WorldWideScience

Sample records for superfund enforcement decision

  1. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Ormet Corporation, Hannibal, OH, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-12

    The Record of Decision presents the selected remedy for the Ormet Corporation Superfund Site. The purpose of this remedy is to eliminate or reduce contamination in soils, sediments and ground water, and to reduce the risks associated with exposure to contaminated materials. This is the first and final remedy planned for the Site.

  2. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Helena Chemical Company, (Tampa Plant), Hillsborough County, Tampa, FL, May 7, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The decision document (Record of Decision), presents the selected remedial action for the Helena Chemical Company Superfund Site, Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida. This action addresses soil, sediment, and ground water contamination at the site and calls for the implementation of response measures which will protect human health and the environment. The selected remedy includes biological treatment (i.e., bioremediation) of pesticides and other site related contaminants located in surface soil sand sediments to levels appropriate for future industrial use of the Site. In addition, the selected remedy includes ground water recovery and treatment to remove pesticides and other site related contaminants.

  3. Superfund Query

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Superfund Query allows users to retrieve data from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) database.

  4. EPA Superfund Record of Decision: Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Record of Decision (ROD) documents the decision and rationale for selecting remedies to permanent solve and treat contaminated water, groundwater, soils and...

  5. Favorable Decision Upholding Radioactive/Hazardous Mixed Waste Storage Civil Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a copy of the U.S. Court of Appeals (District of Columbia Circuit) decision in Edison Electric Institute, et al. v. EPA, No. 91-1586, which upheld the EPA's August 29, 1991, radioactive/hazardous 'mixed waste' storage civil enforcement policy

  6. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): McClellan Air Force Base, Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit, Sacramento, CA, May 11, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Interim Record of Decision (ROD) presents the interim remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit (Groundwater OU) at the McClellan Air Force Base (McClellan AFB) Superfund site in Sacramento, California. The Groundwater OU addresses all of the VOC-contaminated groundwater at McClellan AFB. The Groundwater OU remedy is designed to prevent the spread of contamination that is already in the groundwater by containing groundwater with concentrations greater than maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). The remedy is also designed to remove to the maximum extent practicable the mass of contamination that lies in that volume of the groundwater.

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Intel Santa Clara III Superfund site, Santa Clara, CA. (First remedial action), September 1990. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-20

    The Intel (Santa Clara III) site includes a plant that performs quality control testing of chemicals and electrical testing of semiconductors in Santa Clara, Santa Clara County, California. The site is in a predominantly industrial area, and overlies a major ground regional source of ground water, the Santa Clara Valley ground water basin. In 1982, the State conducted a leak detection program, which identified VOC contamination in an onsite shallow aquifer. Possible sources for the contamination may include the accidental dumping of solvents into an acid neutralization tank, accidental spills near an above-ground solvent storage facility, and cleaning of solvent-contaminated pipes during plant construction. It has been determined that no onsite source is presently contributing to ground water contamination. Since 1985, Intel has been pumping and treating ground water using granular activated carbon as an Initial Remedial Measure (IRM). The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses a final solution for restoring ground water to its beneficial use. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including TCE.

  8. Law Enforcement of Consumer Protection for Safe Food Packaging in The Decisions of Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryani, F.; Herwastoeti; Najih, M.; Haris, A.

    2017-04-01

    The right to a safe food is a human rights protected by the 1945 Constitution and legislation, including the Health Act, the Consumer Protection Act and Food Act. The law governing the rights and obligations of consumers; rights, obligations and responsibilities of businesses, as well as prohibitions and sanctions for businesses that violate. Food consumers aggrieved can file a non-litigation legal action and / or litigation. Non-litigation legal efforts made through negotiation or mediation or through Consumer Dispute Resolution Body (BPSK). The litigation efforts made by filing a lawsuit for damages to the court and / or reporting the case to the criminal law enforcement. This study specifically examines the enforcement of criminal law in the judgment as a safeguard against food consumers. Sanctions provisions setting a strategic role in an effort to make the protection of consumers of food. Patterns general formulation of the maximum penalty in the third Act is not appropriate because it too gives flexibility for the judge to make a decision as low to the Defendant. Facts on society, business agent has a dominant and strong position compared with consumers of food. These favorable conditions business agent position and vice versa less give legal protection to the Consumer Food. Preferably the pattern formulation penalty of criminal acts in the field of food using a specific minimum and maximum public.

  9. 40 CFR 304.40 - Effect and enforcement of final decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS ARBITRATION PROCEDURES FOR SMALL..., regulation or legal theory; or (2) Take further response action at the facility concerned pursuant to CERCLA or any other applicable statute, regulation or legal theory; or (3) Seek reimbursement from any...

  10. FROM ENFORCEMENT TO INTEGRATION: INFUSING ADMINISTRATIVE DECISION-MAKING WITH HUMAN RIGHTS VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Raso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an integration approach to realize human rights values within administrative agencies.  Using social assistance as a factual context, it examines how rights enforcement has become the dominant mechanism for reforming government benefits programs.  Rights enforcement is ineffective at achieving the values underlying human rights codes, however, even where enforcement occurs at administrative tribunals.  Attention must therefore be directed towards efforts to infuse individual and institutional discretion with human rights values.  Given their quasi-constitutional status, such values have a key role to play in shaping the design of administrative agencies and the everyday decisions of front-line workers.    Dans ce document, l’auteur propose une approche axée sur l’intégration des droits afin d’assurer le respect des valeurs qui sous-tendent les droits de la personne à l’intérieur des organismes administratifs. En se servant de l’aide sociale comme toile de fond, l’auteur explique que la plupart des décisions discrétionnaires prises dans le cadre de l’exécution des droits ne sont pas contestées.  Les mécanismes d’exécution des droits ne permettent pas d’assurer le respect des valeurs qui sous-tendent les droits de la personne, notamment en ce qui concerne les programmes d’avantages sociaux du gouvernement. En conséquence, il faut tenter d’intégrer ces valeurs aux décisions administratives discrétionnaires prises au niveau tant personnel qu’institutionnel. En raison de leur statut quasi constitutionnel, ces valeurs ont un rôle clé à jouer pour façonner la conception des organismes administratifs et les décisions que les travailleurs de première ligne sont appelés à prendre tous les jours.

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Micro Storage/Intel Magnetics, Santa Clara, CA. (First remedial action), August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-26

    The 3-acre Micro Storage/Intel Magnetics site consists of a former microcomputer disk drive manufacturing facility and a magnetic bubble production and testing facility in Santa Clara, Santa Clara County, California. In addition, the site overlies two shallow aquifers zones, which in turn, overlie the Santa Clara Valley ground water basin, the primary drinking water source for the 1.4 million residents of the Santa Clara Valley. As a result of possible improper storage procedures at both facilities, a number of State and EPA investigations identified VOCs including benzene, TCE, and TCA, and other organics in the ground water aquifer beneath the site. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses ground water contaminated by past facility operations. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, TCE, and toluene; and other organics. The selected remedial action for this site is included.

  12. Access Control Enforcement Testing

    OpenAIRE

    El Kateb, Donia; Elrakaiby, Yehia; Mouelhi, Tejeddine; Le Traon, Yves

    2012-01-01

    A policy-based access control architecture com- prises Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs), which are modules that intercept subjects access requests and enforce the access decision reached by a Policy Decision Point (PDP), the module implementing the access decision logic. In applications, PEPs are generally implemented manually, which can introduce errors in policy enforcement and lead to security vulnerabilities. In this paper, we propose an approach to systematically test and validate the co...

  13. Managing the process of interdisciplinary design: Identifying, enforcing, and anticipating decision-making frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerjav, V.; Hartmann, T.; Achammer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Although a number of studies are devoted to studying design practice, very little is known about how the managerial decisions are made to steer the design process. This article sets forth an exploration of managerial decision making in the interdisciplinary design process. To this end, the paper der

  14. Factors influencing law enforcement decisions to adopt an evidence-based robbery prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, A; Casteel, C; Chronister, T; Nocera, M; Vladutiu, C J; Peek-Asa, C

    2013-12-01

    Homicide is the leading cause of workplace death among small retail and service businesses in the United States. Evidence-based programs have been shown to reduce robbery and robbery-related crimes in small retail businesses; however, reaching small businesses with programs has been difficult. As small businesses typically have no corporate backing or trade affiliation, police departments have been identified as potential vehicles for program dissemination. A national sample of 300 law enforcement agencies was surveyed to identify facilitators and barriers to adoption and sustainability of an evidence-based program. The questionnaire was developed using behavioral theory concepts and administered via telephone. Preliminary findings suggest the primary facilitators to program adoption included organizational capacity factors such as staff buy-in, dedicated personnel and financial support. Competing responsibilities was the primary barrier identified by agencies. Agency size and program complexity were identified as potential predictors of program adoption. Identifying agency and program-specific characteristics that influence program adoption by law enforcement agencies will be valuable for marketing programs to agencies that have the infrastructure to support and sustain program dissemination. Understanding these factors will optimize the reach of evidence-based strategies to small businesses.

  15. Superfund Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a number of individual data sets related to site-specific information for Superfund, which is governed under the Comprehensive Environmental...

  16. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  17. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a selected set of...

  18. 75 FR 49414 - Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 RIN 2050-AG58 Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund... Superfund Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts. DATES: This rule is effective October 12... requirements shall apply to all new Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts, funded under...

  19. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  20. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Feed Materials Production Center, (USDOE), Operable Unit 1, Fernald, Hamilton and Butler Counties, OH, March 1, 1995. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 1 of the FEMP site in Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Operable Unit 1 consists of Waste Pits 1 through 6, the Burn Pit, the Clearwell, and associated environmental media (excluding groundwater).

  1. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 3): Fairchild, Intel, and Raytheon Sites, (Mew Study Area), Mountain View, CA, September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of the document is to explain the significant differences between the Record of Decision (ROD) signed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on June 9, 1989 (PB90-118225) and the remedy that will be implemented at the Middlefield/Ellis/Whisman Study Area (MEW Site). The document provides a brief background on the MEW Site, describes the change to the ROD that EPA is now making and explains the ways in which this change affects implementation of the remedy selected by EPA in June of 1989.

  2. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Andersen Air Force Base, Operable Unit 3 (MARBO Annex), Yigo, Guam, June 16, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This decision document, a Record of Decision (ROD), presents the selected remedial actions for soil and groundwater at the Marianas/Bonnis Command (MARBO) Annex Operable Unit (OU) at Andersen Air Force Base (AFB), Guam. No risk was found at Waste Pile 5 and the War Dog Borrow Pit, so no further action is planned for these two sites. Current risks associated with soil exceed acceptable risk levels at Waste Pile 6, Waste Pile 7, Landfill 29, and the MARBO Laundry. Based on alternatives evaluated in the OU 3 Focused FS the US Air Force, the USEPA, and Guam have selected Soil Removal (Alternative OU3-D) as the remedy for three of the sites, and Soil Cover (Alternative OU3-C) for one of the sites. Based on alternatives evaluated in the OU-2 Focused FS, the USAF, the USEPA, and the Guam EPA have selected Natural Attenuation with Wellhead Treatment (Alternative G-2) as the remedy for the TCE and PCE contaminated groundwater beneath the MARBO Annex.

  3. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Malta Rocket Fuel Area Site, Towns of Malta and Stillwater, Saratoga County, NY, July 13, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) documents the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) selection of the remedial action for the Malta Rocket Fuel Area site (the Site). The remedy addresses the principal threats to human health and the environment that are posed by conditions at the Site. Exposure to soil contamination at the Malta Test Station will be addressed by excavation and off-site disposal of the contaminated soil. Ingestion of contaminated ground water by on-site employees will be addressed by pumping the Test Station water supply wells and treating the water to acceptable drinking water standards using an air stripper. Ground water not captured by the air stripper will be remediated to cleanup standards through natural attenuation and degradation processes.

  4. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): Carson River Mercury Site, operable unit 1, Lyon, Storey and Churchill County, NV, March 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) of the Carson River Mercury Site (CRMS) which is located in Lyon, Storey and Churchill Counties, Nevada. The selected remedy for the five residential yards is to excavate contaminated surface soil (estimated to go to a depth of approximately 2 feet below ground surface), dispose of the soil at the RCRA municipal landfill if the soils do not exceed the TCLP standards, and restore the excavated areas. If it is determined that all or part of the excavated soil exceeds the TCLP standards, then the excavated soil will either be treated and disposed of at a RCRA municipal landfill or disposed of at the RCRA hazardous waste landfill.

  5. Issuance of Final Guidance: Ecological Risk Assessment and Risk Management Principles for Superfund Sites, October 7, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to help Superfund risk managers make ecological risk management decisions that are based on sound science, consistent across Regions, and present a characterization of site risks that is transparent to the public.

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): General Motors/Central Foundry Division site, St. Lawrence County, Massena, NY. (First remedial action), December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The 270-acre General Motors/Central Foundry Division site is an active aluminum casting plant in Massena, St. Lawrence County, New York. The site overlies a surficial alluvial aquifer and is adjacent to wetlands, both of which have been contaminated. Additional onsite features of concern include the unlined North and East Disposal Areas and the Industrial Landfill, which contain contaminated soil, debris, sludge; four unlined Industrial Lagoons, which contain contaminated liquids, sludge, and soil; the rivers and creek which contains contaminated sediment; contaminated soil on the St. Regis Mohawk Reservation and on General Motors property; and contaminated associated wetlands. The Record of Decision (ROD) provides a final remedy for all site areas and media except the East Disposal Area and the Industrial Landfill, which will be addressed in a subsequent ROD. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, sludge, debris, ground water, and surface water are PCBs, and to a much lesser degree, VOCs including TCE; and other organics including PAHs, and phenols. The selected remedial action for this site is included.

  7. SUPERFUND CLEANUPS AND INFANT HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Greenstone, Michael; Moretti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989–2003 in five large states. Our “difference in differences” approach compares birth outcomes before and after a site clean-up for mothers who live within 2,000 meters of the site and those who live between 2,000– 5,000 meters of a site. We find that proximity to a Superfund site before cleanup is associated with a 20 to 25% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies. PMID:25152535

  8. Enforcement Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Whereas not all recalls are announced in the media or on our Recalls press release page, all recalls montiored by FDA are included in FDA's weekly Enforcement Report...

  9. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  10. Superfund Site Information - Site Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes Superfund site-specific sampling information including location of samples, types of samples, and analytical chemistry characteristics of...

  11. CERCLIS (Superfund) ASCII Text Format - CPAD Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database (CPAD) contains a selected set...

  12. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - SUPERFUND_IDEM_IN: Superfund Program Facilities in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SUPERFUND_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains GPS-located Superfund Program facility locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of...

  13. Superfund National Priority List (NPL) Site Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A set of site boundaries for each site in EPA Region 1 (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont) on EPA's Superfund National...

  14. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  15. Enforcement and illegal migration

    OpenAIRE

    Orrenius, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Border enforcement of immigration laws attempts to raise the costs of illegal immigration, while interior enforcement also lowers the benefits. Border and interior enforcement therefore reduce the net benefits of illegal immigration and should lower the probability that an individual will decide to migrate. While some empirical studies find that border and interior enforcement serve as significant deterrents to illegal immigration, immigration enforcement is costly and carries significant uni...

  16. Law Enforcement Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides...

  17. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Non-NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Non-NPL Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a...

  18. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) - Contaminants at CERCLIS (Superfund) Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Contaminants at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Sites - The CERCLIS Public Access Database...

  19. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  20. Environmental Enforcement Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Current statewide map of the geographic territories of Environmental Enforcement Officers. Part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's...

  1. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  2. EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets database contains the electronic dockets for administrative penalty cases filed by EPA Regions and Headquarters. Visitors...

  3. Feasibility study for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoff, A.H. [US Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States). Region IX; Costan, G.P.; Montgomery, M.S.; White, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The United Heckathom Superfund Site in Richmond, California, was used to formulate pesticides from approximately 1947 to 1966. Soils at the site and sediments in the harbor were contaminated with various chlorinated pesticides, primarily DDT, as a result of these activities. The US Environmental Protection Agency listed the site on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1990. This document is part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study phase of the Superfund response, which will provide the basis for selection of a final remedy that will protect human health and the environment and achieve compliance with federal and state envirorunental laws.

  4. Compliance and Enforcement Actions (CEA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Compliance and Enforcement Actions application provides process assistance / improvements for conducting investigation and enforcement activities. The Compliance and...

  5. Enforcement Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — EIS is an automated management information system that tracks the FAA’s enforcement actions on a nationwide basis. EIS is the FAA’s primary database for tracking...

  6. ENFORCE Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Lysemoset, Tom; MAHLER, Tobias; Solhaug, Bjørnar; Bing, Jon; Elgesom, Dag; Stølen, Ketil

    2007-01-01

    ENFORCE is a multi-disciplinary research project addressing trust management. The research objectives include the development of a methodology for the capture and analysis of policies for security and trust management, the development of a methodology for legal risk analysis to ensure trust, as well as the development of a language suitable for the specification of trust management policies. This report documents the ENFORCE conceptual framework for trust management by clarifying the notion o...

  7. Report: Remedial Project Manager Turnover at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2001-M-000015, June 15, 2001. We determined that EPA Region III did not have formal procedures in place to mitigate continuity problems caused by turnover of EPA personnel in the Superfund program.

  8. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS): PRP listing by site for Region 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). This data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. SETS was created to track PRP identification at both NPL (National Priorities List) and non-NPL sites. SETS does not address the range of other administrative duties related to tracking the PRP. Region 9 includes American Samoa, Arizona, California, Guam, Hawaii, Midway, Nevada, Northern Marianas, Pacific Islands, Trust Territories, and Wake Island.

  9. 77 FR 13603 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction AGENCY: Environmental... concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston. The settlement is not an amendment, but a new... name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods:...

  10. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Superfund National Priority List (NPL) Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Superfund National Priority List Sites as part of the CIMC web service. Superfund is a program administered by the EPA to locate,...

  11. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange...

  12. 78 FR 13056 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden...)(1) concerning the Factory H Superfund Site in Meriden, Connecticut (``Site'') with the following... refer to the Factory H Superfund Site, U.S. EPA Docket No. CERCLA-01-2012-0112. FOR FURTHER...

  13. 75 FR 53694 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site located in Davie, Broward County, Florida for publication..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-0729 or Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund...

  14. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site... available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Constitution Road Drum Superfund...

  15. Urban Street Gang Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

  16. Speed enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper probes the relationship between changes in the risk of apprehension for speeding in Norway and changes in the amount of speeding. The paper is based on a game-theoretic model of how the rate of violations and the amount of enforcement is determined by the interaction between drivers...

  17. Lectures on Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleship, Lois

    Three lectures on law enforcement are presented that were prepared for study purposes at Johnson County Community College. The first lecture examines the fundamental ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and discusses their influence on the American Revolution, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Major provisions of the Bill of…

  18. Regulatory Enforcement and Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    1999-01-01

    agencies. The latter are shown to be more important in bringing about compliance than are inspectors' enforcement styles. Municipal agencies are shown to increase compliance through the use of third parties, more frequent inspection, and setting priorities for inspection of major items. The findings about...

  19. Selective enforcement of regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghua; Chen; Dequan; Jiang; Shangkun; Liang; Fangping; Wang

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies may,whether outside of set rules or within their discretion,depart from the original goals or principles set for enforcing the rules,which we term selective enforcement.Taking China,a country in transition,as an example,and using cases and large-sample tests,we present empirical evidence of selective enforcement.The results show that the China Securities Regulatory Commission(CSRC) takes into account whether companies violating the rules have a state-owned background and the strength of that background when investigating and punishing non-compliance.After controlling for the degree of violation,state-owned-enterprises(SOEs) are punished less severely than private companies;and the higher the hierarchy of the SOE in question,the less severe the punishment.It also takes longer for SOEs to be punished.We also find that companies that violate the rules less seriously have a greater tendency to apply for refinancing than those that violate the rules more seriously.This may be because the severity of the violation can affect listed companies’ expectations of obtaining refinancing.The analysis and conclusions of this study prove useful in understanding the causes and consequences of selective enforcement in transition economies.

  20. Enforcement response policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenstein, D.

    1987-12-01

    The directive discusses the policy which updates guidance on classifying violations, selecting appropriate enforcement action in response to various RCRA violators, and taking Federal enforcement action in States with authorized programs.

  1. Field analytical support during Superfund site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, W.L.; Catherman, D.R. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    ERM-FAST{reg_sign} Services has provided cost-effective and critical field analytical support for a wide variety of investigatory and remedial projects over the past four years. Two recent projects involving soils remediation at Superfund sites exemplify the power of real time field analytical support in reducing time and expense during a project`s remedial phase. ERM-FAST on-site analytical facilities were able to meet, in a real time scenario, all data quality objectives (DQOs), all regulatory agency requirements, and satisfied the client`s needs. ERM-FAST made this possible through the development of unique analytical strategies, the proper selection of analytical technologies, and by streamlining the analytical methodologies. Both of these remedial efforts offer illustrations of the effectiveness of field analysis for vastly differing site contaminants. This case study focuses on the use of portable Gas Chromatography (GC) instrumentation as a tool for providing analytical support during a CERCLA site remediation program. The project discussed provides an example of how low cost portable analytical instrumentation can be utilized in a field setting to meet analytical DQOs consistent with CERCLA compliance and to meet the requirements for remedial activity cost control. Substantial savings were realized both by reducing total project analytical cost, and by efficient and effective process and schedule management.

  2. Certification/enforcement analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Industry compliance with minimum energy efficiency standards will be assured through a two-part program approach of certification and enforcement activities. The technical support document (TSD) presents the analyses upon which the proposed rule for assuring that consumer product comply with applicable energy efficiency standards is based. Much of the TSD is based upon support provided DOE by Vitro Laboratories. The OAO Corporation provided additional support in the development of the sampling plan incorporated in the proposed rule. Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement, developed after consideration of various program options, benefits, and impacts, establishes the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy efficiency performance of covered consumer products. The results of the OAO analysis are given in Volume II of the TSD.

  3. Certification/enforcement analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Industry compliance with minimum energy efficiency standards will be assured through a two-part program approach of certification and enforcement activities. The technical support document (TSD) presents the analyses upon which the proposed rule for assuring that consumer product comply with applicable energy efficiency standards is based. Much of the TSD is based upon support provided DOE by Vitro Laboratories. The OAO Corporation provided additional support in the development of the sampling plan incorporated in the proposed rule. Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement, developed after consideration of various program options, benefits, and impacts, establishes the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy efficiency performance of covered consumer products. The results of the OAO analysis are given in Volume II of the TSD.

  4. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors, based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about...... inspectors’ enforcement styles as consisting of multiple components, rather than a single continuum. We show that inspectors’ enforcement styles comprise the degree of formalism and the degree of coercion that they exercise when carrying out inspections. A second contribution is in showing the relationship...... of different types of enforcement styles to the two underlying dimensions of the concept. A third contribution is an examination of the ways in which inspectors’ enforcement styles relate to their enforcement actions. The consistency of our findings with those of other studies suggests that the dimensions...

  5. A Phenomenological Exploration of Black Male Law Enforcement Officers' Perspectives of Racial Profiling and Their Law Enforcement Career Exploration and Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salters, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored Black male law enforcement officers' perspectives of how racial profiling shaped their decisions to explore and commit to a law enforcement career. Criterion and snow ball sampling was used to obtain the 17 participants for this study. Super's (1990) archway model was used as the theoretical…

  6. Quota enforcement in resource industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Nøstbakken, Linda

    cant non-compliance and exogenous constraints on nes and enforcement budget. We propose a new enforcement system based on self-reporting of excess extraction and explicit di erentiation of inspection rates based on compliance history. In particular, we use state-dependent enforcement to induce rms...... to self-report excess extraction. We show that such system increases the e ectiveness of quota management by allowing the regulator to implement a wider range of aggregate extraction targets than under traditional enforcement, while ensuring an ecient allocation of aggregate extraction. In addition...

  7. Immigration Enforcement Actions - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  8. Rules of Engagement as Survival Consciousness: Gay Male Law Enforcement Officers' Experiential Learning in a Masculinized Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2015-01-01

    Gay men face decisions associated with disclosure, the process of coming out as gay, when and if to disclose, and how much information. These decisions carry more weight in masculinized industries such as law enforcement. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to critically explore gay male law enforcement officers' experiences working in…

  9. Rules of Engagement as Survival Consciousness: Gay Male Law Enforcement Officers' Experiential Learning in a Masculinized Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2015-01-01

    Gay men face decisions associated with disclosure, the process of coming out as gay, when and if to disclose, and how much information. These decisions carry more weight in masculinized industries such as law enforcement. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to critically explore gay male law enforcement officers' experiences working in…

  10. 76 FR 80847 - Enforcement Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... into compliance before an enforcement action is taken by the Chair. Voluntary compliance is the goal of... existing compliance issues. The amendment retains the Chair's authority to issue an enforcement action at... compliance. In the Preliminary draft, the second action was called a ``non-compliance notice.''...

  11. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors, based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about i...

  12. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about in...

  13. HSIP Law Enforcement Locations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Law Enforcement Locations Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law Enforcement agencies "are publicly...

  14. 76 FR 48919 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... the Commission for its consideration for possible inclusion in the next Enforcement Policy revision... Enforcement before applying this lower risk significance concept for violations that occur during...

  15. Quota enforcement in resource industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Nøstbakken, Linda

    2014-01-01

    -compliance and exogenous constraints on fines and enforcement budget. We propose a new enforcement system based on self-reporting of excess extraction and explicit differentiation of inspection rates depending on compliance history. We use differentiated inspections to induce firms to self-report excess extraction....... This system increases the effectiveness of the quota by allowing the regulator to implement a wider range of aggregate extraction targets than under traditional enforcement, while ensuring an efficient allocation of extraction. In addition, inspection costs can be reduced without reductions in welfare....

