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Sample records for superhard nitride superlattice

  1. Orthorhombic BN: A novel superhard sp{sup 3} boron nitride allotrope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiguo [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Lu, Mingchun [Department of Aeronautical Engineering Professional Technology, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132102 (China); Zhu, Li; Zhu, Lili; Li, Yadan [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Zhang, Miao, E-mail: zhangmiaolmc@126.com [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Quan, E-mail: liquan777@jlu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Here, a novel superhard orthorhombic allotrope of boron nitride (O-BN) with the space group of Pbam has been predicted using first-principles calculations. Our results revealed that O-BN simultaneously posses incompressible with a high bulk modulus of 397.38 GPa, and superhard properties with a high Vickers hardness of 65 GPa. Further phonon calculations show O-BN structure is dynamically stable. Moreover, it is thermodynamics energetically more preferable than previous proposed BN allotropes and a transparent insulator with an indirect band gap of about 4.85 eV. Our researches represent a significant step toward the exploration of superhard materials.

  2. Theoretical study of nitride short period superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.

    2018-02-01

    Discussion of band gap behavior based on first principles calculations of electronic band structures for various short period nitride superlattices is presented. Binary superlattices, as InN/GaN and GaN/AlN as well as superlattices containing alloys, as InGaN/GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InAlN are considered. Taking into account different crystallographic directions of growth (polar, semipolar and nonpolar) and different strain conditions (free-standing and pseudomorphic) all the factors influencing the band gap engineering are analyzed. Dependence on internal strain and lattice geometry is considered, but the main attention is devoted to the influence of the internal electric field and the hybridization of well and barrier wave functions. The contributions of these two important factors to band gap behavior are illustrated and estimated quantitatively. It appears that there are two interesting ranges of layer thicknesses; in one (few atomic monolayers in barriers and wells) the influence of the wave function hybridization is dominant, whereas in the other (layers thicker than roughly five to six monolayers) dependence of electric field on the band gaps is more important. The band gap behavior in superlattices is compared with the band gap dependence on composition in the corresponding ternary and quaternary alloys. It is shown that for superlattices it is possible to exceed by far the range of band gap values, which can be realized in ternary alloys. The calculated values of the band gaps are compared with the photoluminescence emission energies, when the corresponding data are available. Finally, similarities and differences between nitride and oxide polar superlattices are pointed out by comparison of wurtzite GaN/AlN and ZnO/MgO.

  3. Electronic structure of superlattices of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2011-11-14

    We study the electronic structure of superlattices consisting of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride slabs, using ab initio density functional theory. We find that the system favors a short C–B bond length at the interface between the two component materials. A sizeable band gap at the Dirac point is opened for superlattices with single graphene layers but not for superlattices with graphene bilayers. The system is promising for applications in electronic devices such as field effect transistors and metal-oxide semiconductors.

  4. Electronic structure of superlattices of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    We study the electronic structure of superlattices consisting of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride slabs, using ab initio density functional theory. We find that the system favors a short C–B bond length at the interface between the two component materials. A sizeable band gap at the Dirac point is opened for superlattices with single graphene layers but not for superlattices with graphene bilayers. The system is promising for applications in electronic devices such as field effect transistors and metal-oxide semiconductors.

  5. Quasi free-standing silicene in a superlattice with hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.; Tahir, M.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We study a superlattice of silicene and hexagonal boron nitride by first principles calculations and demonstrate that the interaction between the layers of the superlattice is very small. As a consequence, quasi free-standing silicene is realized

  6. Quasi free-standing silicene in a superlattice with hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.

    2013-11-12

    We study a superlattice of silicene and hexagonal boron nitride by first principles calculations and demonstrate that the interaction between the layers of the superlattice is very small. As a consequence, quasi free-standing silicene is realized in this superlattice. In particular, the Dirac cone of silicene is preserved. Due to the wide band gap of hexagonal boron nitride, the superlattice realizes the characteristic physical phenomena of free-standing silicene. In particular, we address by model calculations the combined effect of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and an external electric field, which induces a transition from a semimetal to a topological insulator and further to a band insulator.

  7. Novel superhard films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengjun; Chen Guanghua; Deng Jinxiang; Song Xuemei; Shao Lexi

    2001-01-01

    Superhard materials, defined as having a microhardness exceeding 40 GPa, have attracted extensive interest for decades. They are composed of compounds of group III, IV and/or V (carbides and nitrides) and elemental crystal (diamond). Except for diamond, all these materials can only be synthesized by artificial methods. Other interesting properties of these materials include their wide band gap, stability under high temperature and chemical inertness. Current research on these materials concentrates on diamond, cubic boron nitride (cBN), carbon nitride (C 3 N 4 , CN x ) boron carbonitride (BCN) and diamond-like carbon (DLC). A review is presented of the progress and future of these interesting materials, in connection with authors' recent studies on the synthesis and properties of wide band gap and superhard materials

  8. Moire superlattice effects in graphene/boron-nitride van der Waals heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbank, John R.; Chen, Xi; Fal' ko, Vladimir I. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Mucha-Kruczynski, Marcin [Department of Physics, University of Bath (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Van der Waals heterostructures of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride feature a moire superlattice for graphene's Dirac electrons. Here, we review the effects generated by this superlattice, including a specific miniband structure featuring gaps and secondary Dirac points, and a fractal spectrum of magnetic minibands known as Hofstadter's butterfly. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Photoluminescence and electrical properties of silicon oxide and silicon nitride superlattices containing silicon nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuleiko, D V; Ilin, A S

    2016-01-01

    Photoluminescence and electrical properties of superlattices with thin (1 to 5 nm) alternating silicon-rich silicon oxide or silicon-rich silicon nitride, and silicon oxide or silicon nitride layers containing silicon nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with subsequent annealing were investigated. The entirely silicon oxide based superlattices demonstrated photoluminescence peak shift due to quantum confinement effect. Electrical measurements showed the hysteresis effect in the vicinity of zero voltage due to structural features of the superlattices from SiOa 93 /Si 3 N 4 and SiN 0 . 8 /Si 3 N 4 layers. The entirely silicon nitride based samples demonstrated resistive switching effect, comprising an abrupt conductivity change at about 5 to 6 V with current-voltage characteristic hysteresis. The samples also demonstrated efficient photoluminescence with maximum at ∼1.4 eV, due to exiton recombination in silicon nanocrystals. (paper)

  10. Rocksalt nitride metal/semiconductor superlattices: A new class of artificially structured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bivas; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.

    2018-06-01

    Artificially structured materials in the form of superlattice heterostructures enable the search for exotic new physics and novel device functionalities, and serve as tools to push the fundamentals of scientific and engineering knowledge. Semiconductor heterostructures are the most celebrated and widely studied artificially structured materials, having led to the development of quantum well lasers, quantum cascade lasers, measurements of the fractional quantum Hall effect, and numerous other scientific concepts and practical device technologies. However, combining metals with semiconductors at the atomic scale to develop metal/semiconductor superlattices and heterostructures has remained a profoundly difficult scientific and engineering challenge. Though the potential applications of metal/semiconductor heterostructures could range from energy conversion to photonic computing to high-temperature electronics, materials challenges primarily had severely limited progress in this pursuit until very recently. In this article, we detail the progress that has taken place over the last decade to overcome the materials engineering challenges to grow high quality epitaxial, nominally single crystalline metal/semiconductor superlattices based on transition metal nitrides (TMN). The epitaxial rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N metamaterials are the first pseudomorphic metal/semiconductor superlattices to the best of our knowledge, and their physical properties promise a new era in superlattice physics and device engineering.

  11. Interface-induced electronic structure toughening of nitride superlattices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Petr; Černý, Miroslav; Holec, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 325, SEP (2017), s. 410-416 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-24711S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Ab initio calculations * Cleavage * Friedel oscillations * Nitride multilayers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016

  12. Epitaxial superlattices with titanium nitride as a plasmonic component for optical hyperbolic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, Gururaj V.; Saha, Bivas; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    , we address these issues by realizing an epitaxial superlattice as an HMM. The superlattice consists of ultrasmooth layers as thin as 5 nm and exhibits sharp interfaces which are essential for high-quality HMM devices. Our study reveals that such a TiN-based superlattice HMM provides a higher PDOS...

  13. Preparation of bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng [Los Alamos, NM; He, Duanwei [Sichuan, CN

    2011-05-10

    Bulk, superhard, B--C--N nanocomposite compacts were prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture at a pressure in a range of from about 15 GPa to about 25 GPa, and sintering the pressurized encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a temperature in a range of from about 1800-2500 K. The product bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compacts were well sintered compacts with nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B--C--N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compacts had a measured Vicker's hardness in a range of from about 41 GPa to about 68 GPa.

  14. Bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact and method for preparing thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; He, Duanwei

    2004-07-06

    Bulk, superhard, B-C-N nanocomposite compact and method for preparing thereof. The bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compact is a well-sintered compact and includes nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B-C-N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compact has a Vicker's hardness of about 41-68 GPa. It is prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture, and sintering the encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a pressure of about 5-25 GPa and at a temperature of about 1000-2500 K.

  15. Tribological Characteristics and Applications of Superhard Coatings: CVD Diamond, DLC, and c-BN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Murakawa, Masao; Watanabe, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Sadao; Wu, Richard L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Results of fundamental research on the tribological properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond, diamondlike carbon, and cubic boron nitride films in sliding contact with CVD diamond in ultrahigh vacuum, dry nitrogen, humid air, and water are discussed. Furthermore, the actual and potential applications of the three different superhard coatings in the field of tribology technology, particularly for wear parts and tools, are reviewed.

  16. Short period strain balanced gallium arsenide nitride/indium arsenide nitride superlattice lattice matched to indium phosphide for mid-infrared photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusal, Lekhnath

    Dilute nitrogen-containing III-V-N alloys have been intensively studied for their unusual electronic and optical behavior in the presence of a small amount of nitrogen. Those behaviors can further be manipulated, with a careful consideration of the strain and strain balancing, for example, in the context of a strain-balanced superlattice (SL) based on those alloys. In this work, the k.p approximation and the band anti-crossing model modified for the strain have been used to describe the electronic states of the strained bulk-like GaAs1-xNx and InAs 1-yNy ternaries in the vicinity of the center of the Brillouin zone (Gamma-point). Band-offsets between the conduction and valence bands of GaAs1-xNx and InAs1-yN y have also been evaluated, before implementing them into the SL structure. By minimizing the total mechanical energy of the stack of the alternating layers of GaAs1-xNx and InAs1-yNy in the SL, the ratio of the thicknesses of the epilayers is determined to make the structure lattice-matching on the InP(001), through the strain-balancing. Mini-band energies of the strain-balanced GaAs1-xNx/InAs 1-yNy short-period SL on InP(001) is then investigated using the transfer matrix formalism. This enabled identifying the evolution of the band edge transition energies of the superlattice structure for different nitrogen compositions. Results show the potential of the new proposed design to exceed the existing limits of bulk-like InGaAsN alloys and offer the applications for photon absorption/emission energies in the range of ~0.65-0.35eV at 300K for a typical nitrogen composition of ≤5%. The optical absorption coefficient of such a SL is then estimated under the anisotropic medium approximation, where the optical absorption of the bulk structure is modified according to the anisotropy imposed by the periodic potential in the growth direction. As an application, the developed SL structure is used to investigate the performance of double, triple and quadruple junction

  17. Superhard nanophase materials for rock drilling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadangi, R.K.; Voronov, O.A.; Tompa, G.S. [Diamond Materials Inc., Pisctaway, NJ (United States); Kear, B.H. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Diamond Materials Incorporated is developing new class of superhard materials for rock drilling applications. In this paper, we will describe two types of superhard materials, (a) binderless polycrystalline diamond compacts (BPCD), and (b) functionally graded triphasic nanocomposite materials (FGTNC). BPCDs are true polycrystalline diamond ceramic with < 0.5 wt% binders and have demonstrated to maintain their wear properties in a granite-log test even after 700{degrees}C thermal treatment. FGTNCs are functionally-graded triphasic superhard material, comprising a nanophase WC/Co core and a diamond-enriched surface, that combine high strength and toughness with superior wear resistance, making FGTNC an attractive material for use as roller cone stud inserts.

  18. Superhard Rhenium/Tungsten Diboride Solid Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew T; Turner, Christopher L; Lei, Jialin; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H; Kaner, Richard B

    2016-11-02

    Rhenium diboride (ReB 2 ), containing corrugated layers of covalently bonded boron, is a superhard metallic compound with a microhardness reaching as high as 40.5 GPa (under an applied load of 0.49 N). Tungsten diboride (WB 2 ), which takes a structural hybrid between that of ReB 2 and AlB 2 , where half of the boron layers are planar (as in AlB 2 ) and half are corrugated (as in ReB 2 ), has been shown not to be superhard. Here, we demonstrate that the ReB 2 -type structure can be maintained for solid solutions of tungsten in ReB 2 with tungsten content up to a surprisingly large limit of nearly 50 atom %. The lattice parameters for the solid solutions linearly increase along both the a- and c-axes with increasing tungsten content, as evaluated by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction. From micro- and nanoindentation hardness testing, all of the compositions within the range of 0-48 atom % W are superhard, and the bulk modulus of the 48 atom % solid solution is nearly identical to that of pure ReB 2 . These results further indicate that ReB 2 -structured compounds are superhard, as has been predicted from first-principles calculations, and may warrant further studies into additional solid solutions or ternary compounds taking this structure type.

  19. Ultrasonic Characterization of Superhard Material: Osmium Diboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadawa, P K

    2012-01-01

    Higher order elastic constants have been calculated in hexagonal structured superhard material OsB 2 at room temperature following the interaction potential model. The temperature variation of the ultrasonic velocities is evaluated along different angles with unique axis of the crystal using the second order elastic constants. The ultrasonic velocity decreases with the temperature along particular orientation with the unique axis. Temperature variation of the thermal relaxation time and Debye average velocities are also calculated along the same orientation. The temperature dependency of the ultrasonic properties is discussed in correlation with elastic, thermal and electrical properties. It has been found that the thermal conductivity is the main contributor to the behaviour of ultrasonic attenuation as a function of temperature and the responsible cause of attenuation is phonon-phonon interaction. The mechanical properties of OsB 2 at low temperature are better than at high temperature, because at low temperature it has low ultrasonic velocity and ultrasonic attenuation. Superhard material OsB 2 has many industrial applications, such as abrasives, cutting tools and hard coatings.

  20. Magnetic superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwo, J.; Hong, M.; McWhan, D.B.; Yafet, Y.; Fleming, R.M.; DiSalvo, F.J.; Waszczak, J.V.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Gibbs, D.; Goldmann, A.I.; Boni, P.; Bohr, J.; Grimm, H.; Bohr, J.; Chien, C.L.; Grimm, H.; Cable, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Single crystal magnetic rare earth superlattices were synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy. The studies include four rare earth systems: Gd-Y, Dy-Y, Ho-Y, and Gd-Dy. The magnetic properties and the long-range spin order are reviewed in terms of the interfacial behavior, and the interlayer exchange coupling across Y medium

  1. Thermal Conductivity of Graphene-hBN Superlattice Ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Isaac M; Pereira, Luiz Felipe C

    2018-02-09

    Superlattices are ideal model systems for the realization and understanding of coherent (wave-like) and incoherent (particle-like) phonon thermal transport. Single layer heterostructures of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride have been produced recently with sharp edges and controlled domain sizes. In this study we employ nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermal conductivity of superlattice nanoribbons with equal-sized domains of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. We analyze the dependence of the conductivity with the domain sizes, and with the total length of the ribbons. We determine that the thermal conductivity reaches a minimum value of 89 W m -1 K -1 for ribbons with a superlattice period of 3.43 nm. The effective phonon mean free path is also determined and shows a minimum value of 32 nm for the same superlattice period. Our results also reveal that a crossover from coherent to incoherent phonon transport is present at room temperature for BNC nanoribbons, as the superlattice period becomes comparable to the phonon coherence length. Analyzing phonon populations relative to the smallest superlattice period, we attribute the minimum thermal conductivity to a reduction in the population of flexural phonons when the superlattice period equals 3.43 nm. The ability to manipulate thermal conductivity using superlattice-based two-dimensional materials, such as graphene-hBN nanoribbons, opens up opportunities for application in future nanostructured thermoelectric devices.

  2. Tungsten tetraboride, an inexpensive superhard material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Reza; Lech, Andrew T.; Xie, Miao; Weaver, Beth E.; Yeung, Michael T.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten tetraboride (WB4) is an interesting candidate as a less expensive member of the growing group of superhard transition metal borides. WB4 was successfully synthesized by arc melting from the elements. Characterization using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) indicates that the as-synthesized material is phase pure. The zero-pressure bulk modulus, as measured by high-pressure X-ray diffraction for WB4, is 339 GPa. Mechanical testing using microindentation gives a Vickers hardness of 43.3 ± 2.9 GPa under an applied load of 0.49 N. Various ratios of rhenium were added to WB4 in an attempt to increase hardness. With the addition of 1 at.% Re, the Vickers hardness increased to approximately 50 GPa at 0.49 N. Powders of tungsten tetraboride with and without 1 at.% Re addition are thermally stable up to approximately 400 °C in air as measured by thermal gravimetric analysis. PMID:21690363

  3. A superhard sp3 microporous carbon with direct bandgap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yilong; Xie, Chenlong; Xiong, Mei; Ma, Mengdong; Liu, Lingyu; Li, Zihe; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Gao, Guoying; Zhao, Zhisheng; Tian, Yongjun; Xu, Bo; He, Julong

    2017-12-01

    Carbon allotropes with distinct sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridization possess various different properties. Here, a novel all-sp3 hybridized tetragonal carbon, namely the P carbon, was predicted by the evolutionary particle swarm structural search. It demonstrated a low density among all-sp3 carbons, due to the corresponding distinctive microporous structure. P carbon is thermodynamically stable than the known C60 and could be formed through the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) compression. P carbon is a direct bandgap semiconductor displaying a strong and superhard nature. The unique combination of electrical and mechanical properties constitutes P carbon a potential superhard material for semiconductor industrial fields.

  4. Product surface hardening in non-self-sustained glow discharge plasma before synthesis of superhard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, P S; Metel, A S; Nay, H A

    2017-01-01

    Before the synthesis of superhard coating, the product surface is hardened by means of plasma nitriding, which prevents the surface deformations and the coating brittle rupture. The product heating by ions accelerated from plasma by applied to the product bias voltage leads to overheating and blunting of the product sharp edges. To prevent the blunting, it is proposed to heat the products with a broad beam of fast nitrogen molecules. The beam injection into a working vacuum chamber results in filling of the chamber with quite homogeneous plasma suitable for nitriding. Immersion in the plasma of the electrode and heightening of its potential up to 50–100 V initiate a non-self-sustained glow discharge between the electrode and the chamber. It enhances the plasma density by an order of magnitude and reduces its spatial nonuniformity down to 5–10%. When a cutting tool is isolated from the chamber, it is bombarded by plasma ions with an energy corresponding to its floating potential, which is lower than the sputtering threshold. Hence, the sharp edges are sputtered only by fast nitrogen molecules with the same rate as other parts of the tool surface. This leads to sharpening of the cutting tools instead of blunting. (paper)

  5. A new superhard material: Osmium diboride OsB 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbache, M.; Stuparević, L.; Živković, D.

    2006-08-01

    Superhard materials have many industrial applications, wherever resistance to abrasion and wear are important. The synthesis of new superhard materials is one of the great challenges to scientists. We re-examined the phase diagram of the binary osmium-boron system and confirmed the existence of two hexagonal phases, OsB 1.1, Os 2B 3, and an orthorhombic phase, OsB 2. Almost nothing is known about the physical properties of osmium borides. Microhardness measurements show that OsB 2 is extremely hard. Ab initio calculations show that this is due to formation of covalent bonds between boron atoms. OsB 2 is also a low compressibility material. It can be used as hard coating.

  6. A new superhard carbon allotrope: Orthorhombic C20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qun; Zhao, Chenyang; Zhang, Meiguang; Yan, Haiyan; Zhou, Yingjiao; Yao, Ronghui

    2018-06-01

    A new superhard carbon orthorhombic allotrope oC20 is proposed, which exhibits distinct topologies including C4, C3 and two types of C6 carbon rings. The calculated elastic constants and phonon spectra reveal that oC20 is mechanically and dynamically stable at ambient pressure. The calculated electronic band structure of oC20 shows that it is an indirect band gap semiconductor with a band gap of 4.46 eV. The Vickers hardness of oC20 is 75 GPa. The calculated tensile and shear strength indicate that the weakest tensile strength is 64 GPa and the weakest shear strength is 48 GPa, which means oC20 is a potential superhard material.

  7. Structural, electronic and optical properties of carbon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M L [California Univ., Berkeley (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-05-01

    Carbon nitride was proposed as a superhard material and a structural prototype, {beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, was examined using several theoretical models. Some reports claiming experimental verifications have been made recently. The current status of the theory and experiment is reviewed, and a detailed discussion is presented of calculations of the electronic and optical properties of this material. These calculations predict that {beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} will have a minimum gap which is indirect at 6.4{+-}0.5 eV. A discussion of the possibility of carbon nitride nanotubes is also presented. (orig.)

  8. Selective layer disordering in III-nitrides with a capping layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2016-06-14

    Selective layer disordering in a doped III-nitride superlattice can be achieved by depositing a dielectric capping layer on a portion of the surface of the superlattice and annealing the superlattice to induce disorder of the layer interfaces under the uncapped portion and suppress disorder of the interfaces under the capped portion. The method can be used to create devices, such as optical waveguides, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, solar cells, modulators, laser, and amplifiers.

  9. Investigation of new superhard carbon allotropes with promising electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvashnina, Yulia A.; Kvashnin, Alexander G. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, 7a Centralnaya Street, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutsky Lane, 141700 Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Sorokin, Pavel B., E-mail: psorokin@iph.krasn.ru [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, 7a Centralnaya Street, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutsky Lane, 141700 Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of RAS, 4 Kosigina St., Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-14

    During the systematic search for a new superhard carbon allotrope, we predicted three structures with promising physical properties. Our electronic structure calculations show that these materials have a semiconducting band gap and a high carrier mobility comparable with diamond. The simulated x-ray diffraction patterns of the proposed materials are in a good agreement with the experimental X-ray spectra. Evaluated phase transition pressures from graphite to the new proposed carbon phases are smaller than 25 GPa and close to the experimental values.

  10. Magnetic modes in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.A.

    1990-04-01

    A first discussion of reciprocal propagation of magnetic modes in a superlattice is presented. In the absence of an applied external magnetic field a superllatice made of alternate layers of the type antiferromagnetic-non-magnetic materials presents effects similar to those of phonons in a dielectric superlattice. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  11. Studies on nanosecond 532nm and 355nm and ultrafast 515nm and 532nm laser cutting super-hard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, micro-processing of three kinds of super-hard materials of poly-crystal diamond (PCD)/tungsten-carbide (WC), CVD-diamond and cubic boron nitride (CNB) has been systematically studied using nanosecond laser (532nm and 355nm), and ultrafast laser (532nm and 515nm). Our purpose is to investigate a full laser micro-cutting solution to achieve a ready-to-use cutting tool insert (CTI). The results show a clean cut with little burns and recasting at edge. The cutting speed of 2-10mm/min depending on thickness was obtained. The laser ablation process was also studied by varying laser parameters (wavelength, pulse width, pulse energy, repetition rate) and tool path to improve cutting speed. Also, studies on material removal efficiency (MRE) of PCD/WC with 355nm-ns and 515nm-fs laser as a function of laser fluence show that 355nm-ns laser is able to achieve higher MRE for PCD and WC. Thus, ultrafast laser is not necessarily used for superhard material cutting. Instead, post-polishing with ultrafast laser can be used to clean cutting surface and improve smoothness.

  12. Superlattices in thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofo, J.O.; Mahan, G.D.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1994-08-01

    The electrical conductivity, thermopower and the electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of a superlattice, are calculated with the electric field and the thermal gradient applied parallel to the interfaces. Tunneling between quantum wells is included. The broadening of the lowest subband when the period of the superlattice is decreased produces a reduction of the thermoelectric figure of merit. However, we found that a moderate increase of the figure of merit may be expected for intermediate values of the period, due to the enhancement of the density of states produced by the superlattice structure

  13. Superhard nanophase cutter materials for rock drilling applications; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, O.; Tompa, G.; Sadangi, R.; Kear, B.; Wilson, C.; Yan, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Low Pressure-High Temperature (LPHT) System has been developed for sintering of nanophase cutter and anvil materials. Microstructured and nanostructured cutters were sintered and studied for rock drilling applications. The WC/Co anvils were sintered and used for development of High Pressure-High Temperature (HPHT) Systems. Binderless diamond and superhard nanophase cutter materials were manufactured with help of HPHT Systems. The diamond materials were studied for rock machining and drilling applications. Binderless Polycrystalline Diamonds (BPCD) have high thermal stability and can be used in geothermal drilling of hard rock formations. Nanophase Polycrystalline Diamonds (NPCD) are under study in precision machining of optical lenses. Triphasic Diamond/Carbide/Metal Composites (TDCC) will be commercialized in drilling and machining applications

  14. Rare earth superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMorrow, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    A review is given of recent experiments on the magnetism of rare earth superlattices. Early experiments in this field were concerned mainly with systems formed by combining a magnetic and a non-magnetic element in a superlattice structure. From results gathered on a variety of systems it has been established that the propagation of magnetic order through the non-magnetic spacer can be understood mostly on the basis of an RKKY-like model, where the strength and range of the coupling depends on the details of the conduction electron susceptibility of the spacer. Recent experiments on more complex systems indicate that this model does not provide a complete description. Examples include superlattices where the constituents can either be both magnetic, adopt different crystal structures (Fermi surfaces), or where one of the constituents has a non-magnetic singlet ground state. The results from such systems are presented and discussed in the context of the currently accepted model. (au)

  15. Magnetism in lanthanide superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goff, J.P.; Sarthour, R.S.; McMorrow, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron diffraction studies of heavy rare-earth superlattices have revealed the stabilization of novel magnetic phases chat are not present in bulk materials. The most striking result is the propagation of the magnetic ordering through nonmagnetic spacer materials. Here we describe some recent X......-ray magnetic resonant scattering studies of light rare-earth superlattices, which illuminate the mechanism of interlayer coupling, and provide access to different areas of Physics. such as the interplay between superconductivity and magnetism. Magnetic X-ray diffraction is found to be particularly well suited...... to the study of the modulated magnetic structures in superlattices, and provides unique information on the conduction-electron spin-density wave responsible for the propagation of magnetic order. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Electronic structure of superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, M.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations of electronic states in semiconductor superlattices are briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the envelope-function method and on comparison with experiments. The energy levels in presence of external magnetic fields are discussed and compared to magneto-optical experiments. (author) [pt

  17. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  18. Superlattice to nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tsu, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    Superlattice to Nanoelectronics provides a historical overview of the early work performed by Tsu and Esaki, to orient those who want to enter into this nanoscience. It describes the fundamental concepts and goes on to answer many questions about todays 'Nanoelectronics'. It covers the applications and types of devices which have been produced, many of which are still in use today. This historical perspective is important as a guide to what and how technology and new fundamental ideas are introduced and developed. The author communicates a basic understanding of the physics involved from first principles, whilst adding new depth, using simple mathematics and explanation of the background essentials. Topics covered include * Introductory materials * Superlattice, Bloch oscillations and transport * Tunneling in QWs to QDs * Optical properties: optical transitions, size dependent dielectric constant, capacitance and doping * Quantum devices: New approaches without doping and heterojunctions - quantum confinement...

  19. Superlattice Microstructured Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Cho, Lok-Hin; Lu, Chao; Wai, Ping-Kong Alex; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2014-01-01

    A generic three-stage stack-and-draw method is demonstrated for the fabrication of complex-microstructured optical fibers. We report the fabrication and characterization of a silica superlattice microstructured fiber with more than 800 rhomboidally arranged air-holes. A polarization-maintaining fiber with a birefringence of 8.5 × 10−4 is demonstrated. The birefringent property of the fiber is found to be highly insensitive to external environmental effects, such as pressure. PMID:28788693

  20. Thermoelectric transport in superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinecke, T L; Broido, D A

    1997-07-01

    The thermoelectric transport properties of superlattices have been studied using an exact solution of the Boltzmann equation. The role of heat transport along the barrier layers, of carrier tunneling through the barriers, of valley degeneracy and of the well width and energy dependences of the carrier-phonon scattering rates on the thermoelectric figure of merit are given. Calculations are given for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and for PbTe, and the results of recent experiments are discussed.

  1. Magnetic Rare-Earth Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Gibbs, D.; Böni, P.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic structures of several single‐crystal, magnetic rare‐earth superlattice systems grown by molecular‐beam epitaxy are reviewed. In particular, the results of recent neutron diffraction investigations of long‐range magnetic order in Gd‐Y, Dy‐Y, Gd‐Dy, and Ho‐Y periodic superlattices...... are presented. In the Gd‐Y system, an antiphase domain structure develops for certain Y layer spacings, whereas modified helical moment configurations are found to occur in the other systems, some of which are commensurate with the chemical superlattice wavelength. References are made to theoretical interaction...

  2. Superhard MgB sub 2 bulk material prepared by high-pressure sintering

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, H A; Chen, L X; Zhu, P W; Ren, G Z; Guo, W L; Fu, X Q; Zou Guang Tian; Ren, Z A; Che, G C; Zhao, Z X

    2002-01-01

    Superhard MgB sub 2 bulk material with a golden metallic shine was synthesized by high-pressure sintering for 8 h at 5.5 GPa and different temperatures. Appropriate pressure and temperature conditions for synthesizing polycrystalline MgB sub 2 with high hardness were investigated. The samples were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The Vickers hardness, bulk density, and electrical resistivity were measured at room temperature.

  3. Anomalous piezoelectricity in two-dimensional graphene nitride nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelisko, Matthew; Hanlumyuang, Yuranan; Yang, Shubin; Liu, Yuanming; Lei, Chihou; Li, Jiangyu; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Sharma, Pradeep

    2014-06-27

    Piezoelectricity is a unique property of materials that permits the conversion of mechanical stimuli into electrical and vice versa. On the basis of crystal symmetry considerations, pristine carbon nitride (C3N4) in its various forms is non-piezoelectric. Here we find clear evidence via piezoresponse force microscopy and quantum mechanical calculations that both atomically thin and layered graphitic carbon nitride, or graphene nitride, nanosheets exhibit anomalous piezoelectricity. Insights from ab inito calculations indicate that the emergence of piezoelectricity in this material is due to the fact that a stable phase of graphene nitride nanosheet is riddled with regularly spaced triangular holes. These non-centrosymmetric pores, and the universal presence of flexoelectricity in all dielectrics, lead to the manifestation of the apparent and experimentally verified piezoelectric response. Quantitatively, an e11 piezoelectric coefficient of 0.758 C m(-2) is predicted for C3N4 superlattice, significantly larger than that of the commonly compared α-quartz.

  4. Dissipative chaos in semiconductor superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moghadam

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the motion of electron in a miniband of a semiconductor superlattice (SSL under the influence of external electric and magnetic fields is investigated. The electric field is applied in a direction perpendicular to the layers of the semiconductor superlattice, and the magnetic field is applied in different direction Numerical calculations show conditions led to the possibility of chaotic behaviors.

  5. Monolayer atomic crystal molecular superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; He, Qiyuan; Halim, Udayabagya; Liu, Yuanyue; Zhu, Enbo; Lin, Zhaoyang; Xiao, Hai; Duan, Xidong; Feng, Ziying; Cheng, Rui; Weiss, Nathan O.; Ye, Guojun; Huang, Yun-Chiao; Wu, Hao; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Shakir, Imran; Liao, Lei; Chen, Xianhui; Goddard, William A., III; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2018-03-01

    Artificial superlattices, based on van der Waals heterostructures of two-dimensional atomic crystals such as graphene or molybdenum disulfide, offer technological opportunities beyond the reach of existing materials. Typical strategies for creating such artificial superlattices rely on arduous layer-by-layer exfoliation and restacking, with limited yield and reproducibility. The bottom-up approach of using chemical-vapour deposition produces high-quality heterostructures but becomes increasingly difficult for high-order superlattices. The intercalation of selected two-dimensional atomic crystals with alkali metal ions offers an alternative way to superlattice structures, but these usually have poor stability and seriously altered electronic properties. Here we report an electrochemical molecular intercalation approach to a new class of stable superlattices in which monolayer atomic crystals alternate with molecular layers. Using black phosphorus as a model system, we show that intercalation with cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide produces monolayer phosphorene molecular superlattices in which the interlayer distance is more than double that in black phosphorus, effectively isolating the phosphorene monolayers. Electrical transport studies of transistors fabricated from the monolayer phosphorene molecular superlattice show an on/off current ratio exceeding 107, along with excellent mobility and superior stability. We further show that several different two-dimensional atomic crystals, such as molybdenum disulfide and tungsten diselenide, can be intercalated with quaternary ammonium molecules of varying sizes and symmetries to produce a broad class of superlattices with tailored molecular structures, interlayer distances, phase compositions, electronic and optical properties. These studies define a versatile material platform for fundamental studies and potential technological applications.

  6. Structure of superhard tungsten tetraboride: A missing link between MB2 and MB12 higher borides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew T.; Turner, Christopher L.; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Superhard metals are of interest as possible replacements with enhanced properties over the metal carbides commonly used in cutting, drilling, and wear-resistant tooling. Of the superhard metals, the highest boride of tungsten—often referred to as WB4 and sometimes as W1–xB3—is one of the most promising candidates. The structure of this boride, however, has never been fully resolved, despite the fact that it was discovered in 1961—a fact that severely limits our understanding of its structure–property relationships and has generated increasing controversy in the literature. Here, we present a new crystallographic model of this compound based on refinement against time-of-flight neutron diffraction data. Contrary to previous X-ray–only structural refinements, there is strong evidence for the presence of interstitial arrangements of boron atoms and polyhedral bonding. The formation of these polyhedra—slightly distorted boron cuboctahedra—appears to be dependent upon the defective nature of the tungsten-deficient metal sublattice. This previously unidentified structure type has an intermediary relationship between MB2 and MB12 type boride polymorphs. Manipulation of the fractionally occupied metal and boron sites may provide insight for the rational design of new superhard metals. PMID:25733870

  7. Soliton excitation in superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Mensah, N.G.; Twum, A.K.

    1995-10-01

    Excitation of soliton in superlattice has been investigated theoretically. It is noted that the soliton velocity u and the length L depend on the amplitude E 0 and that an increase in the amplitude causes soliton width L to approach zero and the velocity u to that of light V in homogeneous medium. The characteristic parameters of soliton u, L and E 0 are related by expression u/L E 0 = ed/2(h/2π) which is constant depending only on the SL period d. It is observed also that the soliton has both energy E = 8V 2 (1 - u 2 /V 2 ) -1/2 and momentum P = u/V 2 E which makes it behave as relativistic free particle with rest energy 8V 2 . Its interaction with electrons can cause the soliton electric effect in SL. (author). 27 refs

  8. Superlattice electroabsorption radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, B.J.

    1993-06-01

    This paper provides a preliminary investigation of a new class of superlattice electroabsorption radiation detectors that employ direct optical modulation for high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D), high-resolution imaging. Applications for the detector include nuclear radiation measurements, tactical guidance and detection (laser radar), inertial fusion plasma studies, and satellite-based sensors. Initial calculations discussed in this paper indicate that a 1.5-μm (GaAlAs) multi-quantum-well (MQW) Fabry-Perot detector can respond directly to radiation of energies 1 eV to 10 KeV, and indirectly (with scattering targets) up through gamma, with 2-D sample rates on the order of 20 ps

  9. Synergy of atom-probe structural data and quantum-mechanical calculations in a theory-guided design of extreme-stiffness superlattices containing metastable phases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Friák, Martin; Tytko, D.; Holec, D.; Choi, P.P.; Eisenlohr, P.; Raabe, D.; Neugebauer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2015), Art . n. 093004 ISSN 1367-2630 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ab initio * composites * elasticity * nitrides * superlattices * Young's modulus Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.570, year: 2015

  10. Topotactic interconversion of nanoparticle superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Robert J; Jones, Matthew R; Lee, Byeongdu; Auyeung, Evelyn; Mirkin, Chad A

    2013-09-13

    The directed assembly of nanoparticle building blocks is a promising method for generating sophisticated three-dimensional materials by design. In this work, we have used DNA linkers to synthesize nanoparticle superlattices that have greater complexity than simple binary systems using the process of topotactic intercalation-the insertion of a third nanoparticle component at predetermined sites within a preformed binary lattice. Five distinct crystals were synthesized with this methodology, three of which have no equivalent in atomic or molecular crystals, demonstrating a general approach for assembling highly ordered ternary nanoparticle superlattices whose structures can be predicted before their synthesis. Additionally, the intercalation process was demonstrated to be completely reversible; the inserted nanoparticles could be expelled into solution by raising the temperature, and the ternary superlattice could be recovered by cooling.

  11. Dielectric function of semiconductor superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guoyi.

    1990-08-01

    We present a calculation of the dielectric function for semiconductor GaAs/Ga 1-x Al x As superlattice taking account of the extension of the electron envelope function and the difference of both the dielectric constant and width between GaAs and Ga 1-x Al x As layers. In the appropriate limits, our results exactly reduce to the well-known results of the quasi two-dimensional electron gas obtained by Lee and Spector and of the period array of two-dimensional electron layers obtained by Das Sarma and Quinn. By means of the dielectric function of the superlattice, the dispersion relation of the collective excitation and the screening property of semiconductor superlattice are discussed and compared with the results of the quasi two-dimensional system and with the results of the periodic array of the two-dimensional electron layers. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs

  12. Perovskite Superlattices as Tunable Microwave Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, H. M.; Harshavardhan, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have shown that superlattices that comprise alternating epitaxial layers of dissimilar paraelectric perovskites can exhibit large changes in permittivity with the application of electric fields. The superlattices are potentially useful as electrically tunable dielectric components of such microwave devices as filters and phase shifters. The present superlattice approach differs fundamentally from the prior use of homogeneous, isotropic mixtures of base materials and dopants. A superlattice can comprise layers of two or more perovskites in any suitable sequence (e.g., ABAB..., ABCDABCD..., ABACABACA...). Even though a single layer of one of the perovskites by itself is not tunable, the compositions and sequence of the layers can be chosen so that (1) the superlattice exhibits low microwave loss and (2) the interfacial interaction between at least two of the perovskites in the superlattice renders either the entire superlattice or else at least one of the perovskites tunable.

  13. Phonon-induced optical superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M M; Hey, R; Santos, P V; Cantarero, A

    2005-04-01

    We demonstrate the formation of a dynamic optical superlattice through the modulation of a semiconductor microcavity by stimulated acoustic phonons. The high coherent phonon population produces a folded optical dispersion relation with well-defined energy gaps and renormalized energy levels, which are accessed using reflection and diffraction experiments.

  14. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au)

  15. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  16. Strain-tunable half-metallicity in hybrid graphene-hBN monolayer superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanchao; Zhang, Shiqi; Lee, In-Ho; Jun, Sukky; Ciobanu, Cristian V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Armchair superlattices have a bandgap modulated by the deformed domain widths. • Strain and domain width lead to novel spin-dependent behavior for zigzag boundaries. • Limits for spin-dependent bandgap and half-metallic behavior have been charted. - Abstract: As research in 2-D materials evolves toward combinations of different materials, interesting electronic and spintronic properties are revealed and may be exploited in future devices. A way to combine materials is the formation of spatially periodic domain boundaries in an atom-thick monolayer: as shown in recent reports, when these domains are made of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride, the resulting superlattice has half-metallic properties in which one spin component is (semi)metallic and the other is semiconductor. We explore here the range of spin-dependent electronic properties that such superlattices can develop for different type of domain boundaries, domain widths, and values of tensile strain applied to the monolayer. We show evidence of an interplay between strain and domain width in determining the electronic properties: while for armchair boundaries the bandgap is the same for both spin components, superlattices with zigzag boundaries exhibit rich spin-dependent behavior, including different bandgaps for each spin component, half-metallicity, and reversal of half-metallicity. These findings can lead to new ways of controlling the spintronic properties in hybrid-domain monolayers, which may be exploited in devices based on 2-D materials.

  17. Full elastic tensor of a crystal of the superhard compound ReB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, J.B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569 (United States); Betts, J.B. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Garrett, J.D. [Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Guo, S.Q. [Composites Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 3050047 (Japan); Eng, J.T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569 (United States); Migliori, A., E-mail: migliori@cybermesa.com [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kaner, R.B., E-mail: kaner@chem.ucla.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1595 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The search for superhard materials, driven by their widespread use in industrial applications, highlights one of the most difficult problems in the field of materials science: the accurate characterization of a material's intrinsic physical properties. This paper reports on the full elastic tensor of two polycrystalline isotropic specimens and one specimen of ReB{sub 2} consisting of highly oriented grains. The high-monocrystal bulk modulus value extracted from the grain-oriented specimen, measured by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, validates the ultra-incompressibility of ReB{sub 2}. An observed hardness of 40 GPa and a Debye temperature of 731 K were calculated for the ReB{sub 2} crystal, confirming its superhard and super-stiff properties. All the measured moduli of the ReB{sub 2} grain-oriented crystal exceed the comparable ones for the polycrystal by amounts that cannot be explained by averaging over direction, which may reveal why recent measurements reported on ReB{sub 2} containing excess boron yield values that are not as hard or incompressible as the crystal.

  18. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  19. Thermal conductivity and heat transfer in superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G; Neagu, M; Borca-Tasciuc, T

    1997-07-01

    Understanding the thermal conductivity and heat transfer processes in superlattice structures is critical for the development of thermoelectric materials and devices based on quantum structures. This work reports progress on the modeling of thermal conductivity of superlattice structures. Results from the models established based on the Boltzmann transport equation could explain existing experimental results on the thermal conductivity of semiconductor superlattices in both in plane and cross-plane directions. These results suggest the possibility of engineering the interfaces to further reduce thermal conductivity of superlattice structures.

  20. Tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices. C L ROY. Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India. Abstract. The purpose of the present paper is to report a study of tunneling of electrons through semicon- ductor superlattices (SSL); specially, we have ...

  1. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function...

  2. Photostimulated attenuation of hypersound in superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.; Adjepong, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    Photostimulated attenuation of hypersound in semiconductor superlattice has been investigated. It is shown that the attenuation coefficient depends on the phonon wave vector q in an oscillatory manner and that from this oscillation the band width Δ of superlattice can be found. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig

  3. Fullerene-based low-density superhard materials with tunable bandgaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ai-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Juan; Gan, Li-Hua

    2018-06-01

    Four carbon allotropes built from tetrahedral symmetrical fullerenes C28 and C40 are predicted to be superhard materials with mass density around that of water, and all of them are porous semiconductors. Both the bandgaps and hardness decrease with increasing ratio of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms. The mechanical and thermodynamic stabilities of C28- and C40-based allotropes at zero pressure are confirmed by a variety of state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The evolution trend of bandgap found here suggests that one can obtain low-density hard materials with tunable bandgaps by substituting the carbon atom in diamond with different Td-symmetrical non-IPR fullerene Cn.

  4. Superhard sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes with tunable electronic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Four sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes are proposed on the basis of first principles calculations. These four carbon allotropes are energetically more favorable than graphite under suitable pressure conditions. They can be assembled from graphite through intralayer wrinkling and interlayer buckling, which is similar to the formation of diamond from graphite. For one of the sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes, mC24, the electron diffraction patterns match these of i-carbon, which is synthesized from shock-compressed graphite (H. Hirai and K. Kondo, Science, 1991, 253, 772. The allotropes exhibit tunable electronic characteristics from metallic to semiconductive with band gaps comparable to those of silicon allotropes. They are all superhard materials with Vickers hardness values comparable to that of cubic BN. The sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotroes are promising materials for photovoltaic electronic devices, and abrasive and grinding tools.

  5. New superhard boride composite materials. Part 1; Neue superharte Borid-Verbundwerkstoffe. Teil 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariev, Z.

    2001-07-01

    Contents: Investigations of diffusion coupling between steels and borides (ZrB{sub 2}, TiB{sub 2}, CrB, MoB); Diffusion saturation of armco iron inpowdered borides; Gaseous phase transport intensivation of the transition metal using suitable activators (vapour phase process); boron circonisation of steels; High-temperature oxidation studies on boride composite coatings on iron and steel; Corrosion resistance of boride coated iron base composites; Superhard boride coatings on hard metals and on cermet plates with reduced tungsten contents. [German] Dieser Beitrag ist wie folgt gegliedert: Untersuchung der Diffusionskopplung zwischen Staehlen und den Boriden (ZrB{sub 2}, TiB{sub 2}, CrB, MoB); Diffusionssaettigung von Armcoeisen in Pulverboride; Gasphasentransport-Intensivierung des Uebergangsmetalls mittels geeigneter Akivatoren (vapour phase process); Borzirkonieren von Staehlen; Hochtemperaturoxidationuntersuchungen von Borid-Composite-Schichten auf Eisen und Stahl; Korrosionsbestaendigkeit der boridbeschichteten Verbundwerkstoffe auf Eisenbasis; Superharte Boridbeschichtungen auf Hartmetall und auf Metallkeramikplatten mit reduziertem Wolframgehalt.

  6. Aluminum Gallium Nitride Alloys Grown via Metalorganic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy Using a Digital Growth Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, L. E.; Korakakis, D.

    2011-04-01

    This work investigates the use of a digital growth technique as a viable method for achieving high-quality aluminum gallium nitride (Al x Ga1- x N) films via metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. Digital alloys are superlattice structures with period thicknesses of a few monolayers. Alloys with an AlN mole fraction ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 were grown by adjusting the thickness of the AlN layer in the superlattice. High-resolution x-ray diffraction was used to determine the superlattice period and c-lattice parameter of the structure, while reciprocal-space mapping was used to determine the a-lattice parameter and evaluate growth coherency. A comparison of the measured lattice parameter with both the nominal value and also the underlying buffer layer is discussed.

  7. Bulk-like-phonon polaritons in one-dimensional photonic superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urrea, H. A.; Duque, C. A.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the properties of a one-dimensional photonic superlattice made of alternating layers of air and wurtzite aluminum nitride. The Maxwell equations are solved for any admissible values of the angle of incidence by means of the transfer matrix formalism. The band structure of the frequency spectrum is obtained, as well as the density of states and transmittance associated to both the TM and TE modes. The dispersion relations indicate that for oblique incidence and TM modes there is a component of the electric field oriented along the growth direction of the structure that couples with the longitudinal optical phonon oscillations of the aluminum nitride thus leading to the appearance of longitudinal phonon polaritons in the system.

  8. Preparation of uranium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.A.; Tennery, V.J.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for preparing actinide-nitrides from massive actinide metal which is suitable for sintering into low density fuel shapes by partially hydriding the massive metal and simultaneously dehydriding and nitriding the dehydrided portion. The process is repeated until all of the massive metal is converted to a nitride

  9. Graphene nanoribbons epitaxy on boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaobo; Wang, Shuopei; Wu, Shuang; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Meng, Jianling; Xie, Guibai; Wang, Duoming; Wang, Guole; Zhang, Ting Ting; Yang, Rong; Shi, Dongxia [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Wei [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, ENS-CNRS UMR 8551, Universités Pierre et Marie Curie and Paris-Diderot, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Zhang, Guangyu, E-mail: gyzhang@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-03-14

    In this letter, we report a pilot study on epitaxy of monolayer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). We found that GNRs grow preferentially from the atomic steps of h-BN, forming in-plane heterostructures. GNRs with well-defined widths ranging from ∼15 nm to ∼150 nm can be obtained reliably. As-grown GNRs on h-BN have high quality with a carrier mobility of ∼20 000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for ∼100-nm-wide GNRs at a temperature of 1.7 K. Besides, a moiré pattern induced quasi-one-dimensional superlattice with a periodicity of ∼15 nm for GNR/h-BN was also observed, indicating zero crystallographic twisting angle between GNRs and h-BN substrate. The superlattice induced band structure modification is confirmed by our transport results. These epitaxial GNRs/h-BN with clean surfaces/interfaces and tailored widths provide an ideal platform for high-performance GNR devices.

  10. Planar channeling in superlattices: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, J.A.; Picraux, S.T.; Allen, W.R.; Chu, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    The well-known continuum model theory for planar channeled energetic particles in perfect crystals is extended to layered crystalline structures and applied to superlattices. In a strained-layer structure, the planar channels with normals which are not perpendicular to the growth direction change their direction at each interface, and this dramatically influences the channeling behavior. The governing equation of motion for a planar channeled ion in a strained-layer superlattice with equal layer thicknesses is a one degree of freedom nonlinear oscillator which is periodically forced with a sequence of δ functions. These δ functions, which are of equal spacing and amplitude with alternating sign, represent the tilts at each of the interfaces. Thus upon matching an effective channeled particle wavelength, corresponding to a natural period of the nonlinear oscillator, to the period of the strained-layer superlattice, corresponding to the periodic forcing, strong resonance effects are expected. The condition of one effective wavelength per period corresponds to a rapid dechanneling at a well-defined depth (catastrophic dechanneling), whereas two wavelengths per period corresponds to no enhanced dechanneling after the first one or two layers (resonance channeling). A phase plane analysis is used to characterize the channeled particle motion. Detailed calculations using the Moliere continuum potential are compared with our previously described modified harmonic model, and new results are presented for the phase plane evolution, as well as the dechanneling as a function of depth, incident angle, energy, and layer thickness. General scaling laws are developed and nearly universal curves are obtained for the dechanneling versus depth under catastrophic dechanneling

  11. Electronic structure of silicon superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Moriarty, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Utilizing a new complex-band-structure technique, the electronic structure of model Si-Si/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/ and MOS superlattices has been obtained over a wide range of layer thickness d (11 less than or equal to d less than or equal to 110 A). For d greater than or equal to 44 A, it is found that these systems exhibit a direct fundamental band gap. Further calculations of band-edge effective masses and impurity scattering rates suggest the possibility of a band-structure-driven enhancement in electron mobility over bulk silicon

  12. Superhard behaviour, low residual stress, and unique structure in diamond-like carbon films by simple bilayer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Simple bilayer approach is proposed for synthesizing hard and superhard diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with reduced residual stress. For this, M/DLC bilayer (M = Ti and Cu) structures are grown using hybrid system involving radio frequency (RF)-sputtering and RF-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Ti/DLC bilayer deposited at negative self bias of 100 V shows superhard behaviour with hardness (H) as 49 GPa. Cu/DLC bilayer grown at self bias of 100 V exhibits hard behaviour with H as 22.8 GPa. The hardness of Ti/DLC (Cu/DLC) bilayer gets changed from superhard (hard) to hard (moderate hard) regime, when the self bias is raised to 300 V. Residual stress in Ti/DLC (Cu/DLC) bilayer is found to be significantly low that varies in the range of 1 GPa-1.65 GPa (0.8 GPa-1.6 GPa). The microstructure and morphology are studied by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM and AFM pictures reveal the creation of nanostructured features in the deposited bilayers. Raman, SEM, and AFM analyses are correlated with the nano-mechanical properties. Owing to excellent nano-mechanical properties, these bilayers can find their direct industrial applications as hard and protective coatings.

