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Sample records for superficial vascular anatomy

  1. In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, E Z; Laufer, J G; Beard, P C; Pedley, R B

    2009-01-01

    The application of a photoacoustic imaging instrument based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor to imaging the superficial vasculature is described. This approach provides a backward mode-sensing configuration that has the potential to overcome the limitations of current piezoelectric based detection systems used in superficial photoacoustic imaging. The system has been evaluated by obtaining non-invasive images of the vasculature in human and mouse skin as well as mouse models of human colorectal tumours. These studies showed that the system can provide high-resolution 3D images of vascular structures to depths of up to 5 mm. It is considered that this type of instrument may find a role in the clinical assessment of conditions characterized by changes in the vasculature such as skin tumours and superficial soft tissue damage due to burns, wounds or ulceration. It may also find application in the characterization of small animal cancer models where it is important to follow the tumour vasculature over time in order to study its development and/or response to therapy.

  2. In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, E Z; Laufer, J G; Beard, P C [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Pedley, R B [UCL Cancer Institute, Paul O' Gorman Building, University College London, 72 Huntley St, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-21

    The application of a photoacoustic imaging instrument based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor to imaging the superficial vasculature is described. This approach provides a backward mode-sensing configuration that has the potential to overcome the limitations of current piezoelectric based detection systems used in superficial photoacoustic imaging. The system has been evaluated by obtaining non-invasive images of the vasculature in human and mouse skin as well as mouse models of human colorectal tumours. These studies showed that the system can provide high-resolution 3D images of vascular structures to depths of up to 5 mm. It is considered that this type of instrument may find a role in the clinical assessment of conditions characterized by changes in the vasculature such as skin tumours and superficial soft tissue damage due to burns, wounds or ulceration. It may also find application in the characterization of small animal cancer models where it is important to follow the tumour vasculature over time in order to study its development and/or response to therapy.

  3. Vascular anatomy of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thron, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    The book summarizes the anatomic guidelines of external blood supply to the spinal cord. The basic principles of arterial supply and venous drainage are illustrated by explicit schemes for quick orientation. In the first part of the book, systematic radiologic-anatomic investigations of the superficial and deep vessels of all segments of the spinal cord are introduced. The microvascular morphology is portrayed by numerous microradiographic sections in all three dimensions without overshadowing. The three-dimensional representation of the vascular architecture illustrates elementary outlines and details of arterial territories, anastomotic cross-linking as well as the capillary system, particularly the hitherto unknown structure of the medullary venous system with its functionally important anastomoses and varying regional structures. These often now radiologic-anatomic findings are discussed as to their functional and pathophysiologic impact and constitute the basic on which to improve one's understanding of vascular syndromes of the spinal cord

  4. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to study the gross anatomy of future localized fat deposits (LFDs area of abdomen in fetus. Materials and Methods: Four fetus (two male & two female of four month of intrauterine life were dissected. Attachments & layers of superficial fascia and future subcutaneous fat deposit area of upper and lower abdomen were noted. Results: Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multi layered in mid line and number of layers reduced laterally as in adult. The future abdominal LFD (localized fat deposits area in fetus shows brownish-white blubbary tissue without well-defined adult fat lobules. Conclusion: The attachment and gross anatomy of superficial fascia of the fetus was similar to that in adults. The future LFD areas showed brownish white blubbary tissue with ill-defined fat lobules.

  5. BOLD Granger causality reflects vascular anatomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taylor Webb

    Full Text Available A number of studies have tried to exploit subtle phase differences in BOLD time series to resolve the order of sequential activation of brain regions, or more generally the ability of signal in one region to predict subsequent signal in another region. More recently, such lag-based measures have been applied to investigate directed functional connectivity, although this application has been controversial. We attempted to use large publicly available datasets (FCON 1000, ADHD 200, Human Connectome Project to determine whether consistent spatial patterns of Granger Causality are observed in typical fMRI data. For BOLD datasets from 1,240 typically developing subjects ages 7-40, we measured Granger causality between time series for every pair of 7,266 spherical ROIs covering the gray matter and 264 seed ROIs at hubs of the brain's functional network architecture. Granger causality estimates were strongly reproducible for connections in a test and replication sample (n=620 subjects for each group, as well as in data from a single subject scanned repeatedly, both during resting and passive video viewing. The same effect was even stronger in high temporal resolution fMRI data from the Human Connectome Project, and was observed independently in data collected during performance of 7 task paradigms. The spatial distribution of Granger causality reflected vascular anatomy with a progression from Granger causality sources, in Circle of Willis arterial inflow distributions, to sinks, near large venous vascular structures such as dural venous sinuses and at the periphery of the brain. Attempts to resolve BOLD phase differences with Granger causality should consider the possibility of reproducible vascular confounds, a problem that is independent of the known regional variability of the hemodynamic response.

  6. Understanding the three-dimensional anatomy of the superficial lymphatics of the limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2014-11-01

    There are minimal data in the current literature regarding the depth of the superficial lymphatic collectors of the limbs in relation to the various subcutaneous tissue layers. Injection, microdissection, radiographic, and histologic studies of the superficial lymphatics and the subcutaneous tissues of 32 limbs from 15 human cadavers were performed. Five layers were consistently identified in the integument of all the upper and lower limb specimens: (1) skin, (2) subcutaneous fat, (3) superficial fascia, (4) loose areolar tissue, and (5) deep fascia. Layer 2 was further divided into superficial (2a) and deep (2c) compartments by a thin, transparent, horizontal septum (layer 2b). The main superficial veins and the superficial nerves coursed in layer 4. The lymphatic collectors were found at layer 2c and layer 4. The use of consistent nomenclature to describe the subcutaneous tissue layers facilitates a greater understanding and discussion of the anatomy. In lymphovenous anastomosis for the treatment of lymphedema, indocyanine green lymphography is an unreliable method for identification of the superficial collectors of the thigh. The medial proximal leg, the dorsum of the wrist over the anatomical snuffbox, and the volar proximal forearm provide suitable areas for locating superficial collectors with nearby matching size veins. In vertical medial thigh lift, choosing a dissection plane superficial to the great saphenous vein is unlikely to preserve the collectors of the ventromedial bundle.

  7. [Vascular anatomy of donor and recipient in living kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiqing; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2009-09-01

    To review the vascular anatomy of the donor and the recipient for the living kidney transplantation. The recent literature about the vessels of donor and recipient in clinical applications was extensively reviewed. The pertinent vascular anatomy of the donor and recipient was essential for the screening of the proper candidates, surgical planning and long-term outcome. Early branching and accessory renal artery of the donor were particularly important to deciding the side of nephrectomy, surgical technique and anastomosing pattern, and their injuries were the most frequent factor of the conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery. With increase of laparoscopic nephrectomy in donors, accurate venous anatomy was paid more and more attention to because venous bleeding could also lead to conversion to open nephrectomy. Multidetector CT (MDCT) could supplant the conventional excretory urography and renal catheter angiography and could accurately depict the donors' vessels, vascular variations. In addition, MDCT can excellently evaluate the status of donor kidney, collecting system and other pertinent anatomy details. Accurate master of related vascular anatomy can facilitate operation plan and success of operation and can contribute to the rapid development of living donor kidney transplantation. MDCT has become the choice of preoperative one-stop image assessment for living renal donors.

  8. Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. P.; Zhang, M.; Hwang, T. S.; Bailey, S. T.; Wilson, D. J.; Jia, Y.; Huang, D.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive method of 3D imaging of the retinal and choroidal circulations. However, vascular depth discrimination is limited by superficial vessels projecting flow signal artifact onto deeper layers. The projection-resolved (PR) OCTA algorithm improves depth resolution by removing projection artifact while retaining in-situ flow signal from real blood vessels in deeper layers. This novel technology allowed us to study the normal retinal vasculature in vivo with better depth resolution than previously possible. Our investigation in normal human volunteers revealed the presence of 2 to 4 distinct vascular plexuses in the retina, depending on location relative to the optic disc and fovea. The vascular pattern in these retinal plexuses and interconnecting layers are consistent with previous histologic studies. Based on these data, we propose an improved system of nomenclature and segmentation boundaries for detailed 3-dimensional retinal vascular anatomy by OCTA. This could serve as a basis for future investigation of both normal retinal anatomy, as well as vascular malformations, nonperfusion, and neovascularization.

  9. Vascular anatomy in angiography for magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charry Lopez, Marco Luciano; Rivera Gomez, Juan Enrique

    1998-01-01

    A review of basic anatomical concepts and main variants, as well as some anatomical anomalies of the central nervous system vascularity, these concepts are considered essential for the interpretation of magnetic resonance angiography with time-of-flight (TOF) and phase-contrast (PC) methods

  10. Unexpected diagnosis of superficial neurofibroma in a lesion with imaging features of a vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Patrick; Reid, Janet; Morrison, Stuart [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Vidimos, Allison [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Dermatology, Cleveland, OH (United States); DiFiore, John [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Plexiform neurofibroma is a pathognomonic, often disabling feature of neurofibromatosis type I. Although the target-like appearance of deep plexiform neurofibroma on T2-weighted MRI has been well-described, a second superficial form of plexiform neurofibroma has differing imaging features. We report a 15-year-old boy who presented with multiple cutaneous lesions exhibiting clinical and imaging characteristics of a venolymphatic malformation. These lesions were histologically proved to represent superficial plexiform neurofibromas. We wish to emphasize the unique MR findings of superficial plexiform neurofibromas; these findings are different from the imaging characteristics of the deep form and can be confused with a low-flow vascular malformation. (orig.)

  11. Lymphangioma circumscriptum, angiokeratoma, or superficial vascular ectasia with epithelial hyperplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulas, Nikolaos; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Argyris, Prokopios; Koutlas, Ioannis G; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of lymphangioma circumscriptum (cavernous lymphangioma with epithelial hyperplasia) in a 12-year-old girl, presenting as a papillary tumor on the right dorsal side of her tongue. Microscopic examination found cavernous vascular channels lined by a single layer of CD31(+), podoplanin-positive, CD34(-) endothelial cells that occupied the papillary lamina propria and were accompanied by epithelial hyperplasia. A review of the literature on oral vascular tumors with epithelial hyperplasia, namely, lymphangioma circumscriptum and angiokeratoma, provided information that draws into question the use of these terms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MR-angiogram-added surface anatomy scanning of superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Katase, Shichiro; Yoshino, Ayako; Hachiya, Junichi [Department of Radiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Shiokawa, Yoshiaki [Department of Neurosurgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the utility of surface anatomy scanning (SAS) of the brain with superimposition of MR angiograms in the diagnosis and presurgical planning of superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We performed SAS in 15 patients with superficial cerebral AVMs. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MR angiograms were then obtained in the same section and superimposed on the SAS images. The images were assessed regarding the visualization of each AVM component using a four-point grading scale (3=excellent to 0=poor). In 13 of the patients, the assessment was made comparing with conventional angiograms. The images were also compared with the surgical findings in 5 patients. The added images agreed well with the angiographic findings and demonstrated the relationships between the AVM components and the adjacent brain surface. The average scores of the feeder(s), nidus, and drainer(s) were 2.27, 2.33, and 2.67, respectively. The surgical findings also correlated well with the added images. Our technique can noninvasively demonstrate superficial AVMs along with the brain surface and provide information useful for planning surgery. (orig.)

  13. MR-angiogram-added surface anatomy scanning of superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Katase, Shichiro; Yoshino, Ayako; Hachiya, Junichi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the utility of surface anatomy scanning (SAS) of the brain with superimposition of MR angiograms in the diagnosis and presurgical planning of superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We performed SAS in 15 patients with superficial cerebral AVMs. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MR angiograms were then obtained in the same section and superimposed on the SAS images. The images were assessed regarding the visualization of each AVM component using a four-point grading scale (3=excellent to 0=poor). In 13 of the patients, the assessment was made comparing with conventional angiograms. The images were also compared with the surgical findings in 5 patients. The added images agreed well with the angiographic findings and demonstrated the relationships between the AVM components and the adjacent brain surface. The average scores of the feeder(s), nidus, and drainer(s) were 2.27, 2.33, and 2.67, respectively. The surgical findings also correlated well with the added images. Our technique can noninvasively demonstrate superficial AVMs along with the brain surface and provide information useful for planning surgery. (orig.)

  14. Vascular Anatomy in Laparoscopic Colectomy for Right Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jae; Park, Sung Chan; Kim, Min Jung; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2016-08-01

    The vascular anatomy in the right colon varies; however, related studies are rare, especially on the laparoscopic vascular anatomy of living patients. The purpose of this study was to describe vascular variations around the gastrocolic trunk, middle colic vein, and ileocolic vessels in laparoscopic surgery for right-sided colon cancer. This is a retrospective descriptive study of patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy for right colon cancer. The study was conducted at a single tertiary institution in Korea. Consecutive patients with right colon cancer who underwent laparoscopic right colectomy using the cranial-to-caudal approach (N = 116) between January 2014 and April 2015 were included. Three colorectal surgeons took photographs and videos of the vascular anatomy during each laparoscopic right colectomy, and these were analyzed for vascular variations. We classified venous variations around the gastrocolic trunk into 2 types (3 subtypes), type 1 (n = 92 (79.3%)), defined as 1 or 2 colic veins draining into the gastrocolic trunk, and type II (n = 24 (20.7%)), defined as having no gastrocolic trunk. We also investigated the tributaries of the superior mesenteric vein. One, 2, and 3 middle colic veins were found in 86 (74.1%), 26 (22.4%), and 4 patients (3.5%). The right colic vein drained directly into the superior mesenteric vein in 22 patients (19.0%). All of the patients had a single ileocolic vein draining into the superior mesenteric vein and a single ileocolic artery from the superior mesenteric artery. The right colic artery from the superior mesenteric artery was present in 38 patients (32.7%). The ileocolic artery passed the superior mesenteric vein anteriorly or posteriorly in 58 patients (50%) each. Unlike cadaver or radiological studies, we could not clarify the complete vessel paths. We classified vascular anatomic variations in laparoscopic colectomy for right colon cancer, which could be helpful for colorectal surgeons.

  15. Vascular patterns of upper limb: an anatomical study with accent on superficial brachial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kachlik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the terminal segmentation of the axillary artery and to present four cases of anomalous branching of the axillary artery, the superficial brachial artery (arteria brachialis superficialis, which is defined as the brachial artery that runs superficially to the median nerve. Totally, 130 cadaveric upper arms embalmed by classical formaldehyde technique from collections of the Department of Anatomy, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, were macroscopically dissected with special focus on the branching arrangement of the axillary artery. The most distal part of the axillary artery (infrapectoral part terminated in four cases as a bifurcation into two terminal branches: the superficial brachial artery and profunda brachii artery, denominated according to their relation to the median nerve. The profunda brachii artery primarily gave rise to the main branches of the infrapectoral part of the axillary artery. The superficial brachial artery descended to the cubital fossa where it assumed the usual course of the brachial artery in two cases and in the other two cases its branches (the radial and ulnar arteries passed superficially to the flexors. The incidence of the superficial brachial artery in our study was 5% of cases. The reported incidence is a bit contradictory, from 0.12% to 25% of cases. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is of crucial importance for neurosurgeons and specialists using the radiodiagnostic techniques, particularly in cases involving traumatic injuries. The improved knowledge would allow more accurate diagnostic interpretations and surgical treatment.

