (4) energy education for the elderly…

  7. Ultrathin sectioning for electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Jørgen; Qvortrup, K

    1989-01-01

    the sections, and thus converted a positive phosphatase reactivity to a false negative one. The water in the knife trough had a pH of approximately 5.4. Calculations showed that this is an expected acidity, if CO2 in the air equilibrates with distilled water, and that there is 200,000 times more acid...

  8. The Hausdorff Dimension of Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min NIU; Lifeng XI

    2007-01-01

    The notion of finite-type open set condition is defined to calculate the Hausdorff dimensions of the sections of some self-similar sets, such as the dimension of intersection of the Koch curve and the line x = a with a ∈(Q).

  9. 49 CFR 195.306 - Test medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test medium. 195.306 Section 195.306... PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.306 Test medium. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, water must be used as the test medium. (b) Except for offshore pipelines, liquid...

  10. 49 CFR 236.107 - Ground tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ground tests. 236.107 Section 236.107...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.107 Ground tests. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a test for grounds on each energy bus furnishing power to circuits,...

  11. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  12. Different styles and various extent pulmonary function defect of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis:correlation between thin-section MSCT findings and pulmonary function test results%不同类型及程度肺功能损害的特发性肺纤维化薄层MSCT征象及其相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑静; 王藏海; 李敬玉; 任庆云; 孙舰; 耿丽娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the correlation between thin-section MSCT findings and pulmonary function test results different styls and various cxtcmt pulmonary function defect patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Methods 30 cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis proved clinically and/or pathologically were presented. All patients underwent thin-section MSCT . Thin-scction MSCT scans were assessed for the presence and the extent of abnormal parenchyma in different styls and various cxtcmt pulmonary function defect patients. The correlation between thin-section MSCT score and the values of pulmonary function tests was examined by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results Of 30 cases, the pulmonary function tests of all patients revealed various exent restrictive vcntilatory and diffuse function defect. The analytic results showed the total scores in thin-section CT negatively correlated with vital capacity (VC, r= - 0.646, P<0. 001 ) .total lung capacity(TLC, r=-0.661, P<0. 001 ), residual volumc(RV, r=-0.415, P = 0.023), forced inspiratory vital capacity (FVC, r=-0.624, P<0. 001), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEVl,r= -0.483, P = 0. 007), diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide of the lung (DLCO, r= -0. 732, P<0. 001), specific diffusing capacity ( DLCO/VA, r=-0.504, P = 0.005), positively correlated with the staging of vcntilatory defect (r=0. 84 3, P<0. 001 ) and diffuse function defect (r = 0. 838, P<0. 001 ). Conclusion There arc different MSCT hctcropha-nics in different styles and various extent pulmonary function defect of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , and there is good correlation between the scorning system and different styles and various extent pulmonary functiong defect.%目的 探讨不同类型及程度肺功能损害的特发性肺纤维化(idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,IPF)薄层MSCT表现特征及与肺功能检查诸项指标之间的相关性.方法 经临床病理证实的30例IPF患者均行薄层MSCT扫描,观察

  13. METAL MEDIA FILTERS, AG-1 SECTION FI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D.

    2012-05-23

    One application of metal media filters is in various nuclear air cleaning processes including applications for protecting workers, the public and the environment from hazardous and radioactive particles. To support this application the development of the ASME AG-1 FI Standard on Metal Media has been under way for more than ten years. Development of the proposed section has required resolving several difficult issues associated with operating conditions (media velocity, pressure drop, etc.), qualification testing, and quality acceptance testing. Performance characteristics of metal media are dramatically different than the glass fiber media with respect to parameters like differential pressures, operating temperatures, media strength, etc. These differences make existing data for a glass fiber media inadequate for qualifying a metal media filter for AG-1. In the past much work has been conducted on metal media filters at facilities such as Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to qualify the media as High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters. Particle retention testing has been conducted at Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility and at Air Techniques International (ATI) to prove that the metal media meets or exceeds the 99.97% particle retention required for a HEPA Filter. Even with his testing, data was lacking to complete an AG-1 FI Standard on metal media. With funding secured by Mississippi State University (MSU) from National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a research test stand is being designed and fabricated at MSU's Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) Facility to obtain qualification data on metal media. This in turn will support required data needed for the FI Standard. The paper will discuss in detail how the test stand at MSU will obtain the necessary data to complete the FI Standard.