  13. Elasticity and hardness of nano-polycrystalline boron nitrides: The apparent Hall-Petch effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakubo, A.; Ogi, H.; Hirao, M.; Sumiya, H.

    2014-01-01

    Nano-polycrystalline boron nitride (BN) is expected to replace diamond as a superhard and superstiff material. Although its hardening was reported, its elasticity remains unclear and the as-measured hardness could be significantly different from the true value due to the elastic recovery. In this study, we measured the longitudinal-wave elastic constant of nano-polycrystalline BNs using picosecond ultrasound spectroscopy and confirmed the elastic softening for small-grain BNs. We also measured Vickers and Knoop hardness for the same specimens and clarified the relationship between hardness and stiffness. The Vickers hardness significantly increased as the grain size decreased, while the Knoop hardness remained nearly unchanged. We attribute the apparent increase in Vickers hardness to the elastic recovery and propose a model to support this insight.

  14. Magnetic structure of holmium-yttrium superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jehan, D.A.; McMorrow, D.F.; Cowley, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the chemical and magnetic structures of a series of holmium-yttrium superlattices and a 5000 angstrom film of holmium, all grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. By combining the results of high-resolution x-ray diffraction with detailed modeling, we show...... that the superlattices have high crystallographic integrity: the structural coherence length parallel to the growth direction is typically almost-equal-to 2000 angstrom, while the interfaces between the two elements are well defined and extend over approximately four lattice planes. The magnetic structures were...... determined using neutron-scattering techniques. The moments on the Ho3+ ions in the superlattices form a basal-plane helix. From an analysis of the superlattice structure factors of the primary magnetic satellites, we are able to determine separately the contributions made by the holmium and yttrium...

  15. Theory of transmission through disordered superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1999-01-01

    We derive a theory for transmission through disordered finite superlattices in which the interface roughness scattering is treated by disorder averaging. This procedure permits efficient calculation of the transmission through samples with large cross sections. These calculations can be performed...

  16. Epitaxial rare-earth superlattices and films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, M.B.; Beach, R.S.; Flynn, C.P.; Matheny, A.; Tsui, F.; Rhyne, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on epitaxial growth of rare-earth superlattices which is demonstrated to have opened important new areas of research on magnetic materials. The propagation magnetic order through non-magnetic elements, including its range and anisotropy, has been studied. The importance of magnetostriction in determining the phase diagram is demonstrated by the changes induced by epitaxial clamping. The cyrstallinity of epitaxial superlattices provides the opportunity to study interfacial magnetism by conventional x-ray and neutron scattering methods

  17. Optical properties of graphene superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, H Anh; Ho, S Ta; Nguyen, D Chien; Do, V Nam

    2014-10-08

    In this work, the optical responses of graphene superlattices, i.e. graphene subjected to a periodic scalar potential, are theoretically reported. The optical properties were studied by investigating the optical conductivity, which was calculated using the Kubo formalism. It was found that the optical conductivity becomes dependent on the photon polarization and is suppressed in the photon energy range of (0, Ub), where Ub is the potential barrier height. In the higher photon energy range, i.e. Ω > Ub, the optical conductivity is, however, almost identical to that of pristine graphene. Such behaviors of the optical conductivity are explained microscopically through the analysis of the elements of optical matrices and effectively through a simple model, which is based on the Pauli blocking mechanism.

  18. Optical properties of graphene superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, H Anh; Do, V Nam; Ho, S Ta; Nguyen, D Chien

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the optical responses of graphene superlattices, i.e. graphene subjected to a periodic scalar potential, are theoretically reported. The optical properties were studied by investigating the optical conductivity, which was calculated using the Kubo formalism. It was found that the optical conductivity becomes dependent on the photon polarization and is suppressed in the photon energy range of (0, U b ), where U b is the potential barrier height. In the higher photon energy range, i.e. Ω > U b , the optical conductivity is, however, almost identical to that of pristine graphene. Such behaviors of the optical conductivity are explained microscopically through the analysis of the elements of optical matrices and effectively through a simple model, which is based on the Pauli blocking mechanism. (paper)

  19. Modernization of serial facility 'BULAT-6' for synthesis of vacuum-arc coatings by the method of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition as well as ion hydrogen-free nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulaev, V.M.; Andreev, A.A.; Rudenko, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The model of laboratory vacuum-arc facility for realization of the method of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition is worked out by means modernization of serial industrial facility 'BULAT-6'. The facility is suitable for surface modification of instrumental steel items, including the low-alloyed steels with low temperatures of tempering. The low-temperature deposition of coatings on the preliminary nitrided surface of instrument permits obtaining dense coating with minimum maintenance of macroparticles, as well as with coatings superhigh adhesion to the substrate and with superhardness. The coatings possess high property stableness in time.

  20. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a GaN/Al 0.18Ga0.82N superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Felix; Tomm, Jens W.; Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael; Elsaesser, Thomas; Flytzanis, Christos; Hoffmann, Veit; Weyers, Markus

    2018-04-01

    Relaxation processes of photoexcited carriers in a GaN /Al0.18Ga0.82N superlattice are studied in femtosecond spectrally resolved reflectivity measurements at ambient temperature. The transient reflectivity reveals electron trapping into defect states close to the conduction-band minimum with a 150-200 fs time constant, followed by few-picosecond carrier cooling. A second slower trapping process into a different manifold of defect states is observed on a time scale of approximately 10 ps. Our results establish the prominent role of structural defects and disorder for ultrafast carrier dynamics in nitride semiconductor structures.

  1. The phonon-polariton spectrum of one-dimensional Rudin-Shapiro photonic superlattices with uniaxial polar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urrea, H. A.; Duque, C. A.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    The properties of the optical-phonon-associated polaritonic modes that appear under oblique light incidence in 1D superlattices made of photonic materials are studied. The investigated systems result from the periodic repetition of quasiregular Rudin-Shapiro (RS) multilayer units. It is assume that the structure consists of both passive non-dispersive layers of constant refraction index and active layers of uniaxial polar materials. In particular, we consider III-V wurtzite nitrides. The optical axis of these polaritonic materials is taken along the growth direction. Maxwell equations are solved using the transfer matrix technique for all admissible values of the incidence angle.

  2. Electrochemical properties of lanthanum nitride with calcium nitride additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesunova, R.P.; Fishman, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the electrochemical properties of lanthanum nitride with calcium nitride added. The lanthanum nitride was obtained by nitriding metallic lanthanum at 870 K in an ammonia stream. The product contained Cl, Pr, Nd, Sm, Fe, Ca, Cu, Mo, Mg, Al, Si, and Be. The calcium nitride was obtained by nitriding metallic calcium in a nitrogen stream. The conductivity on the LaN/C 3 N 2 system components are shown as a function of temperature. A table shows the solid solutions to be virtually electronic conductors and the lanthanum nitride a mixed conductor

  3. Superlattice design for optimal thermoelectric generator performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Pankaj; Sharma, Abhishek; Mukherjee, Swarnadip; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2018-05-01

    We consider the design of an optimal superlattice thermoelectric generator via the energy bandpass filter approach. Various configurations of superlattice structures are explored to obtain a bandpass transmission spectrum that approaches the ideal ‘boxcar’ form, which is now well known to manifest the largest efficiency at a given output power in the ballistic limit. Using the coherent non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism coupled self-consistently with the Poisson’s equation, we identify such an ideal structure and also demonstrate that it is almost immune to the deleterious effect of self-consistent charging and device variability. Analyzing various superlattice designs, we conclude that superlattice with a Gaussian distribution of the barrier thickness offers the best thermoelectric efficiency at maximum power. It is observed that the best operating regime of this device design provides a maximum power in the range of 0.32–0.46 MW/m 2 at efficiencies between 54%–43% of Carnot efficiency. We also analyze our device designs with the conventional figure of merit approach to counter support the results so obtained. We note a high zT el   =  6 value in the case of Gaussian distribution of the barrier thickness. With the existing advanced thin-film growth technology, the suggested superlattice structures can be achieved, and such optimized thermoelectric performances can be realized.

  4. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs

  5. Antiferromagnetic spinor condensates in a bichromatic superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao; Zhao, Lichao; Chen, Zihe; Liu, Yingmei

    2017-04-01

    A spinor Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical supelattice has been considered as a good quantum simulator for understanding mesoscopic magnetism. We report an experimental study on an antiferromagnetic spinor condensate in a bichromatic superlattice constructed by a cubic red-detuned optical lattice and a one-dimensional blue-detuned optical lattice. Our data demonstrate a few advantages of this bichromatic superlattice over a monochromatic lattice. One distinct advantage is that the bichromatic superlattice enables realizing the first-order superfluid to Mott-insulator phase transitions within a much wider range of magnetic fields. In addition, we discuss an apparent discrepancy between our data and the mean-field theory. We thank the National Science Foundation and the Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology for financial support.

  6. Electronic properties of superlattices on quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, D R; Chaves, A; Ferreira, W P; Farias, G A; Ferreira, R

    2017-04-26

    We present a theoretical study of the one-electron states of a semiconductor-made quantum ring (QR) containing a series of piecewise-constant wells and barriers distributed along the ring circumference. The single quantum well and the superlattice cases are considered in detail. We also investigate how such confining potentials affect the Aharonov-Bohm like oscillations of the energy spectrum and current in the presence of a magnetic field. The model is simple enough so as to allow obtaining various analytical or quasi-analytical results. We show that the well-in-a-ring structure presents enhanced localization features, as well as specific geometrical resonances in its above-barrier spectrum. We stress that the superlattice-in-a-ring structure allows giving a physical meaning to the often used but usually artificial Born-von-Karman periodic conditions, and discuss in detail the formation of energy minibands and minigaps for the circumferential motion, as well as several properties of the superlattice eigenstates in the presence of the magnetic field. We obtain that the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of below-barrier miniband states are reinforced, owing to the important tunnel coupling between neighbour wells of the superlattice, which permits the electron to move in the ring. Additionally, we analysis a superlattice-like structure made of a regular distribution of ionized impurities placed around the QR, a system that may implement the superlattice in a ring idea. Finally, we consider several random disorder models, in order to study roughness disorder and to tackle the robustness of some results against deviations from the ideally nanostructured ring system.

  7. Superhard nanocomposite nc-TiC/a-C:H film fabricated by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yaohui; Zhang Xu; Wu Xianying; Zhang Huixing; Zhang Xiaoji

    2008-01-01

    Superhard nanocomposite nc-TiC/a-C:H films, with an excellent combination of high elastic recovery, low friction coefficient and good H/E ratio, were prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique using the C 2 H 2 gas as the precursor. The effect of C 2 H 2 flow rate on the microstructure, phase composition, mechanical and tribological properties of nanocomposite nc-TiC/a-C:H films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), microindentation and tribotester measurements. It was observed that the C 2 H 2 flow rate significantly affected the Ti content and hardness of films. Furthermore, by selecting the proper value for C 2 H 2 flow rate, 20 sccm, one can deposit the nanocomposite film nc-TiC/a-C:H with excellent properties such as superhardness (66.4 GPa), high elastic recovery (83.3%) and high H/E ratio (0.13)

  8. Tunneling in quantum superlattices with variable lacunarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villatoro, Francisco R. [Departamento de Lenguajes y Ciencias de la Computacion, Universidad de Malaga, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Monsoriu, Juan A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jmonsori@fis.upv.es

    2008-05-19

    Fractal superlattices are composite, aperiodic structures comprised of alternating layers of two semiconductors following the rules of a fractal set. The scattering properties of polyadic Cantor fractal superlattices with variable lacunarity are determined. The reflection coefficient as a function of the particle energy and the lacunarity parameter present tunneling curves, which may be classified as vertical, arc, and striation nulls. Approximate analytical formulae for such curves are derived using the transfer matrix method. Comparison with numerical results shows good accuracy. The new results may be useful in the development of band-pass energy filters for electrons, semiconductor solar cells, and solid-state radiation sources up to THz frequencies.

  9. Ion nitriding of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, T.

    2002-09-01

    The present study is devoted to the investigation of the mechanism of aluminium nitriding by a technique that employs implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions and diffusional transport of atoms. The nitriding of aluminium is investigated, because this is a method for surface modification of aluminium and has a potential for application in a broad spectrum of fields such as automobile, marine, aviation, space technologies, etc. However, at present nitriding of aluminium does not find any large scale industrial application, due to problems in the formation of stoichiometric aluminium nitride layers with a sufficient thickness and good quality. For the purposes of this study, ion nitriding is chosen, as an ion beam method with the advantage of good and independent control over the process parameters, which thus can be related uniquely to the physical properties of the resulting layers. Moreover, ion nitriding has a close similarity to plasma nitriding and plasma immersion ion implantation, which are methods with a potential for industrial application. (orig.)

  10. Superhard PVD carbon films deposited with different gradients with and without additions of titanium and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, C.

    2003-10-01

    This work focusses on thin carbon-based films, deposited by magnetron sputtering with additional argon ion bombardment (0 eV to 800 eV) without extra adhesive layer on hard metal inserts. As one possibility of increasing the reduced adherence of hard carbon films the deposition of films with additions of titanium and silicon is studied. The aim of this work is to examine the influence of a modification of the transition between substrate and film by realizing three different types of deposition gradients. The pure carbon films are amorphous, the dominant network of atoms is formed by sp 2 bonded atoms. The amount of sp 3 bonded atoms is up to 30% and is influenced by the bombarding argon ion energy. Carbon films with additions of silicon are amorphous, only in films with a high amount of titanium (approx. 20 at%) nanocomposites of titanium carbide crystals with diameters of less than 5 nm in an amorphous carbon matrix were found. The mechanical properties and the behavior of single layer carbon films strongly depend on the argon ion energy. An increase of this energy leads to higher film hardness and higher residual stress and results in the delamination of superhard carbon films on hard metal substrates. The adhesion of single layer films for ion energies of more than 200 eV is significantly improved by additions of titanium and silicon, respectively. The addition of 23 at% silicon and titanium, respectively leads to a high reduction of the residual stress. In a non-reactive PVD process thin films were deposited with a continuously gradient in chemical composition. The results of the investigations of the films with two different concentrations of titanium and silicon, respectively show that carbon-based films with a good adhesion could be deposited. The combination of the two gradients in structure and properties and in chemical composition leads in the system with carbon and silicon carbide to hard and very adhesive films. Especially for carbon films with a high

  11. Thermoelectric properties of In-rich InGaN and InN/InGaN superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James (Zi-Jian Ju

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric properties of n-type InGaN alloys with high In-content and InN/InGaN thin film superlattices (SL grown by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. Room-temperature measurements of the thermoelectric properties reveal that an increasing Ga-content in ternary InGaN alloys (0 < x(Ga < 0.2 yields a more than 10-fold reduction in thermal conductivity (κ without deteriorating electrical conductivity (σ, while the Seebeck coefficient (S increases slightly due to a widening band gap compared to binary InN. Employing InN/InGaN SLs (x(Ga = 0.1 with different periods, we demonstrate that confinement effects strongly enhance electron mobility with values as high as ∼820 cm2/V s at an electron density ne of ∼5×1019 cm−3, leading to an exceptionally high σ of ∼5400 (Ωcm−1. Simultaneously, in very short-period SL structures S becomes decoupled from ne, κ is further reduced below the alloy limit (κ < 9 W/m-K, and the power factor increases to 2.5×10−4 W/m-K2 by more than a factor of 5 as compared to In-rich InGaN alloys. These findings demonstrate that quantum confinement in group-III nitride-based superlattices facilitates improvements of thermoelectric properties over bulk-like ternary nitride alloys.

  12. Modeling of the Interminiband Absorption Coefficient in InGaN Quantum Dot Superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Giannoccaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model to estimate minibands and theinterminiband absorption coefficient for a wurtzite (WZ indium gallium nitride (InGaN self-assembled quantum dot superlattice (QDSL is developed. It considers a simplified cuboid shape for quantum dots (QDs. The semi-analytical investigation starts from evaluation through the three-dimensional (3D finite element method (FEM simulations of crystal mechanical deformation derived from heterostructure lattice mismatch under spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects. From these results, mean values in QDs and barrier regions of charge carriers’ electric potentials and effective masses for the conduction band (CB and three valence sub-bands for each direction are evaluated. For the minibands’ investigation, the single-particle time-independent Schrödinger equation in effective mass approximation is decoupled in three directions and resolved using the one-dimensional (1D Kronig–Penney model. The built-in electric field is also considered along the polar axis direction, obtaining Wannier–Stark ladders. Then, theinterminiband absorption coefficient in thermal equilibrium for transverse electric (TE and magnetic (TM incident light polarization is calculated using Fermi’s golden rule implementation based on a numerical integration into the first Brillouin zone. For more detailed results, an absorption coefficient component related to superlattice free excitons is also introduced. Finally, some simulation results, observations and comments are given.

  13. Nonlinear elasticity in wurtzite GaN/AlN planar superlattices and quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepkowski, S.P.; Majewski, J.A.; Jurczak, G.

    2005-01-01

    The elastic stiffness tensor for wurtzite GaN and AlN show a significant hydrostatic pressure dependence, which id the evidence of nonlinear elasticity of these compounds. We have examined how the pressure dependence of elastic constants for wurtzite nitrides influences elastic and piezoelectric properties of GaN/AlN planar superlattices and quantum dots. Particularly we show that built-in hydrostatic pressure, present in both quantum wells of the GaN/AlN superlattices and GaN/AlN quantum dots, increases significantly by 0.3-0.7 GPa when nonlinear elasticity is used. Consequently, the compressive volumetric strain in quantum wells and quantum dots decreases in comparison to the case of the linear elastic theory, However, the-component of the built-in electric field in the quantum wells and quantum dots increases considerably when nonlinear elasticity is taken into account. Both effects, i.e., a decrease in the compressive volumetric strain as well as an increase in the built-in electric field, decrease the band-to-band transition energies in the quantum wells and quantum dots. (author)

  14. Quantitative x-ray structure determination of superlattices and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, I.K.; Fullerton, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a general procedure for quantitative structural refinement of superlattice structures. To analyze a wide range of superlattices, the authors have derived a general kinematical diffraction formula that includes random, continuous and discrete fluctuations from the average structure. By implementing a non-linear fitting algorithm to fit the entire x-ray diffraction profile, refined parameters that describe the average superlattice structure, and deviations from this average are obtained. The structural refinement procedure is applied to a crystalline/crystalline Mo/Ni superlattices and crystalline/amorphous Pb/Ge superlattices. Roughness introduced artificially during growth in Mo/Ni superlattices is shown to be accurately reproduced by the refinement

  15. Exchange bias in Fe/Cr double superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J. S.; Felcher, G. P.; Inomata, A.; Goyette, R.; Nelson, C.; Bader, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    Utilizing the oscillatory interlayer exchange coupling in Fe/Cr superlattices, we have constructed ''double superlattice'' structures where a ferromagnetic (F) and an antiferromagnetic (AF) Fe/Cr superlattice are coupled through a Cr spacer. The minor hysteresis loops in the magnetization are shifted from zero field, i.e., the F superlattice is exchange biased by the AF one. The double superlattices are sputter-deposited with (211) epitaxy and possess uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The magnitude of the bias field is satisfactorily described by the classic formula for collinear spin structures. The coherent structure and insensitivity to atomic-scale roughness makes it possible to determine the spin distribution by polarized neutron reflectivity, which confirms that the spin structure is collinear. The magnetic reversal behavior of the double superlattices suggests that a realistic model of exchange bias needs to address the process of nucleating local reverse domains

  16. Exchange bias in Fe/Cr double superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J. S.; Felcher, G. P.; Inomata, A.; Goyette, R.; Nelson, C. S.; Bader, S. D.

    2000-01-01

    Utilizing the oscillatory interlayer exchange coupling in Fe/Cr superlattices, we have constructed ''double superlattice'' structures where a ferromagnetic (F) and an antiferromagnetic (AF) Fe/Cr superlattice are coupled through a Cr spacer. The minor hysteresis loops in the magnetization are shifted from zero field, i.e., the F superlattice is exchange biased by the AF one. The double superlattices are sputter deposited with (211) epitaxy and possess uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The magnitude of the bias field is satisfactorily described by the classic formula for collinear spin structures. The coherent structure and insensitivity to atomic-scale roughness makes it possible to determine the spin distribution by polarized neutron reflectivity, which confirms that the spin structure is collinear. The magnetic reversal behavior of the double superlattices suggests that a realistic model of exchange bias needs to address the process of nucleating local reverse domains. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society

  17. Enhanced hardness in epitaxial TiAlScN alloy thin films and rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Bivas [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Lawrence, Samantha K.; Bahr, David F. [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Schroeder, Jeremy L.; Birch, Jens [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Sands, Timothy D. [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    High hardness TiAlN alloys for wear-resistant coatings exhibit limited lifetimes at elevated temperatures due to a cubic-AlN to hexagonal-AlN phase transformation that leads to decreasing hardness. We enhance the hardness (up to 46 GPa) and maximum operating temperature (up to 1050 °C) of TiAlN-based coatings by alloying with scandium nitride to form both an epitaxial TiAlScN alloy film and epitaxial rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices on MgO substrates. The superlattice hardness increases with decreasing period thickness, which is understood by the Orowan bowing mechanism of the confined layer slip model. These results make them worthy of additional research for industrial coating applications.

  18. The solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, Sergey V.; Kukhar', Egor I.

    2013-01-01

    d’Alembert equation written for the electromagnetic waves propagating in the graphene superlattice is analyzed. The possibility of the propagation of the solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice is discussed. The amplitude and the width of the electromagnetic pulse are calculated. The drag current induced by such wave across the superlattice axis is investigated. The numerical estimate of the charge dragged by the solitary wave is made.

  19. Optimizing the field distribution of a Halbach type permanent magnet cylinder using the soft iron and superhard magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaonong; Lu, Dingwei; Xu, Xibin; Yu, Yang; Gu, Min

    2018-01-01

    When a conventional Halbach type Hollow Cylindrical Permanent Magnet Array (HCPMA) is used to generate magnetic induction over the magnitude of coercivity μ0Hc, some detrimental parasitic magnetic phenomena, such as the demagnetization, magnetization reversal, and vortexes of magnetization, can appear in the interior of the magnets. We present a self-consistent quantitative analysis of the magnetization and magnetic induction distributions inside the magnetic array by considering the anisotropic and nonlinear magnetization functions of the materials consisting of the array. These numeric simulations reveal novel magnetization structures resulted from the self-field of array. We demonstrate that both the field uniformity and magnetic flux in the pole gap can be modulated by partially substituting the magnets of high energy products with the soft irons and the superhard magnets. We also show how the optimized substitution parameters can be obtained for a HCPMA achieving the best field uniformity or the maximum magnetic flux.

  20. Anisotropic behavior of quantum transport in graphene superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Cummings, Aron W.; Roche, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength of multi......We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength...

  1. Metal Nitrides for Plasmonic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, Gururaj V.; Schroeder, Jeremy; Guler, Urcan

    2012-01-01

    Metal nitrides as alternatives to metals such as gold could offer many advantages when used as plasmonic material. We show that transition metal nitrides can replace metals providing equally good optical performance for many plasmonic applications.......Metal nitrides as alternatives to metals such as gold could offer many advantages when used as plasmonic material. We show that transition metal nitrides can replace metals providing equally good optical performance for many plasmonic applications....

  2. Properties of minor actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Itoh, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The present status of the research on properties of minor actinide nitrides for the development of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle based on nitride fuel and pyrochemical reprocessing is described. Some thermal stabilities of Am-based nitrides such as AmN and (Am, Zr)N were mainly investigated. Stabilization effect of ZrN was cleary confirmed for the vaporization and hydrolytic behaviors. New experimental equipments for measuring thermal properties of minor actinide nitrides were also introduced. (author)

  3. Superlattices: problems and new opportunities, nanosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Superlattices were introduced 40 years ago as man-made solids to enrich the class of materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The field metamorphosed to quantum wells and quantum dots, with ever decreasing dimensions dictated by the technological advancements in nanometer regime. In recent years, the field has gone beyond semiconductors to metals and organic solids. Superlattice is simply a way of forming a uniform continuum for whatever purpose at hand. There are problems with doping, defect-induced random switching, and I/O involving quantum dots. However, new opportunities in component-based nanostructures may lead the field of endeavor to new heights. The all important translational symmetry of solids is relaxed and local symmetry is needed in nanosolids.

  4. Engineering the oxygen coordination in digital superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Seyoung; Andersen, Tassie K.; Hong, Hawoong; Rosenberg, Richard A.; Marks, Laurence D.; Fong, Dillon D.

    2017-12-01

    The oxygen sublattice in complex oxides is typically composed of corner-shared polyhedra, with transition metals at their centers. The electronic and chemical properties of the oxide depend on the type and geometric arrangement of these polyhedra, which can be controlled through epitaxial synthesis. Here, we use oxide molecular beam epitaxy to create SrCoOx:SrTiO3 superlattices with tunable oxygen coordination environments and sublattice geometries. Using synchrotron X-ray scattering in combination with soft X-ray spectroscopy, we find that the chemical state of Co can be varied with the polyhedral arrangement, with higher Co oxidation states increasing the valence band maximum. This work demonstrates a new strategy for engineering unique electronic structures in the transition metal oxides using short-period superlattices.

  5. Superlattices of platinum and palladium nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTIN,JAMES E.; WILCOXON,JESS P.; ODINEK,JUDY G.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.

    2000-04-06

    The authors have used a nonionic inverse micelle synthesis technique to form nanoclusters of platinum and palladium. These nanoclusters can be rendered hydrophobic or hydrophilic by the appropriate choice of capping ligand. Unlike Au nanoclusters, Pt nanoclusters show great stability with thiol ligands in aqueous media. Alkane thiols, with alkane chains ranging from C{sub 6} to C{sub 18} were used as hydrophobic ligands, and with some of these they were able to form 2-D and/or 3-D superlattices of Pt nanoclusters as small as 2.7 nm in diameter. Image processing techniques were developed to reliably extract from transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) the particle size distribution, and information about the superlattice domains and their boundaries. The latter permits one to compute the intradomain vector pair correlation function of the particle centers, from which they can accurately determine the lattice spacing and the coherent domain size. From these data the gap between the particles in the coherent domains can be determined as a function of the thiol chain length. It is found that as the thiol chain length increases, the gaps between particles within superlattice domains increases, but more slowly than one might expect, possibly indicating thiol chain interdigitation.

  6. Electron dynamics in intentionally disordered semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, E.; Sanchez, A.; Dominguez-Adame, F.; Berman, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of disordered quantum well-based semiconductor superlattices where the disorder is intentional and short-range correlated. We show that, whereas the transmission time of a particle grows exponentially with the number of wells in an usual disordered superlattice for any value of the incident particle energy, for specific values of the incident energy this time increases linearly when correlated disorder is included. As expected, those values of the energy coincide with a narrow subband of extended states predicted by the static calculations of Domacute inguez-Adame et al.[Phys. Rev. B 51, 14359 (1994)]; such states are seen in our dynamical results to exhibit a ballistic regime, very close to the WKB approximation of a perfect superlattice. Fourier transform of the output signal for an incident Gaussian wave packet reveals a dramatic filtering of the original signal, which makes us confident that devices based on this property may be designed and used for nanotechnological applications. This is more so in view of the possibility of controlling the output band using a dc-electric field, which we also discuss. In the conclusion we summarize our results and present an outlook for future developments arising from this work. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Possible THz gain in superlattices at a stable operation point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Allen, S. J.; Scott, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate that semiconductor superlattices may provide gain at THz frequencies at an operation point which is stable against fluctuations at lower frequency. While an explicit experimental demonstration for the sample considered could not be achieved, the underlying principle of quantum resp...... response is quite general and may prove successful for differently designed superlattices....

  8. Wave-function reconstruction in a graded semiconductor superlattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyssenko, V. G.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Meinhold, D.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstruct a test wave function in a strongly coupled, graded well-width superlattice by resolving the spatial extension of the interband polarisation and deducing the wave function employing non-linear optical spectroscopy. The graded gap superlattice allows us to precisely control the dista...

  9. Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Rajeewa R.

    1988-01-12

    Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells comprise a plurality of first and second lattices of amorphous silicon alternatingly formed on one another. Each of the first lattices has a first optical bandgap and each of the second lattices has a second optical bandgap different from the first optical bandgap. A method of fabricating the superlattice doped layers also is disclosed.

  10. MBE growth and characterisation of light rare-earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Bryn-Jacobsen, C.

    1996-01-01

    The molecular beam epitaxy growth techniques which have already successfully produced a range of heavy rare-earth superlattices have now been extended to produce superlattices of two light rare-earth elements, Nd/Pr, as well as superlattices and alloy films of a heavy/light system, Ho/Pr. High......-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis shows the Nd/Pr superlattices to be of high structural quality, while the Ho/Pr superlattices are significantly less so. In the Ho/Pr superlattices, Pr is found to retain its bulk dhcp crystal structure even in thin layers (down to 6 atomic planes thick) sandwiched between...... thick layers of hcp Ho. In addition, neutron diffraction studies of the He/Pr superlattices have shown that the helical Ho magnetic order is not coherent through the dhcp Pr layers, in contrast to previous hcp/hcp superlattices Ho/Y, Ho/Lu and Ho/Er. The series of Ho:Pr alloy films has shown structural...

  11. Superlattice configurations in linear chain hydrocarbon binary mixtures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Long-chain alkanes; binary mixtures; superlattices; discrete orientational changes. 1. Introduction ... tem and a model of superlattice configuration was proposed4, in terms of .... C18 system,4 the angle with value = 3⋅3° was seen to play an ...

  12. Band structure of superlattice with δ-like potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashimzade, N.F.; Gashimzade, F.M.; Hajiev, A.T.

    1993-08-01

    Band structure of superlattice with δ-like potential has been calculated taking into account interaction of carriers of different kinds. Superlattices of semiconductors with degenerated valence band and zero-gap semiconductors have been considered. For the latter semimetal-semiconductor transition has been obtained. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  13. Investigation of switching region in superlattice phase change memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyanagi, T.; Takaura, N.

    2016-10-01

    We investigated superlattice phase change memories (PCMs) to clarify which regions were responsible for switching. We observed atomic structures in a superlattice PCM film with a stack of GeTe / Sb2Te3 layers using atomically resolved EDX maps, and we found an intermixed region with three atom species of the Ge, Sb and Te around the top GeTe layer under the top electrode. We also found that a device with a GeTe layer on an Sb2Te3 layer without superlattice structure had the same switching characteristics as a device with a superlattice PCM, that had the same top GeTe layer. We developed and fabricated a modified superlattice PCM that attained ultra low Reset / Set currents under 60 μ A .

  14. Silicon nitride nanosieve membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, D.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Gadgil, V.J.; Bostan, C.G.; Berenschot, Johan W.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    An array of very uniform cylindrical nanopores with a pore diameter as small as 25 nm has been fabricated in an ultrathin micromachined silicon nitride membrane using focused ion beam (FIB) etching. The pore size of this nanosieve membrane was further reduced to below 10 nm by coating it with

  15. Investigating the influence of epitaxial modulation on the evolution of superhardness of the VN/TiB{sub 2} multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yupeng [Energy and Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Tianjin International Joint Research Centre of Surface Technology for Energy Storage Materials, Tianjin 300387 (China); Dong, Lei, E-mail: dlei0008@126.com [Energy and Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Tianjin International Joint Research Centre of Surface Technology for Energy Storage Materials, Tianjin 300387 (China); Liu, Na; Yu, Jiangang; Li, Chun [Energy and Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Tianjin International Joint Research Centre of Surface Technology for Energy Storage Materials, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Dejun, E-mail: dejunli@mail.tjnu.edu.cn [Energy and Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Tianjin International Joint Research Centre of Surface Technology for Energy Storage Materials, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: The novel VN/TiB{sub 2} multilayers were produced by a magnetron sputtering system. Reasonable modulation structure affected properties of the multilayers. The double epitaxial growth as shown in HRTEM images was newly found to be a main reason for coherent growth of the VN/TiB{sub 2} multilayers within a certain thickness. The coherent growth model of the multilayer was also used to explain the growth mechanism of the VN/TiB{sub 2} multilayers in this work, which provided a useful inspiration to understand the strategies to enhance the multilayers’ engineering applications. - Highlights: • The VN/TiB{sub 2} multilayers are produced by magnetron sputtering. • A kind of second epitaxial growth is found in multilayer. • The coherent growth model is designed to explain the growth mechanism. • Second epitaxial growth promotes to form superhardness. • Coherent growth appears twice with modulation ratios decreasing. - Abstract: A series of the VN/TiB{sub 2} nanomultilayers with different modulation ratios (t{sub VN}:t{sub TiB2}) and different modulation periods were synthesized via a magnetron sputtering system. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) examinations indicated that in the alternately deposited monolayers of the VN and TiB{sub 2}, due to the influence of the crystal (111){sub VN} texture, TiB{sub 2} layer presented epitaxial growth on the surface of the VN layer when its t{sub VN}:t{sub TiB2} was 5:1. Moreover, the formation of the TiB{sub 2} crystal promoted the growth of (200){sub VN} and significantly improved the preferential growth of nanomultilayers. With decreasing t{sub VN}:t{sub TiB2} to 1:7, the thin VN layer was crystallized under the introduction of crystalline TiB{sub 2} layers. A type of double epitaxial growth was observed to be a main reason for the coherent growth of the VN/TiB{sub 2} nanomultilayers within a certain thickness. Consequently, the multilayers

  16. Engineering the oxygen coordination in digital superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Seyoung [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Materials Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60202, USA; Andersen, Tassie K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Materials Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60202, USA; Hong, Hawoong [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Rosenberg, Richard A. [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Marks, Laurence D. [Department of Materials Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60202, USA; Fong, Dillon D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA

    2017-12-01

    The oxygen sublattice in the complex oxides is typically composed of corner-shared polyhedra, with transition metals at their centers. The electronic and chemical properties of the oxide depend on the type and geometric arrangement of these polyhedra, which can be controlled through epitaxial synthesis. Here, we use oxide molecular beam epitaxy to create SrCoOx:SrTiO3 superlattices with tunable oxygen coordination environments and sublattice geometries. Using soft X-ray spectroscopy, we find that the chemical state of Co can be varied with the polyhedral arrangement, demonstrating a new strategy for achieving unique electronic properties in the transition metal oxides.

  17. Anisotropic critical fields in superconducting superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, I.; Yang, Q.S.; Falco, C.M.; Schuller, I.K.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature and angular dependence of critical fields (H/sub c/) have been studied as a function of layer thickness for superconducting Nb/Cu superlattices. For layer thicknesses between 100 and 300 A, dimensional crossover has been observed in the temperature dependence of H/sub c/. Associated with the crossover we find a change in the angular dependence of H/sub c/ to that given by the effective-mass theory. This is the first time that a relationship has been found between dimensional crossover observed in the temperature dependence and that in the angular dependence of critical fields

  18. Novel electronic structures of superlattice composed of graphene and silicene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.; Li, X.D.; Wu, S.Q.; Wen, Y.H.; Zhou, S.; Zhu, Z.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene/silicene superlattices exhibit metallic electronic properties. • Dirac point of graphene is folded to the Γ-point in the superlattice system. • Significant changes in the transport properties of the graphene layers are expected. • Small amount of charge transfer from the graphene to the silicene layers is found. - Abstract: Superlattice is a major force in providing man-made materials with unique properties. Here we report a study of the structural and electronic properties of a superlattice made with alternate stacking of graphene and hexagonal silicene. Three possible stacking models, i.e., the top-, bridge- and hollow-stacking, are considered. The top-stacking is found to be the most stable pattern. Although both the free-standing graphene and silicene are semi-metals, our results suggest that the graphene and silicene layers in the superlattice both exhibit metallic electronic properties due to a small amount of charge transfer from the graphene to the silicene layers. More importantly, the Dirac point of graphene is folded to the Γ-point of the superlattice, instead of the K-point in the isolated graphene. Such a change in the Dirac point of graphene could lead to significant change in the transportation property of the graphene layer. Moreover, the band structure and the charge transfer indicate that the interaction between the stacking sheets in the graphene/silicene superlattice is more than just the van der Waals interaction

  19. Single layer and multilayer vacuum-arc coatings based on the nitride TiAlSiYN: composition, structure, properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresnev, V.M.; Litovchenko, S.V.; Nemchenko, U.S.; Srebnyuk, P.A.; Mazilin, B.A.; Sobol, O.V.; Mejlekhov, A.A.; Barmin, A.E.; Serenko, TA.; Pogrebnyak, A.D.; Ivanov, O.N.; Kritsyna, E.V.; Stolbovoj, V.A.; Novikov, V.Yu.; Malikov, L.V.

    2017-01-01

    Using high-technological vacuum-arc evaporation in the atmosphere of nitrogen with ion bombardment, single- and multilayer coatings based on TiAlSiYN with high mechanical characteristics were obtained: hardness of the coatings reached 49.5 GPa, resistance to wear, with the value of the critical point L_C_5 reaching 184.92 N. The peculiarities of radiation-induced effect at applying bias potential U_b were found: formation of nitride coatings based on fcc metallic lattice with the preferred orientation of crystallites with the texture axis [111], as well as simultaneous growth of hardness. Hardness of both single- and multilayer coatings increases by 40...50% at the increase of U_b from 50 to 200 V. Formation of silicon-containing layers of TiAlSiYN during the deposition contributes to reaching increased hardness, which, in the case of single-layer coating obtained at U_b = -200 V is 49.5 GPa, which corresponds to superhard state. The mechanisms of structure formation, defining the resulting mechanical characteristics of single- and multi-layer coatings based on TiAlSiYN nitride have been discussed.

  20. Nitriding of high speed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.D.; Pagon, A.M.; Hubbard, P.; Dowey, S.J.; Pilkington, A.; McCulloch, D.G.; Latham, K.; DuPlessis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Current practice when nitriding HSS cutting tools is to avoid embrittlement of the cutting edge by limiting the depth of the diffusion zone. This is accomplished by reducing the nitriding time and temperature and eliminating any compound layer formation. However, in many applications there is an argument for generating a compound layer with beneficial tribological properties. In this investigation results are presented of a metallographic, XRD and XPS analysis of nitrided surface layers generated using active screen plasma nitriding and reactive vapour deposition using cathodic arc. These results are discussed in the context of built up edge formation observed while machining inside a scanning electron microscope. (author)

  1. Surface electron structure of short-period semiconductor superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, I.; Czech Academy Science, Prague,; Strasser, T.; Schattke, W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Semiconductor superlattices represent man-made crystals with unique physical properties. By means of the directed layer-by-layer molecular epitaxy growth their electric properties can be tailored (band structure engineering). Longer translational periodicity in the growth direction is responsible for opening of new electron energy gaps (minigaps) with surface states and resonances localized at superlattice surfaces. Similarly as for the electron structure of the bulk, a procedure enabling to modify the surface electron structure of superlattices is desirable. Short-period superlattice (GaAs) 2 (AlAs) 2 with unreconstructed (100) surface is investigated in detail. Theoretical description in terms of full eigenfunctions of individual components has to be used. The changes of electron surface state energies governed by the termination of a periodic crystalline potential, predicted on simple models, are confirmed for this system. Large surface state shifts are found in the lowest minigap of the superlattice when this is terminated in four different topmost layer configurations. The changes should be observable in angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy as demonstrated in calculations based on the one step model of photoemission. Surface state in the center of the two dimensional Brillouin zone moves from the bottom of the minigap (for the superlattice terminated by two bilayers of GaAs) to its top (for the superlattice terminated by two bilayers of AlAs) where it becomes a resonance. No surface state/resonance is found for a termination with one bilayer of AlAs. The surface state bands behave similarly in the corresponding gaps of the k-resolved section of the electron band structure. The molecular beam epitaxy, which enables to terminate the superlattice growth with atomic layer precision, provides a way of tuning the superlattice surface electron structure by purely geometrical means. The work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences

  2. Defects in dilute nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.M.; Buyanova, I.A.; Tu, C.W.; Yonezu, H.

    2005-01-01

    We provide a brief review our recent results from optically detected magnetic resonance studies of grown-in non-radiative defects in dilute nitrides, i.e. Ga(In)NAs and Ga(Al,In)NP. Defect complexes involving intrinsic defects such as As Ga antisites and Ga i self interstitials were positively identified.Effects of growth conditions, chemical compositions and post-growth treatments on formation of the defects are closely examined. These grown-in defects are shown to play an important role in non-radiative carrier recombination and thus in degrading optical quality of the alloys, harmful to performance of potential optoelectronic and photonic devices based on these dilute nitrides. (author)

  3. Superhard sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybrid carbon allotropes with tunable electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Meng; Ma, Mengdong; Zhao, Zhisheng; Yu, Dongli; He, Julong, E-mail: hjl@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Four sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybrid carbon allotropes are proposed on the basis of first principles calculations. These four carbon allotropes are energetically more favorable than graphite under suitable pressure conditions. They can be assembled from graphite through intralayer wrinkling and interlayer buckling, which is similar to the formation of diamond from graphite. For one of the sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybrid carbon allotropes, mC24, the electron diffraction patterns match these of i-carbon, which is synthesized from shock-compressed graphite (H. Hirai and K. Kondo, Science, 1991, 253, 772). The allotropes exhibit tunable electronic characteristics from metallic to semiconductive with band gaps comparable to those of silicon allotropes. They are all superhard materials with Vickers hardness values comparable to that of cubic BN. The sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybrid carbon allotroes are promising materials for photovoltaic electronic devices, and abrasive and grinding tools.

  4. Microwave absorption in YBCO/PrBCO superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.E.; Kaplan, R.; Lowndes, D.H.; Norton, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, non-resonant microwave absorption is employed to probe YBCO/PrBCO superlattices and compare the response to that of a YBCO film. Near the transition temperatures, the response of the superlattice samples and the YBCO film have similar amplitudes and orientation dependencies. At lower temperatures, the response of the superlattices is much stronger than that of the YBCO film and, while both responses are hysteretic at low temperatures, the widths of the hysteresis have opposite orientation dependencies, which the authors attribute to the role of the PrBCO layers

  5. ZnSe/ZnSeTe Superlattice Nanotips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young SJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100 substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively.

  6. Excitation on breather (bion) in superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Mensah, N.G.

    1999-09-01

    Soliton breather excitation in superlattice has been studied in this paper. It is observed that under certain conditions, the vector potential equation for the electromagnetic wave propagating through the superlattice assumes the sine-Gordon(sG) equation. The solution of which does not give only a soliton but also a soliton breather. The binding energy of the breather is calculated to be E b = 16γ(1 - sin ν), γ = (1 - u 2 /v 0 2 ) -1/2 where u is the velocity of the breather and v 0 is the velocity of the electromagnetic wave in the absence of electrons. As can be seen, when ν → π/2 the binding energy tends to zero, hence, the breather disintegrates into a soliton and antisoliton. It was further observed that the binding energy decreases with an increase in Δ (the half miniband width) for a given value of d (SL period). Similarly it also decreases with increase in d for a given value of Δ. Comparing the breather's rest energy E b to that of soliton E s i.e E b = 2E s sin ν. We noted that the breather's rest energy is less than that required to excite a soliton. (author)

  7. Magnetic profiles in ferromagnetic/superconducting superlattices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Santamaria, J.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Complutense de Madrid

    2007-02-28

    The interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity has been of longstanding fundamental research interest to scientists, as the competition between these generally mutually exclusive types of long-range order gives rise to a rich variety of physical phenomena. A method of studying these exciting effects is by investigating artificially layered systems, i.e. alternating deposition of superconducting and ferromagnetic thin films on a substrate, which enables a straight-forward combination of the two types of long-range order and allows the study of how they compete at the interface over nanometer length scales. While originally studies focused on low temperature superconductors interchanged with metallic ferromagnets, in recent years the scope has broadened to include superlattices of high T{sub c} superconductors and colossal magnetoresistance oxides. Creating films where both the superconducting as well as the ferromagnetic layers are complex oxide materials with similar crystal structures (Figure 1), allows the creation of epitaxial superlattices, with potentially atomically flat and ordered interfaces.

  8. Organic p-n heterostructures and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowarik, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hinderhofer, Alexander; Gerlach, Alexander; Schreiber, Frank [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Tuebingen (Germany); Osso, Oriol [MATGAS 2000 A.I.E., Esfera UAB, Barcelona (Spain); Wang, Cheng; Hexemer, Alexander [Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    For many applications of organic semiconductors two components such as e.g. n and p-type layers are required, and the morphology of such heterostructures is crucial for their performance. Pentacene (PEN) is one of the most promising p-type molecular semiconductors and recently perfluoro-pentacene (PFP) has been identified as a good electron conducting material for complementary circuits with PEN. We use soft and hard X-ray reflectivity measurements, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and atomic force microscopy for structural investigations of PFP-PEN heterostructures. The chemical contrast between PEN and PFP in STXM allows us to determine the lateral length scales of p and n domains in a bilayer. For a superlattice of alternating PFP and PEN layers grown by organic molecular beam deposition, X-ray reflectivity measurements demonstrate good structural order. We find a superlattice reflection that varies strongly when tuning the X-ray energy around the fluorine edge, demonstrating that there are indeed alternating PFP and PEN layers.

  9. Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanostructures via Nitridation of Nanopatterned Titanium Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Kim, Jongbum

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures are obtained via nitridation of titanium dioxide. Nanoparticles acquired a cubic shape with sharper edges following the rock-salt crystalline structure of TiN. Lattice constant of the resulting TiN nanoparticles matched well with the tabulated data. Energy...

  10. Optical characterization of gallium nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirilyuk, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Group III-nitrides have been considered a promising system for semiconductor devices since a few decades, first for blue- and UV-light emitting diodes, later also for high-frequency/high-power applications. Due to the lack of native substrates, heteroepitaxially grown III-nitride layers are usually

  11. Scaling properties of optical reflectance from quasi-periodic superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiang; Yao Hesheng; Feng Weiguo

    1991-08-01

    The scaling properties of the optical reflectance from two types of quasi-periodic metal-insulator superlattices, one with the structure of Cantor bars and the other with the structure of Cantorian-Fibonaccian train, have been studied for the region of s-polarized soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet. By using the hydrodynamic model of electron dynamics and transfer-matrix method, and be taking into account retardation effects, we have presented the formalism of the reflectivity for the superlattices. From our numerical results, we found that the reflection spectra of the quasi-superlattices have a rich structure of self-similarity. The interesting scaling indices, which are related to the fractal dimensions, of the spectra are also discussed for the two kinds of the quasi-superlattices. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

  12. Passive high-frequency devices based on superlattice ferromagnetic nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, B.; Li, F.; Cimpoesu, D.; Wiley, J.B.; Jung, J.-S.; Stancu, A.; Spinu, L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose to tailor the bandwidth of a microwave filter by exploitation of shape anisotropy of nanowires. In order to achieve this control of shape anisotropy, we considered superlattice wires containing varying-sized ferromagnetic regions separated by nonferromagnetic regions. Superlattice wires of Ni and Au with a nominal diameter of 200 nm were grown using standard electrodeposition techniques. The microwave properties were probed using X-band (9.8 GHz) ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) experiments performed at room temperature. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the shape anisotropy on the superlattice nanowire based filter the FMR spectrum of superlattice structure is compared to the FMR spectra of nanowires samples with constant length

  13. Development of Strained-Layer Superlattice (SLS) IR Detector Camera

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) detectors are a new class of detectors which may be the next generation of band-gap engineered, large format infrared detector...

  14. Participation of mechanical oscillations in thermodynamics of crystals with superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacjimovski K, S.; Mirjanicj Lj, D.; Shetrajchicj P, J.

    2012-01-01

    The superlattice, consisting of two periodically repeating films, is analyzed in proposal paper. Due to the structural deformations and small thickness, the acoustic phonons do not appear in these structures. The spontaneous appearance of phonons is possible in an ideal structure only. Therefore the thermodynamical analysis of phonon subsystems is the first step in investigations of superlattice properties. Internal energy as well as specific heat will be analyzed, too. Low-temperature behavior of these quantities will be compared to the corresponding quantities of bulk structures and of thin films. The general conclusion is that the main thermodynamic characteristics of superlattices are considerably lower than those of the bulk structure. Consequently, their superconductive characteristics are better than the superconductive characteristics of corresponding bulk structures. Generally considered, the application field of superlattices is wider than that of bulk structures and films. (Author)

  15. Transmission of electrons with flat passbands in finite superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas-Aguilar, A H; Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K A; Martínez-Orozco, J C; Enciso-Muñoz, A; Contreras-Solorio, D A

    2013-01-01

    Using the transfer matrix method and the Ben Daniel-Duke equation for variable mass electrons propagation, we calculate the transmittance for symmetric finite superlattices where the width and the height of the potential barriers follow a linear dependence. The width and height of the barriers decreases from the center to the ends of the superlattice. The transmittance presents intervals of stopbands and quite flat passbands.

  16. Fabrication of C60/amorphous carbon superlattice structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2001-01-01

    The nitrogen doping effects in C 60 films by RF plasma source was investigated, and it was found that the nitrogen ion bombardment broke up C 60 molecules and changed them into amorphous carbon. Based on these results, formation of C 60 /amorphous carbon superlattice structure was proposed. The periodic structure of the resulted films was confirmed by XRD measurements, as the preliminary results of fabrication of the superlattice structure

  17. Ground state energy of a polaron in a superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Nkrumah, G.; Mensah, N.G.