  16. Topographical anatomy of superficial veins, cutaneous nerves, and arteries at venipuncture sites in the cubital fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuni, Yuko; Chiba, Shoji; Tonosaki, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated correlations among the superficial veins, cutaneous nerves, arteries, and venous valves in 128 cadaveric arms in order to choose safe venipuncture sites in the cubital fossa. The running patterns of the superficial veins were classified into four types (I-IV) and two subtypes (a and b). In types I and II, the median cubital vein (MCV) was connected obliquely between the cephalic and basilic veins in an N-shape, while the median antebrachial vein (MAV) opened into the MCV in type I and into the basilic vein in type II. In type III, the MCV did not exist. In type IV, additional superficial veins above the cephalic and basilic veins were developed around the cubital fossa. In types Ib-IVb, the accessory cephalic vein was developed under the same conditions as seen in types Ia-IVa, respectively. The lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm descended deeply along the cephalic vein in 124 cases (97 %), while the medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm descended superficially along the basilic vein in 94 (73 %). A superficial brachial artery was found in 27 cases (21 %) and passed deeply under the ulnar side of the MCV. A median superficial antebrachial artery was found in 1 case (1 %), which passed deeply under the ulnar side of the MCV and ran along the MAV. Venous valves were found at 239 points in 28 cases with superficial veins, with a single valve seen at 79 points (33 %) and double valves at 160 points (67 %). At the time of intravenous injection, caution is needed regarding the locations of cutaneous nerves, brachial and superficial brachial arteries, and venous valves. The area ranging from the middle segment of the MCV to the confluence between the MCV and cephalic vein appears to be a relatively safe venipuncture site.

  17. Anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous and superficial radial nerves in the forearm: a cadaveric and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldner, Steven; Zlotolow, Dan A; Melone, Charles P; Agnes, Ann Marie; Jones, Morgan H

    2005-11-01

    To define the anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN) and the superficial radial nerve (SRN) in relation to easily identifiable landmarks in the dorsoradial forearm to minimize the risk to both nerves during surgical approaches to the dorsal radius. In this study 37 cadaveric forearms and 20 patients having distal radius external fixation were dissected to identify these nerves in relation to various anatomic landmarks. Based on these dissections the anatomy was divided into 2 zones that can be identified by easily visible and palpable landmarks. Zone 1 extends from the elbow to the cross-over of the abductor pollicis longus with the extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus. Zone 2 is distal to the cross-over. In zone 1 the 2 nerves can be differentiated through limited incisions based on their depth and anatomic location. Within this zone the SRN is deep to the brachioradialis until 1.8 cm proximal to zone 2 (9 cm proximal to the radial styloid), where it becomes superficial and pierces the fascia of the mobile wad and then remains deep to the subcutaneous fat. In contrast the LACN pierces the fascia between the brachialis and biceps muscles at the level of the elbow. In all specimens the LACN ran parallel to the cephalic vein within the subcutaneous fat. In 31 specimens it ran volar to the vein and in 5 specimens the nerve crossed under the cephalic vein at the elbow and ran dorsal to the vein in the forearm. One specimen had 2 branches with 1 on either side of the vein. Differentiation of these nerves was found to be possible through limited incisions in zone 1 during placement of external fixation pins for distal radius fractures. The LACN always was located in the superficial fat running with the cephalic vein, whereas the SRN was deeper to this nerve either covered by the brachioradialis or closely adherent to it within the investing fascia of the mobile wad. In zone 2 the nerves arborized and ran in the same tissue plane, making

  18. Three-dimensional reconstruction of port wine stain vascular anatomy from serial histological sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smithies, D. J.; van Gemert, M. J.; Hansen, M. K.; Milner, T. E.; Nelson, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    Port wine stains (PWSs) treated with a flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser show a variability in clinical response that is incompletely understood. To identify any vascular structure that might adversely affect treatment response, we obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction of the vascular anatomy

  19. The Utility of 64 Channel Multidetector CT Angiography for Evaluating the Renal Vascular Anatomy and Possible Variations: a Pictorial Essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sheo; Neyaz, Zafar; Gupta, Archna

    2010-01-01

    The increased use of laparoscopic nephrectomy and nephron-sparing surgery has prompted the need for a more detailed radiological evaluation of the renal vascular anatomy. Multidetector CT angiography is a fast and accurate modality for assessing the precise anatomy of the renal vessels. In this pictorial review, we present the multidetector CT angiography appearances of the normal renal vascular anatomy and a spectrum of various anomalies that require accurate vascular depiction before undergoing surgical treatment

  20. The Utility of 64 Channel Multidetector CT Angiography for Evaluating the Renal Vascular Anatomy and Possible Variations: a Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sheo; Neyaz, Zafar; Gupta, Archna [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)

    2010-06-15

    The increased use of laparoscopic nephrectomy and nephron-sparing surgery has prompted the need for a more detailed radiological evaluation of the renal vascular anatomy. Multidetector CT angiography is a fast and accurate modality for assessing the precise anatomy of the renal vessels. In this pictorial review, we present the multidetector CT angiography appearances of the normal renal vascular anatomy and a spectrum of various anomalies that require accurate vascular depiction before undergoing surgical treatment.

  1. The utility of 64 channel multidetector CT angiography for evaluating the renal vascular anatomy and possible variations: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sheo; Neyaz, Zafar; Gupta, Archna

    2010-01-01

    The increased use of laparoscopic nephrectomy and nephron-sparing surgery has prompted the need for a more detailed radiological evaluation of the renal vascular anatomy. Multidetector CT angiography is a fast and accurate modality for assessing the precise anatomy of the renal vessels. In this pictorial review, we present the multidetector CT angiography appearances of the normal renal vascular anatomy and a spectrum of various anomalies that require accurate vascular depiction before undergoing surgical treatment.

  2. Evaluation of anatomy and variations of superficial palmar arch and upper extremity arteries with CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplanoglu, Hatice; Beton, Osman

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the abnormalities and variations of the arterial system of upper extremities and superficial palmar arch with computed tomography angiography and to guide the clinician during this procedure. A total of 156 upper extremities of 78 cases were retrospectively analyzed using computed tomography angiography. The study was approved by the local ethics committee of the hospital. From the analysis of the computed tomography angiography images, the following information was recorded; the diameters and abnormalities of radial, ulnar and brachial arteries in both upper extremities, the presence of atherosclerotic changes or stenosis in these arteries, whether the superficial palmar arch was complete or incomplete, and arterial dominance. Also, the computed tomography angiography classification of superficial palmar arch distribution and anatomic configuration was performed. The mean baseline diameters of the radial, ulnar and brachial arteries of the cases were; 2.8 ± 0.6, 2.5 ± 0.7, and 4.7 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. A complete superficial palmar arch was observed in 69.2 % of the right hands and 70.5 % of the left hands. For the superficial palmar arches on the right side, the radial artery was dominant in two and the ulnar artery was dominant in 47 with the remaining showing codominance. On the left side, the radial artery was dominant in one hand, with the ulnar artery being dominant in 49 cases, and in 28 cases, there was codominance. In the superficial palmar arch classification, four of the arches (A-D) were defined as complete and the remaining three (E-G) as incomplete. The current study clarified different variations in palmar circulation and forearm arteries to aid the surgeon during trans-radial or trans-ulnar catheterization, hemodialysis, or coronary artery bypass grafting.

  3. Deep and superficial infrapatellar bursae: cadaveric investigation of regional anatomy using magnetic resonance after ultrasound-guided bursography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viegas, Flavio C.; Trudell, Debbie J.; Haghighi, Parviz; Resnick, Donald [Veterans Affairs Medical Center - San Diego, San Diego, CA (United States); Aguiar, Rodrigo O.C. [Veterans Affairs Medical Center - San Diego, San Diego, CA (United States); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gasparetto, Emerson; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    To demonstrate the anatomy of the deep and superficial infrapatellar bursae using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers. MR imaging of the infrapatellar bursae of nine cadaveric knees was performed after ultrasound-guided bursography. The images were compared with those seen on anatomic sectioning. Histologic analysis was obtained in two specimens. The deep infrapatellar bursa (DIB) was visualized in all specimens (n=9) and the superficial infrapatellar bursa (SIB) in five specimens (55%). The mean dimensions of the DIB in the craniocaudal, mediolateral, and anteroposterior planes were respectively 25, 28.7, and 6 mm, and for SIB 19.5, 21.2 and 2.2 mm. A fat apron dividing the DIB was depicted in eight knees (89%). Lateral extension of the DIB beyond the patellar tendon was observed in 100% of cases. Cadaveric analysis depicted a thin septum in the SIB in four of five cases (80%). The DIB is generally present and extends beyond the lateral margin of the patellar tendon. A fat apron partially separating this structure is usual. The SIB is not an unusual finding and may have a septum separating its compartments. (orig.)

  4. Vascular anatomy of the pig kidney glomerulus: a qualitative study of corrosion casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B J; Holmes, K R; Xu, L X

    1992-09-01

    Pig kidney glomerular vascular anatomy was studied by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. A generalized vascular architecture is presented to describe the pig kidney glomerulus based upon the observation of 3,800 vascular cast glomeruli. The relative simplicity of the pig glomerular vascular architecture has allowed the characterization of different vascular segments more completely than has been possible in other mammals. Based upon relationships to the afferent arteriole, a nomenclature and definition of primary, secondary, tertiary and anastomotic vessels is proposed for the distributing vessels comprising the glomerular tuft. The existence and formation of a large central hemispheric vessel deep within the confines of a glomerular hemisphere is micrographically documented. Micrographic evidence is presented supporting the formation of the single efferent arteriole by the merging of two central hemispheric vessels within the confines of the glomerular tuft. Failure of the merging of these two vessels may result in multiple efferent arterioles.

  5. Upper abdominal teratomas in infants: radiological findings and importance of the vascular anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Jonathan; Mazrani, Waseem; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Jones, Niall; Kiely, Edward M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Surgery Department, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Pathology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Primary upper abdominal teratomas are extremely rare tumours, most commonly arising in infants. The radiological literature relating to them is sparse. Surgical resection is difficult due to distortion of the vascular anatomy. To reassess the value of preoperative imaging with specific reference to the presence/absence of typical features of teratoma, anatomical location and adjacent vascular anatomy. The histopathology database was used to identify infants with upper abdominal teratoma. Pathological, surgical and radiological data were reviewed. The search of the database identified 12 infants (10 girls, 2 boys) with an abdominal/retroperitoneal teratoma during the period 1993 to 2006. All teratomas were benign. In the majority of infants, typical radiological features of teratoma were demonstrated (fat, calcium). Identification of the major abdominal vessels on CT scan (most commonly the inferior vena cava) was not possible in all infants. Distortion (and commonly encasement) of the adjacent major abdominal vessels was usually evident. Upper abdominal teratomas in infants have typical radiological features. Preoperative delineation of the major vascular anatomy is often imprecise. Significant distortion of vascular anatomy was present in all infants and awareness of this feature impacts on surgical planning. (orig.)

  6. Upper abdominal teratomas in infants: radiological findings and importance of the vascular anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Jonathan; Mazrani, Waseem; McHugh, Kieran; Jones, Niall; Kiely, Edward M.; Sebire, Neil J.

    2008-01-01

    Primary upper abdominal teratomas are extremely rare tumours, most commonly arising in infants. The radiological literature relating to them is sparse. Surgical resection is difficult due to distortion of the vascular anatomy. To reassess the value of preoperative imaging with specific reference to the presence/absence of typical features of teratoma, anatomical location and adjacent vascular anatomy. The histopathology database was used to identify infants with upper abdominal teratoma. Pathological, surgical and radiological data were reviewed. The search of the database identified 12 infants (10 girls, 2 boys) with an abdominal/retroperitoneal teratoma during the period 1993 to 2006. All teratomas were benign. In the majority of infants, typical radiological features of teratoma were demonstrated (fat, calcium). Identification of the major abdominal vessels on CT scan (most commonly the inferior vena cava) was not possible in all infants. Distortion (and commonly encasement) of the adjacent major abdominal vessels was usually evident. Upper abdominal teratomas in infants have typical radiological features. Preoperative delineation of the major vascular anatomy is often imprecise. Significant distortion of vascular anatomy was present in all infants and awareness of this feature impacts on surgical planning. (orig.)

  7. In vivo analysis of the human superficial cerebral venous anatomy by using 3D-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinaga, Yasunari

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the reliability of three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI), and to classify the drainage patterns of the superficial cerebral veins. At first, toothpicks were stuck into fixed brain surface of a dog. To examine the best methods for making 3D-MRI, the 3D-MRI, including the diameter of the holes, of the dog's brain were analyzed in four threshold values. The holes on the 3D-MRI appeared smaller than their actual size due to the partial volume effect. The low threshold showed more errors than the higher. This result showed it was necessary to display the good 3D-MRI to refer the original MR images. Next, the 3D-MRI of clinical patients who had brain tumors were correlated with operative findings especially in relation to the lesions and brain surface, vessels, ventricles. The relation between the lesions and brain surface, vessels were displayed well, but there were some problems with inadequate ventricular display. Finally, anatomical study using 3D-MRI was performed, because 3D-MRI could display the relation between the brain surface and the superficial cerebral veins in the basic studies. The third study demonstrated that the transverse frontal vein was found in 15%, vein of Trolard ran in front of the central sulcus in 91.5% and several anastomosing veins were frequently observed. These studies showed the progress of technology in bringing about a lot of new information by using 3D-MRI. (author)

  8. Floral anatomy of Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae: comparing flower organization and vascular patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Novikoff

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the tribe Delphinieae have dorsoventralized flowers; their pentamerous calyx and reduced corolla are dorsally spurred and inner spurs are nectariferous. Based on this common floral scheme, Delphinieae species exhibit a wide diversity of floral structures and morphologies. We present here the first investigation of the floral anatomy in Delphinieae. The organization of the floral vascular system has been studied in species representative of the floral morphological diversity of Delphinieae: Aconitum lasiocarpum, Delphinium elatum, and Consolida regalis. The three species show a similar vascularization of the calyx and of the reproductive organs, but exhibit distinct anatomical features in the corolla where the nectaries are borne. The sepals and the stamens have a trilacunar three-traced and a unilacunar one-traced vascularization, respectively. Three free carpels in D. elatum and A. lasiocarpum are basically supplied by six vascular bundles – three independent dorsal bundles and three fused lateral bundles. In C. regalis the single carpel is supplied by three independent vascular bundles (one dorsal and two ventral. Staminodes are not vascularized. The basic type of petal vascularization is unilacunar one-traced, but in the case of C. regalis the derived bilacunar two-traced type has been observed. This latter state arose as a result of the fusion of the two dorsal petal primordia. The results of this first comparative study of the floral anatomy of Delphinieae are discussed with the recent phylogenetic, morphological, and evo-devo findings concerning the tribe.

  9. Novel Application of Postmortem CT Angiography for Evaluation of the Intracranial Vascular Anatomy in Cadaver Heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Ruben P A; van der Zwan, Albert; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Regli, Luca; Esposito, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Postmortem CT angiography is a common procedure used to visualize the entire human vasculature. For visualization of a specific organ's vascular anatomy, casting is the preferred method. Because of the permanent and damaging nature of casting, the organ cannot be further used as an experimental model after angiography. Therefore, there is a need for a minimally traumatic method to visualize organ-specific vascular anatomy. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a contrast enhancement technique that is capable of visualizing the intracranial vascular anatomy while preserving the anatomic integrity in cadaver heads. Seven human heads were used in this study. Heads were prepared by cannulating the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. Contrast agent was injected as a mixture of tap water, polyethylene glycol 600, and an iodinated contrast agent. Postmortem imaging was executed on a 64-MDCT scanner. Primary image review and 3D reconstruction were performed on a CT workstation. Clear visualization of the major cerebral arteries and smaller intracranial branches was achieved. Adequate visualization was obtained for both the anterior and posterior intracranial circulation. The minimally traumatic angiography method preserved the vascular integrity of the cadaver heads. A novel application of postmortem CT angiography is presented here. The technique can be used for radiologic evaluation of the intracranial circulation in cadaver heads. After CT angiography, the specimen can be used for further experimental or laboratory testing and teaching purposes.