  14. A Probe into the Design of Test Channel Section of Pore-forming Concrete Cutoff Wall on the Blasting Rockfill Dam%爆破堆石坝体造孔混凝土防渗墙试验槽段设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢庆明; 乔秀笙

    2015-01-01

    爆破堆石坝由于坝体组成颗粒极不均匀,结构松散、复杂,架空现象明显,坝体防渗处理是一个难点;当坝体防渗处理采用混凝土防渗心墙时,造孔槽段直接影响防渗墙的顺利修筑及施工质量。通过合理选取己衣水库混凝土防渗心墙造孔试验槽段,采取两种不同的施工工艺,详细分析槽孔充盈系数、成墙厚度,并针对施工中遇到的特殊情况(孔斜、塌孔、漏浆、卡钻)给出了相应的处理措施,取得了造孔混凝土防渗墙的施工工艺,再大范围施工,效果明显,为今后类似工程的设计与施工提供了丰富的经验。%The particles for composing blasting rockfill dams are quite uneven ,with loose and complex structures .And an obvious o‐verhead phenomenon can also be observed .Therefore ,the seepage control for the dam is a quite difficult task .When the concrete cutoff wall is adopted for the seepage control of the dam ,the pore-forming channel sections directly affect the construction process and the construction quality of cutoff walls .In this paper ,we first select pore-forming test channel section of Jiyi Reservoir concrete cutoff .Then ,a detailed analysis of slot filling coefficient and wall thickness is made under two different construction processes .For some special situation encountered in construction ,such as hole deviation ,hole collapse ,leakage ,and sticking ,we offer some corre‐sponding treatment measures .Finally ,the construction technology of pore-forming concrete cutoff wall is well-achieved ,and a wide range of construction is performed with an obvious effect .The outcome of the paper provides a wealth of experience for future similar project construction .

  15. OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY IN WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS CAESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellad Girija

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Carefully selected cases of Vaginal Birth after Caesarean Section (VBAC is safe and successful. Even though options of elective caesarean section or a trial of labour are given to women with prior caesarean section, the risk is always present. In successful VBACs, morbidity is less compared to repeat caesarean section. That is why this study is conducted to determine the outcome of pregnancy in women with previous CS. OBJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the clinical course of labour in cases with previous caesarean section. 2. To study the perinatal outcome in cases with previous caesarean section either by vaginal delivery or repeat Caesarean section. 3. To study maternal morbidity in these cases. METHOD A retrospective analysis of medical records of 250 women with a previous caesarean section, who delivered in BIMS Hospital between May 2015 and July 2015 was carried out. Women with recurrent indications for caesarean section and those having nonrecurrent indications with any complicating factors in present pregnancy and women with previous two caesarean sections were not given trial for vaginal delivery. Those women with previous section for the non-recurrent indications were given trial for vaginal delivery. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done by Chi-square test. RESULT In 250 cases, 132 cases were given trial for vaginal delivery. In these, vaginal delivery was 61.3% and repeat section was 38%. There is an association between maternal morbidity and type of delivery. Birth weight was associated with the type of delivery. There is no association between neonatal outcome and type of delivery. CONCLUSION In carefully selected patients, appropriate timing and close supervision, trial of vaginal delivery in previous one caesarean section is safe and successful. Individual approach seems to be the best.

  16. Upper section for anchor timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirokov, A.P.; Isachenko, V.M.; Kuntsevich, V.I.; Pishulin, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to exclude rotation of the fixing device around the anchor with screwing of the tightening nut and simplification of the fixing device design. The support fixing device is made of a section of pipe and is equipped with a rotation delimiter made in the form of a female fixing device of the projection arranged on it at an angle to the longitudinal axis.

  17. X-ray Fluorescence Sectioning

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an x-ray fluorescence imaging system for elemental analysis. The key idea is what we call "x-ray fluorescence sectioning". Specifically, a slit collimator in front of an x-ray tube is used to shape x-rays into a fan-beam to illuminate a planar section of an object. Then, relevant elements such as gold nanoparticles on the fan-beam plane are excited to generate x-ray fluorescence signals. One or more 2D spectral detectors are placed to face the fan-beam plane and directly measure x-ray fluorescence data. Detector elements are so collimated that each element only sees a unique area element on the fan-beam plane and records the x-ray fluorescence signal accordingly. The measured 2D x-ray fluorescence data can be refined in reference to the attenuation characteristics of the object and the divergence of the beam for accurate elemental mapping. This x-ray fluorescence sectioning system promises fast fluorescence tomographic imaging without a complex inverse procedure. The design can be ad...