    2000-10-01

    The ground state energy of a polaron in a superlattice was calculated using the double-time Green functions. The effective mass of the polaron along the planes perpendicular to the superlattice axis was also calculated. The dependence of the ground state energy and the effective mass along the planes perpendicular to the superlattice axis on the electron-phonon coupling constant α and on the superlattice parameters (i.e. the superlattice period d and the bandwidth Δ) were studied. It was observed that if an infinite square well potential is assumed, the ground state energy of the polaron decreases (i.e. becomes more negative) with increasing α and d, but increases with increasing Δ. For small values of α, the polaron ground state energy varies slowly with Δ, becoming approximately constant for large Δ. The effective mass along the planes perpendicular to the superlattice axis was found to be approximately equal to the mass of an electron for all typical values of α, d and Δ. (author)

  18. Current responsivity of semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignatov, Anatoly A.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    The current responsivity of a semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detector is calculated using an equivalent circuit model which takes into account the finite matching efficiency between a detector antenna and the superlattice in the presence of parasitic losses. Calculations performed for curr......The current responsivity of a semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detector is calculated using an equivalent circuit model which takes into account the finite matching efficiency between a detector antenna and the superlattice in the presence of parasitic losses. Calculations performed...... for currently available superlattice diodes show that both the magnitudes and the roll-off frequencies of the responsivity are strongly influenced by an excitation of hybrid plasma-Bloch oscillations which are found to be eigenmodes of the system in the THz-frequency band. The expected room temperature values...... of the responsivity (2–3 A/W in the 1–3 THz-frequency band) range up to several percents of the quantum efficiency e/[h-bar] omega of an ideal superconductor tunnel junction detector. Properly designed semiconductor superlattice detectors may thus demonstrate better room temperature THz-photon responsivity than...

  19. Superconducting superlattices. Les super reseaux de supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triscone, J M; Fischer, O [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland)

    1993-03-01

    By piling up ultra-thin layers of discrete materials, physicists now have a choice method for the study of superconductivity at high temperature. These superlattices are prepared by successive layers of YBaCuO and PrBaCuO deposited by cathode sputtering to study the variation of superconductivity with layer thickness. The transition temperature decreases rapidly when the distance between two layers increases. Current vortices are created, without a magnetic field, widening the transition temperature. The variation of resistivity near critical temperature in a magnetic field shows that the energy required to displace vortices is increasing with the thickness of the YBaCuO layer, with thin layers anisotropy is high and energy dissipation is important. (G.R.). refs., figs.

  20. Matter-Wave Solitons In Optical Superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, Pearl J. Y.; Ostrovskaya, Elena A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we show that the properties of both bright and dark Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons trapped in optical superlattices can be controlled by changing the shape of the trapping potential whilst maintaining a constant periodicity and lattice height. Using this method we can control the properties of bright gap solitons by dispersion management. We can also control the interactions between dark lattice solitons. In addition we demonstrate a method for controlled generation of matter-wave gap solitons in stationary optical lattices by interfering two condensate wavepackets, producing a single wavepacket at a gap edge with properties similar to a gap soliton. As this wavepacket evolves, it forms a bright gap soliton

  1. Hot pressing of uranium nitride and mixed uranium plutonium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.Y.

    1975-01-01

    The hot pressing characteristics of uranium nitride and mixed uranium plutonium nitride were studied. The utilization of computer programs together with the experimental technique developed in the present study may serve as a useful purpose of prediction and fabrication of advanced reactor fuel and other high temperature ceramic materials for the future. The densification of nitrides follow closely with a plastic flow theory expressed as: d rho/ dt = A/T(t) (1-rho) [1/1-(1-rho)/sup 2/3/ + B1n (1-rho)] The coefficients, A and B, were obtained from experiment and computer curve fitting. (8 figures) (U.S.)

  2. RAMAN SCATTERING BY ACOUSTIC PHONONS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF FIBONACCI, THUE-MORSE AND RANDOM SUPERLATTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin , R.; Bajema , K.; Nagle , J.; Ploog , K.

    1987-01-01

    We report structural studies of incommensurate and random GaAs-AlAs superlattices using Raman scattering by acoustic phonons. Properties of the structure factor of Fibonacci and Thue-Morse superlattices are discussed in some detail.

  3. Electrospun Gallium Nitride Nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez, Anamaris; Morales, Kristle; Ramos, Idalia; Campo, Eva; Santiago, Jorge J.

    2009-01-01

    The high thermal conductivity and wide bandgap of gallium nitride (GaN) are desirable characteristics in optoelectronics and sensing applications. In comparison to thin films and powders, in the nanofiber morphology the sensitivity of GaN is expected to increase as the exposed area (proportional to the length) increases. In this work we present electrospinning as a novel technique in the fabrication of GaN nanofibers. Electrospinning, invented in the 1930s, is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid technique to produce microscopically long ultrafine fibers. GaN nanofibers are produced using gallium nitrate and dimethyl-acetamide as precursors. After electrospinning, thermal decomposition under an inert atmosphere is used to pyrolyze the polymer. To complete the preparation, the nanofibers are sintered in a tube furnace under a NH 3 flow. Both scanning electron microscopy and profilometry show that the process produces continuous and uniform fibers with diameters ranging from 20 to a few hundred nanometers, and lengths of up to a few centimeters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the development of GaN nanofibers with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Future work includes additional characterization using transmission electron microscopy and XRD to understand the role of precursors and nitridation in nanofiber synthesis, and the use of single nanofibers for the construction of optical and gas sensing devices.

  4. Tunable superlattice in graphene to control the number of Dirac points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Sudipta; Singh, Vibhor; Bhat, Ajay K; Parikh, Pritesh; Grover, Sameer; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Tripathi, Vikram; Sengupta, K; Deshmukh, Mandar M

    2013-09-11

    Superlattice in graphene generates extra Dirac points in the band structure and their number depends on the superlattice potential strength. Here, we have created a lateral superlattice in a graphene device with a tunable barrier height using a combination of two gates. In this Letter, we demonstrate the use of lateral superlattice to modify the band structure of graphene leading to the emergence of new Dirac cones. This controlled modification of the band structure persists up to 100 K.

  5. Formation Energies of Native Point Defects in Strained-Layer Superlattices (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    potential; bulk materials; total energy calculations; entropy; strained- layer superlattice (SLS) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0217 FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED- LAYER SUPERLATTICES (POSTPRINT) Zhi-Gang Yu...2016 Interim 11 September 2013 – 5 November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED- LAYER SUPERLATTICES

  6. Method for producing polycrystalline boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeevskii, V.P.; Bochko, A.V.; Dzhamarov, S.S.; Karpinos, D.M.; Karyuk, G.G.; Kolomiets, I.P.; Kurdyumov, A.V.; Pivovarov, M.S.; Frantsevich, I.N.; Yarosh, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    A mixture containing less than 50 percent of graphite-like boron nitride treated by a shock wave and highly defective wurtzite-like boron nitride obtained by a shock-wave method is compressed and heated at pressure and temperature values corresponding to the region of the phase diagram for boron nitride defined by the graphite-like compact modifications of boron nitride equilibrium line and the cubic wurtzite-like boron nitride equilibrium line. The resulting crystals of boron nitride exhibit a structure of wurtzite-like boron nitride or of both wurtzite-like and cubic boron nitride. The resulting material exhibits higher plasticity as compared with polycrystalline cubic boron nitride. Tools made of this compact polycrystalline material have a longer service life under impact loads in machining hardened steel and chilled iron. (U.S.)

  7. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  8. Pyrochemical reprocessing of nitride fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazono, Yoshihisa; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of actinide nitrides in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt was investigated in order to apply pyrochemical process to nitride fuel cycle. The electrode reaction of UN and (U, Nd)N was examined by cyclic voltammetry. The observed rest potential of (U, Nd)N depended on the equilibrium of U 3+ /UN and was not affected by the addition of NdN of 8 wt.%. (author)

  9. Superplastic forging nitride ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, P.C.; Seydel, E.R.; Raj, R.

    1988-03-22

    A process is disclosed for preparing silicon nitride ceramic parts which are relatively flaw free and which need little or no machining, said process comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a starting powder by wet or dry mixing ingredients comprising by weight from about 70% to about 99% silicon nitride, from about 1% to about 30% of liquid phase forming additive and from 1% to about 7% free silicon; (b) cold pressing to obtain a preform of green density ranging from about 30% to about 75% of theoretical density; (c) sintering at atmospheric pressure in a nitrogen atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 1,400 C to about 2,200 C to obtain a density which ranges from about 50% to about 100% of theoretical density and which is higher than said preform green density, and (d) press forging workpiece resulting from step (c) by isothermally uniaxially pressing said workpiece in an open die without initial contact between said workpiece and die wall perpendicular to the direction of pressing and so that pressed workpiece does not contact die wall perpendicular to the direction of pressing, to substantially final shape in a nitrogen atmosphere utilizing a temperature within the range of from about 1,400 C to essentially 1,750 C and strain rate within the range of about 10[sup [minus]7] to about 10[sup [minus]1] seconds[sup [minus]1], the temperature and strain rate being such that surface cracks do not occur, said pressing being carried out to obtain a shear deformation greater than 30% whereby superplastic forging is effected.

  10. Control of the interparticle spacing in gold nanoparticle superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTIN,JAMES E.; WILCOXON,JESS P.; ODINEK,JUDY G.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.

    2000-04-06

    The authors have investigated the formation of 2-D and 3-D superlattices of Au nanoclusters synthesized in nonionic inverse micelles, and capped with alkyl thiol ligands, with alkane chains ranging from C{sub 6} to C1{sub 18}. The thiols are found to play a significant role in the ripening of these nanoclusters, and in the formation of superlattices. Image processing techniques were developed to reliably extract from transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) the particle size distribution, and information about the superlattice domains and their boundaries. The latter permits one to compute the intradomain vector pair correlation function, from which one can accurately determine the lattice spacing and the coherent domain size. From these data the gap between the particles in the coherent domains can be determined as a function of the thiol chain length. It is found that as the thiol chain length increases, the nanoclusters become more polydisperse and larger, and the gaps between particles within superlattice domains increases. Annealing studies at elevated temperatures confirm nanocluster ripening. Finally, the effect of the particle gaps on physical properties is illustrated by computing the effective dielectric constant, and it is shown that the gap size now accessible in superlattices is rather large for dielectric applications.

  11. Characterization of the Nb-B superlattice system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, D.G.; Sarmiento-Chavez, A.; Schenone, N.; Llacsahuanga Allcca, A.E.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Fasano, Y.; Guimpel, J., E-mail: jguimpel@cab.cnea.gov.ar

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • In this manuscript we study the crystalline and superconducting properties of this system, as a possible material to be used in solid state neutron detector sensors. • The results show that this superlattice system can be grown even for very thin layers, in spite of the Nb-B binary system showing many possible compounds, which could enhance interdifussion at the interfaces. • Also, the superconducting properties are not degraded, and they are even enhanced with respect to those of single Nb films of the same thickness. • In conclusion, we find that this system is a good potential candidate for the design and construction of solid state neutron Transition Edge Sensors. - Abstract: We study the growth, stacking and superconducting properties of Nb and B thin films and superlattices. The interest in these resides in their possible use in transition edge neutron sensors. The samples were grown by magnetron sputtering over Si (1  0  0) substrates. The X-ray diffraction patterns for all Nb containing samples show a Nb (1  1  0) preferential orientation. From the low-angle X-ray reflectivity we obtain information on the superlattice structure. The superconducting transition temperatures of the superlattices, obtained from the temperature dependence of the magnetization, are higher than those of single Nb films of similar thickness. The temperature dependence of the perpendicular and parallel upper critical fields indicate that the superlattices behave as an array of decoupled superconducting Nb layers.

  12. Characterization of the Nb-B superlattice system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, D.G.; Sarmiento-Chavez, A.; Schenone, N.; Llacsahuanga Allcca, A.E.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Fasano, Y.; Guimpel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In this manuscript we study the crystalline and superconducting properties of this system, as a possible material to be used in solid state neutron detector sensors. • The results show that this superlattice system can be grown even for very thin layers, in spite of the Nb-B binary system showing many possible compounds, which could enhance interdifussion at the interfaces. • Also, the superconducting properties are not degraded, and they are even enhanced with respect to those of single Nb films of the same thickness. • In conclusion, we find that this system is a good potential candidate for the design and construction of solid state neutron Transition Edge Sensors. - Abstract: We study the growth, stacking and superconducting properties of Nb and B thin films and superlattices. The interest in these resides in their possible use in transition edge neutron sensors. The samples were grown by magnetron sputtering over Si (1  0  0) substrates. The X-ray diffraction patterns for all Nb containing samples show a Nb (1  1  0) preferential orientation. From the low-angle X-ray reflectivity we obtain information on the superlattice structure. The superconducting transition temperatures of the superlattices, obtained from the temperature dependence of the magnetization, are higher than those of single Nb films of similar thickness. The temperature dependence of the perpendicular and parallel upper critical fields indicate that the superlattices behave as an array of decoupled superconducting Nb layers.

  13. Nitride stabilized core/shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian Abraham; Sasaki, Kotaro; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2018-01-30

    Nitride stabilized metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. In one embodiment the metal nanoparticles have a continuous and nonporous noble metal shell with a nitride-stabilized non-noble metal core. The nitride-stabilized core provides a stabilizing effect under high oxidizing conditions suppressing the noble metal dissolution during potential cycling. The nitride stabilized nanoparticles may be fabricated by a process in which a core is coated with a shell layer that encapsulates the entire core. Introduction of nitrogen into the core by annealing produces metal nitride(s) that are less susceptible to dissolution during potential cycling under high oxidizing conditions.

  14. Magnetic structures of holmium-lutetium alloys and superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swaddling, P.P.; Cowley, R.A.; Ward, R.C.C.

    1996-01-01

    Alloys and superlattices of Ho and Lu have been grown using molecular beam epitaxy and their magnetic structures determined using neutron-scattering techniques. The 4f moments in the alloys form a helix at all compositions with the moments aligned in the basal plane perpendicular to the wave vector...... of the helix remaining coherent through the nonmagnetic Lu blocks. The neutron scattering from the superlattices is consistent with a model in which there are different phase advances of the helix turn angle through the Ho and Lu blocks, but with a localized moment on the Ho sites only. A comparison...... of Ho and Lu. At low temperatures, for superlattices with fewer than approximately twenty atomic planes of Ho, the Ho moments within a block undergo a phase transition from helical to ferromagnetic order, with the coupling between successive blocks dependent on the thickness of the Lu spacer....

  15. Stability and dynamic of strain mediated adatom superlattices on Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Substrate strain mediated adatom equilibrium density distributions have been calculated for Cu surfaces using two complementing methods. A hexagonal adatom superlattice in a coverage range up to 0.045 ML is derived for repulsive short range interactions. For zero short range interactions a hexagonal superstructure of adatom clusters is derived in a coverage range about 0.08 ML. Conditions for the stability of the superlattice against formation of dimers or clusters and degradation are analyzed using simple neighborhood models. Such models are also used to investigate the dynamic of adatoms within their superlattice neighborhood. Collective modes of adatom diffusion are proposed from the analogy with bulk lattice dynamics and methods for measurement are suggested. The recently put forward explanation of surface state mediated interactions for superstructures found in scanning tunneling microscopy experiments is put in question and strain mediated interactions are proposed as an alternative.

  16. Sm cluster superlattice on graphene/Ir(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousadakos, Dimitris; Pivetta, Marina; Brune, Harald; Rusponi, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    We report on the first example of a self-assembled rare earth cluster superlattice. As a template, we use the moiré pattern formed by graphene on Ir(111); its lattice constant of 2.52 nm defines the interparticle distance. The samarium cluster superlattice forms for substrate temperatures during deposition ranging from 80 to 110 K, and it is stable upon annealing to 140 K. By varying the samarium coverage, the mean cluster size can be increased up to 50 atoms, without affecting the long-range order. The spatial order and the width of the cluster size distribution match the best examples of metal cluster superlattices grown by atomic beam epitaxy on template surfaces.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation of thermal conductivities of superlattice nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Juekuan(杨决宽); CHEN; Yunfei(陈云飞); YAN; Jingping(颜景平)

    2003-01-01

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate heat transfer in superlattice nanowires. Results show that for fixed period length superlattice nanowires, the ratio of the total interfacial thermal resistance to the total thermal resistance and the effective thermal conductivities are invariant with the changes in interface numbers. Increasing the period length leads to an increase in the average interfacial thermal resistance, which indicates that the interfacial thermal resistance depends not only on the materials that constitute the alternating segments of superlattice nanowires, but also on the lattice strain throughout the segments. The modification of the lattice structure due to the lattice mismatch should be taken into account in the acoustic mismatch model. Simulation results also demonstrated the size confinement effect on the thermal conductivities for low dimensional structures, i.e. the thermal conductivities and the interfacial thermal resistance increase as the nanowire cross-sectional area increases.

  18. Interface disorder and transport properties in HTC/CMR superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberkorn, N.; Guimpel, J.; Sirena, M.; Steren, L.B.; Campillo, G.; Saldarriaga, W.; Gomez, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    The physical properties of superlattices are affected by interface disorder, like roughness and interdiffusion. X-ray diffraction allows its measurement through modeling and structure refinement. The high-T c RBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (RBCO) and colossal magnetoresistance La x A 1-x MnO 3 (LAMO) perovskites are interesting superlattice partners given their similar lattice parameters and because the combination of magnetic and superconducting properties is interesting for both basic and applied research. We have investigated the structural and transport properties of YBCO/La 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 and GdBCO/La 0.6 Sr 0.04 MnO 3 superlattices grown by sputtering on (1 0 0)MgO. We find a roughness of 1 RBCO unit cell and a 30% interdiffusion in the same length from the interfaces for all samples. The superconducting behavior is found strongly dependent on the LAMO layer thickness

  19. Deep levels in silicon–oxygen superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoen, E; Jayachandran, S; Delabie, A; Caymax, M; Heyns, M

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on the deep levels observed in Pt/Al 2 O 3 /p-type Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors containing a silicon–oxygen superlattice (SL) by deep-level transient spectroscopy. It is shown that the presence of the SL gives rise to a broad band of hole traps occurring around the silicon mid gap, which is absent in reference samples with a silicon epitaxial layer. In addition, the density of states of the deep layers roughly scales with the number of SL periods for the as-deposited samples. Annealing in a forming gas atmosphere reduces the maximum concentration significantly, while the peak energy position shifts from close-to mid-gap towards the valence band edge. Based on the flat-band voltage shift of the Capacitance–Voltage characteristics it is inferred that positive charge is introduced by the oxygen atomic layers in the SL, indicating the donor nature of the underlying hole traps. In some cases, a minor peak associated with P b dangling bond centers at the Si/SiO 2 interface has been observed as well. (paper)

  20. Exploring graphene superlattices: Magneto-optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, C. A.; Hernández-Bertrán, M. A.; Morales, A. L.; de Dios-Leyva, M.

    2017-02-01

    We present a detailed study of magnetic subbands, wave functions, and transition strengths for graphene superlattices (SLs) subject to a perpendicular magnetic field. It is shown that, for a weak magnetic field, the flat subbands of a SL exhibiting extra Dirac points are grouped into subsets, each of which consists of a singlet subband and a nearly degenerate doublet subband, and one nearly degenerate triplet subband. It was found that the wave functions corresponding to a singlet or to a doublet are always located around the image in real space of the central or extra Dirac points in k-space. The latter properties were explained by assuming that the electron motion is quasi-classical. Our study revealed that, for an intermediate field, the general characteristics of the wave functions are very similar to those of the pristine graphene, while for weak field, their behavior is drastically different. The latter is characterized by rapid oscillations which were understood using the solutions provided by the formalism of Luttinger-Kohn. The study on transition strengths allows us to obtain, for SLs with extra Dirac points in a weak magnetic field and different polarizations, the conditions under which transitions between multiplets are approximately allowed. It was shown that these conditions correspond to an unusual selection rule that is broken when the magnetic field intensity increases from weak to an intermediate value.

  1. Mixing of III-V compound semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Ping.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, the methods as well as mechanisms of III-V compound superlattice mixing are discussed, with particular attention on the AlGaAs based superlattice system. Comparative studies of ion-induced mixing showed two distinct effects resulting from ion implantation followed by a thermal anneal; i.e. collisional mixing and impurity induced mixing. It was found that Ga and As ion induced mixing are mainly due to the collisional effect, where the extent of the mixing can be estimated theoretically, with the parameters of ion mass, incident energy and the implant dose. The impurity effect was dominant for Si, Ge, Be, Zn and Te. Quantitative studies of impurity induced mixing have been conducted on samples doped with Si or Te during the growth process. It was discovered that Si induced AlGaAs superlattice mixing yielded an activation energy of approximately 4 eV for the Al diffusion coefficient with a high power law dependence of the prefactor on the Si concentration. In the Te doped AlGaAs superlattice the Al diffusion coefficient exhibited an activation energy of ∼3.0 eV, with a prefactor approximately proportional to the Te concentration. These results are of importance in examining the current diffusion models. Zn and Si induced InP/InGaAs superlattice mixing are examined. It was found that Zn predominantly induces cation interdiffusion, while Si induces comparable cation and anion interdiffusion. In addition, widely dispersed Zn rich islands form with Zn residing in the InP layers in the form of Zn 3 P 2 . With unstrained starting material, the layer bandgap disparity increases due to mixing induced strain, while in the Si diffused sample the mixed region would be expected to exhibit bandgaps intermediate between those of the original layers. Semiconductor superlattice mixing shows technological potential for optoelectronic device fabrication

  2. Leachability of nitrided ilmenite in hydrochloric acid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, JJ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride in upgraded nitrided ilmenite (bulk of iron removed) can selectively be chlorinated to produce titanium tetrachloride. Except for iron, most other components present during this low temperature (ca. 200 °C) chlorination reaction...

  3. Aluminum nitride insulating films for MOSFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Maserjian, J.

    1972-01-01

    Application of aluminum nitrides as electrical insulator for electric capacitors is discussed. Electrical properties of aluminum nitrides are analyzed and specific use with field effect transistors is defined. Operational limits of field effect transistors are developed.

  4. Transport in a magnetic field modulated graphene superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Xian

    2010-01-13

    Using the transfer matrix method, we study the transport properties through a magnetic field modulated graphene superlattice. It is found that the electrostatic barrier, the magnetic vector potential, and the number of wells in a superlattice modify the transmission remarkably. The angular dependent transmission is blocked by the magnetic vector potential because of the appearance of the evanescent states at certain incident angles, and the region of Klein tunneling shifts to the left. The angularly averaged conductivities exhibit oscillatory behavior. The magnitude and period of oscillation depend sensitively on the height of the electrostatic barrier, the number of wells, and the strength of the modulated magnetic field.

  5. Surface phonon polaritons in semi-infinite semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkoma, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    Surface phonon polaritons in a semi-infinite semiconductor superlattice bounded by vacuum are studied. The modes associated with the polaritons are obtained and used to obtain the dispersion relation. Numerical results show that polariton bands exist between the TO and LO phonon frequencies, and are found to approach two surface mode frequencies in the limit of large tangential wave vector. Dependency of frequencies on the ratio of layer thicknesses is shown. Results are illustrated by a GaAs-GaP superlattice bounded by vacuum. (author)

  6. High-electric-field quantum transport theory for semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hong Shon; Nazareno, H.N.

    1995-12-01

    Based on the Baym-Kadanoff-Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's functions technique, a quantum transport theory for semiconductor superlattices under high-electric field is developed. This theory is capable of considering collisional broadening, intra-collisional field effects and band transport and hopping regimes simultaneously. Numerical calculations for narrow-miniband superlattices in high electric field, when the hopping regime dominates are in reasonable agreement with experimental results and show a significant deviation from the Boltzmann theory. A semiphenomenological formula for current density in hopping regime is proposed. (author). 60 refs, 4 figs

  7. A possible radiation-resistant solar cell geometry using superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, C.; Clark, R.; Brinker, D.

    1985-01-01

    A solar cell structure is proposed which uses a GaAs nipi doping superlattice. An important feature of this structure is that photogenerated minority carriers are very quickly collected in a time shorter than bulk lifetime in the fairly heavily doped n and p layers and these carriers are then transported parallel to the superlattice layers to selective ohmic contacts. Assuming that these already-separated carriers have very long recombination lifetimes, due to their across an indirect bandgap in real space, it is argued that the proposed structure may exhibit superior radiation tolerance along with reasonably high beginning-of-life efficiency.

  8. Interface properties of superlattices with artificially broken symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lottermoser, Th.; Yamada, H.; Matsuno, J.; Arima, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We have used superlattices made of thin layers of transition metal oxides to design the so-called multiferroics, i.e. materials possessing simultaneously an electric polarization and a magnetic ordering. The polarization originates from the asymmetric stacking order accompanied by charge transfer effects, while the latter one also influences the magnetic properties of the interfaces. Due to the breaking of space and time-reversal symmetry by multiple ordering mechanism magnetic second harmonic generation is proven to be an ideal method to investigate the electric and magnetic properties of the superlattices

  9. Spontaneous Superlattice Formation in Nanorods through PartialCation Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Richard D.; Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis O.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2007-03-14

    Lattice mismatch strains are widely known to controlnanoscale pattern formation in heteroepitaxy, but such effects have notbeen exploited in colloidal nanocrystal growth. We demonstrate acolloidal route to synthesizing CdS-Ag2S nanorod superlattices throughpartial cation exchange. Strain induces the spontaneous formation ofperiodic structures. Ab initio calculations of the interfacial energy andmodeling of strain energies show that these forces drive theself-organization. The nanorod superlattices exhibit high stabilityagainst ripening and phase mixing. These materials are tunablenear-infrared emitters with potential applications as nanometer-scaleoptoelectronic devices.

  10. Leachability of nitrided ilmenite in hydrochloric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, J.J.; van Vuuren, D.S.; Heydenrych, M.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium nitride in upgraded nitrided ilmenite (bulk of iron removed) can selectively be chlorinated to produce titanium tetrachloride. Except for iron, most other components present during this low temperature (ca. 200°C) chlorination reaction will not react with chlorine. It is therefore necessary to remove as much iron as possible from the nitrided ilmenite. Hydrochloric acid leaching is a possible process route to remove metallic iron from nitrided ilmenite without excessive dissolution o...

  11. Single Photon Counting UV Solar-Blind Detectors Using Silicon and III-Nitride Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Jewell, April D.; Hennessy, John J.; Carver, Alexander G.; Jones, Todd J.; Goodsall, Timothy M.; Hamden, Erika T.; Suvarna, Puneet; Bulmer, J.; Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Charbon, Edoardo; Padmanabhan, Preethi; Hancock, Bruce; Bell, L. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) studies in astronomy, cosmology, planetary studies, biological and medical applications often require precision detection of faint objects and in many cases require photon-counting detection. We present an overview of two approaches for achieving photon counting in the UV. The first approach involves UV enhancement of photon-counting silicon detectors, including electron multiplying charge-coupled devices and avalanche photodiodes. The approach used here employs molecular beam epitaxy for delta doping and superlattice doping for surface passivation and high UV quantum efficiency. Additional UV enhancements include antireflection (AR) and solar-blind UV bandpass coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition. Quantum efficiency (QE) measurements show QE > 50% in the 100–300 nm range for detectors with simple AR coatings, and QE ≅ 80% at ~206 nm has been shown when more complex AR coatings are used. The second approach is based on avalanche photodiodes in III-nitride materials with high QE and intrinsic solar blindness. PMID:27338399

  12. Fabrication of vanadium nitride by carbothermal nitridation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xitang; Wang Zhuofu; Zhang Baoguo; Deng Chengji

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium nitride is produced from V 2 O 5 by carbon-thermal reduction and nitridation. When the sintered temperature is above 1273 K, VN can be formed, and the nitrogen content of the products increased with the firing temperature raised, and then is the largest when the sintered temperature is 1573 K. The C/V 2 O 5 mass ratio of the green samples is the other key factor affecting on the nitrogen contents of the products. The nitrogen content of the products reaches the most when the C/V 2 O 5 mass ratio is 0.33, which is the theoretical ratio of the carbothermal nitridation of V 2 O 5 . (orig.)

  13. Impurity Resonant States p-type Doping in Wide-Band-Gap Nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Yi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Zhiguo; Yuan, Gongdong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Lu, Na; Ferguson, Ian; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new strategy for achieving efficient p-type doping in high bandgap nitride semiconductors to overcome the fundamental issue of high activation energy has been proposed and investigated theoretically, and demonstrated experimentally. Specifically, in an AlxGa1-xN/GaN superlattice structure, by modulation doping of Mg in the AlxGa1-xN barriers, high concentration of holes are generated throughout the material. A hole concentration as high as 1.1 × 1018 cm-3 has been achieved, which is about one order of magnitude higher than that typically achievable by direct doping GaN. Results from first-principle calculations indicate that the coupling and hybridization between Mg 2p impurity and the host N 2p orbitals are main reasons for the generation of resonant states in the GaN wells, which further results in the high hole concentration. We expect this approach to be equally applicable for other high bandgap materials where efficient p-type doing is difficult. Furthermore, a two-carrier-species Hall-effect model is proposed to delineate and discriminate the characteristics of the bulk and 2D hole, which usually coexist in superlattice-like doping systems. The model reported here can also be used to explain the abnormal freeze-in effect observed in many previous reports.

  14. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  15. Simulation of the Nitriding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukovich, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation of the nitriding process makes it possible to solve many practical problems of process control, prediction of results, and development of new treatment modes and treated materials. The presented classification systematizes nitriding processes and processes based on nitriding, enables consideration of the theory and practice of an individual process in interrelation with other phenomena, outlines ways for intensification of various process variants, and gives grounds for development of recommendations for controlling the structure and properties of the obtained layers. The general rules for conducting the process and formation of phases in the layer and properties of the treated surfaces are used to create a prediction computational model based on analytical, numerical, and empirical approaches.

  16. Picosecond electron bunches from GaAs/GaAsP strained superlattice photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Xiuguang; Matsuba, Shunya; Honda, Yosuke; Miyajima, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Utiyama, Takashi; Takeda, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    GaAs/GaAsP strained superlattices are excellent candidates for use as spin-polarized electron sources. In the present study, picosecond electron bunches were successfully generated from such a superlattice photocathode. However, electron transport in the superlattice was much slower than in bulk GaAs. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that a small amount of variations in the uniformity of the layers was present in the superlattice. These variations lead to fluctuations in the superlattice mini-band structure and can affect electron transport. Thus, it is expected that if the periodicity of the superlattice can be improved, much faster electron bunches can be produced. - Highlights: • GaAs/GaAsP strained superlattices are excellent candidates for spin-polarized electron beam. • Pulse spin-polarized electron beam is required for investigating the magnetic domain change. • Picosecond electron bunches were achieved from GaAs/GaAsP superlattice photocathode. • TEM observation revealed a small disorder of superlattice layers. • Improvement of superlattice periodicity can achieve much faster electron bunches

  17. Localization in superlattices with randomness in layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jian; Tsai Chienhua.

    1987-08-01

    The localization length for electrons in superlattices with randomness in layer thickness is studied in both the commensurate and the incommensurate cases. It is demonstrated that disorder limits the electrons to see only structures within the extent of their wave functions and to be hardly effected by any long range correlation. (author). 4 refs, 6 figs

  18. Hot electrons in superlattices: quantum transport versus Boltzmann equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Rott, S.

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent solution of the transport equation is presented for semiconductor superlattices within different approaches: (i) a full quantum transport model based on nonequilibrium Green functions, (ii) the semiclassical Boltzmann equation for electrons in a miniband, and (iii) Boltzmann...

  19. ) m /SrVO3 ( m = 5, 6) Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Qingqing; Lü ders, Ulrike; Fré sard, Raymond; Eckern, Ulrich; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2018-01-01

    The (LaV3+O3)m/SrV4+O3 (m = 5, 6) superlattices are investigated by first principles calculations. While bulk LaVO3 is a C‐type antiferromagnetic semiconductor and bulk SrVO3 is a paramagnetic metal, semiconducting A‐type antiferromagnetic states

  20. Second harmonic generation in generalized Thue-Morse ferroelectric superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Longxiang; Yang Xiangbo; Chen Tongsheng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the second harmonic generation (SHG) in generalized Thue-Morse (GTM(m, n)) ferroelectric superlattices is studied. Under the small-signal approximation, the SHG spectra in both real and reciprocal spaces are investigated. It is found that: (1) only when the structure parameters l, l A , and l B are all chosen to be proper, can SHG in GTM(m, n) ferroelectric superlattices be generated; (2) for Family A of generalized Thue-Morse, GTM(m, 1) ferroelectric systems, with the increase of parameter m, the intense peaks of SHG concentrate on the long wavelength 1.4-1.5μm (the fundamental beam (FB) wavelength is within 0.8-1.5μm), but for Family B of generalized Thue-Morse, GTM(1, n) ferroelectric superlattices, with the increase of parameter n, the intense peaks of SHG concentrate on the middle wavelength 1.1-1.2μm; and (3) for GTM(m, 1) ferroelectric superlattices, the bigger the m, the stronger the relative integral intensity (RII) of SHG would be, but for GTM(1, n) ferroelectric systems, the bigger the n, the weaker the RII of SHG would be.

  1. Recent results on heterojunctions and superlattices: transport and optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voos, M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental results obtained on two-dimensional semiconductor structures, namely heterojunctions and superlattices are presented. This review, which includes both optical and transport experiments, is not exhaustive, but describes briefly some investigations which are thought to be important from the point of view of fundamental physics. (Author) [pt

  2. Phonon dispersion relations in monoatomic superlattices: a transfer matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, E.L. de; Fulco, P.

    1986-01-01

    We present a lattice dynamical theory for monoatomic superlattices consisting of alternating layers of two different materials. Using a transfer matrix method we obtain explicit the equation for dispersion of the phonon's bulk modes, including the well known result in the long wave-length limit which can be obtained by elasticity theory. An illustation is shown and its features discussed. (Author) [pt

  3. Quantum Transport: The Link between Standard Approaches in Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    Theories describing electrical transport in semiconductor superlattices can essentially be divided in three disjoint categories: (i) transport in a miniband; (ii) hopping between Wannier-Stark ladders; and (iii) sequential tunneling. We present a quantum transport model, based on nonequilibrium G...

  4. A CPA study of the phonon structure of disordered superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shijie Xiong; Gendi Pang; Chienhua Tsai.

    1985-08-01

    The phonon structure of superlattices or modulated alloys with substitutional disorder is studied in the Coherent Phase Approximation (CPA). We consider first the case with diagonal disorder only, by adopting a virtual crystal approximation for the force constants. Then we treat the more complicated case with inclusion of off-diagonal disorder. Numerical examples are also studied in both cases. (author)

  5. Designing Optical Properties in DNA-Programmed Nanoparticle Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael Brendan

    A grand challenge of modern science has been the ability to predict and design the properties of new materials. This approach to the a priori design of materials presents a number of challenges including: predictable properties of the material building blocks, a programmable means for arranging such building blocks into well understood architectures, and robust models that can predict the properties of these new materials. In this dissertation, we present a series of studies that describe how optical properties in DNA-programmed nanoparticle superlattices can be predicted prior to their synthesis. The first chapter provides a history and introduction to the study of metal nanoparticle arrays. Chapter 2 surveys and compares several geometric models and electrodynamics simulations with the measured optical properties of DNA-nanoparticle superlattices. Chapter 3 describes silver nanoparticle superlattices (rather than gold) and identifies their promise as plasmonic metamaterials. In chapter 4, the concept of plasmonic metallurgy is introduced, whereby it is demonstrated that concepts from materials science and metallurgy can be applied to the optical properties of mixed metallic plasmonic materials, unveiling rich and tunable optical properties such as color and asymmetric reflectivity. Chapter 5 presents a comprehensive theoretical exploration of anisotropy (non-spherical) in nanoparticle superlattice architectures. The role of anisotropy is discussed both on the nanoscale, where several desirable metamaterial properties can be tuned from the ultraviolet to near-infrared, and on the mesoscale, where the size and shape of a superlattice is demonstrated to have a pronounced effect on the observed far-field optical properties. Chapter 6 builds upon those theoretical data presented in chapter 5, including the experimental realization of size and shape dependent properties in DNA-programmed superlattices. Specifically, nanoparticle spacing is explored as a parameter that

  6. Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

  7. Superhard Transparent Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    alcohol has OH groups and polymethacrylic acid has carboxyl COOH groups. These form a clear suspension with the sub- micron hydrophilic particles...PHOSPHORIC ACID /SILICA/PVA 38 SYSTEM 3: ALON/POLYSILICIC ACID /BORACIC ACID 38 SYSTEM 4: ALON/SILICA/CYMEL - MOH HARDNESS VS...60 POLYSILICIC ACID 60 Methods for the Preparation of a Polystllcate/ Alon Suspension 61 Compositions 62 STRETCHED PLEX 63 OPTIMUM COMPOSITIONS

  8. Dynamic localization in finite quantum dot superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madureira, Justino R.; Schulz, Peter A.; Maialle, Marcelo Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The dynamic properties of electrons and holes in low dimensional systems, driven by ac fields, reveal exciting emergent phenomena in the time span around the turn of the century. Such a rich scenario has been established by the concurrent development of powerful theoretical analysis tools, design and realization of high quality nano structured devices, as well as of tunable microwave and T Hz ac field sources. These striking developments made possible the exploration of the interaction of T Hz fields with condensed matter, leading even to biological tissue imaging. Therefore, a microscopic understanding of the T Hz field effects on designed nano structures constitute an important framework for further developments. A very interesting example in this context is the prediction of dynamic localization, which has been a subject of intense research in the past few years, from both theoretical and experimental point of views. The initial prediction states that, within a single band tight-binding approximation, an initially localized particle will return to its initial state following the periodical evolution of a driving pure sinusoidal field. This phenomenon can be simply visualized by the related collapse of the quasi energy mini bands, i.e., the localization of electronic states of a periodic unidimensional structure in real space driven by a field periodic in time. Such collapses occur whenever the field intensity/frequency ratio, eaF/(h/2π)ω, is a root of the zero-order Bessel function of the first kind. The quest for experimental signatures of dynamic localization is an involved task, since a variety of perturbations to an ideal situation is always present in real systems. The question that has to be answered is how the dynamic localization, related to the quasi-energy mini band collapses, may be identified in a context where concurring effects also tend to modify the quasi-energy spectra. For semiconductor superlattices, dynamic localization has been

  9. Reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porz, F.

    1982-10-01

    Reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) has been characterized. The oxidation behaviour in air up to 1500 0 C and 3000 h and the effects of static and cyclic oxidation on room-temperature strength have been studied. (orig./IHOE) [de

  10. Stability and Dynamic of strain mediated Adatom Superlattices on Cu<111>

    OpenAIRE

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Substrate strain mediated adatom density distributions have been calculated for Cu surfaces. Complemented by Monte Carlo calculations a hexagonal close packaged adatom superlattice in a coverage range up to 0.045 ML is derived. Conditions for the stability of the superlattice against nucleation and degradation are analyzed using simple neighborhood models. Such models are also used to investigate the dynamic of adatoms within their superlattice neighborhood. Collective modes of adatom diffusi...

  11. Computer simulation of the anomalous elastic behavior of thin films and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.

    1992-10-01

    Atomistic simulations are reviewed that elucidate the causes of the anomalous elastic behavior of thin films and superlattices (the so-called supermodulus effect). The investigation of free-standing thin films and of superlattices of grain boundaries shows that the supermodulus effect is not an electronic but a structural interface effect intricately connected with the local atomic disorder at the interfaces. The consequent predictions that (1) coherent strained-layer superlattices should show the smallest elastic anomalies and (2) the introduction of incoherency at the interfaces should enhance all anomalies are validated by simulations of dissimilar-material superlattices. 38 refs, 10 figs

  12. Terahertz emission of Bloch oscillators excited by electromagnetic field in lateral semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin, E.P.; Zharov, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the strong high-frequency electromagnetic field on the lateral semiconductor superlattice is considered on the basis of the quasi-classical theory on the electron transport in the self-consistent wave arrangement. It is theoretically identified, that the lateral superlattice in the strong feed-up wave field may emit the terahertz radiation wave trains, which are associated with the periodical excitation of the Bloch oscillations in the superlattice. The conditions, required for the Bloch oscillators radiation observation, are determined. The spectral composition of the radiation, passing through the superlattice, and energy efficiency of multiplying the frequency, related to the Bloch oscillator excitation, are calculated [ru

  13. Piezoelectricity in the dielectric component of nanoscale dielectric-ferroelectric superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ji Young; Sichel, Rebecca J; Lee, Ho Nyung; Nakhmanson, Serge M; Dufresne, Eric M; Evans, Paul G

    2010-05-21

    The origin of the functional properties of complex oxide superlattices can be resolved using time-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction into contributions from the component layers making up the repeating unit. The CaTiO3 layers of a CaTiO3/BaTiO3 superlattice have a piezoelectric response to an applied electric field, consistent with a large continuous polarization throughout the superlattice. The overall piezoelectric coefficient at large strains, 54  pm/V, agrees with first-principles predictions in which a tetragonal symmetry is imposed on the superlattice by the SrTiO3 substrate.

  14. Binding of biexcitons in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizeikis, Vygantas; Birkedal, Dan; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    1997-01-01

    Properties of the heavy-hole excitons and biexcitons in GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As superlattices are studied using linear and nonlinear optical techniques. In superlattices with miniband halfwidths less than the exciton binding energy, the biexciton binding energy is found to be the same as in the noninte......Properties of the heavy-hole excitons and biexcitons in GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As superlattices are studied using linear and nonlinear optical techniques. In superlattices with miniband halfwidths less than the exciton binding energy, the biexciton binding energy is found to be the same...

  15. Feshbach shape resonance for high Tc pairing in superlattices of quantum stripes and quantum wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bianconi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   The Feshbach shape resonances in the interband pairing in superconducting superlattices of quantum wells or quantum stripes is shown to provide the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity. This mechanism provides the Tc amplification driven by the architecture of material: superlattices of quantum wells (intercalated graphite or diborides and superlattices of quantum stripes (doped high Tc cuprate perovskites where the chemical potential is tuned to a Van Hove-Lifshitz singularity (vHs in the electronic energy spectrum of the superlattice associated with the change of the Fermi surface dimensionality in one of the subbands.

  16. Dependence of Fe/Cr superlattice magnetoresistance on orientation of external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, V.V.; Romashev, L.N.; Minin, V.I.; Semerikov, A.V.; Del', A.R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations into giant magnetoresistance of [Fe/Cr] 30 /MgO superlattices obtained using molecular-beam epitaxy under various orientations of magnetic field relatively to the layers of superlattice and to the direction of current flow. Theory of orientation dependence of superlattice magnetoresistance enabling to describe satisfactorily behaviour of magnetoresistance at arbitrary direction of magnetic field on the ground of results of magnetoresistance measurements in magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to plane of layers, is elaborated. It is pointed out that it is possible to obtain field dependence of superlattice magnetization on the ground of measurement results. 9 refs., 6 figs

  17. Quasiperiodic AlGaAs superlattices for neuromorphic networks and nonlinear control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, K. V., E-mail: malyshev@bmstu.ru [Electronics and Laser Technology Department, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-28

    The application of quasiperiodic AlGaAs superlattices as a nonlinear element of the FitzHugh–Nagumo neuromorphic network is proposed and theoretically investigated on the example of Fibonacci and figurate superlattices. The sequences of symbols for the figurate superlattices were produced by decomposition of the Fibonacci superlattices' symbolic sequences. A length of each segment of the decomposition was equal to the corresponding figurate number. It is shown that a nonlinear network based upon Fibonacci and figurate superlattices provides better parallel filtration of a half-tone picture; then, a network based upon traditional diodes which have cubic voltage-current characteristics. It was found that the figurate superlattice F{sup 0}{sub 11}(1) as a nonlinear network's element provides the filtration error almost twice less than the conventional “cubic” diode. These advantages are explained by a wavelike shape of the decreasing part of the quasiperiodic superlattice's voltage-current characteristic, which leads to multistability of the network's cell. This multistability promises new interesting nonlinear dynamical phenomena. A variety of wavy forms of voltage-current characteristics opens up new interesting possibilities for quasiperiodic superlattices and especially for figurate superlattices in many areas—from nervous system modeling to nonlinear control systems development.

  18. Tunneling time and Hartman effect in a ferromagnetic graphene superlattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Sattari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Using transfer-matrix and stationary phase methods, we study the tunneling time (group delay time in a ferromagnetic monolayer graphene superlattice. The system we peruse consists of a sequence of rectangular barriers and wells, which can be realized by putting a series of electronic gates on the top of ferromagnetic graphene. The magnetization in the two ferromagnetic layers is aligned parallel. We find out that the tunneling time for normal incident is independent of spin state of electron as well as the barrier height and electron Fermi energy while for the oblique incident angles the tunneling time depends on the spin state of electron and has an oscillatory behavior. Also the effect of barrier width on tunneling time is also investigated and shown that, for normal incident, the Hartman effect disappears in a ferromagnetic graphene superlattice but it appears for oblique incident angles when the x component of the electron wave vector in the barrier is imaginary.

  19. Photoacoustic transformation of Bessel light beams in magnetoactive superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mityurich, G. S., E-mail: George-mityurich@mail.ru [Belarusian Trade and Economics University of Consumer Cooperatives (Belarus); Chernenok, E. V.; Sviridova, V. V.; Serdyukov, A. N. [Gomel State University (Belarus)

    2015-03-15

    Photoacoustic transformation of the TE mode of a Bessel light beam (BLB) has been studied for piezoelectric detection in short-period superlattices formed by magnetoactive crystals of bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20}) and bismuth silicate (Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20}) types. It is shown that the resulting signal amplitude can be controlled using optical schemes of BLB formation with a tunable cone angle. A resonant increase in the signal amplitude has been found in the megahertz range of modulation frequencies and its dependences on the BLB modulation frequency, geometric sizes of the two-layer structure and piezoelectric transducer, radial coordinate of the polarization BLB mode, and dissipative superlattice parameters are analyzed.

  20. Large negative differential resistance in graphene nanoribbon superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, P.; Chen, C. H.; Hsu, S. A.; Hsueh, W. J.

    2018-05-01

    A graphene nanoribbon superlattice with a large negative differential resistance (NDR) is proposed. Our results show that the peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) of the graphene superlattices can reach 21 at room temperature with bias voltages between 90-220 mV, which is quite large compared with the one of traditional graphene-based devices. It is found that the NDR is strongly influenced by the thicknesses of the potential barrier. Therefore, the NDR effect can be optimized by designing a proper barrier thickness. The large NDR effect can be attributed to the splitting of the gap in transmission spectrum (segment of Wannier-Stark ladder) with larger thicknesses of barrier when the applied voltage increases.

  1. Magnetism and superconductivity in neodymium/lanthanum superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goff, J.P.; Sarthour, R.S.; McMorrow, Desmond Francis

    1997-01-01

    bilayers. Magnetization studies reveal the onset of superconductivity at a temperature comparable to bulk DHCP La, and the results suggest coupling across the antiferromagnetic Nd layers. The magnetic structures, investigated using neutron diffraction techniques, resemble those found in bulk Nd....... For the cubic sites of the DHCP structure the magnetic order is confined to individual Nd blocks. However, the magnetic order on the Nd hexagonal sites propagates coherently through the La, even when it becomes superconducting. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A single-crystal Nd30La10 superlattice grown using molecular beam epitaxy is found to consist of alternating antiferromagnetic and superconducting layers at low temperature. The superlattice has the DHCP crystal structure, and the stacking sequence of close-packed planes is coherent over many...

  2. Surface magnetic phase transitions in Dy/Lu superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, J.P.; Sarthour, R.S.; Micheletti, C.; Langridge, S.; Wilkins, C.J.T.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Dy/Lu superlattices comprising ferromagnetic Dy blocks coupled antiferromagnetically across the Lu blocks may be modelled as a chain of XY spins with antiferromagnetic exchange and six-fold anisotropy. We have calculated the stable magnetic phases for the cases of large anisotropy and a field applied along an easy direction. For an infinite chain an intermediate phase (1, 5,...) is predicted, where the notation gives the angle between the moment and the applied field in units of π/3. Furthermore, the effects of surface reconstruction are determined for finite chains. A [Dy 20 Lu 12 ] 20 superlattice has been studied using bulk magnetization and polarized neutron reflectivity. The (1, 5,...) phase has been identified and the results provide direct evidence in support of the theoretical predictions. Dipolar forces are shown to account for the magnitude of the observed exchange coupling. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Quantum ratchets for quantum communication with optical superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Isart, Oriol; Garcia-Ripoll, Juan Jose

    2007-01-01

    We propose to use a quantum ratchet to transport quantum information in a chain of atoms trapped in an optical superlattice. The quantum ratchet is created by a continuous modulation of the optical superlattice which is periodic in time and in space. Though there is zero average force acting on the atoms, we show that indeed the ratchet effect permits atoms on even and odd sites to move along opposite directions. By loading the optical lattice with two-level bosonic atoms, this scheme permits us to perfectly transport a qubit or entangled state imprinted in one or more atoms to any desired position in the lattice. From the quantum computation point of view, the transport is achieved by a smooth concatenation of perfect swap gates. We analyze setups with noninteracting and interacting particles and in the latter case we use the tools of optimal control to design optimal modulations. We also discuss the feasibility of this method in current experiments

  4. ) m /SrVO3 ( m = 5, 6) Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Qingqing

    2018-05-04

    The (LaV3+O3)m/SrV4+O3 (m = 5, 6) superlattices are investigated by first principles calculations. While bulk LaVO3 is a C‐type antiferromagnetic semiconductor and bulk SrVO3 is a paramagnetic metal, semiconducting A‐type antiferromagnetic states for both superlattices are found due to epitaxial strain. At the interfaces, however, the V spins couple antiferromagnetically for m = 5 and ferromagnetically for m = 6 (m‐dependence of the magnetization). Electronic reconstruction in form of charge ordering is predicted to occur with V3+ and V4+ states arranged in a checkerboard pattern on both sides of the SrO layer. As compared to bulk LaVO3, the presence of V4+ ions introduces in‐gap states that strongly reduce the bandgap and influence the orbital occupation and ordering.

  5. Electronic structure of a graphene superlattice with massive Dirac fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Jonas R. F.