  10. Vascular anatomy of the liver and porta hepatis with dynamic CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Wada, Mitsuyoshi; Nakajima, Teiichi; Tonooka, Reiko; Matsumoto, Kunihiko

    1983-01-01

    Vascular anatomy of the liver and porta heaptis demonstrated by dynamic CT scan was studied Identification of the individual vessels was sometimes difficult due to slight differencies in respiratory depths among the scans. Limitation in the number of slices also made the evalution of the vascular anatomy difficult. Angiography was therefore utilized for comparison in identifying the vessels. Dynamic CT scan was proved to be usefull in demonstrating the anteroposterior relationship of the vessels and surrounding structures, which is difficult with convetional angiography without multiple projections. Three dimensional understanding of the vessels was then possible with dynamic CT scan and angiography. When combined with recently advancing digital subtraction angiography, dynamic CT scan might reduce the necessity for conventional angiography with Seldinger's technique. (author)

  11. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: vascular anatomy, device selection, procedure, and procedure-specific complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Yolanda; Rogoff, Philip; Romanelli, Donald; Reichle, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is abnormal dilatation of the aorta, carrying a substantial risk of rupture and thereby marked risk of death. Open repair of AAA involves lengthy surgery time, anesthesia, and substantial recovery time. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) provides a safer option for patients with advanced age and pulmonary, cardiac, and renal dysfunction. Successful endovascular repair of AAA depends on correct selection of patients (on the basis of their vascular anatomy), choice of the correct endoprosthesis, and familiarity with the technique and procedure-specific complications. The type of aneurysm is defined by its location with respect to the renal arteries, whether it is a true or false aneurysm, and whether the common iliac arteries are involved. Vascular anatomy can be divided more technically into aortic neck, aortic aneurysm, pelvic perfusion, and iliac morphology, with grades of difficulty with respect to EVAR, aortic neck morphology being the most common factor to affect EVAR appropriateness. When choosing among the devices available on the market, one must consider the patient's vascular anatomy and choose between devices that provide suprarenal fixation versus those that provide infrarenal fixation. A successful technique can be divided into preprocedural imaging, ancillary procedures before AAA stent-graft placement, the procedure itself, postprocedural medical therapy, and postprocedural imaging surveillance. Imaging surveillance is important in assessing complications such as limb thrombosis, endoleaks, graft migration, enlargement of the aneurysm sac, and rupture. Last, one must consider the issue of radiation safety with regard to EVAR. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  12. Superficial ovarian cortex vascularization is inversely related to the follicle reserve in normal cycling ovaries and is increased in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rosas, F; Gaytán, M; Morales, C; Gómez, R; Gaytán, F

    2009-05-01

    The superficial ovarian cortex constitutes the micro-environment where resting and early growing follicles reside. As small follicles do not possess an independent capillary network, both their survival and early growth depend on their proximity to the cortical vessels. Little is known about the possible changes in superficial ovarian cortex vascularization in normal women throughout reproductive life or in pathological conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) involving abnormal early follicle growth. We studied the vascularization of the superficial and deep cortical stroma (DCS) in normal cycling ovaries from 21 to 50 years of age and in infertile women with PCOS. We used archival ovarian samples and specific CD34 immunostaining to determine blood vessel density and to analyse correlation with age and with the ovarian follicle reserve. Normal cycling ovaries showed an age-related increase in the superficial cortical stroma vascularization that was inversely correlated with the density of small (primordial and primary) follicles. In contrast, blood vessel density in the DCS significantly decreased in women aged >or=40 years. Ovaries from PCOS showed a 2-fold increase in blood vessel density in both superficial cortical stroma and DCS with respect to age-matched controls. The increased vascularization of the superficial cortical stroma in normal ovaries in relation to age and in ovaries from PCOS could have profound effects on cortical metabolic rate, primordial follicle survival/activation and early follicle growth, and may underline changes in follicle dynamics in mid-aged women and in PCOS.

  13. Characterization of normal feline renal vascular anatomy with dual-phase CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Ana V; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Aronson, Lillian R; Mai, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    Helical computed tomography angiography was used to evaluate the renal vascular anatomy of potential feline renal donors. One hundred and fourteen computed tomography angiograms were reviewed. The vessels were characterized as single without bifurcation, single with bifurcation, double, or triple. Multiplicity was most commonly seen for the right renal vein (45/114 vs. 3/114 multiple left renal veins, 0/114 multiple right renal arteries, and 8/114 multiple left renal arteries). The right kidney was 13.3 times more likely than the left to have multiple renal veins. Additional vascular variants included double caudal vena cava and an accessory renal artery. For the left kidney, surgery and computed tomography angiography findings were in agreement in 92% of 74 cats. For the right kidney, surgery and computed tomography angiography findings were in agreement in 6/6 cats. Our findings of renal vascular anatomy variations in cats were similar to previous reports in humans. Identifying and recognizing the pattern of distribution of these vessels is important when performing renal transplantation.

  14. The vascular anatomy of the eustachian tube in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, R L

    1976-08-01

    Vascular anatomy of the eustachian tube has received little attention in the world's medical literature. Forty guinea pigs were perfused with Berlin Blue as a contrast medium and the eustachian tube microvascular architecture visualized through surface preparations. A diffuse, dense two-layered capillary network was found which followed the distribution of mucous glands. Five animals suffering from suppurative otitis media showed marked capillary congestion with increased vessel to tissue density. Relationships to gross arterial and venous supply as found in the human are discussed.

  15. The Use of ExoSeal Vascular Closure Device for Direct Antegrade Superficial Femoral Artery Puncture Site Hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimon, Uri, E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il; Khaitovich, Boris, E-mail: borislena@012.net.il [Tel-Aviv University, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Yakubovich, Dmitry, E-mail: Dmitry.Yakubovitch@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Vascular Surgery Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Bensaid, Paul, E-mail: paulbensaid@hotmail.com; Golan, Gil, E-mail: gilgolan201@gmail.com [Tel-Aviv University, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Silverberg, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.Silverberg@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Vascular Surgery Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of the ExoSeal vascular closure device (VCD) to achieve hemostasis in antegrade access of the superficial femoral artery (SFA).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the outcome of ExoSeal VCD used for hemostasis in 110 accesses to the SFA in 93 patients between July 2011 and July 2013. All patients had patent proximal SFA based on computer tomography angiography or ultrasound duplex. Arterial calcifications at puncture site were graded using fluoroscopy. The SFA was accessed in an antegrade fashion with ultrasound or fluoroscopic guidance. In all patients, 5–7F vascular sheaths were used. The ExoSeal VCD was applied to achieve hemostasis at the end of the procedure. All patients were clinically examined and had ultrasound duplex exam for any puncture site complications during the 24 h postprocedure.ResultsIn all procedures, the ExoSeal was applied successfully. We did not encounter any device-related technical failure. There were four major complications in four patients (3.6 %): three pseudoaneurysms, which were treated with direct thrombin injection, and one hematoma, which necessitated transfusion of two blood units. All patients with complications were treated with anticoagulation preprocedure or received thrombolytic therapy.ConclusionsThe ExoSeal VCD can be safely used for antegrade puncture of the SFA, with a high procedural success rate (100 %) and a low rate of access site complications (3.6 %)

  16. Dynamic article: surgical anatomical planes for complete mesocolic excision and applied vascular anatomy of the right colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açar, Halil İbrahim; Cömert, Ayhan; Avşar, Abdullah; Çelik, Safa; Kuzu, Mehmet Ayhan

    2014-10-01

    Lower local recurrence rates and better overall survival are associated with complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation for treatment of colon cancer. To accomplish this, surgeons need to pay special attention to the surgical anatomical planes and vascular anatomy of the colon. However, surgical education in this area has been neglected. The aim of this study is to define the correct surgical anatomical planes for complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation and to demonstrate the correct dissection technique for protecting anatomical structures. Macroscopic and microscopic surgical dissections were performed on 12 cadavers in the anatomy laboratory and on autopsy specimens. The dissections were recorded as video clips. Dissections were performed in accordance with the complete mesocolic excision technique on 10 male and 2 female cadavers. Vascular structures, autonomic nerves, and related fascias were shown. Within each step of the surgical procedure, important anatomical structures were displayed on still images captured from videos by animations. Three crucial steps for complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation are demonstrated on the cadavers: 1) full mobilization of the superior mesenteric root following the embryological planes between the visceral and the parietal fascias; 2) mobilization of the mesocolon from the duodenum and the pancreas and identification of vascular structures, especially the veins around the pancreas; and 3) central vascular ligation of the colonic vessels at their origin, taking into account the vascular variations within the mesocolonic vessels and the autonomic nerves around the superior mesenteric artery. The limitation of this study was the number of the cadavers used. Successful complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation depends on an accurate knowledge of the surgical anatomical planes and the vascular anatomy of the colon.

  17. The original Pathologische Anatomie Leiden-Endothelium monoclonal antibody recognizes a vascular endothelial growth factor binding site within neuropilin-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaalouk, Diana E.; Ozawa, Nfichael G.; Sun, Jessica; Lahdenranta, Johanna; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2007-01-01

    For two decades, the antigen recognized by the Pathologische Anatomie Leiden-Endothelium (PAL-E) monoclonal antibody, a standard vascular endothelial cell marker, has remained elusive. Here, we used a combinatorial phage display-based approach ("epitope mapping") to select peptides binding to the

  18. Customization of laparoscopic gastric devascularization and splenectomy for gastric varices based on CT vascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Nagao, Yoshihiro; Kinjo, Nao; Yoshida, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Harimoto, Norifumi; Itoh, Shinji; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric devascularization(Lap GDS) and splenectomy (SPL) for gastric varices is technically challenging because of highly developed collateral vessels and bleeding tendency. We investigated the feasibility of customization of Lap GDS and SPL based on CT vascular anatomy. We analyzed 61 cirrhotic patients with gastric varices who underwent Lap GDS and SPL between 2006 and 2014. Lap GDS was customized according to the afferent feeding veins (left gastric vein (LGV) and/or posterior gastric vein (PGV)/short gastric vein (SGV)) and efferent drainage veins (gastrorenal shunt and/or gastrophrenic shunt, or numerous retroperitoneal veins) based on CT imaging. Thirty-four patients with efferent drainage veins suitable for balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) underwent B-RTO instead of surgical GDS, with subsequent Lap SPL. Among 27 patients with gastric varices unsuitable for B-RTO, 15 patients with PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater curvature and SPL, and 12 patients with LGV or LGV/PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater and lesser curvature and SPL. The mean operation time was 294 min and mean blood loss was 198 g. There was no mortality or severe morbidity. Gastric varices were eradicated in all 61 patients, with no bleeding or recurrence during a mean follow-up of 55.9 months. The cumulative 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 92, 82, and 64%, respectively. Lap GDS and SPL customized based on CT vascular anatomy is a safe and effective procedure for treating gastric varices.

  19. Detection of biliary and vascular anatomy in living liver donors: Value of gadobenate dimeglumine enhanced MR and MDCT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artioli, Diana; Tagliabue, Marianna; Aseni, Paolo; Sironi, Sandro; Vanzulli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of magnetic resonance (MR) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the assessment of living donor's vascular and biliary anatomy, having surgical findings as reference standard. Methods: Thirty-two living liver donors underwent MR cholangiography (1.5-T; standard cholangiography pulse sequences and delayed acquisitions after administration of biliary contrast agent) for biliary anatomy evaluation. MDCT (16-row multidetector scanner, multiphase protocol, 3 mm slice thickness) was also performed in all cases for the assessment of vascular anatomy before transplantation. Hepatic veins (<4 mm in diameter) were not considered. MR and MDCT images interpretation was performed by two reviewers by consensus, based on source axial images, multiplanar reformats, and three-dimensional (3D) postprocessing images. Surgical intraoperative findings were used as standard of reference. Results: At surgery, 17 biliary anomalies, 3 portal anomalies, 32 venous and 8 arterial variants were found in the 32 patients. MR correctly identified 15/17 biliary anomalies, with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 93%. MDCT correctly identified 8/8 arterial, 3/3 portal and 29/32 venous variants, with a sensitivity of 100% and 91%, respectively, and a specificity of 100%. Conclusions: MR and MDCT proved to be efficient in evaluating living liver donor's biliary and vascular anatomy.

  20. Detection of biliary and vascular anatomy in living liver donors: Value of gadobenate dimeglumine enhanced MR and MDCT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artioli, Diana, E-mail: diansadiana@gmail.com [Ospedale Niguarda Ca' Granda, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore 3, 20162 Milano (Italy); Tagliabue, Marianna; Aseni, Paolo; Sironi, Sandro; Vanzulli, Angelo [Ospedale Niguarda Ca' Granda, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore 3, 20162 Milano (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of magnetic resonance (MR) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the assessment of living donor's vascular and biliary anatomy, having surgical findings as reference standard. Methods: Thirty-two living liver donors underwent MR cholangiography (1.5-T; standard cholangiography pulse sequences and delayed acquisitions after administration of biliary contrast agent) for biliary anatomy evaluation. MDCT (16-row multidetector scanner, multiphase protocol, 3 mm slice thickness) was also performed in all cases for the assessment of vascular anatomy before transplantation. Hepatic veins (<4 mm in diameter) were not considered. MR and MDCT images interpretation was performed by two reviewers by consensus, based on source axial images, multiplanar reformats, and three-dimensional (3D) postprocessing images. Surgical intraoperative findings were used as standard of reference. Results: At surgery, 17 biliary anomalies, 3 portal anomalies, 32 venous and 8 arterial variants were found in the 32 patients. MR correctly identified 15/17 biliary anomalies, with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 93%. MDCT correctly identified 8/8 arterial, 3/3 portal and 29/32 venous variants, with a sensitivity of 100% and 91%, respectively, and a specificity of 100%. Conclusions: MR and MDCT proved to be efficient in evaluating living liver donor's biliary and vascular anatomy.

  1. [Applied anatomy study and clinical application of great saphenous veno-saphenous neurocutaneous vascular flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zelong; Ding, Zihai; Wang, Peixin; Xie, Yibo; Zeng, Bo

    2006-03-01

    flaps, distal pedicle flaps and free flaps survived well. The appearance, sensation and function were satisfactory in 14 patients after a follow-up of 6-12 months. The great saphenous vein as well as saphenous neurocutaneous has a chain linking system vascular net. A flap with the vascular net can be transplanted by free, by reversed pedicle, or by direct pedicle to repair the wound of upper leg and foot. A superficial vein-superficial neurocutaneous vascular flap with abundance blood supply and without sacrificing a main artery is a favourite method in repair of soft tissue defects in foot and lower extremity.