  18. [Demographic impact of cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Aujang, Enrique; Felguérez Flores, Jesús Alberto

    2009-08-01

    in the vital statistics the cesarean section is a cause that makes reference to births and deaths. to analyze the frequency of the cesarean section, the changes brought about in the rates of maternal, perinatal mortality and of natality, and their relation with reliable contraceptive methods. retrospective study realized with the dices of patients of the Coordination of Reproductive Health of the Mexican Institute of the Social Insurance (IMSS) of the state of Aguascalientes (Mexico). The births were registered majors of 20 weeks of gestation, the maternal and perinatal deaths from 1990 to 2007 in the hospitals of the IMSS in Aguascalientes. The rate of cesarean calculated by means of the registry of the number of the same realized per year and they were divided between the total of vaginal and abdominal births, and the result multiplied percent. 201,563 obstetrical events were registered, of which 145,106 corresponded to vaginal childbirths and 56,457 abdominal ones. With these data a global rate of cesarean section of 28% was obtained, with 201,182 new born alive ones and 2,618 perinatal ones. The acceptance of the tubary bilateral occlusion maintained a constant increase during the period of study, like the intrauterine device. The acceptance from the bilateral occlusion was completely different tubary during the cesarean one, in comparison with the childbirth. the long term results show positive influence in the reduction of the rate of natality.

  19. Cesarean section by maternal request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Raphael; Burlá, Marcelo; Ferrari, José; Lima, Lana; Amim, Joffre; Braga, Antonio; Rezende, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Cesarean section by maternal request is the one performed on a pregnant woman without medical indication and without contraindication to vaginal delivery. There is great controversy over requested cesarean section. Potential risks include complications in subsequent pregnancies, such as uterine rupture, placenta previa and accreta. Potential benefits of requested cesareans include a lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage in the first cesarean and fewer surgical complications compared with vaginal delivery. Cesarean section by request should never be performed before 39 weeks. RESUMO A cesariana a pedido materno é aquela realizada em uma gestante sem indicações médicas e sem contraindicação para tentativa do parto vaginal. Existe grande controvérsia sobre a realização da cesariana a pedido. Riscos potenciais da cesariana a pedido incluem complicações em gravidezes subsequentes, tais como: rotura uterina, placenta prévia e acretismo. Potenciais benefícios da cesariana a pedido englobam um menor risco de hemorragia pós-parto na primeira cesariana e menos complicações cirúrgicas quando comparada ao parto vaginal. A cesariana a pedido jamais deve ser realizada antes de 39 semanas.

  20. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  1. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Test Anxiety KidsHealth > For Teens > Test Anxiety Print A A ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  2. Pregnancy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy tests Pregnancy tests > A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy test fact ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy tests If you think you may be pregnant , ...

  3. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  4. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  5. 31 CFR 800.222 - Section 721.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Section 721. 800.222 Section 800.222 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.222 Section 721. The term section 721 means section 721 of title VII of...

  6. 40 CFR 53.64 - Test procedure: Static fractionator test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Static fractionator test. 53.64 Section 53.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.64 Test procedure:...

  7. The sessile drop method for immunohistochemical processing of unmounted sections of nervous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelhaft, I

    1984-12-01

    A novel method for the immunohistochemical processing of free-floating tissue sections is described. Sections are immersed within drops of solution arranged on a hydrophobic surface. The procedure consists of sequentially suctioning away one fluid drop and replacing it by another, while the section remains in place. The technique permits easy testing of different antiserum dilutions, comparisons among different immunohistochemical protocols, and comparison of different antisera on serial tissue sections. Comparison is made to processing mounted sections.

  8. Experimental studies on the axial crash behavior of aluminum foam-filled hat sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-chun; FAN Zi-jie; GUI Liang-jin; WANG Zheng-hong; FU Zi-lai

    2006-01-01

    Drop hammer tests were carried out to study the axial crash behavior of aluminum foam-filled hat sections.First,the axial crash tests of the empty hat sections,aluminum foam and the aluminum foam-filled hat sections were carried out;then,based upon the test results,the axial crash behavior of the aluminum foam-filled hat sections were analyzed.It was found that aluminum foam filling can increase the energy absorption capacities of the hat sections.Compared with the non-filled structures,aluminum foamfilled structures were much more stable and needed less mass to absorb the specified energy.

  9. 14 CFR 23.843 - Pressurization tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressurization tests. 23.843 Section 23.843... Pressurization § 23.843 Pressurization tests. (a) Strength test. The complete pressurized cabin, including doors... in § 23.365(d). (b) Functional tests. The following functional tests must be performed: (1) Tests...

  10. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or...

  11. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  12. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  13. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  14. 14 CFR Section 2 - General Accounting Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Accounting Policies Section 2 Section 2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Section 2 General Accounting Policies ...