    2015-01-01

    We study the electronic and transport properties of a graphene-based superlattice theoretically by using an effective Dirac equation. The superlattice consists of a periodic potential applied on a single-layer graphene deposited on a substrate that opens an energy gap of 2Δ in its electronic structure. We find that extra Dirac points appear in the electronic band structure under certain conditions, so it is possible to close the gap between the conduction and valence minibands. We show that the energy gap E g can be tuned in the range 0 ≤ E g  ≤ 2Δ by changing the periodic potential. We analyze the low energy electronic structure around the contact points and find that the effective Fermi velocity in very anisotropic and depends on the energy gap. We show that the extra Dirac points obtained here behave differently compared to previously studied systems

  6. Ion nitridation - physical and technological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbern, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Ion nitridation, is a technique which allows the formation of a controlled thickness of nitrides in the surface of the material, using this material as the cathode in a low pressure glow discharge, which presents many advantages over the conventional method. A brief review of the ion nitriding technique, the physical fenomena involved, and we discuss technological aspects of this method, are presented. (Author) [pt

  7. Silicon nitride-fabrication, forming and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yehezkel, O.

    1983-01-01

    This article, which is a literature survey of the recent years, includes description of several methods for the formation of silicone nitride, and five methods of forming: Reaction-bonded silicon nitride, sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing and chemical vapour deposition. Herein are also included data about mechanical and physical properties of silicon nitride and the relationship between the forming method and the properties. (author)

  8. Transport and spin effects in homogeneous magnetic superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, J.L.; Pereyra, P.; Anzaldo-Meneses, A.

    2000-09-01

    Homogeneous semiconductors under spacially periodic external magnetic fields exhibit spin-band splitting and displacements, more clearly defined than in diluted magnetic semiconductor superlattices. We study the influence of the geometrical parameters and the spin-field interaction on the electronic transport properties. We show that by varying the external magnetic field, one can easily block the transmission of either the spin-up or the spin-down electrons. (author)

  9. Capacitance-Voltage (CV) Measurement of Type-2 Superlattice Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-05

    Department of Defense position, policy, or decision. CQD Contents 1. Background and Motivation ...1. Background and Motivation 1.1. Development of Type-II superalttice Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices (T2SLs) were first proposed by Sai-Halasz et...equals the ionized impurity concentration. In such case, the semiconductor is under extrinsic regime, and the dynamic of mobile carriers depends on

  10. Structural study of multilayered vanadium/nickel superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, H.; Lepetre, Y.; Murduck, J.M.; Schuller, I.K.; Majkrzak, C.F.

    1985-07-01

    We have studied the microstructure of V/Ni metallic superlattice, using x-ray and neutron diffraction. We find a sharp and broad rocking curves around the first-order Bragg peak, and attribute them to a columnar structure which gives rise to two modulation structures; one the ordinary layered structure within the columns and the other the averaged modulation structure which produces the sharp rocking peak

  11. Phase transitions of a spin-one Ising ferromagnetic superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, A.

    2001-09-01

    Using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique, the magnetic properties in an infinite superlattice consisting of two different ferromagnets are studied in a spin-one Ising model. The dependence of the Curie temperatures are calculated as a function of two slabs in one period and as a function of the intra- and interlayer exchange interactions. A critical value of the exchange reduced interaction above which the interface magnetism appears is found. (author)

  12. Topotactic synthesis of vanadium nitride solid foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, S.T.; Kapoor, R.; Oyama, H.T.; Hofmann, D.J.; Matijevic, E.

    1993-01-01

    Vanadium nitride has been synthesized with a surface area of 120 m 2 g -1 by temperature programmed nitridation of a foam-like vanadium oxide (35 m 2 g -1 ), precipitated from vanadate solutions. The nitridation reaction was established to be topotactic and pseudomorphous by x-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The crystallographic relationship between the nitride and oxide was {200}//{001}. The effect of precursor geometry on the product size and shape was investigated by employing vanadium oxide solids of different morphologies

  13. Microhardness and microplasticity of zirconium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshpor, V.S.; Eron'yan, M.A.; Petrov, A.N.; Kravchik, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    To experimentally check the concentration dependence of microhardness of 4 group nitrides, microhardness of zirconium nitride compact samples was measured. The samples were obtained either by bulk saturation of zirconium iodide plates or by chemical precipitation from gas. As nitrogen content decreased within the limits of homogeneity of zirconium nitride samples where the concentration of admixed oxygen was low, the microhardness grew from 1500+-100 kg/mm 2 for ZrNsub(1.0) to 27000+-100 kg/mm 2 for ZrNsub(0.78). Microplasticity of zirconium nitride (resistance to fracture) decreased, as the concentration of nitrogen vacancies was growing

  14. Band structure of ABC-trilayer graphene superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, Salah; Chan, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of one-dimensional periodic potentials on the low energy band structure of ABC trilayer graphene first by assuming that all the three layers have the same potential. Extra Dirac points having the same electron hole crossing energy as that of the original Dirac point are generated by superlattice potentials with equal well and barrier widths. When the potential height is increased, the numbers of extra Dirac points are increased. The dispersions around the Dirac points are not isotropic. It is noted that the dispersion along the k y direction for k x  = 0 oscillates between a non-linear dispersion and a linear dispersion when the potential height is increased. When the well and barrier widths are not identical, the symmetry of the conduction and valence bands is broken. The extra Dirac points are shifted either upward or downward depending on the barrier and well widths from the zero energy, while the position of the central Dirac point oscillates with the superlattice potential height. By considering different potentials for different layers, extra Dirac points are generated not from the original Dirac points but from the valleys formed in the energy spectrum. Two extra Dirac points appear from each pair of touched valleys, so four Dirac points appeared in the spectrum at particular barrier height. By increasing the barrier height of superlattice potential two Dirac points merge into the original Dirac point. This emerging and merging of extra Dirac points is different from the equal potential case

  15. Shape-Anisotropy Driven Symmetry Transformations in Nanocrystal Superlattice Polymorphs

    KAUST Repository

    Bian, Kaifu; Choi, Joshua J.; Kaushik, Ananth; Clancy, Paulette; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Despite intense research efforts by research groups worldwide, the potential of self-assembled nanocrystal superlattices (NCSLs) has not been realized due to an incomplete understanding of the fundamental molecular interactions governing the self-assembly process. Because NCSLs reside naturally at length-scales between atomic crystals and colloidal assemblies, synthetic control over the properties of constituent nanocrystal (NC) building blocks and their coupling in ordered assemblies is expected to yield a new class of materials with remarkable optical, electronic, and vibrational characteristics. Progress toward the formation of suitable test structures and subsequent development of NCSL-based technologies has been held back by the limited control over superlattice spacing and symmetry. Here we show that NCSL symmetry can be controlled by manipulating molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface and the surrounding solvent. Specifically, we demonstrate solvent vapor-mediated NCSL symmetry transformations that are driven by the orientational ordering of NCs within the lattice. The assembly of various superlattice polymorphs, including face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), and body-centered tetragonal (bct) structures, is studied in real time using in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) under controlled solvent vapor exposure. This approach provides quantitative insights into the molecular level physics that controls solvent-ligand interactions and assembly of NCSLs. Computer simulations based on all-atom molecular dynamics techniques confirm several key insights gained from experiment. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. X-ray diffraction of multilayers and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, W.J.; Hornstra, J.; Lobeek, D.J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recursion formulae for calculating the reflected amplitude ratio of multilayers and superlattices have been derived from the Takagi-Taupin differential equations, which describe the dynamical diffraction of X-rays in deformed crystals. Calculated rocking curves of complicated layered structures, such as non-ideal superlattices on perfect crystals, are shown to be in good agreement with observed diffraction profiles. The kinematical theory can save computing time only in the case of an ideal superlattice, for which a geometric series can be used, but the reflections must be below 10% so that multiple reflections can be neglected. For a perfect crystal of arbitrary thickness the absorption at the center of the dynamical reflection is found to be proportional to the square root of the reflectivity. Sputter-deposited periodic multilayers of tungsten and carbon can be considered as an artificial crystal, for which dynamical X-ray diffraction calculations give results very similar to those of a macroscopic optical description in terms of the complex index of refraction and Fresnel reflection coefficients. (orig.)

  17. Thermoelectric properties of strontium titanate superlattices incorporating niobium oxide nanolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Tritt, Terry M.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    A novel superlattice structure based on epitaxial nanoscale layers of NbOx and Nb-doped SrTiO3 is fabricated using a layer-by-layer approach on lattice matched LAO substrates. The absolute Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the [(NbOx) a/(Nb-doped SrTiO3)b]20 superlattices (SLs) were found to increase with decreasing layer thickness ratio (a/b ratio), reaching, at high temperatures, a power factor that is comparable to epitaxial Nb-doped SrTiO3 (STNO) films (∼0.7 W m-1 K-1). High temperature studies reveal that the SLs behave as n-type semiconductors and undergo an irreversible change at a varying crossover temperature that depends on the a/b ratio. By use of high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, the irreversible changes are identified to be due to a phase transformation from cubic NbO to orthorhombic Nb2O5, which limits the highest temperature of stable operation of the superlattice to 950 K. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Waves in man-made materials: superlattice to metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, Raphael; Fiddy, Michael A.

    2014-07-01

    While artificial or man-made structures date back to Lord Rayleigh, the work started by Lewin in 1947, placing spheres onto cubic lattices, greatly enriched microwave materials and devices. It was very suggestive of both metamaterials and photonics crystals. Effective medium models were used to describe bulk properties with some success. The concept of metamaterials followed photonic crystals, and these both were introduced after the introduction of the man-made superlattices designed to enrich the class of materials for electronic devices. The work on serrated ridged waveguides by Kirschbaum and Tsu for the control of the refractive index of microwave lenses as well as microwave matching devices in 1959 used a combination of theory, such as Floquet's theory, Bloch theory in one dimension, as well as periodic lumped loading. There is much in common between metamaterials and superlattices, but in this paper, we discuss some practical limitations to both. It is pointed out that unlike superlattices where kl > 1 is the most important criterion, metamaterials try to avoid involve such restrictions. However, the natural random fluctuations that limit the properties of naturally occurring materials are shown to take a toll on the theoretical predictions of metamaterials. The question is how great that toll, i.e. how significant those fluctuations will be, in diminishing the unusual properties that metamaterials can exhibit.

  19. pi-phase magnetism in ferromagnetic-superconductor superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Khusainov, M G; Proshin, Y N

    2001-01-01

    The Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fylde-Ferrel new 0 pi- and pi pi-states are forecasted for the ferromagnetic metal/superconductor superlattices with antiferromagnetic magnetization orientation in the neighbouring layers. The above-mentioned states are characterized under certain conditions by higher critical temperature T sub c as compared to the earlier known LOFF 00- and pi 0-states with the FM-layers ferromagnetic ordering. It is shown that the nonmonotonous behavior of the T sub c of the FM/S superlattices by the thickness of the S-layers lower than the d sub s suppi value is connected with the cascades of the 0 pi-pi pi-0 pi phase transitions. The character of the T sub c oscillations by the d sub s > d sub s suppi is related to the 00-pi 0-00 transitions. The logical elements of the new type, combining the advantages of the superconducting and magnetic information recording in one sample are proposed on the basis of the FM/S superlattices

  20. Tunable Noncollinear Antiferromagnetic Resistive Memory through Oxide Superlattice Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jason D.; Wu, Stephen M.; Kirby, Brian J.; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2018-04-01

    Antiferromagnets (AFMs) have recently gathered a large amount of attention as a potential replacement for ferromagnets (FMs) in spintronic devices due to their lack of stray magnetic fields, invisibility to external magnetic probes, and faster magnetization dynamics. Their development into a practical technology, however, has been hampered by the small number of materials where the antiferromagnetic state can be both controlled and read out. We show that by relaxing the strict criterion on pure antiferromagnetism, we can engineer an alternative class of magnetic materials that overcome these limitations. This is accomplished by stabilizing a noncollinear magnetic phase in LaNiO3 /La2 /3Sr1 /3MnO3 superlattices. This state can be continuously tuned between AFM and FM coupling through varying the superlattice spacing, strain, applied magnetic field, or temperature. By using this alternative "knob" to tune magnetic ordering, we take a nanoscale materials-by-design approach to engineering ferromagneticlike controllability into antiferromagnetic synthetic magnetic structures. This approach can be used to trade-off between the favorable and unfavorable properties of FMs and AFMs when designing realistic resistive antiferromagnetic memories. We demonstrate a memory device in one such superlattice, where the magnetic state of the noncollinear antiferromagnet is reversibly switched between different orientations using a small magnetic field and read out in real time with anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements.

  1. Shape-Anisotropy Driven Symmetry Transformations in Nanocrystal Superlattice Polymorphs

    KAUST Repository

    Bian, Kaifu

    2011-04-26

    Despite intense research efforts by research groups worldwide, the potential of self-assembled nanocrystal superlattices (NCSLs) has not been realized due to an incomplete understanding of the fundamental molecular interactions governing the self-assembly process. Because NCSLs reside naturally at length-scales between atomic crystals and colloidal assemblies, synthetic control over the properties of constituent nanocrystal (NC) building blocks and their coupling in ordered assemblies is expected to yield a new class of materials with remarkable optical, electronic, and vibrational characteristics. Progress toward the formation of suitable test structures and subsequent development of NCSL-based technologies has been held back by the limited control over superlattice spacing and symmetry. Here we show that NCSL symmetry can be controlled by manipulating molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface and the surrounding solvent. Specifically, we demonstrate solvent vapor-mediated NCSL symmetry transformations that are driven by the orientational ordering of NCs within the lattice. The assembly of various superlattice polymorphs, including face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), and body-centered tetragonal (bct) structures, is studied in real time using in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) under controlled solvent vapor exposure. This approach provides quantitative insights into the molecular level physics that controls solvent-ligand interactions and assembly of NCSLs. Computer simulations based on all-atom molecular dynamics techniques confirm several key insights gained from experiment. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Interface disorder and transport properties in HTC/CMR superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkorn, N.; Guimpel, J.; Sirena, M.; Steren, L.B.; Campillo, G.; Saldarriaga, W.; Gomez, M.E

    2004-08-01

    The physical properties of superlattices are affected by interface disorder, like roughness and interdiffusion. X-ray diffraction allows its measurement through modeling and structure refinement. The high-T{sub c} RBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (RBCO) and colossal magnetoresistance La{sub x}A{sub 1-x}MnO{sub 3} (LAMO) perovskites are interesting superlattice partners given their similar lattice parameters and because the combination of magnetic and superconducting properties is interesting for both basic and applied research. We have investigated the structural and transport properties of YBCO/La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} and GdBCO/La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.04}MnO{sub 3} superlattices grown by sputtering on (1 0 0)MgO. We find a roughness of 1 RBCO unit cell and a 30% interdiffusion in the same length from the interfaces for all samples. The superconducting behavior is found strongly dependent on the LAMO layer thickness.

  3. Lateral surface superlattices in strained InGaAs layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.

    2000-08-01

    Lateral Surface Superlattices were fabricated by etching in strained InGaAs layers above a GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG channel. These were etched both by dry plasma wet chemical etching to produce periods of 100nm, 200nm and 300nm. These superlattices were fabricated on Hall bars to allow four terminal measurement and a blanket gate was placed on top, to allow variations in the carrier concentration. The magnetoresistance effects of these superlattices were studied at varying values of gate voltage, which varies the carrier concentration and the electrostatic periodic potential and at temperatures down to 45mK in a dilution refrigerator. From the oscillations observed in the magnetoresistance trace's it is possible to calculate the magnitude of the periodic potential. This showed that the etched, strained InGaAs was producing an anisotropic piezoelectric potential, along with an isotropic electrostatic potential. The variation in period allowed a study of the change of this piezoelectric potential with the period as well as a study of the interactions between the electrostatic and piezoelectric potentials. Further, at the lowest temperatures a strong interaction was observed between the Commensurability Oscillations, caused by the periodic potential, and the Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations due to the Landau. Levels. This interaction was studied as it varied with temperature and carrier concentration. (author)

  4. Manganite/Cuprate Superlattice as Artificial Reentrant Spin Glass

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Junfeng

    2016-05-04

    Emerging physical phenomena at the unit-cell-controlled interfaces of transition-metal oxides have attracted lots of interest because of the rich physics and application opportunities. This work reports a reentrant spin glass behavior with strong magnetic memory effect discovered in oxide heterostructures composed of ultrathin manganite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and cuprate La2CuO4 (LCO) layers. These heterostructures are featured with enhanced ferromagnetism before entering the spin glass state: a Curie temperature of 246 K is observed in the superlattice with six-unit-cell LSMO layers, while the reference LSMO film with the same thickness shows much weaker magnetism. Furthermore, an insulator-metal transition emerges at the Curie temperature, and below the freezing temperature the superlattices can be considered as a glassy ferromagnetic insulator. These experimental results are closely related to the interfacial spin reconstruction revealed by the first-principles calculations, and the dependence of the reentrant spin glass behavior on the LSMO layer thickness is in line with the general phase diagram of a spin system derived from the infinite-range SK model. The results of this work underscore the manganite/cuprate superlattices as a versatile platform of creating artificial materials with tailored interfacial spin coupling and physical properties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Thermoelectric properties of strontium titanate superlattices incorporating niobium oxide nanolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2014-04-22

    A novel superlattice structure based on epitaxial nanoscale layers of NbOx and Nb-doped SrTiO3 is fabricated using a layer-by-layer approach on lattice matched LAO substrates. The absolute Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the [(NbOx) a/(Nb-doped SrTiO3)b]20 superlattices (SLs) were found to increase with decreasing layer thickness ratio (a/b ratio), reaching, at high temperatures, a power factor that is comparable to epitaxial Nb-doped SrTiO3 (STNO) films (∼0.7 W m-1 K-1). High temperature studies reveal that the SLs behave as n-type semiconductors and undergo an irreversible change at a varying crossover temperature that depends on the a/b ratio. By use of high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, the irreversible changes are identified to be due to a phase transformation from cubic NbO to orthorhombic Nb2O5, which limits the highest temperature of stable operation of the superlattice to 950 K. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  6. Modulating nanoparticle superlattice structure using proteins with tunable bond distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, Janet R.; Brodin, Jeffrey D.; Millan, Jaime A.; Lee, Byeongdu; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we investigate the use of proteins with tunable DNA modification distributions to modulate nanoparticle superlattice structure. Using Beta-galactosidase (βgal) as a model system, we have employed the orthogonal chemical reactivities of surface amines and thiols to synthesize protein-DNA conjugates with 36 evenly distributed or 8 specifically positioned oligonucleotides. When assembled into crystalline superlattices with AuNPs, we find that the distribution of DNA modifications modulates the favored structure: βgal with uniformly distributed DNA bonding elements results in body-centered cubic crystals, whereas DNA functionalization of cysteines results in AB 2 packing. We probe the role of protein oligonucleotide number and conjugate size on this observation, which revealed the importance of oligonucleotide distribution and number in this observed assembly behavior. These results indicate that proteins with defined DNA-modification patterns are powerful tools to control the nanoparticle superlattices architecture, and establish the importance of oligonucleotide distribution in the assembly behavior of protein-DNA conjugates.

  7. Band structure and optical properties of sinusoidal superlattices: ZnSe1-xTex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.; Lee, S.; Furdyna, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the band structure and optical selection rules in superlattices with a sinusoidal potential profile. The analysis is motivated by the recent successful fabrication of high quality ZnSe 1-x Te x superlattices in which the composition x varies sinusoidally along the growth direction. Although the band alignment in the ZnSe 1-x Te x sinusoidal superlattices is staggered (type II), they exhibit unexpectedly strong photoluminescence, thus suggesting interesting optical behavior. The band structure of such sinusoidal superlattices is formulated in terms of the nearly-free-electron (NFE) approximation, in which the superlattice potential is treated as a perturbation. The resulting band structure is unique, characterized by a single minigap separating two wide, free-electron-like subbands for both electrons and holes. Interband selection rules are derived for optical transitions involving conduction and valence-band states at the superlattice Brillouin-zone center, and at the zone edge. A number of transitions are predicted due to wave-function mixing of different subband states. It should be noted that the zone-center and zone-edge transitions are especially easy to distinguish in these superlattices because of the large width of the respective subbands. The results of the NFE approximation are shown to hold surprisingly well over a wide range of parameters, particularly when the period of the superlattice is short. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  8. Quantum dynamical phenomena of independent electrons in semiconductor superlattices subject to a uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Bloch oscillations and other dynamical phenomena of electrons in semiconductor superlattices; solvable dynamical model of an electron in a one-dimensional aperiodic lattice subject to a uniform electric field; and quantum dynamical phenomena of electrons in aperiodic semiconductor superlattices

  9. Nitride alloy layer formation of duplex stainless steel using nitriding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleque, M. A.; Lailatul, P. H.; Fathaen, A. A.; Norinsan, K.; Haider, J.

    2018-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) shows a good corrosion resistance as well as the mechanical properties. However, DSS performance decrease as it works under aggressive environment and at high temperature. At the mentioned environment, the DSS become susceptible to wear failure. Surface modification is the favourable technique to widen the application of duplex stainless steel and improve the wear resistance and its hardness properties. Therefore, the main aim of this work is to nitride alloy layer on the surface of duplex stainless steel by the nitriding process temperature of 400°C and 450°C at different time and ammonia composition using a horizontal tube furnace. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyzer are used to analyse the morphology, composition and the nitrided alloy layer for treated DSS. The micro hardnesss Vickers tester was used to measure hardness on cross-sectional area of nitrided DSS. After nitriding, it was observed that the hardness performance increased until 1100 Hv0.5kgf compared to substrate material of 250 Hv0.5kgf. The thickness layer of nitride alloy also increased from 5μm until 100μm due to diffusion of nitrogen on the surface of DSS. The x-ray diffraction results showed that the nitride layer consists of iron nitride, expanded austenite and chromium nitride. It can be concluded that nitride alloy layer can be produced via nitriding process using tube furnace with significant improvement of microstructural and hardness properties.

  10. Effects of super-hard rice bread blended with black rice bran on amyloid β peptide production and abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Hara, Takashi; Joh, Toshio; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Akira; Kasuga, Kensaku; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2017-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes are very serious diseases with the latter having been suggested to cause the former. We prepared super-hard rice bread blended with black rice bran (SRBBB), which contained a high amount of resistant starch that showed strong inhibitory activities against β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase even after heating. Black rice bran showed greater β-secretase inhibitory activity (3.6-fold) than Koshihikari rice. The bran contained more oleic acid and anthocyanin, meaning that it is potentially a biofunctional food with a high antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, aged mice, which were fed a SRBBB diet for four weeks, showed lower amyloid β 40 peptide in the blood than mice fed a commercial diet (p < 0.01). Additionally, their initial blood glucose levels (BGLs) after 12 weeks of being fed SRBBB were significantly lower than those in the control group. Taken together, our results indicate SRBBB shows promise for inhibiting not only amyloid β production, but also abrupt increases in postprandial BGLs.

  11. Materials science and technology strained-layer superlattices materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pearsall, Thomas P; Willardson, R K; Pearsall, Thomas P

    1990-01-01

    The following blurb to be used for the AP Report and ATI only as both volumes will not appear together there.****Strained-layer superlattices have been developed as an important new form of semiconducting material with applications in integrated electro-optics and electronics. Edited by a pioneer in the field, Thomas Pearsall, this volume offers a comprehensive discussion of strained-layer superlattices and focuses on fabrication technology and applications of the material. This volume combines with Volume 32, Strained-Layer Superlattices: Physics, in this series to cover a broad spectrum of topics, including molecular beam epitaxy, quantum wells and superlattices, strain-effects in semiconductors, optical and electrical properties of semiconductors, and semiconductor devices.****The following previously approved blurb is to be used in all other direct mail and advertising as both volumes will be promoted together.****Strained-layer superlattices have been developed as an important new form of semiconducting ...

  12. Terahertz radiation induced chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattices with a tilted magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Cao, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattice induced by terahertz electric field that is superimposed on a dc electric field along the superlattice axis are studied using the semiclassical motion equations including the effect of dissipation. A magnetic field that is tilted relative to the superlattice axis is also applied to the system. Numerical simulation shows that electrons in superlattice miniband exhibit complicate nonlinear oscillating modes with the influence of terahertz radiation. Transitions between frequency-locking and chaos via pattern forming bifurcations are observed with the varying of terahertz amplitude. It is found that the chaotic regions gradually contract as the dissipation increases. We attribute the appearance of complicate nonlinear oscillation in superlattice to the interaction between terahertz radiation and internal cooperative oscillating mode relative to Bloch oscillation and cyclotron oscillation

  13. Terahertz radiation induced chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattices with a tilted magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Wang, F; Cao, J C

    2014-09-01

    Chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattice induced by terahertz electric field that is superimposed on a dc electric field along the superlattice axis are studied using the semiclassical motion equations including the effect of dissipation. A magnetic field that is tilted relative to the superlattice axis is also applied to the system. Numerical simulation shows that electrons in superlattice miniband exhibit complicate nonlinear oscillating modes with the influence of terahertz radiation. Transitions between frequency-locking and chaos via pattern forming bifurcations are observed with the varying of terahertz amplitude. It is found that the chaotic regions gradually contract as the dissipation increases. We attribute the appearance of complicate nonlinear oscillation in superlattice to the interaction between terahertz radiation and internal cooperative oscillating mode relative to Bloch oscillation and cyclotron oscillation.

  14. Terahertz radiation induced chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattices with a tilted magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C., E-mail: cwang@mail.sim.ac.cn; Wang, F.; Cao, J. C., E-mail: jccao@mail.sim.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Terahertz Solid-State Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattice induced by terahertz electric field that is superimposed on a dc electric field along the superlattice axis are studied using the semiclassical motion equations including the effect of dissipation. A magnetic field that is tilted relative to the superlattice axis is also applied to the system. Numerical simulation shows that electrons in superlattice miniband exhibit complicate nonlinear oscillating modes with the influence of terahertz radiation. Transitions between frequency-locking and chaos via pattern forming bifurcations are observed with the varying of terahertz amplitude. It is found that the chaotic regions gradually contract as the dissipation increases. We attribute the appearance of complicate nonlinear oscillation in superlattice to the interaction between terahertz radiation and internal cooperative oscillating mode relative to Bloch oscillation and cyclotron oscillation.

  15. Wave fronts, pulses and wave trains in photoexcited superlattices behaving as excitable or oscillatory media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, J I; Bonilla, L L; Grahn, H T

    2011-01-01

    Undoped and strongly photoexcited semiconductor superlattices with field-dependent recombination behave as excitable or oscillatory media with spatially discrete nonlinear convection and diffusion. Infinitely long, dc-current-biased superlattices behaving as excitable media exhibit wave fronts with increasing or decreasing profiles, whose velocities can be calculated by means of asymptotic methods. These superlattices can also support pulses of the electric field. Pulses moving downstream with the flux of electrons can be constructed from their component wave fronts, whereas pulses advancing upstream do so slowly and experience saltatory motion: they change slowly in long intervals of time separated by fast transitions during which the pulses jump to the previous superlattice period. Photoexcited superlattices can also behave as oscillatory media and exhibit wave trains. (paper)

  16. Method of preparation of uranium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline Loetsch; Thomson, Robert Kenneth James

    2013-07-09

    Method for producing terminal uranium nitride complexes comprising providing a suitable starting material comprising uranium; oxidizing the starting material with a suitable oxidant to produce one or more uranium(IV)-azide complexes; and, sufficiently irradiating the uranium(IV)-azide complexes to produce the terminal uranium nitride complexes.

  17. Atomic Resolution Microscopy of Nitrides in Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2014-01-01

    MN and CrMN type nitride precipitates in 12%Cr steels have been investigated using atomic resolution microscopy. The MN type nitrides were observed to transform into CrMN both by composition and crystallography as Cr diffuses from the matrix into the MN precipitates. Thus a change from one...

  18. Low temperature anodic bonding to silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De; Bouaidat, Salim

    2000-01-01

    Low-temperature anodic bonding to stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces has been performed in the temperature range from 3508C to 4008C. It is shown that the bonding is improved considerably if the nitride surfaces are either oxidized or exposed to an oxygen plasma prior to the bonding. Both bu...

  19. Fusion bonding of silicon nitride surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Østergaard, Christian; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2011-01-01

    While silicon nitride surfaces are widely used in many micro electrical mechanical system devices, e.g. for chemical passivation, electrical isolation or environmental protection, studies on fusion bonding of two silicon nitride surfaces (Si3N4–Si3N4 bonding) are very few and highly application...

  20. Alloy Effects on the Gas Nitriding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M.; Sisson, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Alloy elements, such as Al, Cr, V, and Mo, have been used to improve the nitriding performance of steels. In the present work, plain carbon steel AISI 1045 and alloy steel AISI 4140 were selected to compare the nitriding effects of the alloying elements in AISI 4140. Fundamental analysis is carried out by using the "Lehrer-like" diagrams (alloy specific Lehrer diagram and nitriding potential versus nitrogen concentration diagram) and the compound layer growth model to simulate the gas nitriding process. With this method, the fundamental understanding for the alloy effect based on the thermodynamics and kinetics becomes possible. This new method paves the way for the development of new alloy for nitriding.

  1. Solvothermal synthesis: a new route for preparing nitrides

    CERN Document Server

    Demazeau, G; Denis, A; Largeteau, A

    2002-01-01

    Solvothermal synthesis appears to be an interesting route for preparing nitrides such as gallium nitride and aluminium nitride, using ammonia as solvent. A nitriding additive is used to perform the reaction and, in the case of gallium nitride, is encapsulated by melt gallium. The syntheses are performed in the temperature range 400-800 deg. C and in the pressure range 100-200 MPa. The synthesized powders are characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Finely divided gallium nitride GaN and aluminium nitride AlN, both with wurtzite-type structure, can be obtained by this route.

  2. Cathodoluminescence of cubic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.D.; Shipilo, V.B.; Zajtsev, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three optically active defects are detected in mono- and polycrystal cubic boron nitride (β-BN). Analysis of intensity of temperature dependences, halfwidth and energy shift of 1.76 eV narrow phononless line (center GC-1) makes it possible to interprete the observed cathodoluminescence spectra an optical analog of the Moessbaner effect. Comparison of the obtained results with the known data for diamond monocrystals makes it possible to suggest that the detected center GC-1 is a nitrogen vacancy . The conclusion, concerning the Moessbauer optical spectra application, is made to analyze structural perfection of β-BN crystal lattice

  3. Surface analysis in steel nitrides by using Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, R.S. de.

    1991-07-01

    The formation of iron nitride layer at low temperatures, 600-700 K, by Moessbauer spectroscopy is studied. These layers were obtained basically through two different processes: ion nitriding and ammonia gas nitriding. A preliminary study about post-discharge nitriding was made using discharge in hollow cathode as well as microwave excitation. The assembly of these chambers is also described. The analysis of the nitrided samples was done by CEMS and CXMS, aided by optical microscopy, and the CEMS and CXMS detectors were constructed by ourselves. We also made a brief study about these detectors, testing as acetone as the mixture 80% He+10% C H 4 as detection gases for the use of CEMS. The surface analysis of the samples showed that in the ammonia gas process nitriding the nitrided layer starts by the superficial formation of an iron nitride rich nitrogen. By thermal evolution this nitride promotes the diffusion of nitrogen and the formation of other more stable nitrides. (author)

  4. Simple process to fabricate nitride alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Oh, Jang-Soo; Kim, Jong Hun; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Uranium mono-nitride (UN) is considered as a fuel material [1] for accident-tolerant fuel to compensate for the loss of fissile fuel material caused by adopting a thickened cladding such as SiC composites. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. Among them, a direct nitriding process of metal is more attractive because it has advantages in the mass production of high-purity powders and the reusing of expensive 15 N 2 gas. However, since metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots, it has a drawback in the fabrication of fine powders. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has a centrifugal atomisation technique to fabricate uranium and uranium alloy powders. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate nitride fuel powders directly from uranium metal alloy powders. Spherical powder and flake of uranium metal alloys were fabricated using a centrifugal atomisation method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating the metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. The phase and morphology evolutions of powders were investigated during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also part of the present work. KAERI has developed the centrifugal rotating disk atomisation process to fabricate spherical uranium metal alloy powders which are used as advanced fuel materials for research reactors. The rotating disk atomisation system involves the tasks of melting, atomising, and collecting. A nozzle in the bottom of melting crucible introduces melt at the center of a spinning disk. The centrifugal force carries the melt to the edge of the disk and throws the melt off the edge. Size and shape of droplets can be controlled by changing the nozzle size, the disk diameter and disk speed independently or simultaneously. By adjusting the processing parameters of the centrifugal atomiser, a spherical and flake shape

  5. Microstructural Characterization of Low Temperature Gas Nitrided Martensitic Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The present work presents microstructural investigations of the surface zone of low temperature gas nitrided precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel AISI 630. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was applied to investigate the present phases after successive removal of very thin sections...... of the sample surface. The development of epsilon nitride, expanded austenite and expanded martensite resulted from the low temperature nitriding treatments. The microstructural features, hardness and phase composition are discussed with emphasis on the influence of nitriding duration and nitriding potential....

  6. Valley-chiral quantum Hall state in graphene superlattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H. Y.; Tao, W. W.; Wang, J.; Cui, Y. H.; Xu, N.; Huang, B. B.; Luo, G. X.; Hao, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the quantum Hall effect in a graphene superlattice (GS) system, in which the two valleys of graphene are coupled together. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, an ordinary quantum Hall effect is found with the sequence σxy=ν e^2/h(ν=0,+/-1,+/-2,\\cdots) . At the zeroth Hall platform, a valley-chiral Hall state stemming from the single K or K' valley is found and it is localized only on one sample boundary contributing to the longitudinal conductance but not to the Hall conductivity. Our findings may shed light on the graphene-based valleytronics applications.

  7. Tunable electronic transmission gaps in a graphene superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weitao; Wang Shunjin; Li Wen; Wang Yonglong; Jiang Hua

    2012-01-01

    The transmission in graphene superlattices with adjustable barrier height is investigated using transfer-matrix method. It is found that one could control the angular range of transmission by changing the ratio of incidence energy and barrier height. The transmission as a function of incidence energy has more than one gaps, due to the appearance of evanescent waves in different barriers. Accordingly, more than one conductivity minimums are induced. The transmission gaps could be controlled by adjusting the incidence angle, the barrier height, and the barrier number, which gives the possibility to construct an energy-dependent wavevector filter.

  8. Theory of the negative differential conductivity effect in semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Hong Anh; Nguyen Hong Shon; Le Vu Ky

    1990-01-01

    A new mechanism of the negative differential conductivity (NDC) effect in semiconductor superlattices (SL) is proposed and analysed that is due to the conduction electron trapping by donor centers. It is shown that the NDC effect occurs for sufficently high (but reasonable) impurity concentration and not too large value of the τ ε /τ c ratio (where τ ε is the electron energy relaxation time and τ c the electron life time in the conduction band) when the applied d.c. electric field reaches certain critical value defined by the physical parameters of the sample. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  9. Topological hierarchy matters — topological matters with superlattices of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jing; Kou Su-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators/superconductors are new states of quantum matter with metallic edge/surface states. In this paper, we review the defects effect in these topological states and study new types of topological matters — topological hierarchy matters. We find that both topological defects (quantized vortices) and non topological defects (vacancies) can induce topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters after considering the superlattice of defects. These topological mid-gap states have nontrivial topological properties, including the nonzero Chern number and the gapless edge states. Effective tight-binding models are obtained to describe the topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters. (topical review)

  10. Structure of highly perfect semiconductor strained-layer superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements of strained-layer superlattices (SLS's) have been carried out using a four-crystal monochromator. A wide asymmetric range of sharp higher-order x-ray satellite peaks is observed indicating well-defined periodic structures. Using a kinematical diffraction step model very good agreement between measured and simulated x-ray satellite patterns could be achieved. These results show that this x- ray method is a powerful tool to evaluate the crystal quality of SLS's

  11. Competing interactions in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic perovskite superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, Y.; Biegalski, M.B.; Christen, H.M.

    2009-10-22

    Soft x-ray magnetic dichroism, magnetization, and magnetotransport measurements demonstrate that the competition between different magnetic interactions (exchange coupling, electronic reconstruction, and long-range interactions) in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3}(LSFO)/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}(LSMO) perovskite oxide superlattices leads to unexpected functional properties. The antiferromagnetic order parameter in LSFO and ferromagnetic order parameter in LSMO show a dissimilar dependence on sublayer thickness and temperature, illustrating the high degree of tunability in these artificially layered materials.

  12. Minority Carrier Lifetime Studies of Narrow Bandgap Antimonide Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglund, Linda; Ting, David Z.; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Fisher, Anita; Keo, Sam; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study optical modulation response and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to study mid-wave Ga-free InAs/InAsSb superlattices. The minority carrier lifetimes in the different samples varied from 480 ns to 4700 ns, partly due to different background doping concentrations. It was shown that the photoluminescence intensity can be used as a fast non-destructive tool to predict the material quality. It was also demonstrated that it is crucial to use a low excitation power in the photoluminescence measurements in order to get a good correlation between the photoluminescence intensity and the minority carrier lifetime.

  13. Electronic band structure of magnetic bilayer graphene superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, C. Huy; Nguyen, T. Thuong; Nguyen, V. Lien

    2014-01-01

    Electronic band structure of the bilayer graphene superlattices with δ-function magnetic barriers and zero average magnetic flux is studied within the four-band continuum model, using the transfer matrix method. The periodic magnetic potential effects on the zero-energy touching point between the lowest conduction and the highest valence minibands of pristine bilayer graphene are exactly analyzed. Magnetic potential is shown also to generate the finite-energy touching points between higher minibands at the edges of Brillouin zone. The positions of these points and the related dispersions are determined in the case of symmetric potentials.

  14. The hyperfine properties of a hydrogenated Fe/V superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzain, M., E-mail: elzain@squ.edu.om; Al-Barwani, M.; Gismelseed, A.; Al-Rawas, A.; Yousif, A.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K.; Al-Omari, I. [Sultan Qaboos University, Department of Physics, College of Science (Oman)

    2012-03-15

    We study the effect of hydrogen on the electronic, magnetic and hyperfine structures of an iron-vanadium superlattice consisting of three Fe monolayers and nine V monolayers. The contact charge density ({rho}), the contact hyperfine field (B{sub hf}) and the electronic field gradient (EFG) at the Fe sites for different H locations and H fillings are calculated using the first principle full-potential linear-augmented-plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method. It is found that sizeable changes in the hyperfine properties are obtained only when H is in the interface region.

  15. Photoinduced Domain Pattern Transformation in Ferroelectric-Dielectric Superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Youngjun; Park, Joonkyu; Pateras, Anastasios; Rich, Matthew B.; Zhang, Qingteng; Chen, Pice; Yusuf, Mohammed H.; Wen, Haidan; Dawber, Matthew; Evans, Paul G.

    2017-07-01

    The nanodomain pattern in ferroelectric/dielectric superlattices transforms to a uniform polarization state under above-bandgap optical excitation. X-ray scattering reveals a disappearance of domain diffuse scattering and an expansion of the lattice. The reappearance of the domain pattern occurs over a period of seconds at room temperature, suggesting a transformation mechanism in which charge carriers in long-lived trap states screen the depolarization field. A Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire model predicts changes in lattice parameter and a critical carrier concentration for the transformation.

  16. Leaky electronic states for photovoltaic photodetectors based on asymmetric superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penello, Germano Maioli; Pereira, Pedro Henrique; Pires, Mauricio Pamplona; Sivco, Deborah; Gmachl, Claire; Souza, Patricia Lustoza

    2018-01-01

    The concept of leaky electronic states in the continuum is used to achieve room temperature operation of photovoltaic superlattice infrared photodetectors. A structural asymmetric InGaAs/InAlAs potential profile is designed to create states in the continuum with the preferential direction for electron extraction and, consequently, to obtain photovoltaic operation at room temperature. Due to the photovoltaic operation and virtual increase in the bandoffset, the device presents both low dark current and low noise. The Johnson noise limited specific detectivity reaches values as high as 1.4 × 1011 Jones at 80 K. At 300 K, the detectivity obtained is 7.0 × 105 Jones.

  17. Non-linear spin transport in magnetic semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejar, Manuel; Sanchez, David; Platero, Gloria; MacDonald, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    The electronic spin dynamics in DC-biased n-doped II-VI semiconductor multiquantum wells doped with magnetic impurities is presented. Under certain range of electronic doping, conventional semiconductor superlattices present self-sustained oscillations. Magnetically doped wells (Mn) present large spin splittings due to the exchange interaction. The interplay between non-linear interwell transport, the electron-electron interaction and the exchange between electrons and the magnetic impurities produces interesting time-dependent features in the spin polarization current tuned by an external magnetic field

  18. Process for the production of metal nitride sintered bodies and resultant silicon nitride and aluminum nitride sintered bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, S.; Omori, M.; Hayashi, J.; Kayano, H.; Hamano, M.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the manufacture of metal nitride sintered bodies, in particular, a process in which a mixture of metal nitrite powders is shaped and heated together with a binding agent is described. Of the metal nitrides Si3N4 and AIN were used especially frequently because of their excellent properties at high temperatures. The goal is to produce a process for metal nitride sintered bodies with high strength, high corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, thermal shock resistance, and avoidance of previously known faults.

  19. Electronic properties and bulk moduli of new boron nitride polymorphs, i.e., hyperdiamond B12N12 and simple cubic B24N24, B12N12 fulborenites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokropivny, V. V.; Bekenev, V. L.

    2006-01-01

    The energy-band structure, density of states, electron density distribution, equation of state, and bulk moduli of three boron-nitride fulborenite crystals, i.e., B 12 N 12 with diamond lattice and B 24 N 24 , B 12 N 12 with simple cubic lattice, whose sites contain fulborene B 12 N 12 and B 24 N 24 molecules, are calculated for the first time using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The following hyperdiamond B 12 N 12 parameters were obtained: the equilibrium lattice parameter a = 1.1191 nm, the B-N bond length a BN = 0.1405 nm, the number of atoms per unit cell Z = 192, the density ρ = 2.823 g/cm 3 , the bulk modulus B 0 = 658 GPa, and the band gap ΔE g = 3.05 eV. This is a previously unknown unique light superhard semiconductor faujasite with a recorded bulk modulus higher than that of diamond. There are reasons to assume that it is a E phase. The characteristics of B 24 N 24 with simple cubic lattice are as follows: the equilibrium lattice parameter a = 0.7346 nm, the B-N bond length a BN = 0.1521 nm, the number of atoms per unit cell Z = 48, the density ρ = 2.495 g/cm 3 , the bulk modulus B 0 = 367 GPa, and the band gap ΔE g = 3.76 eV. This material is a heteropolar semiconductor or insulator with a bulk modulus comparable with that of cubic boron nitride, as well as a new boron-nitride zeolite with channel diameter of 0.46 nm. B 12 N 12 with simple cubic lattice is a molecular semimetal

  20. New Routes to Lanthanide and Actinide Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, D.P.; Jaques, B.J.; Osterberg, D.D. [Boise State University, 1910 University Dr., Boise, Idaho 83725-2075 (United States); Marx, B.M. [Concurrent Technologies Corporation, Johnstown, PA (United States); Callahan, P.G. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hamdy, A.S. [Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, Helwan, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-06-15

    The future of nuclear energy in the U.S. and its expansion worldwide depends greatly on our ability to reduce the levels of high level waste to minimal levels, while maintaining proliferation resistance. Implicit in the so-called advanced fuel cycle is the need for higher levels of fuel burn-up and consequential use of complex nuclear fuels comprised of fissile materials such as Pu, Am, Np, and Cm. Advanced nitride fuels comprised ternary and quaternary mixtures of uranium and these actinides have been considered for applications in advanced power plants, but there remain many processing challenges as well as necessary qualification testing. In this presentation, the advantages and disadvantages of nitride fuels are discussed. Methods of synthesizing the raw materials and sintering of fuels are described including a discussion of novel, low cost routes to nitrides that have the potential for reducing the cost and footprint of a fuel processing plant. Phase pure nitrides were synthesized via four primary methods; reactive milling metal flakes in nitrogen at room temperature, directly nitriding metal flakes in a pure nitrogen atmosphere, hydriding metal flakes prior to nitridation, and carbo-thermically reducing the metal oxide and carbon mixture prior to nitridation. In the present study, the sintering of UN, DyN, and their solid solutions (U{sub x}, Dy{sub 1-x}) (x = 1 to 0.7) were also studied. (authors)

  1. Morphological Studies of Local Influence of Implants with Coatings Based on Superhard Compounds on Bone Tissue under Conditions of Induced Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galimzyan KABIROV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the response of bone tissue to a transosseous introduction of implants made of copper (Cu, medical steel 12X18H9T, steel with nitrides of titanium and hafnium coatings (TiN + HfN, as well as steel coated with titanium and zirconium nitrides (TiN + ZrN into the diaphysis of the tibia of experimental rats. The obtained results showed that the restoration of the injured bone and bone marrow in groups with implants made of steel 12X18H9T occurred without the participation of the granulation and cartilaginous tissues, but with implants made of steel coated with titanium and hafnium nitrides (TiN + HfN, this bone recovery also took place in the early term. At the same time, in groups, where the implants were made of copper (Cu, implants were made of steel coated with titanium and zirconium nitrides (TiN + ZrN were used, such phenomena as necrosis, lysis and destruction of the bone were registered and the bone tissue repair went through formation of the cartilaginous tissue.

  2. Preparation of aluminum nitride-silicon carbide nanocomposite powder by the nitridation of aluminum silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itatani, K.; Tsukamoto, R.; Delsing, A.C.A.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.; Okada, I.

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN)-silicon carbide (SiC) nanocomposite powders were prepared by the nitridation of aluminum-silicon carbide (Al4SiC4) with the specific surface area of 15.5 m2·g-1. The powders nitrided at and above 1400°C for 3 h contained the 2H-phases which consisted of AlN-rich and SiC-rich

  3. Plasma synthesis and HPHT consolidation of BN nanoparticles, nanospheres, and nanotubes to produce nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Christopher

    Plasma methods offer a variety of advantages to nanomaterials synthesis. The process is robust, allowing varying particle sizes and phases to be generated simply by modifying key parameters. The work here demonstrates a novel approach to nanopowder synthesis using inductively-coupled plasma to decompose precursor, which are then quenched to produce a variety of boron nitride (BN)-phase nanoparticles, including cubic phase, along with short-range-order nanospheres (e.g., nano-onions) and BN nanotubes. Cubic BN (c-BN) powders can be generated through direct deposition onto a chilled substrate. The extremely-high pyrolysis temperatures afforded by the equilibrium plasma offer a unique particle growth environment, accommodating long deposition times while exposing resulting powders to temperatures in excess of 5000K without any additional particle nucleation and growth. Such conditions can yield short-range ordered amorphous BN structures in the form of 20nm diameter nanospheres. Finally, when introducing a rapid-quenching counter-flow gas against the plasma jet, high aspect ratio nanotubes are synthesized, which are collected on substrate situated radially. The benefits of these morphologies are also evident in high-pressure/high-temperature consolidation experiments, where nanoparticle phases can offer a favorable conversion route to super-hard c-BN while maintaining nanocrystallinity. Experiments using these morphologies are shown to begin to yield c-BN conversion at conditions as low as 2.0 GPa and 1500°C when using micron sized c-BN seeding to create localized regions of high pressures due to Hertzian forces acting on the nanoparticles.

  4. Residual Stress Induced by Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The present chapter is devoted to the various mechanisms involved in the buildup and relief of residual stress in nitrided and nitrocarburized cases. The work presented is an overview of model studies on iron and iron-based alloys. Subdivision is made between the compound (or white) layer......, developing at the surfce and consisting of iron-based (carbo)nitrides, and the diffusion zone underneath, consisting of iron and alloying element nitrides dispersed in af ferritic matrix. Microstructural features are related directly to the origins of stress buildup and stres relief....

  5. COMPORTAMENTO A CORROSIONE E TRIBOCORROSIONE DI RIVESTIMENTI CERMET E CERMET/ SUPERLATTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Monticelli, C.; Zucchi, F.

    2009-01-01

    È stato studiato il comportamento a corrosione e tribocorrosione di riporti cermet e cermet/superlattice,applicati su campioni di acciaio. I riporti cermet consistono in riporti termici HVOF a spessore,di tipo WC-12Co o Cr3C2-37WC-18Me. I doppi riporti cermet/superlattice sono ottenuti sovrapponendoai depositi cermet citati un superlattice a base di nitruri, in cui si alternano strati di CrN e di NbN. Unasoluzione al 3.5 % di NaCl costituisce l’ambiente aggressivo. Le condizioni di tribocorro...

  6. Ordered quantum-ring chains grown on a quantum-dot superlattice template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M.; Holmes, Kyland; Marega, Euclydes; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional ordered quantum-ring chains are fabricated on a quantum-dot superlattice template by molecular beam epitaxy. The quantum-dot superlattice template is prepared by stacking multiple quantum-dot layers and quantum-ring chains are formed by partially capping quantum dots. Partially capping InAs quantum dots with a thin layer of GaAs introduces a morphological change from quantum dots to quantum rings. The lateral ordering is introduced by engineering the strain field of a multi-layer InGaAs quantum-dot superlattice.

  7. Structural and magnetic properties of holmium-scandium alloys and superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; Cowley, R.A.; McMorrow, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of Ho-Sc alloys and superlattices grown by molecular-beam epitaxy have been investigated using x-ray and neutron-diffraction techniques. Structural studies reveal that the alloy samples have different a lattice parameters for the Sc-seed layer and the Ho:Sc alloy grown on top...... of the seed layer; while the superlattices have different a lattice parameters for the Sc seed, and for both the Ho and Sc in the superlattice layers. The structural characteristics are related to the large lattice mismatches (of the order 7%) between the constituent elements. The magnetic moments...

  8. Syntheses of super-hard boron-rich solids in the B-C-N-O system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Herve Pierre

    -rh. B structure is thought to lead to solid solution. In the B-C-O system, intermediate phases were prepared showing evidence of solid solution between Bsb4C and Bsb6O. Boron carbide crystals containing a significant amount of O, typically Bsb6Csb{1.1}Osb{0.33} and Bsb6Csb{1.28}Osb{0.31}, were grown to 20 mum in diameter from mixtures in which B and C were reacted with excess Bsb2Osb3 at 7.5 GPa and 1700sp°C. Cyclic five-fold twins or twins that approximate Bsb6O icosahedra were observed, but the cell dimensions of the B-C-O materials preclude the formation of icosahedral twins. Nanorods with composition near Bsb6C with minor O were grown in a Bsb2Osb3 melt. The mechanism controlling the growth of the nanorods is similar to the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) process. The first conclusive bulk synthesis of a new boron nitride, Bsb6Nsb1-x, was obtained by reacting B and hexagonal BN at 7.5 GPa and 1700sp°C. XRD and PEELS substantiate that this material has a structure related to that of alpha-rh. B and chemical analysis of this compound showed an average composition of Bsb6Nsb{0.92}.