  2. Surgical anatomy of penis in exstrophy-epispadias: a study of arrangement of fascial planes and superficial vessels of surgical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kureel, Shiv Narain; Gupta, Archika; Singh, Chandra Shekhar; Kumar, Manoj

    2013-10-01

    To study the anatomic arrangement of the fascial planes and superficial vessels in relationship to the laid-open urethral plate, glans, corpus spongiosum, and corpora cavernosa in the penis of patients with exstrophy or epispadias. Of 6 patients, 4 had classic exstrophy and 2 had incontinent epispadias. These patients had presented beyond adolescence without previous intervention and were selected for the present study. Using a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner and compatible 3-in. surface coil, the epispadiac penises were studied using fast spin echo sequences and contrast-enhanced sequences. In 2 patients, angiography of the superficial vessels was also performed using multidetector row helical computed tomography. The imaging findings were also verified during the subsequent reconstructive surgery. A clear demarcation of the skin, dartos fascia, Buck's fascia, corpora cavernosa, corpus spongiosum, and the intraglanular planes were seen with the course of the blood vessels. The penile dartos received axial pattern vessels from the external pudendal vessels, with collateral branches from the dorsal penile artery as transverse branches at the shaft of the penis and preputial branches at the coronal sulcus. Buck's fascia sleeved the corpora cavernosa, enveloped the neurovascular bundle, and fused with the corpus spongiosum without crossing the midline. Intraglanular extension of Buck's fascia separated the intraglanular vascular arcade from the tip of the corpora. Parallel to the ventral midline, axial pattern vessels to the skin-dartos complex are present, with an additional supply to the prepuce from the terminal penile arteries. These findings can be used for designing the skin coverage. The subfascial plane between the tip of the corpora and the intraglanular vascular arcade and the plane of cleavage between the cavernosa-spongiosum interface can be used for efficient corporal urethral separation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Preoperative assessment of renal vascular anatomy for donor nephrectomy: Is CT superior to MRI?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvin-Berod, A; Bricault, I; Terrier, N; Skowron, O; Cadi, P; Boillot, B; Thuillier, C; Cluze, C; Descotes, J-L; Rambeaud, J-J; Long, J-A

    2011-01-01

    computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are both used in the preoperative assessment of vascular anatomy before donor nephrectomy. Our objective was to determine retrospectively and to compare the sensitivity of CTA and MRA imaging in preoperative renal vascularisation in living kidney donors. between 1999 and 2007, 42 kidney donors were assessed in our center: 27 by MRA, 10 by CTA, and five by both techniques. Images were interpreted using multiplanar reconstructions. Results were compared retrospectively with peroperative findings; discordant cases were re-examined by an experienced radiologist. Numbers of vessels detected with imaging methods was compared with numbers actually found at the operating time. MRA showed 35/43 arteries (Se 81.4 %) and 33/34 veins (Se 97.1 %), and CTA showed 18/18 arteries (Se 100 %) and 15/16 veins (Se 93.8 %). The presence of multiple arteries was detected in only one third of cases (3/9) on MRI scans; this difference was statistically significant. The missed arteries were not detected on second examination of the MRI scans with the knowledge of peroperative findings. MRA is less sensitive than CTA for preoperative vascularisation imaging in living renal donors, especially in the detection of multiple renal arteries. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Multidetector computed tomography for preoperative evaluation of vascular anatomy in living renal donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Akinci, Serkan; Yildiz, Sener; Olçer, Tülay; Cumhur, Turhan

    2009-04-01

    Currently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a noninvasive alternative imaging modality to catheter renal angiography for the evaluation of renal vascular anatomy in living renal donors. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic accuracy of 16-slice MDCT in the preoperative assessment of living renal donors. Fifty-nine consecutive living renal donors (32 men, 27 women) underwent MDCT angiography followed by open donor nephrectomy. All MDCT studies were performed by using a 16-slice MDCT scanner with the same protocol consisting of arterial and nephrographic phases followed by conventional abdominal radiography. The MDCT images were assessed retrospectively for the number and branching pattern of the renal arteries and for the number and presence of major or minor variants of the renal veins. The results were compared with open surgical results. The sensitivity and specificity of MDCT for the detection of anatomic variants of renal arteries including the accessory arteries (n = 9), early arterial branching (n = 7) and major renal venous anomalies including the accessory renal veins (n = 3), late venous confluence (n = 4), circumaortic (n = 2) or retroaortic (n = 3) left renal veins were 100%. However, the sensitivity for identification of minor venous variants was 79%. All of three ureteral duplications were correctly identified at excretory phase conventional abdominal radiography. Sixteen-slice MDCT is highly accurate for the identification of anatomic variants of renal arteries and veins. Dual-phase MDCT angiography including arterial and nephrographic phases followed by conventional abdominal radiography enables complete assessment of renal donors without significant increase of radiation dose. However, the evaluation of minor venous variants may be problematic because of their small diameters and poor opacification.

  5. Vascular density of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma determined by direct observation of resected specimen using narrow band imaging with magnifying endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, D; Iizuka, T; Hoteya, S; Nomura, K; Kuribayashi, Y; Toba, T; Tanaka, M; Yamashita, S; Furuhata, T; Matsui, A; Mitani, T; Inoshita, N; Kaise, M

    2017-11-01

    Observation of the microvasculature using narrow band imaging (NBI) with magnifying endoscopy is useful for diagnosing superficial squamous cell carcinoma. Increased vascular density is indicative of cancer, but not many studies have reported differences between cancerous and noncancerous areas based on an objective comparison. We observed specimens of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using NBI magnification, and determined the vascular density of cancerous and noncancerous areas. A total of 25 lesions of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma that were dissected en bloc by ESD between July 2013 and December 2013 were subjected to NBI magnification. We constructed a device that holds an endoscope and precisely controls the movement along the vertical axis in order to observe submerged specimens by NBI magnification. NBI image files of both cancerous (pathologically determined invasion depth, m1/2) and surrounding noncancerous areas were created and subjected to vascular density assessment by two endoscopists who were blinded to clinical information. The invasion depth was m1/2 in 20, m3/sm1 in four and sm2 in one esophageal cancer lesion. Mean vascular density was significantly increased in cancerous areas (37.6 ± 16.3 vessels/mm2) compared with noncancerous areas (17.6 ± 10.0 vessels/mm2) (P squamous cell carcinoma. The rates of agreement between vascular density values determined by two independent operators were high. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Terpene Profile, Leaf Anatomy, and Enzyme Activity of Resistant and Susceptible Cocoa Clonesto Vascular Streak Dieback Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (VSD, Oncobasidium theobromae is the most prevalent disease of Theobroma cacao L. in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze resistance mechanism to VSD based on terpene profile, leaf anatomy, chitinase, and peroxidase study. Resistant clones of Sulawesi 1 and Sca 6 and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used for terpene profile, leaf anatomy analysis, chitinase, peroxides, polyphenol, lignin, and cellulose analysis. Those clones and KEE 2, KKM 22 and ICS 13 were used for peroxides analysis. For trichome study, the resistant clones of Sulawesi 1, Sca 6, KEE 2, and KKM 22, and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used. GCMS analysis showed that chromatogram pattern of resistant and susceptible groups were quite similar, but resistant clones contained 22% more components than the susceptible ones. Resistant clones contained groups of pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, while those substances on usceptible clones were absent. Trichome was thicker on younger leaf, and its density on the basal was higher than that on the middle and tip leaf parts. Trichome density of resistant clone was not always thicker than that of susceptible ones. On resistant clones, stomatal density was lower and width of stomate pits was narrower, while thickness of epidermis layer and pallisade parenchym were higher. Polyphenol content of resistant clones were higher but lignin and cellulose of both groups were similar. Chitinase activity which has a role in hydrolysis of mycelia cell wall was higher on the resistant clones, but peroxides which has a role in polymeration of lignin biosynthesis was similar between both groups. It is concluded that groups of terpene pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, thickness of leaf epidermis, density and width of stomata pit, and chitinase activity plays important role in cocoa resistance to VSD. Key words: Theobroma cacaoL., clone, vascular-streak dieback, resistance, leaf

  7. Intraoperative vascular anatomy, arterial blood flow velocity, and microcirculation in unilateral and bilateral cleft lip repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, A.A.; Schumann, D.; Reddy, R.R.; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, K.; Mueller-Gerbl, M.; Zeilhofer, H.F.; Sailer, H.F.; Reddy, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cleft lip repair aims to normalize the disturbed anatomy and function. The authors determined whether normalization of blood circulation is achieved. METHODS: The authors measured the microcirculatory flow, oxygen saturation, and hemoglobin level in the lip and nose of controls (n = 22)

  8. Nasal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  9. Sinus Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  10. Feasibility and Safety of Vascular Closure Devices in an Antegrade Approach to Either the Common Femoral Artery or the Superficial Femoral Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Schie, Bram van; Schoch, Eric; Hergan, Klaus; Graf, Nicole; Binkert, Christoph A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to analyze complications following antegrade puncture of the common femoral artery (CFA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using vascular closure systems (VCS). Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was performed after obtaining approval from the institutional review board and informed consent from all patients. At our center, the CFA or SFA are used for arterial access. All patients were evaluated clinically on the same day. If there was any suspicion of an access site problem, Duplex ultrasound was performed. Results: Access location was the CFA in 50 patients and the SFA in 130 patients. The sheath size ranged from 4F to 10F. Two patients had to be excluded because of lack of follow-up. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 162 of 178 cases (91 %). The following complications were observed in 16 patients (8.9 %): 4 pseudoaneurysms (2.2 %), 11 hematomas (6.2 %), and 1 vascular occlusion (0.5 %). The two pseudoaneurysms healed spontaneously, in one case an ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was performed, and one aneurysm was compressed manually. No further medical therapy was needed for the hematomas. The one vascular occlusion was treated immediately with angioplasty using a contralateral approach. No significant difference was noted between the CFA and the SFA group with respect to complications (p = 1.000). Conclusions: The use of closure devices for an antegrade approach up to 10F is feasible and safe. No differences in low complication rates were observed between CFA and SFA.

  11. Superficial temporal artery calcification in patients with end-stage renal disease: Association with vascular risk factors and ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Zeeshan; Zan, Elcin; Carone, Marco; Ozturk, Arzu; Sozio, Stephen M; Yousem, David M

    2011-01-01

    Extracranial superficial temporal artery (STA) calcification is an unusual finding seen in patients with chronic kidney disease and has unknown ramifications with respect to intracranial ischemic disease. We sought to determine the association between the risk factors for vascular calcification and this rare phenomenon, in patients with chronic renal failure, and to assess the coexistence of cerebral ischemia. Medical records and laboratory data on risk factors for vascular calcification were retrospectively retrieved for 453 patients with a discharge diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). CT head examinations were reviewed to identify and associate STA calcification with 1) risk factors for the vascular calcification, 2) intracranial artery calcification, and 3) cerebral ischemia (white matter and/or cortical ischemic changes). STA calcification was present in 9.9% (45/453) of the studied cohort. The prevalence of cerebral ischemia was 24.4% (11/45) in patients with STA calcification and 9.3% (38/408) in patients without it. Diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.059-6.208; P=0.037) was independently associated with the risk of STA calcification. The risk of cerebral ischemia, however, was not related to STA calcification (P=0.221). The presence of diabetes mellitus is important in describing the risk of STA calcification in patients with ESRD, whereas age, gender, hypertension, serum calcium, serum phosphate, or serum hemoglobin levels are not. The risk of cerebral ischemia is not related to STA calcification but has the strongest association with diabetes mellitus

  12. Feasibility and Safety of Vascular Closure Devices in an Antegrade Approach to Either the Common Femoral Artery or the Superficial Femoral Artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.gutzeit@ksw.ch; Schie, Bram van, E-mail: Bram.vanschie@hotmail.com; Schoch, Eric, E-mail: eric.schoch@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland); Hergan, Klaus, E-mail: k.hergan@salk.at [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology (Austria); Graf, Nicole, E-mail: graf@biostatistics.ch; Binkert, Christoph A., E-mail: christoph.binkert@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to analyze complications following antegrade puncture of the common femoral artery (CFA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using vascular closure systems (VCS). Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was performed after obtaining approval from the institutional review board and informed consent from all patients. At our center, the CFA or SFA are used for arterial access. All patients were evaluated clinically on the same day. If there was any suspicion of an access site problem, Duplex ultrasound was performed. Results: Access location was the CFA in 50 patients and the SFA in 130 patients. The sheath size ranged from 4F to 10F. Two patients had to be excluded because of lack of follow-up. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 162 of 178 cases (91 %). The following complications were observed in 16 patients (8.9 %): 4 pseudoaneurysms (2.2 %), 11 hematomas (6.2 %), and 1 vascular occlusion (0.5 %). The two pseudoaneurysms healed spontaneously, in one case an ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was performed, and one aneurysm was compressed manually. No further medical therapy was needed for the hematomas. The one vascular occlusion was treated immediately with angioplasty using a contralateral approach. No significant difference was noted between the CFA and the SFA group with respect to complications (p = 1.000). Conclusions: The use of closure devices for an antegrade approach up to 10F is feasible and safe. No differences in low complication rates were observed between CFA and SFA.

  13. Gradient changes in porcine renal arterial vascular anatomy and blood flow after cryoablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, B.W.; Horssen, van P.; Laguna, M.P.; Wijngaard, van den J.P.H.M.; Siebes, M.; Wijkstra, H.; Rosette, de la J.J.M.C.H.; Spaan, J.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We quantified temporal changes in vascular structure and blood flow after cryosurgery of the porcine kidney in vivo. Materials and Methods We studied 5 groups of 4 kidneys each with a survival time of 20 minutes, 4 hours, 2 days, and 1 and 2 weeks after cryoablation, respectively. Before

  14. Gradient changes in porcine renal arterial vascular anatomy and blood flow after cryoablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, Brunolf W.; van Horssen, Pepijn; Laguna, M. Pilar; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Siebes, Maria; Wijkstra, Hessel; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Spaan, Jos A. E.

    2011-01-01

    We quantified temporal changes in vascular structure and blood flow after cryosurgery of the porcine kidney in vivo. We studied 5 groups of 4 kidneys each with a survival time of 20 minutes, 4 hours, 2 days, and 1 and 2 weeks after cryoablation, respectively. Before harvesting the kidneys,

  15. Prospective study comparing three-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating the renal vascular anatomy in potential living renal donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Aftab A; Chugtai, Aamir; Haslam, Philip; Talbot, David; Rix, David A; Soomro, Naeem A

    2005-11-01

    To prospectively compare the accuracy of multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in evaluating the renal vascular anatomy in potential living renal donors. Thirty-one donors underwent multislice spiral CTA and gadolinium-enhanced MRA. In addition to axial images, multiplanar reconstruction and maximum intensity projections were used to display the renal vascular anatomy. Twenty-four donors had a left laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN), whereas seven had right open donor nephrectomy (ODN); LDN was only considered if the renal vascular anatomy was favourable on the left. CTA and MRA images were analysed by two radiologists independently. The radiological and surgical findings were correlated after the surgery. CTA showed 33 arteries and 32 veins (100% sensitivity) whereas MRA showed 32 arteries and 31 veins (97% sensitivity). CTA detected all five accessory renal arteries whereas MRA only detected one. CTA also identified all three accessory renal veins whereas MRA identified two. CTA had a sensitivity of 97% and 47% for left lumbar and left gonadal veins, whereas MRA had a sensitivity of 74% and 46%, respectively. Multislice spiral CTA with three-dimensional reconstruction was more accurate than MRA for both renal arterial and venous anatomy.

  16. Vascular Anatomy of Kiwi Fruit and its Implications for the origin of carpels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Min eGuo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kiwi fruit is of great agricultural, botanical, and economic interest. The flower of kiwi fruit has axile placentation, which is typical for Actinidiaceae. Axile placentation is thought derived through fusion of conduplicate carpels with marginal placentation according to the traditional doctrine. Recent progress in angiosperm systematics has refuted this traditional doctrine and placed ANITA clade rather than Magnoliaceae as the basalmost clade. However, the former traditional doctrine stays in the classrooms as the only teachable theory for the origin of carpels. To test the validity of this doctrine, we performed anatomical study on kiwi fruit. Our study indicates that the placenta has a vascular system independent of that of the ovary wall, the ovules/seeds are attached to the placenta that is a continuation of floral axis enclosed by the lateral appendages that constitute the ovary wall, and there are some amphicribral bundles in the center of placenta and numerous amphicribral bundles supplying ovules/seeds in kiwi fruit. The amphicribral vascular bundles supplying the ovules/seeds are comparable to those usually seen in branches, but not comparable to those seen in leaves or their derivatives. This comparison indicates that the placenta in kiwi fruit cannot be derived from the fusion of collateral ventral bundles of conduplicate carpels, as suggested by traditional doctrine. Instead the vascular organization in placenta of kiwi suggests that the placenta is a shoot apex bearing ovules/seeds laterally. This conclusion is in line with the recently raised Unifying Theory, in which the placenta is taken as an ovule-bearing branch independent of the ovary wall (carpel in strict sense. Similar vascular organization in placenta has been seen in numerous isolated taxa besides kiwi fruit. Therefore whether such a pattern is applicable for other angiosperms is an interesting question awaiting answering.

  17. Gynoecium morphology and vascular anatomy in Gladiolus ×hybridus C. Morren hort. (Iridaceae Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christyna I. Skrypec

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gynoecium of Gladiolus ×hybridusC. Morren hort. is eusyncarpous, with synascidiate, symlicate, hemisymlicate and asymplicate vertical zones. Ovules lie in the symlicate and hemisymlicate zones, style and stigma composed of asymplicate zone. Septal nectary is placed in the upper part of symlicate zone and in the hemisymlicate zone. Carpel trace is three-bundled. Dorsal carpel bundles are integrated with the vascular strands of perianth and androecium.