  16. Game animals & hunting : Law enforcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of hunting activities, game mammal surveys, and law enforcement on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. For each year, a list...

  17. 77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement... Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site... available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the...

  18. 75 FR 81269 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina for publication. DATES... your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-1053 or Site name Ward...

  19. 78 FR 14543 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Agency has entered into a settlement at the Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake... EPA Region 4 contact Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Ward...

  20. Remediation System Evaluation, McCormick and Baxter Superfund SiteRemediation System Evaluation, McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The McCormick and Baxter Creosoting Company, Portland Plant, Superfund Site is located adjacent tothe Willamette River in Portland, Oregon and addresses contamination of soil, groundwater, and riversediments stemming from creosoting operations...

  1. The approach adopted by police enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    It is indicated how police enforcement can be effectively implemented. Police enforcement is linked to other measures in order to achieve safe behaviour. Police enforcement represents an important instrument in the stimulation of safe behaviour. Police enforcement has a bearing on how road users eva

  2. 29 CFR 42.6 - Enforcement strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Enforcement strategy. 42.6 Section 42.6 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.6 Enforcement strategy. (a) Each Regional Farm Labor... enforcement strategy for each protective statute pursuant to § 42.20(c)(3). The National Committee...

  3. 78 FR 5838 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... COMMISSION NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy revision; issuance... to its Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy) to incorporate changes directed by the... February 27, 2013, and will be considered by the NRC before the next Enforcement Policy revision....

  4. 76 FR 4369 - Special Law Enforcement Commissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Special Law Enforcement Commissions AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior... Enforcement Commission Policy, Rules and Procedures, the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Protocols... site. DATES: The Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Policy, Rules and Procedures, the Interim...

  5. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter are used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data include PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. SETS was created to track PRP identification at both NPL (National Priorities List) and non-NPL sites. SETS does not address the range of other administrative duties related to tracking the PRP. The site report is designed to provide PRP information linked by the associated site, which appears according to the state where the site is located. Region 9 includes American Samoa, Arizona, California, Guam, Hawaii, Midway, Nevada, Northern Marianas, Pacific Islands, Trust Territories, and Wake Island.

  6. Voting over law enforcement: Mission impossible

    OpenAIRE

    İnal , Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Median voter theorem has been used in many economic environments including law enforcement. Assumptions of the median voter theorem, however, are generally violated in lawenforcement models. Moreover, it is impossible to have agents with "opposite equilibrium preferences" over enforcement levels in law enforcement models. These limitations on the use of preferences over law enforcement raises questions about the robustness and validity of law enforcement models.

  7. Forest commons and local enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-09-09

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements.

  8. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility and remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. These lists represent EPA's preliminary findings on the identities of potentially responsible parties. The site report is designed to provide PRP information linked by the associated site, which appears according to the state where the site is located. Region 9 includes American Samoa, Arizona, California, Guam, Hawaii, Midway, Nevada, Northern Marianas, Pacific Islands, Trust Territories, and Wake Island.

  9. Fishing a superfund site: Dissonance and risk perception of environmental hazards by fishermen in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M. (Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Risk perception studies show that individuals tend to underestimate significant risks, overestimate negligible ones, and distrust authorities. They also rely on a variety of strategies or heuristics to reach decisions regarding their risk-taking behavior. The authors report on a survey of fishermen and crabbers engaged in recreational and substance fishing in a Puerto Rican estuary (near Humacao), which has been declared a Superfund site because of suspected contamination by mercury, and at ecologically similar control sites. Nearly everyone interviewed at the Humacao site was aware of the mercury contamination, but either denied its importance, believed the contamination was restricted to a distant part of the estuary, or assumed that the estuary would be closed by the authorities if the threat was real. All site-users consumed the fish and crabs they caught. At Humacao, the average catch was 7 fish per fishermen (mostly tilapia, Tilapia mossambica, and tarpon, Megalops atlantica) and 13 crabs per crabber (all blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus). On average, the site-users returned to the lagoons about 3-4 times per month. At control sites, fewer fish were eaten. The worst case consumption of tarpon, a species which concentrated mercury at Eastern Puerto Rico, provided an exposure exceeding the EPA reference dose, whereas consumption of one tarpon per week did not entail excess exposure. Fortunately, few individuals caught tarpon exclusively. Unlike counterparts in the northeastern United States, they trusted authorities and indicated that they would have heeded warnings of mercury contamination posted where they fished.

  10. Police enforcement and driving speed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Speed limits are violated frequently in the Netherlands. As speed is an important factor in road crashes, the surveillance of driving speeds is one of the spearheads in the policy plans of the Dutch police. Different methods of speed enforcement have proved to be effective in reducing speed and cras

  11. Formalizing and Enforcing Purpose Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    1991. [JSNS09] Mohammad Jafari, Reihaneh Safavi-Naini, and Nicholas Paul Sheppard . Enforcing purpose of use via workflows. In WPES ’09: Proceedings of...American Medical Informatics Association, October 2011. [ZH01] Rong Zhou and Eric A. Hansen. An improved grid-based approximation algorithm for POMDPs

  12. Distributed Controllers for Norm Enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testerink, B.J.G.; Dastani, M.M.; Bulling, Nils

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on computational mechanisms that control the behavior of autonomous systems at runtime without necessarily restricting their autonomy. We build on existing approaches from runtime verification, control automata, and norm-based systems, and define norm-based controllers that enforc

  13. Law Enforcement Plan : Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Agassiz Law Enforcement Plan clarifies Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to Agassiz Refuge. It provides information about problems,...

  14. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Law Enforcement Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides...

  15. Law Enforcement Plan : Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tamarac NWR Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about problems,...

  16. Law Enforcement Plan : Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa NWR Complex Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about...

  17. Law Enforcement Plan: Horicon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Horicon NWR Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about problems,...

  18. Law Enforcement Plan: Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sherburne NWR Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about problems,...

  19. Law Enforcement Plan : Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Necedah NWR Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about problems,...

  20. 78 FR 69133 - Drug Enforcement Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Lin Zhi... renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the... Administration. BILLING CODE 4410-09-P...

  1. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Federal facilities that are also Superfund sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Federal facilities are properties owned by the federal government. This data layer provides access to Federal facilities that are Superfund sites as part of the CIMC...

  2. Letter to Silverton and San Juan County Regarding Potential Superfund Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feb. 12, 2016 Update: EPA added a letter to the Town of Silverton and San Juan County regarding the agency’s commitment to the Town and County’s involvement during a potential Superfund listing process.

  3. Grain Handling Facility at Freeman, Washington Proposed to Superfund Cleanup List

    Science.gov (United States)

    (March 24, 2015 - Seattle) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is proposing to add the Grain Handling Facility at Freeman, in Spokane County, Washington, to the Superfund National Priorities List. The proposed listing includes a 60-day public comment

  4. Preliminary estimate of natural resource damage : Rocky Mountain Arsenal Superfund Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary estimate of natural resource damages associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous materials at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Superfund Site...

  5. Remediation System Evaluation, Streamlined Remediation System Evaluation (RSE-Lite), Circuitron Corporation Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Circuitron Corporation Superfund Site is located at 82 Milbar Boulevard, East Farmingdale, Suffolk County, New York. The site is situated on a 1-acre lot in an industrial/commercial area that is surrounded by similar small manufacturers...

  6. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites as part of the CIMC web service. EPA works with DoD to facilitate the reuse...

  7. EPA, 12 Private Entities Agree to Remove Contamination and Conduct Study at Metro Container Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILADELPHIA (October 21, 2015) -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 12 private entities have agreed to settle on actions that will lead to increased environmental protection at the Metro Container Superfund Site in Trainer, Delaware Co.,

  8. Report: EPA’s Distribution of Superfund Human Resources Does Not Support Current Regional Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0397, September 19, 2017. Due to insufficient human resources to cover all Superfund site work, some regions have had to slow down or discontinue their efforts to protect human health and the environment.

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individuals actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1996) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to-these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  11. 20 CFR 655.50 - Enforcement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement process. 655.50 Section 655.50... FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement of Attestations for... Workers) § 655.50 Enforcement process. (a) Authority of the WHD Administrator. The WHD Administrator...

  12. 29 CFR 502.15 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF... AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) Enforcement of Work Contracts § 502.15 Enforcement. The... work contract provisions as defined in § 501.10(a). The work contract also includes those...

  13. On avoidance activities in fishery enforcement models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Abildtrup, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Compliance and enforcement in fisheries are important issues from an economic point of view since management measures are useless without a certain level of enforcement. These conclusions come from the well-established theoretical literature on compliance and enforcement problems within fisheries...

  14. 16 CFR 1602.1 - Enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Enforcement Policy” published as a notice in the Federal Register of November 10, 1971 (36 FR 21544), as... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement policy. 1602.1 Section 1602.1... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 1602.1 Enforcement policy. (a) On May 14, 1973, the responsibilities of...

  15. Remediation of the Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, E Scott; Metheny, Maura A

    2002-01-01

    Remediation of ground water and soil contamination at the Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts, uses technologies that reflect differences in hydrogeologic settings, concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and costs of treatment. The poorly permeable glacial materials that overlie fractured bedrock at the W.R. Grace property necessitate use of closely spaced recovery wells. Contaminated ground water is treated with hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet (UV) oxidation. At UniFirst, a deep well completed in fractured bedrock removes contaminated ground water, which is treated by hydrogen peroxide, UV oxidation, and granular activated carbon (GAC). The remediation system at Wildwood integrates air sparging, soil-vapor extraction, and ground water pumping. Air stripping and GAC are used to treat contaminated water; GAC is used to treat contaminated air. New England Plastics (NEP) uses air sparging and soil-vapor extraction to remove VOCs from the unsaturated zone and shallow ground water. Contaminated air and water are treated using separate GAC systems. After nine years of operation at W.R. Grace and UniFirst, 30 and 786 kg, respectively, of VOCs have been removed. In three years of operation, 866 kg of VOCs have been removed at Wildwood. In 15 months of operation, 36 kg of VOCs were removed at NEP. Characterization work continues at the Olympia Nominee Trust, Whitney Barrel, Murphy Waste Oil, and Aberjona Auto Parts properties. Risk assessments are being finalized that address heavy metals in the floodplain sediments along the Aberjona River that are mobilized from the Industri-Plex Superfund Site located a few miles upstream.

  16. Police enforcement and traffic safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Wesemann, P.

    1988-01-01

    Research has clearly shown that police-enforcement can improve road safety, and it can be questioned whether the police organisation is prepared and able to give priority to preventive control in stead of repression. Dutch police officers aim primarily at catching offenders, not deterring them. Further, many policymakers and citizens prefer other solutions for this type of problems. An opponent remark is presented by J. Dilling.

  17. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SUSPENSION OF THE ENFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae-Horia ŢIŢ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The enforcement procedure is conducted from the time the enforcement body is seized by the enforcement officer, in order to comply with the provisions of the enforcement order, until the completion of the claim, with its accessoriesthereto, and the recovery of the costs of enforcement. The procedure involves a succession of acts, carried mostly by the enforcement officer. The continuity of the procedure may be affected by certain incidents leading to his timing. Among them, the situations ofenforcement suspension are generally determined by reference to their causes, respectively to the provisions of the law (in relation to specific acts or legal facts that occurred during the enforcement, the will of the creditor or the disposal of the court, at the request of the interested party. The analysis of the causes of suspension is important, in order to establish how they operate in concrete, as well for determining the effects that they produce.

  18. Spatial disparity in the distribution of superfund sites in South Carolina: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Jiang, Chengsheng; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith; Wilson, Sacoby

    2013-11-06

    According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Superfund is a federal government program implemented to clean up uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Twenty-six sites in South Carolina (SC) have been included on the National Priorities List (NPL), which has serious human health and environmental implications. The purpose of this study was to assess spatial disparities in the distribution of Superfund sites in SC. The 2000 US census tract and block level data were used to generate population characteristics, which included race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), education, home ownership, and home built before 1950. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to map Superfund facilities and develop choropleth maps based on the aforementioned sociodemographic variables. Spatial methods, including mean and median distance analysis, buffer analysis, and spatial approximation were employed to characterize burden disparities. Regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the number of Superfund facilities and population characteristics. Spatial coincidence results showed that of the 29.5% of Blacks living in SC, 55.9% live in Superfund host census tracts. Among all populations in SC living below poverty (14.2%), 57.2% were located in Superfund host census tracts. Buffer analyses results (0.5mi, 1.0mi, 5.0mi, 0.5km, 1.0km, and 5.0km) showed a higher percentage of Whites compared to Blacks hosting a Superfund facility. Conversely, a slightly higher percentage of Blacks hosted (30.2%) a Superfund facility than those not hosting (28.8%) while their White counterparts had more equivalent values (66.7% and 67.8%, respectively). Regression analyses in the reduced model (Adj. R2 = 0.038) only explained a small percentage of the variance. In addition, the mean distance for percent of Blacks in the 90th percentile for Superfund facilities was 0.48mi. Burden disparities exist in the distribution of Superfund facilities in SC at the block and

  19. Air-water exchange of PAHs and OPAHs at a superfund mega-site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Lane G; Blair Paulik, L; Anderson, Kim A

    2017-12-15

    Chemical fate is a concern at environmentally contaminated sites, but characterizing that fate can be difficult. Identifying and quantifying the movement of chemicals at the air-water interface are important steps in characterizing chemical fate. Superfund sites are often suspected sources of air pollution due to legacy sediment and water contamination. A quantitative assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) diffusive flux in a river system that contains a Superfund Mega-site, and passes through residential, urban and agricultural land, has not been reported before. Here, passive sampling devices (PSDs) were used to measure 60 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) in air and water. From these concentrations the magnitude and direction of contaminant flux between these two compartments was calculated. The magnitude of PAH flux was greater at sites near or within the Superfund Mega-site than outside of the Superfund Mega-site. The largest net individual PAH deposition at a single site was naphthalene at a rate of -14,200 (±5780) (ng/m(2))/day. The estimated one-year total flux of phenanthrene was -7.9×10(5) (ng/m(2))/year. Human health risk associated with inhalation of vapor phase PAHs and dermal exposure to PAHs in water were assessed by calculating benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations. Excess lifetime cancer risk estimates show potential increased risk associated with exposure to PAHs at sites within and in close proximity to the Superfund Mega-site. Specifically, estimated excess lifetime cancer risk associated with dermal exposure and inhalation of PAHs was above 1 in 1 million within the Superfund Mega-site. The predominant depositional flux profile observed in this study suggests that the river water in this Superfund site is largely a sink for airborne PAHs, rather than a source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Enforcement, Integration, and the Future of Immigration Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodriguez

    2017-06-01

    immigrants with different legal statuses. While this essay remains largely (though not entirely agnostic on these questions, it offers four basic principles to frame any future federalism agenda. First, when it comes to enforcement federalism, the federal government ought to acknowledge the reasons that localities might resist federal enforcement efforts, at least as a matter of politics, and if only to ensure that federal policy is subjected to accountability checks by competing, external pressures. Second, whatever the value of resistance to enforcement, a federalism agenda should include efforts by all levels of government to identify a manageable equilibrium that reconciles the federal government’s constitutional and statutory responsibilities for maintaining an enforcement regime with the local politics of immigration and the lived realities of immigrant communities. Third, when it comes to integration federalism, the problem of illegal immigration must be solved, and only the federal government can do so decisively. Federalism can only mediate the political conflict over status and help set the terms for its ultimate resolution. And yet, the structural reasons that have given rise to integration federalism should re-enforce the country’s commitment to locally driven integration policy, supported by a national-level commitment to information sharing, coordination, and resource support. Finally, because both enforcement and integration policy require systemic flexibility, it is important not to confuse arguments on the merits of immigration policy with structural claims. In other words, scholars, advocates, or policymakers should exercise humility and circumspection when developing conversation-stopping claims that a certain intergovernmental relation is required by law, especially in a context as charged as immigration policy.

  1. How to Enforcement European Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    of the European Commission and the ECJ to strengthen the enforcement of European law. This threatened the deeper balance of competences between the European Community and its member states and consequently led to a sharp response from the national parliaments and courts. The force of these responses and the deep...... crisis that had evolved in the late 1970s between France and the ECJ, led to a change in the EC’s case law that limited the direct effect of directives to the vertical relation between citizens and the respective member state and excluded any horizontal effect. The story is an example of how the activist...

  2. Characterization of ecological risks at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Superfund Site, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Gary A.; Blanchet, Richard J.; Linder, Greg L.; Palawski, Don; Brumbaugh, William G.; Canfield, Tim J.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ingersoll, Chris G.; Farag, Aïda M.; DalSoglio, Julie A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive field and laboratory approach to the ecological risk assessment for the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Site, a Superfund site in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, has been described in the preceding reports of this series. The risk assessment addresses concerns over the ecological impacts of upstream releases of mining wastes to fisheries of the upper Clark Fork River (CFR) and the benthic and terrestrial habitats further downstream in Milltown Reservoir. The risk characterization component of the process integrated results from a triad of information sources: (a) chemistry studies of environmental media to identify and quantify exposures of terrestrial and aquatic organisms to site-related contaminants; (b) ecological or population studies of terrestrial vegetation, birds, benthic communities, and fish; and (c) in situ and laboratory toxicity studies with terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and plants, small mammals, amphibians, and fish exposed to contaminated surface water, sediments, wetland soils, and food sources. Trophic transfer studies were performed on waterfowl, mammals, and predatory birds using field measurement data on metals concentrations in environmental media and lower trophic food sources. Studies with sediment exposures were incorporated into the Sediment Quality Triad approach to evaluate risks to benthic ecology. Overall results of the wetland and terrestrial studies suggested that acute adverse biological effects were largely absent from the wetland; however, adverse effects to reproductive, growth, and physiological end points of various terrestrial and aquatic species were related to metals exposures in more highly contaminated depositional areas. Feeding studies with contaminated diet collected from the upper CFR indicated that trout are at high risk from elevated metals concentrations in surface water, sediment, and aquatic invertebrates. Integration of chemical analyses with toxicological and ecological

  3. Private law enforcement in post-communist Southeastern Europe: An economic analysis of arbitration and execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoenfelder Bruno

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The very idea of private law enforcement is alien in Southeastern Europe and appears there to be perceived as somewhat extravagant. A thoroughgoing search for the reasons of an extremely limited scope of the private law enforcement is undertaken in the paper. Private law enforcement is seen as taking three basic forms: self-enforcement, enforcement through other agents and illegal means and through specialized agents and with reliance on legal means. Particularly extensive is the analysis of arbitrage, both domestic and international, and of the causes of its modest deployment. Several possible causes are examined to some detail: the lack of knowledge both generally and in the sense of the lacking awareness of the possibility to find recourse to arbitrage, the shortage of lowers and the inadequacy of legal advice, distrust in courts, the preference for secrecy combined with partly operating in the realm of the gray economy, the missing of appellate proceedings and the shortfall in execution. Various factors influence the market share of arbitrage in the mass of litigations through various mechanisms and to a significantly differentiated degree. The paper centers on the various, sufficiently numerous components of these mechanisms. The stress is placed upon the still subdued power of reputation capital due mostly to a highly unstable macroeconomic situation, weakly and recently institutionalized property relations and, as a consequence, short decision making horizon. A new law enforcement mechanism, based on notaries as specific private enforcers and emerging in Croatia, is surveyed with an account of its advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Environmental enforcement in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, David

    2009-03-01

    In the UK, the Environment Agency is responsible for enforcement of environmental legislation and offences committed under such laws and regulations. Under the current regime, if deemed serious enough, offenders are taken to court. In the past eight years, there have been approximately 1600 cases (including approximately 800 prosecutions) per year with 61% being for illegal disposal of wastes and a further 26% being for water pollution incidents. The level of fine has been relatively small at around pound sterling 6700 per conviction for water offences and pound sterling 3700 for waste offences. This is possibly due to a lack of awareness of the damage caused in environmental offending by the courts. New legislation in the form of the Regulatory Enforcement and Sanctions Act 2008 is likely to change the way offences are assessed and treated by the Agency and a proportion of cases will be dealt with by the Agency itself, with appeals being handled by a Tribunal and only the most serious cases going to the criminal courts. The efficacy of this approach has yet to be tested in the UK but may speed up the process and lead to more appropriate sanctions being levied.

  5. An interative, probabilistic environmental decision analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, E.K.; Conrad, S.H.; Brown, T.J.

    1996-03-01

    The framework is versatile and the generalized approach has worked well for a suite of evaluations or as a foundation for evaluation tools including developing the SEDSS computer software system for evaluating site safety for EPA Superfund problems, NRC Low-Level Nuclear Waste facility siting, and UMTRA site remediation decisions; iteration through the performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal Facility; and optimizing data collection for DNAPL problems. In particular, the SEDSS computer system makes a portion of these tools accessible for broad scale application. Development of both details of the process and computer tools to support individual steps continues.

  6. 76 FR 24479 - In the Matter of the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site, Sheridan, Oregon, Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... AGENCY In the Matter of the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site, Sheridan, Oregon, Amendment to... with PWPO provided a covenant not to sue for response costs at the Taylor Lumber and Treating Site... should reference the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site in Sheridan, Oregon, EPA Docket No....

  7. 78 FR 47317 - Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Laurel Springs, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... AGENCY Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Laurel Springs, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement with Herbert N. Francis concerning the Ore Knob Mine... comments by site name ``Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site'' by one of the following methods:...

  8. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BDAT INCINERATION OF CERCLA SARMS AT THE JOHN ZINK COMPANY TEST FACILITY (FINAL PROJECT REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of a treatability study of rotary kiln incineration of a synthetic "Superfund soil" bearing a wide range of chemical contaminants typically occurring at Superfund sites. This surrogate soil is referred to as a synthetic analytical reference ...

  9. Criminal Enforcement Case Report Data Dictionary | ECHO ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  10. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  11. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  12. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  13. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Environmental Protection Agency's Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) website provides customizable and downloadable information about environmental...

  14. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  15. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  16. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  17. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  18. Enforcement of social rights - Upholding of obligations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacqueson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the Danish system of remedies in order to assess how the social rights of Union citizens are enforced and upheld in Denmark. Decisions in the social field broadly understood - including social assistance, education, housing and health care - are adopted by various bodies and can...... be appealed before different complaints board. Recourse to ordinary courts is nevertheless also always possible (section 1.2) and legal aid might be obtained under strict conditions (section 1.3). Yet, the administrative complaints system is a corner stone in the protection of social rights in Denmark...

  19. Distributed Enforcement of Service Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Autili

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern service-oriented systems are often built by reusing, and composing together, existing services distributed over the Internet. Service choreography is a possible form of service composition whose goal is to specify the interactions among participant services from a global perspective. In this paper, we formalize a method for the distributed and automated enforcement of service choreographies, and prove its correctness with respect to the realization of the specified choreography. The formalized method is implemented as part of a model-based tool chain released to support the development of choreography-based systems within the EU CHOReOS project. We illustrate our method at work on a distributed social proximity network scenario.

  20. Conflicting policy beliefs and informational complexities in designing a transboundary enforcement monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandran, Remi; Hoppe, Robert; Vries, W.T.; Georgiadou, Yola

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a crowd sourced geospatial decision support system to monitor wildlife crime, in 2005, a team of scientists at the United Nations University (UNU) designed a GIS-based transboundary monitoring system, called Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring System (WEMS). The tool was intende

  1. Conflicting policy beliefs and informational complexities in designing a transboundary enforcement monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandran, R.; Chandran, Remi; Hoppe, Robertus; Vries, W.T.; Georgiadou, P.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a crowd sourced geospatial decision support system to monitor wildlife crime, in 2005, a team of scientists at the United Nations University (UNU) designed a GIS-based transboundary monitoring system, called Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring System (WEMS). The tool was

  2. From Blame to Punishment: Disrupting Prefrontal Cortex Activity Reveals Norm Enforcement Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Martin, Justin W; Treadway, Michael T; Jan, Katherine; Zald, David H; Jones, Owen; Marois, René

    2015-09-23

    The social welfare provided by cooperation depends on the enforcement of social norms. Determining blameworthiness and assigning a deserved punishment are two cognitive cornerstones of norm enforcement. Although prior work has implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in norm-based judgments, the relative contribution of this region to blameworthiness and punishment decisions remains poorly understood. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and fMRI to determine the specific role of DLPFC function in norm-enforcement behavior. DLPFC rTMS reduced punishment for wrongful acts without affecting blameworthiness ratings, and fMRI revealed punishment-selective DLPFC recruitment, suggesting that these two facets of norm-based decision making are neurobiologically dissociable. Finally, we show that DLPFC rTMS affects punishment decision making by altering the integration of information about culpability and harm. Together, these findings reveal a selective, causal role for DLPFC in norm enforcement: representational integration of the distinct information streams used to make punishment decisions.

  3. 45 CFR 150.203 - Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement. 150.203... CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement Processes for... requiring CMS enforcement. CMS enforces HIPAA requirements to the extent warranted (as determined by CMS)...

  4. 12 CFR 370.11 - Enforcement mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement mechanisms. 370.11 Section 370.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.11 Enforcement mechanisms. (a) Termination of Participation....

  5. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    volunteers took on many of the following duties to help enable CAP functions: clerical work , aircraft maintenance , refueling operations, first aid...Highway Patrol, Monterey County Aero Squadron, Lane County Sheriff’s Office, Civil Air Patrol, volunteer flying organizations, law enforcement...5 3. Civil Air Patrol’s Use in Law Enforcement .................................7 D. POTENTIAL EXPLANATIONS AND HYPOTHESES

  6. 31 CFR 103.56 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement. 103.56 Section 103.56 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.56 Enforcement. (a)...