  9. Fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption in semiconductor superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monozon, B.S., E-mail: borismonozon@mail.ru [Physics Department, Marine Technical University, 3 Lotsmanskaya Str., 190008 St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schmelcher, P. [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Wannier-Mott excitons in a semiconductor layered superlattice (SL) are investigated analytically for the case that the period of the superlattice is much smaller than the 2D exciton Bohr radius. Additionally we assume the presence of a longitudinal external static electric field directed parallel to the SL axis. The exciton states and the optical absorption coefficient are derived in the tight-binding and adiabatic approximations. Strong and weak electric fields providing spatially localized and extended electron and hole states, respectively, are studied. The dependencies of the exciton states and the exciton absorption spectrum on the SL parameters and the electric field strength are presented in an explicit form. We focus on the fine structure of the ground quasi-2D exciton level formed by the series of closely spaced energy levels adjacent from the high frequencies. These levels are related to the adiabatically slow relative exciton longitudinal motion governed by the potential formed by the in-plane exciton state. It is shown that the external electric fields compress the fine structure energy levels, decrease the intensities of the corresponding optical peaks and increase the exciton binding energy. A possible experimental study of the fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption is discussed.

  10. Maximum Entropy Closure of Balance Equations for Miniband Semiconductor Superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis L. Bonilla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Charge transport in nanosized electronic systems is described by semiclassical or quantum kinetic equations that are often costly to solve numerically and difficult to reduce systematically to macroscopic balance equations for densities, currents, temperatures and other moments of macroscopic variables. The maximum entropy principle can be used to close the system of equations for the moments but its accuracy or range of validity are not always clear. In this paper, we compare numerical solutions of balance equations for nonlinear electron transport in semiconductor superlattices. The equations have been obtained from Boltzmann–Poisson kinetic equations very far from equilibrium for strong fields, either by the maximum entropy principle or by a systematic Chapman–Enskog perturbation procedure. Both approaches produce the same current-voltage characteristic curve for uniform fields. When the superlattices are DC voltage biased in a region where there are stable time periodic solutions corresponding to recycling and motion of electric field pulses, the differences between the numerical solutions produced by numerically solving both types of balance equations are smaller than the expansion parameter used in the perturbation procedure. These results and possible new research venues are discussed.

  11. Broadband mid-infrared superlattice light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, R. J.; Provence, S. R.; Norton, D. T.; Boggess, T. F.; Prineas, J. P.

    2017-05-01

    InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice light-emitting diodes were fabricated to form a device that provides emission over the entire 3-5 μm mid-infrared transmission window. Variable bandgap emission regions were coupled together using tunnel junctions to emit at peak wavelengths of 3.3 μm, 3.5 μm, 3.7 μm, 3.9 μm, 4.1 μm, 4.4 μm, 4.7 μm, and 5.0 μm. Cascading the structure recycles the electrons in each emission region to emit several wavelengths simultaneously. At high current densities, the light-emitting diode spectra broadened into a continuous, broadband spectrum that covered the entire mid-infrared band. When cooled to 77 K, radiances of over 1 W/cm2 sr were achieved, demonstrating apparent temperatures above 1000 K over the 3-5 μm band. InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices are capable of emitting from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the device design can be expanded to include longer emission wavelengths.

  12. Nanophysics in graphene: neutrino physics in quantum rings and superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, H A; Brey, Luis

    2010-12-13

    Electrons in graphene at low energy obey a two-dimensional Dirac equation, closely analogous to that of neutrinos. As a result, quantum mechanical effects when the system is confined or subjected to potentials at the nanoscale may be quite different from what happens in conventional electronic systems. In this article, we review recent progress on two systems where this is indeed the case: quantum rings and graphene electrons in a superlattice potential. In the former case, we demonstrate that the spectrum reveals signatures of 'effective time-reversal symmetry breaking', in which the spectra are most naturally interpreted in terms of effective magnetic flux contained in the ring, even when no real flux is present. A one-dimensional superlattice potential is shown to induce strong band-structure changes, allowing the number of Dirac points at zero energy to be manipulated by the strength and/or period of the potential. The emergence of new Dirac points is shown to be accompanied by strong signatures in the conduction properties of the system.

  13. Future device applications of low-dimensional carbon superlattice structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Somnath

    2005-03-01

    We observe superior transport properties in low-dimensional amorphous carbon (a-C) and superlattice structures fabricated by a number of different techniques. Low temperature conductivity of these materials is explained using argument based on the crossover of dimensionality of weak localization and electron-electron interactions along with a change of sign of the magneto-resistance. These trends are significantly different from many other well characterized ordered or oriented carbon structures, and, show direct evidence of high correlation length, mobility and an effect of the dimensionality in low-dimensional a-C films. We show routes to prepare bespoke features by tuning the phase relaxation time in order to make high-speed devices over large areas. The artificially grown multi-layer superlattice structures of diamond-like amorphous carbon films show high-frequency resonance and quantum conductance suggesting sufficiently high values of phase coherence length in the present disordered a-C system that could lead to fast switching multi-valued logic.

  14. Characterization Of Graphene-Ferroelectric Superlattice Hybrid Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammed; Du, Xu; Dawber, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials possess a spontaneous electrical polarization, which can be controlled by an electric field. A good interface between ferroelectric surface and graphene sheets can introduce a new generation of multifunctional devices, in which the ferroelectric material can be used to control the properties of graphene. In our approach, problems encountered in previous efforts to combine ferroelectric/carbon systems are overcome by the use of artificially layered superlattice materials grown in the form of epitaxial thin films. In these materials the phase transition temperature and dielectric response of the material can be tailored, allowing us to avoid polarization screening by surface absorbates, whilst maintaining an atomically smooth surface and optimal charge doping properties. Using ferroelectric PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices, we have shown ultra-low-voltage operation of graphene field effect devices within +/- 1 V at room temperature. The switching of the graphene field effect transistors is characterized by pronounced resistance hysteresis, suitable for ultra-fast non-volatile electronics. Low temperature characterization confirmed that the coercive field required for the ferroelectric domain switching increases significantly with decreasing temperatures. National Science Foundation (NSF) (grant number 1105202)

  15. Formation of stacking faults and the screw dislocation-driven growth: a case study of aluminum nitride nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fei; Estruga, Marc; Forticaux, Audrey; Morin, Stephen A; Wu, Qiang; Hu, Zheng; Jin, Song

    2013-12-23

    Stacking faults are an important class of crystal defects commonly observed in nanostructures of close packed crystal structures. They can bridge the transition between hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) and cubic zinc blende (ZB) phases, with the most known example represented by the "nanowire (NW) twinning superlattice". Understanding the formation mechanisms of stacking faults is crucial to better control them and thus enhance the capability of tailoring physical properties of nanomaterials through defect engineering. Here we provide a different perspective to the formation of stacking faults associated with the screw dislocation-driven growth mechanism of nanomaterials. With the use of NWs of WZ aluminum nitride (AlN) grown by a high-temperature nitridation method as the model system, dislocation-driven growth was first confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile numerous stacking faults and associated partial dislocations were also observed and identified to be the Type I stacking faults and the Frank partial dislocations, respectively, using high-resolution TEM. In contrast, AlN NWs obtained by rapid quenching after growth displayed no stacking faults or partial dislocations; instead many of them had voids that were associated with the dislocation-driven growth. On the basis of these observations, we suggest a formation mechanism of stacking faults that originate from dislocation voids during the cooling process in the syntheses. Similar stacking fault features were also observed in other NWs with WZ structure, such as cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc oxide (ZnO).

  16. Surface modification of titanium by plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapczinski Myriam Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic investigation was undertaken on commercially pure titanium submitted to plasma nitriding. Thirteen different sets of operational parameters (nitriding time, sample temperature and plasma atmosphere were used. Surface analyses were performed using X-ray diffraction, nuclear reaction and scanning electron microscopy. Wear tests were done with stainless steel Gracey scaler, sonic apparatus and pin-on-disc machine. The obtained results indicate that the tribological performance can be improved for samples treated with the following conditions: nitriding time of 3 h; plasma atmosphere consisting of 80%N2+20%H2 or 20%N2+80%H2; sample temperature during nitriding of 600 or 800 degreesC.

  17. Thermodynamics, kinetics and process control of nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittemeijer, Eric J.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    1999-01-01

    As a prerequisite for predictability of properties obtained by a nitriding treatment of iron-based workpieces, the relation between the process parameters and the composition and structure of the surface layer produced must be known. At present (even) the description of thermodynamic equilibrium...... of pure iron-nitrogen phases has not been achieved fully. It has been shown that taking into account ordering of nitrogen in the epsilon and gamma' iron-nitride phases, leads to an improved understanding of the Fe-N phase diagram. Although thermodynamics indicate the state the system strives for......, the nitriding result is determined largely by the kinetics of the process. The nitriding kinetics have been shown to be characterised by the occurring local near-equilibria and stationary states at surfaces and interfaces, and the diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in the various phases, for which new data have...

  18. Effect of layer composition on band spectrum of CdxHg1-xTe - CdyHg1-yTe-type superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerchikov, L.G.; Subashiev, A.V.; Salman Dalla

    1993-01-01

    Evolution of energy spectrum of Cd x Hg 1-x Te -Cd y Hg 1-y Te superlattices at variation of layer composition is considered. Transition from 3 type superlattice to 1 type superlattice occurring for y=0.16 is studied comprehensively. In this case, dependence of the width of superlattice forbidden zone on layer thickness is shown to become more smooth, than in CdTe - HgTe superlattice and it gives more possibilities to use such superlattices for making IR phototransistors. 10 refs., 4 figs

  19. Compressive creep of silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.R.M. da; Melo, F.C.L. de; Cairo, C.A.; Piorino Neto, F.

    1990-01-01

    Silicon nitride samples were formed by pressureless sintering process, using neodymium oxide and a mixture of neodymium oxide and yttrio oxide as sintering aids. The short term compressive creep behaviour was evaluated over a stress range of 50-300 MPa and temperature range 1200 - 1350 0 C. Post-sintering heat treatments in nitrogen with a stepwise decremental variation of temperature were performed in some samples and microstructural analysis by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the secondary crystalline phase which form from the remnant glass are dependent upon composition and percentage of aditives. Stress exponent values near to unity were obtained for materials with low glass content suggesting grain boundary diffusion accommodation processes. Cavitation will thereby become prevalent with increase in stress, temperature and decrease in the degree of crystallization of the grain boundary phase. (author) [pt

  20. Cathodoluminescence of cubic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.D.; Shipilo, V.B.; Zaitsev, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three types of optically active defect were observed in single-crystal and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (β-BN). An analysis of the temperature dependences of the intensity, half-width, and energy shift of a narrow zero-phonon line at 1.76 eV (GC-1 center) made it possible to interpret the observed cathodoluminescence spectra as an optical analog of the Moessbauer effect. A comparison of the results obtained in the present study with the available data on diamond single crystals made it possible to identify the observed GC-1 center as a nitrogen vacancy. It was concluded that optical Moessbauer-type spectra can be used to analyze structure defects in the crystal lattice of β-BN

  1. Waveguide silicon nitride grating coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvik, Jan; Dolnak, Ivan; Dado, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Grating couplers are one of the most used elements for coupling of light between optical fibers and photonic integrated components. Silicon-on-insulator platform provides strong confinement of light and allows high integration. In this work, using simulations we have designed a broadband silicon nitride surface grating coupler. The Fourier-eigenmode expansion and finite difference time domain methods are utilized in design optimization of grating coupler structure. The fully, single etch step grating coupler is based on a standard silicon-on-insulator wafer with 0.55 μm waveguide Si3N4 layer. The optimized structure at 1550 nm wavelength yields a peak coupling efficiency -2.6635 dB (54.16%) with a 1-dB bandwidth up to 80 nm. It is promising way for low-cost fabrication using complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor fabrication process.

  2. Intraband dynamics and terahertz emission in biased semiconductor superlattices coupled to double far-infrared pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Li; Xian-Wu, Mi

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies both the intraband polarization and terahertz emission of a semiconductor superlattice in combined dc and ac electric fields by using the superposition of two identical time delayed and phase shifted optical pulses. By adjusting the delay between these two optical pulses, our results show that the intraband polarization is sensitive to the time delay. The peak values appear again for the terahertz emission intensity due to the superposition of two optical pulses. The emission lines of terahertz blueshift and redshift in different ac electric fields and dynamic localization appears. The emission lines of THz only appear to blueshift when the biased superlattice is driven by a single optical pulse. Due to excitonic dynamic localization, the terahertz emission intensity decays with time in different dc and ac electric fields. These are features of this superlattice which distinguish it from a superlattice generated by a single optical pulse to drive it. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Hydrogenation of Very Long Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Arrays Based on Type II Superlattices, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance the Ga-free InAs/InAsSb type II superlattice (T2SL) materials technology for very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) by...

  4. Field-effect transistor having a superlattice channel and high carrier velocities at high applied fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, R.J.; Dawson, L.R.; Fritz, I.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-06-08

    A field effect transistor comprises a semiconductor having a source, a drain, a channel and a gate in operational relationship. The semiconductor is a strained layer superlattice comprising alternating quantum well and barrier layers, the quantum well layers and barrier layers being selected from the group of layer pairs consisting of InGaAs/AlGaAs, InAs/InAlGaAs, and InAs/InAlAsP. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well and barrier layers are sufficiently thin that the alternating layers constitute a superlattice which has a superlattice conduction band energy level structure in k-vector space. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well layers are selected to provide a superlattice L/sub 2D/-valley which has a shape which is substantially more two-dimensional than that of said bulk L-valley. 2 figs.

  5. GeTe sequences in superlattice phase change memories and their electrical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyanagi, T., E-mail: ohyanagi@leap.or.jp; Kitamura, M.; Takaura, N. [Low-Power Electronics Association and Projects (LEAP), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Araidai, M. [Department of Computational Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kato, S. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Shiraishi, K. [Department of Computational Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    We studied GeTe structures in superlattice phase change memories (superlattice PCMs) with a [GeTe/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}] stacked structure by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We examined the electrical characteristics of superlattice PCMs with films deposited at different temperatures. It was found that XRD spectra differed between the films deposited at 200 °C and 240 °C; the differences corresponded to the differences in the GeTe sequences in the films. We applied first-principles calculations to calculate the total energy of three different GeTe sequences. The results showed the Ge-Te-Ge-Te sequence had the lowest total energy of the three and it was found that with this sequence the superlattice PCMs did not run.

  6. Solvent-driven symmetry of self-assembled nanocrystal superlattices-A computational study

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Ananth P.; Clancy, Paulette

    2012-01-01

    used solvents, toluene and hexane. System sizes in the 400,000-500,000-atom scale followed for nanoseconds are required for this computationally intensive study. The key questions addressed here concern the thermodynamic stability of the superlattice

  7. Controlling Nanocrystal Superlattice Symmetry and Shape-Anisotropic Interactions through Variable Ligand Surface Coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.; Bealing, Clive R.; Bian, Kaifu; Hughes, Kevin J.; Zhang, Wenyu; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Hennig, Richard G.; Engstrom, James R.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) into superstructures with long-range translational and orientational order is sensitive to the molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface. We illustrate how ligand coverage on colloidal PbS NCs can be exploited as a tunable parameter to direct the self-assembly of superlattices with predefined symmetry. We show that PbS NCs with dense ligand coverage assemble into face-centered cubic (fcc) superlattices whereas NCs with sparse ligand coverage assemble into body-centered cubic (bcc) superlattices which also exhibit orientational ordering of NCs in their lattice sites. Surface chemistry characterization combined with density functional theory calculations suggest that the loss of ligands occurs preferentially on {100} than on reconstructed {111} NC facets. The resulting anisotropic ligand distribution amplifies the role of NC shape in the assembly and leads to the formation of superlattices with translational and orientational order. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Development of Strained-Layer Superlattice (SLS) IR Detector Camera Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) detectors are a new class of detectors which may be the next generation of band-gap engineered, large format infrared detector...

  9. Interwell and intrawell magnetoexcitons in GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timofeev, V. B.; Filin, A. I.; Tartakovskii, A. I.

    1997-01-01

    The formation of spatially indirect (interwell) excitons in superlattices (SLs) with different barrier widths (different tunneling coupling) is experimentally investigated in a strong enough magnetic field with the use of photoluminescence (PL), photoluminescence excitation (PLE), reflectance spec...

  10. Controlling Nanocrystal Superlattice Symmetry and Shape-Anisotropic Interactions through Variable Ligand Surface Coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2011-03-09

    The assembly of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) into superstructures with long-range translational and orientational order is sensitive to the molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface. We illustrate how ligand coverage on colloidal PbS NCs can be exploited as a tunable parameter to direct the self-assembly of superlattices with predefined symmetry. We show that PbS NCs with dense ligand coverage assemble into face-centered cubic (fcc) superlattices whereas NCs with sparse ligand coverage assemble into body-centered cubic (bcc) superlattices which also exhibit orientational ordering of NCs in their lattice sites. Surface chemistry characterization combined with density functional theory calculations suggest that the loss of ligands occurs preferentially on {100} than on reconstructed {111} NC facets. The resulting anisotropic ligand distribution amplifies the role of NC shape in the assembly and leads to the formation of superlattices with translational and orientational order. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Development of high-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries using superlattice hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Magari, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Ishida, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nohma, Toshiyuki; Kihara, Masaru; Baba, Yoshitaka; Teraoka, Hirohito

    2006-01-01

    New R-Mg-Ni (R: rare earths) superlattice alloys with higher-capacity and higher-durability than the conventional Mm-Ni alloys with CaCu 5 structure have been developed. The oxidation resistibility of the superlattice alloys has been improved by optimizing the alloy composition by such as substituting aluminum for nickel and optimizing the magnesium content in order to prolong the battery life. High-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries for the retail market, the Ni-MH2500/900 series (AA size type 2500mAh, AAA size type 900mAh), have been developed and commercialized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. alized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. (author)

  12. Tuning the electrical and optical anisotropy of a monolayer black phosphorus magnetic superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. J.; Yu, J. H.; Luo, K.; Wu, Z. H.; Yang, W.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate theoretically the effects of modulated periodic perpendicular magnetic fields on the electronic states and optical absorption spectrum in monolayer black phosphorus (phosphorene). We demonstrate that different phosphorene magnetic superlattice (PMS) orientations can give rise to distinct energy spectra, i.e. tuning the intrinsic electronic anisotropy. Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) develops a spin-splitting energy dispersion in this phosphorene magnetic superlattice. Anisotropic momentum-dependent carrier distributions along/perpendicular to the magnetic strips are demonstrated. The manipulations of these exotic electronic properties by tuning superlattice geometry, magnetic field and the RSOC term are addressed systematically. Accordingly, we find bright-to-dark transitions in the ground-state electron-hole pair transition rate spectrum and the PMS orientation-dependent anisotropic optical absorption spectrum. This feature offers us a practical way of modulating the electronic anisotropy in phosphorene by magnetic superlattice configurations and detecting this modulation capability by using an optical technique.

  13. Tunable porous nanoallotropes prepared by post-assembly etching of binary nanoparticle superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayabhaskararao, Thumu; Altantzis, Thomas; Houben, Lothar; Coronado-Puchau, Marc; Langer, Judith; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.; Vuković, Lela; Král, Petr; Bals, Sara; Klajn, Rafal

    2017-10-01

    Self-assembly of inorganic nanoparticles has been used to prepare hundreds of different colloidal crystals, but almost invariably with the restriction that the particles must be densely packed. Here, we show that non-close-packed nanoparticle arrays can be fabricated through the selective removal of one of two components comprising binary nanoparticle superlattices. First, a variety of binary nanoparticle superlattices were prepared at the liquid-air interface, including several arrangements that were previously unknown. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed the particular role of the liquid in templating the formation of superlattices not achievable through self-assembly in bulk solution. Second, upon stabilization, all of these binary superlattices could be transformed into distinct “nanoallotropes”—nanoporous materials having the same chemical composition but differing in their nanoscale architectures.

  14. Reactive molecular beam epitaxial growth and in situ photoemission spectroscopy study of iridate superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Fan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available High-quality (001-oriented perovskite [(SrIrO3m/(SrTiO3] superlattices (m=1/2, 1, 2, 3 and ∞ films have been grown on SrTiO3(001 epitaxially using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Compared to previously reported superlattices synthesized by pulsed laser deposition, our superlattices exhibit superior crystalline, interface and surface structure, which have been confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The transport measurements confirm a novel insulator-metal transition with the change of dimensionality in these superlattices, and our first systematic in situ photoemission spectroscopy study indicates that the increasing strength of effective correlations induced by reducing dimensionality would be the dominating origin of this transition.

  15. Electrochemical Solution Growth of Magnetic Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monson, Todd C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pearce, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic nitrides, if manufactured in bulk form, would provide designers of transformers and inductors with a new class of better performing and affordable soft magnetic materials. According to experimental results from thin films and/or theoretical calculations, magnetic nitrides would have magnetic moments well in excess of current state of the art soft magnets. Furthermore, magnetic nitrides would have higher resistivities than current transformer core materials and therefore not require the use of laminates of inactive material to limit eddy current losses. However, almost all of the magnetic nitrides have been elusive except in difficult to reproduce thin films or as inclusions in another material. Now, through its ability to reduce atmospheric nitrogen, the electrochemical solution growth (ESG) technique can bring highly sought after (and previously inaccessible) new magnetic nitrides into existence in bulk form. This method utilizes a molten salt as a solvent to solubilize metal cations and nitrogen ions produced electrochemically and form nitrogen compounds. Unlike other growth methods, the scalable ESG process can sustain high growth rates (~mm/hr) even under reasonable operating conditions (atmospheric pressure and 500 °C). Ultimately, this translates into a high throughput, low cost, manufacturing process. The ESG process has already been used successfully to grow high quality GaN. Below, the experimental results of an exploratory express LDRD project to access the viability of the ESG technique to grow magnetic nitrides will be presented.

  16. Nitride fuels irradiation performance data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brozak, D.E.; Thomas, J.K.; Peddicord, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    An irradiation performance data base for nitride fuels has been developed from an extensive literature search and review that emphasized uranium nitride, but also included performance data for mixed nitrides [(U,Pu)N] and carbonitrides [(U,Pu)C,N] to increase the quantity and depth of pin data available. This work represents a very extensive effort to systematically collect and organize irradiation data for nitride-based fuels. The data base has many potential applications. First, it can facilitate parametric studies of nitride-based fuels to be performed using a wide range of pin designs and operating conditions. This should aid in the identification of important parameters and design requirements for multimegawatt and SP-100 fuel systems. Secondly, the data base can be used to evaluate fuel performance models. For detailed studies, it can serve as a guide to selecting a small group of pin specimens for extensive characterization. Finally, the data base will serve as an easily accessible and expandable source of irradiation performance information for nitride fuels

  17. Manganites in Perovskite Superlattices: Structural and Electronic Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Jilili, Jiwuer

    2016-07-13

    Perovskite oxides have the general chemical formula ABO3, where A is a rare-earth or alkali-metal cation and B is a transition metal cation. Perovskite oxides can be formed with a variety of constituent elements and exhibit a wide range of properties ranging from insulators, metals to even superconductors. With the development of growth and characterization techniques, more information on their physical and chemical properties has been revealed, which diversified their technological applications. Perovskite manganites are widely investigated compounds due to the discovery of the colossal magnetoresistance effect in 1994. They have a broad range of structural, electronic, magnetic properties and potential device applications in sensors and spintronics. There is not only the technological importance but also the need to understand the fundamental mechanisms of the unusual magnetic and transport properties that drive enormous attention. Manganites combined with other perovskite oxides are gaining interest due to novel properties especially at the interface, such as interfacial ferromagnetism, exchange bias, interfacial conductivity. Doped manganites exhibit diverse electrical properties as compared to the parent compounds. For instance, hole doped La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 is a ferromagnetic metal, whereas LaMnO3 is an antiferromagnetic insulator. Since manganites are strongly correlated systems, heterojunctions composed of manganites and other perovskite oxides are sunject to complex coupling of the spin, orbit, charge, and lattice degrees of freedom and exhibit unique electronic, magnetic, and transport properties. Electronic reconstructions, O defects, doping, intersite disorder, magnetic proximity, magnetic exchange, and polar catastrophe are some effects to explain these interfacial phenomena. In our work we use first-principles calculations to study the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of manganite based superlattices. Firstly, we investigate the electronic

  18. Alternating current-driven graphene superlattices: Kinks, dissipative solitons, dynamic chaotization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, S. V.; Kukhar', E. I.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of the solitary electromagnetic wave formation in graphene superlattice subjected to the electromagnetic radiation is discussed. The chaotic behavior of the electron subsystem in graphene superlattice is studied by Melnikov method. Dynamic chaos of electrons is shown to appear for certain intervals of frequencies of incident electromagnetic radiation. The frequency dependence of the radiation critical amplitude which determines the bound of chaos appearance is investigated. The values of radiation frequency at which the critical amplitude increases indefinitely were found

  19. Nucleation of iron nitrides during gaseous nitriding of iron; the effect of a preoxidation treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friehling, Peter B.; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2001-01-01

    grains. On prolonged nitriding, immediate nucleation at the surface of iron grains becomes possible. Calculated incubation times for the nucleation of gamma'-Fe4N1-x during nitriding are generally longer than those observed experimentally in the present work. The incubation time is reduced dramatically...

  20. Microstructural characterization of an AISI-SAE 4140 steel without nitridation and nitrided

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina F, A.; Naquid G, C.

    2000-01-01

    It was micro structurally characterized an AISI-SAE 4140 steel before and after of nitridation through the nitridation process by plasma post-unloading microwaves through Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by means of secondary electrons and retrodispersed, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersion spectra (EDS) and mapping of elements. (Author)

  1. Thermoelectric properties of IV–VI-based heterostructures and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, P.D., E-mail: pabloborges@ufv.br [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Tec., Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Rio Paranaíba, MG (Brazil); Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Petersen, J.E.; Scolfaro, L. [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Leite Alves, H.W. [Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, Caixa Postal 110, São João Del Rei 36300-000, MG (Brazil); Myers, T.H. [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Doping in a manner that introduces anisotropy in order to reduce thermal conductivity is a significant focus in thermoelectric research today. By solving the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations in the constant scattering time (τ) approximation, in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, within Density Functional Theory, we compare the Seebeck coefficient (S) and figure of merit (ZT) of bulk PbTe to PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructures and PbTe doping superlattices (SLs) with periodically doped planes. Bismuth and Thallium were used as the n- and p-type impurities, respectively. The effects of carrier concentration are considered via chemical potential variation in a rigid band approximation. The impurity bands near the Fermi level in the electronic structure of PbTe SLs are of Tl s- and Bi p-character, and this feature is independent of the doping concentration or the distance between impurity planes. We observe the impurity bands to have a metallic nature in the directions perpendicular to the doping planes, yet no improvement on the values of ZT is found when compared to bulk PbTe. For the PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructures, the calculated S presents good agreement with recent experimental data, and an anisotropic behavior is observed for low carrier concentrations (n<10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}). A large value of ZT{sub ||} (parallel to the growth direction) of 3.0 is predicted for n=4.7×10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and T=700 K, whereas ZT{sub p} (perpendicular to the growth direction) is found to peak at 1.5 for n=1.7×10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}. Both electrical conductivity enhancement and thermal conductivity reduction are analyzed. - Graphical abstract: Figure of merit for PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructure along the [0 0 1] direction, P.D. Borges, J.E. Petersen, L. Scolfaro, H.W. Leite Alves, T.H. Myers, Improved thermoelectric properties of IV–VI-based heterostructures and superlattices. - Highlights: • Thermoelectric properties of IV

  2. Spectral properties of waves in superlattices with 2D and 3D inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatchenko, V. A.; Tsikalov, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic susceptibility and one-dimensional density of states in an initially sinusoidal superlattice containing simultaneously 2D phase inhomogeneities simulating correlated rough-nesses of superlattice interfaces and 3D amplitude inhomogeneities of the superlattice layer materials. The analytic expression for the averaged Green’s function of the sinusoidal superlattice with two phase inhomogeneities is derived in the Bourret approximation. It is shown that the effect of increasing asymmetry in the peak heights of dynamic susceptibility at the Brillouin zone boundary of the superlattice, which was discovered earlier [15] upon an increase in root-mean-square (rms) fluctuations, also takes place upon an increase in the correlation wavenumber of inhomogeneities. However, the peaks in this case also become closer, and the width and depth of the gap in the density of states decrease thereby. It is shown that the enhancement of rms fluctuations of 3D amplitude inhomogeneities in a superlattice containing 2D phase inhomogeneities suppresses the effect of dynamic susceptibility asymmetry and leads to a slight broadening of the gap in the density of states and a decrease in its depth. Targeted experiments aimed at detecting the effects studied here would facilitate the development of radio-spectroscopic and optical methods for identifying the presence of inhomogeneities of various dimensions in multilayer magnetic and optical structures.

  3. Transport in semiconductor nanowire superlattices described by coupled quantum mechanical and kinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, M; Bonilla, L L; Carretero, M; Melnik, R V N; Prabhakar, S

    2013-08-21

    In this paper we develop a kinetic model for the analysis of semiconductor superlattices, accounting for quantum effects. The model consists of a Boltzmann-Poisson type system of equations with simplified Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collisions, obtained from the general time-dependent Schrödinger-Poisson model using Wigner functions. This system for superlattice transport is supplemented by the quantum mechanical part of the model based on the Ben-Daniel-Duke form of the Schrödinger equation for a cylindrical superlattice of finite radius. The resulting energy spectrum is used to characterize the Fermi-Dirac distribution that appears in the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision, thereby coupling the quantum mechanical and kinetic parts of the model. The kinetic model uses the dispersion relation obtained by the generalized Kronig-Penney method, and allows us to estimate radii of quantum wire superlattices that have the same miniband widths as in experiments. It also allows us to determine more accurately the time-dependent characteristics of superlattices, in particular their current density. Results, for several experimentally grown superlattices, are discussed in the context of self-sustained coherent oscillations of the current density which are important in an increasing range of current and potential applications.

  4. In induced reconstructions of Si(1 1 1) as superlattice matched epitaxial templates for InN growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyyalil, Jithesh; Tangi, Malleswararao; Shivaprasad, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A novel growth method to form InN at low growth temperatures. ► Use of Si reconstruction as a growth template for group III nitrides. ► Band gap variation of InN – Moss–Burstein shift – non-parabolic conduction band for InN. ► Super lattice matching epitaxy of metal induced reconstructions with III–V unit cell. -- Abstract: Indium induced surface reconstructions of Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 are used as templates to grow high quality InN. We grow InN on Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7, Si(1 1 1)-4 × 1-In and Si(1 1 1)-1 × 1-In reconstructed surfaces and study the quality of the films formed using complementary characterization tools. InN grown on Si(1 1 1)-1 × 1-In reconstruction shows superior film quality with lowest band-edge emission having a narrow full width at half maximum, intense and narrow 0 0 0 2 X-ray diffraction, low surface roughness and carrier concentration an order lower than other samples. We attribute the high quality of the film formed at 300 °C to the integral matching of InN and super lattice dimensions, we also study the reasons for the band gap variation of InN in the literature. Present study demonstrates the proposed Superlattice Matched Epitaxy can be a general approach to grow good quality InN at much lower growth temperature on compatible In induced reconstructions of the Si surface.

  5. Laser induced structural transformation in chalcogenide based superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zallo, Eugenio; Wang, Ruining; Bragaglia, Valeria; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Superlattices made of alternating layers of nominal GeTe and Sb 2 Te 3 have been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. A structural irreversible transformation into ordered GeSbTe alloy is induced by high power laser light exposure. The intensity ratio of anti-Stokes and Stokes scattering under laser illumination gives a maximum average temperature in the sample of 177 °C. The latter is lower than the growth temperature and of 400 °C necessary by annealing to transform the structure in a GeSbTe alloy. The absence of this configuration after in situ annealing even up to 300 °C evidences an electronic excitation induced-transition which brings the system into a different and stable crystalline state.

  6. Optical properties of metallic Fibonacci quasi-superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiguo; Liu Nianhua; Wu Xiang

    1990-06-01

    Within the approximation of hydrodynamic model, the optical properties of the metallic Fibonacci quasi-superlattice have been studied for the region of s-polarized soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet. By using the transfer-matrix method and taking account of damping effects, we have discussed the electromagnetic normal modes for the quasisuperlattice in the rational approximation. The related dispersion curves explain the reflection spectra well, and we found that similar to the reflectivities, both real part and imagine part of the dispersion relation pattern has a rich structure of self-similarity. With the increasing of the generation number, the electromagnetic modes all become critical. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs

  7. Laser induced structural transformation in chalcogenide based superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zallo, Eugenio, E-mail: zallo@pdi-berlin.de; Wang, Ruining; Bragaglia, Valeria; Calarco, Raffaella [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-30

    Superlattices made of alternating layers of nominal GeTe and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} have been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. A structural irreversible transformation into ordered GeSbTe alloy is induced by high power laser light exposure. The intensity ratio of anti-Stokes and Stokes scattering under laser illumination gives a maximum average temperature in the sample of 177 °C. The latter is lower than the growth temperature and of 400 °C necessary by annealing to transform the structure in a GeSbTe alloy. The absence of this configuration after in situ annealing even up to 300 °C evidences an electronic excitation induced-transition which brings the system into a different and stable crystalline state.

  8. Coupled polaritonic band gaps in the anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Hua; Jiang, Zheng-Sheng; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Chun-Zhi; Lei, Da-Jun; Huang, Jian-Quan; Qiu, Feng; Yao, Min; Huang, Xiao-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices (APSs) with the periodic arrangement of polarized anisotropic piezoelectric domains in a certain direction are presented, in which the coupled polaritonic band gaps (CPBGs) can be obtained in the whole Brillouin Zone and the maximum relative bandwidth (band-gap sizes divided by their midgap frequencies) of 5.1% can be achieved. The general characteristics of the APSs are similar to those of the phononic crystals composed of two types of materials, with the main difference being the formation mechanism of the CPBGs, which originate from the couplings between lattice vibrations along two different directions and electromagnetic waves rather than from the periodical modulation of density and elastic constants. In addition, there are no lattice mismatches because the APSs are made of the same material. Thus, the APSs can also be extended to the construction of novel acousto-optic devices.

  9. Superlattices assembled through shape-induced directional binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang; Yager, Kevin G.; Zhang, Yugang; Xin, Huolin; Gang, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Organization of spherical particles into lattices is typically driven by packing considerations. Although the addition of directional binding can significantly broaden structural diversity, nanoscale implementation remains challenging. Here we investigate the assembly of clusters and lattices in which anisotropic polyhedral blocks coordinate isotropic spherical nanoparticles via shape-induced directional interactions facilitated by DNA recognition. We show that these polyhedral blocks--cubes and octahedrons--when mixed with spheres, promote the assembly of clusters with architecture determined by polyhedron symmetry. Moreover, three-dimensional binary superlattices are formed when DNA shells accommodate the shape disparity between nanoparticle interfaces. The crystallographic symmetry of assembled lattices is determined by the spatial symmetry of the block's facets, while structural order depends on DNA-tuned interactions and particle size ratio. The presented lattice assembly strategy, exploiting shape for defining the global structure and DNA-mediation locally, opens novel possibilities for by-design fabrication of binary lattices.

  10. Sequential magnetic switching in Fe/MgO(001) superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, F.; Warnatz, T.; Palsson, G. K.; Devishvili, A.; Ukleev, V.; Palisaitis, J.; Persson, P. O. Å.; Hjörvarsson, B.

    2018-05-01

    Polarized neutron reflectometry is used to determine the sequence of magnetic switching in interlayer exchange coupled Fe/MgO(001) superlattices in an applied magnetic field. For 19.6 Å thick MgO layers we obtain a 90∘ periodic magnetic alignment between adjacent Fe layers at remanence. In an increasing applied field the top layer switches first followed by its second-nearest neighbor. For 16.4 Å MgO layers, a 180∘ periodic alignment is obtained at remanence and with increasing applied field the layer switching starts from the two outermost layers and proceeds inwards. This sequential tuneable switching opens up the possibility of designing three-dimensional magnetic structures with a predefined discrete switching sequence.

  11. Transport properties of graphene under periodic and quasiperiodic magnetic superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Tao, E-mail: luweitao@lyu.edu.cn [School of Science, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China); Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China); Wang, Shun-Jin [Department of Physics, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Wang, Yong-Long; Jiang, Hua [School of Science, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China); Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China); Li, Wen [School of Science, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China)

    2013-08-15

    We study the transmission of Dirac electrons through the one-dimensional periodic, Fibonacci, and Thue–Morse magnetic superlattices (MS), which can be realized by two different magnetic blocks arranged in certain sequences in graphene. The numerical results show that the transmission as a function of incident energy presents regular resonance splitting effect in periodic MS due to the split energy spectrum. For the quasiperiodic MS with more layers, they exhibit rich transmission patterns. In particular, the transmission in Fibonacci MS presents scaling property and fragmented behavior with self-similarity, while the transmission in Thue–Morse MS presents more perfect resonant peaks which are related to the completely transparent states. Furthermore, these interesting properties are robust against the profile of MS, but dependent on the magnetic structure parameters and the transverse wave vector.

  12. Emergent chirality in the electric polarization texture of titanate superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Padraic; García-Fernández, Pablo; Aguado-Puente, Pablo; Damodaran, Anoop R; Yadav, Ajay K; Nelson, Christopher T; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Wojdeł, Jacek C; Íñiguez, Jorge; Martin, Lane W; Arenholz, Elke; Junquera, Javier; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2018-01-30

    Chirality is a geometrical property by which an object is not superimposable onto its mirror image, thereby imparting a handedness. Chirality determines many important properties in nature-from the strength of the weak interactions according to the electroweak theory in particle physics to the binding of enzymes with naturally occurring amino acids or sugars, reactions that are fundamental for life. In condensed matter physics, the prediction of topologically protected magnetic skyrmions and related spin textures in chiral magnets has stimulated significant research. If the magnetic dipoles were replaced by their electrical counterparts, then electrically controllable chiral devices could be designed. Complex oxide BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 nanocomposites and PbTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices are perfect candidates, since "polar vortices," in which a continuous rotation of ferroelectric polarization spontaneously forms, have been recently discovered. Using resonant soft X-ray diffraction, we report the observation of a strong circular dichroism from the interaction between circularly polarized light and the chiral electric polarization texture that emerges in PbTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices. This hallmark of chirality is explained by a helical rotation of electric polarization that second-principles simulations predict to reside within complex 3D polarization textures comprising ordered topological line defects. The handedness of the texture can be topologically characterized by the sign of the helicity number of the chiral line defects. This coupling between the optical and novel polar properties could be exploited to encode chiral signatures into photon or electron beams for information processing.

  13. Colloidal Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles: Properties and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Suslov, Sergey; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties of colloidal plasmonic titanium nitride nanoparticles are examined with an eye on their photothermal and photocatalytic applications via transmission electron microscopy and optical transmittance measurements. Single crystal titanium nitride cubic nanoparticles with an average ...

  14. Preparing microspheres of actinide nitrides from carbon containing oxide sols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggiani, L.V.

    1975-01-01

    A process is given for preparing uranium nitride, uranium oxynitride, and uranium carboxynitride microspheres and the microspheres as compositions of matter. The microspheres are prepared from carbide sols by reduction and nitriding steps. (Official Gazette)

  15. Advancing liquid metal reactor technology with nitride fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.; Matthews, R.B.

    1991-08-01

    A review of the use of nitride fuels in liquid metal fast reactors is presented. Past studies indicate that both uranium nitride and uranium/plutonium nitride possess characteristics that may offer enhanced performance, particularly in the area of passive safety. To further quantify these effects, the analysis of a mixed-nitride fuel system utilizing the geometry and power level of the US Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor as a reference is described. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Plasma nitridation optimization for sub-15 A gate dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cubaynes, F.N; Schmitz, Jurriaan; van der Marel, C.; Snijders, J.H.M.; Veloso, A.; Rothschild, A.; Olsen, C.; Date, L.

    The work investigates the impact of plasma nitridation process parameters upon the physical properties and upon the electrical performance of sub-15 A plasma nitrided gate dielectrics. The nitrogen distribution and chemical bonding of ultra-thin plasma nitrided films have been investigated using

  17. Ion nitriding in 316=L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Calderon, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Ion nitriding is a glow discharge process that is used to induce surface modification in metals. It has been applied to 316-L austenitic stainless steel looking for similar benefits already obtained in other steels. An austenitic stainless steel was selected because is not hardenable by heat treatment and is not easy to nitride by gas nitriding. The samples were plastically deformed to 10, 20, 40, 50 AND 70% of their original thickness in order to obtain bulk hardening and to observe nitrogen penetration dependence on it. The results were: an increase of one to two rockwell hardness number (except in 70% deformed sample because of its thickness); an increase of even several hundreds per cent in microhardness knoop number in nitrided surface. The later surely modifies waste resistance which would be worth to quantify in further studies. Microhardness measured in an internal transversal face to nitrided surface had a gradual diminish in its value with depth. Auger microanalysis showed a higher relative concentration rate C N /C F e near the surface giving evidence of nitrogen presence till 250 microns deep. The color metallography etchant used, produced faster corrosion in nitrited regions. Therefore, corrosion studies have to be done before using ion nitrited 316-L under these chemicals. (Author)

  18. Innovative boron nitride-doped propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. military has a need for more powerful propellants with balanced/stoichiometric amounts of fuel and oxidants. However, balanced and more powerful propellants lead to accelerated gun barrel erosion and markedly shortened useful barrel life. Boron nitride (BN is an interesting potential additive for propellants that could reduce gun wear effects in advanced propellants (US patent pending 2015-026P. Hexagonal boron nitride is a good lubricant that can provide wear resistance and lower flame temperatures for gun barrels. Further, boron can dope steel, which drastically improves its strength and wear resistance, and can block the formation of softer carbides. A scalable synthesis method for producing boron nitride nano-particles that can be readily dispersed into propellants has been developed. Even dispersion of the nano-particles in a double-base propellant has been demonstrated using a solvent-based processing approach. Stability of a composite propellant with the BN additive was verified. In this paper, results from propellant testing of boron nitride nano-composite propellants are presented, including closed bomb and wear and erosion testing. Detailed characterization of the erosion tester substrates before and after firing was obtained by electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This promising boron nitride additive shows the ability to improve gun wear and erosion resistance without any destabilizing effects to the propellant. Potential applications could include less erosive propellants in propellant ammunition for large, medium and small diameter fire arms.

  19. Dielectric enhancement of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices with embedded Ni nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhengwei; Sun Weiguo; Wang Xuemin; Jiang Fan; Wu Weidong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with embedded Ni NCs were successfully fabricated by L-MBE. ► The influence with the various concentrations of Ni nanocrystals embedded in BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices was also discussed. ► The BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with lower concentration of embedded Ni NCs had higher permittivity and dielectric loss compared with the pure BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices. ► The dielectric enhancement of BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with embedded Ni NCs was proposed to explained by Drude quasi-free-electron theory. - Abstract: The self-organized Ni nanocrystals (NCs) were embedded in BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices using laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE). The stress of the composite films was increased with the increasing concentration of embedded Ni NCs, as investigation in stress calculation. The influence with the various concentrations of Ni NCs embedded in BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices was also discussed. The internal stress of the films was too strong to epitaxial growth of BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices. Compared with the pure BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices, the BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with lower concentration of embedded Ni NCs had higher permittivity and dielectric loss. Furthermore, the dielectric enhancement of BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with embedded Ni NCs was proposed to explained by Drude quasi-free-electron theory.

  20. Magneto-transport studies of InAs/GaSb short period superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadley, Victoria Jane

    2002-01-01

    This thesis studies the transport properties of short period semiconducting InAs/GaSb superlattices in the presence of strong electric and magnetic fields applied parallel to the growth axis. Electrical transport parallel to the growth axis occurs through the superlattice miniband, which have widths varying from three to 30meV. Resonant scattering between confined Landau levels and Stark levels is observed at low temperatures (4.2K). In addition LO-phonon assisted scattering between Landau levels is observed in both type-I GaAs/AIAs and type-ll inAs/GaSb superlattices, which are enhanced in the type-ll system due to the strong interband coupling. K·p band structure calculations show that the interband coupling causes the superlattice miniband energy dispersion to be strongly dependent on the in-plane wavevector and the applied magnetic field. For large applied electric fields, where the miniband is split into discrete Stark levels, strong stark-cyclotron resonance (SCR) features are observed, which occur when the Landau level separation equals to the stark level separation. These resonances are enhanced when compared to SCR in type-I superlattices due to the suppression of miniband conduction in higher lying Landau levels. At low electric fields electrical transport through the superlattice miniband yields characteristic miniband transport features, which are modelled using the Esaki-Tsu miniband transport model. Strong electron - LO-phonon scattering is also observed in InAs/GaSb superlattices, where we report the first observation of miniband transport assisted via the emission of LO-phonons between stark levels in adjacent wells. Below 50K thermally activated behaviour is reported and at high magnetic fields (in the quantum limit) complete localisation of carriers is observed. In this regime LO-phonon delocalised transport in also observed. (author)

  1. Indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride quantum wells grown on polar and nonpolar gallium nitride substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kun-Yu

    Nonpolar (m-plane or a-plane) gallium nitride (GaN) is predicted to be a potential substrate material to improve luminous efficiencies of nitride-based quantum wells (QWs). Numerical calculations indicated that the spontaneous emission rate in a single In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN QW could be improved by ˜2.2 times if the polarization-induced internal field was avoided by epitaxial deposition on nonpolar substrates. A challenge for nonpolar GaN is the limited size (less than 10x10 mm2) of substrates, which was addressed by expansion during the regrowth by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE). Subsurface damage in GaN substrates were reduced by annealing with NH3 and N2 at 950°C for 60 minutes. It was additionally found that the variation of m-plane QWs' emission properties was significantly increased when the substrate miscut toward a-axis was increased from 0° to 0.1°. InGaN/GaN QWs were grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane and m-plane GaN substrates. The QWs were studied by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy with different incident electron beam probe currents (0.1 nA ˜ 1000 nA). Lower emission intensities and longer peak wavelengths from c-plane QWs were attributed to the Quantum-confined Stark Effect (QCSE). The emission intensity ratios of m-plane QWs to c-plane QWs decreased from 3.04 at 1 nA to 1.53 at 1000 nA. This was identified as the stronger screening effects of QCSE at higher current densities in c-plane QWs. To further investigate these effects in a fabricated structure, biased photoluminescence measurements were performed on m-plane InGaN/GaN QWs. The purpose was to detect the possible internal fields induced by the dot-like structure in the InGaN layer through the response of these internal fields under externally applied fields. No energy shifts of the QWs were observed, which was attributed to strong surface leakage currents.

  2. Thermodynamics, kinetics and process control of nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittemeijer, Eric J.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    1997-01-01

    As a prerequisite for the predictability of properties obtained by a nitriding treatment of iron based workpieces, the relation between the process parameters and the composition and structure of the surface layer produced must be known. At present, even the description of thermodynamic equilibrium...... of pure Fe-N phases has not been fully achieved. It is shown that taking into account the ordering of nitrogen in the epsilon and gamma' iron nitride phases leads to an improved understanding of the Fe-N phase diagram. Although consideration of thermodynamics indicates the state the system strives for...... for process control of gaseous nitriding by monitoring the partial pressure of oxygen in the furnace using a solid state electrolyte is provided. At the time the work was carried out the authors were in the Laboratory of Materials Science, Delft University of Technology, Rotterdamseweg 137, 2628 AL Delft...

  3. Conducting metal oxide and metal nitride nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Subban, Chinmayee V.

    2017-12-26

    Conducting metal oxide and nitride nanoparticles that can be used in fuel cell applications. The metal oxide nanoparticles are comprised of for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten and combinations thereof. The metal nitride nanoparticles are comprised of, for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, zirconium, and combinations thereof. The nanoparticles can be sintered to provide conducting porous agglomerates of the nanoparticles which can be used as a catalyst support in fuel cell applications. Further, platinum nanoparticles, for example, can be deposited on the agglomerates to provide a material that can be used as both an anode and a cathode catalyst support in a fuel cell.

  4. Molecular dynamics studies of actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Ken; Uno, Masayoshi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The molecular dynamics (MD) calculation was performed for actinide nitrides (UN, NpN, and PuN) in the temperature range from 300 to 2800 K to evaluate the physical properties viz., the lattice parameter, thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and heat capacity. The Morse-type potential function added to the Busing-Ida type potential was employed for the ionic interactions. The interatomic potential parameters were determined by fitting to the experimental data of the lattice parameter. The usefulness and applicability of the MD method to evaluate the physical properties of actinide nitrides were studied. (author)

  5. Local heating with titanium nitride nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Ndukaife, Justus C.; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles as local heat sources in the near infrared region, focusing on biological window. Experiments and simulations provide promising results for TiN, which is known to be bio-compatible.......We investigate the feasibility of titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles as local heat sources in the near infrared region, focusing on biological window. Experiments and simulations provide promising results for TiN, which is known to be bio-compatible....