  18. Vascular anatomy of the medial sural artery perforator flap: a new classification system of intra-muscular branching patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusseldorp, Joseph R; Pham, Quy J; Ngo, Quan; Gianoutsos, Mark; Moradi, Pouria

    2014-09-01

    The medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap is a versatile fasciocutaneous flap. The main difficulty encountered when raising the MSAP flap is in obtaining adequate pedicle length during intra-muscular dissection. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of intra-muscular course of the MSAP flap pedicle. 14 cadaveric specimens were dissected and CT angiograms of 84 legs were examined. The intra-muscular branching pattern and depths of the medial sural artery branches were analyzed. The number of perforators, position of the dominant perforator and both intra-muscular and total pedicle length were also recorded and compared to existing anatomical data. Three types of arterial branching pattern were identified within the medial gastrocnemius, demonstrating one (31%), two (59%) or three or more (10%) main branches. A dominant perforator from the medial sural artery was present in 92% of anatomical specimens (13/14). Vertically, the location of the perforator from the popliteal crease was on average 13 cm (±2 cm). Transversely, the perforator originated 2.5 cm (±1 cm) from the posterior midline. Using CT angiography it was possible in 10 consecutive patients to identify a more superficial intra-muscular branch and determine the leg with the optimal branching pattern type for flap harvest. This study is the first to describe the variability of the intra-muscular arterial anatomy of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle. Surgeons utilizing the MSAP flap option should be aware of the possible branching pattern types and consequently the differing perforator distribution and depths of intra-muscular branches. Routine use of pre-operative CT angiogram may help determine which leg has the most favorable branching pattern type and intra-muscular course for flap harvest. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional anatomy of the footpad vasculature of dogs: scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Akiyama, Emi; Simazaki, Kanae; Oguri, Atsuko; Jitsumoto, Momoko; Fukuyama, Takaaki

    2011-12-01

    Dogs are well adapted to cold climates and they can stand, walk and run on snow and ice for long periods of time. In contrast to the body trunk, which has, dense fur, the paws are more exposed to the cold due to the lack of fur insulation. The extremities have a high surface area-to-volume ratio, so they lose heat very easily. We offer anatomical evidence for a heat-conserving structure associated with dog footpad vasculature. Methylmethacrylate vascular corrosion casts for scanning electron microscopy, Indian ink-injected whole-mount and histological specimens were each prepared, in a series of 16 limbs from four adult dogs. Vascular casts and Indian ink studies showed that abundant venules were arranged around the arteries supplying the pad surface and formed a vein-artery-vein triad, with the peri-arterial venous network intimately related to the arteries. In addition, numerous arteriovenous anastomoses and well-developed venous plexuses were found throughout the dermal vasculature. The triad forms a counter-current heat exchanger. When the footpad is exposed to a cold environment, the counter-current heat exchanger serves to prevent heat loss by recirculating heat back to the body core. Furthermore, the arteriovenous anastomoses shift blood flow, draining blood to the skin surface, and the venous plexuses retain warm blood in the pad surface. Hence, the appropriate temperature for the footpad can be maintained in cold environments. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2011 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Preoperative assessment of vascular anatomy by multidetector computed tomography before laparoscopic colectomy for transverse colon cancer: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Aya; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Okigami, Masato; Yasuda, Hiromi; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-02-01

    Although the safety of laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer has been reported in many randomized controlled trials, concerns about the difficulty of surgery for transverse colon cancer has not been fully resolved, mainly because of the variation in the vascular anatomy of mesenteric vessels, which leads to difficulty in determining the optimal operative procedure and the extent of lymph node dissection. We present the case of a patient with transverse colon cancer who underwent laparoscopic surgery after preoperative assessment using a combination of endoscopic clipping and three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3DCTA). A 68-year-old man was diagnosed with transverse colon cancer, and laparoscopic surgery has been planned. 3DCTA showed right-middle and left-middle colic arteries arising independently from the superior mesenteric artery. The relationship between the clip and vessels showed that the right-middle colic artery was the feeding artery of the tumor. Operative findings were consistent with 3DCTA findings, and transverse colectomy with lymph node dissection was successfully performed.

  1. Anatomy and arterial vascularization of female genital system of margay (Leopardus weidii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Braga Soares Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The margay (Leopardus wiedii belongs to Carnivora order and present’s nocturnal habits. There are few studies using this specie, whereas it is between feline species vulnerable to extinction. Thus, we propose a descriptive study about female genital system and behavior of the arteries responsible for the blood supply to these organs in margay. It used one exemplary victim of poaching that to death. The animal was stored in freezer. Subsequent to defrost at room temperature, it proceeded with the solution injection Leoprene Latex ‘650’ colored in red for better identification of vessels before the adjacent strutures. The specimen was fixed using an aqueous 10% formaldehyde with subsequent immersion in the same fixative solution. The genital system were dissected and the organs and arterial branches were identified and photodocumented. The female genital system of margay consists of a pair of ovaries, uterus with a pair of uterine horns, vagina and vulva. The arterial distribution of female system have a common vessel to iliac artery which branches and leads to internal pudendal artery sends a branch along the pudendal nerve pathway, urogenital artery. This, we performed divided into two branches, cranial and caudal. The cranial branch irrigates laterally cervix and uterine horns and caudal branch, vagina and vulva. The ovarian arteries, peers, originate from abdominal aorta only vascularization the ovaries. The female genital system and vascularization of the genitals organs of margay resembles of domestic carnivores including cats and some wild felines like the ocelot and find differences with the same description held in other domestic and wild species.

  2. Gradient changes in porcine renal arterial vascular anatomy and blood flow after cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerveld, Brunolf W; van Horssen, Pepijn; Laguna, M Pilar; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M; Siebes, Maria; Wijkstra, Hessel; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Spaan, Jos A E

    2011-08-01

    We quantified temporal changes in vascular structure and blood flow after cryosurgery of the porcine kidney in vivo. We studied 5 groups of 4 kidneys each with a survival time of 20 minutes, 4 hours, 2 days, and 1 and 2 weeks after cryoablation, respectively. Before harvesting the kidneys, fluorescently labeled microspheres were administrated in the descending aorta. After harvest the kidney and its vasculature were casted with fluorescently dyed elastomer, frozen and processed in an imaging cryomicrotome to reveal the 3-dimensional arterial branching structure and microsphere distribution. In regions of interest vessels were segmented by image analysis software and histograms were constructed to reveal the total summed vessel length as a function of diameter. A characteristic diameter of the ablated area was measured. The 20-minute survival group histograms showed a significant shift of the peak to larger diameters (p<0.002), indicating that smaller vessels were destroyed. Microsphere density was decreased to 2% in the ablated region but not in the nonablated border zone, depending on the remaining crater crossing larger vessels. After 2 weeks neither vessels nor microspheres were left in the ablated area, which had shrunk by about 40% in diameter. Study limitations are the lack of histological confirmation and the use of normal rather than cancerous tissue. Larger vessels remain patent just after ablation and transport blood to the border of the ablation crater but perfusion within the crater is halted instantly. Characteristic crater diameter increases initially but decreases thereafter. Destruction of vessels and tissue is complete 2 weeks after cryoablation. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Surgical anatomy of the supracarinal esophagus based on a minimally invasive approach : vascular and nervous anatomy and technical steps to resection and lymphadenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuesta, Miguel A; van der Wielen, Nicole; Weijs, Teus J; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; van Duijvendijk, Peter; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Straatman, Jennifer; Osugi, Harushi; van der Peet, Donald L

    BACKGROUND: During esophageal dissection and lymphadenectomy of the upper mediastinum by thoracoscopy in prone position, we observed a complex anatomy in which we had to resect the esophagus, dissect vessels and nerves, and take down some of these in order to perform a complete lymphadenectomy. In

  4. Vascular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Vascular Disorders Email to a friend * required fields ...

  5. Mapping of nodal disease in locally advanced prostate cancer: Rethinking the clinical target volume for pelvic nodal irradiation based on vascular rather than bony anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Helen A.; Harisinghani, Mukesh; Zietman, Anthony L.; Wolfgang, John A.; Saksena, Mansi; Weissleder, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Toxicity from pelvic irradiation could be reduced if fields were limited to likely areas of nodal involvement rather than using the standard 'four-field box.' We employed a novel magnetic resonance lymphangiographic technique to highlight the likely sites of occult nodal metastasis from prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighteen prostate cancer patients with pathologically confirmed node-positive disease had a total of 69 pathologic nodes identifiable by lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced MRI and semiquantitative nodal analysis. Fourteen of these nodes were in the para-aortic region, and 55 were in the pelvis. The position of each of these malignant nodes was mapped to a common template based on its relation to skeletal or vascular anatomy. Results: Relative to skeletal anatomy, nodes covered a diffuse volume from the mid lumbar spine to the superior pubic ramus and along the sacrum and pelvic side walls. In contrast, the nodal metastases mapped much more tightly relative to the large pelvic vessels. A proposed pelvic clinical target volume to encompass the region at greatest risk of containing occult nodal metastases would include a 2.0-cm radial expansion volume around the distal common iliac and proximal external and internal iliac vessels that would encompass 94.5% of the pelvic nodes at risk as defined by our node-positive prostate cancer patient cohort. Conclusions: Nodal metastases from prostate cancer are largely localized along the major pelvic vasculature. Defining nodal radiation treatment portals based on vascular rather than bony anatomy may allow for a significant decrease in normal pelvic tissue irradiation and its associated toxicities

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of a volume-rendered computed tomography movie and other computed tomography-based imaging methods in assessment of renal vascular anatomy for laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shingo; Tanooka, Masao; Ando, Kumiko; Yamano, Toshiko; Ishikura, Reiichi; Nojima, Michio; Hirota, Shozo; Shima, Hiroki

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT)-based imaging methods for assessing renal vascular anatomy, imaging studies, including standard axial CT, three-dimensional volume-rendered CT (3DVR-CT), and a 3DVR-CT movie, were performed on 30 patients who underwent laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (10 right side, 20 left side) for predicting the location of the renal arteries and renal, adrenal, gonadal, and lumbar veins. These findings were compared with videos obtained during the operation. Two of 37 renal arteries observed intraoperatively were missed by standard axial CT and 3DVR-CT, whereas all arteries were identified by the 3DVR-CT movie. Two of 36 renal veins were missed by standard axial CT and 3DVR-CT, whereas 1 was missed by the 3DVR-CT movie. In 20 left renal hilar anatomical structures, 20 adrenal, 20 gonadal, and 22 lumbar veins were observed during the operation. Preoperatively, the standard axial CT, 3DVR-CT, and 3DVR-CT movie detected 11, 19, and 20 adrenal veins; 13, 14, and 19 gonadal veins; and 6, 11, and 15 lumbar veins, respectively. Overall, of 135 renal vascular structures, the standard axial CT, 3DVR-CT, and 3DVR-CT movie accurately detected 99 (73.3%), 113 (83.7%), and 126 (93.3%) vessels, respectively, which indicated that the 3DVR-CT movie demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate than other CT-based imaging methods (P renal vascular anatomy before laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

  7. Small animal magnetic resonance imaging: an efficient tool to assess liver volume and intrahepatic vascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloul, Emmanuel; Raptis, Dimitri A; Boss, Andreas; Pfammater, Thomas; Tschuor, Christoph; Tian, Yinghua; Graf, Rolf; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Lesurtel, Mickael

    2014-04-01

    To develop a noninvasive technique to assess liver volumetry and intrahepatic portal vein anatomy in a mouse model of liver regeneration. Fifty-two C57BL/6 male mice underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver using a 4.7 T small animal MRI system after no treatment, 70% partial hepatectomy (PH), or selective portal vein embolization. The protocol consisted of the following sequences: three-dimensional-encoded spoiled gradient-echo sequence (repetition time per echo time 15 per 2.7 ms, flip angle 20°) for volumetry, and two-dimensional-encoded time-of-flight angiography sequence (repetition time per echo time 18 per 6.4 ms, flip angle 80°) for vessel visualization. Liver volume and portal vein segmentation was performed using a dedicated postprocessing software. In animals with portal vein embolization, portography served as reference standard. True liver volume was measured after sacrificing the animals. Measurements were carried out by two independent observers with subsequent analysis by the Cohen κ-test for interobserver agreement. MRI liver volumetry highly correlated with the true liver volume measurement using a conventional method in both the untreated liver and the liver remnant after 70% PH with a high interobserver correlation coefficient of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.98 for untreated liver [P anatomy was excellent (Cohen κ value = 0.925). This protocol may be used for noninvasive liver volumetry and visualization of portal vein anatomy in mice. It will serve the dynamic study of new strategies to enhance liver regeneration in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HIGH ORIGIN OF SUPERFICIAL ULNAR ARTERY- A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Jayakumaran Nair

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND High origin and superficially placed ulnar artery is a rare anatomical variant that usually arises either in the axilla or arm and runs a superficial course in the forearm, enters the hand and participates in the formation of superficial palmar arch. During routine dissection of cadavers in our department, we observed a unilateral case of high origin and superficial ulnar artery in a human male cadaver. It originated from the brachial artery in the lower third of arm 4 cm above its bifurcation. From its origin, it passed downwards along the medial aspect of forearm, superficial to the flexors, entered hand superficial to the flexor retinaculum and formed superficial palmar arch. The knowledge of existence of a superficial ulnar artery is important during vascular and reconstructive surgery and also in evaluation of angiographic images. Superficial position makes it more vulnerable to trauma and more accessible to cannulation.

  9. Long-term evolution of superficial optic disc drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Malmqvist; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Hamann, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    with hereditary ODD were included. Results: Mean age at initial and follow-up examination was, respectively, 16.8 and 73.3 years. The median follow-up time was 56 years. A minimal or non-existing change in superficial ODD anatomy (size and number) was seen in 10 of 12 eyes. There was a tendency towards more......Purpose: Optic disc drusen (ODD) is hyaline deposits in the optic nerve head seen in 1-2% of the population. Long-term evolution of ODD anatomy and visual field defects in ODD patients is a key factor for learning more about pathophysiology and prognosis of the condition. With a median follow......-up period of 56 years, this is the first study that evaluates superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in patients with ODD over a life span. Methods: Observational case series investigating progression of superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in ODD patients. Eight patients...

  10. Spatial presaturation: Method for suppressing flow artifacts and improving depiction of vascular anatomy in clinical MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmlee, J.P.; Ehman, R.; Julsrud, P.; Gray, J.

    1987-01-01

    MR images are often degraded by flow artifacts that obscure anatomic details and reduce contrast. Vascular structures are frequently depicted poorly because flow voids are obliterated by spurious intraluminal signals. This exhibit presents an analysis of the physical mechanisms of flow artifact formation and describes a presaturation technique for suppressing such artifacts. The technique incorporates additional spectrally shaped radio frequency pulses into standard imaging sequences. It has proved effective for reducing flow artifacts in experimental and clinical imaging studies. The technique is particularly helpful for high-resolution surface coil examinations of the neck, mediastinal imaging, and gated cardiac imaging, and for detecting thrombus and other intravastcular pathology

  11. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  12. Vulva Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  13. Pharynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  14. Chimeric superficial temporal artery based skin and temporal fascia flap plus temporalis muscle flap - An alternative to free flap for suprastructure maxillectomy with external skin defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Jaiswal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flaps from temporal region have been used for mid face, orbital and peri-orbital reconstruction. The knowledge of the vascular anatomy of the region helps to dissect and harvest the muscle/fascia/skin/combined tissue flaps from that region depending upon the requirement. Suprastructure maxillectomy defects are usually covered with free flaps to fill the cavity. Here we report an innovative idea in which a patient with a supra structure maxillectomy with external skin defect was covered with chimeric flap based on the parietal and frontal branches of superficial temporal artery and the temporalis muscle flap based on deep temporal artery.