  7. Police enforcement of drinking driving laws.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuur, W.L.G. & Gundy, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    This survey of Dutch police officers was designed to investigate their opinions, expectations and experiences with the enforcement of drinking driving laws. Although many studies have been done on the subject of drinking driving, and police enforcement is a familiar measure against this problem, les

  8. 19 CFR 12.104i - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement. 12.104i Section 12.104i Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104i Enforcement. In the customs territory of...

  9. 18 CFR 1b.21 - Enforcement hotline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement hotline. 1b..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.21 Enforcement hotline. (a) The Hotline Staff may provide information to the public and give informal staff opinions. The opinions...

  10. Effective speed management through automatic enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyses several aspects of the Dutch experience of speed enforcement, and presents the results of some speed management experiments in The Netherlands, using automatic warning of speeders and enforcement of speeding. Traditional approaches to manage speed there have not resulted in satis

  11. 16 CFR 312.9 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement. 312.9 Section 312.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.9 Enforcement. Subject to sections 6503 and 6505 of the Children's Online...

  12. 33 CFR 109.15 - Enforcement proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement proceedings. 109.15... GENERAL § 109.15 Enforcement proceedings. Proceedings against a vessel violating the Anchorage Regulations... of the Port. When the vessel is at a port where there is no Coast Guard officer, proceedings will...

  13. 75 FR 69573 - Export Enforcement Coordination Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ..., employees, or agents, or any other person. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, November 9, 2010. [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13558 of November 9, 2010 Export Enforcement Coordination Center By the... Homeland Security for administrative purposes, an interagency Federal Export Enforcement...

  14. Law Enforcement School Programs. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The school shooting incidents during the decade of the 1990's prompted an increase of law enforcement presence in schools. The School Violence Resource Center (SVRC) at the Criminal Justice Institute (CJI) University of Arkansas System undertook a project to determine what programs law enforcement agencies currently provide in their local schools…

  15. Superfund Record of Decision: Monticello Mill Tailings (DOE), UT First Remedial Action

    OpenAIRE

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Office of Emergency and Remedial Response

    1990-01-01

    The 300-acre Monticello Mill Tailings site is comprised of a 7S-acre inactive uranium and vanadium milling operation and affected peripheral properties in Monticello, San Juan County, Utah. Surrounding land use is rural residential and agricultural. The site overlies a shallow alluvial aquifer, and part of the site lies within the floodplain of Montezuma Creek. Approximately IS-acres of wetlands adjacent to Montezuma Creek also have been contaminated by tailings. In 1940, the site was operate...

  16. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s or Commission`s) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC`s policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees` health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment.

  17. Patterns of Alcohol Policy Enforcement Activities among Local Law Enforcement Agencies: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J; Rutledge, Patricia C; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    We assessed levels and patterns of alcohol policy enforcement activities among U.S. local law enforcement agencies. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1,631 local law enforcement agencies across the 50 states. We assessed 29 alcohol policy enforcement activities within each of five enforcement domains-underage alcohol possession/consumption, underage alcohol provision, underage alcohol sales, impaired driving, and overservice of alcohol-and conducted a series of latent class analyses to identify unique classes or patterns of enforcement activity for each domain. We identified three to four unique enforcement activity classes for each of the enforcement domains. In four of the domains, we identified a Uniformly Low class (i.e., little or no enforcement) and a Uniformly High enforcement activity class (i.e., relatively high levels of enforcement), with one or two middle classes where some but not all activities were conducted. The underage provision domain had a Uniformly Low class but not a Uniformly High class. The Uniformly Low class was the most prevalent class in three domains: underage provision (58%), underage sales (61%), and overservice (79%). In contrast, less than a quarter of agencies were in Uniformly High classes. We identified qualitatively distinct patterns of enforcement activity, with a large proportion of agencies in classes characterized by little or no enforcement and fewer agencies in high enforcement classes. An important next step is to determine if these patterns are associated with rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related injury and mortality.

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 1: Individual actions. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved -- individual actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  20. Recent Trends in Antitrust Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Siragusa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss a selection of the most relevant features of the most recent trends in antitrust enforcement. Firstly, anticompetitive signalling will be addressed: its assessment depends on the kind of information provided. Where such information is of public knowledge or is very well known by the market participants, signalling should not be deemed as anticompetitive. Secondly, the Power Cable case has raised for the first time various problematic issues, such as the possibility to impose parental liability on a purely financial investor, even where the presumed direct infringer would have been able to pay the fine. This appears to be irreconcilable with the objectives for which the case law on parental liability has been elaborated. Thirdly, as to the concept of restriction of competition by object, it is argued that the Intel case does not disavow the principles established in Cartes Bancaires. Indeed, the finding of a violation and the different methodology applied in the first case are only due to its specific factual circumstances. Finally, the nouvelle vague of the case law on the anticompetitive abuse of rights has led to two opposite approaches, one at the EU and the other at the Italian level. The first one, based on the finding of objective circumstances, is perfectly consistent with existing EU case law, while the second, exclusively focused on the exclusionary intent, seems to be in sharp contrast with it. The hope is that the Court of Justice will intervene to resolve this contradiction.

  1. Decision support software technology demonstration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.; ARMSTRONG,A.

    1998-09-01

    The performance evaluation of innovative and alternative environmental technologies is an integral part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mission. Early efforts focused on evaluating technologies that supported the implementation of the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts. In 1986 the Agency began to demonstrate and evaluate the cost and performance of remediation and monitoring technologies under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program (in response to the mandate in the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA)). In 1990, the US Technology Policy was announced. This policy placed a renewed emphasis on making the best use of technology in achieving the national goals of improved quality of life for all Americans, continued economic growth, and national security. In the spirit of the technology policy, the Agency began to direct a portion of its resources toward the promotion, recognition, acceptance, and use of US-developed innovative environmental technologies both domestically and abroad. Decision Support Software (DSS) packages integrate environmental data and simulation models into a framework for making site characterization, monitoring, and cleanup decisions. To limit the scope which will be addressed in this demonstration, three endpoints have been selected for evaluation: Visualization; Sample Optimization; and Cost/Benefit Analysis. Five topics are covered in this report: the objectives of the demonstration; the elements of the demonstration plan; an overview of the Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot; an overview of the technology verification process; and the purpose of this demonstration plan.

  2. Making the Tough Decisions: Excellence in Music Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Albert

    1984-01-01

    In order to improve teacher education programs in music, music educators must stop passing the buck. They must have tough entry standards and make the hard decisions necessary to enforce them. They must also intellectualize the curriculum. (RM)

  3. EPA Proposes to Remove Most of Fulton, Oswego County, New York Site from Superfund List

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y) After cleaning up more than 10,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil and approximately 9 million gallons of contaminated groundwater, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is proposing to remove a portion of the Fulton Terminals Superfund

  4. Medical costs and lost productivity from health conditions at volatile organic compound-contaminated Superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybarger, J.A.; Spengler, R.F.; Brown, D.R. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies; Lee, R.; Vogt, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perhac, R.M. Jr. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This paper estimates the health costs at Superfund sites for conditions associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. Health conditions were identified from published literature and registry information as occurring at excess rates in VOC-exposed populations. These health conditions were: (1) some categories of birth defects, (2) urinary tract disorders, (3) diabetes, (4) eczema and skin conditions, (5) anemia, (6) speech and hearing impairments in children under 10 years of age, and (7) stroke. Excess rates were used to estimate the excess number of cases occurring among the total population living within one-half mile of 258 Superfund sites. These sites had evidence of completed human exposure pathways for VOCs in drinking water. For each type of medical condition, an individual`s expected medical costs, long-term care costs, and lost work time due to illness or premature mortality were estimated. Costs were calculated to be approximately $330 million per year, in the absence of any remediation or public health intervention programs. The results indicate the general magnitude of the economic burden associated with a limited number of contaminants at a portion of all Superfund sites, thus suggesting that the burden would be greater than that estimated in this study if all contaminants at all Superfund sites could be taken into account.

  5. Superfund: Interagency Agreements and Improved Project Management Needed to Achieve Cleanup Progress at Key Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Superfund completing the remedial investigation, which would include a human and ecological risk assessment , feasibility study, proposed plan...EPA said that a human and ecological risk assessment —which would estimate how threatening a hazardous waste site is to human health and the

  6. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  7. 75 FR 68788 - Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Jefferson, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Doc No: 2010-28260] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [Docket EPA-RO4-SFUND-2010-0893, FRL-9223-8] Ore... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the Ore..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-0893 or Site name Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site by one of...

  8. 77 FR 16548 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... entered into four (4) settlements for past response costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida Petroleum...

  9. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: CERCLA BDAT SARM PREPARATION AND RESULTS OF PHYSICAL SOILS WASHING EXPERIMENTS (FINAL REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the results of work preparing 30,000 Ibs of SARM or synthetic analytical reference matrix, a surrogate Superfund soil containing a vide range of contaminants. It also reports the results ©f bench scale treatability experiments designed to simulate the EP...

  10. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  11. Grain Handling Facility at Freeman, Washington Added to Superfund Cleanup List

    Science.gov (United States)

    (September 28, 2015 - Seattle) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has added the Grain Handling Facility at Freeman, in Spokane County, Washington, to the Superfund National Priorities List. The site was added to the NPL after EPA considered input rec

  12. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Constitution Road...

  13. Effective enforcement in a conservation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Ray; Arcese, Peter; Borner, Markus; Hando, Justin; Hopcraft, Grant; Loibooki, Martin; Mduma, Simon; Sinclair, Anthony R E

    2006-11-24

    Wildlife within protected areas is under increasing threat from bushmeat and illegal trophy trades, and many argue that enforcement within protected areas is not sufficient to protect wildlife. We examined 50 years of records from Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and calculated the history of illegal harvest and enforcement by park authorities. We show that a precipitous decline in enforcement in 1977 resulted in a large increase in poaching and decline of many species. Conversely, expanded budgets and antipoaching patrols since the mid-1980s have greatly reduced poaching and allowed populations of buffalo, elephants, and rhinoceros to rebuild.

  14. Refuge Law Enforcement : Memorandum of Understanding

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This agreement, a reciprocal law enforcement and assistance agreement, is made between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the County Sheriff's Department. The...

  15. DNR Division of Enforcement Officer Patrol Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the DNR Division of Enforcement Office Patrol Areas as of January 1, 2003. Patrol areas were defined and verified by Patrol Officers during the fall...

  16. Humanizing Law Enforcement: A New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolpert, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the recent literature on the humanization of law enforcement policy. Crisis intervention training programs, human relations training for police recruits, neighborhood team policing, and organization development approaches to management exemplify the humanistic perspective on police policy. (Author)

  17. Child Support Enforcement and Welfare Caseloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chein-Chung Huang; Garfinkel, Irwin; Waldfogel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Annual state panel data from 1980 to 1999 was examined to understand the effects of child support enforcement (CSE). However, in recent years, it has been found that the CSE among current and former welfare families are dramatically improved.

  18. Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — ECHO provides integrated compliance and enforcement information for about 800,000 regulated facilities nationwide. Its features range from simple to advanced,...

  19. Law Enforcement : St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Law Enforcement Management Plan is to provide a ready reference to Service, Regional, and Station policies, procedures, and programs concerning...

  20. Decision and decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuta Porutiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context, decision making requires complex and multiple actions on the part of the policy makers, who are more challenged than in previous situations, due to the crisis that we are facing. Decision problems cannot be solved by focusing on manager’s own experience or intuition, but require constant adaptation of the methods used effectively in the past to new challenges. Thus, a systemic analysis and modeling of arising issues is required, resulting in the stringent use of Decision Support Systems (DSS, as a necessity in a competitive environment. DSS optimize the situation by getting a timely decision because the decision making process must acquire, process and interpret an even larger amount of data in the shortest possible time. A solution for this purpose is the artificial intelligence systems, in this case Decision Support Systems (DSS, used in a wider area due to expansion of all the new information technologies in decisionmaking processes. These substantial cyber innovations have led to a radical shift in the relationship between enterprise success and quality of decisions made by managers.

  1. Strengthened enforcement enhances marine sanctuary performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Kelaher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sanctuaries are areas where the extraction of biota is not permitted. Although most marine sanctuaries have a positive influence on biotic communities, not all sanctuaries are meeting their conservation objectives. Amidst possible explanations (e.g., size, age and isolation, insufficient enforcement is often speculated to be a key driver of marine sanctuary underperformance. Despite this, there are few studies directly linking quantitative enforcement data to changes in biotic communities within marine sanctuaries. Here, we used an asymmetrical-BACI experimental design from 2006–2012 to test whether new enforcement initiatives enhanced abundances of target fishes and threatened species in an existing large sub-tropical marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Implementation of the new enforcement initiatives in 2010 was associated with a 201% increase in annual fine rate and a significant increase in target fish and elasmobranch abundance, as well as sightings of a critically-endangered shark, in the marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Overall, these results demonstrate that strengthening enforcement can have a rapid positive influence on target fish and perhaps threatened species in a subtropical marine sanctuary. From this, we contend that increased enforcement guided by risk-based compliance planning and operations may be a useful first step for improving underperforming marine sanctuaries.

  2. Law enforcement suicide: a national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Robinson, Cynthia F; Shen, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there is an elevated risk of suicide among workers within law enforcement occupations. The present study examined the proportionate mortality for suicide in law enforcement in comparison to the US working population during 1999, 2003-2004, and 2007, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Mortality Surveillance data. We analyzed data for all law enforcement occupations and focused on two specific law enforcement occupational categories-detectives/criminal investigators/ police and corrections officers. Suicides were also explored by race, gender and ethnicity. The results of the study showed proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for suicide were significantly high for all races and sexes combined (all law enforcement--PMR = 169, 95% CI = 150-191, p law enforcement combined category, and a similarly high PMR was found among Hispanic detectives/criminal investigators/police (PMR = 388, p < 0.01, 95% CI = 168-765). There were small numbers of deaths among female and African American officers. The results included significantly increased risk for suicide among detectives/criminal investigators/police and corrections officers, which suggests that additional study could provide better data to inform us for preventive action.

  3. Environmental Factor{trademark} system: Superfund site information from five EPA databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Environmental Factor puts today`s technology to work to provide a better, more cost-efficient and time-saving way to access EPA information on hazardous waste sites. Environmental consultants, insurers, and reinsurers, corporate risk assessors and companies actively involved in the generation, transport, storage or cleanup of hazardous waste materials can use its user-friendly information retrieval system to gain rapid access to vital information in immediately-usable form. Search, retrieve, and export information in real time. No more waiting for the mail or overnight delivery services to deliver hard copies of voluminous listings and individual site reports. More than 200,000 pages of EPA hazardous waste site information are contained in 5 related databases: (1) Site data from the National Priority List (NPL) and CERCLIS databases, Potentially Responsible Parties (PRP) and Records of Decision (RODs) summaries; (2) Complete PRP information; (3) EPA Records of Decision (Full Text); (4) entire Civil Enforcement Docket; and (5) Glossary of EPA terms, abbreviations and acronyms. Environmental Factor`s powerful database management engine gives even the most inexperienced computer user extensive search capabilities, including wildcard, phonetic and direct cross reference searches across multiple databases.

  4. Report: Independent Ground Water Sampling Generally Confirms EPA’s Data at Wheeler Pit Superfund Site in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #10-P-0218, September 8, 2010. With minimal exceptions, our independent sampling results at the Wheeler Pit Superfund Site were consistent with the sampling results that EPA Region 5 has obtained historically.

  5. 49 CFR 1542.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1542.217 Section 1542... Law enforcement personnel. (a) Each airport operator must ensure that law enforcement personnel used... section must— (1) Meet the training standard for law enforcement officers prescribed by either the State...

  6. 46 CFR 4.03-55 - Law enforcement officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement officer. 4.03-55 Section 4.03-55... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-55 Law enforcement officer. Law enforcement officer means a Coast Guard commissioned, warrant or petty officer; or any other law enforcement officer authorized to...

  7. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation law enforcement policy. The law enforcement policy of Reclamation is: (a) To maintain an accountable...

  8. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law enforcement vessels. 88.11... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.11 Law enforcement vessels. (a) Law enforcement vessels may display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities. This...

  9. 36 CFR 1270.50 - Consultation with law enforcement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Enforcement Purposes § 1270.50 Consultation with law enforcement agencies. (a) For the processing of Presidential records compiled for law enforcement purposes that may be subject to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(7), the... for law enforcement purposes and may be subject to the exemption provided by 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(7) for...

  10. 25 CFR 11.909 - Law enforcement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement records. 11.909 Section 11.909 Indians... ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.909 Law enforcement records. (a) Law enforcement records and files concerning a minor shall be kept separate from the records and files of adults. (b) All law enforcement...

  11. 29 CFR 553.211 - Law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law enforcement activities. 553.211 Section 553.211 Labor... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Exemption Requirements § 553.211 Law enforcement activities. (a) As used in sections 7(k) and 13(b)(20) of the Act, the term “any employee . . . in law enforcement...

  12. 7 CFR 501.14 - Non-Federal law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-Federal law enforcement. 501.14 Section 501.14...-Federal law enforcement. Research Center special policemen may be deputized by State or local law... State or local law enforcement agency, the facilities or services of such State or local law enforcement...

  13. Citizen suit Clean Air Act enforcement: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, W.G. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Almost every federal environmental statute has a provision that allows citizens to sue violators in lieu of governmental enforcement authorities under certain circumstances. Generally, if the relevant governmental enforcement authority was not deemed to be diligently prosecuting enforcement action against an alleged violator and certain procedural requirements were met a citizens suit could be filed in federal court. If a violation was proved penalties could be assessed against the violator and the plaintiff citizen could receive reimbursement of both his or her attorney's fees and other expenses. Historically, however, the only federal statute that has been the subject of significant citizens suit activity has been the federal Clean Water Act (CWA). This paper will explore a variety of events that are expected to significantly increase the number of citizen suits CAA permitted facilities will face over the next ten years. The paper will briefly address the role the Title V operating permit will play. It will also include a discussion of how this permit will now encompass specific emission limitations along with a mandate to report exceedances. Further, and equally important, will be the role of the 1997 federal Environmental Protection Agency any credible evidence rule which potentially broadens the type, amount, and accessibility available to a CAA citizen suit plaintiff. This rule along with the additional monitoring data that will be generated by the Title V periodic and compliance assurance monitoring requirements will be an issue. Two important CAA citizen suits will be discussed which illustrate the potential role of credible evidence. Also, recent citizen suit decisions involving other federal environmental statutes with implications for the CAA will be examined. Further, the paper will provide some thoughts on how facilities can protect themselves to the extent possible against citizen suits.

  14. Enforcement Matters : Enforcement and Compliance of European Directives in Four Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, E.

    2003-01-01

    The dissertation 'Enforcement Matters' is a comparative analysis of the transposition and enforcement of, and compliance with, two directives regulating dangerous chemical substances (the Seveso II and Safety Data Sheets directives) in four member states (the Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom and

  15. EPA Contract Laboratory Program Statement of Work for Inorganic Superfund Methods Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration ISM02.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains analytical methods for the analysis of metals and cyanide in environmental samples. It also contains contractual requirements for laboratories participating in Superfund's Contract Laboratory Program.

  16. EPA Contract Laboratory Program Statement of Work for Inorganic Superfund Methods Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration ISM02.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains analytical methods for the analysis of metals and cyanide in environmental samples. It also contains contractual requirements for laboratories participating in Superfund's Contract Laboratory Program.

  17. Human Trafficking in Indonesia: Law Enforcement Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalina Naibaho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is considered as a crime against humanity. To conduct the due process of law towards cases related with human trafficking, the law enforcement officers cannot work by themselves. They really need assistance from many parties – such as active report from the society – as a valuable information to disclose such cases. Law enforcement conducted towards woman and child trafficking is still ineffective. It is proven by many existing cases, that low number of processed cases before the court and minimum sanction convicted to the perpetrators is clearly evident. Factors which are deemed to have correlation with low attempt of law enforcement towards legal case on this case, among others are: Lack of the Government’s commitment to fight against the crime of human trafficking, in the event that the ineffectiveness in utilization of prevailing laws and regulation; Lack of capacity of professionalism of law enforcement agency (and relevant parties in handling women and child trafficking at the field. This may be caused by lack of knowledge on infringed regulation. For that matter, those law enforcement agency shall be given socialization and an SOP (standardized operational procedure, so that there will be no inconsistency in handling the existing cases.

  18. Psychiatric Disability in Law Enforcement Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marilyn

    2017-03-01

    Law enforcement officers all across the world are exposed to violence, confrontation, and traumatic incidents. They regularly witness death and suffering and are at risk of personal injury. Psychiatric sequelae include an increased risk for trauma-related symptoms, depression, alcohol-use disorders, and stress-related medical conditions. Law enforcement officers have been applying for early disability retirement pensions at an increased rate for stress-related psychiatric and medical conditions. As a result, law enforcement agencies are prematurely losing valuable resources, officers with training and experience. Departments have become proactive in trying to address mental health issues to prevent psychiatric disability by implementing employee wellness plans and stress reduction interventions. Programs have been developed to mitigate the effects of stress on law enforcement personnel. Many law enforcement agencies have developed strategies to encourage early confidential referral for psychiatric treatment. They utilize peer support groups and employee assistance programs and develop alliances with mental health professionals. When these approaches fail, a fitness for duty process can be used to identify impairment in work functioning due to psychiatric factors with the prospect of later returning the officer to full duty. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Enforcement of social rights - Upholding of obligations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacqueson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    be appealed before different complaints board. Recourse to ordinary courts is nevertheless also always possible (section 1.2) and legal aid might be obtained under strict conditions (section 1.3). Yet, the administrative complaints system is a corner stone in the protection of social rights in Denmark......This paper looks at the Danish system of remedies in order to assess how the social rights of Union citizens are enforced and upheld in Denmark. Decisions in the social field broadly understood - including social assistance, education, housing and health care - are adopted by various bodies and can...... (section 1.4). In all the mentioned areas of social law, the Parliamentary Ombudsman can be seized where administrative remedies have been exhausted (section 1.5). Finally, several public bodies are responsible for ensuring supervision of public authorities in the social field (section 1.6)....

  1. Biomonitoring for metal contamination near two Superfund sites in Woburn, Massachusetts, using phytochelatins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, James E.; Hemond, Harold F

    2004-09-01

    Characterizing the spatial extent of groundwater metal contamination traditionally requires installing sampling wells, an expensive and time-consuming process in urban areas. Moreover, extrapolating biotic effects from metal concentrations alone is problematic, making ecological risk assessment difficult. Our study is the first to examine the use of phytochelatin measurements in tree leaves for delimiting biological metal stress in shallow, metal-contaminated groundwater systems. Three tree species (Rhamnus frangula, Acer platanoides, and Betula populifolia) growing above the shallow groundwater aquifer of the Aberjona River watershed in Woburn, Massachusetts, display a pattern of phytochelatin production consistent with known sources of metal contamination and groundwater flow direction near the Industri-Plex Superfund site. Results also suggest the existence of a second area of contaminated groundwater and elevated metal stress near the Wells G and H Superfund site downstream, in agreement with a recent EPA ecological risk assessment. Possible contamination pathways at this site are discussed.

  2. Flow enforcement algorithms for ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Lars; Jacobsen, Søren B.; Moth, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    theory and partly on signal processing theory, is carried out. It is seen that the time constant involved increases with the increasing burstiness of the connection. It is suggested that the RMS measurement bandwidth be used to dimension linear algorithms for equal flow enforcement characteristics....... Implementations are proposed on the block diagram level, and dimensioning examples are carried out when flow enforcing a renewal-type connection using the four algorithms. The corresponding hardware demands are estimated aid compared......Four measurement algorithms for flow enforcement in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks are presented. The algorithms are the leaky bucket, the rectangular sliding window, the triangular sliding window, and the exponentially weighted moving average. A comparison, based partly on teletraffic...

  3. University Researcher and Law Enforcement Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Brett C; Akins, Scott; Sassaman, Jon; Jackson, Scott; Elwer, Ken; Lanfear, Charles; Amorim, Mariana; Stevens, Katelyn

    2017-04-01

    In 2012, heads of local law enforcement agencies in Benton County, Oregon, contacted researchers at Oregon State University to discuss a problem: a sharp rise in the number of contacts between police and suspects displaying symptoms of mental illness. This initial inquiry led to an ongoing collaborative examination of the nature, causes, and consequences of the rise in police contacts. In this article, the authors describe this collaboration between researchers and law enforcement officials from the perspective of both parties, situating it within the context of mental illness in the U.S. criminal justice system. The collaborators draw on firsthand experiences and prior collaborations to discuss the benefits of, challenges in, and recommendations for university-police research collaborations. Although such collaborations may pose challenges (related to relationship definition, data collection and analysis, outputs, and relationship maintenance), the potential benefits-for researchers and law enforcement agencies-are substantial.