  15. LHCb cross-section measurements with heavy flavour jets

    CERN Multimedia

    Michielin, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Cross-section measurements of jets originating from the hadronization of beauty ($b$) and charm ($c$) quarks at LHCb give the unique opportunity to probe Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) at low and large momentum fraction and to test the Standard Model in the forward region. In this poster the production of $t\\bar{t}$ pairs in the forward region, the measurement of the $W+b\\bar{b}$ and $W+c\\bar{c}$ cross-section and the measurement of the $Z\\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ cross-section are presented.

  16. Review of Section XI inservice inspection program effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.F. Sr.

    1993-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Section XI, Division 1, {open_quotes}Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components,{close_quotes} of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, searches were performed of the Licensing Event Report and Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System computerized data bases, and a review was made of inservice inspection summary reports. It was found that the Section XI examinations and tests detect flaws in welds and plant components and result in subsequent corrective action. This study also shows that the format and topics of information provided in Section XI-prescribed inservice inspection summary reports vary widely.

  17. Biopsy of uterine leiomyomata and frozen sections before laparoscopic morcellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulandi, Togas; Ferenczy, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Uterine sarcoma is rare. However, its morcellation can be associated with spread of disease. The definitive diagnosis of uterine sarcomas is made via histology. To date, the only reliable preoperative test for determination of the types of myometrial tumors is analysis of either frozen sections or permanent formalin-fixed tissue sections of surgical specimens. We report 2 cases in which the feasibility of obtaining multiple biopsy specimens of uterine leiomyomas and frozen sections before laparoscopic morcellation is demonstrated. This procedure might reduce the risk of laparoscopic morcellation of unsuspected leiomyosarcomas while still offering the advantages of a minimally invasive technique.

  18. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  19. Introduction to the Thematic Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Kardulias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this thematic section were originally presented in two venues. Approximately half of the contributions were delivered first in a session at the Annual Meeting of the Central States Anthropological Society in Indianapolis, Indiana in March, 1995. The full complement of presentations took place at the 94th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association in Washington, D.C., in November, 1995. Two participants in the Washington symposium chose not to include their papers in this section. A number of the papers have thus benefitted from several stages of discussion and criticism. While anthropologists (and especially archaeologists dominated both panels, the disciplinary breadth represented by the various members contributed to an invigorating discussion which we now bring to the pages of this journal. In this attempt to reach a broad audience, however, we realize there is the problem of disciplinary specificity, i.e., the particular approaches and data with which scholars deal may not be easily comprehensible to those in other fields. For the current collection, this issue is especially acute for prehistorians, whose focus on the material record and a specialized archaeological terminology may confound some readers. The archaeologists have made efforts to minimize the use of esoteric jargon. In addition, chronological periods are clearly defined in order to fix the temporal setting. While some readers may already be very familiar with the periods in question, we thought it best to err on the side of caution.

  20. 均匀黏弹性地基中现浇 X 形桩低应变动测响应数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Low Strain Dynamic Test Response for X-section Cast-in-place Concrete Pile on Homogeneous Viscoelastic Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉明; 丁选明; 朱振生; 付强

    2015-01-01

    A three dimensional finite model of an X-section cast-in-place concrete pile-soil system is established to simulate wave propagation in a low strain integrity X-section cast-in-place concrete pile (XCC pile).Velocity responses in the time domain at the top of the intact and defective piles are obtained.The velocity response characteristics of the intact pile are analyzed in addition to the velocity response curves of the defective piles.The results reveal that the velocity response at the top of the XCC pile during low strain integrity testing shows serious 3D effects,resulting in the peak value of the incident wave close to the pile center being largest,and the arrival time of the peak value of the incident wave close to the pile center being earliest.The farther a point is from the pile center,the more hysteretic is the peak of the arriving incident wave.The peak value of the incident waves first increases and then reduces from the pile center to the pile boundary.The inci-dent and reflected waves at different points along the ring direction at the top of the intact pile are very similar,but the disturbing waves of different points are not the same.The arrival time of the incident waves in the pile with variable modulus are the same as those in the intact pile,but the arrival time of the peak of the reflection wave at the bottom of the pile with variable modulus is later than that in the intact pile,and the peak value is smaller.The first defective reflected waves at different points along ring direction at the top of the defective XCC pile shows little differ-ences,but the second one shows larger differences.%建立现浇 X 形桩(XCC 桩)桩-土体系三维有限元模型,对 XCC 桩低应变检测动力响应进行数值模拟,得到完整桩和缺陷桩的桩顶速度响应结果,并分析完整桩及缺陷 XCC 桩桩顶速度响应特性及规律。计算结果表明:XCC 桩低应变瞬态动测时桩顶速度响应存在明显的三维效应,桩