  15. The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuan-Xiang; Pan, Wei-Ren; Liu, Zhi-An; Zeng, Fan-Qiang; Qiu, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-04-03

    The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand still remains the least described in medical literature. Eight hands were harvested from four nonembalmed human cadavers amputated above the wrist. A small amount of 6% hydrogen peroxide was employed to detect the lymphatic vessels around the superficial and deep palmar vascular arches, in webs from the index to little fingers, the thenar and hypothenar areas. A 30-gauge needle was inserted into the vessels and injected with a barium sulphate compound. Each specimen was dissected, photographed and radiographed to demonstrate deep lymphatic distribution of the hand. Five groups of deep collecting lymph vessels were found in the hand: superficial palmar arch lymph vessel (SPALV); deep palmar arch lymph vessel (DPALV); thenar lymph vessel (TLV); hypothenar lymph vessel (HTLV); deep finger web lymph vessel (DFWLV). Each group of vessels drained in different directions first, then all turned and ran towards the wrist in different layers. The deep lymphatic drainage of the hand has been presented. The results will provide an anatomical basis for clinical management, educational reference and scientific research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  17. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  18. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  19. Superficial skin ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaila, Modupeola O.; Rafindadi, Abdulmumini H.; Oluwole, Olabode P.; Adewuyi, Sunday A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the underlying cause of superficial skin ulcers over a 15-year period. A retrospective histopathological analysis of 670 cases of superficial skin ulcers diagnosed in the Dept. of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria from January 1991 to December 2005. A total of 670 superficial skin ulcers were analyzed. The mail to female gender ratio was 409:261(1.5:1.0) and a peakage frequency of 44.3 %( 297) in the 5th and 6th decades. Spectrum of lesions encountered was categorized into inflammatory, infections, benign and malignant diseases. The malignant lesions were 309 (46.1%), non-specific inflammation 302 (45.1%), granulation tissue 25 (3.7%) and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia 14 (2.1%). A total of 18(2.7%) specific infections were encountered, which included bacterial, fungal and viral infection. Benign lesions were 2(0.3%), comprising of neurofibroma and Bowen's disease. The most common malignant lesion was squamous cell carcinoma 203 (30.3%) with a male to female ratio of 128:75 (1.7:1.0). Of these 161 were well differentiated tumors. The lower limb was the prevalent site distribution of all the ulcers. Superficial ulcers may be harbinger of malignant diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma remains the most common malignant lesion arising from chronic superficial ulcers from our setting. Adequate tissue biopsy and early diagnosis may reduce the attendant morbidity of these ulcers. (author)

  20. Superficies de segundo orden

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Salazar, Luis Álvaro

    1987-01-01

    Este trabajo se propone poner al alcance de estudiantes de primeros semestres de carreras de aplicación de la matemática, un algoritmo proporcionado por el álgebra lineal, para tratar con mas generalidad, agilidad y libertad unos objetos de la geometría analítica de no fácil manipulación por otros métodos y que se conocen como superficies de segundo orden o superficies cuádricas. En este orden de ideas, el autor considera importante que con este tratamiento se incluya este tema en una asignat...

  1. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.

  2. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  3. A critical appraisal of 11th century treatise by Ibn Sina (Avicenna) on the anatomy of the vascular system: Comparison with modern anatomic descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengenya, P; Bhikha, R

    2018-06-01

    Ibn Sina (also known as Avicenna in the West) was the most famous physician and medical scientist of the medieval era. His book, the Canon of Medicine comprised a vast collection of medical information ranging from basic medical sciences to specialised medical fields. Herein, we present an analysis of the cardiovascular system, particularly giving an in-depth comparison of the structural and functional anatomy of the arteries and veins of the body as described by Avicenna in the Canon of Medicine and comparing them to modern extant anatomical literature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  5. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  6. Visual Enhancement of Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy With 3-Charge Coupled Device Camera: Assessing Intraoperative Tissue Perfusion and Vascular Anatomy by Visible Hemoglobin Spectral Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    reliably distinguish vascular structures during hilar dissection, and detect and monitor changes in renal tissue perfus:ion dw·ing and after warm...and in 25 patients with hilar tu- mors 16 in whom perioperative outcomes were com- parable to those of peripheral tumors. In a retro- spective study...Richstone et al also reported the safe performance of LPN for hilar tumors in 17 patients.17 Repeat partial nephrectomy for ipsilat- eral tumor has

  7. The anatomy workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen-Ansert, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an atlas of human anatomy presented in the form of line drawings, many of which correspond to imaging planes used in ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR). The book is organized into 17 sections, each covering a specific structure or organ system. Large, uncluttered drawings are labeled for identification of structures of interest. Many illustrations include captions consisting of comments explaining major divisions within organs, specific anatomic relationships and landmarks, and pertinent vascular anatomy. Most organs are first depicted in isolation or in relation to important adjacent organs or blood vessels and are rendered as if viewed from anterior, posterior, inferior, or superior perspectives. The organs are demonstrated again in serial transverse, saggital, and coronal sections, each accompanied by a drawing of a body in anatomic position denoting the plane of the section

  8. Facial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  10. Characterization of a porcine model of chronic superficial varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory T; Grant, Mark W; Thomson, Ian A; Hill, B Geraldine; van Rij, André M

    2009-06-01

    Previous animal models of venous disease, while inducing venous hypertension and valvular insufficiency, do not produce superficial varicose veins. In this study, we aimed to develop and characterize a pig-based model of superficial varicose veins. Right femoral arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) were surgically fashioned in young adult pigs. Animals were examined at postoperative times up to 15 weeks to determine the development of varicose veins and measurement of both blood pressure and flow velocities within the superficial thigh veins. Histology and vascular corrosion casts were used to characterize the resulting structural venous alterations. Porcine pathophysiological features were compared with those of human primary superficial varicose veins. Gross superficial varicosities developed over the ipsilateral medial thigh region after an initial lag period of 1-2 weeks. Veins demonstrated retrograde filling with valvular incompetence, and a moderate, non-pulsatile, venous hypertension, which was altered by changes in posture and Valsalva. Venous blood flow velocities were elevated to 15-30 cm/s in varicose veins. Structurally, pig varicose veins were enlarged, tortuous, had valvular degeneration, and regions of focal medial atrophy with or without overlying intimal thickening. The superficial varicose veins, which developed within this model, have a pathophysiology that is consistent with that observed in humans. The porcine femoral AVF model is proposed as a suitable experimental model to evaluate the pathobiology of superficial venous disease. It may also be suitable for the evaluation of treatment interventions including drug therapy.

  11. Diagnosis of right-sided varicocele: A retrospective comparative study between clinical examination, Doppler findings, US imaging and vascular anatomy at phlebography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariati, Maurizio; Pieri, Stefano; Agresti, Paolo; Cariati, Massimiliano; Candito, Davide Fabio; Damiani, Giovanni; Marzano, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Historically varicocele is diagnosed almost exclusively on the left side. The introduction of new imaging techniques has allowed the identification and characterization of right varicocele. This study aims to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various imaging techniques to data obtained using phlebography in the diagnosis of right varicocele. Patients treated for isolated right varicocele between 1992 and 2010 were retrospectively identified. Data from clinical examination, Doppler-USS, Color-Doppler-USS and Retrograde Phlebography were collected for each patient. 133 out of 4305 patients (3.1%) presented with an isolated right varicocele. 34 of these patients (25.6%) presented with palpable right varicocele. Doppler-USS identified various degrees of type I right venous reflux in 90 patients (67.7%). Phlebography showed venous reflux in all the patients (133), although with variability in terms of internal spermatic vein anatomy. Right varicocele is characterized by predictable anatomic features. Identification and characterization of these features is useful in guiding percutaneous treatment, allowing to optimize radiological display and reducing failure rate

  12. Diagnosis of right-sided varicocele: A retrospective comparative study between clinical examination, Doppler findings, US imaging and vascular anatomy at phlebography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariati, Maurizio, E-mail: davide.candito@libero.it [U.O.C. Radiologia, A.O. San Carlo Borromeo, via Pio II 3, 20153 Milan (Italy); Pieri, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.pieri@scamilloforlanini.rm.it [U.O.C. Diagnostica per Immagini Cardioscienze, A.O. San Camillo - Forlanini, Piazza Carlo Forlanini 1, 00151 Rome (Italy); Agresti, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.agresti@scamilloforlanini.rm.it [U.O.C. Diagnostica per Immagini Cardioscienze, A.O. San Camillo - Forlanini, Piazza Carlo Forlanini 1, 00151 Rome (Italy); Cariati, Massimiliano, E-mail: massimiliano.cariati@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Academic Oncology, King' s College London, 3rd Floor Bermondsey Wing, Guy' s Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Candito, Davide Fabio, E-mail: davide.candito@yahoo.it [Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli studi di Milano, via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan (Italy); Damiani, Giovanni, E-mail: damiani_giovanni@libero.it [Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli studi di Milano, via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan (Italy); Marzano, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.marzano@scamilloforlanini.rm.it [U.O.C. Urologia, A.O. San Camillo - Forlanini, Piazza Carlo Forlanini 1, 00151 Rome (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Historically varicocele is diagnosed almost exclusively on the left side. The introduction of new imaging techniques has allowed the identification and characterization of right varicocele. This study aims to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various imaging techniques to data obtained using phlebography in the diagnosis of right varicocele. Patients treated for isolated right varicocele between 1992 and 2010 were retrospectively identified. Data from clinical examination, Doppler-USS, Color-Doppler-USS and Retrograde Phlebography were collected for each patient. 133 out of 4305 patients (3.1%) presented with an isolated right varicocele. 34 of these patients (25.6%) presented with palpable right varicocele. Doppler-USS identified various degrees of type I right venous reflux in 90 patients (67.7%). Phlebography showed venous reflux in all the patients (133), although with variability in terms of internal spermatic vein anatomy. Right varicocele is characterized by predictable anatomic features. Identification and characterization of these features is useful in guiding percutaneous treatment, allowing to optimize radiological display and reducing failure rate.

  13. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  14. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  15. Design and application of model for training ultrasound-guided vascular cannulation in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Quevedo, O; López-Álvarez, J M; Limiñana-Cañal, J M; Loro-Ferrer, J F

    2016-01-01

    Central vascular cannulation is not a risk-free procedure, especially in pediatric patients. Newborn and infants are small and low-weighted, their vascular structures have high mobility because of tissue laxity and their vessels are superficial and with small diameter. These characteristics, together with the natural anatomical variability and poor collaboration of small children, make this technique more difficult to apply. Therefore, ultrasound imaging is increasingly being used to locate vessels and guide vascular access in this population. (a) To present a model that simulates the vascular system for training ultrasound-guided vascular access in pediatrics patients; (b) to ultrasound-guided vascular cannulation in the model. The model consisted of two components: (a) muscular component: avian muscle, (b) vascular component: elastic tube-like structure filled with fluid. 864 ecoguided punctures was realized in the model at different vessel depth and gauge measures were simulated, for two medical operators with different degree of experience. The average depth and diameter of vessel cannulated were 1.16 (0.42)cm and 0.43 (0.1)cm, respectively. The average number of attempts was of 1.22 (0.62). The percentage of visualization of the needle was 74%. The most frequent maneuver used for the correct location, was the modification of the angle of the needle and the relocation of the guidewire in 24% of the cases. The average time for the correct cannulations was 41 (35.8)s. The more frequent complications were the vascular perforation (11.9%) and the correct vascular puncture without possibility of introducing the guidewire (1.2%). The rate of success was 96%. The model simulates the anatomy (vascular and muscular structures) of a pediatric patient. It is cheap models, easily reproducible and a useful tool for training in ultrasound-guided puncture and cannulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  16. Anatomia vascular das artérias renais natomia e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines, Pelomedusidae = Vascular anatomy of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines-Pelomedusidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líria Queiroz Luz Hirano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de enriquecer o conhecimento sobre a morfologia vascular das artérias renais e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis, facilitando o entendimento da fisiologia clínica e cirúrgica destes animais. Foram utilizados cincoexemplares machos de Podocnemis unifilis (tracajá, coletados segundo a Licença nº 066/2004- Ibama/RAM. A artéria carótida esquerda e a veia femoral direita foram canuladas e, pelas mesmas, foi introduzida solução fisiológica para lavagem do sistema vascular; em seguida,aplicou-se solução de Neoprene Látex “450” corada com pigmento específico (Globo S/A Tintas e Pigmentos. O material foi fixado em solução de Formol tamponado a 10% por um período mínimo de 96h. Uma abertura central e de formato quadrangular foi feita na metade caudal do plastrão e casco, de forma a expor os ramos da artéria aorta que irrigam os rins e as gônadas. Observou-se que as artérias renais se originam da face ventral da artéria aorta dorsal, em número de dois pares para cada rim e, em um único exemplar, elas originaram uma artéria renal direita e duas esquerdas. A artéria gonadal surgiu a partir da artéria renal, e apenas um par penetrou pela face dorsal de cada gônada.This work was developed with the aim of enriching knowledge on the vascular morphology of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemisunifilis, thus increasing the understanding of the clinical and surgical physiology of these animals. Five Podocnemis unifilis males were used, collected according to license no. 066/2004-Ibama/RAM.The left carotid artery and right femoral vein were cannulated, and a serum solution was introduced to remove obstructions from the vascular system. A solution of Neoprene Latex “450” dye was injected. The material was fixed in a solution of 10% formaldehyde for a period of 96 hours. Next, a square-shaped central opening was made in the caudal end of the plastron and bridge, exposing the branches

  17. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  18. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  19. Coronary artery anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

  20. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  1. Anatomy and function of the hypothenar muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquella, John A; Levine, Pam

    2012-02-01

    The hypothenar eminence is the thick soft tissue mass located on the ulnar side of the palm. Understanding its location and contents is important for understanding certain aspects of hand function. Variation in motor nerve distribution of the hypothenar muscles makes surgery of the ulnar side of the palm more challenging. To avoid injury to nerve branches, knowledge of these differences is imperative. This article discusses the muscular anatomy and function, vascular anatomy, and nerve anatomy and innervation of the hypothenar muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: Anatomy and basic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ahn, Kyung Sik; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography.

  3. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: Anatomy and basic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ahn, Kyung Sik; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography

  4. the anatomy of pelvic corona mortis vessles in black africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Moi University, P. O. Box ... This vascular anastomosis is also at risk during ilionguinal approach to the acetabulum (7). A medial approach for pelvic osteotomies for acetabular dysplasia ..... Gray's Anatomy 39th Edition , section 7 abdomen.

  5. Comparative leaf anatomy of Kokoona and Lophopetalum (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.T.; Baas, P.

    1973-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of Kokoona and Lophopetalum is described in detail. Separation of the two genera as effectuated by Hou (1963) is supported by differences in vascular anatomy of the distal end of the petiole, which is invariably more complex in Lophopetalum than in Kokoona. Other differential

  6. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  7. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  8. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  9. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  10. Superficial parotidectomy via facelift incision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohuis, Peter J. F. M.; Tan, M. Liane; Bonte, Katrien; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Vermeersch, Hubert B.

    2009-01-01

    The stigma of a visually prominent facial scar following parotid surgery can be distressing to a young patient. The surgical technique of parotidectomy via a facelift incision is described and evaluated. Thirty patients with a benign lesion of the parotid gland underwent a partial superficial

  11. Superficie

    OpenAIRE

    Corna, Pablo María

    2015-01-01

    En la época posclásica del derecho romano se buscó, por parte del Estado y ciudadanos, utilizar ciertos terrenos que formaban parte de su patrimonio para arrendarlos por largo término —y a veces a perpetuidad— a personas que tenían el derecho de edificar o plantar mediante el pago de un precio llamado pensio o solárium. En el siglo II de nuestra era ya era utilizado para asentar tribus romanizadas en la frontera del imperio como para el cultivo de vid y los olivos que demoran varios años e...

  12. Immediate Bilateral Breast Reconstruction with Unilateral Deep Superior Epigastric Artery and Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith S. Hansen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Autologous breast reconstruction utilizing a perforator flap is an increasingly popular method for reducing donor site morbidity and implant-related complications. However, aberrant anatomy not readily visible on computed tomography angiography is a rare albeit real risk when undergoing perforator flap reconstruction. We present an operative case of a patient who successfully underwent a bilateral breast reconstruction sourced from a unilateral abdominal flap divided into deep superior epigastric artery and superficial circumflex iliac artery flap segments.

  13. Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Anatomy Journal of Africa is the Official Journal for the Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa. ... Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology, - Embryology ...