  4. Electrochemical peroxidation of PCBs and VOCs in superfund site water and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrudato, R.J.; Chiarenzelli, J.R. [SUNY, Oswego, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process has been developed and used to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)-contaminated water, sludge, and sediments at a New York State Federal and State Superfund Site. The process involves passing an oscillating low-amperage (<10 amps) current through steel electrodes immersed in an acidified water or sediment slurry into which hydrogen peroxide (<1,000 ppm) is added. The generated free radicals attack organic compounds, including organo-metallic complexes and refractory compounds including PCBs. PCB degradation ranged from about 30% to 80% in experiments involving Federal Superfund Site sediments; total PCBs were reduced by {approximately}97% to 68%, respectively, in water and slurry collected from a State Superfund subsurface storage tank. VOC bench-scale experiments involved chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and acetone and after a 3-min ECP treatment, degradation ranged from >94% to about 99.9%. Results indicate the ECP is a viable process to degrade organic contaminants in water and sediment suspensions. Because the treated water suspensions are acidified, select trace metal sorbed to the particulates is solubilized and therefore can be segregated from the particulates, offering a process that simultaneously degrades organic contaminants and separates trace metals. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Error-Avoidance Theory: Sniper Employment for Military and Civilian Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    enforcement officers and decisions of the McDonald’s franchise under severe scrutiny, the media painted a negative picture of them both, implying that...a526456. pdf Bartlett, D. (1999). Snipercraft: The art of the police sniping. Manchester, CT: Precision Shooting. Celeski, J. D. (2009, February... pdf 41 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 1. Defense Technical Information Center Ft. Belvoir, Virginia 2. Dudley Knox Library Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California

  6. Performance-Driven Interface Contract Enforcement for Scientific Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, T

    2007-02-22

    Several performance-driven approaches to selectively enforce interface contracts for scientific components are investigated. The goal is to facilitate debugging deployed applications built from plug-and-play components while keeping the cost of enforcement within acceptable overhead limits. This paper describes a study of global enforcement using a priori execution cost estimates obtained from traces. Thirteen trials are formed from five, single-component programs. Enforcement experiments conducted using twenty-three enforcement policies are used to determine the nature of exercised contracts and the impact of a variety of sampling strategies. Performance-driven enforcement appears to be best suited to programs that exercise moderately expensive contracts.

  7. Price-Anderson Nuclear Safety Enforcement Program. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This first annual report on DOE`s Price Anderson Amendments Act enforcement program covers the activities, accomplishments, and planning for calendar year 1996. It also includes the infrastructure development activities of 1995. It encompasses the activities of the headquarters` Office of Enforcement in the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) and Investigation and the coordinators and technical advisors in DOE`s Field and Program Offices and other EH Offices. This report includes an overview of the enforcement program; noncompliances, investigations, and enforcement actions; summary of significant enforcement actions; examples where enforcement action was deferred; and changes and improvements to the program.

  8. Forensic economics in competition law enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper delineates the specialty field of forensic industrial organization (IO) as the application of theoretical and empirical industrial organization economics in the legal process of competition law enforcement. Four stages of that process that can benefit from forensic IO techniques are disti

  9. 45 CFR 2543.62 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enforcement. 2543.62 Section 2543.62 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT...

  10. Excess Asset Returns and Limited Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Lambertini, Luisa; Azariadis, Costas

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of limited enforcement of contracts on asset returns in a three-period pure- exchange overlapping generations economy. We consider a life-cycle setting with a safe and a risky asset and find that lack of commitment can significantly affect the rate of returns of these assets and possibly generate large equity premia.

  11. 14 CFR 243.17 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PASSENGER MANIFEST INFORMATION § 243.17 Enforcement. The U.S. Department of Transportation may at any time require a covered airline to produce a passenger manifest including emergency contacts and... system. In addition, it may require from any covered airline further information about collection...

  12. 12 CFR 711.8 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement. 711.8 Section 711.8 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL... Interlocks Act with respect to federally insured credit unions, and may refer any case of a...

  13. Influencing speeding behaviour through preventative police enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of speed on road safety and how to influence speeding behaviour. The results that can be achieved through police enforcement combined with information campaigns are discussed with reference to projects carried out in the Netherlands. The cost implications are

  14. 40 CFR 35.970 - Contract enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.970 Contract... the enforcement of such contracts, including contract disputes which are the subject of either... technical or legal involvement in any contract dispute will not make EPA a party to any contract entered...

  15. 40 CFR 35.2350 - Subagreement enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2350 Subagreement... enforcement of such subagreements, including subagreement disputes which are the subject of either arbitration... involvement in any subagreement dispute will not make EPA a party to any subagreement entered into by the...

  16. 24 CFR 3500.19 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement. 3500.19 Section 3500.19 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  17. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  18. Split Decisions, Split Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The lead stories in Nature and Science went in opposite directions this week. Science chose outer space, launching into NASA’s hotly disputed decision to shelve a planned mission to Pluto. Nature plunged into inner space with a story about a report to the European Commission advising against granting “premature” approval to create human embryos for stem-cell research.

  19. Informed consent: Enforcing pharmaceutical companies' obligations abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stacey B

    2010-06-15

    The past several years have seen an evolution in the obligations of pharmaceutical companies conducting clinical trials abroad. Key players, such as international human rights organizations, multinational pharmaceutical companies, the United States government and courts, and the media, have played a significant role in defining these obligations. This article examines how such obligations have developed through the lens of past, present, and future recommendations for informed consent protections. In doing so, this article suggests that, no matter how robust obligations appear, they will continue to fall short of providing meaningful protection until they are accompanied by a substantive enforcement mechanism that holds multinational pharmaceutical companies accountable for their conduct. Issues of national sovereignty, particularly in the United States, will continue to prevent meaningful enforcement by an international tribunal or through one universally adopted code of ethics. This article argues that, rather than continuing to pursue an untenable international approach, the Alien Torts Statute (ATS) offers a viable enforcement mechanism, at least for US-based pharmaceutical companies. Recent federal appellate court precedent interpreting the ATS provides the mechanism for granting victims redress and enforcing accountability of sponsors (usually pharmaceutical companies and research and academic institutions) for informed consent misconduct. Substantive human rights protections are vital in order to ensure that every person can realize the "right to health." This article concludes that by building on the federal appellate court's ATS analysis, which grants foreign trial participants the right to pursue claims of human rights violations in US courts, a mechanism can be created for enforcing not only substantive informed consent, but also human rights protections.

  20. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: EPA Enforcement Action Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) data sets have been compiled for access to larger sets of national data to ensure that ECHO meets your data...

  1. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about problems,...

  2. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Reports Form 157 - YR 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  3. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  4. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: Law Enforcement Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR (including Clarence Cannon, Louisa, and Calhoun NWRs) Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to...

  5. Law Enforcement Plan Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides...

  6. Law Enforcement Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Minnesota Valley NWR Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about...

  7. 77 FR 32901 - State Enforcement of Household Goods Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... regulatory authorities and State attorneys general the right to enforce certain consumer protection... Household Goods Consumer Protection AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... goods regulatory authorities and State attorneys general may enforce certain consumer protection...

  8. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Law Enforcement Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides...

  9. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about problems,...

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Volume 14, Nos. 3 and 4, Part 1. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1995) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  11. Record of Decision Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact of groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank far soil and groundwater at INTEC.

  12. Enforcing ‘Self-Enforcing’ International Environmental Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    McEvoy, David M.; John K. Stranlund

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical analyses of international environmental agreements (IEAs) have typically employed the concept of self-enforcing agreements to predict the number of parties to such an agreement. The term self-enforcing, however, is a bit misleading. The concept refers to the stability of cooperative agreements, not to enforcing these agreements once they are in place. Most analyses of IEAs simply ignore the issue of enforcing compliance by parties to the terms of an agreement. In this paper we ana...

  13. Hybrid static-runtime information flow and declassification enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Bruno P.S.; Conti, Mauro; Etalle, Sandro; Crispo, Bruno

    There are different paradigms for enforcing information flow and declassification policies. These approaches can be divided into static analyzers and runtime enforcers. Each class has its own strengths and weaknesses, each being able to enforce a different set of policies. In this paper, we

  14. 49 CFR 107.301 - Delegated authority for enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delegated authority for enforcement. 107.301... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement § 107.301 Delegated authority for enforcement. Under... Administrator for Hazardous Materials Safety and the Office of the Chief Counsel exercise their authority for...

  15. 10 CFR 431.383 - Enforcement process for electric motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement process for electric motors. 431.383 Section... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.383 Enforcement process for electric motors. (a) Test... motor sold by a particular manufacturer or private labeler, which indicates that the electric motor...

  16. Hybrid static-runtime information flow and declassification enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Bruno P.S.; Conti, Mauro; Etalle, Sandro; Crispo, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    There are different paradigms for enforcing information flow and declassification policies. These approaches can be divided into static analyzers and runtime enforcers. Each class has its own strengths and weaknesses, each being able to enforce a different set of policies. In this paper, we introduc

  17. 28 CFR 0.102 - Drug enforcement policy coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug enforcement policy coordination. 0.102 Section 0.102 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.102 Drug enforcement policy coordination. The Administrator of...

  18. 40 CFR 158.355 - Enforcement analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.355 Enforcement analytical method. An analytical method suitable for enforcement purposes must be provided for each active ingredient in the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement analytical method....

  19. 32 CFR 634.26 - Traffic law enforcement principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic law enforcement principles. 634.26 Section 634.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... law enforcement principles. (a) Traffic law enforcement should motivate drivers to operate vehicles...

  20. An empirical investigation of compliance and enforcement problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Jensen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Compliance and enforcement are important issues from an economic point of view because management measures are useless without a certain level of enforcement. These conclusions come from the well-established theoretical literature on compliance and enforcement problems within fisheries. This pape...

  1. 40 CFR 161.180 - Enforcement analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement analytical method. 161.180 Section 161.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... § 161.180 Enforcement analytical method. An analytical method suitable for enforcement purposes must...

  2. An empirical investigation of compliance and enforcement problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Jensen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Compliance and enforcement are important issues from an economic point of view because management measures are useless without a certain level of enforcement. These conclusions come from the well-established theoretical literature on compliance and enforcement problems within fisheries. This pape...

  3. 47 CFR 68.414 - Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. 68.414... (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Complaint Procedures § 68.414 Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. Enforcement of §§ 68.4 and 68.112 is hereby delegated to those...

  4. 50 CFR 404.8 - Emergencies and law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergencies and law enforcement activities... HAWAIIAN ISLANDS MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.8 Emergencies and law enforcement activities. The..., property, or the environment, or to activities necessary for law enforcement purposes. ...

  5. 49 CFR 1546.211 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1546.211 Section 1546... § 1546.211 Law enforcement personnel. (a) At airports within the United States not governed by part 1542...) When using a screening system required by § 1546.101(a), (b), or (c), provide for law enforcement...

  6. 50 CFR 10.22 - Law enforcement offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement offices. 10.22 Section 10... GENERAL PROVISIONS Addresses § 10.22 Law enforcement offices. Service law enforcement offices and their areas of responsibility follow. Mail should be addressed: “Assistant Regional Director, Division of Law...

  7. 49 CFR 1542.219 - Supplementing law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementing law enforcement personnel. 1542.219... Operations § 1542.219 Supplementing law enforcement personnel. (a) When TSA decides, after being notified by... private law enforcement personnel are available to carry out the requirements of § 1542.215, TSA may...

  8. 49 CFR 1544.217 - Law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement personnel. 1544.217 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.217 Law enforcement personnel. (a) The following applies to... for law enforcement personnel meeting the qualifications and standards specified in §§ 1542.215 and...

  9. 32 CFR 634.33 - Training of law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Training of law enforcement personnel. 634.33 Section 634.33 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... Training of law enforcement personnel. (a) As a minimum, installation law enforcement personnel will be...

  10. 32 CFR 806b.8 - Obtaining law enforcement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining law enforcement records. 806b.8... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.8 Obtaining law enforcement records. The Commander, Air Force Office of Special Investigation; the Commander...

  11. 21 CFR 1309.26 - Exemption of law enforcement officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of law enforcement officials. 1309.26... Exemption of law enforcement officials. (a) The requirement of registration is waived for the following... Administration, any other Federal officer who is lawfully engaged in the enforcement of any Federal law relating...

  12. 75 FR 81547 - Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 182 Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies AGENCY... civilian law enforcement efforts, including responses to civil disturbances. DATES: Comments must be... for assisting civilian law enforcement agencies, therefore, it is not expected that small entities...

  13. 24 CFR 291.520 - Eligible law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible law enforcement officers... Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.520 Eligible law enforcement officers. A person qualifies as a law... law enforcement agency of the federal government, a state, a unit of general local government, or an...

  14. 28 CFR 29.5 - Notification of law enforcement officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of law enforcement officials... REGULATIONS § 29.5 Notification of law enforcement officials. In addition to the actions enumerated in § 29.4... reasonable steps to ensure that law enforcement officials under its jurisdiction are familiar with the...

  15. 20 CFR 401.155 - Law enforcement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement purposes. 401.155 Section 401... INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.155 Law enforcement purposes. (a) General. The Privacy Act allows us to disclose information for law enforcement purposes under certain...

  16. 49 CFR 1542.215 - Law enforcement support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement support. 1542.215 Section 1542.215... program under § 1542.103(a) or (b) must provide: (1) Law enforcement personnel in the number and manner adequate to support its security program. (2) Uniformed law enforcement personnel in the number and manner...

  17. 49 CFR 1542.221 - Records of law enforcement response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records of law enforcement response. 1542.221... Operations § 1542.221 Records of law enforcement response. (a) Each airport operator must ensure that— (1) A record is made of each law enforcement action taken in furtherance of this part; and (2) The record is...

  18. 21 CFR 1301.24 - Exemption of law enforcement officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of law enforcement officials. 1301.24....24 Exemption of law enforcement officials. (a) The requirement of registration is waived for the... course of his/her official duties. (c) In order to enable law enforcement agency laboratories, including...

  19. 45 CFR 164.412 - Law enforcement delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement delay. 164.412 Section 164.412 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED... § 164.412 Law enforcement delay. If a law enforcement official states to a covered entity or business...

  20. 45 CFR 5.68 - Exemption seven: Law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption seven: Law enforcement. 5.68 Section 5... INFORMATION REGULATIONS Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.68 Exemption seven: Law enforcement. We are not required to disclose information or records that the government has compiled for law enforcement...

  1. 20 CFR 638.805 - Security and law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and law enforcement. 638.805 Section... and law enforcement. (a) The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines to protect the security of... jurisdiction with the appropriate State and locality with respect to criminal law enforcement as long as a...

  2. 10 CFR 431.198 - Enforcement testing for distribution transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement testing for distribution transformers. 431.198... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Compliance and Enforcement § 431.198 Enforcement testing for distribution transformers. (a) Test notice. Upon receiving information in...

  3. 77 FR 7182 - Scott W. Houghton, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Scott W. Houghton, M.D.; Decision and Order On November 4, 2011, Chief.... Mulrooney, II. The Deputy Assistant Administrator, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA or...

  4. 78 FR 12091 - Brian Earl Cressman, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Brian Earl Cressman, M.D.; Decision and Order On December 5, 2012, Chief... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA or Government) issued an Order to Show Cause and...

  5. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  6. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Nick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP, from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP, from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers. In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project. The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness. While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR.

  7. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Nick; Moore, Tim; Crofts, Nick

    2012-07-09

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers.In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness.While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR.

  8. Forensic imaging tools for law enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITHPETER,COLIN L.; SANDISON,DAVID R.; VARGO,TIMOTHY D.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods of gathering forensic evidence at crime scenes are encumbered by difficulties that limit local law enforcement efforts to apprehend offenders and bring them to justice. Working with a local law-enforcement agency, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a prototype multispectral imaging system that can speed up the investigative search task and provide additional and more accurate evidence. The system, called the Criminalistics Light-imaging Unit (CLU), has demonstrated the capabilities of locating fluorescing evidence at crime scenes under normal lighting conditions and of imaging other types of evidence, such as untreated fingerprints, by direct white-light reflectance. CLU employs state of the art technology that provides for viewing and recording of the entire search process on videotape. This report describes the work performed by Sandia to design, build, evaluate, and commercialize CLU.

  9. PACE: Proactively Secure Accumulo with Cryptographic Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-27

    modify data using digital signatures . The contributions of our work include: • Cryptographic enforcement of access control. The PACE library allows...the impact of encryption and signatures on operation throughput. I. INTRODUCTION Over the last several years, many companies have moved their...second). This evaluation demonstrates that while encryp- tion and signatures have an impact on throughput, the impact is small enough to be

  10. 25 CFR 12.33 - Are Indian country law enforcement officers paid less than other law enforcement officers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Indian country law enforcement officers paid less than other law enforcement officers? 12.33 Section 12.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Qualifications and Training Requirements...

  11. EUB Directive 019 : EUB compliance assurance : enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-27

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) ensures that the discovery, development and delivery of Alberta's resources takes place in a fair and responsible manner by enforcing EUB requirements that are written on behalf of Albertans. Compliance ensures that resource activities are conducted in a manner that protects public safety, minimizes environmental impact, preserves equity and ensures effective resource conservation. This directive addresses the enforcement aspect of compliance assurance. It applies to all EUB requirements and processes except matters dealing with utility rates. It explains what licensees must do when a noncompliance is identified by the EUB; the enforcement process and the consequences for low and high risk noncompliance; the EUB appeal process; the EUB voluntary self-disclosure policy, including the rules and benefits of voluntary self-disclosure; and, the availability of compliance information. The risk assessment matrix used by the EUB to predetermine whether the level of noncompliance risk is low or high for each EUB requirement, is based on health and safety, environmental impact, conservation, and stakeholder confidence in the regulatory process. 2 tabs.

  12. 78 FR 41125 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Medical Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... COMMISSION Interim Enforcement Policy for Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Medical Event Reporting AGENCY... Commission (NRC) is issuing an interim Enforcement Policy that allows the staff to exercise enforcement...'s permanent implant brachytherapy program. This interim policy affects NRC licensees that...

  13. 76 FR 70470 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Law Enforcement Officer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... OMB Review: Law Enforcement Officer Flying Armed Training AGENCY: Transportation Security..., state, and authorized railroad law enforcement agencies who have requested the Law Enforcement Officer... other forms of information technology. Information Collection Requirement Title: Law Enforcement Officer...

  14. Aquatic assessment of the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site, Vershire, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Kiah, Richard G.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Argue, Denise M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    The Ely Mine, which operated from 1821 to 1905, and its area of downstream impact constitute the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site. The site was placed on the National Priorities List in 2001. The mine comprises underground workings, foundations from historical structures, several waste-rock piles, roast beds associated with the smelting operation, and slag piles resulting from the smelting. The mine site is drained by Ely Brook, which includes several tributaries, one of which drains a series of six ponds. Ely Brook empties into Schoolhouse Brook, which flows 3.3 kilometers and joins the Ompompanoosuc River.

  15. Geophysical logging at the Cristex Drum National Priorities List Superfund Site near Oxford, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of borehole geophysical logs data was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center in the vicinity of the Cristex Drum National Priorities List Superfund Site near Oxford, North Carolina, during January through March 2016. In an effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, borehole geophysical log and image data collection, which included the delineation of more than 150 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 3 open borehole wells.

  16. The role of price and enforcement in water allocation: insights from Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Filho, F.; Lall, U.; Porto, R.

    2007-12-01

    As many countries are moving towards water sector reforms, practical issues of how water management institutions can better effect allocation, regulation and enforcement of water rights have emerged. The uncertainty associated with water that is available at a particular diversion point becomes a parameter that is likely to influence the behavior of water users as to their application for water licenses, as well as their willingness to pay for licensed use. The ability of a water agency to reduce this uncertainty through effective water rights enforcement is related to the fiscal ability of the agency to sustain the enforcement effort. In this paper, this interplay across the users and the agency is explored, considering the hydraulic structure or sequence of water use, and parameters that define the users and the agency's economics. The potential for free rider behavior by the users, as well as their proposals for licensed use are derived conditional on this setting. The analyses presented are developed in the framework of the theory of "Law and Economics", with user interactions modeled as a game theoretic enterprise. The state of Ceara, Brazil is used loosely as an example setting, with parameter values for the experiments indexed to be approximately those relevant for current decisions. The potential for using the ideas in participatory decision making is discussed.

  17. Rational decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Binmore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  18. Evaluation of modeling for groundwater flow and tetrachloroethylene transport in the Milford-Souhegan glacial-drift aquifer at the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services entered into a cooperative agreement to assist in the evaluation of remedy simulations of the MSGD aquifer that are being performed by various parties to track the remedial progress of the PCE plume. This report summarizes findings from this evaluation. Topics covered include description of groundwater flow and transport models used in the study of the Savage Superfund site (section 2), evaluation of models and their results (section 3), testing of several new simulations (section 4), an assessment of the representation of models to simulate field conditions (section 5), and an assessment of models as a tool in remedial operational decision making (section 6).

  19. Role of price and enforcement in water allocation: Insights from Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Filho, Francisco Assis; Lall, Upmanu; Porto, Rubem La Laina

    2008-12-01

    As many countries are moving toward water sector reforms, practical issues of how water management institutions can better effect allocation, regulation, and enforcement of water rights have emerged. The problem of nonavailability of water to tailenders on an irrigation system in developing countries, due to unlicensed upstream diversions is well documented. The reliability of access or equivalently the uncertainty associated with water availability at their diversion point becomes a parameter that is likely to influence the application by users for water licenses, as well as their willingness to pay for licensed use. The ability of a water agency to reduce this uncertainty through effective water rights enforcement is related to the fiscal ability of the agency to monitor and enforce licensed use. In this paper, this interplay across the users and the agency is explored, considering the hydraulic structure or sequence of water use and parameters that define the users and the agency's economics. The potential for free rider behavior by the users, as well as their proposals for licensed use are derived conditional on this setting. The analyses presented are developed in the framework of the theory of "Law and Economics," with user interactions modeled as a game theoretic enterprise. The state of Ceara, Brazil, is used loosely as an example setting, with parameter values for the experiments indexed to be approximately those relevant for current decisions. The potential for using the ideas in participatory decision making is discussed. This paper is an initial attempt to develop a conceptual framework for analyzing such situations but with a focus on the reservoir-canal system water rights enforcement.

  20. Environmental Asbestos Assessment Manual Superfund Method for the Determination of Asbestos in Ambient Air Part 2: Technical Background Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sampling and analysis method for the determination of asbestos in air is presented in Part 1 of this report, under separate cover. This method is designed specifically to provide results suitable for supporting risk assessments at Superfund sites, although it is applicable t...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION IN HOMES NEAR THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE USING BASEMENT AND SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the results of an investigation conducted to assist EPA’s New England Regional Office in evaluating vapor intrusion at 15 homes and one commercial building near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut. Methods were developed to sample sub-slab ...

  2. Automated computer software development standards enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, H.P.; Formento, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Uniform Development Environment (UDE) is being investigated as a means of enforcing software engineering standards. For the programmer, it provides an environment containing the tools and utilities necessary for orderly and controlled development and maintenance of code according to requirements. In addition, it provides DoD management and developer management the tools needed for all phases of software life cycle management and control, from project planning and management, to code development, configuration management, version control, and change control. This paper reports the status of UDE development and field testing. 5 refs.

  3. Computational infrastructure for law enforcement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lades, M.; Kunz, C.; Strikos, I.

    1997-02-01

    This project planned to demonstrate the leverage of enhanced computational infrastructure for law enforcement by demonstrating the face recognition capability at LLNL. The project implemented a face finder module extending the segmentation capabilities of the current face recognition so it was capable of processing different image formats and sizes and create the pilot of a network-accessible image database for the demonstration of face recognition capabilities. The project was funded at $40k (2 man-months) for a feasibility study. It investigated several essential components of a networked face recognition system which could help identify, apprehend, and convict criminals.

  4. Intergroup Bias in Parliamentary Rule Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Parliament chairmen drawn from parliamentary parties enforce speaking time. Analyzing 5,756 speeches scraped from online transcripts, I provide evidence that speech lengths are biased in favor of the presiding chairman’s party. On average, speakers of the same party as the presiding chairman give 5 percent...... longer speeches and are 5 percent more likely to exceed the speaking time limit. The paper contributes to the extant literature by demonstrating political intergroup bias in a natural setting, suggesting that group loyalties can supersede institutional obligations even in a “least likely” context...

  5. Enforcement of pollution regulation in China

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digilatlitzada Títol de la versió en paper: Enforcement of enviromental regulation in China La tesis estudia como las firmas cumplen con la regulación de impuestos de contaminación en China y como las agencias ambientales de China imponen la regulación ambiental eficaz a firmas. Nuestro estudio proporciona pruebas claras que las firmas considerablemente underreport su contaminación y acciones de imposición por agencias ambientales ...

  6. US statutes for enforcement by security inspectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, J.J.; Ruger, C.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document is one of a three volume set. BNL 52201 is titled `Selected Text of Atomic Energy Act Executive Orders and Other Laws of General Interest to Safeguards and Security Executives`, and it contains detailed information for use by executives. BNL 52202 is titled `U.S. Statutes of General Interest to Safeguards and Security Officers`, and contains less detail than BNL 52201. It is intended for use by officers. BNL 52203 is titled `U.S. Statutes for Enforcement by Security Inspectors`, and it contains statutes to be applied by uniformed security inspectors.

  7. Integrating decision management with UML modeling concepts and tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    to enforce design decisions (modify the models). We define tool-independent concepts and architecture building blocks supporting these requirements and present first ideas how this can be implemented in the IBM Rational Software Modeler and Architectural Decision Knowledge Wiki. This seamless integration......Numerous design decisions including architectural decisions are made while developing a software system, which influence the architecture of the system as well as subsequent decisions. Several tools already exist for managing design decisions, i.e. capturing, documenting, and maintaining them......, but also for guiding the user by proposing subsequent decisions. In model-based software development, many decisions directly affect the structural and behavioral models used to describe and develop a software system and its architecture. However, the decisions are typically not connected to these models...

  8. Mining-related sediment and soil contamination in a large Superfund site: Characterization, habitat implications, and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Drake, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Historical mining activity (1850–1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  9. Mining-Related Sediment and Soil Contamination in a Large Superfund Site: Characterization, Habitat Implications, and Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K E; Drake, K D

    2016-10-01

    Historical mining activity (1850-1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  10. Mining-Related Sediment and Soil Contamination in a Large Superfund Site: Characterization, Habitat Implications, and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K. E.; Drake, K. D.