  6. Strain and Defect Engineering for Tailored Electrical Properties in Perovskite Oxide Thin Films and Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, Greg Hsiang-Chun

    Functional complex-oxides display a wide spectrum of physical properties, including ferromagnetism, piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity, photocatalytic and metal-insulating transition (MIT) behavior. Within this family, oxides with a perovskite structure have been widely studied, especially in the form of thin films and superlattices (heterostructures), which are strategically and industrially important because they offer a wide range of opportunities for electronic, piezoelectric and sensor applications. The first part of my thesis focuses on understanding and tuning of the built-in electric field found in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 (PTO/STO) ferroelectric superlattices and other ferroelectric films. The artificial layering in ferroelectric superlattices is a potential source of polarization asymmetry, where one polarization state is preferred over another. One manifestation of this asymmetry is a built-in electric field associated with shifted polarization hysteresis. Using off-axis RF-magnetron sputtering, we prepared several compositions of PTO/STO superlattice thin films; and for comparison PbTiO3/SrRuO 3 (PTO/SRO) superlattices, which have an additional intrinsic compositional asymmetry at the interface. Both theoretical modeling and experiments indicate that the layer-by-layer superlattice structure aligns the Pb-O vacancy defect dipoles in the c direction which contributes significantly to the built-in electric field; however the preferred polarization direction is different between the PTO/STO and PTO/SRO interface. By designing a hybrid superlattice that combines PTO/STO and PTO/SRO superlattices, we show the built-in electric field can be tuned to zero by changing the composition of the combo-superlattice. The second part of my thesis focuses on the epitaxial growth of SrCrO 3 (SCO) films. The inconsistent reports regarding its electrical and magnetic properties through the years stem from the compositionally and structurally ill-defined polycrystalline samples, but

  7. Electronic states in tunneling semiconductor superlattices: Technical progress report for the period September 15, 1987-September 14, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This research project funded by DOE has concentrated in the systematic study of the effects of a gate voltage on the electronic structure of a tunneling superlattice system. The effects of strong magnetic fields and other various parameters on energy levels of tunneling superlattices have been investigated

  8. Fluxons in thin-film superconductor-insulator superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, S.; Bodin, P.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    In a system of thin alternating layers of superconductors and insulators the equations describing static and dynamic fluxon solutions are derived. The approach, represented by a useful compact matrix form, is intended to describe systems fabricated for example of niobium or niobium-nitride thin...... films; in the limit of ultrathin superconductor films it may give a model for describing fluxon motion in layered high-Tc superconductors. Numerical examples of current versus voltage curves to be expected in such an experiment are presented. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American...

  9. Optical properties of nitride nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarero, A.; Cros, A.; Garro, N.; Gomez-Gomez, M.I.; Garcia, A.; Lima, M.M. de [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, PO Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Daudin, B. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SPMM, CEA/Grenoble, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Rizzi, A.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J. [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg August Universitaet Goettingen, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper we review some recent results on the optical properties of nitride nanostructures, in particular on GaN quantum dots (QDs) and InN nanocolumns (NCs). First, we will give a brief introduction on the particularities of vibrational modes of wurtzite. The GaN QDs, embedded in AlN, were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the Stransky-Krastanov mode on c- and a-plane 6H-SiC. We have studied the optical properties by means of photoluminescence (PL) and performed Raman scattering measurements to analyze the strain relaxation in the dots and the barrier, the effect of the internal electric fields, and the influence of specific growth parameters, like the influence of capping or the spacer on the relaxation of the QDs. A theoretical model, based on continuous elastic theory, were developed to interpret the Raman scattering results. On the other hand, InN NCs have been grown by MBE in the vapor-liquid-solid mode using Au as a catalyst. The nanocolumns have different morphology depending on the growth conditions. The optical properties can be correlated to the morphology of the samples and the best growth conditions can be selected. We observe, from the analysis of the Raman data in InN NCs, the existence of two space regions contributing to the scattering: the surface and the inner region. From the inner region, uncoupled phonon modes are clearly observed, showing the high crystal quality and the complete relaxation of the NCs (no strain). The observation of a LO-phonon-plasmon couple in the same spectra is a fingerprint of the accumulation layer predicted at the surface of the nanocolumns. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Boron nitride nanotubes for spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Kamal B; Pati, Ranjit

    2014-09-22

    With the end of Moore's law in sight, researchers are in search of an alternative approach to manipulate information. Spintronics or spin-based electronics, which uses the spin state of electrons to store, process and communicate information, offers exciting opportunities to sustain the current growth in the information industry. For example, the discovery of the giant magneto resistance (GMR) effect, which provides the foundation behind modern high density data storage devices, is an important success story of spintronics; GMR-based sensors have wide applications, ranging from automotive industry to biology. In recent years, with the tremendous progress in nanotechnology, spintronics has crossed the boundary of conventional, all metallic, solid state multi-layered structures to reach a new frontier, where nanostructures provide a pathway for the spin-carriers. Different materials such as organic and inorganic nanostructures are explored for possible applications in spintronics. In this short review, we focus on the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT), which has recently been explored for possible applications in spintronics. Unlike many organic materials, BNNTs offer higher thermal stability and higher resistance to oxidation. It has been reported that the metal-free fluorinated BNNT exhibits long range ferromagnetic spin ordering, which is stable at a temperature much higher than room temperature. Due to their large band gap, BNNTs are also explored as a tunnel magneto resistance device. In addition, the F-BNNT has recently been predicted as an ideal spin-filter. The purpose of this review is to highlight these recent progresses so that a concerted effort by both experimentalists and theorists can be carried out in the future to realize the true potential of BNNT-based spintronics.

  11. Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal B. Dhungana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the end of Moore’s law in sight, researchers are in search of an alternative approach to manipulate information. Spintronics or spin-based electronics, which uses the spin state of electrons to store, process and communicate information, offers exciting opportunities to sustain the current growth in the information industry. For example, the discovery of the giant magneto resistance (GMR effect, which provides the foundation behind modern high density data storage devices, is an important success story of spintronics; GMR-based sensors have wide applications, ranging from automotive industry to biology. In recent years, with the tremendous progress in nanotechnology, spintronics has crossed the boundary of conventional, all metallic, solid state multi-layered structures to reach a new frontier, where nanostructures provide a pathway for the spin-carriers. Different materials such as organic and inorganic nanostructures are explored for possible applications in spintronics. In this short review, we focus on the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT, which has recently been explored for possible applications in spintronics. Unlike many organic materials, BNNTs offer higher thermal stability and higher resistance to oxidation. It has been reported that the metal-free fluorinated BNNT exhibits long range ferromagnetic spin ordering, which is stable at a temperature much higher than room temperature. Due to their large band gap, BNNTs are also explored as a tunnel magneto resistance device. In addition, the F-BNNT has recently been predicted as an ideal spin-filter. The purpose of this review is to highlight these recent progresses so that a concerted effort by both experimentalists and theorists can be carried out in the future to realize the true potential of BNNT-based spintronics.

  12. Observation of interface dependent spin polarized photocurrents in InAs/GaSb superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan, E-mail: liyuan12@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Wu, Qing; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yonghai, E-mail: yhchen@semi.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100083 Beijing (China); Niu, Zhichuan; Xiang, Wei; Hao, Hongyue [The State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100083 Beijing (China)

    2015-05-11

    In this letter, we investigated the spin polarized photocurrents excited by mid-infrared radiation and near-infrared radiation, respectively, in InAs/GaSb type II superlattices with different kinds of interfaces. By periodically varying the polarization state of the radiation, we analyzed Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents, which present different features depending on the interface types and excitation conditions. Under mid-infrared excitation, the ratio of Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents of the superlattice with InSb-like interface is obviously larger than that of the superlattice with GaAs-like interface, the ratio of the superlattice with alternate interface is in the middle. Whereas under near-infrared excitation, the ratios of the three superlattices are nearly the same. Further researches reveal the synactic effects of interface dependent strain and asymmetric interface potential on the spin splitting. Besides, the polarized Raman spectroscopies of these structures were also analyzed.

  13. Observation of interface dependent spin polarized photocurrents in InAs/GaSb superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Wu, Qing; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yonghai; Niu, Zhichuan; Xiang, Wei; Hao, Hongyue

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we investigated the spin polarized photocurrents excited by mid-infrared radiation and near-infrared radiation, respectively, in InAs/GaSb type II superlattices with different kinds of interfaces. By periodically varying the polarization state of the radiation, we analyzed Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents, which present different features depending on the interface types and excitation conditions. Under mid-infrared excitation, the ratio of Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents of the superlattice with InSb-like interface is obviously larger than that of the superlattice with GaAs-like interface, the ratio of the superlattice with alternate interface is in the middle. Whereas under near-infrared excitation, the ratios of the three superlattices are nearly the same. Further researches reveal the synactic effects of interface dependent strain and asymmetric interface potential on the spin splitting. Besides, the polarized Raman spectroscopies of these structures were also analyzed

  14. InN/GaN Superlattices: Band Structures and Their Pressure Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, Iza; Suski, Tadek; Staszczak, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Creation of short-period InN/GaN superlattices is one of the possible ways of conducting band gap engineering in the green-blue range of the spectrum. The present paper reports results of photoluminescence experiments, including pressure effects, on a superlattice sample consisting of unit cells...... with one monolayer of InN and 40 monolayers of GaN. The results are compared with calculations performed for different types of superlattices: InN/GaN, InGaN/GaN, and InN/InGaN/GaN with single monolayers of InN and/or InGaN. The superlattices are simulated by band structure calculations based on the local...... density approximation (LDA) with a semi-empirical correction for the ‘‘LDA gap error’’. A similarity is observed between the results of calculations for an InGaN/GaN superlattice (with one monolayer of InGaN) and the experimental results. This indicates that the fabricated InN quantum wells may contain...

  15. Superlattice photonic crystal as broadband solar absorber for high temperature operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnerbauer, Veronika; Shen, Yichen; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin; Schäffler, Friedrich; Celanovic, Ivan

    2014-12-15

    A high performance solar absorber using a 2D tantalum superlattice photonic crystal (PhC) is proposed and its design is optimized for high-temperature energy conversion. In contrast to the simple lattice PhC, which is limited by diffraction in the short wavelength range, the superlattice PhC achieves solar absorption over broadband spectral range due to the contribution from two superposed lattices with different cavity radii. The superlattice PhC geometry is tailored to achieve maximum thermal transfer efficiency for a low concentration system of 250 suns at 1500 K reaching 85.0% solar absorptivity. In the high concentration case of 1000 suns, the superlattice PhC absorber achieves a solar absorptivity of 96.2% and a thermal transfer efficiency of 82.9% at 1500 K, amounting to an improvement of 10% and 5%, respectively, versus the simple square lattice PhC absorber. In addition, the performance of the superlattice PhC absorber is studied in a solar thermophotovoltaic system which is optimized to minimize absorber re-emission by reducing the absorber-to-emitter area ratio and using a highly reflective silver aperture.

  16. ZnO: Hydroquinone superlattice structures fabricated by atomic/molecular layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynell, Tommi; Karppinen, Maarit

    2014-01-01

    Here we employ atomic layer deposition in combination with molecular layer deposition to deposit crystalline thin films of ZnO interspersed with single layers of hydroquinone in an effort to create hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures. The ratio of the ZnO and hydroquinone deposition cycles is varied between 199:1 and 1:1, and the structure of the resultant thin films is verified with X-ray diffraction and reflectivity techniques. Clear evidence of the formation of a superlattice-type structure is observed in the X-ray reflectivity patterns and the presence of organic bonds in the films corresponding to the structure of hydroquinone is confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. We anticipate that hybrid superlattice structures such as the ones described in this work have the potential to be of great importance for future applications where the precise control of different inorganic and organic layers in hybrid superlattice materials is required. - Highlights: • Inorganic–organic superlattices can be made by atomic/molecular layer deposition. • This is demonstrated here for ZnO and hydroquinone (HQ). • The ratio of the ZnO and HQ layers is varied between 199:1 and 14:1. • The resultant thin films are crystalline

  17. ZnO: Hydroquinone superlattice structures fabricated by atomic/molecular layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynell, Tommi; Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi

    2014-01-31

    Here we employ atomic layer deposition in combination with molecular layer deposition to deposit crystalline thin films of ZnO interspersed with single layers of hydroquinone in an effort to create hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures. The ratio of the ZnO and hydroquinone deposition cycles is varied between 199:1 and 1:1, and the structure of the resultant thin films is verified with X-ray diffraction and reflectivity techniques. Clear evidence of the formation of a superlattice-type structure is observed in the X-ray reflectivity patterns and the presence of organic bonds in the films corresponding to the structure of hydroquinone is confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. We anticipate that hybrid superlattice structures such as the ones described in this work have the potential to be of great importance for future applications where the precise control of different inorganic and organic layers in hybrid superlattice materials is required. - Highlights: • Inorganic–organic superlattices can be made by atomic/molecular layer deposition. • This is demonstrated here for ZnO and hydroquinone (HQ). • The ratio of the ZnO and HQ layers is varied between 199:1 and 14:1. • The resultant thin films are crystalline.

  18. Two-Dimensional Modeling of Aluminum Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holmes, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT's) are microwave power devices that have the performance characteristics to improve the capabilities of current and future Navy radar and communication systems...

  19. First-principles modeling of titanate/ruthenate superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junquera, Javier

    2013-03-01

    The possibility to create highly confined two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) at oxide interfaces has generated much excitement during the last few years. The most widely studied system is the 2DEG formed at the LaO/TiO2 polar interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, where the polar catastrophe at the interface has been invoked as the driving force. More recently, partial or complete delta doping of the Sr or Ti cations at a single layer of a SrTiO3 matrix has also been used to generate 2DEG. Following this recipe, we report first principles characterization of the structural and electronic properties of (SrTiO3)5/(SrRuO3)1 superlattices, where all the Ti of a given layer have been replaced by Ru. We show that the system exhibits a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas extremely confined to the 4 d orbitals of Ru in the SrRuO3 layer, a fact that is independent of the level of correlation included in the simulations. For hybrid functionals or LDA+U, every interface in the superlattice behaves as minority-spin half-metal ferromagnet, with a magnetic moment of μ = 2.0 μB/SrRuO3 unit. The shape of the electronic density of states, half metallicity and magnetism are explained in terms of a simplified tight-binding model, considering only the t2 g orbitals plus (i) the bi-dimensionality of the system, and (ii) strong electron correlations. Possible applications are discussed, from their eventual role in thermoelectric applications to the possible tuning of ferromagnetic properties of the 2DEG with the polarization of the dielectric. Work done in collaboration with P. García, M. Verissimo-Alves, D. I. Bilc, and Ph. Ghosez. Financial support provided by MICINN Grant FIS2009-12721-C04-02, and by the European Union Grant No. CP-FP 228989-2 ``OxIDes.'' The authors thankfully acknowledge the computer resources, technical expertise and assistance provided by the BSC/RES.

  20. Strained superlattices and magnetic tunnel junctions based on doped manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yafeng Lu

    2001-01-01

    In the first part of this work the effect of biaxial strain on the structure and transport properties of doped manganites has been studied to explore the relevance of Jahn-Teller electron-lattice interaction for the CMR phenomenon in these materials. A series of high quality, coherently strained La 2/3 (Ca or Ba) 1/3 MnO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with different modulation periods have been fabricated on (001) SrTiO 3 and NdGaO 3 substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. A detailed structural characterization was performed by high-angle X-ray diffraction (HAXRD) and low-angle X-ray reflectivity (LAXRR). The fabricated superlattices are very flat, show excellent structural coherence and very small mosaic spread (0.2 ∝0.03 ). The in-plane coherency strain could be varied by changing the thickness ratio of the constituent layers allowing for a systematic variation of the resulting lattice distortion of La 2/3 (Ca or Ba) 1/3 MnO 3 . By the in-plane coherency strain the out-of-plane lattice constant could be continuously adjusted by varying the relative thickness of the SrTiO 3 and La 2/3 (Ca or Ba) 1/3 MnO 3 layers: the c-axis lattice constant of La 2/3 Ba 1/3 MnO 3 was found to vary from 3.910 A to 3.975 A due to a compressive in-plane strain, whereas the c-axis constant of La 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 was found to change from 3.87 A to 3.79A due to tensile in-plane strain. The strain results in a biaxial distortion ε bi of La 2/3 (Ca or Ba) 1/3 MnO 3 that strongly affects the electrical transport properties and the magnetoresistance. Our measurements show that there is a clear correlation between ε bi and the temperature T p corresponding to the maximum in the resistivity versus temperature curves as well as the measured magnetoresistance in the two systems. In the second part of this work we have investigated the spin-dependent tunneling in trilayer structures of La 2/3 Ba 1/3 MnO 3 /SrTiO 3 /La 2/3 Ba 1/3 MnO 3 . (orig.)

  1. Low temperature synthesis of Mo2C/W2C superlattices via ultra-thin modulated reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Johnson, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    The authors report here a synthesis method of preparing carbide superlattices using ultra-thin modulated reactants. Initial investigations into the synthesis of the binary systems, Mo 2 C and W 2 C using ultra-thin modulated reactants revealed that both can be formed at relatively low temperatures (500 and 600 C respectively). DSC and XRD data suggested a two step reaction pathway involving interdiffusion of the initial modulated reactant followed by crystallization of the final product, if the modulation length is on the order of 10 angstrom. This information was used to form Mo 2 C/W 2 C superlattices using the structure of the ultra-thin modulated reactant to control the final superlattice period. Relatively large superlattice modulations were kinetically trapped by having several repeat units of each binary within the total repeat of the initial reactant. DSC and XRD data again are consistent with a two step reaction pathway leading to the formation of carbide superlattices

  2. Surface modification of 17-4PH stainless steel by DC plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, F.; Leng, Y.X.; Huang, N.; Bai, B.; Zhang, P.Ch.

    2007-01-01

    17-4PH stainless steel was modified by direct current (DC) plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment in this study. The microstructure, wear resistance and corrosion resistance were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), pin-on-disk tribological test and polarization experiment. The results revealed that the DC plasma nitriding pretreatment was in favor of improving properties of titanium nitride film. The corrosion resistance and wear resistance of duplex treatment specimen was more superior to that of only coated titanium nitride film

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of silicon nitride structural ceramics of silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohaecker, T.R.; Nobrega, M.C.S.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of direct evaluation technic of tenacity for fracturing by hardness impact in silicon nitride ceramics is described. The microstructure were analysied, by Scanning Electron Microscopy, equiped with a microanalysis acessory by X ray energy dispersion. The difference between the values of K IC measure for two silicon nitride ceramics is discussed, in function of the microstructures and the fracture surfaces of the samples studied. (C.G.C.) [pt

  4. Lattice dynamics and electron/phonon interactions in epitaxial transition-metal nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Antonio Rodolph Bighetti

    Transition metal (TM) nitrides, due to their unique combination of remarkable physical properties and simple NaCl structure, are presently utilized in a broad range of applications and as model systems in the investigation of complex phenomena. Group-IVB nitrides TiN, ZrN, and HfN have transport properties which include superconductivity and high electrical conductivity; consequentially, they have become technologically important as electrodes and contacts in the semiconducting and superconducting industries. The Group-VB nitride VN, which exhibits enhanced ductility, is a fundamental component in superhard and tough nanostructured hard coatings. In this thesis, I investigate the lattice dynamics responsible for controlling superconductivity and electrical conductivities in Group-IVB nitrides and elasticity and structural stability of the NaCl-structure Group-VB nitride VN. Our group has already synthesized high-quality epitaxial TiN, HfN, and CeN layers on MgO(001) substrates. By irradiating the growth surface with high ion fluxes at energies below the bulk lattice-atom displacement threshold, dense epitaxial single crystal TM nitride films with extremely smooth surfaces have been grown using ultra-high vacuum magnetically-unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition. Using this approach, I completed the Group-IVB nitride series by growing epitaxial ZrN/MgO(001) films and then grew Group-VB nitride VN films epitaxially on MgO(001), MgO(011), and MgO(111). The combination of high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) reciprocal lattice maps (RLMs), high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HR-XTEM), and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) show that single-crystal stoichiometric ZrN films grown at 450 °C are epitaxially oriented cube-on-cube with respect to their MgO(001) substrates, (001) ZrN||(001)MgO and [100]ZrN||[100]MgO. The layers are essentially fully relaxed with a lattice parameter of 0.4575 nm. X-ray reflectivity results reveal that

  5. Boron nitride nanosheets reinforced glass matrix composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saggar, Richa; Porwal, H.; Tatarko, P.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Reece, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, SEP (2015), S26-S32 ISSN 1743-6753 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK155 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Boron nitride nanosheets * Borosilicate glass * Mechanical properties Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2015

  6. Alkaline fuel cell with nitride membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shen-Huei; Pilaski, Moritz; Wartmann, Jens; Letzkus, Florian; Funke, Benedikt; Dura, Georg; Heinzel, Angelika

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate patterned nitride membranes with Si-MEMS-technology as a platform to build up new membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEA) for alkaline fuel cell applications. Two 6-inch wafer processes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were developed for the fabrication of separated nitride membranes with a nitride thickness up to 1 μm. The mechanical stability of the perforated nitride membrane has been adjusted in both processes either by embedding of subsequent ion implantation step or by optimizing the deposition process parameters. A nearly 100% yield of separated membranes of each deposition process was achieved with layer thickness from 150 nm to 1 μm and micro-channel pattern width of 1μm at a pitch of 3 μm. The process for membrane coating with electrolyte materials could be verified to build up MEA. Uniform membrane coating with channel filling was achieved after the optimization of speed controlled dip-coating method and the selection of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as electrolyte solvent. Finally, silver as conductive material was defined for printing a conductive layer onto the MEA by Ink-Technology. With the established IR-thermography setup, characterizations of MEAs in terms of catalytic conversion were performed successfully. The results of this work show promise for build up a platform on wafer-level for high throughput experiments.

  7. Intrinsic ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, M. S.; Gao, Daqiang, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn; Yang, Dezheng; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Z. Y.; Xue, Desheng, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Yushen [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and College of Physics and Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Deng, Xiaohui [Department of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Zhang, G. P. [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which possess only s and p electrons in comparison with normal ferromagnets based on localized d or f electrons, is a current challenge. In this work, we report an experimental finding that the ferromagnetic coupling is an intrinsic property of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we further confirm it from ab initio calculations. We show that the measured ferromagnetism should be attributed to the localized π states at edges, where the electron-electron interaction plays the role in this ferromagnetic ordering. More importantly, we demonstrate such edge-induced ferromagnetism causes a high Curie temperature well above room temperature. Our systematical work, including experimental measurements and theoretical confirmation, proves that such unusual room temperature ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets is edge-dependent, similar to widely reported graphene-based materials. It is believed that this work will open new perspectives for hexagonal boron nitride spintronic devices.

  8. Covalent biofunctionalization of silicon nitride surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, A.; Giesbers, M.; Rosso, M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; White, R.G.; Li Yang,; Linford, M.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2007-01-01

    Covalently attached organic monolayers on etched silicon nitride (SixN4; x 3) surfaces were prepared by reaction of SixN4-coated wafers with neat or solutions of 1-alkenes and 1-alkynes in refluxing mesitylene. The surface modification was monitored by measurement of the static water contact angle,

  9. Bandgap engineered graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article a double-barrier resonant tunnelling diode (DBRTD) has been modelled by taking advantage of single-layer hexagonal lattice of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The DBRTD performance and operation are explored by means of a self-consistent solution inside the non-equilibrium Green's ...

  10. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassavetis, S.; Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bellas, D. V.; Lidorikis, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Abadias, G. [Institut Pprime, Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)

    2016-06-27

    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N, and Zr{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400–700 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  11. Theory and simulation of photogeneration and transport in Si-SiOx superlattice absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeberhard Urs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Si-SiOx superlattices are among the candidates that have been proposed as high band gap absorber material in all-Si tandem solar cell devices. Owing to the large potential barriers for photoexited charge carriers, transport in these devices is restricted to quantum-confined superlattice states. As a consequence of the finite number of wells and large built-in fields, the electronic spectrum can deviate considerably from the minibands of a regular superlattice. In this article, a quantum-kinetic theory based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for an effective mass Hamiltonian is used for investigating photogeneration and transport in such devices for arbitrary geometry and operating conditions. By including the coupling of electrons to both photons and phonons, the theory is able to provide a microscopic picture of indirect generation, carrier relaxation, and inter-well transport mechanisms beyond the ballistic regime.

  12. Development of high-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries using superlattice hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Magari, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Ishida, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nohma, Toshiyuki; Kihara, Masaru; Baba, Yoshitaka; Teraoka, Hirohito

    New R-Mg-Ni (R: rare earths) superlattice alloys with higher-capacity and higher-durability than the conventional Mm-Ni alloys with CaCu 5 structure have been developed. The oxidation resistibility of the superlattice alloys has been improved by optimizing the alloy composition by such as substituting aluminum for nickel and optimizing the magnesium content in order to prolong the battery life. High-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries for the retail market, the Ni-MH2500/900 series (AA size type 2500 mAh, AAA size type 900 mAh), have been developed and commercialized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material.

  13. Effect of anisotropy on the magnon energy gap in a two-layer ferromagnetic superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Rongke; Liang Jing; Li Qingfeng; Zhang Zhidong; Song Panpan; Hong Xiaomin

    2009-01-01

    The magnon energy bands or spectra in a two-layer ferromagnetic superlattice are studied. It is found that a modulated energy gap exists in the magnon energy band along K x direction perpendicular to the superlattice plane, which is different from the optical magnon gap at K x =0. The anisotropy, the spin quantum numbers and the interlayer exchange couplings all affect the magnon energy gap. If the anisotropy exists, there will be no acoustic energy branch in the system. There is a competition effect of the anisotropy and the spin quantum number on the magnon energy gap. The competition achieves a balance at the zero energy gap, at which the symmetry of the system is higher. The two energy spectra of the two-layer ferromagnetic superlattice are lowered with increasing temperature.

  14. Energy minibands degeneration induced by magnetic field effects in graphene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Villagrana, R. A.; Carrera-Escobedo, V. H.; Suárez-López, J. R.; Madrigal-Melchor, J.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2017-12-01

    Energy minibands are a basic feature of practically any superlattice. In this regard graphene superlattices are not the exception and recently miniband transport has been reported through magneto-transport measurements. In this work, we compute the energy miniband and transport characteristics for graphene superlattices in which the energy barriers are generated by magnetic and electric fields. The transfer matrix approach and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism have been implemented to calculate the energy minibands and the linear-regime conductance. We find that energy minibands are very sensitive to the magnetic field and become degenerate by rising it. We were also able to correlate the evolution of the energy minibands as a function of the magnetic field with the transport characteristics, finding that miniband transport can be destroyed by magnetic field effects. Here, it is important to remark that although magnetic field effects have been a key element to unveil miniband transport, they can also destroy it.

  15. The effect of interfacial charge transfer on ferromagnetism in perovskite oxide superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Gu, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Arenholz, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Browning, N. D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology; Takamura, Y. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2012-01-05

    We investigate the structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of superlattices composed of the ferromagnetic/metal La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and non-magnetic/metal La0.5Sr0.5TiO3 grown on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates. Using a combination of bulk magnetometry, soft x-ray magnetic spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that robust ferromagnetic properties can be maintained in this superlattice system where charge transfer at the interfaces is minimized. Thus, ferromagnetism can be controlled effectively through the chemical identity and the thickness of the individual superlattice layers.

  16. Calculation of Energy Diagram of Asymmetric Graded-Band-Gap Semiconductor Superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S; Sokolovskii, Bogdan S; Alekseichyk, Mariya P

    2017-12-01

    The paper theoretically investigates the peculiarities of energy diagram of asymmetric graded-band-gap superlattices with linear coordinate dependences of band gap and electron affinity. For calculating the energy diagram of asymmetric graded-band-gap superlattices, linearized Poisson's equation has been solved for the two layers forming a period of the superlattice. The obtained coordinate dependences of edges of the conduction and valence bands demonstrate substantial transformation of the shape of the energy diagram at changing the period of the lattice and the ratio of width of the adjacent layers. The most marked changes in the energy diagram take place when the period of lattice is comparable with the Debye screening length. In the case when the lattice period is much smaller that the Debye screening length, the energy diagram has the shape of a sawtooth-like pattern.

  17. Nanoscale form dictates mesoscale function in plasmonic DNA–nanoparticle superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Michael B.; Ku, Jessie C.; Vaccarezza, Victoria M.; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin , Chad A. (NWU)

    2016-06-15

    The nanoscale manipulation of matter allows properties to be created in a material that would be difficult or even impossible to achieve in the bulk state. Progress towards such functional nanoscale architectures requires the development of methods to precisely locate nanoscale objects in three dimensions and for the formation of rigorous structure–function relationships across multiple size regimes (beginning from the nanoscale). Here, we use DNA as a programmable ligand to show that two- and three-dimensional mesoscale superlattice crystals with precisely engineered optical properties can be assembled from the bottom up. The superlattices can transition from exhibiting the properties of the constituent plasmonic nanoparticles to adopting the photonic properties defined by the mesoscale crystal (here a rhombic dodecahedron) by controlling the spacing between the gold nanoparticle building blocks. Furthermore, we develop a generally applicable theoretical framework that illustrates how crystal habit can be a design consideration for controlling far-field extinction and light confinement in plasmonic metamaterial superlattices.

  18. Coherent, atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenide superlattices with engineered strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Saien; Tu, Lijie; Han, Yimo; Huang, Lujie; Kang, Kibum; Lao, Ka Un; Poddar, Preeti; Park, Chibeom; Muller, David A.; DiStasio, Robert A.; Park, Jiwoong

    2018-03-01

    Epitaxy forms the basis of modern electronics and optoelectronics. We report coherent atomically thin superlattices in which different transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers—despite large lattice mismatches—are repeated and laterally integrated without dislocations within the monolayer plane. Grown by an omnidirectional epitaxy, these superlattices display fully matched lattice constants across heterointerfaces while maintaining an isotropic lattice structure and triangular symmetry. This strong epitaxial strain is precisely engineered via the nanoscale supercell dimensions, thereby enabling broad tuning of the optical properties and producing photoluminescence peak shifts as large as 250 millielectron volts. We present theoretical models to explain this coherent growth and the energetic interplay governing the ripple formation in these strained monolayers. Such coherent superlattices provide building blocks with targeted functionalities at the atomically thin limit.

  19. Hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures with atomic layer deposition/molecular layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2014-01-15

    A combination of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques is successfully employed to fabricate thin films incorporating superlattice structures that consist of single layers of organic molecules between thicker layers of ZnO. Diethyl zinc and water are used as precursors for the deposition of ZnO by ALD, while three different organic precursors are investigated for the MLD part: hydroquinone, 4-aminophenol and 4,4′-oxydianiline. The successful superlattice formation with all the organic precursors is verified through x-ray reflectivity studies. The effects of the interspersed organic layers/superlattice structure on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of ZnO are investigated through resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements at room temperature. The results suggest an increase in carrier concentration for small concentrations of organic layers, while higher concentrations seem to lead to rather large reductions in carrier concentration.

  20. Crossover from incoherent to coherent phonon scattering in epitaxial oxide superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth; Yadav, Ajay K; Cheaito, Ramez; Rossen, Pim B; Soukiassian, Arsen; Suresha, S J; Duda, John C; Foley, Brian M; Lee, Che-Hui; Zhu, Ye; Lichtenberger, Arthur W; Moore, Joel E; Muller, David A; Schlom, Darrell G; Hopkins, Patrick E; Majumdar, Arun; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zurbuchen, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Elementary particles such as electrons or photons are frequent subjects of wave-nature-driven investigations, unlike collective excitations such as phonons. The demonstration of wave-particle crossover, in terms of macroscopic properties, is crucial to the understanding and application of the wave behaviour of matter. We present an unambiguous demonstration of the theoretically predicted crossover from diffuse (particle-like) to specular (wave-like) phonon scattering in epitaxial oxide superlattices, manifested by a minimum in lattice thermal conductivity as a function of interface density. We do so by synthesizing superlattices of electrically insulating perovskite oxides and systematically varying the interface density, with unit-cell precision, using two different epitaxial-growth techniques. These observations open up opportunities for studies on the wave nature of phonons, particularly phonon interference effects, using oxide superlattices as model systems, with extensive applications in thermoelectrics and thermal management.

  1. Electronic properties of a new structured Sin/O superlattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is a material which dominants the semiconductor industry and has a well-established processing technology based on it. However, silicon has an indirect-bandgap and is not efficient in light emitting. This limits its applications in optoelectronics. In this paper, we proposed a new structural model for the silicon-based superlattice, i.e., the Sin/O one. The model consists of alternating films of n-layers of Si and a monolayer of oxygen along z-direction, together with a surface cell of Si(001 (2×1 reconstruction in the x-y plane. The importance of employing such a Si(001 (2×1 reconstruction is that all the electrons at interface can be strongly bonded. Our results showed interesting electronic properties, e.g., the band folding and large band gap of bulk Si, when the thickness of the silicon layers was increased (but still thin. Our structure might also offer other interesting properties.

  2. Angle-dependent bandgap engineering in gated graphene superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Cervantes, H.; Sotolongo-Costa, O. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Gaggero-Sager, L. M. [CIICAp, IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Naumis, G. G. [Instituto Física, Depto. de Física-Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000, México D.F., México (Mexico); Rodríguez-Vargas, I., E-mail: isaac@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad Esquina Con Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac., México (Mexico)

    2016-03-15

    Graphene Superlattices (GSs) have attracted a lot of attention due to its peculiar properties as well as its possible technological implications. Among these characteristics we can mention: the extra Dirac points in the dispersion relation and the highly anisotropic propagation of the charge carriers. However, despite the intense research that is carried out in GSs, so far there is no report about the angular dependence of the Transmission Gap (TG) in GSs. Here, we report the dependence of TG as a function of the angle of the incident Dirac electrons in a rather simple Electrostatic GS (EGS). Our results show that the angular dependence of the TG is intricate, since for moderated angles the dependence is parabolic, while for large angles an exponential dependence is registered. We also find that the TG can be modulated from meV to eV, by changing the structural parameters of the GS. These characteristics open the possibility for an angle-dependent bandgap engineering in graphene.

  3. Angle-dependent bandgap engineering in gated graphene superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Cervantes, H.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Gaggero-Sager, L. M.; Naumis, G. G.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene Superlattices (GSs) have attracted a lot of attention due to its peculiar properties as well as its possible technological implications. Among these characteristics we can mention: the extra Dirac points in the dispersion relation and the highly anisotropic propagation of the charge carriers. However, despite the intense research that is carried out in GSs, so far there is no report about the angular dependence of the Transmission Gap (TG) in GSs. Here, we report the dependence of TG as a function of the angle of the incident Dirac electrons in a rather simple Electrostatic GS (EGS). Our results show that the angular dependence of the TG is intricate, since for moderated angles the dependence is parabolic, while for large angles an exponential dependence is registered. We also find that the TG can be modulated from meV to eV, by changing the structural parameters of the GS. These characteristics open the possibility for an angle-dependent bandgap engineering in graphene.

  4. Ge/SiGe superlattices for nanostructured thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrastina, D.; Cecchi, S.; Hague, J.P.; Frigerio, J.; Samarelli, A.; Ferre–Llin, L.; Paul, D.J.; Müller, E.; Etzelstorfer, T.; Stangl, J.; Isella, G.

    2013-01-01

    Thermoelectrics are presently used in a number of applications for both turning heat into electricity and also for using electricity to produce cooling. Mature Si/SiGe and Ge/SiGe heteroepitaxial growth technology would allow highly efficient thermoelectric materials to be engineered, which would be compatible and integrable with complementary metal oxide silicon micropower circuits used in autonomous systems. A high thermoelectric figure of merit requires that electrical conductivity be maintained while thermal conductivity is reduced; thermoelectric figures of merit can be improved with respect to bulk thermoelectric materials by fabricating low-dimensional structures which enhance the density of states near the Fermi level and through phonon scattering at heterointerfaces. We have grown and characterized Ge-rich Ge/SiGe/Si superlattices for nanofabricated thermoelectric generators. Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition has been used to obtain nanoscale-heterostructured material which is several microns thick. Crystal quality and strain control have been investigated by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirm the material and interface quality. Electrical conductivity has been characterized by the mobility spectrum technique. - Highlights: ► High-quality Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells for thermoelectric applications ► Mobility spectra of systems featuring a large number of parallel conduction channels ► Competitive thermoelectric properties measured in single devices

  5. Full controlling of Fano resonances in metal-slit superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zi-Lan; Yogesh, Natesan; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Wen-Jie; Dong, Jian-Wen; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Wang, Guo Ping

    2015-12-18

    Controlling of the lineshape of Fano resonance attracts much attention recently due to its wide capabilities for lasing, biosensing, slow-light applications and so on. However, the controllable Fano resonance always requires stringent alignment of complex symmetry-breaking structures and thus the manipulation could only be performed with limited degrees of freedom and narrow tuning range. Furthermore, there is no report so far on independent controlling of both the bright and dark modes in a single structure. Here, we semi-analytically show that the spectral position and linewidth of both the bright and dark modes can be tuned independently and/or simultaneously in a simple and symmetric metal-slit superlattice, and thus allowing for a free and continuous controlling of the lineshape of both the single and multiple Fano resonances. The independent controlling scheme is applicable for an extremely large electromagnetic spectrum range from optical to microwave frequencies, which is demonstrated by the numerical simulations with real metal and a microwave experiment. Our findings may provide convenient and flexible strategies for future tunable electromagnetic devices.

  6. Ferromagnetic resonance in a Ni-Mo superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechan, M.J.; Salamon, M.B.; Schuller, I.K.

    1985-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements, at room temperature and at 4.2 K, have been made on a layered Ni (249 A)-Mo(83 A) superlattice. We have examined the resonance position as a function of the angle between the film normal and the applied field. The measured g value agrees with that of bulk Ni, but the magnetization is lower than that obtained for bulk Ni and also for this sample using both light scattering and direct measurement techniques. This low magnetization contrasts with FMR measurements on compositionally modulated Ni-Cu samples, where the magnetization was reported to be greater than that of bulk Ni. We show that a reduced value of the magnetization is consistent with perpendicular uniaxial anisotropy. When the applied field is less than 20 0 from the surface normal, additional lines appear that move to higher fields than the main resonance. These lines are consistent with the existence of nonuniform regions of distinct magnetization. An observed resonance, which is suggestive of a spin-wave mode, is discussed

  7. A model for temperature dependent resistivity of metallic superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Uba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependent resistivity of metallic superlattices, to first order approximation, is assumed to have same form as bulk metal, ρ(T = ρo + aT, which permits describing these structures as linear atomic chain. The assumption is, substantiated with the derivation of the above expression from the standard magnetoresistance equation, in which the second term, a Bragg scattering factor, is a correction to the usual model involving magnon and phonon scatterings. Fitting the model to Fe/Cr data from literature shows that Bragg scattering is dominant at T < 50 K and magnon and phonon coefficients are independent of experiment conditions, with typical values of 4.7 × 10−4 μΩcmK−2 and −8 ± 0.7 × 10−7μΩcmK−3. From the linear atomic chain model, the dielectric constant ε q , ω = 8 . 33 × 10 − 2 at Debye frequency for all materials and acoustic speed and Thomas – Fermi screening length are pressure dependent with typical values of 1.53 × 104 m/s and 1.80 × 109 m at 0.5 GPa pressure for an Fe/Cr structure.

  8. Thiol passivation of MWIR type II superlattice photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, O.; Muti, A.; Aydinli, A.

    2013-06-01

    Poor passivation on photodetectors can result in catastrophic failure of the device. Abrupt termination of mesa side walls during pixel definition generates dangling bonds that lead to inversion layers and surface traps leading to surface leakage currents that short circuit diode action. Good passivation, therefore, is critical in the fabrication of high performance devices. Silicondioxide has been the main stay of passivation for commercial photodetectors, deposited at high temperatures and high RF powers using plasma deposition techniques. In photodetectors based on III-V compounds, sulphur passivation has been shown to replace oxygen and saturate the dangling bonds. Despite its effectiveness, it degrades over time. More effort is required to create passivation layers which eliminate surface leakage current. In this work, we propose the use of sulphur based octadecanethiol (ODT), CH3(CH2)17SH, as a passivation layer for the InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors that acts as a self assembled monolayer (SAM). ODT SAMs consist of a chain of 18 carbon atoms with a sulphur atom at its head. ODT Thiol coating is a simple process that consist of dipping the sample into the solution for a prescribed time. Excellent electrical performance of diodes tested confirm the effectiveness of the sulphur head stabilized by the intermolecular interaction due to van der Walls forces between the long chains of ODT SAM which results in highly stable ultrathin hydrocarbon layers without long term degradation.

  9. Mid-wavelength infrared unipolar nBp superlattice photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Alireza; Myers, Stephen; Taghipour, Zahra; Mathews, Sen; Schuler-Sandy, Ted; Lee, Seunghyun; Cowan, Vincent M.; Garduno, Eli; Steenbergen, Elizabeth; Morath, Christian; Ariyawansa, Gamini; Scheihing, John; Krishna, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    We report a Mid-Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) barrier photodetector based on the InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) material system. The nBp design consists of a single unipolar barrier (InAs/AlSb SL) placed between a 4 μm thick p-doped absorber (InAs/GaSb SL) and an n-type contact layer (InAs/GaSb SL). At 80 K, the device exhibited a 50% cut-off wavelength of 5 μm, was fully turned-ON at zero bias and the measured QE was 50% (front side illumination with no AR coating) at 4.5 μm with a dark current density of 4.7 × 10-6 A/cm2 at Vb = 50 mV. At 150 K and Vb = 50 mV, the 50% cut-off wavelength increased to 5.3 μm, and the QE was 54% at 4.5 μm with a dark current of 5.0 × 10-4 A/cm2.

  10. Band Gap Modulated by Electronic Superlattice in Blue Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jincheng; Liu, Chen; Gao, Qian; Liu, Yani; Feng, Haifeng; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jiaou; Zhao, Jijun; Dou, Shi Xue; Hu, Zhenpeng; Du, Yi

    2018-05-22

    Exploring stable two-dimensional materials with appropriate band gaps and high carrier mobility is highly desirable due to the potential applications in optoelectronic devices. Here, the electronic structures of phosphorene on a Au(111) substrate are investigated by scanning tunneling spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The substrate-induced phosphorene superstructure gives a superlattice potential, leading to a strong band folding effect of the sp band of Au(111) on the band structure. The band gap could be clearly identified in the ARPES results after examining the folded sp band. The value of the energy gap (∼1.1 eV) and the high charge carrier mobility comparable to that of black phosphorus, which is engineered by the tensile strain, are revealed by the combination of ARPES results and DFT calculations. Furthermore, the phosphorene layer on the Au(111) surface displays high surface inertness, leading to the absence of multilayer phosphorene. All these results suggest that the phosphorene on Au(111) could be a promising candidate, not only for fundamental research but also for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications.

  11. DNA-nanoparticle superlattices formed from anisotropic building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew R.; Macfarlane, Robert J.; Lee, Byeongdu; Zhang, Jian; Young, Kaylie L.; Senesi, Andrew J.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-11-01

    Directional bonding interactions in solid-state atomic lattices dictate the unique symmetries of atomic crystals, resulting in a diverse and complex assortment of three-dimensional structures that exhibit a wide variety of material properties. Methods to create analogous nanoparticle superlattices are beginning to be realized, but the concept of anisotropy is still largely underdeveloped in most particle assembly schemes. Some examples provide interesting methods to take advantage of anisotropic effects, but most are able to make only small clusters or lattices that are limited in crystallinity and especially in lattice parameter programmability. Anisotropic nanoparticles can be used to impart directional bonding interactions on the nanoscale, both through face-selective functionalization of the particle with recognition elements to introduce the concept of valency, and through anisotropic interactions resulting from particle shape. In this work, we examine the concept of inherent shape-directed crystallization in the context of DNA-mediated nanoparticle assembly. Importantly, we show how the anisotropy of these particles can be used to synthesize one-, two- and three-dimensional structures that cannot be made through the assembly of spherical particles.

  12. Lateral structure of (TiSe2)n(NbSe2)m superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, M.; Shin, H.; Jeong, K.; Spear, J.; Johnson, D.C.; Kevan, S.D.; Warwick, T.

    1997-01-01

    The structures of a series of (TiSe 2 ) n (NbSe 2 ) m superlattices grown through controlled crystallization of designed multilayer reactants have been studied. X-ray diffraction of the data of the superlattices after crystallization show considerable preferred orientation, with the basal plane of the dichalcogenide structure parallel to the substrate to within 0.1 degree. Lattice refinement using the observed (00scr(l)) diffraction maxima yields lattice parameters along the c axis that are consistent with those expected based on the target superlattices and lattice parameters of the binary constituents. These (00scr(l)) diffraction data, however, contain no information about the crystalline structure in the ab plane of the superlattice associated with the preferred c-axis orientation. Off-specular x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) were used to explore the structure and homogeneity of the superlattices in the ab plane. XRD results rule out preferred long-range orientational order of the ab plane. Between grains, both the backscattered electron images and STXM images show grain domain structure in the ab plane with a characteristic grain domain size of approximately 50 μm. X-ray absorption microscopy in the STXM mode obtained at the Ti L 2,3 edge shows that the titanium in the superlattices is present as both octahedral Ti consistent with the TiSe 2 structure and metallic Ti. A comparison of the data obtained from these techniques highlights chemical information, which can be deduced on a submicrometer range from the space resolved spectra obtained using STXM. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. Ion beam induces nitridation of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petravic, M.; Williams, J.S.; Conway, M.

    1998-01-01

    High dose ion bombardment of silicon with reactive species, such as oxygen and nitrogen, has attracted considerable interest due to possible applications of beam-induced chemical compounds with silicon. For example, high energy oxygen bombardment of Si is now routinely used to form buried oxide layers for device purposes, the so called SIMOX structures. On the other hand, Si nitrides, formed by low energy ( 100 keV) nitrogen beam bombardment of Si, are attractive as oxidation barriers or gate insulators, primarily due to the low diffusivity of many species in Si nitrides. However, little data exists on silicon nitride formation during bombardment and its angle dependence, in particular for N 2 + bombardment in the 10 keV range, which is of interest for analytical techniques such as SIMS. In SIMS, low energy oxygen ions are more commonly used as bombarding species, as oxygen provides stable ion yields and enhances the positive secondary ion yield. Therefore, a large body of data can be found in the literature on oxide formation during low energy oxygen bombardment. Nitrogen bombardment of Si may cause similar effects to oxygen bombardment, as nitrogen and oxygen have similar masses and ranges in Si, show similar sputtering effects and both have the ability to form chemical compounds with Si. In this work we explore this possibility in some detail. We compare oxide and nitride formation during oxygen and nitrogen ion bombardment of Si under similar conditions. Despite the expected similar behaviour, some large differences in compound formation were found. These differences are explained in terms of different atomic diffusivities in oxides and nitrides, film structural differences and thermodynamic properties. (author)

  14. Metal surface nitriding by laser induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, A. L.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P.; Hermann, J.; Blondiaux, G.

    1996-10-01

    We study a nitriding technique of metals by means of laser induced plasma. The synthesized layers are composed of a nitrogen concentration gradient over several μm depth, and are expected to be useful for tribological applications with no adhesion problem. The nitriding method is tested on the synthesis of titanium nitride which is a well-known compound, obtained at present by many deposition and diffusion techniques. In the method of interest, a laser beam is focused on a titanium target in a nitrogen atmosphere, leading to the creation of a plasma over the metal surface. In order to understand the layer formation, it is necessary to characterize the plasma as well as the surface that it has been in contact with. Progressive nitrogen incorporation in the titanium lattice and TiN synthesis are studied by characterizing samples prepared with increasing laser shot number (100-4000). The role of the laser wavelength is also inspected by comparing layers obtained with two kinds of pulsed lasers: a transversal-excited-atmospheric-pressure-CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) and a XeCl excimer laser (λ=308 nm). Simulations of the target temperature rise under laser irradiation are performed, which evidence differences in the initial laser/material interaction (material heated thickness, heating time duration, etc.) depending on the laser features (wavelength and pulse time duration). Results from plasma characterization also point out that the plasma composition and propagation mode depend on the laser wavelength. Correlation of these results with those obtained from layer analyses shows at first the important role played by the plasma in the nitrogen incorporation. Its presence is necessary and allows N2 dissociation and a better energy coupling with the target. Second, it appears that the nitrogen diffusion governs the nitriding process. The study of the metal nitriding efficiency, depending on the laser used, allows us to explain the differences observed in the layer features

  15. Positron probing of electron momentum density in GaAs-AlAs superlattices and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunov, N.Y.; Sekkal, N.

    2008-08-01

    The band structure calculations based on the method proposed by Jaros et al. (Phys. Rev. B 31, 1205 (1985)) have been performed for the defect-free GaAs-AlAs superlattice and related AlAs and GaAs single crystals; the electron-positron momentum density distributions have been computed and analyzed. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained ad hoc for GaAs and AlAs bulk materials by measuring the angular correlation of the annihilation radiation (ACAR). Small (but marked) features of the electron-positron momentum density of the valence band have been revealed both for constituent materials and GaAs-AlAs superlattice. The delocalization of positron in 'perfect' defect-'free' AlAs and GaAs single crystals to be observed experimentally is borne out by the results of pseudo-potential band calculations performed on the basis of method proposed by Sekkal et al. (Superlattices and Microstructures, 33, 63 (2003)). The prediction of the possibility of a certain confinement of positron in the interstitial area of GaAs- AlAs superlattice is confirmed by the agreement between the results of calculations and relevant experimental data obtained for GaAs and AlAs single crystals. No considerable effect of the enhancement of the annihilation rate (due to electron-positron interaction) upon the electron-positron momentum density distribution both in the superlattice and its constituent bulk materials has been found. The results of ACAR measurements and calculations performed suggest that a tangible improvement of the sensitivity of existing positron annihilation techniques is necessary for studying details of the electron-positron momentum density distributions in defect-'free' superlattices to be created on the basis of the diamond-like semiconductors possessing close values of the electron momentum densities. On the contrary, the positron-sensitive vacancy-type defects of various types in the superlattice may become a source of the

  16. Design of band pass filter in a modulated magnetic graphene superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei-Tao; Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Electronic transport of graphene through a modulated magnetic superlattice where the barrier heights present Gaussian profile is studied. It is found that the incident electron could be completely transmitted in the miniband regions and be completely reflected in the bandgap regions. The results suggest an application of the structure as an effectively band pass filter, which can be controlled by the structural parameters. It is concluded that the positions of miniband and bandgap are robust to the Gaussian variation of barrier heights. The effect of this modulated magnetic superlattice is also available for the conventional electrons described by Schrödinger equation

  17. Energy band and transport properties in magnetic aperiodic graphene superlattices of Thue-Morse sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yiheng; Niu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Huiyun; Zhang, Yuping; Liu, Haiyue

    2016-02-01

    Utilizing the transfer matrix method, we develop the electronic band structure and transport properties in Thue-Morse aperiodic graphene superlattices with magnetic barriers. It is found that the normal transmission is blocked and the position of the Dirac point can be shifted along the wavevector axis by changing the height and width ratio of magnetic barriers, which is intrinsic different from electronic field modulated superlattices. In addition, the angular threshold property of the transmission spectra and the oscillatory property of the conductance have been studied.