  14. Esophagectomy for Superficial Esophageal Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Thomas J

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic therapies have become the standard of care for most cases of Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal adenocarcinoma. Despite a rapid and dramatic evolution in treatment paradigms, esophagectomy continues to occupy a place in the therapeutic armamentarium for superficial esophageal neoplasia. The managing physician must remain cognizant of the limitations of endoscopic approaches and consider surgical resection when they are exceeded. Esophagectomy, performed at experienced centers for appropriately selected patients with early-stage disease can be undertaken with the expectation of cure as well as low mortality, acceptable morbidity, and good long-term quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Masaje circulatorio superficial en la enfermedad arterial periférica

    OpenAIRE

    Cebrià Iranzo, M. Àngels

    2010-01-01

    En la enfermedad arterial periférica crónica se indica el masaje circulatorio superficial por producir una vasodilatación refleja en las zonas afectadas. Este masaje manual tiene dos objetivos fundamentales: 1) Favorecer la vasodilatación refleja e hiperemia local; 2) Drenar el retorno vascular sanguíneo y linfático.

  16. Multidetector CT angiography of renal vasculature: normal anatomy and variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerkvatan, Aysel; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cumhur, Turhan; Oelcer, Tuelay

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations in renal vascular anatomy is important before laparoscopic donor or partial nephrectomy and vascular reconstruction for renal artery stenosis or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Recently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a principal imaging investigation for assessment of the renal vasculature and has challenged the role of conventional angiography. It is an excellent imaging technique because it is a fast and non-invasive tool that provides highly accurate and detailed evaluation of normal renal vascular anatomy and variants. The number, size and course of the renal arteries and veins are easily identified by MDCT angiography. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate MDCT angiographic appearance of normal anatomy and common variants of the renal vasculature. (orig.)

  17. Multidetector CT angiography of renal vasculature: normal anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerkvatan, Aysel; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cumhur, Turhan; Oelcer, Tuelay [Tuerkiye Yueksek ihtisas Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    Knowledge of the variations in renal vascular anatomy is important before laparoscopic donor or partial nephrectomy and vascular reconstruction for renal artery stenosis or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Recently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a principal imaging investigation for assessment of the renal vasculature and has challenged the role of conventional angiography. It is an excellent imaging technique because it is a fast and non-invasive tool that provides highly accurate and detailed evaluation of normal renal vascular anatomy and variants. The number, size and course of the renal arteries and veins are easily identified by MDCT angiography. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate MDCT angiographic appearance of normal anatomy and common variants of the renal vasculature. (orig.)

  18. Experimental Study of Phlebitis Ointment Administration in Acute Superficial Thrombophlebitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzong Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute superficial thrombophlebitis is a venous system disease. Animal models with mannitol induced phlebitis were treated with an orally administered “phlebitis ointment.” 24 rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups. The therapy group was treated with “phlebitis ointment” and a control group received “Mai Luo Shu Tong granules.” Levels of blood TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and IL-1β were measured. The tissue expression levels of NF-КBp65 and PKC genes were evaluated. The therapy group showed a better improvement of the clinical status and similar vascular morphology than the control group. A blank group showed no vascular changes through pathological investigation. In contrast, significant vascular changes were seen in the model group. The control group showed slight vascular modifications. Small thrombi could be found in the lumen despite the intact tunica intima. Both control and therapy group showed less inflammatory cells infiltration than the model group and upregulation of NF-КBp65 and PKC genes. The phlebitis ointment reduced the levels of necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-1ß. The expressions of NF-КBp65 and PKC genes, which are the primary mechanisms underlying the development of thrombophlebitis, were improved significantly in tissues of both therapy group and control group.

  19. Comparative Study of the Liver Anatomy in the Rat, Rabbit, Guinea Pig and Chinchilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Gheorghe STAN

    2018-05-01

    Based on detailed study of the macroscopic anatomy of rat, rabbit, guinea pig and chinchilla a proper experimental model in liver research, could be assessed. In this regard, the vascular anatomy of the liver in the mentioned species is of a great importance and it is subject of another report.

  20. Correlation of computed tomography, sonography, and gross anatomy of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, C.F.; Zeman, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    Although the vascular and segmental anatomy of the liver is well defined in the sonographic and computed tomographic (CT) literature, the three-dimensional relations of hepatic structures remain conceptually complex. As an aid to understanding and teaching this anatomy, axially and sagitally sectioned gross liver specimens were correlated with appropriate sonographic and CT scans. Major hepatic landmarks and vascular structures are used to identify four distinct transverse planes and four sagittal planes

  1. Teaching Anatomy: need or taste?

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokhi, Ahmad; Nejad, Masoume Soleymani

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Anatomy is one of the core sections of Basic Medical Sciences. Given the central role of anatomy, the development of medical knowledge and reach new horizons in science is not possible without relying on anatomy. Since in the anatomy science, students are familiar with the basic terms of medical language, the anatomy's hard to know and have a negative attitude towards this course. With these conditions, anatomy professors have an important role in providing incentives...

  2. Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasen, M.H.; Charnsangavej, C.

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  4. Anatomy and histology of apical support: a literature review concerning cardinal and uterosacral ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanah, Rajeev; Berger, Mitchell B; Parratte, Bernard M; DeLancey, John O L

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to collect and summarize relevant literature on the anatomy, histology, and imaging of apical support of the upper vagina and the uterus provided by the cardinal (CL) and uterosacral (USL) ligaments. A literature search in English, French, and German languages was carried out with the keywords apical support, cardinal ligament, transverse cervical ligament, Mackenrodt ligament, parametrium, paracervix, retinaculum uteri, web, uterosacral ligament, and sacrouterine ligament in the PubMed database. Other relevant journal and textbook articles were sought by retrieving references cited in previous PubMed articles. Fifty references were examined in peer-reviewed journals and textbooks. The USL extends from the S2 to the S4 vertebra region to the dorsal margin of the uterine cervix and/or to the upper third of the posterior vaginal wall. It has a superficial and deep component. Autonomous nerve fibers are a major constituent of the deep USL. CL is defined as a perivascular sheath with a proximal insertion around the origin of the internal iliac artery and a distal insertion on the cervix and/or vagina. It is divided into a cranial (vascular) and a caudal (neural) portions. Histologically, it contains mainly vessels, with no distinct band of connective tissue. Both the deep USL and the caudal CL are closely related to the inferior hypogastric plexus. USL and CL are visceral ligaments, with mesentery-like structures containing vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and adipose tissue.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  6. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  7. Applied peritoneal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.R.; Planche, K.

    2013-01-01

    The peritoneal cavity is a complex anatomical structure with multiple attachments and connections. These are better understood with reference to the embryological development of this region. Armed with this knowledge, the diagnosis and assessment of a wide range of common intra-abdominal diseases becomes straightforward. This article will review and simplify the terminology, complex embryological development, and anatomy of the peritoneum, peritoneal attachments, and the reflections forming the peritoneal boundaries. Normal anatomy will be described using schematic diagrams with corresponding computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, including CT peritoneograms. The relevance of intra- and extra-peritoneal anatomy to common pathological processes will be demonstrated

  8. Variability and reliability of the vastus lateralis muscle anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arpa, Salvatore; Toia, Francesca; Brenner, Erich; Melloni, Carlo; Moschella, Francesco; Cordova, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the variability of the morphological and neurovascular anatomy of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and to describe the relationships among its intramuscular partitions and with the other muscles of the quadriceps femoris. Clinical implications in its reliability as a flap donor are also discussed. In 2012, the extra- and intramuscular neurovascular anatomy of the VL was investigated in 10 cadaveric lower limbs. In three specimens, the segmental arterial pedicles were injected with latex of different colors to point out their anastomotic connections. The morphological anatomy was investigated with regard to the mutual relationship of the three muscular partitions and the relation of the VL with the other muscles of the quadriceps femoris. The VL has a segmental morphological anatomy. However, the fibers of its three partitions interconnect individually and with the other bellies of the quadriceps femoris, particularly, in several variable portions with the vastus intermedius and mainly in the posterior part of the VL. The lateral circumflex femoral artery and its branches have variable origin, but demonstrate constant segmental distribution. Intramuscular dissection and colored latex injections show a rich anastomotic vascular network among the three partitions. Moderate variability exists in both the myological and the neurovascular anatomy of the VL. Despite this variability, the anatomy of the VL always has a constant segmental pattern, which makes the VL a reliable flap donor. Detailed knowledge of the VL anatomy could have useful applications in a broad clinical field.

  9. 3D-Printed Biodegradable Polymeric Vascular Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorri, A J; Hibino, N; Best, C A; Yi, T; Lee, Y U; Kraynak, C A; Kimerer, L K; Krieger, A; Kim, P; Breuer, C K; Fisher, J P

    2016-02-04

    Congenital heart defect interventions may benefit from the fabrication of patient-specific vascular grafts because of the wide array of anatomies present in children with cardiovascular defects. 3D printing is used to establish a platform for the production of custom vascular grafts, which are biodegradable, mechanically compatible with vascular tissues, and support neotissue formation and growth. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  11. Anatomy of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the anatomy and function of the brain system for memory in humans and animal models are reviewed from the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego and the Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

  12. Microsurgical anatomy of the central core of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Eduardo Carvalhal; Yağmurlu, Kaan; de Oliveira, Evandro; Ribas, Guilherme Carvalhal; Rhoton, Albert

    2017-12-22

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to describe in detail the cortical and subcortical anatomy of the central core of the brain, defining its limits, with particular attention to the topography and relationships of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and related white matter pathways and vessels. METHODS The authors studied 19 cerebral hemispheres. The vascular systems of all of the specimens were injected with colored silicone, and the specimens were then frozen for at least 1 month to facilitate identification of individual fiber tracts. The dissections were performed in a stepwise manner, locating each gray matter nucleus and white matter pathway at different depths inside the central core. The course of fiber pathways was also noted in relation to the insular limiting sulci. RESULTS The insular surface is the most superficial aspect of the central core and is divided by a central sulcus into an anterior portion, usually containing 3 short gyri, and a posterior portion, with 2 long gyri. It is bounded by the anterior limiting sulcus, the superior limiting sulcus, and the inferior limiting sulcus. The extreme capsule is directly underneath the insular surface and is composed of short association fibers that extend toward all the opercula. The claustrum lies deep to the extreme capsule, and the external capsule is found medial to it. Three fiber pathways contribute to form both the extreme and external capsules, and they lie in a sequential anteroposterior disposition: the uncinate fascicle, the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, and claustrocortical fibers. The putamen and the globus pallidus are between the external capsule, laterally, and the internal capsule, medially. The internal capsule is present medial to almost all insular limiting sulci and most of the insular surface, but not to their most anteroinferior portions. This anteroinferior portion of the central core has a more complex anatomy and is distinguished in this paper as the "anterior perforated

  13. Recurrence of superficial vein thrombosis in patients with varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karathanos, Christos; Spanos, Konstantinos; Saleptsis, Vassileios; Tsezou, Aspasia; Kyriakou, Despina; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2016-08-01

    To investigate which factors other than history of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) are associated with recurrent spontaneous SVT episodes in patients with varicose veins (VVs). Patients with a history of spontaneous SVT and VVs were followed up for a mean period of 55 months. Demographics, comorbidities, and thrombophilia screening test were analyzed. Patients were grouped according to the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology classification. A multiple logistic regression analysis with the forward likelihood ratio method was undertaken. Thirteen patients out of 97 had a recurrence SVT episode during the follow-up period. All those patients were identified to have a thrombophilia defect. Protein C and S, antithrombin, and plasminogen deficiencies were more frequently present in patients without recurrence. Gene mutations were present in 38% in the nonrecurrence group and 77% in the recurrence group. After logistic regression analysis, patients with dislipidemia and mutation in prothrombin G20210A (FII) had an increased risk for recurrence by 5.4-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively. No deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurred. Dislipidemia and gene mutations of F II are associated with SVT recurrence in patients with VVs. A selection of patients may benefit from anticoagulation in the short term and from VVs intervention in the long term. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Convergent evolution of vascular optimization in kelp (Laminariales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnitch, Sarah Tepler; Jensen, Kaare H; Prentice, Paige; Pittermann, Jarmila

    2015-10-07

    Terrestrial plants and mammals, although separated by a great evolutionary distance, have each arrived at a highly conserved body plan in which universal allometric scaling relationships govern the anatomy of vascular networks and key functional metabolic traits. The universality of allometric scaling suggests that these phyla have each evolved an 'optimal' transport strategy that has been overwhelmingly adopted by extant species. To truly evaluate the dominance and universality of vascular optimization, however, it is critical to examine other, lesser-known, vascularized phyla. The brown algae (Phaeophyceae) are one such group--as distantly related to plants as mammals, they have convergently evolved a plant-like body plan and a specialized phloem-like transport network. To evaluate possible scaling and optimization in the kelp vascular system, we developed a model of optimized transport anatomy and tested it with measurements of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, which is among the largest and most successful of macroalgae. We also evaluated three classical allometric relationships pertaining to plant vascular tissues with a diverse sampling of kelp species. Macrocystis pyrifera displays strong scaling relationships between all tested vascular parameters and agrees with our model; other species within the Laminariales display weak or inconsistent vascular allometries. The lack of universal scaling in the kelps and the presence of optimized transport anatomy in M. pyrifera raises important questions about the evolution of optimization and the possible competitive advantage conferred by optimized vascular systems to multicellular phyla. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. [Laurentius on anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-03-01

    Andreas Laurentius wrote Opera anatomica (1593) and Historia anatomica (1600). These books were composed of two types of chapters; 'historia' and 'quaestio'. His description is not original, but take from other anatomists. 'Historia' describes the structure, action and usefulness of the body parts clarified after dissection. 'Quaestio' treats those questions which could not be solved only by dissection. Laurentius cited many previous contradicting interpretations to these questions and choose a best interpretation for the individual questions. In most cases, Laurentius preferred Galen's view. Historia anatomica retained almost all the 'historia' and 'quaestio' from Opera anatomica, and added some new 'historia' and 'quaestio', especially in regard to the components of the body, such as ligaments, membranes, vessels, nerves and glands. Other new 'historia' and 'quaestio' in Historia anatomica concerned several topics on anatomy in general to comprehensively analyze the history of anatomy, methods of anatomy, and usefulness of anatomy. Historia anatomica reviewed what was anatomy by describing in 'historia' what was known and in 'quaestio' what was unresolved. Till now Laurentius's anatomical works have attracted little attention because his description contained few original findings and depended on previous books. However, the important fact that Historia anatomica was very popular in the 17th century tells us that people needed non-original and handbook style of this textbook. Historia anatomica is important for further research on the propagation of anatomical knowledge from professional anatomists to non-professionals in the 17th century.

  16. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  17. Intravesical Gemcitabine for Treatment of Superficial Bladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the mainstay of treatment and prophylaxis in superficial bladder cancer (SBC) as it reduces tumor recurrence and disease progression. About one-third of patients do not respond to BCG. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of intravesical ...