    2016-10-01

    Historical mining activity (1850-1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  11. Sex Trafficking, Law Enforcement and Perpetrator Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Burkhalter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In theory, everyone – except for criminals involved in their exploitation - agrees that children must not be in the sex industry and further, that those who prey on them must be prosecuted and punished. Virtually every country in the world has adopted national laws prohibiting the commercial sexual exploitation of children. International law is clear on this point, as well. Yet, when governments – and NGOs working with them – take action to extract children from commercial sex venues, common ground on protecting children from abuse can quickly erode with concerns about the efficacy of police intervention, the possibility of collateral harm to consenting adult sex workers or a decrease in access to HIV-prevention and related health services. The author argues that healing this divide must come through the reform of local police – and that, without the participation of law enforcement, there can be no long-term protection for children vulnerable to trafficking and related exploitation. In this article, human rights practitioner Holly Burkhalter argues that healing this divide must be accomplished through the reform of local police – and that human rights advocates, local governments and others seeking to combat trafficking cannot achieve long-term, sustainable protection for children without the involvement of law enforcement.

  12. REGULATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition policy starts by shaping a legislative framework. This is aimed to establish boundaries for conducting competition and also sets limits of licit and illicit demarcation, for competitive and anticompetitive practices. The Romanian Competition Law has a divalent approach and it aims to provide specific behavioral conditions in order to stimulate and protect free-market competition, with the ultimate goal of developing a balanced, efficient and competitive economy. Our country’s Competition policy is based on punishing the behavior. There are three such types of anti-competitive behavior, namely: agreements between undertakings, abuse of dominant position and mergers and other concentrations between undertakings. Recent Practice proved that this “enforcement-conduct-punishment” structure is not necessary the best way to address competition and it is high time for authorities to switch both regulation and enforcement of competition from the “classical perspective” towards concepts like “competition advocacy” and “soft power” and give competition policy a new, reshaped face.

  13. NRC Enforcement Policy Review, July 1995-July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, J.; Pedersen, R.M.

    1998-04-01

    On June 30, 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a complete revision of its General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Action (Enforcement Policy) (60 FR 34381). In approving the 1995 revision to the Enforcement Policy, the Commission directed the staff to perform a review of its implementation of the Policy after approximately 2 years of experience and to consider public comments. This report represents the results of that review.

  14. Immigration Enforcement and Childhood Poverty in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Arenas-Arroyo, Esther; Sevilla, Almudena

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades immigration enforcement has grown exponentially in the United States. We exploit the geographical and temporal variation in a novel index of the intensity of immigration enforcement between 2005 and 2011 to show how the average yearly increase in interior immigration enforcement over that time period raised the likelihood of living in poverty of households with U.S. citizen children by 4 percent. The effect is robust to a number of identification tests accounting for...

  15. Two Issues on Administrative Enforcement:Position and Responsibility%行政强制执行二题:定位与责任

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫尔宝

    2014-01-01

    《行政强制法》对行政强制执行的界定与后续的强制执行程序、违法强制执行责任的规定之间存在不协调的问题,有必要从法律制度的角度对行政强制执行进行重新定位。行政机关自力执行时,应在行政决定的赔偿责任与行政强制执行的赔偿责任之间作出区分;在人民法院依申请强制执行时,要按照行政决定是否存在明显违法的情形来确定是人民法院单独承担赔偿责任,还是由人民法院与行政机关共同承担赔偿责任。%The uncoordinated problems among definition of administrative enforcement in the Administrative Enforcement Law, the subsequent enforcement procedures and illegal enforcement responsibility require repositioning of administrative enforcement from the perspective of the legal system. For self-enforcement by the administrative organ, the difference between compensation responsibility of the administrative decision and administrative enforcement should be distinguished. While, for enforcement by application of the people’s court, whether the people’s court take individual compensation responsibility or common compensation responsibility with the administrative organ depends on there being obviously illegal situation in the administrative decision or not.

  16. Congressional Testimony: Statement of Wade T. Najjum Before the Subcommittee on Superfund and Environmental Health Committee on Environment and Public Works United States Senate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statement of Wade T. Najjum Assistant Inspector General for Program Evaluation U.S. EPA Office of Inspector General Before the Subcommittee on Superfund and Environmental Health Committee on Environment and Public Works United States Senate

  17. Environmental contaminants in fish and mussels from Meddybemps Lake, the Dennys River, and East Machias River - Eastern Surplus Superfund Site, Meddybemps, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1946 to the early 1980s, the 3-acre Eastern Surplus Superfund Site in Meddybemps, Maine, was used for the disposal and storage of surplus military equipment and...

  18. Integrating Monitoring and Genetic Methods To Infer Historical Risks of PCBs and DDE to Common and Roseate Terns Nesting Near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site (Massachusetts, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common and roseate terns are migratory piscivorous seabirds with major breeding colonies within feeding range of thepolychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated New Bedford Harbor (NBH, MA, USA) Superfund site. Our longitudinal study shows that before PCB discharges into NBH cease...

  19. Failing Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    as a controlled cost for achieving organizational goals. Decisions must fail so the organization can succeed. This chapter uses two cases to elaborate on these ideas. By way of introduction, I will reflect on the notion of ‘failing decisions’ within organization and decision theory. This chapter is also propelled...... deals not with traffic delays, but with failing decisions in organizations. The assumption of this chapter is that failing decisions today are as normal as delayed trains. Instead of being the exception, failure is part of the everyday reproduction of organizations – as an uncontrolled effect but also...... by an interest in failure as one way of improving understanding of present-day decision making in organizations....

  20. Cost and Benefit of Control Strategies - Estimation of Benefit functions, enforcement-probability function and enforcement-cost function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Jensen, Frank

      Within the EU Sixth Framework Programme an ongoing research project, COBECOS, has developed a theory of enforcement and a software code for computer modeling of different fisheries with fisheries enforcement cases. The case of the Danish fishery for Nephrops faces problems with landings...... on fishery enforcement from the COBECOS project to a specific case. It is done by estimations of functional relationships' for describing 1) the fisheries benefit function 2) the shadow value of biomass 3) the connection between the probability of being detected and apprehended for different enforcement...

  1. Explaining the enforcement gap in China: local government support and internal agency obstacles as predictors of enforcement actions in Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Fryxell, Gerald E; van Rooij, Benjamin; Wang, Wei; Honying Li, Pansy

    2012-11-30

    This study investigates how local government support for enforcement and internal agency obstacles explain the enforcement gap in Guangzhou, China. It was found that agency obstacles associated with insufficient resources and job ambiguity, in particular, affect enforcement officials' perceptions of enforcement difficulty. Somewhat more surprisingly, however, local government support was not found to be a significant predictor of these perceptions. In addition, this study identified four significant relationships associated with specific enforcement actions. First and second, perceptions of enforcement difficulty appear to lead to fewer inspections, but also have a weak positive effect on the frequency of fines levied. Third, poor coordination within the bureau was found to be associated with fewer violations being processed. Fourth, and contrary to expectations, local government support was found to suppress the frequency of inspections while having no significant effect on violations or fines. Overall, these findings suggest that increased local government support for the enforcement of environmental regulation in China may not necessarily lead to more rigorous enforcement, at least if enforcement rigor is measured in terms of inspections, citations and fines.

  2. Sparsity-enforcing regularisation and ISTA revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubechies, Ingrid; Defrise, Michel; De Mol, Christine

    2016-10-01

    About two decades ago, the concept of sparsity emerged in different disciplines such as statistics, imaging, signal processing and inverse problems, and proved to be useful for several applications. Sparsity-enforcing constraints or penalties were then shown to provide a viable alternative to the usual quadratic ones for the regularisation of ill-posed problems. To compute the corresponding regularised solutions, a simple, iterative and provably convergent algorithm was proposed and later on referred to as the iterative soft-thresholding algorithm. This paper provides a brief review of these early results as well as that of the subsequent literature, albeit from the authors’ limited perspective. It also presents the previously unpublished proof of an extension of the original framework.

  3. Dynamic Enforcement of the Strict Integrity Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiangfeng; LIANGHongliang; SUNYufang

    2005-01-01

    The Strict integrity policy (SIP) in Biba's integrity model is widely used in protecting information integrity, but the static integrity labels of both subjects and objects increase compatibility cost of applications and might prevent some operations that are indeed harmless.In order to improve compatibility, Dynamic enforcement of the Strict integrity policy (DESIP) is put forward. The current integrity label attribute of a subject in SIP is replaced with two attributes in DESIP, which are used to confine dynamically the range of objects a subject could be allowed to access. The new rules of access control in DESIP are given for each kind of access mode (observe,modify and invoke) together with the proofs of their valid-ity. Comparison between SIP and DESIP shows that after a sequence of operations, a subject controlled by DESIP tends to behave in a similar way as it is controlled by SIP and DESIP is more compatible than SIP.

  4. Security Policy Enforcement Through Refinement Process

    CERN Document Server

    Stouls, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    In the area of networks, a common method to enforce a security policy expressed in a high-level language is based on an ad-hoc and manual rewriting process. We argue that it is possible to build a formal link between concrete and abstract terms, which can be dynamically computed from the environment data. In order to progressively introduce configuration data and then simplify the proof obligations, we use the B refinement process. We present a case study modeling a network monitor. This program, described by refinement following the layers of the TCP/IP suite protocol, has to warn for all observed events which do not respect the security policy. To design this model, we use the event-B method because it is suitable for modeling network concepts. This work has been done within the framework of the POTESTAT project, based on the research of network testing methods from a high-level security policy.

  5. Collective Labor Disputes and Strikes in Russia: The Impact of Judicial Precedents and Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gerasimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to strike is recognized in the Constitution and the Labor Code of the Russian Federation as a means to resolve collective labor disputes. However, in Russia labor protests come up for discussion much more frequently than strikes. In recent years the number of labor protests in Russia, including various forms of work stoppage, has increased significantly compared to previous years, but the number of legally constituted collective labor disputes and strikes has remained very low. The legislation on resolution of collective labor disputes and mounting strikes is quite restrictive in Russia, and its enforcement also encourages employees to seek alternative ways to settle collective labor conflicts. There is little empirical research on the judicial implementation of these norms and its influence on the enforcement of legislation. Therefore, this paper analyses the reasoning of courts in cases on the legality of strikes, their interpretations of the law, and the impact these decisions have on the enforcement of the legislation on resolution of collective labor disputes and strikes. Our conclusion is that the courts act as another restrictive influence on the resolution of collective labor disputes and the exercise of the right to strike in Russia.

  6. Continued geophysical logging near the GMH Electronics National Priorities List Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2017-01-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center collected borehole geophysical logs and images and continuous water-level data near the GMH Electronics National Priorities List Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina, during December 2012 through July 2015. Previous work by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center at the site involved the collection of borehole geophysical log data in 15 wells, in addition to surface geologic mapping and passive diffusion bag sampling. In a continued effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in developing a conceptual groundwater model to assess current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, more than 900 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 10 open borehole wells were delineated and continuous water-level data information from 14 monitoring wells within close proximity of the initially drilled boreholes was collected to observe any induced water-level fluctuations during drilling operations

  7. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

    2013-03-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  9. Surface geophysics and porewater evaluation at the Lower Darby Creek Area Superfund Site, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Charles W.; Degnan, James R.; Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 3, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is participating in an ongoing study to aid in the identification of subsurface heterogeneities that may act as preferential pathways for contaminant transport in and around the Lower Darby Creek Area (LDCA) Superfund Site, Philadelphia Pa. Lower Darby Creek, which flows into the Delaware River, borders the western part of the former landfill site. In 2013, the USGS conducted surface geophysics measurements and stream porewater sampling to provide additional data for EPA’s site characterization. This report contains data collected from field measurements of direct current (DC) resistivity, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys, and stream porewater specific conductance (SC).

  10. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Fields Brook sediment operable unit, Ashtabula, Ohio, September 1986. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-30

    Fields Brook is located in the City of Ashtabula, Ohio and drains a 5.6-square mile watershed (defined as the 'site'). The 3.5 mile main channel of Fields Brook flows through an industrial area that is one of the largest and most diversified concentrations of chemical plants in Ohio. Industrial sources have contaminated the sediment in Fields Brook with a variety of organic and heavy metal pollutants, including TCE, PCE, chlorobenzene, vinyl chloride, arsenic, zinc, mercury and chromium. Base-neutral compounds including hexachloroethane, toluenediamine and toluene diisocyanate also were detected in Fields Brook sediments. Sediments taken from the Ashtabula River in the vicinity of Fields Brook are contaminated with PCBs. The U.S. EPA believes that the amount of contamination entering the brook at this time has been substantially reduced due to the recent development of pollution control laws and discharge-permitting requirements.

  11. 40 CFR 8.11 - Prohibited acts, enforcement and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited acts, enforcement and penalties. 8.11 Section 8.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.11 Prohibited acts, enforcement and...

  12. Task force on compliance and enforcement. Final report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    Recommendations for measures to strengthen the FEA enforcement program in the area of petroleum price regulation are presented. Results of task force efforts are presented in report and recommendations sections concerned with pending cases, compliance program organization, enforcement powers, compliance strategy, and audit staffing and techniques. (JRD)

  13. 28 CFR 55.23 - Enforcement by the Attorney General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement by the Attorney General. 55.23 Section 55.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Sanctions § 55.23 Enforcement by...

  14. The Role of Information Deficiencies in Contract Enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.I.B. Vandenberghe (Ann-Sophie)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInformation deficiencies play an important role in contract enforcement. Courts frequently refuse to enforce contractual terms when one of the parties lacks information. The difficult question is where the line is drawn (or should be drawn) between information deficiencies of which the

  15. 34 CFR 300.537 - State enforcement mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State enforcement mechanisms. 300.537 Section 300.537... Procedures § 300.537 State enforcement mechanisms. Notwithstanding §§ 300.506(b)(7) and 300.510(d)(2), which... meeting, there is nothing in this part that would prevent the SEA from using other mechanisms to...

  16. Role of Enforcement in Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the role of enforcement in prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) What the Evidence Tells Us about the Role of Enforcement in Prevention; (2) Campus Briefs; (3) Q&A with Charles Cychosz; and (4) Higher Education Center Resources.

  17. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vine, Ed [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sturges, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosenquist, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to summarize key findings regarding the costs associated with enforcing building energy code compliance—primarily focusing on costs borne by local government. The review takes into consideration over 150 documents that discuss, to some extent, code enforcement. This review emphasizes those documents that specifically focus on costs associated with energy code enforcement. Given the low rates of building energy code compliance that have been reported in existing studies, as well as the many barriers to both energy code compliance and enforcement, this study seeks to identify the costs of initiatives to improve compliance and enforcement. Costs are reported primarily as presented in the original source. Some costs are given on a per home or per building basis, and others are provided for jurisdictions of a certain size. This literature review gives an overview of state-based compliance rates, barriers to code enforcement, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and key stakeholder involvement in improving compliance with building energy codes. In addition, the processes and costs associated with compliance and enforcement of building energy codes are presented. The second phase of this study, which will be presented in a different report, will consist of surveying 34 experts in the building industry at the national and state or local levels in order to obtain additional cost information, building on the findings from the first phase, as well as recommendations for where to most effectively spend money on compliance and enforcement.

  18. 31 CFR 103.76 - Enforcement of summons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement of summons. 103.76 Section 103.76 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Summons § 103.76 Enforcement of summons. In...

  19. The collective security system and the enforcement of international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.; Weller, M.

    2015-01-01

    After a few brief terminological remarks on the concepts of enforcement, coercion and sanction, this chapter will briefly recall the theoretical debates about the role of enforcement in our understanding of international law. A few observations will then be formulated as to how the creation of a col

  20. Practical Run-Time Norm Enforcement with Bounded Lookahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alechina, Natasha; Bulling, Nils; Dastani, Mehdi; Logan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Norms have been widely proposed as a means of coordinating and controlling the behaviour of agents in a multi-agent system. A key challenge in normative MAS is norm enforcement: how and when to restrict the agents’ behaviour in order to obtain a desirable outcome? Even if a norm can be enforced

  1. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    This guide details what coalitions and organizations need to do to insure the enforcement and judicial communities are active partners in the effort to reduce underage drinking. One of the first tasks discussed is the necessity for groups to understand the needs and concerns of law enforcement and to recognize that underage drinking enforcement…

  2. Enforcing fire safety in the catering industry : an economic analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmond, Guido

    2008-01-01

    What is an effective and efficient enforcement policy for fire safety in the catering industry? When and why is an informal, cooperative enforcement style through warnings, persuasion and advice (a so called compliance strategy) effective in inducing compliance with the fire safety regulation? The s

  3. 78 FR 4081 - Request for Comment on Enforcement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... & Bradstreet; Newspaper Articles; FEC Press Office; Martindale Hubbell; State Corporate Divisions; State Ethics... determination at pre-RTB stage); see also Enforcement Procedure 1992-10 (Subject: News Articles), Enforcement..., for the purpose of ascertaining specific types of information; and (4) news articles and...

  4. The effect of enforcement on speed behaviour : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this literature study is to give an overview of research on speed enforcement and its effect on speed behaviour and safety. This study will be used to find new strategies and tactics to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of speed enforcement by the police in terms of behaviour

  5. Decentralized enforcement, sequential bargaining, and the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovi, Jon

    2001-07-01

    While there is a vast literature both on international bargaining and on how international agreements can be enforced, very little work has been done on how bargaining and enforcement interact. An important exception is Fearon (1998), who models international cooperation as a two-stage process in which the bargaining process is constrained by a need for decentralized enforcement (meaning that the agreement must be enforced by the parties themselves rather than a third party, such as a court). Using the Clean Development Mechanism as an example, the present paper proposes a different model of this kind of interaction. The model follows Fearon's in so far as we both use the infinitely repeated Prisoners' Dilemma to capture the enforcement phase of the game. However, while Fearon depicts the bargaining stage as a War of Attrition, the present model sees that stage as a sequential bargaining game of the Staahl-Rubinstein type. The implications of the present model are compared both to those of the Staahl-Rubinstein model and to those of the Fearon model. A surprising conclusion is that a need for decentralized enforcement tends to make the bargaining outcome more symmetrical than otherwise. Thus, the impact of bargaining power is actually smaller when the resulting agreement must be enforced by the parties themselves than it is if enforcement is taken care of by a third party. (author)

  6. The Role of Information Deficiencies in Contract Enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.I.B. Vandenberghe (Ann-Sophie)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInformation deficiencies play an important role in contract enforcement. Courts frequently refuse to enforce contractual terms when one of the parties lacks information. The difficult question is where the line is drawn (or should be drawn) between information deficiencies of which the l

  7. 36 CFR 905.737-102 - Enforcement proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement proceedings. 905... Enforcement proceedings. (a) Delegation. The Chairman of the Corporation may delegate his or her authority... proceedings, unless the Department of Justice communicates to the Corporation that it does not intend...

  8. 25 CFR 11.1003 - Law enforcement officer's duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement officer's duties. 11.1003 Section 11.1003 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1003 Law enforcement officer's duties. A law...

  9. 25 CFR 11.1103 - Law enforcement officer's duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement officer's duties. 11.1103 Section 11.1103 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Minor-in-Need-of-Care Procedure § 11.1103 Law enforcement officer's duties. Upon...

  10. Randomized Trial of Law Enforcement Training on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagardin, Jill; Dixon, Dennis R.; Smith, Marlena N.; Granpeesheh, Doreen

    2012-01-01

    The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are likely to affect interactions between law enforcement officers and persons with ASD. If law enforcement officers are not trained to identify and appropriately respond to persons with ASD, it is possible that officers may exacerbate a situation, resulting in unnecessary trauma, injury, or…

  11. 28 CFR 0.29j - Law enforcement authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law enforcement authority. 0.29j Section...-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29j Law enforcement authority. Subject to guidelines promulgated by...) Detect and assist in the prosecution of crimes in violation of the laws of the United States and to...

  12. Law Enforcement Proxies Matter for the Law and Finance Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Toci

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper employs various measures of law enforcement to provide new evidence on the importance of legal institutions for different dimensions of financial development in transition economies. It offers a critical assessment of law enforcement measures employed in recent studies by showing that some proxies for law enforcement in the credit market may not be appropriate. Hence, care should be taken in how the quality of institutions is measured and the context which it represents. An original approach to measuring law enforcement in the credit market is developed by embodying the legal theory of dispute resolution and assessing this approach by collecting primary data for Kosovo. The findings suggest that Kosovo compares well with countries in the region and other transition economies in terms of the enforcement of creditor rights.

  13. The carrot or the stick? Evaluation of education and enforcement as management tools for human-wildlife conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Breck, Stewart W; Wilson, Kenneth R; Broderick, John

    2011-01-12

    Evidence-based decision-making is critical for implementing conservation actions, especially for human-wildlife conflicts, which have been increasing worldwide. Conservation practitioners recognize that long-term solutions should include altering human behaviors, and public education and enforcement of wildlife-related laws are two management actions frequently implemented, but with little empirical evidence evaluating their success. We used a system where human-black bear conflicts were common, to experimentally test the efficacy of education and enforcement in altering human behavior to better secure attractants (garbage) from bears. We conducted 3 experiments in Aspen CO, USA to evaluate: 1) on-site education in communal dwellings and construction sites, 2) Bear Aware educational campaign in residential neighborhoods, and 3) elevated law enforcement at two levels in the core business area of Aspen. We measured human behaviors as the response including: violation of local wildlife ordinances, garbage availability to bears, and change in use of bear-resistance refuse containers. As implemented, we found little support for education, or enforcement in the form of daily patrolling in changing human behavior, but found more support for proactive enforcement, i.e., dispensing warning notices. More broadly we demonstrated the value of gathering evidence before and after implementing conservation actions, and the dangers of measuring responses in the absence of ecological knowledge. We recommend development of more effective educational methods, application of proactive enforcement, and continued evaluation of tools by directly measuring change in human behavior. We provide empirical evidence adding to the conservation managers' toolbox, informing policy makers, and promoting solutions to human-wildlife conflicts.

  14. The carrot or the stick? Evaluation of education and enforcement as management tools for human-wildlife conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Baruch-Mordo

    Full Text Available Evidence-based decision-making is critical for implementing conservation actions, especially for human-wildlife conflicts, which have been increasing worldwide. Conservation practitioners recognize that long-term solutions should include altering human behaviors, and public education and enforcement of wildlife-related laws are two management actions frequently implemented, but with little empirical evidence evaluating their success. We used a system where human-black bear conflicts were common, to experimentally test the efficacy of education and enforcement in altering human behavior to better secure attractants (garbage from bears. We conducted 3 experiments in Aspen CO, USA to evaluate: 1 on-site education in communal dwellings and construction sites, 2 Bear Aware educational campaign in residential neighborhoods, and 3 elevated law enforcement at two levels in the core business area of Aspen. We measured human behaviors as the response including: violation of local wildlife ordinances, garbage availability to bears, and change in use of bear-resistance refuse containers. As implemented, we found little support for education, or enforcement in the form of daily patrolling in changing human behavior, but found more support for proactive enforcement, i.e., dispensing warning notices. More broadly we demonstrated the value of gathering evidence before and after implementing conservation actions, and the dangers of measuring responses in the absence of ecological knowledge. We recommend development of more effective educational methods, application of proactive enforcement, and continued evaluation of tools by directly measuring change in human behavior. We provide empirical evidence adding to the conservation managers' toolbox, informing policy makers, and promoting solutions to human-wildlife conflicts.

  15. 78 FR 26069 - Top RX Pharmacy; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Enforcement Administration Top RX Pharmacy; Decision and Order On November 8, 2012, Chief Administrative Law... ALJ's reasoning suggests that ``inaction'' on the part of a pharmacy's principals in dispensing.../Pharmacy Nos. 219 and 5195, 77 FR 62316, 62317-22 (2012). Order Pursuant to the authority vested in me by...

  16. 76 FR 66965 - Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Enforcement Administration Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy Decision and Order On September 14, 2011... Registration, BT9856002, issued to Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, be, and it hereby is, revoked. I further order that any pending application of Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, to renew or modify his...

  17. The Impact of Groupement des Cartes Bancaires on Competition Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Fattori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Groupement des Cartes bancaires represents a key judgment for competition enforcement, as it provides helpful clarification on the notion of “restriction by object” and on the judicial standard of review of Commission decisions. As of the first aspect, the ruling limited the restrictions by object to those which by their very nature and on the basis of the experience reveal a sufficient degree of harm to competition. On the standard required to the Court in reviewing competition decisions, the ECJ underlines the necessity of carrying out a full review, specifying that the presence of economic issues should not dispense the Court with an in-depth review of the law and the facts. The principles expressed in the judgment could have a great impact also at national level, where it could provide useful guidance both to Italian competition authority and to the Administrative Courts.

  18. IDENTIFYING OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO SELECT SUITABLE DECISION MODELS FOR A PUBLIC SECTOR EPROCUREMENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Public sector procurement should be a transparent and fair process. Strict legal requirements are enforced on public sector procurement to make it a standardised process. To make fair decisions on selecting suppliers, a practical method which adheres to legal requirements is important. The research that is the base for this paper aimed at identifying a suitable Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA method for the specific legal and functional needs of the Maldivian Public Sector. To identify such operational requirements, a set of focus group interviews were conducted in the Maldives with public officials responsible for procurement decision making. Based on the operational requirements identified through focus groups, criteria-based evaluation is done on published MCDA methods to identify the suitable methods for e-procurement decision making. This paper describes the identification of the operational requirements and the results of the evaluation to select suitable decision models for the Maldivian context.