  18. Critical properties of a ferroelectric superlattice described by a transverse spin-1/2 Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabyaoui, A; Saber, M; Baerner, K; Ainane, A

    2007-01-01

    The phase transition properties of a ferroelectric superlattice with two alternating layers A and B described by a transverse spin-1/2 Ising model have been investigated using the effective field theory within a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self spin correlation functions. The Curie temperature T c , polarization and susceptibility have been obtained. The effects of the transverse field and the ferroelectric and antiferroelectric interfacial coupling strength between two ferroelectric materials are discussed. They relate to the physical properties of antiferroelectric/ferroelectric superlattices

  19. InGaAs/InAlAs superlattice detector for THz radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Schomburg, E; Kratschmer, M; Vollnhals, A; Scheuerer, R; Renk, K F; Ustinov, V; Zhukov, A; Kovsh, A

    2002-01-01

    We report the use of an InGaAs/InAlAs superlattice for detection of THz radiation pulses generated by a free-electron-laser (FELIX). The detector showed a response corresponding to a reduction of the direct current through the superlattice. The current reduction is attributed to the THz-field induced modulation of Bloch oscillations performed by miniband electrons. The detector response was measured in a frequency range between 4 and 12 THz and showed strong minima at the frequencies of infrared active transverse optic phonons. (10 refs).

  20. The Luttinger liquid in superlattice structures: atomic gases, quantum dots and the classical Ising chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacherjee, Aranya B; Jha, Pradip; Kumar, Tarun; Mohan, Man

    2011-01-01

    We study the physical properties of a Luttinger liquid in a superlattice that is characterized by alternating two tunneling parameters. Using the bosonization approach, we describe the corresponding Hubbard model by the equivalent Tomonaga-Luttinger model. We analyze the spin-charge separation and transport properties of the superlattice system. We suggest that cold Fermi gases trapped in a bichromatic optical lattice and coupled quantum dots offer the opportunity to measure these effects in a convenient manner. We also study the classical Ising chain with two tunneling parameters. We find that the classical two-point correlator decreases as the difference between the two tunneling parameters increases.

  1. Effect of retardation on the reflectance properties of the metallic Fibonacci quasi-superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiguo; Yao Hesheng; Xu Xiang

    1989-12-01

    Based on the hydrodynamic model theory and the transfer matrix method, we have re-examined the reflection properties by taking account of the retardation effect to the system of the metallic Fibonacci quasi-superlattice. For the normal incident S-polarized Soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet, we find that the self-similar reflecting spectrum will be restrained with the increasing of the retardation, but for the higher frequency region or at the smaller grazing angle, the self similarity will still exist for the lower generation quasi-superlattice. (author). 19 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  2. Formation of uniform magnetic structures and epitaxial hydride phases in Nd/Pr superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goff, J.P.; Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; McMorrow, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    , and that the stacking sequence is coherent over many bilayer repeats. The neutron measurements show that for the hexagonal sites of the dhcp structure, the Nd magnetic order propagates coherently through the Pr, whereas the order on the cubic sites is either suppressed or confined to single Nd blocks. It is also shown...... that the singlet ground state of Pr is perturbed to produce a local moment on the hexagonal sites, so that in some cases there is a uniform magnetic structure throughout the superlattice. These results cast new light on the theory of magnetic interactions in rare-earth superlattices. Within a few months of growth...

  3. Propagation and generation of Josephson radiation in superconductor/insulator superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvil, P.R.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The wave propagation and generation characteristics of a metal-insulator superlattice are calculated in a low-field Landau--Ginzburg model, including Josephson coupling through the insulating layers. It is shown that a significant increase in the phase velocity of the electromagnetic waves propagating in the superlattice occurs when the thickness of the superconducting layers becomes much less than the London penetration depth, suggesting that increased output of Josephson radiation may be achieved from such structures. Wave generation via the ac Josephson effect (in the presence of applied dc electric and magnetic fields) is studied for both parallel and series driven multilayer structures

  4. Investigation of InAs/GaSb-based superlattices by diffraction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashuach, Y.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lakin, E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Zolotoyabko, E., E-mail: zloto@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Grossman, S.; Klin, O.; Weiss, E. [SCD, SemiConductor Devices, P. O. Box 2250, Haifa 31021 (Israel)

    2010-02-15

    We use high-resolution X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy in order to study the strain state, atomic intermixing and layer thicknesses in the MBE-grown GaSb/InSb/InAs/InSb superlattices. Simple and fast metrology procedure is developed, which allows us to obtain the most important technological parameters, such as the thicknesses of the GaSb, InAs and ultra-thin InSb sub-layers, the superlattice period and the fraction of atomic substitutions in the InSb sub-layers.

  5. THz laser based on quasi-periodic AlGaAs superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, K V [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-30

    The use of quasi-periodic AlGaAs superlattices as an active element of a quantum cascade laser of terahertz range is proposed and theoretically investigated. A multi-colour emission, having from three to six peaks of optical gain, is found in Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and figurate superlattices in electric fields of intensity F = 11 - 13 kV cm{sup -1} in the frequency range f = 2 - 4 THz. The peaks depend linearly on the electric field, retain the height of 20 cm{sup -1}, and strongly depend on the thickness of the AlGaAs-layers. (lasers)

  6. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej

    2015-01-15

    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  7. Separation of zirconium--hafnium by nitride precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.N.; Parlee, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the separation of a light reactive metal (e.g., zirconium) from a heavy reactive metal (e.g., hafnium) by forming insoluble nitrides of the metals in a molten metal solvent (e.g., copper) inert to nitrogen and having a suitable density for the light metal nitride to form a separate phase in the upper portion of the solvent and for the heavy metal nitride to form a separate phase in the lower portion of the solvent. Nitriding is performed by maintaining a nitrogen-containing atmosphere over the bath. The light and heavy metals may be an oxide mixture and carbothermically reduced to metal form in the same bath used for nitriding. The nitrides are then separately removed and decomposed to form the desired separate metals. 16 claims, 1 figure

  8. An assessment of the thermodynamic properties of uranium nitride, plutonium nitride and uranium-plutonium mixed nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, T.; Ohse, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties such as vapour pressures, heat capacities and enthalpies of formation for UN(s), PuN(s) and (U, Pu)N(s) are critically evaluated. The equations of the vapour pressures and the heat capacities for the three nitrides are assessed. Thermal functions, and thermodynamic functions for the formation of UN(s), PuN(s) and (U, Pu)N(s), are calculated

  9. The oxidation of titanium nitride- and silicon nitride-coated stainless steel in carbon dioxide environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.R.G.; Stott, F.H.

    1992-01-01

    A study has been undertaken into the effects of thin titanium nitride and silicon nitride coatings, deposited by physical vapour deposition and chemical vapour deposition processes, on the oxidation resistance of 321 stainless steel in a simulated advanced gas-cooled reactor carbon dioxide environment for long periods at 550 o C and 700 o C under thermal-cycling conditions. The uncoated steel contains sufficient chromium to develop a slow-growing chromium-rich oxide layer at these temperatures, particularly if the surfaces have been machine-abraded. Failure of this layer in service allows formation of less protective iron oxide-rich scales. The presence of a thin (3-4 μm) titanium nitride coating is not very effective in increasing the oxidation resistance since the ensuing titanium oxide scale is not a good barrier to diffusion. Even at 550 o C, iron oxide-rich nodules are able to develop following relatively rapid oxidation and breakdown of the coating. At 700 o C, the coated specimens oxidize at relatively similar rates to the uncoated steel. A thin silicon nitride coating gives improved oxidation resistance, with both the coating and its slow-growing oxide being relatively electrically insulating. The particular silicon nitride coating studied here was susceptible to spallation on thermal cycling, due to an inherently weak coating/substrate interface. (Author)

  10. Preparation and study of the nitrides and mixed carbide-nitrides of uranium and of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselin, F.

    1966-06-01

    A detailed description is given of a simple method for preparing uranium and plutonium nitrides by the direct action of nitrogen under pressure at moderate temperatures (about 400 C) on the partially hydrogenated bulk metal. It is shown that there is complete miscibility between the UN and PuN phases. The variations in the reticular parameters of the samples as a function of temperature and in the presence of oxide have been used to detect and evaluate the solubility of oxygen in the different phases. A study has been made of the sintering of these nitrides as a function of the preparation conditions with or without sintering additives. A favorable but non-reproducible, effect has been found for traces of oxide. The best results were obtained for pure UN at 1600 C (96 per cent theoretical density) on condition that a well defined powder, was used. The criterion used is the integral width of the X-ray diffraction lines. The compounds UN and PuN are completely miscible with the corresponding carbides. This makes it possible to prepare carbide-nitrides of the general formula (U,Pu) (C,N) by solid-phase diffusion, at around 1400 C. The sintering of these carbide-nitrides is similar to that of the carbides if the nitrogen content is low; in particular, nickel is an efficient sintering agent. For high contents, the sintering is similar to that of pure nitrides. (author) [fr

  11. Unconventional superconductivity in magic-angle graphene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Fatemi, Valla; Fang, Shiang; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2018-04-01

    The behaviour of strongly correlated materials, and in particular unconventional superconductors, has been studied extensively for decades, but is still not well understood. This lack of theoretical understanding has motivated the development of experimental techniques for studying such behaviour, such as using ultracold atom lattices to simulate quantum materials. Here we report the realization of intrinsic unconventional superconductivity—which cannot be explained by weak electron–phonon interactions—in a two-dimensional superlattice created by stacking two sheets of graphene that are twisted relative to each other by a small angle. For twist angles of about 1.1°—the first ‘magic’ angle—the electronic band structure of this ‘twisted bilayer graphene’ exhibits flat bands near zero Fermi energy, resulting in correlated insulating states at half-filling. Upon electrostatic doping of the material away from these correlated insulating states, we observe tunable zero-resistance states with a critical temperature of up to 1.7 kelvin. The temperature–carrier-density phase diagram of twisted bilayer graphene is similar to that of copper oxides (or cuprates), and includes dome-shaped regions that correspond to superconductivity. Moreover, quantum oscillations in the longitudinal resistance of the material indicate the presence of small Fermi surfaces near the correlated insulating states, in analogy with underdoped cuprates. The relatively high superconducting critical temperature of twisted bilayer graphene, given such a small Fermi surface (which corresponds to a carrier density of about 1011 per square centimetre), puts it among the superconductors with the strongest pairing strength between electrons. Twisted bilayer graphene is a precisely tunable, purely carbon-based, two-dimensional superconductor. It is therefore an ideal material for investigations of strongly correlated phenomena, which could lead to insights into the physics of high

  12. Intragranular Chromium Nitride Precipitates in Duplex and Superduplex Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Torunn Hjulstad

    2012-01-01

    Intragranular chromium nitrides is a phenomenon with detrimental effects on material properties in superduplex stainless steels which have not received much attention. Precipitation of nitrides occurs when the ferritic phase becomes supersaturated with nitrogen and there is insufficient time during cooling for diffusion of nitrogen into austenite. Heat treatment was carried out at between 1060◦C and 1160◦C to study the materials susceptibility to nitride precipitation with...

  13. Corrosion stability of cermets on the base of titanium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajdash, O.N.; Marinich, M.A.; Kuzenkova, M.A.; Manzheleev, I.V.

    1991-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of titanium nitride and its cermets in 5% of HCl, 7% of HNO 3 , 10% of H 2 SO 4 is studied. It is established that alloys TiN-Ni-Mo alloyed with chromium (from 10 to 15%) possess the highest corrosion resistance. Cermet TiN-Cr has the higher stability than titanium nitride due to formation of binary nitride (Ti, Cr)N

  14. Transport properties of YBa2Cu3O7/PrBa2Cu3O7 superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, G.; Hahn, T.; Stoelzel, C.; Tome-Rosa, C.; Adrian, H.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the transport properties of high-quality YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 /PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 superlattices. The exceptional structural order of the superlattices resulted in satellite peaks up to the ninth order in X-ray diffraction diagrams and high Tc values. We find high superconducting critical transport current densities j c even for ultrafine modulated superlattices which proves the existence of nearly continuous YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 layers. The activation energy U is found to be constant or to have a linear temperatures dependence over a wide temperature range. (orig.)

  15. Synthesis of Uranium nitride powders using metal uranium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Joo; Oh, Jang Soo; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Keon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Uranium nitride (UN) is a potential fuel material for advanced nuclear reactors because of their high fuel density, high thermal conductivity, high melting temperature, and considerable breeding capability in LWRs. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. The carbothermic reduction has an advantage in the production of fine powders. However it has many drawbacks such as an inevitable engagement of impurities, process burden, and difficulties in reusing of expensive N 15 gas. Manufacturing concerns issued in the carbothermic reduction process can be solved by changing the starting materials from oxide powder to metals. However, in nitriding process of metal, it is difficult to obtain fine nitride powders because metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate uranium nitride powders directly from uranium metal powders. We fabricated uranium metal spherical powder and flake using a centrifugal atomization method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating those metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. We investigated the phase and morphology evolutions of powders during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also a part of the present work

  16. Review of actinide nitride properties with focus on safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiol, Thierry [CEA Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report provides a review of the potential advantages of using actinide nitrides as fuels and/or targets for nuclear waste transmutation. Then a summary of available properties of actinide nitrides is given. Results from irradiation experiments are reviewed and safety relevant aspects of nitride fuels are discussed, including design basis accidents (transients) and severe (core disruptive) accidents. Anyway, as rather few safety studies are currently available and as many basic physical data are still missing for some actinide nitrides, complementary studies are proposed. (author)

  17. Research and development of nitride fuel cycle technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Arai, Yasuo; Akabori, Mitsuo; Tamaki, Yoshihisa; Itoh, Kunihiro

    2004-01-01

    The research on the nitride fuel was started for an advanced fuel, (U, Pn)N, for fast reactors, and the research activities have been expanded to minor actinide bearing nitride fuels. The fuel fabrication, property measurements, irradiation tests and pyrochemical process experiments have been made. In 2002 a five-year-program named PROMINENT was started for the development of nitride fuel cycle technology within the framework of the Development of Innovative Nuclear Technologies by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. In the research program PROMINENT, property measurements, pyrochemical process and irradiation experiments needed for nitride fuel cycle technology are being made. (author)

  18. Development of pseudocapacitive molybdenum oxide–nitride for electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yen-Jui Bernie [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Wu, Haoran [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Kherani, Nazir P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Lian, Keryn, E-mail: keryn.lian@utoronto.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    A thin film Mo oxide–nitride pseudocapacitive electrode was synthesized by electrodeposition of Mo oxide on Ti and a subsequent low-temperature (400 °C) thermal nitridation. Two nitridation environments, N{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, were used and the results were compared. Surface analyses of these nitrided films showed partial conversion of Mo oxide to nitrides, with a lower conversion percentage being the film produced in N{sub 2}. However, the electrochemical analyses showed that the surface of the N{sub 2}-treated film had better pseudocapacitive behaviors and outperformed that nitrided in NH{sub 3}. Cycle life of the resultant N{sub 2}-treated Mo oxide–nitride was also much improved over Mo oxide. A two-electrode cell using Mo oxide–nitride electrodes was demonstrated and showed high rate performance. - Highlights: • Mo(O,N){sub x} was developed by electrodeposition and nitridation in N{sub 2} or NH{sub 3}. • N{sub 2} treated Mo(O,N){sub x} showed a capacitive performance superior to that treated by NH{sub 3}. • The promising electrochemical performance was due to the formation of γ-Mo{sub 2}N.

  19. Modeling the Gas Nitriding Process of Low Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M.; Zimmerman, C.; Donahue, D.; Sisson, R. D.

    2013-07-01

    The effort to simulate the nitriding process has been ongoing for the last 20 years. Most of the work has been done to simulate the nitriding process of pure iron. In the present work a series of experiments have been done to understand the effects of the nitriding process parameters such as the nitriding potential, temperature, and time as well as surface condition on the gas nitriding process for the steels. The compound layer growth model has been developed to simulate the nitriding process of AISI 4140 steel. In this paper the fundamentals of the model are presented and discussed including the kinetics of compound layer growth and the determination of the nitrogen diffusivity in the diffusion zone. The excellent agreements have been achieved for both as-washed and pre-oxided nitrided AISI 4140 between the experimental data and simulation results. The nitrogen diffusivity in the diffusion zone is determined to be constant and only depends on the nitriding temperature, which is ~5 × 10-9 cm2/s at 548 °C. It proves the concept of utilizing the compound layer growth model in other steels. The nitriding process of various steels can thus be modeled and predicted in the future.

  20. Experimental investigations of superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional epitaxial copper oxide superlattices and trilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowndes, D.H.; Norton, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Epitaxial trilayer and superlattice structures grown by pulsed laser ablation have been used to study the superconducting-to-normal transition of ultrathin (one and two c-axis unit cells) YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x layers. The normalized flux-flow resistances for several epitaxial structures containing two-cell-thick YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x films collapse onto the ''universal'' curve of the Ginzburg-Landau Coulomb Gas (GLCG) model. Analysis of normalized resistance data for a series of superlattices containing one-cell-thick YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x layers also is consistent with the behavior expected for quasi-two-dimensional layers in a highly anisotropic, layered three-dimensional superconductor. Current-voltage measurements for one of the trilayer structures also are consistent with the normalized resistance data, and with the GLCG model. Scanning tunneling microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electrical transport studies show that growth-related steps in ultrathin YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x layers affect electrical continuity over macroscopic distances, acting as weak links. However , the perturbation of the superconducting order parameter can be minimized by utilizing hole-doped buffer and cap layers, on both sides of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x layer, in trilayers and superlattices. These results demonstrate the usefulness of epitaxial trilayer and superlattice structures as tools for systematic, fundamental studies of high-temperature superconductivity

  1. Characterization of band structure for transverse acoustic phonons in Fibonacci superlattices by a bandedge formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsueh, W J; Chen, R F; Tang, K Y

    2008-01-01

    We present a divergence-free method to determine the characteristics of band structures and projected band structures of transverse acoustic phonons in Fibonacci superlattices. A set of bandedge equations is formulated to solve the band structures for the phonon instead of using the traditional dispersion relation. Numerical calculations show band structures calculated by the present method for the Fibonacci superlattice without numerical instability, which may occur in traditional methods. Based on the present formalism, the band structure for the acoustic phonons has been characterized by closure points and the projected bandgaps of the forbidden bands. The projected bandgaps are determined by the projected band structure, which is characterized by the cross points of the projected bandedges. We observed that the band structure and projected band structure and their characteristics were quite different for different generation orders and the basic layers for the Fibonacci superlattice. In this study, concise rules to determine these characteristics of the band structure and the projected band structure, including the number and the location of closure points of forbidden bands and those of projected bandgaps, in Fibonacci superlattices with arbitrary generation order and basic layers are proposed.

  2. Formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattice in UMo metal fuels: Phase-field modeling investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang, E-mail: shenyang.hu@pnnl.gov; Burkes, Douglas E.; Lavender, Curt A.; Senor, David J.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Xu, Zhijie

    2016-10-15

    Nano-gas bubble superlattices are often observed in irradiated UMo nuclear fuels. However, the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices is not well understood. A number of physical processes may affect the gas bubble nucleation and growth; hence, the morphology of gas bubble microstructures including size and spatial distributions. In this work, a phase-field model integrating a first-passage Monte Carlo method to investigate the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices was developed. Six physical processes are taken into account in the model: 1) heterogeneous generation of gas atoms, vacancies, and interstitials informed from atomistic simulations; 2) one-dimensional (1-D) migration of interstitials; 3) irradiation-induced dissolution of gas atoms; 4) recombination between vacancies and interstitials; 5) elastic interaction; and 6) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles. We found that the elastic interaction doesn’t cause the gas bubble alignment, and fast 1-D migration of interstitials along 〈110〉 directions in the body-centered cubic U matrix causes the gas bubble alignment along 〈110〉 directions. It implies that 1-D interstitial migration along [110] direction should be the primary mechanism of a fcc gas bubble superlattice which is observed in bcc UMo alloys. Simulations also show that fission rates, saturated gas concentration, and elastic interaction all affect the morphology of gas bubble microstructures.

  3. Passivation of MBE grown InGaSb/InAs superlattice photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam S.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed wet chemical passivation tests on InGaSb/InAs superlattice photodiode structures grown molecular beam epitaxy. The details of the devices growth and characterization as well as the results of chemical passivation involving RuCl3 and H2SO4 with SiO2 dielectric depositions are presented.

  4. Theory of coherent time-dependent transport in one-dimensional multiband semiconductor super-lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotvig, J.; Smith, H.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1996-01-01

    We present an analytical study of one-dimensional semiconductor superlattices in external electric fields, which may be time dependent. A number of general results for the (quasi)energies and eigenstates are derived. An equation of motion for the density matrix is obtained for a two-band model...

  5. Illumination-induced changes of the Fermi surface topology in three-dimensional superlattices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goncharuk, Natalya; Smrčka, Ludvík; Svoboda, Pavel; Vašek, Petr; Kučera, Jan; Krupko, Yu.; Wegscheider, W.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 24 (2007), 245322/1-245322/7 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KAN400100652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : persistent photoconductivity * superlattice * Fermi surface Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2007

  6. Coherent dynamics of interwell excitons in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizeikis, V.; Birkedal, Dan; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    1997-01-01

    Coherent exciton dynamics in a GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs narrow-miniband superlattice is studied by spectrally resolved transient four-wave mixing. Coherent optical properties of the investigated structure are found to be strongly affected by the existence of two different heavy-hole excitonic states. One...

  7. Revisiting the Local Structure in Ge-Sb-Te based Chalcogenide Superlattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casarin, Barbara; Caretta, Antonio; Momand, Jamo; Kooi, Bart J.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Bragaglia, Valeria; Calarco, Raffaella; Chukalina, Marina; Yu, Xiaoming; Robertson, John; Lange, Felix R. L.; Wuttig, Matthias; Redaelli, Andrea; Varesi, Enrico; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Malvestuto, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The technological success of phase-change materials in the field of data storage and functional systems stems from their distinctive electronic and structural peculiarities on the nanoscale. Recently, superlattice structures have been demonstrated to dramatically improve the optical and electrical

  8. Revisiting the local structure in Ge-Sb-Te based chalcogenide superlattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casarin, B.; Caretta, A.; Momand, J.; Kooi, B. J.; Verheijen, M.A.; Bragaglia, V.; Calarco, R.; Chukalina, M.; Yu, X.; Robertson, J.; Lange, F.R.L.; Wuttig, M.; Redaelli, A.; Varesi, E.; Parmigiani, F.; Malvestuto, M.

    2016-01-01

    The technological success of phase-change materials in the field of data storage and functional systems stems from their distinctive electronic and structural peculiarities on the nanoscale. Recently, superlattice structures have been demonstrated to dramatically improve the optical and electrical

  9. Rectification of terahertz radiation in semiconductor superlattices in the absence of domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isohätälä, J; Alekseev, K N

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the dynamical rectification of a terahertz AC electric field, i.e. the DC current and voltage response to the incident radiation, in strongly coupled semiconductor superlattices. We address the problem of stability against electric field domains: a spontaneous DC voltage is known to appear exactly for parameters for which a spatially homogeneous electron distribution is unstable. We show that by applying a weak direct current bias the rectifier can be switched from a state with zero DC voltage to one with a finite voltage in full absence of domains. The switching occurs near the conditions of dynamical symmetry breaking of an unbiased semiconductor superlattice. Therefore our scheme allows for the generation of DC voltages that would otherwise be unreachable due to domain instabilities. Furthermore, for realistic, highly doped wide miniband superlattices at room temperature, the generated DC field can be nearly quantized, that is, be approximately proportional to an integer multiple of ħω/ea where a is the superlattice period and ω is the AC field frequency. (paper)

  10. Band Structure and Quantum Confined Stark Effect in InN/GaN superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2012-01-01

    InN/GaN superlattices offer an important way of band gap engineering in the blue-green range of the spectrum. This approach represents a more controlled method than the band gap tuning in quantum well systems by application of InGaN alloys. The electronic structures of short-period wurtzite InN/G...... wells and barriers one may tune band gaps over a wide spectral range, which provides flexibility in band gap engineering.......InN/GaN superlattices offer an important way of band gap engineering in the blue-green range of the spectrum. This approach represents a more controlled method than the band gap tuning in quantum well systems by application of InGaN alloys. The electronic structures of short-period wurtzite In......N/GaN(0001) superlattices are investigated, and the variation of the band gap with the thicknesses of the well and the barrier is discussed. Superlattices of the form mInN/nGaN with n ≥ m are simulated using band structure calculations in the Local Density Approximation with a semiempirical correction...

  11. Simple theoretical analysis of the photoemission from quantum confined effective mass superlattices of optoelectronic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis De

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The photoemission from quantum wires and dots of effective mass superlattices of optoelectronic materials was investigated on the basis of newly formulated electron energy spectra, in the presence of external light waves, which controls the transport properties of ultra-small electronic devices under intense radiation. The effect of magnetic quantization on the photoemission from the aforementioned superlattices, together with quantum well superlattices under magnetic quantization, has also been investigated in this regard. It appears, taking HgTe/Hg1−xCdxTe and InxGa1−xAs/InP effective mass superlattices, that the photoemission from these quantized structures is enhanced with increasing photon energy in quantized steps and shows oscillatory dependences with the increasing carrier concentration. In addition, the photoemission decreases with increasing light intensity and wavelength as well as with increasing thickness exhibiting oscillatory spikes. The strong dependence of the photoemission on the light intensity reflects the direct signature of light waves on the carrier energy spectra. The content of this paper finds six different applications in the fields of low dimensional systems in general.

  12. Chemically Triggered Formation of Two-Dimensional Epitaxial Quantum Dot Superlattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walravens, Willem; De Roo, Jonathan; Drijvers, Emile; Ten Brinck, Stephanie; Solano, Eduardo; Dendooven, Jolien; Detavernier, Christophe; Infante, Ivan; Hens, Zeger

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional superlattices of epitaxially connected quantum dots enable size-quantization effects to be combined with high charge carrier mobilities, an essential prerequisite for highly performing QD devices based on charge transport. Here, we demonstrate that surface active additives known to

  13. A weakly coupled semiconductor superlattice as a harmonic hypersonic-electrical transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyser, C L; Akimov, A V; Campion, R P; Kent, A J; Balanov, A G

    2015-01-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically the effects of high-frequency strain pulse trains on the charge transport in a weakly coupled semiconductor superlattice. In a frequency range of the order of 100 GHz such excitation may be considered as single harmonic hypersonic excitation. While travelling along the axis of the SL, the hypersonic acoustic wavepacket affects the electron tunnelling, and thus governs the electrical current through the device. We reveal how the change of current depends on the parameters of the hypersonic excitation and on the bias applied to the superlattice. We have found that the changes in the transport properties of the superlattices caused by the acoustic excitation can be largely explained using the current–voltage relation of the unperturbed system. Our experimental measurements show multiple peaks in the dependence of the transferred charge on the repetition rate of the strain pulses in the train. We demonstrate that these resonances can be understood in terms of the spectrum of the applied acoustic perturbation after taking into account the multiple reflections in the metal film serving as a generator of hypersonic excitation. Our findings suggest an application of the semiconductor superlattice as a hypersonic-electrical transducer, which can be used in various microwave devices. (paper)

  14. Propagation of Nd magnetic phases in Nd/Sm(001) superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano, S; Dufour, C; Dumesnil, K; Stunault, A

    2006-01-01

    The propagation of Nd long range magnetic order in the hexagonal and cubic sublattices has been investigated in double hexagonal compact Nd/Sm(001) superlattices by resonant x-ray magnetic scattering at the Nd L 2 absorption edge. For a superlattice with 3.7 nm thick Sm layers, the magnetic structure of the hexagonal sublattice propagates coherently through several bilayers, whereas the order in the cubic sublattice remains confined to single Nd blocks. For a superlattice with 1.4 nm thick Sm layers, the magnetic structures of both sublattices appear to propagate coherently through the superlattice. This is the first observation (i) of the long range coherent propagation of Nd order on the cubic sites between Nd blocks and (ii) of a different thickness dependence of the propagation of the Nd magnetic phases associated with the hexagonal and cubic sublattices. The propagation of the Nd magnetic order through Sm is interpreted in terms of generalized susceptibility of the Nd conduction electrons

  15. MSM optical detector on the basis of II-type ZnSe/ZnTe superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetzov, P. I., E-mail: pik218@ire216.msk.su; Averin, S. V., E-mail: sva278@ire216.msk.su; Zhitov, V. A.; Zakharov, L. Yu.; Kotov, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    On the basis of a type-II ZnSe/ZnTe superlattice, a MSM (metal—semiconductor–metal) photodetector is fabricated and investigated. The detector features low dark currents and a high sensitivity. The spectral characteristic of the detector provides the possibility of the selective detection of three separate spectral portions of visible and near-infrared radiation.

  16. Exploration of molecular interactions in cholesterol superlattices: effect of multibody interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juyang

    2002-08-01

    Experimental evidences have indicated that cholesterol may adapt highly regular lateral distributions (i.e., superlattices) in a phospholipid bilayer. We investigated the formations of superlattices at cholesterol mole fraction of 0.154, 0.25, 0.40, and 0.5 using Monte Carlo simulation. We found that in general, conventional pairwise-additive interactions cannot produce superlattices. Instead, a multibody (nonpairwise) interaction is required. Cholesterol superlattice formation reveals that although the overall interaction between cholesterol and phospholipids is favorable, it contains two large opposing components: an interaction favoring cholesterol-phospholipid mixing and an unfavorable acyl chain multibody interaction that increases nonlinearly with the number of cholesterol contacts. The magnitudes of interactions are in the order of kT. The physical origins of these interactions can be explained by our umbrella model. They most likely come from the requirement for polar phospholipid headgroups to cover the nonpolar cholesterol to avoid the exposure of cholesterol to water and from the sharp decreasing of acyl chain conformation entropy due to cholesterol contact. This study together with our previous work demonstrate that the driving force of cholesterol-phospholipid mixing is a hydrophobic interaction, and multibody interactions dominate others over a wide range of cholesterol concentration.

  17. Charge superlattice effects on the electronic structure of a model acceptor graphite intercalation compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campagnoli, G.; Tosatti, E.

    1981-08-01

    In the present attempt we have considered a model ordered situation (a super-superlattice) where starting from a basic stoichiometry C 8 X, a fraction 1/3 of the molecules acquire one electron, the remaining 2/3 being left neutral. We have performed an electronic structure calculation using tight-binding plus electrostatic (Hartree) self-consistency

  18. Atomic-layer deposition of silicon nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, S; Ooba, K

    1999-01-01

    Atomic-layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride has been investigated by means of plasma ALD in which a NH sub 3 plasma is used, catalytic ALD in which NH sub 3 is dissociated by thermal catalytic reaction on a W filament, and temperature-controlled ALD in which only a thermal reaction on the substrate is employed. The NH sub 3 and the silicon source gases (SiH sub 2 Cl sub 2 or SiCl sub 4) were alternately supplied. For all these methods, the film thickness per cycle was saturated at a certain value for a wide range of deposition conditions. In the catalytic ALD, the selective deposition of silicon nitride on hydrogen-terminated Si was achieved, but, it was limited to only a thin (2SiO (evaporative).

  19. Boron nitride encapsulated graphene infrared emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Zossimova, E.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Lawton, L. M.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from devices containing a large area multilayer graphene layer, encapsulated using hexagonal boron nitride, have been investigated. The devices were run continuously in air for over 1000 h, with the emission spectrum covering the absorption bands of many important gases. An approximate solution to the heat equation was used to simulate the measured emission profile across the devices yielding an estimated value of the characteristic length, which defines the exponential rise/fall of the temperature profile across the device, of 40 μm. This is much larger than values obtained in smaller exfoliated graphene devices and reflects the device geometry, and the increase in lateral heat conduction within the devices due to the multilayer graphene and boron nitride layers.

  20. Boron nitride encapsulated graphene infrared emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, H. R.; Zossimova, E.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Lawton, L. M.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R., E-mail: g.r.nash@exeter.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-28

    The spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from devices containing a large area multilayer graphene layer, encapsulated using hexagonal boron nitride, have been investigated. The devices were run continuously in air for over 1000 h, with the emission spectrum covering the absorption bands of many important gases. An approximate solution to the heat equation was used to simulate the measured emission profile across the devices yielding an estimated value of the characteristic length, which defines the exponential rise/fall of the temperature profile across the device, of 40 μm. This is much larger than values obtained in smaller exfoliated graphene devices and reflects the device geometry, and the increase in lateral heat conduction within the devices due to the multilayer graphene and boron nitride layers.

  1. Nitridation of vanadium by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Masato; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Kinomura, Atsushi; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1994-01-01

    The nitridation of vanadium by ion beam irradiation is studied by the ion implantation method and the dynamic mixing method. The nitrogen ion implantation was carried out into deposited V(110) films. Using both methods, three phases are formed, i.e. α-V, β-V 2 N, and δ-VN. Which phases are formed is related to the implantation dose or the arrival ratio. The orientation of the VN films produced by the dynamic ion beam mixing method is (100) and that of the VN films produced by the ion implantation method is (111). The nitridation of vanadium is also discussed in comparison with that of titanium and chromium. ((orig.))

  2. Gallium Nitride Crystals: Novel Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouzhi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Changlong; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Lv, Jiaxin; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2016-05-01

    A type of single-crystal gallium nitride mesoporous membrane is fabricated and its supercapacitor properties are demonstrated for the first time. The supercapacitors exhibit high-rate capability, stable cycling life at high rates, and ultrahigh power density. This study may expand the range of crystals as high-performance electrode materials in the field of energy storage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Silicon Nitride Antireflection Coatings for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.; Wydeven, T.; Donohoe, K.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical-vapor deposition adapted to yield graded index of refraction. Silicon nitride deposited in layers, refractive index of which decreases with distance away from cell/coating interface. Changing index of refraction allows adjustment of spectral transmittance for wavelengths which cell is most effective at converting light to electric current. Average conversion efficiency of solar cells increased from 8.84 percent to 12.63 percent.

  4. Nanopillar arrays of amorphous carbon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Krishna, Katla; Pavan Kumar, B. V. V. S.; Eswaramoorthy, Muthusamy

    2011-07-01

    Nanopillar arrays of amorphous carbon nitride have been prepared using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as a template. The amine groups present on the surface of these nanopillars were exploited for functionalization with oleic acid in order to stabilize the nanostructure at the aqueous-organic interface and also for the immobilization of metal nanoparticles and protein. These immobilised nanoparticles were found to have good catalytic activity.

  5. Bonding silicon nitride using glass-ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobedoe, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon nitride has been successfully bonded to itself using magnesium-aluminosilicate glass and glass-ceramic. For some samples, bonding was achieved using a diffusion bonder, but in other instances, following an initial degassing hold, higher temperatures were used in a nitrogen atmosphere with no applied load. For diffusion bonding, a small applied pressure at a temperature below which crystallisation occurs resulted in intimate contact. At slightly higher temperatures, the extent of the reaction at the interface and the microstructure of the glass-ceramic joint was highly sensitive to the bonding temperature. Bonding in a nitrogen atmosphere resulted in a solution-reprecipitation reaction. A thin layer of glass produced a ''dry'', glass-free joint, whilst a thicker layer resulted in a continuous glassy join across the interface. The chromium silicide impurities within the silicon nitride react with the nucleating agent in the glass ceramic, which may lead to difficulty in producing a fine glass-ceramic microstructure. Slightly lower temperatures in nitrogen resulted in a polycrystalline join but the interfacial contact was poor. It is hoped that one of the bonds produced may be developed to eventually form part of a graded joint between silicon nitride and a high temperature nickel alloy. (orig.)

  6. Ion-nitriding of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, O.; Hertz, D.; Lebrun, J.P.; Michel, H.

    1995-01-01

    Although ion-nitriding is an extensively industrialized process enabling steel surfaces to be hardened by nitrogen diffusion, with a resulting increase in wear, seizure and fatigue resistance, its direct application to stainless steels, while enhancing their mechanical properties, also causes a marked degradation in their oxidation resistance. However, by adaption of the nitriding process, it is possible to maintain the improved wear resistant properties while retaining the oxidation resistance of the stainless steel. The controlled diffusion permits the growth of a nitrogen supersaturated austenite layer on parts made of stainless steel (AISI 304L and 316L) without chromium nitride precipitation. The diffusion layer remains stable during post heat treatments up to 650 F for 5,000 hrs and maintains a hardness of 900 HV. A very low and stable friction coefficient is achieved which provides good wear resistance against stainless steels under diverse conditions. Electrochemical and chemical tests in various media confirm the preservation of the stainless steel characteristics. An example of the application of this process is the treatment of Reactor Control Rod Cluster Assemblies (RCCAs) for Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactors

  7. Thermodynamics of silicon nitridation - Effect of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, N. J.; Zeleznik, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Equilibrium compositions for the nitridization of Si were calculated to detect the effectiveness of H2 in removal of the oxide film and in increasing the concentration of SiO and reducing the proportions of O2. Gibbs free energy for the formation of SiN2O was computed above 1685 K, and at lower temperatures. The thermodynamic properties of SiN2O2 were then considered from 1000-3000 K, taking into account the known thermodynamic data for 39 molecular combinations of the Si, Ni, and O. The gases formed were assumed ideal mixtures with pure phase condensed species. The mole fractions were obtained for a system of SiO2 with each Si particle covered with a thin layer of SiO2 before nitridation, and a system in which the nitriding atmosphere had access to the Si. The presence of H2 was determined to enhance the removal of NiO2 in the first system, decrease the partial pressure of O2, increase the partial pressures of SiO, Si, H2O, NH3, and SiH4, while its effects were negligible in the Si system.

  8. Dynamic localization and negative absolute conductance in terahertz driven semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keay, B.J.; Allen, S.J.; Campman, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    We report the first observation of Negative Absolute Conductance (NAC), dynamic localization and multiphoton stimulated emission assisted tunneling in terahertz driven semiconductor superlattices. Theories predicting NAC in semiconductor superlattices subjected to AC electric fields have existed for twenty years, but have never been verified experimentally. Most theories are based upon semiclassical arguments and are only valid for superlattices in the miniband or coherent tunneling regime. We are not aware of models predicting NAC in superlattices in the sequential tunneling regime, although there has been recent theoretical work on double-barrier structures. Perhaps the most remarkable result is found in the power dependence of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics near zero DC bias. As the laser power is increased the current decreases towards zero and then becomes negative. This result implies that the electrons are absorbing energy from the laser field, producing a net current in the direction opposite to the applied voltage. NAC around zero DC bias is a particularly surprising observation considering photon-assisted tunneling is not expected to be observable between the ground states of neighboring quantum wells in a semiconductor superlattice. Contrary to this believe our results are most readily attributable to photon absorption and multiphoton emission between ground states of neighboring wells. The I-V characteristics measured in the presence of terahertz radiation at low DC bias also contain steps and plateaus analogous to photon-assisted steps observed in superconducting junctions. As many as three steps have been clearly resolved corresponding to stimulated emission into the terahertz field by a three-photon process

  9. InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice infrared detectors: three decades of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.; Kopytko, M.; Martyniuk, P.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, there has been considerable progress towards III-V antimonide-based low dimensional solids development and device design innovations. From a physics point of view, the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice is an extremely attractive proposition. Their development results from two primary motivations: the perceived challenges of reproducibly fabricating high-operability HgCdTe FPAs at reasonable cost and theoretical predictions of lower Auger recombination for type-II superlattice (T2SL) detectors compared to HgCdTe. Lower Auger recombination should be translated into a fundamental advantage for T2SL over HgCdTe in terms of lower dark current and/or higher operating temperature, provided other parameters such as Shockley-Read-Hall lifetime are equal. Based on these promising results it is obvious now that the InAs/GaSb superlattice technology is competing with HgCdTe third generation detector technology with the potential advantage of standard III-V technology to be more competitive in costs and as a consequence series production pricing. Comments to the statement whether the superlattice IR photodetectors can outperform the "bulk" narrow gap HgCdTe detectors is one of the most important questions for the future of IR photodetectors presented by Rogalski at the April 2006 SPIE meeting in Orlando, Florida, are more credible today and are presented in this paper. It concerns the trade-offs between two most competing IR material technologies: InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices and HgCdTe ternary alloy system.

  10. Ab initio study of thermoelectric properties of doped SnO{sub 2} superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, P.D., E-mail: pdborges@gmail.com [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 38810-000 Rio Paranaíba, MG (Brazil); Silva, D.E.S.; Castro, N.S.; Ferreira, C.R.; Pinto, F.G.; Tronto, J. [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 38810-000 Rio Paranaíba, MG (Brazil); Scolfaro, L. [Department of Physics, Texas State University, 78666 San Marcos, TX (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Transparent conductive oxides, such as tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}), have recently shown to be promising materials for thermoelectric applications. In this work we studied the thermoelectric properties of Fe-, Sb- and Zn-uniformly doping and co-doping SnO{sub 2}, as well as of Sb and Zn planar (or delta)-doped layers in SnO{sub 2} forming oxide superlattices (SLs). Based on the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations (BTE) in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, the Seebeck coefficient (S) and figure of merit (ZT) are obtained for these systems, and are compared with available experimental data. The delta doping approach introduces a remarkable modification in the electronic structure of tin dioxide, when compared with the uniform doping, and colossal values for ZT are predicted for the delta-doped oxide SLs. This result is a consequence of the two-dimensional electronic confinement and the strong anisotropy introduced by the doped planes. In comparison with the uniformly doped systems, our predictions reveal a promising use of delta-doped SnO{sub 2} SLs for enhanced S and ZT, which emerge as potential candidates for thermoelectric applications. - Graphical abstract: Band structure and Figure of merit for SnO2:Sb superlattice along Z direction, P. D. Borges, D. E. S. Silva, N. S. Castro, C. R. Ferreira, F. G. Pinto, J. Tronto and L. Scolfaro, Ab initio study of thermoelectric properties of doped SnO2 superlattices. - Highlights: • Thermoelectric properties of SnO{sub 2}-based alloys and superlattices. • High figure of merit is predicted for planar-doped SnO{sub 2} superlattices. • Nanotechnology has an important role for the development of thermoelectric devices.

  11. Ab initio study of thermoelectric properties of doped SnO_2 superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, P.D.; Silva, D.E.S.; Castro, N.S.; Ferreira, C.R.; Pinto, F.G.; Tronto, J.; Scolfaro, L.

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conductive oxides, such as tin dioxide (SnO_2), have recently shown to be promising materials for thermoelectric applications. In this work we studied the thermoelectric properties of Fe-, Sb- and Zn-uniformly doping and co-doping SnO_2, as well as of Sb and Zn planar (or delta)-doped layers in SnO_2 forming oxide superlattices (SLs). Based on the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations (BTE) in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, the Seebeck coefficient (S) and figure of merit (ZT) are obtained for these systems, and are compared with available experimental data. The delta doping approach introduces a remarkable modification in the electronic structure of tin dioxide, when compared with the uniform doping, and colossal values for ZT are predicted for the delta-doped oxide SLs. This result is a consequence of the two-dimensional electronic confinement and the strong anisotropy introduced by the doped planes. In comparison with the uniformly doped systems, our predictions reveal a promising use of delta-doped SnO_2 SLs for enhanced S and ZT, which emerge as potential candidates for thermoelectric applications. - Graphical abstract: Band structure and Figure of merit for SnO2:Sb superlattice along Z direction, P. D. Borges, D. E. S. Silva, N. S. Castro, C. R. Ferreira, F. G. Pinto, J. Tronto and L. Scolfaro, Ab initio study of thermoelectric properties of doped SnO2 superlattices. - Highlights: • Thermoelectric properties of SnO_2-based alloys and superlattices. • High figure of merit is predicted for planar-doped SnO_2 superlattices. • Nanotechnology has an important role for the development of thermoelectric devices.

  12. RF plasma nitriding of severely deformed iron-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferkel, H.; Glatzer, M.; Estrin, Y.; Valiev, R.Z.; Blawert, C.; Mordike, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of severe plastic deformation by cold high pressure torsion (HPT) on radio frequency (RF) plasma nitriding of pure iron, as well as St2K50 and X5CrNi1810 steels was investigated. Nitriding was carried out for 3 h in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 10 -5 bar and temperatures of 350 and 400 deg. C. Nitrided specimens were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and micro hardness measurements. It was found that HPT enhances the effect of nitriding leading almost to doubling of the thickness of the nitrided layer for pure iron and the high alloyed steel. The largest increase in hardness was observed when HPT was combined with RF plasma nitriding at 350 deg. C. In the case of pure iron, the X-ray diffraction spectra showed the formation of ε and γ' nitrides in the compound layer, with a preferential formation of γ' at the expense of the α-phase at the higher nitriding temperature. The corresponding surface hardness was up to 950 HV0.01. While the HPT-processed St2K50 exhibits both nitride phases after nitriding at 350 deg. C, only the γ'-phase was observed after nitriding at 400 deg. C. A surface hardness of up to 1050 HV0.01 was measured for this steel. The high alloyed steel X5CrNi1810 exhibited the highest increase in surface hardness when HPT was combined with nitriding at 350 deg. C. The surface hardness of this steel was greater than 1400 HV0.025. The XRD analyses indicate the formation of the expanded austenite (S-phase) in the surface layer as a result of RF plasma nitriding. Furthermore, after HPT X5CrNi1810 was transformed completely into deformation martensite which did not transform back to austenite under thermochemical treatment. However, in the case of nitriding of the HPT-processed high alloyed steel at 400 deg. C, the formation of the S-phase was less pronounced. In view of the observed XRD peak broadening, the formation of nitrides, such as e.g. CrN, cannot be ruled out

  13. Plasma nitriding - an eco friendly surface hardening process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Surface hardening is a process of heating the metal such that the surface gets only hardened. This process is adopted for many components like gears, cams, and crankshafts, which desire high hardness on the outer surface with a softer core to withstand the shocks. So, to attain such properties processes like carburising, nitriding, flame hardening and induction hardening are employed. Amongst these processes nitriding is the most commonly used process by many industries. In nitriding process the steel material is heated to a temperature of around 550 C and then exposed to atomic nitrogen. This atomic nitrogen reacts with iron and other alloying elements and forms nitrides, which are very hard in nature. By this process both wear resistance and hardness of the product can be increased. The atomic nitrogen required for this process can be obtained using ammonia gas (gas nitriding), cyanide based salt bath (liquid nitriding) and plasma medium (plasma nitriding). However, plasma nitriding has recently received considerable industrial interest owing to its characteristic of faster nitrogen penetration, short treatment time, low process temperature, minimal distortion, low energy use and easier control of layer formation compared with conventional techniques such as gas and liquid nitriding. This process can be used for all ferrous materials including stainless steels. Plasma nitriding is carried out using a gas mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gas at sub atmospheric pressures hence, making it eco-friendly in nature. Plasma nitriding allows modification of the surface layers and hardness profiles by changing the gas mixture and temperature. The wide applicable temperature range enables a multitude of applications, beyond the possibilities of gas or salt bath processes. This has led to numerous applications of this process in industries such as the manufacture of machine parts for plastics and food processing, packaging and tooling as well as pumps and hydraulic, machine

  14. Free-Standing Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Superlattices Constructed with Engineered Protein Containers Show in Crystallo Catalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Marcel; Künzle, Matthias; Beck, Tobias

    2017-12-11

    The construction of defined nanostructured catalysts is challenging. In previous work, we established a strategy to assemble binary nanoparticle superlattices with oppositely charged protein containers as building blocks. Here, we show that these free-standing nanoparticle superlattices are catalytically active. The metal oxide nanoparticles inside the protein scaffold are accessible for a range of substrates and show oxidase-like and peroxidase-like activity. The stable superlattices can be reused for several reaction cycles. In contrast to bulk nanoparticle-based catalysts, which are prone to aggregation and difficult to characterize, nanoparticle superlattices based on engineered protein containers provide an innovative synthetic route to structurally defined heterogeneous catalysts with control over nanoparticle size and composition. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Dualband MW/LW Strained Layer Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays for Satellite-Based Wildfire Detection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on Type-II strained layer superlattice (SLS) photodiodes have recently experienced significant advances. In Phase I we...

  16. Dualband MW/LW Strained Layer Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays For Satellite-Based Wildfire Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dualband focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on gallium-free Type-II strained layer superlattice (SLS) photodiodes have recently experienced significant advances. We...

  17. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of phase-precipitation versus instability behavior in short period FeCr superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, F.J. [UCAM, Universidad Católica de Murcia, Campus de los Jerónimos, 30107 Guadalupe (Murcia) (Spain); Castejón-Mochón, J.F., E-mail: jfcastejon@ucam.edu [UCAM, Universidad Católica de Murcia, Campus de los Jerónimos, 30107 Guadalupe (Murcia) (Spain); Castrillo, P.; Berenguer-Vidal, R. [UCAM, Universidad Católica de Murcia, Campus de los Jerónimos, 30107 Guadalupe (Murcia) (Spain); Dopico, I.; Martin-Bragado, I. [IMDEA Materials Institute, Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe (Madrid) (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    The structural evolution of FeCr superlattices has been studied using a quasi-atomistic Object Kinetic Monte Carlo model. Superlattices with different spatial periods have been simulated for anneal durations from few hours to several months at 500 °C. Relatively-long period superlattices stabilize into Fe-rich and Cr-rich layers with compositions close to those of bulk α and α′ phases. In contrast, superlattices with very short periods (4, 5, 6 nm) are observed to undergo instability and, for long annealing times, evolve into three-dimensionally decomposed regions, in qualitative agreement to recent experimental observations. The instability onset is delayed as the spatial period increases, and it occurs via interface roughness. This evolution can be explained as a minimization of the free-energy associated to the α/α′ interfaces. A comprehensive description of the evolution dynamics of FeCr-based structures is obtained with our model.

  18. Effects of anharmonic strain on the phase stability of epitaxial films and superlattices: Applications to noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozolins, V.; Wolverton, C.; Zunger, A.