  19. Implementation of the 1958 New York Convention in Several Asian Countries: The Refusal of Foreign Arbitral Awards Enforcement on the Grounds of Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Radjagukguk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The national character of public policy indicates that the decision is up to the court of national country concerned. Therefore, each country can rule whether public policy and its related issues are part of the country’s public policy. Courts around the world have recognized that Article V of the Convention is discretionary. The courts of Civil Law countries appear to be interpreting public policy broadly. This is quite evident from decisions made by courts in Indonesia, The People’s Republic of China, Japan and Korea. The Indonesian Court considered Article V (2 (b of the New York Convention which states that the court may deny the enforcement of an arbital award if enforcement would violate public policy of the place of enforcement. In addition, before the enactment of Law No. 30 of 1999 concerning Arbitration and Alternative Disptue Resolution, the Court referred to Indonesian Supreme Court Regulation No. 1 of 1999, which provides that the enforcement of foreign arbital awards in Indonesia imitatively applies to awards which do not violate public policy order in terms of all underlying principles of the Indonesian legal system and society. In Indonesia, Bakrie Brothers v. Trading Corporation of Pakistan Ltd., was the first case in which the Indonesian court rejected the enforcement of foreign arbital awards for the reason of violating public policy.

  20. Tough justice for small nations. How strategic behaviour can influence the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Maestad, Ottar; Westskog, Hege

    2003-07-01

    The paper looks at how strategic considerations may play a role in the decision of whether or not to impose sanctions on Parties who are not in compliance with their commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. A member of the Enforcement Branch might have incentive to vote for sanctions towards one non-compliant country and not another even with the same violation. This implies that a certain composition of the members of the Enforcement Branch could decide to sanction one country and not another for the same relative non-compliance, while another composition might choose differently. We show that the expected effects on world market prices of sanctioning a country is likely to influence the decision of whether to carry out the sanctions or not. We find that it is likely to be easier to sanction countries where sanctions result in minor impacts on world market prices than those where the impacts are larger. Finally we discuss an alternative design of the sanction mechanism in view of our results. (Author)

  1. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  2. 76 FR 27355 - Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection and Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... of Justice Programs Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection... public, the ``Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection and... representatives, law enforcement agencies and organizations, research, development and scientific communities, and...

  3. Superfund reform: US Environmental Protection Agency`s 30-day study and its implication for the US Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M.R.; Friedman, J.R.; Neff, R.W.

    1993-03-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to reform and restructure the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAS) Superfund program, the EPA Administrator on October 21, 1991, announced several key programmatic reforms. These reforms are a result of the Superfund 30-Day Task Force Report (30-Day Study, EPA 1991a), an effort carried out by EPAs office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). The EPA OSWER oversees environmental cleanup activities under a number of statutory authorities, including the Comprehensive Environmental response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). CERCLA and its implementing regulation, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), establish a regulatory framework to govern the cleanup of existing, and often abandoned, hazardous waste sites. The purposes of this report are to (1) review the background and recommendations of EPNs 30-Day Study, (2) identify and discuss the initiatives from the 30-Day Study that may impact DOE`s environmental restoration mission, (3) report on EPAs progress in implementing the selected priority initiatives, and (4) describe potentially related DOE activities.

  4. Decision-Making Competence in Biology Education: Implementation into German Curricula in Relation to International Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Benjamin; Hößle, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    The integration of decision-making competence or comparable constructs into science education has been strongly enforced during the last twenty years. Germany captured the tendency with the introduction of national standards for science education that included a domain that refers to decision-making competence. This domain--"evaluation and…

  5. 38 CFR 18.547 - Hearings, decisions, post-termination proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearings, decisions, post-termination proceedings. 18.547 Section 18.547 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 18.547 Hearings, decisions, post-termination proceedings. Certain VA...

  6. Prospects of development of the court decrees enforcement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Sergeyevna Morkovskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective the relevance of the topic the insufficient level of its scientific elaboration predetermined the research objectives which consist in the analysis of the institution of enforcement proceedings the identification of key challenges trends and ways to improve the current system of court decrees enforcement. Methods the methodological basis of the undertaken research is scientific method of cognition in conjunction with certain specific scientific methods the laws of formal logic historical method comparative legal method and systematic analysis of theoretical works studied in this work. Results the emerging trends in the enforcement proceedings reform in the country cannot be considered to be satisfactory in general although some initiatives seem quite appropriate in case of the proper performance. If you the situation cannot be rectified with the execution of judicial decrees basing on own experience only it is necessary to pay attention to foreign practices and to provide citizens with the right to an effective judicial protection. Of all approaches to reforming of the enforcement institution analyzed in the article the preferred for the Russian legal reality is modernization of the existing nonjudicial system of enforcement through civil procedural means. Scientific novelty at present neither the civil procedure nor the general theory of law has not developed a unified understanding of the civil procedural tools for improving the efficiency of enforcement proceedings. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching when viewing the issues of the effectiveness of enforcement proceedings. nbsp

  7. Decoding Nonverbal Communication in Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Otu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This analytical study examined the importance of nonverbal communication in law enforcement work. In many encounters between police and citizens, the primary focus is always on suspects’/citizens’ verbal statements, rather than on how and what their body is conveying while telling the story. This study argues for an integrated approach in which the police officers need to realise that they, too, are communicating nonverbally with suspects. This study reveals that nonverbal communication, also known as body language, proxemic, and kinesics behavior, in many cases tends to constitute a much larger fraction of the police communication model than verbal communication, which should help officers to establish authority and dominance and ensure their safety. Nonverbal communication is not something added onto criminal justice, but rather it is the essence of criminal justice. This results suggest that nonverbal communication is the foundation of a successful relationship/encounter between criminal justice personnel and suspects or criminals, as well as being a powerful method that cannot be feigned.

  8. Timeline analysis tools for law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucks, John

    1997-02-01

    The timeline analysis system (TAS) was developed by Rome Laboratory to assist intelligence analysts with the comprehension of large amounts of information. Under the TAS program data visualization, manipulation and reasoning tools were developed in close coordination with end users. The initial TAS prototype was developed for foreign command and control analysts at Space Command in Colorado Springs and was fielded there in 1989. The TAS prototype replaced manual paper timeline maintenance and analysis techniques and has become an integral part of Space Command's information infrastructure. TAS was designed to be domain independent and has been tailored and proliferated to a number of other users. The TAS program continues to evolve because of strong user support. User funded enhancements and Rome Lab funded technology upgrades have significantly enhanced TAS over the years and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. TAS was recently provided to the New York State Police (NYSP) for evaluation using actual case data. Timeline analysis it turns out is a popular methodology used in law enforcement. The evaluation has led to a more comprehensive application and evaluation project sponsored by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). This paper describes the capabilities of TAS, results of the initial NYSP evaluation and the plan for a more comprehensive NYSP evaluation.

  9. Self-enforcing regional vaccination agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Petra; Megiddo, Itamar; Grenfell, Bryan T; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-01-01

    In a highly interconnected world, immunizing infections are a transboundary problem, and their control and elimination require international cooperation and coordination. In the absence of a global or regional body that can impose a universal vaccination strategy, each individual country sets its own strategy. Mobility of populations across borders can promote free-riding, because a country can benefit from the vaccination efforts of its neighbours, which can result in vaccination coverage lower than the global optimum. Here we explore whether voluntary coalitions that reward countries that join by cooperatively increasing vaccination coverage can solve this problem. We use dynamic epidemiological models embedded in a game-theoretic framework in order to identify conditions in which coalitions are self-enforcing and therefore stable, and thus successful at promoting a cooperative vaccination strategy. We find that countries can achieve significantly greater vaccination coverage at a lower cost by forming coalitions than when acting independently, provided a coalition has the tools to deter free-riding. Furthermore, when economically or epidemiologically asymmetric countries form coalitions, realized coverage is regionally more consistent than in the absence of coalitions.

  10. CASTLE: an advanced technology partnership serving law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoig, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    The Center for Applied Science and Technology for Law Enforcement (CASTLE) is supported by the National Institute of Justice Office of Science and Technology and is establishing partnerships with the National Law Enforcement Corrections and Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina. Additionally, CASTLE is working with the American Society of Crime Lab Directors (ASCLD) to direct effective interface with and support of state and local crime laboratories. Extremely sophisticated, often one-of-a-kind, equipment and very-capable scientific expertise are resident at U.S. federal government laboratories and, until recently, have not been applied often to law enforcement problems, particularly at the state and local level. While there have been a number of research and development programs at national laboratories sponsored by agencies such as the National Institute of Justice, most of these have been focused on long-term objectives to meet broad national needs. In discussions with local law enforcement personnel, it is apparent that there are much more immediate technology needs, which are not being addressed by nationwide programs, in fundamental areas including video and audio surveillance, trace and physical evidence sampling, and forensic laboratory analysis. In a pilot program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a significant component of the nation's science and technology resources located in Tennessee, recently made a commitment to support law enforcement where possible with advanced technology. ORNL formed the Center for Applied Science and Technology for Law Enforcement (CASTLE), a partnership of scientific, university, private sector, and law enforcement personnel. The goal of the CASTLE program is to apply technology at the grassroots working level to both solve crimes, to improve safety to law enforcement personnel, and to improve the overall quality of law enforcement services within the United States.

  11. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites, StateCERCLIS-This data set contains potential EPA Superfund sites. These locations represent sites, not contaminated areas., Published in 2008, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as...

  12. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites, Point or polygon geo-location of federally designated superfund sites in Wisconsin. Usually geolocated via on screen digitizing against DOPs (could be geo-located via GPS). Source year of DOPs vary, Published in unknown, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Wisconsin DNR - Bureau of Remediation and Redevelopment.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of...

  13. Environmental Factor(tm) system: Superfund site information from five EPA databases (on cd-rom). Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Environmental Factor puts today`s technology to work to provide a better, more cost-efficient and time-saving way to access EPA information on hazardous waste sites. Environmental consultants, insurers, and reinsurers, corporate risk assessors and companies actively involved in the generation, transport, storage or cleanup of hazardous waste materials can use its user-friendly information retrieval system to gain rapid access to vital information in immediately-usable form. Search, retrieve, and export information in real time. No more waiting for the mail or overnight delivery services to deliver hard copies of voluminous listings and individual site reports. More than 200,000 pages of EPA hazardous waste site information are contained in 5 related databases: (1) Site data from the National Priority List (NPL) and CERCLIS databases, Potentially Responsible Parties (PRP) and Records of Decision (RODs) summaries; (2) Complete PRP information; (3) EPA Records of Decision (Full Text); (4) entire Civil Enforcement Docket; and (5) Glossary of EPA terms, abbreviations and acronyms. Environmental Factor`s powerful database management engine gives even the most inexperienced computer user extensive search capabilities, including wildcard, phonetic and direct cross reference searches across multiple databases. The first menu option delivers information from the NPL, CERCLIS site data, PRP and RODs summary information. Enter a set of search criteria and then immediately access displays containing information from all of these databases. Get full PRP information and Full Text RODs by using their respective menu options. If your search turns up multiple items, a list of site names appears. To bring up the data, highlight the specific site you want and hit Enter. That`s how easy it is to access the vast amount of data stored in the Environmental Factor CD-ROM.

  14. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A - 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains annual data on collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D of...

  15. Spatial service delivery system for smart licensing & enforcement management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahap, N. A.; Ismail, N. M.; Nor, N. M.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Termizi, A. A. A.; Zainal, D.; Noordin, N. M.; Mansor, S.

    2016-06-01

    Spatial information has introduced a new sense of urgency for a better understanding of the public needs in term of what, when and where they need services and through which devices, platform or physical locations they need them. The objective of this project is to value- add existing license management process for business premises which comes under the responsibility of Local Authority (PBT). Manipulation of geospatial and tracing technology via mobile platform allows enforcement officers to work in real-time, use a standardized system, improve service delivery, and optimize operation management. This paper will augment the scope and capabilities of proposed concept namely, Smart Licensing/Enforcement Management (SLEm). It will review the current licensing and enforcement practice of selected PBT in comparison to the enhanced method. As a result, the new enhanced system is expected to offer a total solution for licensing/enforcement management whilst increasing efficiency and transparency for smart city management and governance.

  16. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Enforcement Action Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Enforcement Action Response System collects waste transaction information, and liability determination information. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies

  17. 47 CFR 3.72 - Grounds for further enforcement action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Enforcement § 3.72... any subsequent six month period; (2) Illegal activity or fraud; (3) Non-payment or late payment to...

  18. Impediments to enforcement of environmental treaties against oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impediments to enforcement of environmental treaties against oil pollution. ... condition of the global environment vis-à-vis the linkage of environmental degradation with growth ... 'Safe water is increasingly limited, hindering economic activity.

  19. recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in civil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    trade. The ease of enforceability of arbitral awards across borders should have, inter alia .... following a regular arbitration agreement or other legal act in [sic][in ...... There may be bilateral, plurilateral and multilateral conventions dealing with.

  20. The 1033 Program, Department of Defense Support to Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-28

    activities. General categories of equipment offered for transfer include office furniture, household goods (e.g., kitchen equipment), exercise equipment... portable electric generators, tents, and general law enforcement supplies (e.g., handcuffs, riot shields, holsters, binoculars, and digital cameras

  1. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 - YR 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State officials use the OCSE-157 to report annual statistical and financial information on their Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program to the Department of Health...

  2. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A - 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains annual data on collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D of...

  3. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 - YR 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State officials use the OCSE-157 to report annual statistical and financial information on their Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program to the Department of Health...

  4. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 - YR 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State officials use the OCSE-157 to report annual statistical and financial information on their Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program to the Department of Health...

  5. 24 CFR 982.406 - Enforcement of HQS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Dwelling Unit: Housing Quality Standards, Subsidy Standards, Inspection and Maintenance § 982.406 Enforcement of HQS. Part 982 does not create...

  6. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 - YR 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State officials use the OCSE-157 to report annual statistical and financial information on their Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program to the Department of Health...

  7. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 - YR 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State officials use the OCSE-157 to report annual statistical and financial information on their Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program to the Department of Health...

  8. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 - YR 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State officials use the OCSE-157 to report annual statistical and financial information on their Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program to the Department of Health...

  9. 77 FR 41120 - Rules of General Application, Adjudication, and Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... covered by a valid and enforceable patent, copyright, trademark, mask work, or boat hull design related to... copyright, trademark, mask work, or vessel hull design, under section 337(a)(1)(B), (C), (D), or (E) of the...

  10. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains annual data on collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D of...

  11. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A - 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains annual data on collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D of...

  12. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains annual data on collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D of...

  13. Pesticides and Asbestos Programs and Enforcement Branch Case Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracks the entire life cycle of a regulated site from initial inspection through site response to enforcement actions. Separate site action history is maintained for each statute under which the site is regulated.

  14. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A - 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains annual data on collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D of...

  15. Pesticides and Asbestos Programs and Enforcement Branch Case Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Tracks the entire life cycle of a regulated site from initial inspection through site response to enforcement actions. Separate site action history is maintained for...

  16. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains annual data on collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D of...

  17. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A - 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains information about collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D...

  18. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 - YR 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State officials will use the OCSE-157 to report statistical and some financial information on their Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program to the Department of...

  19. Performance-Driven Interface Contract Enforcement for Scientific Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, Tamara Lynn [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Performance-driven interface contract enforcement research aims to improve the quality of programs built from plug-and-play scientific components. Interface contracts make the obligations on the caller and all implementations of the specified methods explicit. Runtime contract enforcement is a well-known technique for enhancing testing and debugging. However, checking all of the associated constraints during deployment is generally considered too costly from a performance stand point. Previous solutions enforced subsets of constraints without explicit consideration of their performance implications. Hence, this research measures the impacts of different interface contract sampling strategies and compares results with new techniques driven by execution time estimates. Results from three studies indicate automatically adjusting the level of checking based on performance constraints improves the likelihood of detecting contract violations under certain circumstances. Specifically, performance-driven enforcement is better suited to programs exercising constraints whose costs are at most moderately expensive relative to normal program execution.

  20. Organizational Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    in architectural competitions and claim that they reflect necessity more than vice. They are ways around the fundamental incommensurability of the alternative design proposals. The garbage can model is used as a framework for making sense of the observed counterintuitive ways of decision making. Its attempt...

  1. The Enforcement Role Of The Companies Commission Of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd-Haswadi Hassan; Glen D. Moyes; Zuraidah Mohd-Sanusi; Takiah Mohd Iskandar

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of the enforcement efforts undertaken by the Companies Commission of Malaysia (CCM) as a regulator of the Companies Act of 1965, which is entrusted to uphold and ensure good practices of corporate governance among Malaysian companies.  The paper attempts to provide an understanding on various enforcement actions in terms of the effectiveness and adequacy of the measures adopted by the CCM in promoting and improving the level of corporate governance practices in Ma...

  2. Collective redress : broadening EU enforcement through state liability?

    OpenAIRE

    Marson, James; Ferris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    This article advances an argument that private enforcement of European Union (EU) rights has largely been stunted due to a series of blocking tactics by Member States, enabled through a form of tacitic subservience of the Court of Justice of the European Union to these States. Currently, State Liability is neither an effective system of redress under tortious liability, nor a genuine enforcement mechanism in domestic law. By enabling collective redress in State Liability, we present an argume...

  3. Overview of the recognition and enforcement of international commercial arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kravtsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. This informational article is devoted to the peculiarities of recognition and enforcement of international commercial arbitration awards according to different countries’ legislation and international legal regulation.The purpose of the article is to identify legal patterns of recognition and enforcement of international commercial arbitration awards in different countries.Methodology. The study is based on comparative law and formal law methods, analysis and synthesis.Results, scope of application. Enforcement of arbitral awards in foreign countries is ensured and guaranteed by multilateral conventions, bilateral treaties and national legislation. The New York Convention 1958 in a certain way limits the scope of legal protection of arbitral awards and leaves the procedure for recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards for consideration of the state court. The author analyses of differentiation of the recognition and enforcement regime of so-called "domestic" and "foreign" solutions of international commercial arbitration in terms of doctrinal approaches and practice of foreign countries. Special attention is given to the analysis of foreign arbitral awards of recognition and enforcement procedures is given to a denial of recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards and their reasons. In spite of the explicit grounds for refusal of recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in New York Convention 1958, some countries try to establish certain exceptions to the rule in the national legislation. Results may be applicable in improvement of international legal regulation.Conclusions. The courts of the countries – participants of the New York Convention 1958 cannot cancel the foreign arbitral award or revise it substantially. The refutation of this award is possible only in the court of the state in whose territory the relevant arbitral award was made, and such court is not formally bound by the rules of the

  4. Enforcing Building Energy Codes in China: Progress and Comparative Lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Halverson, Mark A.; Delgado, Alison

    2010-08-15

    From 1995 to 2005, building energy use in China increased more rapidly than the world average. China has been adding 0.4 to 1.6 billion square meters of floor space annually , making it the world’s largest market for new construction. In fact, by 2020, China is expected to comprise half of all new construction. In response to this, China has begun to make important steps towards achieving building energy efficiency, including the implementation of building energy standards that requires new buildings to be 65% more efficient than buildings from the early 1980s. Making progress on reducing building energy use requires both a comprehensive code and a robust enforcement system. The latter – the enforcement system – is a particularly critical component for assuring that a building code has an effect. China has dramatically enhanced its enforcement system in the past two years, with more detailed requirements for ensuring enforcement and new penalties for non-compliance. We believe that the U.S. and other developed countries could benefit from learning about the multiple checks and the documentation required in China. Similarly, some of the more user-friendly enforcement approaches developed in the U.S. and elsewhere may be useful for China as it strives to improve enforcement in rural and smaller communities. In this article, we provide context to China’s building codes enforcement system by comparing it to the U.S. Among some of the enforcement mechanisms we look at are testing and rating procedures, compliance software, and training and public information.

  5. The Role of Information Deficiencies in Contract Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe, Ann-Sophie

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInformation deficiencies play an important role in contract enforcement. Courts frequently refuse to enforce contractual terms when one of the parties lacks information. The difficult question is where the line is drawn (or should be drawn) between information deficiencies of which the law will take account and those which it will disregard. This article sets out the economic framework for determining when it is appropriate to shift responsibility for information deficiencies from...

  6. Problems of Soviet procedural law enforcement in 1930s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kodintsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 340.158The subject. Features of the organization of justice and the quality of procedural law enforcement in the USSR in the 1930s.The purpose. The determination of historical patterns of judicial enforcement in the USSR in the 1930s and the identification of the causes of the ineffectiveness of the proceedings in this period.Methodology. The author uses historical legal method, formal legal interpretation of statutes, the method of analysis of judicial statistics.Results, scope of application. After the criminal law campaigns of the early 1930s the judg-ment in the Soviet Union was in a disturbed condition. The Soviet civil process was almost absolutely eliminated. Tens thousands materials of court cases were lost throughout the Union every year. The courts were extremely busy.The courts used accusatory approach. The petitions of the accused were almost never solved. Prisoners were not handed copies of the indictments.During the terror of the old evils of the judicial system worsened, the destruction of the judicial process began. The timeframe for completing cases increased. Almost half of criminal cases in case of complaint (appeal has been revised by the higher courts. The courts again applied the simplified procedure.At the end of the 1930s the procedural regulation of the judicial work was the duty of People's Commissariat of Justice of the USSR and of the Supreme Court of the USSR. USSR Supreme Court continued to take decisions in litigation in the plenums. The Boards of Su-preme Court examines cases influencing law of practice.The quality of judgment by the Supreme Courts of the Republics of Soviet Union in the late 1930s did not change significantly in comparison with the previous period. This was due to constant staff turnover and low level of qualification of judges. The Supreme Courts of the Republics had no Plenum, so they could influence law of practice by the rulings of of the Boards. These rulings were extremely ignorant

  7. Phytoextraction of Pb and Cd from a superfund soil: effects of amendments and croppings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, T J; Pichtel, J; Brown, H J; Simmons, M

    2001-01-01

    In a growth chamber, maize (Zea mays) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were grown over two croppings in soil from a Superfund site (PbTotal = 65,200 mg/kg and CdTotal = 52mg/kg). Soil treatments consisted of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium citrate and composted sewage sludge, each at two rates (EDTA .05%, EDTA .2%, citrate .05%, citrate .2%, CSS 5% and CSS 10%, respectively). In most cases, the EDTA and citrate treatments were superior in terms of solubilizing soil Pb for root uptake and translocation into above-ground biomass. In the first maize crop, the EDTA .2% treatment resulted in 2,435 and 9,389mg/kg Pb in shoot and root tissues, respectively. The CSS treatments typically resulted in lowest Pb and Cd removal efficiencies. Lead remaining in the soil after two croppings was mainly associated with the carbonate, organic, and residual fractions, which represent the less bioavailable forms. Soil Cd was generally more mobile for plant uptake than soil Pb. The EDTA .2% and citrate treatments were most successful in promoting Cd uptake by both maize and mustard. Although Pb concentrations (mg/kg tissue) were lower for maize than mustard, the former removed more total Pb (0.2 mg per pot, mean over all treatments), compared to mustard (0.03 mg), by virtue of its higher biomass production.

  8. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance New Mapping Tool for Enforcement Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The new mapping tool shows facilities in the United States where the EPA concluded formal environmental enforcement actions between October 1, 2008 and September...

  9. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance New Mapping Tool for Enforcement Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The new mapping tool shows facilities in the United States where the EPA concluded formal environmental enforcement actions between October 1, 2008 and September 30,...

  10. The Paradox of Fiction and Terrorism’s Overshadowing of Organised Crime as a Law Enforcement Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Prunckun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In light of criticism by political commentators and law enforcement experts about counterterrorism overshadowing the investigation of other forms of serious crime—in particular, organised crime—this study explored whether the use of intelligence-led policing would be better directed towards all serious crime, rather than prioritising terrorism. An expert jury comprising twelve subject/practitioner specialists were surveyed. The study used a purposive sampling technique to gauge the jury’s views on the current policy priorities, with the options being counterterrorism to serious crime, and the value of intelligence in policing regarding these offences. The findings, though not conclusive, provide compelling support for the hypotheses. That is, the results of a decision-tree analysis showed that intelligence-led law enforcement could provide approximately 2.1 times the utility over the current approach.

  11. Decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, authors presents a greedy algorithm for construction of exact and partial decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. Exact decision rules can be \\'over-fitted\\', so instead of exact decision rules with many attributes, it is more appropriate to work with partial decision rules with smaller number of attributes. Based on results for set cover problem authors study bounds on accuracy of greedy algorithm for exact and partial decision rule construction, and complexity of the problem of minimization of decision rule length. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Sub-Federal Enforcement of Immigration Law: An Introduction to the Problem of Pretextual Enforcement and Inadequate Remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Rosenbaum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-federal enforcement of immigration law has expanded significantly in the last decade raising questions concerning policing, rights violations, and remedies. While the Fourth Amendment has historically provided an avenue for potentially suppressing evidence obtained in violation of a criminal defendant’s civil rights, its applicability in the immigration removal context has been circumscribed. Thus, the avenues to protect the rights of unauthorized noncitizens in immigration removal proceedings are less clear where sub-federal agents act outside of their authorization, particularly in the context of Secure Communities, and enforce immigration law. In the context of immigration exceptionalism, racial profiling has historically played a unique role in immigration law. The lack of adequate measures to deter rights violations where sub-federal agents enforce immigration law raises questions concerning the relationship between criminal and immigration law, and the importance of deterring civil rights violations such as racial profiling, in immigration enforcement. This article will examine the problem of sub-federal law enforcement agents’ use of criminal law violations as a pretext to enforce immigration law and the lack of adequate deterrence of civil rights violations.

  13. Organizational Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    the customer is the Federal Government subjective bases for decisions were mentioned over three times as frequently as sophisticated methods of... satisfcations ? Much of the answer will depend on organizational antecedents and consequences (Bass, 1981). The Cascade. Based on dissatisfaction with his current...transactions (such as discounts to customers during off-seasons), by anticipating needed changes requiring technical adaptation (e.g. maintaining

  14. Automatic enforcement of speed and red light violations : applications, experiences and developments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. & Oei, H.-l.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explains the need for automatic enforcement, and reviews: (1) applications of automatic enforcement. Automatic enforcement has been carried out for about 20 years. Despite this, the number of scientific and experimental studies dealing with the effects of automatic traffic enforcement app

  15. 36 CFR 902.57 - Investigatory files compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for law enforcement purposes. 902.57 Section 902.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA... Records § 902.57 Investigatory files compiled for law enforcement purposes. (a) Files compiled by the Corporation for law enforcement purposes, including the enforcement of the regulations of the Corporation, are...

  16. 27 CFR 478.134 - Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AMMUNITION Records § 478.134 Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers. (a) Law enforcement officers... complete Form 4473 or Form 5300.35. The law enforcement officer purchasing the firearm may purchase a...) In Federal law enforcement offices, the supervisor in charge of the office to which the Federal...

  17. 25 CFR 12.36 - Does other law enforcement training count?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does other law enforcement training count? 12.36 Section... ENFORCEMENT Qualifications and Training Requirements § 12.36 Does other law enforcement training count? All... complete basic training requirements will result in removal from a law enforcement position. ...

  18. 21 CFR 20.64 - Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... law enforcement purposes. (a) Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes may be... any other criminal law enforcement authority in the course of a criminal investigation or by an agency... procedures for law enforcement investigations or prosecutions or would disclose guidelines for law...

  19. The untapped potential of horizontal private enforcement within EC environmental law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeben, J.A.W.

    2008-01-01

    The premise of the article is that horizontal private enforcement could improve the deterrent effect of public enforcement in cases where there is a low likelihood of public enforcement due to information dissymmetry or funding problems on the side of the public enforcer. In order to illustrate

  20. 43 CFR 422.5 - Responsibilities of the Law Enforcement Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of the Law Enforcement... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS Responsibilities § 422.5 Responsibilities of the Law Enforcement Administrator. (a) The Law Enforcement...

  1. 43 CFR 422.6 - Responsibilities of the Chief Law Enforcement Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS Responsibilities § 422.6 Responsibilities of the Chief Law Enforcement Officer. The Chief Law Enforcement Officer's (CLEO) responsibilities are to ensure that: (a) Law enforcement officers working at Reclamation...

  2. 32 CFR 635.15 - Release of law enforcement information furnished by foreign governments or international...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Release of law enforcement information furnished... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Release of Information § 635.15 Release of law enforcement information...

  3. The untapped potential of horizontal private enforcement within EC environmental law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeben, J.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    The premise of the article is that horizontal private enforcement could improve the deterrent effect of public enforcement in cases where there is a low likelihood of public enforcement due to information dissymmetry or funding problems on the side of the public enforcer. In order to illustrate

  4. Law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C; Zaller, Nickolas; Palacios, Wilson R; Bowman, Sarah E; Ray, Madeline; Heimer, Robert; Case, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Law enforcement is often the first to respond to medical emergencies in the community, including overdose. Due to the nature of their job, officers have also witnessed first-hand the changing demographic of drug users and devastating effects on their community associated with the epidemic of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the United States. Despite this seminal role, little data exist on law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response. We conducted key informant interviews as part of a 12-week Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) process that aimed to better understand and prevent nonmedical prescription opioid use and overdose deaths in locations in Connecticut and Rhode Island experiencing overdose "outbreaks." Interviews with 13 law enforcement officials across three study sites were analyzed to uncover themes on overdose prevention and naloxone. Findings indicated support for law enforcement involvement in overdose prevention. Hesitancy around naloxone administration by laypersons was evident. Interview themes highlighted officers' feelings of futility and frustration with their current overdose response options, the lack of accessible local drug treatment, the cycle of addiction, and the pervasiveness of easily accessible prescription opioid medications in their communities. Overdose prevention and response, which for some officers included law enforcement-administered naloxone, were viewed as components of community policing and good police-community relations. Emerging trends, such as existing law enforcement medical interventions and Good Samaritan Laws, suggest the need for broader law enforcement engagement around this pressing public health crisis, even in suburban and small town locations, to promote public safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Chemical, physical and biological risks in law enforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Andrea; Grana, Mario; Vicentini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chemical, physical and biological risks among public safety and security forces. Law enforcement personnel, involved in routine tasks and in emergency situations, are exposed to numerous and several occupational hazards (chemical, physical and biological) whith likely health and security consequences. These risks are particularly high when the organization and preparation are inadequate, there is a lacking or insufficient coordination, information, education and communication and safety and personal protective equipment are inadequate or insufficient. Despite the objective difficulties, caused by the actual special needs related to the service performed or the organizational peculiarities, the risk identification and assessment is essential for worker health and safety of personnel, as provided for by Legislative Decree no. 81/2008. Chemical risks include airborne pollutants due to vehicular traffic (carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, lead), toxic gases generated by combustion process following fires (aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, dioxins and furans, biphenyls, formaldehyde, metals and cyanides), substances emitted in case of chemical accidents (solvents, pesticides, toxic gases, caustics), drugs (methylamphetamine), riot control agents and self-defence spray, lead at firing ranges, and several materials and reagents used in forensic laboratory. The physical hazards are often caused by activities that induce biomechanical overload aid the onset of musculoskeletal disorders, the use of visual display terminals and work environments that may expose to heat stress and discomfort, high and low pressure, noise, vibrations, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The main biological risks are blood-borne diseases (viral hepatitis, AIDS), airborne diseases (eg, tuberculosis, meningitis, SARS, anthrax), MRSA, and vector-borne diseases. Many of these risk factors are unavoidable or are not

  6. Private law enforcement in post-communist Southeastern Europe: An economic analysis of arbitration and execution

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfelder Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The very idea of private law enforcement is alien in Southeastern Europe and appears there to be perceived as somewhat extravagant. A thoroughgoing search for the reasons of an extremely limited scope of the private law enforcement is undertaken in the paper. Private law enforcement is seen as taking three basic forms: self-enforcement, enforcement through other agents and illegal means and through specialized agents and with reliance on legal means. Particularly extensive is the analysis of ...

  7. Geochemical Characteristics of TP3 Mine Wastes at the Elizabeth Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Briggs, Paul H.; Meier, Allen L.; Muzik, Timothy L.

    2003-01-01

    Remediation of the Elizabeth mine Superfund site in the Vermont copper belt poses challenges for balancing environmental restoration goals with issues of historic preservation while adopting cost-effective strategies for site cleanup and long-term maintenance. The waste-rock pile known as TP3, at the headwaters of Copperas Brook, is especially noteworthy in this regard because it is the worst source of surface- and ground-water contamination identified to date, while also being the area of greatest historical significance. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study of the historic mine-waste piles known as TP3 at the Elizabeth mine Superfund site near South Strafford, Orange County, VT. TP3 is a 12.3-acre (49,780 m2) subarea of the Elizabeth mine site. It is a focus area for historic preservation because it encompasses an early 19th century copperas works as well as waste from late 19th- and 20th century copper mining (Kierstead, 2001). Surface runoff and seeps from TP3 form the headwaters of Copperas Brook. The stream flows down a valley onto flotation tailings from 20th century copper mining operations and enters the West Branch of the Ompompanoosuc River approximately 1 kilometer downstream from the mine site. Shallow drinking water wells down gradient from TP3 exceed drinking water standards for copper and cadmium (Hathaway and others, 2001). The Elizabeth mine was listed as a Superfund site in 2001, mainly because of impacts of acid-mine drainage on the Ompompanoosuc River.

  8. Individual psychological features of law enforcement officers convicted of crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyutykh V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this topic is caused by a significant number of crimes committed by law enforcement officers and the necessity of active prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes. The hypothesis was suggested that the main difference of individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes from individual psychological characteristics of law-abiding law enforcement officers is the difference between the principal values of the person both the main motives of activity adopted by an individual and the structure and the hierarchy of these values. This article describes the progress and results of empirical research conducted on the materials of psychodiagnostic examination of: employees who have been convicted of intentional crimes; law-abiding employees; people entering an internal affairs agency. Test subjects - men 18-46 years old, 90 people. Recommendations for practical psychologist of internal affairs agencies on detection of individual psychological personality features typical for law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes are formulated based on the obtained results.

  9. Enforcing the climate regime: Game theory and the Marrakesh Accords

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovi, Jon

    2002-07-01

    The article reviews basic insights about compliance and ''hard'' enforcement that can be derived from various non-cooperative equilibrium concepts and evaluates the Marrakesh Accords in light of these insights. Five different notions of equilibrium are considered - the Nash equilibrium, the sub game perfect equilibrium, the re negotiation proof equilibrium, the coalition proof equilibrium and the perfect Bayesian equilibrium. These various types of equilibrium have number of implications for effective enforcement: 1. Consequences of non-compliance should be more than proportionate. 2. To be credible punishment needs to take place in the Pareto frontier, rather than by reversion to some suboptimal state. 3. An effective enforcement system must be able to curb collective as well as individual incentives to cheat. 4. A fully transparent enforcement regime could in fact turn out to be detrimental for compliance levels. It is concluded that constructing an effective system for ''hard'' enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol is a formidable task that has only partially been accomplished by the Marrakesh Accords. A possible explanation is that the design of a compliance system for the climate regime involved a careful balancing of the desire to minimise non-compliance against other important considerations. (Author)

  10. Law enforcement attitudes towards naloxone following opioid overdose training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purviance, Donna; Ray, Bradley; Tracy, Abigail; Southard, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Opioid intoxication and overdoses are life-threatening emergencies requiring rapid treatment. One response to this has been to train law enforcement to detect the signs of an opioid overdose and train them to administer naloxone to reverse the effects. Although not a new concept, few studies have attempted to examine this policy. At 4 different locations in Indiana, law enforcement personnel were trained to detect the signs of an opioid-related overdose and how to administer naloxone to reverse the effects of the overdose. Pre and post surveys were administered at each location (N = 97). To examine changes in attitudes following training, the authors included items from the Opioid Overdose Attitudes Scale (OOAS), which measures respondents' competency, concerns, and readiness to administer naloxone. Among the full sample, naloxone training resulted in significant increases in competency, concerns, and readiness. Examining changes in attitudes by each location revealed that the training had the greatest effect on competency to administer naloxone and in easing concerns that law enforcement personal might have in administering naloxone. This study adds to others in showing that law enforcement personnel are receptive to naloxone training and that the OOAS is able to capture these attitudes. This study advances this literature by examining pre-post changes across multiple locations. As the distribution of naloxone continues to proliferate, this study and the OOAS may be valuable towards the development of an evidence-based training model for law enforcement.

  11. Supplementary analysis of impacts of alternative approaches for the Certification/Enforcement Program for consumer-product energy-efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-04

    Vitro Laboratories Task 2 Report developed and qualitatively evaluated 4 alternative approaches for a DOE program for the certification and enforcement of consumer-product energy efficiency standards. This Task 5 report provides supplemental resource impact analyses of the four (a minimal governmental intervention approach, a strong certification control approach, a strong enforcement audit approach, and a mixed certification/enforcement approach) approaches. This analysis derives quantitative estimates of the impacts of these alternative approaches in terms of the five key decision variables defined in Task 2 (DOE staffing requirements, DOE program costs, test costs, indirect costs, and level of compliance). Definitions and assumptions of the resource-impact analyses of the four alternative certification and enforcement approaches are described for furnaces and boilers, water heaters, refrigerators and refrigerator/freezers, kitchen ranges and ovens (gas only), central air conditioners, and freezers. The next 5 chapters are dedicated to discussions of the five key decision variables. Results of the comparative evaluation are presented in the final chapter.

  12. Recognition and enforcement of civil decision in Switzerland / Ingrid Jent-Sørensen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jent-Sørensen, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Välisriikide kohtuotsuste täitmisest Šveitsis, Lugano konventsioonist ja selle kohaldamisest. Lisatud väljavõtteid Šveitsi täitemenetluse ja pankrotiseadusest (11. 04. 1889. a., koos hilisemate muudatustega), Šveitsi tsiviilkohtumenetluse seadustikust ning muudetud Lugano konventsioonist

  13. Recognition and enforcement of civil decision in Switzerland / Ingrid Jent-Sørensen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jent-Sørensen, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Välisriikide kohtuotsuste täitmisest Šveitsis, Lugano konventsioonist ja selle kohaldamisest. Lisatud väljavõtteid Šveitsi täitemenetluse ja pankrotiseadusest (11. 04. 1889. a., koos hilisemate muudatustega), Šveitsi tsiviilkohtumenetluse seadustikust ning muudetud Lugano konventsioonist

  14. CONTROVERSIAL LAW ISSUES IN THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE NEW LEGAL PROVISIONS IN FAMILY LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan LUPAȘCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relatively short period of the new Romainian Civil Code implementation highlights the existence of some controversial law issues regarding the legal provisions contained in Book II, entitled “About family”. Apart from the theoretical disputes, there are also court decisions that contain different solutions in the enforcement of the same legal provisions. Controversy exists not only in relation to the newly introduced institutions in our legal landscape, but also regarding the ones taken over from the old regulation, institutions that have undergone some changes. The examples are most varied and they do not bypass almost any matter. Thus, we signal the presence of different interpretations of regulations regarding: engagement, marriage, divorce, parentage, adoption, the legal duty to maintain, the parental authority, etc. The present study highlights such controversy’s by presenting the views expressed and the arguments invoked in their support and also some propositions of Ferenda Law.

  15. CONTROVERSIAL LAW ISSUES IN THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE NEW LEGAL PROVISIONS IN FAMILY LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan LUPAȘCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relatively short period of the new Romainian Civil Code implementation highlights the existence of some controversial law issues regarding the legal provisions contained in Book II, entitled “About family”. Apart from the theoretical disputes, there are also court decisions that contain different solutions in the enforcement of the same legal provisions. Controversy exists not only in relation to the newly introduced institutions in our legal landscape, but also regarding the ones taken over from the old regulation, institutions that have undergone some changes. The examples are most varied and they do not bypass almost any matter. Thus, we signal the presence of different interpretations of regulations regarding: engagement, marriage, divorce, parentage, adoption, the legal duty to maintain, the parental authority, etc. The present study highlights such controversy’s by presenting the views expressed and the arguments invoked in their support and also some propositions of Ferenda Law.

  16. Humans choose representatives who enforce cooperation in social dilemmas through extortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, Manfred; Hilbe, Christian; Semmann, Dirk; Sommerfeld, Ralf; Marotzke, Jochem

    2016-03-01

    Social dilemmas force players to balance between personal and collective gain. In many dilemmas, such as elected governments negotiating climate-change mitigation measures, the decisions are made not by individual players but by their representatives. However, the behaviour of representatives in social dilemmas has not been investigated experimentally. Here inspired by the negotiations for greenhouse-gas emissions reductions, we experimentally study a collective-risk social dilemma that involves representatives deciding on behalf of their fellow group members. Representatives can be re-elected or voted out after each consecutive collective-risk game. Selfish players are preferentially elected and are hence found most frequently in the `representatives' treatment. Across all treatments, we identify the selfish players as extortioners. As predicted by our mathematical model, their steadfast strategies enforce cooperation from fair players who finally compensate almost completely the deficit caused by the extortionate co-players. Everybody gains, but the extortionate representatives and their groups gain the most.

  17. Evaluation of geophysical logs, phase I, for Crossley Farms Superfund Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-one wells were drilled at Crossley Farms Superfund Site between December 15, 1987, and May 1, 1988, to define and monitor the horizontal and vertical distribution of ground-water contamination emanating from a suspected contaminant source area (Blackhead Hill). Eight well clusters were drilled on or near the Crossley Site and three well clusters were drilled at locations hydrologically down gradient from the site. Depths of wells range from 21 to 299 feet below land surface. These wells were installed in saprolite in shallow, intermediate, and deep water-producing zones of the fractured bedrock aquifer. Borehole-geophysical and video logging were conducted between April 24, 1997, and May 8, 1997, to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical flow, borehole depth, and casing integrity in each well. This data and interpretation will be used to determine the location of the well intake for the existing open-hole wells, which will be retrofitted to isolate and monitor water-producing zones and prevent further cross-contamination within each open borehole, and identify wells that may need rehabilitation or replacement. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluidresistivity logs indicated possible fluid-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller?s notes, all wells will be constructed so that water-level fluctuations can be monitored and discrete water samples collected from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones in each well. Geophysical logs were run on seven bedrock and two deep bedrock wells. Gamma logs were run on 10 bedrock wells. Twenty-two wells were inspected visually with the borehole video camera for casing integrity.

  18. Sustainable exposure prevention through innovative detection and remediation technologies from the NIEHS Superfund Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Heather F; Suk, William A

    2017-03-01

    Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups. Primary prevention success is ultimately governed by the widespread acceptance of the prevention tool. And, in like fashion, detection and remediation technologies must convey technical and sustainability advantages to be adopted for use. Hence, sustainability - economic, environmental, and societal - drives innovation in detection and remediation technology. The National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) is mandated to advance innovative detection, remediation, and toxicity screening technology development through grants to universities and small businesses. SRP recognizes the importance of fast, accurate, robust, and advanced detection technologies that allow for portable real-time, on-site characterization, monitoring, and assessment of contaminant concentration and/or toxicity. Advances in non-targeted screening, biological-based assays, passive sampling devices (PSDs), sophisticated modeling approaches, and precision-based analytical tools are making it easier to quickly identify hazardous "hotspots" and, therefore, prevent exposures. Innovation in sustainable remediation uses a variety of approaches: in situ remediation; harnessing the natural catalytic properties of biological processes (such as bioremediation and phytotechnologies); and application of novel materials science (such as nanotechnology, advanced

  19. Evaluation of Exposure to Radon Levels in Relation to Climatic Conditions at a Superfund Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Elaine Alice

    1995-11-01

    Workers at a Superfund site have expressed concern that they may be exposed to elevated levels of radon gas, especially when meteorology is suitable. The site, formally a uranium processing site, stores the world's largest quantity of Ra-226 in two concrete silos. A layer of bentonite foam was placed over the contents of the silos in 1991 as a means to reduce the amount of radon emissions. Hourly real-time outdoor and indoor site radon data covering an entire year was statistically evaluated in relation to meteorological data covering the same time period. The hourly data was found to be lognormally distributed. Radon levels were highest during the early morning hours and during the summer months. Both outdoor and indoor concentrations were found to significantly vary with temporal and climatic factors, namely wind direction and relative humidity. Radon levels in the work areas were not found to be statistically different from off-site levels. Only radon levels in the vicinity of the storage silos, which is an exclusion zone, were significantly higher than levels off-site. Hence, the protective bentonite covering seems to be effective in reducing radon emissions. Two methods were used to calculate a hypothetical dose, based upon the annual average concentrations of radon in the work areas onsite, the BEIR IV method and the NCRP method, respectively. The BEIR IV method, which accounts for the activity ratio of radon and its daughter products, resulted in a slightly higher dose than the NCRP method. As expected, based on the mean concentrations, the hypothetical annual exposures from radon in the work areas of the site were below recommended exposure limits.

  20. Detection of environmentally persistent free radicals at a superfund wood treating site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Gehling, William; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cook, Robert; Dellinger, Barry

    2011-08-01

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have previously been observed in association with combustion-generated particles and airborne PM(2.5) (particulate matter, d 2.5um). The purpose of this study was to determine if similar radicals were present in soils and sediments at Superfund sites. The site was a former wood treating facility containing pentachlorophenol (PCP) as a major contaminant. Both contaminated and noncontaminated (just outside the contaminated area) soil samples were collected. The samples were subjected to the conventional humic substances (HS) extraction procedure. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure the EPFR concentrations and determine their structure for each sample fraction. Analyses revealed a ∼30× higher EPFR concentration in the PCP contaminated soils (20.2 × 10(17) spins/g) than in the noncontaminated soil (0.7 × 10(17) spins/g). Almost 90% of the EPFR signal originated from the minerals/clays/humins fraction. GC-MS analyses revealed ∼6500 ppm of PCP in the contaminated soil samples and none detected in the background samples. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES) analyses revealed ∼7× higher concentrations of redox-active transition metals, in the contaminated soils than the noncontaminated soil. Vapor phase and liquid phase dosing of the clays/minerals/humins fraction of the soil with PCP resulted in an EPR signal identical to that observed in the contaminated soil, strongly suggesting the observed EPFR is pentachlorophenoxyl radical. Chemisorption and electron transfer from PCP to transition metals and other electron sinks in the soil are proposed to be responsible for EPFR formation.

  1. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  2. Personal characteristics of a law enforcement unit of special purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilenko T.G.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study of the personal characteristics of law enforcement officers due to a significant number of crimes of an aggressive nature, committed by employees of internal Affairs bodies, and the need to develop preventive measures. The purpose of this research is to study peculiarities of the manifestation of progressive and inhibiting aggression personality factors in the structure of law enforcement officers, whose activities directly associated with aggression in the performance of official duties. The study involved 149 employees of special forces of law enforcement are male aged 18 to 35 years. Used a wide battery of psychodiagnostic methods aimed at a comprehensive study of the individual respondents. the data Obtained were analyzed using the method of correlation pleiades. According to the results, was discovered a unique picture of the relationship among personality structures and interaction progressive and deterrent aggression factors with the prevalence of progressive on inhibitory factors in the studied structure.

  3. Enforcement Issues in the Governance of Ships’ Carbon Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bloor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The shipping industry, although relatively carbon-efficient, is projected to produce rising carbon emissions in the future as a consequence of increasing world trade. A number of candidate regulations designed to mitigate these emissions have been canvassed by the UN’s International Maritime Organisation and by the European Commission. Many of these schemes are focussed on the use of market measures—emission trading schemes or fuel levies. This paper draws on observational and interview data gathered to examine enforcement issues associated with the control of ships’ sulphur emissions in order to consider the possible enforcement problems that might be associated with projected market measures to control ships’ carbon emissions. Enforcement problems are shown to be associated with the globalised character of the industry and its polycentric governance structure.

  4. Should AAPL enforce its ethics? Challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candilis, Philip J; Dike, Charles C; Meyer, Donald J; Myers, Wade C; Weinstock, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Ethics enforcement in psychiatry occurs at the district branch and American Psychiatric Association (APA) levels under the guidance of American Medical Association (AMA) and APA ethics documents. Subspecialty ethics consequently have no formal role in the enforcement process. This reality challenges practitioners to work according to guidelines that may not be sufficiently relevant and challenges ethics reviewers to apply frameworks not intended for the subspecialties. This article offers the theoretical and practical support to amend APA Procedures to permit formal consideration of subspecialty ethics during ethics complaints and to include forensic practitioners on panels reviewing them. This is the first step toward an integration of two conflicting models of ethics enforcement, regulatory and aspirational, that bring together specialty and subspecialty ethics.

  5. Stress and resilience in law enforcement training and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    For law enforcement and emergency services professionals, stress and resilience are not academic topics or luxuries; they are essential to the physical and mental health, as well as to optimum job functioning. This article traces the history of the stress and resilience concepts in psychology, the military, and law enforcement, outlines the major risk and protective factors for traumatic stress responses, and presents a general psychophysiological model of stress and coping. The article next applies these concepts to the proactive fostering of mental toughness and resilience, using lessons learned from sports psychology and the mental conditioning literature. It then describes psychological debriefing, mental health counseling, and psychotherapeutic strategies for facilitating resilient recovery from critical incidents and traumatic events. Although directed mainly to law enforcement, the principles set out in this article may be productively applied to emergency medicine, public safety, military, and civilian trauma counseling settings.

  6. Almost Universal Hash Families are also Storage Enforcing

    CERN Document Server

    Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Rudra, Atri; Uurtamo, Steve

    2012-01-01

    We show that every almost universal hash function also has the storage enforcement property. Almost universal hash functions have found numerous applications and we show that this new storage enforcement property allows the application of almost universal hash functions in a wide range of remote verification tasks: (i) Proof of Secure Erasure (where we want to remotely erase and securely update the code of a compromised machine with memory-bounded adversary), (ii) Proof of Ownership (where a storage server wants to check if a client has the data it claims to have before giving access to deduplicated data) and (iii) Data possession (where the client wants to verify whether the remote storage server is storing its data). Specifically, storage enforcement guarantee in the classical data possession problem removes any practical incentive for the storage server to cheat the client by saving on storage space. The proof of our result relies on a natural combination of Kolmogorov Complexity and List Decoding. To the ...

  7. Forensic Speaker Recognition Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Hemant

    2012-01-01

    Forensic Speaker Recognition: Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism is an anthology of the research findings of 35 speaker recognition experts from around the world. The volume provides a multidimensional view of the complex science involved in determining whether a suspect’s voice truly matches forensic speech samples, collected by law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, that are associated with the commission of a terrorist act or other crimes. While addressing such topics as the challenges of forensic case work, handling speech signal degradation, analyzing features of speaker recognition to optimize voice verification system performance, and designing voice applications that meet the practical needs of law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, this material all sounds a common theme: how the rigors of forensic utility are demanding new levels of excellence in all aspects of speaker recognition. The contributors are among the most eminent scientists in speech engineering and signal process...