    1998-01-01

    Epitaxial strain energies of epitaxial films and bulk superlattices are studied via first-principles total-energy calculations using the local-density approximation. Anharmonic effects due to large lattice mismatch, beyond the reach of the harmonic elasticity theory, are found to be very important in Cu/Au (lattice mismatch 12%), Cu/Ag (12%), and Ni/Au (15%). We find that left-angle 001 right-angle is the elastically soft direction for biaxial expansion of Cu and Ni, but it is left-angle 201 right-angle for large biaxial compression of Cu, Ag, and Au. The stability of superlattices is discussed in terms of the coherency strain and interfacial energies. We find that in phase separating systems such as Cu-Ag the superlattice formation energies decrease with superlattice period, and the interfacial energy is positive. Superlattices are formed easiest on (001) and hardest on (111) substrates. For ordering systems, such as Cu-Au and Ag-Au, the formation energy of superlattices increases with period, and interfacial energies are negative. These superlattices are formed easiest on (001) or (110) and hardest on (111) substrates. For Ni-Au we find a hybrid behavior: superlattices along left-angle 111 right-angle and left-angle 001 right-angle behave like phase separating systems, while for left-angle 110 right-angle they behave like ordering systems. Finally, recent experimental results on epitaxial stabilization of disordered Ni-Au and Cu-Ag alloys, immiscible in the bulk form, are explained in terms of destabilization of the phase separated state due to lattice mismatch between the substrate and constituents. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Crack-tips enriched platinum-copper superlattice nanoflakes as highly efficient anode electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Yang, Dachi; Chang, Rong; Wang, Chengwen; Zhang, Gaixia; Sun, Shuhui

    2017-07-06

    We have developed "crack-tips" and "superlattice" enriched Pt-Cu nanoflakes (NFs), benefiting from the synergetic effects of "crack-tips" and "superlattice crystals"; the Pt-Cu NFs exhibit 4 times higher mass activity, 6 times higher specific activity and 6 times higher stability than those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst, respectively. Meanwhile, the Pt-Cu NFs show more enhanced CO tolerance than the commercial Pt/C catalyst.

  20. 77 FR 51825 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Nitrided Vanadium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on ferrovanadium and nitrided vanadium from Russia would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. \\1...

  1. Fabrication of functional structures on thin silicon nitride membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkels, P.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Brugger, J.P.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A process to fabricate functional polysilicon structures above large (4×4 mm2) thin (200 nm), very flat LPCVD silicon rich nitride membranes was developed. Key features of this fabrication process are the use of low-stress LPCVD silicon nitride, sacrificial layer etching, and minimization of

  2. Process for producing ceramic nitrides anc carbonitrides and their precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G.M.; Maya, L.

    1987-02-25

    A process for preparing ceramic nitrides and carbon nitrides in the form of very pure, fine particulate powder. Appropriate precursors is prepared by reaching a transition metal alkylamide with ammonia to produce a mixture of metal amide and metal imide in the form of an easily pyrolyzable precipitate.

  3. Enhancement of dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PbZrO3/PbTiO3 artificial superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Taekjib; Lee, Jaichan

    2005-01-01

    PbZrO 3 (PZO)/PbTiO 3 (PTO) artificial superlattices have been grown on La 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 (LSCO) (100)/MgO (100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition with various stacking periods from 1 to 100 unit cells. The PZO/PTO artificial lattice exhibited a diffraction pattern characteristic of a superlattice structure, i.e., a main diffraction peak with satellite peaks. The electrical properties of the superlattices were investigated as a function of the stacking period. The dielectric constant and remnant polarization improved on decreasing the stacking periodicity. The dielectric constant of the superlattice reached 800 at a stacking period of 1unit cell/1unit cell (PZO 1 /PTO 1 ), which is larger than that of the single PZT solid-solution film. Moreover, the remnant polarization reached a maximum, 2Pr = 38.7 μC/cm 2 , at a 2-unit-cell stacking period. Progressive enhancement of dielectric constant and remnant polarization in artificial PZO/PTO superlattice was accompanied by expansion of the (100)-plane spacing on decreasing the stacking periodicity. These results suggest that the lattice strain developed in the PZO/PTO superlattice may have influence on dielectric constant and ferroelectric behavior.

  4. Low Temperature Gaseous Nitriding of a Stainless Steel Containing Strong Nitride Formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    Low temperature thermochemical surface hardening of the precipitation hardening austenitic stainless steel A286 in solution treated state was investigated. A286 contains, besides high amounts of Cr, also substantial amounts of strong nitride formers as Ti, Al and V. It is shown that simultaneous...

  5. Problems and possibilities of development of boron nitride ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusanova, L.N.; Romashin, A.G.; Kulikova, G.I.; Golubeva, O.P.

    1988-01-01

    The modern state of developments in the field of technology of ceramics produced from boron nitride is analyzed. Substantial difficulties in production of pure ceramics from hexagonal and wurtzite-like boron nitride are stated as related to the structure peculiarities and inhomogeneity of chemical bonds in elementary crystal cells of various modifications. Advantages and disadvantages of familiar technological procedures in production of boron nitride ceramics are compared. A new technology is suggested, which is based on the use of electroorganic compounds for hardening and protection of porous high-purity boron-nitride die from oxidation, and as high-efficient sintered elements for treatment of powders of various structures and further pyrolisis. The method is called thermal molecular lacing (TML). Properties of ceramics produced by the TML method are compared with characteristics of well-known brands of boron nitride ceramics

  6. Electrochemical behavior of rare earth metals and their nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Goto, Takuya

    2004-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical recycle process using molten salts is considered to be a high potential in pyro-reprocess technologies for spent nitride fuels, and it is important to understand chemical and electro-chemical behavior of nitrides and metals in molten salts. In this study, cadmium nitrates deposited on the anode Cd plate in motlen salt (LiCl-KCl) with addition of Li 3 N are examined. The cadmium nitrates deposited have various compositions corresponding to polarization potentials and then, the relationship between the deposition potential of nitride Cd and their composition is cleared. Their standard chemical potential of CdN is estimated from electrochemical measurement. And then, potential-pH 3- diagram is drawn by voltametry examination of nitride resolution behavior with using thermochemical data of nitrides. (A. Hishinuma)

  7. Exploring electrolyte preference of vanadium nitride supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Zhaohui; Lu, Gang [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Wang, Tianhu [School of Electrical Information and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China); Ge, Yunwang, E-mail: ywgelit@126.com [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchical VN nanostructures were prepared on graphite foam. • Electrolyte preference of VN supercapacitor electrodes was explored. • VN showed better capacitive property in organic and alkaline electrolytes than LiCl. - Abstract: Vanadium nitride hierarchical nanostructures were prepared through an ammonia annealing procedure utilizing vanadium pentoxide nanostructures grown on graphite foam. The electrochemical properties of hierarchical vanadium nitride was tested in aqueous and organic electrolytes. As a result, the vanadium nitride showed better capacitive energy storage property in organic and alkaline electrolytes. This work provides insight into the charge storage process of vanadium nitride and our findings can shed light on other transition metal nitride-based electrochemical energy storage systems.

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Dense Hexagonal Boron Nitride Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Elliott, Amy M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2017-05-12

    The feasibility of manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via additive manufacturing techniques was investigated. It was demonstrated that it is possible to hot-extrude thermoplastic filaments containing uniformly distributed boron nitride particles with a volume concentration as high as 60% and that these thermoplastic filaments can be used as feedstock for 3D-printing objects using a fused deposition system. Objects 3D-printed by fused deposition were subsequently sintered at high temperature to obtain dense ceramic products. In a parallel study the behavior of hexagonal boron nitride in aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown that the addition of a cationic dispersant to an azeotrope enabled the formulation of slurries with a volume concentration of boron nitride as high as 33%. Although these slurries exhibited complex rheological behavior, the results from this study are encouraging and provide a pathway for manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via robocasting.

  9. The Effect of Polymer Char on Nitridation Kinetics of Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Rickmond C.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of polymer char on nitridation kinetics of attrition milled silicon powder have been investigated from 1200 to 1350 C. Results indicate that at and above 1250 C, the silicon compacts containing 3.5 wt percent polymer char were fully converted to Si3N4 after 24 hr exposure in nitrogen. In contrast, the silicon compacts without polymer char could not be fully converted to Si3N4 at 1350 C under similar exposure conditions. At 1250 and 1350 C, the silicon compacts with polymer char showed faster nitridation kinetics than those without the polymer char. As the polymer char content is increased, the amount of SiC in the nitrided material is also increased. By adding small amounts (approx. 2.5 wt percent) of NiO, the silicon compacts containing polymer char can be completely nitrided at 1200 C. The probable mechanism for the accelerated nitridation of silicon containing polymer char is discussed.

  10. Simulation of electron transport in GaAs/AlAs superlattices with a small number of periods for the THz frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelyev, D. G.; Vasilev, A. P.; Kozlov, V. A.; Koschurinov, Yu. I.; Obolenskaya, E. S.; Obolensky, S. V.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    The electron transport in superlattices based on GaAs/AlAs heterostructures with a small number of periods (6 periods) is calculated by the Monte Carlo method. These superlattices are used in terahertz diodes for the frequency stabilization of quantum cascade lasers in the range up to 4.7 THz. The band structure of superlattices with different numbers of AlAs monolayers is considered and their current–voltage characteristics are calculated. The calculated current–voltage characteristics are compared with the experimental data. The possibility of the efficient application of these superlattices in the THz frequency range is established both theoretically and experimentally.

  11. Radiofrequency cold plasma nitrided carbon steel: Microstructural and micromechanical characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouanis, F.Z.; Bentiss, F.; Bellayer, S.; Vogt, J.B.; Jama, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → C38 carbon steel samples were plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge. → RF plasma treatment enables nitriding for non-heated substrates. → The morphological and chemical analyses show the formation of a uniform thickness on the surface of the nitrided C38 steel. → Nitrogen plasma active species diffuse into the samples and lead to the formation of Fe x N. → The increase in microhardness values for nitrided samples with plasma processing time is interpreted by the formation of a thicker nitrided layer on the steel surface. - Abstract: In this work, C38 carbon steel was plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge on non-heated substrates. General characterizations were performed to compare the chemical compositions, the microstructures and hardness of the untreated and plasma treated surfaces. The plasma nitriding was carried out on non-heated substrates at a pressure of 16.8 Pa, using N 2 gas. Surface characterizations before and after N 2 plasma treatment were performed by means of the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Vickers microhardness measurements. The morphological and chemical analysis showed the formation of a uniform structure on the surface of the nitrided sample with enrichment in nitrogen when compared to untreated sample. The thickness of the nitride layer formed depends on the treatment time duration and is approximately 14 μm for 10 h of plasma treatment. XPS was employed to obtain chemical-state information of the plasma nitrided steel surfaces. The micromechanical results show that the surface microhardness increases as the plasma-processing time increases to reach, 1487 HV 0.005 at a plasma processing time of 8 h.

  12. Radiofrequency cold plasma nitrided carbon steel: Microstructural and micromechanical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouanis, F.Z. [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination et d' Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Bellayer, S.; Vogt, J.B. [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Jama, C., E-mail: charafeddine.jama@ensc-lille.fr [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2011-05-16

    Highlights: {yields} C38 carbon steel samples were plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge. {yields} RF plasma treatment enables nitriding for non-heated substrates. {yields} The morphological and chemical analyses show the formation of a uniform thickness on the surface of the nitrided C38 steel. {yields} Nitrogen plasma active species diffuse into the samples and lead to the formation of Fe{sub x}N. {yields} The increase in microhardness values for nitrided samples with plasma processing time is interpreted by the formation of a thicker nitrided layer on the steel surface. - Abstract: In this work, C38 carbon steel was plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge on non-heated substrates. General characterizations were performed to compare the chemical compositions, the microstructures and hardness of the untreated and plasma treated surfaces. The plasma nitriding was carried out on non-heated substrates at a pressure of 16.8 Pa, using N{sub 2} gas. Surface characterizations before and after N{sub 2} plasma treatment were performed by means of the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Vickers microhardness measurements. The morphological and chemical analysis showed the formation of a uniform structure on the surface of the nitrided sample with enrichment in nitrogen when compared to untreated sample. The thickness of the nitride layer formed depends on the treatment time duration and is approximately 14 {mu}m for 10 h of plasma treatment. XPS was employed to obtain chemical-state information of the plasma nitrided steel surfaces. The micromechanical results show that the surface microhardness increases as the plasma-processing time increases to reach, 1487 HV{sub 0.005} at a plasma processing time of 8 h.

  13. Nano-particulate Aluminium Nitride/Al: An Efficient and Versatile Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Synthesis of Biginelli Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekale, S. U.; Tekale, A. B.; Kanhe, N. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Pawar, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    Nano-particulate aluminium nitride/Al (7:1) is reported as a new heterogeneous solid acid catalyst for the synthesis of 3, 4-dihydroxypyrimidi-2-(1H)-ones and their sulphur analogues using the Biginelli reaction. This method involves short reaction time, easy separation, high yields and purity of products.

  14. A titanium nitride based metamaterial for applications in the visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, Gururaj V.; Saha, Bivas; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Epitaxially grown TiN/Al0.6Sc0.4N superlattice behaves as a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) in the visible range. Since HMMs enhance photonic-density-of-states and reduce lifetime of an emitter, we observed nine times decrease in lifetime of a dye molecule placed close to this HMM. © 2013 The Optic...

  15. Electrochemical capacitance performance of titanium nitride nanoarray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Suzhou Research Institute of Southeast University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Yong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Du, Hongxiu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Suzhou Research Institute of Southeast University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Highlights: • TiN nanoarray is formed by a nitridation process of TiO{sub 2} in ammonia atmosphere. • TiN nanoarray exhibits much higher EDLC capacitance than TiO{sub 2} nanoarray. • The specific capacitance of TiN nanoarray achieves a high level of 99.7 mF cm{sup −2}. • A flexible solid-state supercapacitor is constructed by TiN nanoarray and PVA gel. -- Abstract: In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) nanoarrays with a short nanotube and long nanopore structure have been prepared by an anodization process of ultra thin titanium foil in ethylene glycol (EG) solution containing ammonium fluoride, subsequent calcination process in an air atmosphere, and final nitridation process in an ammonia atmosphere. The morphology and microstructure characterization has been conducted using field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties have been investigated through cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectrum measurements. The electrochemical capacitance performance has been investigated by galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements in the acidic, neural and alkali electrolyte solution. Well-defined TiN nanoarrays contribute a much higher capacitance performance than titania (TiO{sub 2}) in the supercapacitor application due to the extraordinarily improved electrical conductivity. Such an electrochemical capacitance can be further enhanced by increasing aspect ratio of TiN nanoarray from short nanotubes to long nanopores. A flexible supercapacitor has been constructed using two symmetrical TiN nanoarray electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel electrolyte with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–KCl–H{sub 2}O–EG. Such a supercapacitor has a highly improved potential window and still keeps good electrochemical energy storage. TiN nanoarray with a high aspect ratio can act well as an ultra thin film electrode material of flexible supercapacitor to contribute a superior capacitance performance.

  16. Reactive sputter deposition of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.; McKernan, M.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    The preparation of fully dense, boron targets for use in planar magnetron sources has lead to the synthesis of Boron Nitride (BN) films by reactive rf sputtering. The deposition parameters of gas pressure, flow and composition are varied along with substrate temperature and applied bias. The films are characterized for composition using Auger electron spectroscopy, for chemical bonding using Raman spectroscopy and for crystalline structure using transmission electron microscopy. The deposition conditions are established which lead to the growth of crystalline BN phases. In particular, the growth of an adherent cubic BN coating requires 400--500 C substrate heating and an applied -300 V dc bias

  17. Packing C60 in Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, W.; Aloni, S.; Han, Wei-Qiang; Cumings, John; Zettl, A.

    2003-04-01

    We have created insulated C60 nanowire by packing C60 molecules into the interior of insulating boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). For small-diameter BNNTs, the wire consists of a linear chain of C60 molecules. With increasing BNNT inner diameter, unusual C60 stacking configurations are obtained (including helical, hollow core, and incommensurate) that are unknown for bulk or thin-film forms of C60. C60 in BNNTs thus presents a model system for studying the properties of dimensionally constrained ``silo'' crystal structures. For the linear-chain case, we have fused the C60 molecules to form a single-walled carbon nanotube inside the insulating BNNT.

  18. Doping of III-nitride materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pampili, Pietro; Parbrook, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    In this review paper we will report the current state of research regarding the doping of III-nitride materials and their alloys. GaN is a mature material with both n-type and p-type doping relatively well understood, and while n-GaN is easily achieved, p-type doping requires much more care. There are significant efforts to extend the composition range that can be controllably doped for AlGaInN alloys. This would allow application in shorter and longer wavelength optoelectronics as well as ex...

  19. Stability analysis of zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Hari Mohan, E-mail: rai.2208@gmail.com; Late, Ravikiran; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sagdeo, Pankaj R. [Indian Institute of Technology, Indore –452017 (India); Jaiswal, Neeraj K. [Discipline of Physics, PDPM- Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur – 482005 (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Computational Nanoscience and Technology Lab. (CNTL), ABV- Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior – 474015 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We have explored the structural stability of bare and hydrogenated zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons (ZBNNRs). In order to investigate the structural stability, we calculate the cohesive energy for bare, one-edge and both edges H-terminated ZBNNRs with different widths. It is found that the ZBNNRs with width Nz=8 are energetically more favorable than the lower-width counterparts (Nz<8). Bare ZBNNRs have been found energetically most stable as compared to the edge terminated ribbons. Our analysis reveals that the structural stability is a function of ribbon-width and it is not affected significantly by the type of edge-passivation (one-edge or both-edges)

  20. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  1. Hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, W.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds of metals with non-metals such as C, N, and B show different hardness. Wagner's interaction parameter characterizes manner and extent of the interaction between the atoms of the substance dissolved and the additional elements in metallic mixed phases. An attempt has been made to correlate the hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides (data taken from literature) with certain interaction parameters and associated thermodynamic quantities (ΔH, ΔG). For some metals of periods 4, 5, and 6 corresponding relations were found between microhardness, interaction parameters, heat of formation, and atomic number

  2. The failure of aluminium nitride under shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickup, I.M.; Bourne, N.K.

    2002-01-01

    The shear strength of aluminium nitride has been measured over a range of impact stresses by measuring lateral stresses in plate impact experiments. The range of impact stress spanned several key shock thresholds for the material, pre and post Hugoniot elastic limit and up to values where the hexagonal to cubic phase transition starts. The shear strength measurements indicate significant inelastic damage at stress levels in excess of the HEL, but a significant recovery of strength at the highest impact stress was observed. This stress equates to the phase transition stress. The shear strength behaviour is compared to that of silicon carbide, which does not exhibit a phase change at these impact velocities

  3. Surface enrichment with chrome and nitriding of IF steel under an abnormal glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meira, S.R.; Borges, P.C.; Bernardelli, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the influence of surface enrichment of IF steel with chrome, and nitriding, the formation of the nitrided layer. Thus, IF steel samples were subjected to surface enrichment process, using 409 stainless steel as a target for sputtering, followed by plasma nitriding, both under a dc abnormal glow discharge. The enrichment treatment was operated at 1200 ° C for 3h. The nitriding treatment was operated at 510 ° C for 2 h. The influence of the treatments on the layers formed was studied through optical microscopy (OM), scan electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vickers microindentation. The results show that the enrichment is effective to enrich the IF surface, furthermore, improves the characteristics of nitriding, comparing nitriding samples to nitriding and enriched, was observed needles of nitrides, as well as a higher hardness, which is associated with the nitrides of chrome, on the nitriding and enriched samples. (author)

  4. Electron drag by solitons in superlattices in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyazovskii, M.V.; Syrodoev, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The soliton-electric effect accompanying the propagation of an electromagnetic soliton along an axis of a superlattice in an external magnetic field directed along the magnetic field of the soliton is studied. It is assumed that the duration γ-1 of the soliton pulse is much shorter than the free flight time of an electron. It is shown that in the absence of a constant magnetic field the drag current varies as sin(αsech2γt) (α is a constant determined by the parameters of the superlattice). In the presence of a constant magnetic field of intensity H0>>Hs, where Hs is the amplitude of the soliton field, the drag current oscillates

  5. Stability and electronic structure of superlattices (IIIV)n/(IV2)n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, D.; Ferraz, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of atomic relaxation and electronic states have been made for ultrathin superlattices (GaP) n /(Ge 2 ) n , (GaP) n /(Si 2 ) n , (In P) n /(Ge 2 ) n and (In P) n /(Si 2 ) n with period n ≤ 3 in growth directions (001) and (110). The calculations were performed within the momentum-space formalism of the self-consistent ab-initio pseudopotential method and the molecular dynamics approach as proposed by Car and Parrinello. The structures were found to be unstable with respect to the phase separation into the constituent bulk materials. The results for the enthalpy show a metastability as increasing the superlattice period n. The density of nonoctet wrong-bonds play an important role to determine the stability of the structures. (author). 13 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Full Polarization Analysis of Resonant Superlattice and Forbidden x-ray Reflections in Magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.B.; Bland, S.R.; Detlefs, B.; Beale, T.A.W.; Mazzoli, C.; Joly, Y.; Hatton, P.D.; Lorenzo, J.E.; Brabers, V.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite being one of the oldest known magnetic materials, and the classic mixed valence compound, thought to be charge ordered, the structure of magnetite below the Verwey transition is complex and the presence and role of charge order is still being debated. Here, we present resonant x-ray diffraction data at the iron K-edge on forbidden (0, 0, 2n+1) C and superlattice (0, 0, 2n+1/2)C reflections. Full linear polarization analysis of the incident and scattered light was conducted in order to explore the origins of the reflections. Through simulation of the resonant spectra we have confirmed that a degree of charge ordering takes place, while the anisotropic tensor of susceptibility scattering is responsible for the superlattice reflections below the Verwey transition. We also report the surprising result of the conversion of a significant proportion of the scattered light from linear to nonlinear polarization.

  7. Silicon carbide whiskers with superlattice structure: A precursor for a new type of nanoreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsenko, Vadym G.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon carbide whiskers exhibit growth predominantly in the direction. The high level of impurities, stacking faults and nanosized twins govern the formation of homojunctions and heterojunctions in crystals. The structure of the whiskers comprises a hybrid superlattice, i.e. contains elements of doped and composite superlattices. An individual SiC whisker can contain hundreds of quantum wells with anomalous chemical properties. This paper shows that it is possible to selectively etch quantum wells and to construct whiskers with quasi-regularly distributed slit-like nanopores (nanoreactors), which are bordered by polar planes {1 1 1}, {0 0 0 1} or a combination of them, and also to produce flat SiC nanocrystals bordered by polar planes

  8. Raman Scattering and Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy Studies of InGaAs/GaAs Radial Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, T.; Cros, A.; Ivanov, Ts.; Donchev, V.; Cantarero, A.; Shtinkov, N.; Deneke, Ch.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2011-12-01

    In this work we get insight into the multilayer structure of rolled-up microtube radial superlattices (RSLs) by the study of the optical and folded acoustic phonon modes of individual microtubes. Raman results show shifts of the InGaAs and GaAs related longitudinal optical modes that can be related to the strain state of the tubes. The folding of the acoustic modes has been related with the periodicity of the artificial superlattice formed by the multiple turns of the heterostructures. Information on the electronic structure and optical transitions of RSLs has been obtained by surface photovoltage spectroscopy. Room temperature spectra reveal several electronic transitions with energies below 1.3 eV. These transitions have been identified as originating from defect levels at the interfaces, as well as from the RSLs and the In0.215Ga0.785As/GaAs quantum well in the unfolded regions of the sample.

  9. Transfer matrix theory of monolayer graphene/bilayer graphene heterostructure superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We have formulated a transfer matrix method to investigate electronic properties of graphene heterostructure consisting of monolayer graphene and bilayer counterpart. By evaluating transmission, conductance, and band dispersion, we show that, irrespective of the different carrier chiralities in monolayer graphene and bilayer graphene, superlattice consisting of biased bilayer graphene barrier and monolayer graphene well can mimic the electronic properties of conventional semiconductor superlattice, displaying the extended subbands in the quantum tunneling regime and producing anisotropic minigaps for the classically allowed transport. Due to the lateral confinement, the lowest mode has shifted away from the charge neutral point of monolayer graphene component, opening a sizeable gap in concerned structure. Following the gate-field and geometry modulation, all electronic states and gaps between them can be externally engineered in an electric-controllable strategy.

  10. Theoretical modelling of electron transport in InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Ikonic, Zoran; Savic, Ivana; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model describing the electron transport in InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors, modelled as ideal quantum dot superlattices, is presented. The carrier wave functions and energy levels were evaluated using the strain dependent 8-band k.p Hamiltonian and used to calculate all intra- and inter-period transition rates due to interaction with phonons and electromagnetic radiation. The interaction with longitudinal acoustic phonons and electromagnetic radiation was treated perturbatively within the framework of Fermi's golden rule, while the interaction with longitudinal optical phonons was considered taking into account their strong coupling to electrons. The populations of energy levels were then found from a system of rate equations, and the electron current in the superlattice was subsequently extracted. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Morphological Instability in InAs/GaSb Superlattices due to Interfacial Bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.H.; Moss, S.C.; Stokes, D.W.; Caha, O.; Bassler, K.E.; Ammu, S.L.; Bai, J.

    2005-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction is used to compare the misfit strain and composition in a self-organized nanowire array in an InAs/GaSb superlattice with InSb interfacial bonds to a planar InAs/GaSb superlattice with GaAs interfacial bonds. It is found that the morphological instability that occurs in the nanowire array results from the large misfit strain that the InSb interfacial bonds have in the nanowire array. Based on this result, we propose that tailoring the type of interfacial bonds during the epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductor films provides a novel approach for producing the technologically important morphological instability in anomalously thin layers

  12. Two-dimensional collective electron magnetotransport, oscillations, and chaos in a semiconductor superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, L. L.; Carretero, M.; Segura, A.

    2017-12-01

    When quantized, traces of classically chaotic single-particle systems include eigenvalue statistics and scars in eigenfuntions. Since 2001, many theoretical and experimental works have argued that classically chaotic single-electron dynamics influences and controls collective electron transport. For transport in semiconductor superlattices under tilted magnetic and electric fields, these theories rely on a reduction to a one-dimensional self-consistent drift model. A two-dimensional theory based on self-consistent Boltzmann transport does not support that single-electron chaos influences collective transport. This theory agrees with existing experimental evidence of current self-oscillations, predicts spontaneous collective chaos via a period doubling scenario, and could be tested unambiguously by measuring the electric potential inside the superlattice under a tilted magnetic field.

  13. Two-dimensional collective electron magnetotransport, oscillations, and chaos in a semiconductor superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, L L; Carretero, M; Segura, A

    2017-12-01

    When quantized, traces of classically chaotic single-particle systems include eigenvalue statistics and scars in eigenfuntions. Since 2001, many theoretical and experimental works have argued that classically chaotic single-electron dynamics influences and controls collective electron transport. For transport in semiconductor superlattices under tilted magnetic and electric fields, these theories rely on a reduction to a one-dimensional self-consistent drift model. A two-dimensional theory based on self-consistent Boltzmann transport does not support that single-electron chaos influences collective transport. This theory agrees with existing experimental evidence of current self-oscillations, predicts spontaneous collective chaos via a period doubling scenario, and could be tested unambiguously by measuring the electric potential inside the superlattice under a tilted magnetic field.

  14. The phase diagrams and the order parameters of the diluted transverse superlattice with antiferromagnetic interface coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oubelkacem, A.; El Aouad, N.; Benaboud, A.; Saber, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self-spin correlation functions, the magnetic properties of the Ising superlattice consisting of two ferromagnetic materials A and B, with L a layers of diluted spins S a =((1)/(2)) and L b layers of diluted spins S b =1 in an applied transverse field Ω with antiferromagnetic interface coupling are examined. For fixed values of the reduced exchange interactions and the concentration c of magnetic atoms, the phase diagrams and the total magnetization for the superlattice are studied as a function of the transverse field and the temperature. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of the concentration c of magnetic atoms, the interlayer coupling and the transverse field on both the compensation temperature and the magnetization profiles are clarified. Some of them may be related to the experimental works of rare-earth (RE)/transition metal (TM) multilayer films

  15. The phase diagrams and the order parameters of the diluted superlattice with antiferromagnetic interface coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oubelkacem, A.; El Aouad, N.; Bentaleb, M.; Laaboudi, B.; Saber, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self-spin correlation functions, the magnetic properties of the diluted Ising superlattice consisting of two ferromagnetic materials A and B, with L a layers of diluted spins S a =((1)/(2)) and L b layers of diluted spins S b =1 with antiferromagnetic interface coupling are examined. For fixed values of the reduced exchange interactions and the concentration c of magnetic atoms, the phase diagrams, the two sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization for the superlattice with the same spin S a =S b =((1)/(2)) and for S a =((1)/(2)), S b =1 are studied as a function of the temperature. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of the concentration c of magnetic atoms, the interlayer coupling and the layer thickness on both the compensation temperature and the magnetization profiles are clarified

  16. Phase diagrams of a spin-1 Ising superlattice with alternating transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Lo Russo, S.; Mattei, G.; Ainane, A.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of alternating transverse fields Ω a and Ω b on the critical behavior of an alternating spin-1 Ising superlattice are studied within an effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the single-site spin correlation. Critical temperatures are calculated as a function of the thickness of the superlattice and the strength of the transverse field. Depending on the values of the transverse fields Ω a and Ω b , the critical temperature can increase or decrease with increasing the thickness of the film, such result is not obtained in the uniform transverse field case (Ω a = Ω b ). Furthermore, for each thickness L of the film, a long range ordered phase persist at low temperature for selected values of the transverse field Ω a and arbitrary values of Ω b . The effects of interlayer and intralayer exchange interactions are also examined

  17. Phase diagrams of a spin-1 Ising superlattice with alternating transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.

    2000-09-01

    The effects of alternating transverse fields Ω a and Ω b on the critical behavior of an alternating spin-1 Ising superlattice are studied within an effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the single-site spin correlations. Critical temperatures are calculated as a function of the thickness of the superlattice and the strength of the transverse field. Depending on the values of the transverse fields Ω a and Ω b , the critical temperature can increase or decrease with increasing the thickness of the film, such result is not obtained in the uniform transverse field case (Ω a = Ω b ). Furthermore, for each thickness L of the film, a long range ordered phase persists at low temperature for selected values of the transverse field Ω a and arbitrary values of Ω b . The effects of interlayer and intralayer exchange interactions are also examined. (author)

  18. THz elastic dynamics in finite-size CoFeB-MgO phononic superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrichs, Henning, E-mail: hulrich@gwdg.de; Meyer, Dennis; Müller, Markus; Wittrock, Steffen; Mansurova, Maria [I. Physical Institute, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Walowski, Jakob; Münzenberg, Markus [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-10-14

    In this article, we present the observation of coherent elastic dynamics in a nano-scale phononic superlattice, which consists of only 4 bilayers. We demonstrate how ultra-short light pulses with a length of 40 fs can be utilized to excite a coherent elastic wave at 0.535 THz, which persist over about 20 ps. In later steps of the elastic dynamics, modes with frequency of 1.7 THz and above appear. All these modes are related to acoustic band gaps. Thus, the periodicity strongly manifests in the wave physics, although the system under investigation has only a small number of spatial periods. To further illustrate this, we show how by breaking the translational invariance of the superlattice, these features can be suppressed. Discussed in terms of phonon blocking and radiation, we elucidate in how far our structures can be considered as useful building blocks for phononic devices.

  19. Electronic structure and optical properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caid M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The structural, electronic and optical properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem superlattices have been computationally evaluated for different configurations with m = n and m≠n using the full-potential linear muffin-tin method. The exchange and correlation potentials are treated by the local density approximation (LDA. The ground state properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem binary compounds are determined and compared with the available data. It is found that the superlattice band gaps vary depending on the layers used. The optical constants, including the dielectric function ε(ω, the refractive index n(ω and the refractivity R(ω, are calculated for radiation energies up to 35 eV.

  20. Fe/V and Fe/Co (0 0 1) superlattices: growth, anisotropy, magnetisation and magnetoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordblad, P.; Broddefalk, A.; Mathieu, R.; Blomqvist, P.; Eriksson, O.; Waeppling, R.

    2003-01-01

    Some physical properties of BCC Fe/V and Fe/Co (0 0 1) superlattices are reviewed. The dependence of the magnetic anisotropy on the in-plane strain introduced by the lattice mismatch between Fe and V is measured and compared to a theoretical derivation. The dependence of the magnetic anisotropy (and saturation magnetisation) on the layer thickness ratio Fe/Co is measured and a value for the anisotropy of BCC Co is derived from extrapolation. The interlayer exchange coupling of Fe/V superlattices is studied as a function of the V layer thickness (constant Fe thickness) and layer thickness of Fe (constant V thickness). A region of antiferromagnetic coupling and GMR is found for V thicknesses 12-14 monolayers. However, surprisingly, a 'cutoff' of the antiferromagnetic coupling and GMR is found when the iron layer thickness exceeds about 10 monolayers

  1. Direct observation of two-step crystallization in nanoparticle superlattice formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jungwon; Zheng, Haimei; Lee, Won Chul; Geissler, Phillip L.; Rabani, Eran; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2011-10-06

    Direct imaging of nanoparticle solutions by liquid phase transmission electron microscopy has enabled unique in-situ studies of nanoparticle motion and growth. In the present work, we report on real-time formation of two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays in the very low diffusive limit, where nanoparticles are mainly driven by capillary forces and solvent fluctuations. We find that superlattice formation appears to be segregated into multiple regimes. Initially, the solvent front drags the nanoparticles, condensing them into an amorphous agglomerate. Subsequently, the nanoparticle crystallization into an array is driven by local fluctuations. Following the crystallization event, superlattice growth can also occur via the addition of individual nanoparticles drawn from outlying regions by different solvent fronts. The dragging mechanism is consistent with simulations based on a coarse-grained lattice gas model at the same limit.

  2. Analysis of polariton dispersion in metal nanocomposite based novel superlattice system

    Science.gov (United States)

    DoniPon, V.; Joseph Wilson, K. S.; Malarkodi, A.

    2018-06-01

    The influence of metal nanoparticles in tuning the polaritonic gap in a novel piezoelectric superlattice is studied. Dielectric function of the metal nanoparticles is analyzed using Kawabata-Kubo effect and Drude's theory. The effective dielectric function of the nanocomposite system is studied using Maxwell Garnett approximation. Nanocomposite based LiTaO3 novel superlattice is formed by arranging the nanocomposite systems in such a way that their orientations are in the opposite direction. Hence there are two additional modes of propagation. The top most modes reflect the metal behavior of the nanoparticles. It is found that these modes of propagation vary with the filling factor. These additional modes of propagations can be exploited in the field of communication.

  3. Theoretical modelling of electron transport in InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Ikonic, Zoran; Savic, Ivana; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    A theoretical model describing the electron transport in InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors, modelled as ideal quantum dot superlattices, is presented. The carrier wave functions and energy levels were evaluated using the strain dependent 8-band k.p Hamiltonian and used to calculate all intra- and inter-period transition rates due to interaction with phonons and electromagnetic radiation. The interaction with longitudinal acoustic phonons and electromagnetic radiation was treated perturbatively within the framework of Fermi's golden rule, while the interaction with longitudinal optical phonons was considered taking into account their strong coupling to electrons. The populations of energy levels were then found from a system of rate equations, and the electron current in the superlattice was subsequently extracted. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Space-time evolution of Gaussian wave packets through superlattices containing left-handed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra, P; Romero-Serrano, M [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico DF (Mexico); Robledo-Martinez, A, E-mail: ppereyra@correo.azc.uam.m, E-mail: a.robledo@mailaps.or [Departamento de EnergIa, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    We study the space-time evolution of Gaussian electromagnetic wave packets moving through (L/R){sup n} superlattices, containing alternating layers of left and right-handed materials. We show that the time spent by the wave packet moving through arbitrary (L/R){sup n} superlattices are well described by the phase time. We show that in the particular case where the thicknesses d{sub L,R} and indices n{sub l,r} of the layers satisfy the condition d{sub L}|n{sub L}| = d{sub R}n{sub R}, the usual band structure becomes a sequence of isolated and equidistant peaks with negative phase times.

  5. Structural simulation of superlattices in lithium aluminates; Simulacion estructural de superredes en aluminatos de litio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Basurto S, R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    Among the materials to be used on the tritium generator cover of the future fusion reactors the lithium aluminate ({gamma} - LiAlO{sub 2}) is one of the more studied. In this work it is presented the superlattice structural simulation that presents to {gamma} - LiAlO{sub 2} as main phase and to {alpha} - LiAlO{sub 2} as the secondary phase. The simulation is developed considering that as the two phases present different symmetry ({gamma} - LiAlO{sub 2} is tetrahedral and {alpha} - LiAlO{sub 2} is hexahedral) it is had a superlattice LUCS type (Layered Ultrathin Coherent Structure) that is it presents an structure in coherent ultrathin layers since it is what implicates a lesser energy of formation. (Author)

  6. Dynamical x-ray diffraction studies of interfacial strain in superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.M.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hamm, R.A.; Panish, M.B.; Ritter, D.; Mancrander, A.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on dynamical X-ray diffraction studies that have been carried out for lattice-matched InGaAs/InP superlattices grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques. The (400) X-ray satellite pattern, which is predominantly affected by the strain modulation, was analyzed. The strain and thickness of the actual layers including the presence of strained interfacial regions were determined

  7. Spin echo dynamics under an applied drift field in graphene nanoribbon superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay, E-mail: sprabhakar@wlu.ca [M 2NeT Laboratory, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Melnik, Roderick [M 2NeT Laboratory, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Gregorio Millan Institute, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Bonilla, Luis L. [Gregorio Millan Institute, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Raynolds, James E. [Drinker Biddle and Reath LLP, Washington, DC 20005 (United States)

    2013-12-02

    We investigate the evolution of spin dynamics in graphene nanoribbon superlattices (GNSLs) with armchair and zigzag edges in the presence of a drift field. We determine the exact evolution operator and show that it exhibits spin echo phenomena due to rapid oscillations of the quantum states along the ribbon. The evolution of the spin polarization is accompanied by strong beating patterns. We also provide detailed analysis of the band structure of GNSLs with armchair and zigzag edges.

  8. Spin echo dynamics under an applied drift field in graphene nanoribbon superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick; Bonilla, Luis L.; Raynolds, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of spin dynamics in graphene nanoribbon superlattices (GNSLs) with armchair and zigzag edges in the presence of a drift field. We determine the exact evolution operator and show that it exhibits spin echo phenomena due to rapid oscillations of the quantum states along the ribbon. The evolution of the spin polarization is accompanied by strong beating patterns. We also provide detailed analysis of the band structure of GNSLs with armchair and zigzag edges

  9. Novel Si-Ge-C Superlattices for More than Moore CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Keywords: Silicon ; Germanium; Carbon; Superlattices; Direct Band-Gaps; Silicon - Photonics ; Image Sensors. Introduction Materials with direct band-gaps and...Wang Z., B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, et al., “Room- temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon ”, Nature Photonics 9, 2015...Creek Blvd. Suite 284 San Jose, CA 95129 Contact author: Lynn.Forester@Quantumsemi.com Abstract: The search for Silicon -based direct band-gap

  10. Light-hole conduction in InGaAs/GaAs strained-layer superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirber, J.E.; Fritz, I.J.; Dawson, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    We report the first observation of light-hole band carriers in In/sub 0.2/Ga/sub 0.8/As/GaAs strained-layer superlattices by direct measurements of their effective mass (m*m/sub o/ = 0.14) using oscillatory magnetoresistance data. Preferential population of light-hole states, due to splitting of the degenerate bulk valence bands by built-in strain, allows this direct observation

  11. Hydrostatic pressure and strain effects in short period InN/GaN superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structures of short-period pseudomorphically grown superlattices (SLs) of the form mInN/nGaN are calculated and the band gap variation with the well and the barrier thicknesses is discussed including hydrostatic pressure effects. The calculated band gap shows a strong dependence...... strongly on the strain conditions and SL geometry, but weakly on the applied external hydrostatic pressure....

  12. Optical characterization of nanocrystals in silicon rich oxide superlattices and porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agocs, E.; Petrik, P.; Milita, S.; Vanzetti, L.; Gardelis, S.; Nassiopoulou, A.G.; Pucker, G.; Balboni, R.; Fried, M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose to analyze ellipsometry data by using effective medium approximation (EMA) models. Thanks to EMA, having nanocrystalline reference dielectric functions and generalized critical point (GCP) model the physical parameters of two series of samples containing silicon nanocrystals, i.e. silicon rich oxide (SRO) superlattices and porous silicon layers (PSL), have been determined. The superlattices, consisting of ten SRO/SiO 2 layer pairs, have been prepared using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The porous silicon layers have been prepared using short monopulses of anodization current in the transition regime between porous silicon formation and electropolishing, in a mixture of hydrofluoric acid and ethanol. The optical modeling of both structures is similar. The effective dielectric function of the layer is calculated by EMA using nanocrystalline components (nc-Si and GCP) in a dielectric matrix (SRO) or voids (PSL). We discuss the two major problems occurring when modeling such structures: (1) the modeling of the vertically non-uniform layer structures (including the interface properties like nanoroughness at the layer boundaries) and (2) the parameterization of the dielectric function of nanocrystals. We used several techniques to reduce the large number of fit parameters of the GCP models. The obtained results are in good agreement with those obtained by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. We investigated the correlation of the broadening parameter and characteristic EMA components with the nanocrystal size and the sample preparation conditions, such as the annealing temperatures of the SRO superlattices and the anodization current density of the porous silicon samples. We found that the broadening parameter is a sensitive measure of the nanocrystallinity of the samples, even in cases, where the nanocrystals are too small to be visible for X-ray scattering. Major processes like sintering, phase separation, and intermixing have been

  13. Microstructural characterization of pulsed plasma nitrided 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgari, M.; Barnoush, A.; Johnsen, R.; Hoel, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The low temperature pulsed plasma nitrided layer of 316 SS was studied. → The plastic deformation induced in the austenite due to nitriding is characterized by EBSD at different depths (i.e., nitrogen concentration). → Nanomechanical properties of the nitride layer was investigated by nanoindentation at different depths (i.e., nitrogen concentration). → High hardness, high nitrogen concentration and high dislocation density is detected in the nitride layer. → The hardness and nitrogen concentration decreased sharply beyond the nitride layer. - Abstract: Pulsed plasma nitriding (PPN) treatment is one of the new processes to improve the surface hardness and tribology behavior of austenitic stainless steels. Through low temperature treatment (<440 deg. C), it is possible to obtain unique combinations of wear and corrosion properties. Such a combination is achieved through the formation of a so-called 'extended austenite phase'. These surface layers are often also referred to as S-phase, m-phase or γ-phase. In this work, nitrided layers on austenitic stainless steels AISI 316L (SS316L) were examined by means of a nanoindentation method at different loads. Additionally, the mechanical properties of the S-phase at different depths were studied. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) examination of the layer showed a high amount of plasticity induced in the layer during its formation. XRD results confirmed the formation of the S-phase, and no deleterious CrN phase was detected.

  14. Electronic structure and mechanical properties of plasma nitrided ferrous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portolan, E. [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul-RS (Brazil); Baumvol, I.J.R. [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul-RS (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 91509-970 (Brazil); Figueroa, C.A., E-mail: cafiguer@ucs.br [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul-RS (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    The electronic structures of the near-surface regions of two different nitrided steels (AISI 316 and 4140) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoelectron groups from all main chemical elements involved were addressed for steel samples with implanted-N concentrations in the range 16-32 at.%. As the implanted-N concentrations were increased, rather contrasting behaviors were observed for the two kinds of steel. The N1s photoelectrons had spectral shifts toward lower (nitrided AISI 316) or higher (nitrided AISI 4140) binding energies, whereas the Fe2p{sub 3/2} photoelectron spectrum remains at a constant binding energy (nitrided AISI 316) or shifts toward higher binding energies (AISI 4140). These trends are discussed in terms of the metallic nitride formation and the overlapping of atomic orbitals. For nitrided AISI 316, a semi-classical approach of charge transfer between Cr and N is used to explain the experimental facts (formation of CrN), while for nitrided AISI 4140 we propose that the interaction between orbitals 4s from Fe and 2p from N promotes electrons to the conduction band increasing the electrical attraction of the N1s and Fe2p electrons in core shells (formation of FeN{sub x}). The increase in hardness of the steel upon N implantation is attributed to the localization of electrons in specific bonds, which diminishes the metallic bond character.

  15. Corrosion fatigue behaviour of ion nitrided AISI 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genel, K. [Sakarya Univ., Adapazari (Turkey). Mech. Eng. Dept.; Demirkol, M.; Guelmez, T. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Guemuessuyu, 80191, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-08-31

    Machine components suffer from corrosion degradation of fatigue characteristics and improvement can be attained by the application of a nitriding treatment, particularly to low alloy steels. In the present study, the effect of ion nitriding on corrosion fatigue performance of AISI 4140 steel has been investigated by conducting a series of rotary bending corrosion fatigue tests at 95 Hz, in 3% NaCl aqueous solution. Hourglass shaped, 4 mm diameter fatigue specimens were ion nitrided at 748 K for 1, 3, 8 and 16 h prior to the tests. It was observed that distinct fatigue limit behaviour of ion nitrided steel in air completely disappeared in corrosive environment besides severe degradation in fatigue characteristics. An improvement reaching to 60% in corrosion fatigue strength can be attained by successive ion nitriding practice based on a fatigue life of 10{sup 7} cycles. An attempt was made to establish an empirical relationship between corrosion fatigue strength and relative case depth, which considers the size of the ion nitrided specimen. It was also determined that a power relationship holds between corrosion fatigue strength and fatigue life of ion nitrided steel. The presence of white layer has resulted in additional improvement in corrosion fatigue resistance, and it was observed that corrosion fatigue cracks were initiated dominantly under the white layer by pit formation mechanism. (orig.)

  16. Corrosion fatigue behaviour of ion nitrided AISI 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genel, K.

    2000-01-01

    Machine components suffer from corrosion degradation of fatigue characteristics and improvement can be attained by the application of a nitriding treatment, particularly to low alloy steels. In the present study, the effect of ion nitriding on corrosion fatigue performance of AISI 4140 steel has been investigated by conducting a series of rotary bending corrosion fatigue tests at 95 Hz, in 3% NaCl aqueous solution. Hourglass shaped, 4 mm diameter fatigue specimens were ion nitrided at 748 K for 1, 3, 8 and 16 h prior to the tests. It was observed that distinct fatigue limit behaviour of ion nitrided steel in air completely disappeared in corrosive environment besides severe degradation in fatigue characteristics. An improvement reaching to 60% in corrosion fatigue strength can be attained by successive ion nitriding practice based on a fatigue life of 10 7 cycles. An attempt was made to establish an empirical relationship between corrosion fatigue strength and relative case depth, which considers the size of the ion nitrided specimen. It was also determined that a power relationship holds between corrosion fatigue strength and fatigue life of ion nitrided steel. The presence of white layer has resulted in additional improvement in corrosion fatigue resistance, and it was observed that corrosion fatigue cracks were initiated dominantly under the white layer by pit formation mechanism. (orig.)

  17. Electronic structure and mechanical properties of plasma nitrided ferrous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolan, E.; Baumvol, I. J. R.; Figueroa, C. A.

    2009-04-01

    The electronic structures of the near-surface regions of two different nitrided steels (AISI 316 and 4140) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoelectron groups from all main chemical elements involved were addressed for steel samples with implanted-N concentrations in the range 16-32 at.%. As the implanted-N concentrations were increased, rather contrasting behaviors were observed for the two kinds of steel. The N1s photoelectrons had spectral shifts toward lower (nitrided AISI 316) or higher (nitrided AISI 4140) binding energies, whereas the Fe2p 3/2 photoelectron spectrum remains at a constant binding energy (nitrided AISI 316) or shifts toward higher binding energies (AISI 4140). These trends are discussed in terms of the metallic nitride formation and the overlapping of atomic orbitals. For nitrided AISI 316, a semi-classical approach of charge transfer between Cr and N is used to explain the experimental facts (formation of CrN), while for nitrided AISI 4140 we propose that the interaction between orbitals 4s from Fe and 2p from N promotes electrons to the conduction band increasing the electrical attraction of the N1s and Fe2p electrons in core shells (formation of FeN x). The increase in hardness of the steel upon N implantation is attributed to the localization of electrons in specific bonds, which diminishes the metallic bond character.

  18. Electronic structure and mechanical properties of plasma nitrided ferrous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portolan, E.; Baumvol, I.J.R.; Figueroa, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structures of the near-surface regions of two different nitrided steels (AISI 316 and 4140) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoelectron groups from all main chemical elements involved were addressed for steel samples with implanted-N concentrations in the range 16-32 at.%. As the implanted-N concentrations were increased, rather contrasting behaviors were observed for the two kinds of steel. The N1s photoelectrons had spectral shifts toward lower (nitrided AISI 316) or higher (nitrided AISI 4140) binding energies, whereas the Fe2p 3/2 photoelectron spectrum remains at a constant binding energy (nitrided AISI 316) or shifts toward higher binding energies (AISI 4140). These trends are discussed in terms of the metallic nitride formation and the overlapping of atomic orbitals. For nitrided AISI 316, a semi-classical approach of charge transfer between Cr and N is used to explain the experimental facts (formation of CrN), while for nitrided AISI 4140 we propose that the interaction between orbitals 4s from Fe and 2p from N promotes electrons to the conduction band increasing the electrical attraction of the N1s and Fe2p electrons in core shells (formation of FeN x ). The increase in hardness of the steel upon N implantation is attributed to the localization of electrons in specific bonds, which diminishes the metallic bond character.

  19. Characterization of plasma nitrided layers produced on sintered iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alves Fontes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasma nitriding is a thermo-physical-chemical treatment process, which promotes surface hardening, caused by interstitial diffusion of atomic nitrogen into metallic alloys. In this work, this process was employed in the surface modification of a sintered ferrous alloy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses, and wear and microhardness tests were performed on the samples submitted to ferrox treatment and plasma nitriding carried out under different conditions of time and temperature. The results showed that the nitride layer thickness is higher for all nitrided samples than for ferrox treated samples, and this layer thickness increases with nitriding time and temperature, and temperature is a more significant variable. The XRD analysis showed that the nitrided layer, for all samples, near the surface consists in a mixture of γ′-Fe4N and ɛ-Fe3N phases. Both wear resistance and microhardness increase with nitriding time and temperature, and temperature influences both the characteristics the most.

  20. Anti corrosion layer for stainless steel in molten carbonate fuel cell - comprises phase vapour deposition of titanium nitride, aluminium nitride or chromium nitride layer then oxidising layer in molten carbonate electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Forming an anticorrosion protective layer on a stainless steel surface used in a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) - comprises the phase vapour deposition (PVD) of a layer comprising at least one of titanium nitride, aluminium nitride or chromium nitride and then forming a protective layer in situ...