  8. Restraint use law enforcement intervention in Latino communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechter, Judy; Uhlhorn, Susan B

    2011-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for U.S. Latinos aged 1 to 35 years. Restraint use is an effective means of prevention of motor vehicle crash injury. Effective interventions to raise restraint use include the following: legislation, law enforcement, education, and equipment distribution. The effects of law enforcement interventions in Latino immigrant communities are understudied. We measured the community-level effect of a combined intervention that included warnings and citations phase enforcement in Latino communities. We designed and implemented in two of three Latino-majority communities a multicomponent intervention consisting of a community awareness campaign, restraint use education with equipment distribution, and a two-staged law enforcement intervention. Restraint use observations were conducted in all three communities at baseline, after the warnings phase and again after the citations phase of the intervention were completed. The combined intervention of community awareness, education, child passenger restraint distribution, and law enforcement focused on educational traffic stops with incentives and warnings was associated with a significant increase in both driver and child passenger restraint use in one intervention community, but only driver restraint increased to a level of significance in the other intervention community; significant increase was also noted among nonintervention drivers. The citations phase of the intervention did not result in a significant increase in restraint use and was complicated by interruptions due to unlicensed drivers. The combined effort of community awareness, education, equipment distribution and law enforcement intervention that included incentives and warnings may be effective at increasing seat belt use in Latino communities without the need for citations.

  9. Medical support for law enforcement-extended operations incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Matthew J; Tang, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    As the complexity and frequency of law enforcement-extended operations incidents continue to increase, so do the opportunities for adverse health and well-being impacts on the responding officers. These types of clinical encounters have not been well characterized nor have the medical response strategies which have been developed to effectively manage these encounters been well described. The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive epidemiology of the clinical encounters reported during extended law enforcement operations, as well as to describe a best practices approach for their effective management. This study retrospectively examined the clinical encounters of the Maryland State Police (MSP) Tactical Medical Unit (TMU) during law enforcement extended operations incidents lasting 8 or more hours. In addition, a qualitative analysis was performed on clinical data collected by federal law enforcement agencies during their extended operations. Forty-four percent of missions (455/1,047) supported by the MSP TMU lasted 8 or more hours. Twenty-six percent of these missions (117/455) resulted in at least one patient encounter. Nineteen percent of patient chief complaints (45/238) were related to heat illness/ dehydration. Fifteen percent of encounters (36/238) were for musculoskeletal injury/pain. Eight percent of patients (19/238) had nonspecific sick call (minor illness) complaints. The next most common occurring complaints were cold-related injuries, headache, sinus congestion, and wound/laceration, each of which accounted for 7 percent of patients (16/238), respectively. Analysis of federal law enforcement agencies' response to such events yielded similar clinical encounters. A wide range of health problems are reported by extended law enforcement operations personnel. Timely and effective treatment of these problems can help ensure that the broader operations mission is not compromised. An appropriate operational strategy for managing health complaints

  10. Decision theory and decision behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Rapoport, Anatol

    1998-01-01

    The book treats two approaches to decision theory: (1) the normative, purporting to determine how a 'perfectly rational' actor ought to choose among available alternatives; (2) the descriptive, based on observations of how people actually choose in real life and in laboratory experiments. The mathematical tools used in the normative approach range from elementary algebra to matrix and differential equations. Sections on different levels can be studied independently. Special emphasis is made on 'offshoots' of both theories to cognitive psychology, theoretical biology, and philosophy.

  11. Towards Policy Enforcement Point as a Service (PEPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Shaghaghi, Arash; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali; Scott-Hayward, Sandra; Kanhere, Salil S.; Jha, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we coin the term Policy Enforcement as a Service (PEPS), which enables the provision of innovative inter-layer and inter-domain Access Control. We leverage the architecture of Software-Defined-Network (SDN) to introduce a common network-level enforcement point, which is made available to a range of access control systems. With our PEPS model, it is possible to have a ‘defense in depth’ protection model and drop unsuccessful access requests before engaging the data provider (e.g...

  12. Towards Policy Enforcement Point as a Service (PEPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Shaghaghi, Arash; Ali, Mohamed; Kaafar; Scott-Hayward, Sandra; Kanhere, Salil S.; Jha, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we coin the term Policy Enforcement as a Service (PEPS), which enables the provision of innovative inter-layer and inter-domain Access Control. We leverage the architecture of Software-Defined-Network (SDN) to introduce a common network-level enforcement point, which is made available to a range of access control systems. With our PEPS model, it is possible to have a `defense in depth' protection model and drop unsuccessful access requests before engaging the data provider (e.g...

  13. On the Enforcement of Specific Performance in Civil Law Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik; Rose, Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Abstract:Proponents of specific performance as a remedy for breach ofcontract have found support in the alleged use of the remedy inCivil Law countries. However, we provide evidence that specificperformance is in fact a rare remedy in Denmark, Germany andFrance, and under CISG, when performance...... these costs of enforcement. This is especiallyclear in the case of Denmark, where specific performance of actionshas been abandoned as a legal remedy.At the normative level, we argue that enforcement costs providesan additional rationale, over and above the rationales of the theoryof efficient breach...

  14. On financing the internal enforcement of illegal immigration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, G A; Tenorio, R

    1996-02-01

    "We introduce a government budget constraint into an illegal immigration model, and show that the effect of increasing internal enforcement of immigration laws on the host country's disposable national income depends on the mix of employer fines and income taxation used to finance the added enforcement. These issues are addressed under alternative assumptions about (a) the ability of host country employers to discern between legal and illegal workers, and (b) host country labor market conditions. Empirical evidence for the United States indicates that the employer sanctions program may have had a negative impact on disposable national income."

  15. Assessing the efficiency of priorities for traffic law enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Sogge, Céline Vallet; Lager, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the efficiency of priorities for traffic law enforcement in Norway. Priorities are regarded as efficient if: (1) enforcement ensures a sufficient level of deterrence to keep down the rate of violations; (2) selection of target violations for enforcement is based on the risk...... attributable to them; and (3) an optimal level of enforcement is selected, i.e. the marginal benefits of enforcement in terms of preventing accidents equal the marginal costs of enforcement. The efficiency of current traffic law enforcement in Norway is assessed in terms of these criteria. It is found...... for violations that make a smaller contribution. In principle, shifting priorities so as to increase the risk of apprehension for some violations and reduce it for other violations could make police enforcement slightly more efficient. The main finding, however, is that the current level of enforcement is too...

  16. Alcohol consumption patterns and attitudes toward drink-drive behaviours and road safety enforcement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, A N; Bishop, C A; Liu, S; Fitzharris, M

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol contributes to approximately 30% of all serious crashes. While the majority of drivers acknowledge the risks associated with drink-driving, a significant proportion of the population continue to engage in this behaviour. Attitudes towards drink-driving as well as personal alcohol consumption patterns are likely to underpin a driver's decision to drink-drive. These associations were explored in the current study. A large (N=2994) cross-sectional online survey of a representative sample of drivers in Australia was conducted. Participants provided information about their own alcohol consumption patterns, drink-driving behaviour as well as attitudes towards drink-driving (own and others) and enforcement strategies. Alcohol consumption patterns differed according to age, gender and work status. Drivers who reported drink-driving behaviour and had high risk alcohol consumption patterns were less likely to agree that drink-driving leads to increased crash risk and more likely to agree they drink and drive when they believed they could get away with it. In contrast, drivers who did not report drink-driving and had low risk consumption patterns were more likely to report that the enforcement strategies are too lenient. Binary logistic regression showed that high risk alcohol consumption patterns and agreement from drivers that they drink and drive when they believe they can get away with it had the strongest associations with drink-driving. These findings highlight the relationships between one's drinking patterns, drink-drive behaviour and attitudes towards drink-driving and drink-driving enforcement CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The patterns of associations that emerged suggest that drink-driving is the expression of a broader health issue for the most "at-risk" cohort of drinkers. The decision to drink and drive may result from a need borne from an alcohol dependent lifestyle exacerbated by a social acceptability of the behaviour and positive attitudes towards

  17. Calculating the Diffusive Flux of Persistent Organic Pollutants between Sediments and the Water Column on the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site using Polymeric Passive Samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive samplers were used to determine water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface sediments and near-bottom water of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Measured concentrations in the porewater and water column at...

  18. Passive Sampling to Measure Baseline Dissolved Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in the Water Column of the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive sampling was used to deduce water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the vicinity of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Pre-calibrated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and polyethylene (PE) strips that were...

  19. DOJ News Release: New York Man Ordered to Pay Over $400,000 in Restitution and Fines for Role in Kickback Scheme at New Jersey Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – An Amherst, New York, man was ordered to pay over $400,000 in restitution and fines and placed on five years’ probation for his role in a kickback scheme at the Federal Creosote and Diamond Alkali Superfund sites in New Jersey.

  20. Occurences and Fate of DDT Principal Isomers/Metabolites, DDA, and o,p'-DDD Enantiomers in Fish, Sediment and Water at a DDT-Impacted Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the 1950s and 60s, discharges from a DDT manufacturing plant contaminated a tributary system of the Tennessee River near Huntsville, Alabama, USA. Regulatory action resulted in declaring the area a Superfund site which required remediation and extensive monitoring. Monitoring ...

  1. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  2. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  3. COMPARISON OF GEOPROBE PRT AND AMS GVP SOIL-GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS WITH DEDICATED VAPOR PROBES IN SANDY SOILS AT THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut to compare results of soil-gas sampling using dedicated vapor probes, a truck-mounted direct-push technique - the Geoprobe Post-Run-Tubing (PRT) system, and a hand-held rotary hammer technique - the A...

  4. EPA Proposes to Add Dutchess County Creek, N.Y. to the Federal Superfund List, Sediment Contaminated with Mercury, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today proposed adding the Wappinger Creek in Dutchess County, N.Y. to its Superfund National Priorities List of the country's most hazardous waste sites. Sediment within the two mile long tidal port

  5. EPA Finalizes Plan to Address Contaminated Groundwater at Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund Site in Milford Borough and Alexandria Township, N.J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has finalized a plan to clean up contaminated groundwater at the Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund site in Milford Borough and Alexandria Township, New Jersey. The site includes the former Milford P

  6. A Conceptual Statement on the Enforcement of Child Day Care Licensing Standards: With Special Reference to Revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Norris E.; And Others

    This statement of the enforcement of child day care licensing standards identifies basic concepts of the enforcement process and operational procedures necessary to bring about this process. Two types of enforcement operations, negative and positive enforcement of standards, are identified and examined in detail. Positive enforcement is defined as…

  7. 16 CFR 1209.10 - Certification and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard § 1209.10 Certification and enforcement. (a) While this part 1209 prescribes test methods to determine whether cellulose insulation... a manufacturer or private labeler test any cellulose insulation. However, section 14 of the Consumer...

  8. 39 CFR 447.43 - Investigation and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigation and enforcement. 447.43 Section 447.43 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PERSONNEL RULES OF CONDUCT FOR POSTAL EMPLOYEES... regulations of the Office of Personnel Management by Postal Service employees. For jurisdiction in such a case...

  9. Working together: public law enforcement and private security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harold T

    2010-01-01

    Private security forces, including hospital security professionals, provide a vast largely untapped resource for public law enforcement in a number of critical areas affecting society, the author points out. At the same time, police agencies in some communities have programs which can be used to provide additional training for private security officers.

  10. 40 CFR 63.831 - Implementation and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Implementation and enforcement. 63.831 Section 63.831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for the Printing...

  11. 45 CFR 2543.60 - Purpose of termination and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose of termination and enforcement. 2543.60 Section 2543.60 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  12. Law enforcement tools available at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    2000-03-29

    A number of nuclear technologies developed and applied at the Savannah River Site in support of nuclear weapons material production and environmental remediation can be applied to problems in law enforcement. Techniques and equipment for high-sensitivity analyses of samples are available to identify and quantify trace elements and establish origins and histories of forensic evidence removed from crime scenes. While some of theses capabilities are available at local crime laboratories, state-of-the-art equipment and breakthroughs in analytical techniques are continually being developed at DOE laboratories. Extensive experience with the handling of radioactive samples at the DOE labs minimizes the chances of cross-contamination of evidence received from law enforcement. In addition to high-sensitivity analyses, many of the field techniques developed for use in a nuclear facility can assist law enforcement personnel in detecting illicit materials and operations, in retrieving of pertinent evidence and in surveying crime scenes. Some of these tools include chemical sniffers, hand-held detectors, thermal imaging, etc. In addition, mobile laboratories can be deployed to a crime scene to provide field screening of potential evidence. A variety of portable sensors can be deployed on vehicle, aerial, surface or submersible platforms to assist in the location of pertinent evidence or illicit operations. Several specific nuclear technologies available to law enforcement and their potential uses are discussed.

  13. 40 CFR 205.57 - Selective enforcement auditing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selective enforcement auditing requirements. 205.57 Section 205.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks §...

  14. Dibasic Esters; Final Enforceable Consent Agreement and Testing Consent Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), EPA has issued a testing consent order (Order) that incorporates an enforceable consent agreement (ECA) with the Aceto Corporation, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, and Solutia Inc.

  15. Codes of conduct and copyright enforcement in Cyberspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, P.B.; Stamatoudi, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter critically examines the rise of codes of conduct that deal with copyright enforcement. Its focus will be on codes binding ISPs and other online intermediaries offering similar services, such as providers of user-generated content (UGC) platforms. While solutions in the United States and

  16. Fighting impunity of enforced disappearances through a regional model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genovese, C.; van der Wilt, H.

    2014-01-01

    Grievous moral opprobrium has often been the trigger justifying the recourse to individual criminal responsibility of perpetrators. The process of ‘justice cascade’ initiated by the Nuremberg trials should not come to a halt. Though the current measures of criminal justice enforcement within interna

  17. 19 CFR 12.62 - Enforcement; duties of Customs officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement; duties of Customs officers. 12.62 Section 12.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...; duties of Customs officers. (a) In accordance with the authority contained in sections 10 and 12 of...

  18. Legal challenges of fighting (against) botnets: a law enforcement perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E Silva, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening enforcement of cybercrime law is not a simple question of more legislation. Botnet investigations often intrude in the private sphere of third parties, possibly implicating access to large amounts of data related to innocent individuals and unrelated to the investigated offence. In add

  19. 30 CFR 702.17 - Revocation and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation and enforcement. 702.17 Section 702... GENERAL EXEMPTION FOR COAL EXTRACTION INCIDENTAL TO THE EXTRACTION OF OTHER MINERALS § 702.17 Revocation... the regulatory program which occurred prior to the revocation of the exemption. (2) An operator...

  20. 40 CFR 51.361 - Motorist compliance enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fines (meaning civil, monetary penalties, in this subpart) constituting a meaningful deterrent and... exemption policy for vehicles claimed to be out-of-state; and (12) Encourage enforcement of vehicle... purposes of this determination. The precise definition of late registration versus a non-complying vehicle...

  1. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements of subparts D, E, F, and J of this part...

  2. 78 FR 21826 - Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 182 Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies AGENCY... piracy operations conducted pursuant to title 10, U.S.C. Sec. 182.3 Definitions. The...

  3. The Animal Welfare Act: from enactment to enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Andrew D; Bailey, Matthew R; Bennett, B Taylor

    2012-05-01

    Originally enacted in 1966, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act has been amended several times and renamed the Animal Welfare Act. Responsibility for administering the Animal Welfare Act was delegated within the United States Department of Agriculture to the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and regulations and standards have been developed to implement the intent of Congress conveyed in the language of the Act. In our opinion, the key to compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations and standards is to have in place a proactive, progressive Animal Care and Use Program that uses the semiannual inspection and programmatic review process to improve the day-to-day management of the program. Successfully managing the inspection process has taken on new meaning in what has recently become known as the 'Age of Enforcement.' As part of this approach, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service made changes to the inspection process and issued an Enhanced Animal Welfare Enforcement Plan, which included the development of an Inspection Requirements Handbook. The Inspection Requirements Handbook provides inspectors with information on conducting inspections and includes as an attachment a flow chart for Enforcement Action Guidance. The chart describes 4 types of actions that may occur as part of the enforcement process and the steps that will be followed if noncompliant items are documented during an inspection.

  4. The Use of Satellite Imagery for Domestic Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    apply to the Navy or Marine Corps. 140 10 U.S.C. §§371–378 (2001). 141 Christopher M., Petras , “Eyes on Freedom-A View of the Law Enforcement Use of...In United States v. Roberts and Hawk,152 James Roberts and Clifton Hawk were arrested on the high seas while transporting

  5. 12 CFR 263.84 - Enforcement of directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or adhere to a capital adequacy plan as required by such directive, the Board may seek enforcement of the directive, including the capital adequacy plan, in the appropriate United State district court... any subsidiary thereof in adhering to any directive or capital adequacy plan required by the...

  6. 12 CFR 570.5 - Enforcement of orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... association fails to comply with an order issued under section 39 of the FDI Act, the OTS may seek enforcement of the order in the appropriate United States district court pursuant to section 8(i)(1) of the FDI Act. (b) Administrative remedies. Pursuant to section 8(i)(2)(A) of the FDI Act, the OTS may assess...

  7. Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) (Amendment) Bill 2016: Legislative Bill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Rock, Noel

    2016-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to amend sections 49 and 51 of the Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) Act 2013 to ensure the powers exercised by the Central Bank of Ireland to make...

  8. 21 CFR 1316.31 - Authority for enforcement proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 1316.31 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE... and Export Act (84 Stat. 1285; 21 U.S.C. 951) an opportunity to present his views and his proposals... show cause why prosecution should not be instituted, or to present his views on the...

  9. The right to be forgotten – private law enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Private law enforcement of the right to be forgotten should be considered in light of the general characteristics of private law. This highlights advantages and limitations, and underlines the need to explicate the actual interests involved in the right to be forgotten. As case law and real-life exa

  10. 3PAC: Enforcing Access Policies for Web Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bemmel, J.; Wegdam, M.; Lagerberg, K.

    Web Services fail to deliver on the promise of ubiquitous deployment and seamless interoperability due to the lack of a uniform, standards-based approach to all aspects of security. In particular, the enforcement of access policies in a Service Oriented Architecture is not addressed adequately. We

  11. On Using Encryption Techniques to Enhance Sticky Policies Enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    How to enforce privacy policies to protect sensitive personal data has become an urgent research topic for security researchers, as very little has been done in this field apart from some ad hoc research efforts. The sticky policy paradigm, proposed by Karjoth, Schunter, and Waidner, provides very

  12. The Impact of Immigration Enforcement Strategies on Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Randy; Calderon, Miriam; Chaudry, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Researchers, advocates, and community agencies are beginning to question the impact of U.S. immigration enforcement strategies on very young children. In particular, immigration raids may suddenly and sometimes violently separate children from their parents, place them in unstable living environments, and create barriers to accessing needed…

  13. 29 CFR 1952.295 - Level of Federal enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... health standards which address the working conditions of all employees, including those in States which... program. Failure by the State to comply with its obligations may result in the suspension or revocation of..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Nevada §...

  14. 40 CFR 35.6760 - Enforcement and termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... convenience. 35.6760 Section 35.6760 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... Enforcement and termination for convenience. The recipient must comply with all terms and conditions in the... termination for convenience described in 40 CFR 31.43 and 31.44....

  15. Fighting impunity of enforced disappearances through a regional model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genovese, C.; van der Wilt, H.

    2014-01-01

    Grievous moral opprobrium has often been the trigger justifying the recourse to individual criminal responsibility of perpetrators. The process of ‘justice cascade’ initiated by the Nuremberg trials should not come to a halt. Though the current measures of criminal justice enforcement within

  16. 41 CFR 60-1.26 - Enforcement proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Enforcement proceedings. 60-1.26 Section 60-1.26 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... resistance to or interference with the full enjoyment of any of the rights secured by them, warranting...

  17. 8 CFR 287.8 - Standards for enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... those where no illegal aliens are located. (4) Nothing in this section prohibits an immigration officer... Section 287.8 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD... enforcement activities contained in this section must be adhered to by every immigration officer involved...

  18. Assessment of Law Enforcement Candidates: Peer Evaluations and the MMPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Joseph E.; Scogin, Forrest

    Screening and evaluating law enforcement candidates for employment as police officers is a complex task. It has been recommended that a clinical interview and comprehensive battery of psychological tests may aid in evaluation. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is often used for this type of psychological screening. Peer…

  19. ASSESSING PEAK AEROBIC CAPACITY IN DUTCH LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, Harriet; Takken, Tim; de Groot, Janke; Reneman, Michiel; Peters, Roelof; Vanhees, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report norm

  20. Filtering for Copyright Enforcement in Europe after the Sabam cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, S.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.

    2012-01-01

    Sabam, a Belgian collective rights management organisation, wanted an internet access provider and a social network site to install a filter system to enforce copyrights. In two recent judgments, the Court of Justice of the European Union decided that the social network site and the internet access

  1. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  2. The Role of Law Enforcement in Prevention. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As campuses and communities across the country grapple with problems related to unruly house parties, neighborhood disruptions, and alcohol-fueled "celebratory" incidents, they are developing partnerships with law enforcement agencies to implement strategies to reduce such problems and protect the health and safety of students and residents alike.…

  3. The right to be forgotten – private law enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Private law enforcement of the right to be forgotten should be considered in light of the general characteristics of private law. This highlights advantages and limitations, and underlines the need to explicate the actual interests involved in the right to be forgotten. As case law and real-life

  4. Legal challenges of fighting (against) botnets: a law enforcement perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E Silva, Karine

    Strengthening enforcement of cybercrime law is not a simple question of more legislation. Botnet investigations often intrude in the private sphere of third parties, possibly implicating access to large amounts of data related to innocent individuals and unrelated to the investigated offence. In

  5. Codes of conduct and copyright enforcement in Cyberspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, P.B.; Stamatoudi, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter critically examines the rise of codes of conduct that deal with copyright enforcement. Its focus will be on codes binding ISPs and other online intermediaries offering similar services, such as providers of user-generated content (UGC) platforms. While solutions in the United States and

  6. 3PAC: Enforcing Access Policies for Web Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bemmel, J.; Wegdam, M.; Lagerberg, K.

    2005-01-01

    Web Services fail to deliver on the promise of ubiquitous deployment and seamless interoperability due to the lack of a uniform, standards-based approach to all aspects of security. In particular, the enforcement of access policies in a Service Oriented Architecture is not addressed adequately. We p

  7. Analysis of geophysical logs, at North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), collected borehole geophysical log data in 34 industrial, commercial, and public supply wells and 28 monitor wells at the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, in Lansdale, Pa., from August 22, 1995, through August 29, 1997. The wells range in depth from 50 to 1,027 feet below land surface and are drilled in Triassic-age shales and siltstones of the Brunswick Group and Lockatong Formation. The geophysical log data were collected to help describe the hydrogeologic framework in the area and to provide guidance in the reconstruction of the 28 monitor wells drilled during summer 1997. At the time of logging, all wells had open-hole construction. The geophysical logs, caliper, fluid-resistivity, and fluid-temperature, and borehole video logs were used to determine the vertical distribution of water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to determine vertical borehole flow under pumping and nonpumping conditions. The most productive fractures generally could be determined from heatpulse-flowmeter measurements under pumping conditions. Vertical borehole flow was measured under nonpumping conditions in most wells that had more than one water-bearing fracture. Upward flow was measured in 35 wells and probably is a result of natural head differences between fractures in the local ground-water-flow system. Downward flow was measured in 11 wells and commonly indicated differences in hydraulic heads of the fractures caused by nearby pumping. Both upward and downward flow was measured in three wells. No flow was detected in eight wells. Natural-gamma-ray logs were used to estimate the attitude of bedding. Thin shale marker beds, shown as spikes of elevated radioactivity in the natural-gamma logs of some wells throughout the area, enable the determination of bedding-plane orientation from three-point correlations. Generally, the marker beds in

  8. Decision Analysis of Dynamic Spectrum Access Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton; Luiz A. DaSilva; Christian Wernz

    2011-12-01

    A current trend in spectrum regulation is to incorporate spectrum sharing through the design of spectrum access rules that support Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). This paper develops a decision-theoretic framework for regulators to assess the impacts of different decision rules on both primary and secondary operators. We analyze access rules based on sensing and exclusion areas, which in practice can be enforced through geolocation databases. Our results show that receiver-only sensing provides insufficient protection for primary and co-existing secondary users and overall low social welfare. On the other hand, using sensing information between the transmitter and receiver of a communication link, provides dramatic increases in system performance. The performance of using these link end points is relatively close to that of using many cooperative sensing nodes associated to the same access point and large link exclusion areas. These results are useful to regulators and network developers in understanding in developing rules for future DSA regulation.

  9. Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit

  10. Enforced disappearance : determining state responsibility under the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In late 2010, the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (ICPPED) entered into force. The present study addresses the question of determining state responsibility under the ICPPED, based on a framework that harmonises the protection afforded by this

  11. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Law Enforcement Plan and Station Crowd Control Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides...

  12. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 – YR 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  13. 45 CFR 304.22 - Federal financial participation in purchased support enforcement services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.22 Federal financial participation in purchased support enforcement services. Federal financial participation is.... Support enforcement services which may be purchased with Federal financial participation are those...

  14. 76 FR 78930 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for Premarket...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Enforcement Policy... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for Premarket Notification Requirements for Certain In Vitro Diagnostic and...

  15. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 – YR 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  16. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 – Yrs. 2012 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  17. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 – YR 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report for fiscal year 2013 from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D...

  18. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 – YR 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  19. 75 FR 52546 - Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and... Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, 381 Elden Street, Mail Stop 4043, Herndon,...

  20. 75 FR 60759 - Enforcement Action Plan for Promotion and Advertising Restrictions; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...). Advertising, marketing, and promotion of tobacco products have been ``especially directed to attract young... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Enforcement Action Plan for Promotion and Advertising... Plan for Promotion and Advertising Restrictions'' (Enforcement Action Plan), which describes FDA's...