  18. Ultrasound of musculoskeletal soft-tissue tumors superficial to the investing fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Esther Hiu Yee; Griffith, James Francis; Ng, Alex Wing Hung; Lee, Ryan Ka Lok; Lau, Domily Ting Yi; Leung, Jason Chi Shun

    2014-06-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in assessing musculoskeletal soft-tissue tumors superficial to the investing fascia. Seven hundred fourteen superficial soft-tissue tumors evaluated with ultrasound by two musculoskeletal radiologists were retrospectively reviewed. In all ultrasound reports, the reporting radiologists provided one, two, or three diagnoses depending on their perceived level of diagnostic certainty. Two hundred forty-seven tumors had subsequent histologic correlation, thus allowing the accuracy of the ultrasound diagnosis to be determined. Images of the lesions with a discordant ultrasound diagnosis and histologic diagnosis were reviewed, and the ultrasound features were further classified as concordant with the known histologic diagnosis, concordant with the known histologic diagnosis with atypical features present, or discordant with the known histologic diagnosis. Four hundred sixty-seven tumors without pathologic confirmation were followed up clinically. Overall the accuracy of ultrasound examination for assessing superficial soft-tissue masses was 79.0% when all differential diagnoses were considered and 77.0% when only the first differential diagnosis was considered. The sensitivity and specificity of the first ultrasound diagnosis were 95.2% and 94.3%, respectively, for lipoma; 73.0% and 97.7% for vascular malformation; 80.0% and 95.4% for epidermoid cyst; and 68.8% and 95.2% for nerve sheath tumor. Reduced observer awareness of specific tumor entities tended to contribute to underdiagnosis more than poor specificity of ultrasound findings. Most tumors (236/247, 96%) were benign. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for identifying malignant superficial soft-tissue tumors was 94.1% and 99.7%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in the assessment of superficial musculoskeletal soft-tissue tumors is high and can be improved through increased radiologist awareness of less

  19. Synopsis of radiologic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a compact version of earlier publications that appeared in 1975 as a one- and a two-volume issue under the title 'Atlas of Radiologic Anatomy'. A chapter on computed tomography has been added as this novel technique requires a new approach to radiologic anatomy. The radiologist will find all the information on the anatomic conditions he needs for analysing radiographs and CT pictures. More than 600 radiographs and CT pictures are given that illustrate typical and rare findings. The book also is useful as a source of reference for making good radiographs and evaluating the quality of radiographs or CT pictures. With 1413 figs., 18 tabs [de

  20. Henry Gray's Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-04-01

    Little is generally known of Henry Gray, the author of Gray's Anatomy, and even less of his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter, who played a vital role in the dissections and illustrations leading to the production of the first volume in 1859. This essay attempts to sketch briefly the salient, know aspects of these two men and their divergent careers. It traces succinctly the subsequent fate of the unique anatomy book that has influenced and instructed almost every student of medicine. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Anatomy of the clitoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Helen E; Sanjeevan, Kalavampara V; Hutson, John M

    2005-10-01

    We present a comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the urethra, vagina and vestibular glands, and connective tissue supports), histology and immunohistochemistry. We related recent anatomical findings to the historical literature to determine when data on accurate anatomy became available. An extensive review of the current and historical literature was done. The studies reviewed included dissection and microdissection, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3-dimensional sectional anatomy reconstruction, histology and immunohistochemical studies. The clitoris is a multiplanar structure with a broad attachment to the pubic arch and via extensive supporting tissue to the mons pubis and labia. Centrally it is attached to the urethra and vagina. Its components include the erectile bodies (paired bulbs and paired corpora, which are continuous with the crura) and the glans clitoris. The glans is a midline, densely neural, non-erectile structure that is the only external manifestation of the clitoris. All other components are composed of erectile tissue with the composition of the bulbar erectile tissue differing from that of the corpora. The clitoral and perineal neurovascular bundles are large, paired terminations of the pudendal neurovascular bundles. The clitoral neurovascular bundles ascend along the ischiopubic rami to meet each other and pass along the superior surface of the clitoral body supplying the clitoris. The neural trunks pass largely intact into the glans. These nerves are at least 2 mm in diameter even in infancy. The cavernous or autonomic neural anatomy is microscopic and difficult to define consistently. MRI complements dissection studies and clarifies the anatomy. Clitoral pharmacology and histology appears to parallel those of penile tissue, although the clinical impact is vastly different. Typical textbook descriptions of the clitoris lack detail and

  2. [Superficial venous thrombosis. A state of art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    For a long time superficial thrombophlebitis has been thought to be a rather benign condition. Recently, when duplex ultrasound technique is used for the diagnosis more and more often, the disease is proved to be more dangerous than anticipated. Thrombosis propagates to the deep veins in 6-44% and pulmonary embolism was observed on the patients in 1,5-33%. We can calculate venous thromboembolic complications on every fourth patient. Diagnosis is clinical, but duplex ultrasound examination is mandatory, for estimation of the thrombus extent, for exclusion of the deep venous thrombosis and for follow up. Both legs should be checked with ultrasound, because simultaneous deep venous thrombosis can develop on the contralateral limb. Two different forms can be distinguished: superficial venous thrombosis with, or without varicose veins. In cases of spontaneous, non varicous form, especially when the process is migrating or recurrent, a careful clinical examination is necessery for exclusion of malignant diseases and thrombophilia. The treatment options are summarised on the basis of recent international consensus statements. The American and German guidelines are similar. Compression and mobilisation are cornerstones of the therapy. For a short segment thrombosis non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs are effective. For longer segments low molecular-weight heparins are preferred. Information on the effect of the novel oral anticoagulants for the therapy is lacking but they may appear to be effective in the future for this indication. When thrombus is close to the sapheno-femoral or sapheno-popliteal junction crossectomy (high ligation), or low molecular-weight heparin in therapeutic doses are indicated. The term superficial thrombophlebitis should be discouraged, because inflammation and infection is not the primary pathology. It should be called correctly superficial venous thrombosis in order to avoid the unnecessary administration of antibiotics and the misconception

  3. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  4. Recanalization of superficial femoral artery by retrograde approach via popliteal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyu; Kim, Hyung Kil; Yun, Ung; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun

    1995-01-01

    To recanalize the occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery at origin site by retrograde approach via popliteal artery. 15 patients, who were poor surgical candidates due to coronary artery disease and who had severe occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery close to its origin with good distal runoffs to popliteal artery, were selected. Patients were all men and range of age were from 53 years to 66 years (mean age: 63 years). Range of lesion length were from 15 cm to 30 cm (mean length: 22.4 cm). Localization of popliteal artery was done with Doppler stethoscope or 'road-map' DSA. The method of recanalization were transluminal endarterectomy catheter (TEC), TEC and angioplasty, thrombolysoangioplasty (TLA). Retrograde puncture of popliteal artery was done in 15 patients successfully. TEC and PTA was performed in 9 patients, TEC only in 2 patients, and TLA and PTA in 2 patients. During the follow-up period of 5 months to 2 years reocclusion did not occur in 10 patients except for 1 patient with poor cardiac output in whom it occurred 1 day later. Remained 4 patients were lost in follow up. Any neurologic or vascular complication did not occur. Retrograde approach of superficial femoral artery via popliteal artery in patients with difficult vascular intervention by common method provides a useful, alternative recanalization method

  5. Recanalization of superficial femoral artery by retrograde approach via popliteal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kyu; Kim, Hyung Kil; Yun, Ung; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    To recanalize the occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery at origin site by retrograde approach via popliteal artery. 15 patients, who were poor surgical candidates due to coronary artery disease and who had severe occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery close to its origin with good distal runoffs to popliteal artery, were selected. Patients were all men and range of age were from 53 years to 66 years (mean age: 63 years). Range of lesion length were from 15 cm to 30 cm (mean length: 22.4 cm). Localization of popliteal artery was done with Doppler stethoscope or 'road-map' DSA. The method of recanalization were transluminal endarterectomy catheter (TEC), TEC and angioplasty, thrombolysoangioplasty (TLA). Retrograde puncture of popliteal artery was done in 15 patients successfully. TEC and PTA was performed in 9 patients, TEC only in 2 patients, and TLA and PTA in 2 patients. During the follow-up period of 5 months to 2 years reocclusion did not occur in 10 patients except for 1 patient with poor cardiac output in whom it occurred 1 day later. Remained 4 patients were lost in follow up. Any neurologic or vascular complication did not occur. Retrograde approach of superficial femoral artery via popliteal artery in patients with difficult vascular intervention by common method provides a useful, alternative recanalization method.

  6. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  7. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  8. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  9. Features and selection of vascular access devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansivero, Gail Egan

    2010-05-01

    To review venous anatomy and physiology, discuss assessment parameters before vascular access device (VAD) placement, and review VAD options. Journal articles, personal experience. A number of VAD options are available in clinical practice. Access planning should include comprehensive assessment, with attention to patient participation in the planning and selection process. Careful consideration should be given to long-term access needs and preservation of access sites. Oncology nurses are uniquely suited to perform a key role in VAD planning and placement. With knowledge of infusion therapy, anatomy and physiology, device options, and community resources, nurses can be key leaders in preserving vascular access and improving the safety and comfort of infusion therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. VASCULAR SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... with the literature from South Africa over the last four decades, and reflects the high rate of interpersonal violence in the country.14,15 As expected, cervical ... via the intact circle of Willis in young patients is the most likely explanation for the lack of strokes. Five patients were referred to the Durban vascular ...

  11. Upper limb vein anatomy before hemodialysis fistula creation: cross-sectional anatomy using MR venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Fernandez, Pedro; Karila-Cohen, Pascale; Chillon, Sylvie; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth; Delmas, Vincent; Dupuy, Emmanuel; Mignon, Francoise

    2003-01-01

    Preoperative imaging is indicated to discriminate patent, adequate superficial veins of the upper limbs undetectable by clinical inspection that could be anastomosed for the creation of a durable and functional hemodialysis fistula. The aim of this pictorial review is to provide a venous anatomic map of the upper limbs using MR venography (MRV) which could help surgeons before creation of hemodialysis access fistulas (AVF). At the level of the forearm, the antebrachial cephalic vein is the most commonly identified as patent. At the level of the elbow and distal arm, the cephalic vein is patent in 80% of normal subjects, and less often patent (23-26%) than basilic vein (33-38%) in patients. Overall, reading transaxial MR views can help for assessing upper limb vein anatomy before creation of a hemodialysis access fistula. (orig.)

  12. Upper limb vein anatomy before hemodialysis fistula creation: cross-sectional anatomy using MR venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Fernandez, Pedro; Karila-Cohen, Pascale; Chillon, Sylvie; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth [Department of Radiology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Delmas, Vincent [Department of Urology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Dupuy, Emmanuel; Mignon, Francoise [Department of Nephrology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France)

    2003-02-01

    Preoperative imaging is indicated to discriminate patent, adequate superficial veins of the upper limbs undetectable by clinical inspection that could be anastomosed for the creation of a durable and functional hemodialysis fistula. The aim of this pictorial review is to provide a venous anatomic map of the upper limbs using MR venography (MRV) which could help surgeons before creation of hemodialysis access fistulas (AVF). At the level of the forearm, the antebrachial cephalic vein is the most commonly identified as patent. At the level of the elbow and distal arm, the cephalic vein is patent in 80% of normal subjects, and less often patent (23-26%) than basilic vein (33-38%) in patients. Overall, reading transaxial MR views can help for assessing upper limb vein anatomy before creation of a hemodialysis access fistula. (orig.)

  13. Malignant transformation of superficial peritoneal endometriosis lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Eva; Hequet, Delphine; Thoury, Anne; Barranger, Emmanuel

    2013-08-26

    A 63-year-old woman with no medical history underwent an abdominal surgery with hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a 10 cm peritoneal cyst with increased cancer antigene-125. A large suspicious tumour of the Douglas space, with contact to the uterus and the rectal wall was described. The rest of the exploration was normal, specially the rest of the peritoneum. Histopathology revealed a malignant transformation of a superficial peritoneal endometriosis. Secondary surgery was thus completed by laparoscopy with bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissections, omentectomy and multiple peritoneal biopsies. All staging samples were free of cancer; therefore no complementary therapy was administered. After 18 months of follow-up, consisting of clinical examination and pelvis magnetic resonance imaging every 6 months, we did not observe any recurrence. Malignant transformation of superficial peritoneal endometriosis is a rare disease and surgical management seems to be the main treatment.

  14. Anatomia vascular das artérias renais e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines, Pelomedusidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.680 Vascular anatomy of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines-Pelomedusidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.680

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árthur Paulino Sanzo Kaminishi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de enriquecer o conhecimento sobre a morfologia vascular das artérias renais e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis, facilitando o entendimento da fisiologia clínica e cirúrgica destes animais. Foram utilizados cinco exemplares machos de Podocnemis unifilis (tracajá, coletados segundo a Licença nº 066/2004-Ibama/RAM. A artéria carótida esquerda e a veia femoral direita foram canuladas e, pelas mesmas, foi introduzida solução fisiológica para lavagem do sistema vascular; em seguida, aplicou-se solução de Neoprene Látex “450” corada com pigmento específico (Globo S/A Tintas e Pigmentos. O material foi fixado em solução de Formol tamponado a 10% por um período mínimo de 96h. Uma abertura central e de formato quadrangular foi feita na metade caudal do plastrão e casco, de forma a expor os ramos da artéria aorta que irrigam os rins e as gônadas. Observou-se que as artérias renais se originam da face ventral da artéria aorta dorsal, em número de dois pares para cada rim e, em um único exemplar, elas originaram uma artéria renal direita e duas esquerdas. A artéria gonadal surgiu a partir da artéria renal, e apenas um par penetrou pela face dorsal de cada gônada.This work was developed with the aim of enriching knowledge on the vascular morphology of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemis unifilis, thus increasing the understanding of the clinical and surgical physiology of these animals. Five Podocnemis unifilis males were used, collected according to license no. 066/2004-Ibama/RAM. The left carotid artery and right femoral vein were cannulated, and a serum solution was introduced to remove obstructions from the vascular system. A solution of Neoprene Latex “450” dye was injected. The material was fixed in a solution of 10% formaldehyde for a period of 96 hours. Next, a square-shaped central opening was made in the caudal end of the plastron and bridge, exposing the

  15. Clinico Mycological Study of Superficial Mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana J. Magdum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generally it is well established fact that geographical distribution of the fungi may change from time to time; hence this study was planned. Aim and Objectives: To analyze the prevalence of superficial mycoses, its clinical presentation and species identification of the fungal isolates responsible for the disease. Material and Methods: A total 125 clinically diagnosed cases of superficial mycoses visiting Dermatology and Venereology outpatient department of Bharati Hospital, Sangli, for a period of one year were included in the study. Specimens like skin scrapping, nail clipping, hair were collected and subjected to KOH mount and culture. Identification of species was done by macroscopic examination of culture, tease mount and other physiological tests including Urease test, Hair perforation tests and Germ tube test. Results: Superficial mycosis was more common in the age group of 21-30 years (28% and in males (60.8%. The infection was more common in students (29.6%. Tinea corporis (42.4% was the commonest clinical type followed by tinea cruris (22.4%. 61.6% cases were positive by direct microscopy and 60.8% cases showed culture positive. Out of 125 samples, dermatophytes were grown in 63 cases (82.89% followed by non dermatophytic moulds in 10 cases (13.16% and Candida albicans in 3 cases (3.95%. The most common isolate among dermtophytosis was T. rubrum (46.05% followed by T. mentagrophyte (25%. Conclusion: It was concluded that along with dermatophytes, non dermatophytic moulds are also important to cause of superficial mycoses

  16. Spectral characterization of superficial coal groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Khan, M.A.; Ishaq, M.; Shakirullah; Bahadur, A.

    2004-01-01

    Spectral characterization of superficial coal groups was performed in KBr pellets. KBr Pellets were prepared for virgin and variously pretreated coal samples. Spectra of satisfactory resolution were obtained in wave number range-4000-400 cm /sup -1/. Presence of broad absorption bands corresponds to hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and phenolic functionalities in the spectra clearly define their presence in all samples understudy. Forced oxidation proved effective for oxidation of both aliphatic and aromatic configurations, which can be revealed from the respective spectra. (author)

  17. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  18. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF MARGINAL SUPERFICIAL PERIODONTIUM AT MENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Premises: Sexual hormones may affect the general health condition of women, as early as puberty, continuing during pregnancy and also after menopause. Variations of the hormonal levels may cause different – either local or general – pathological modifications. Sexual hormones may also affect periodontal status, favourizing gingival inflammations and reducing periodontal resistance to the action of the bacterial plaque. Scope: Establishment of the correlations between the debut or the manifestation of menopause and the modifications produced in the superficial periodontium. Materials and method: Clinical and paraclinical investigations were performed on female patients with ages between 45 and 66 years, involving macroscopic, microscopic and radiological recording of the aspect of the superificial periodontium (gingiva. Results: Analysis of the histological sections evidenced atrophic and involutive modifications in the marginal superficial periodontium of female patients at menopause. Conclusions: Sexual hormones intervene in the histological equilibrium of the marginal superficial periodontium, influencing the periodontal health status, which explains the correlation between the subjective symptomatology specific to menopause and the histopatological aspect at epithelial level.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maximilien; Prat, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    Endoscopy allows for the screening, early diagnosis, treatment and follow up of superficial esophageal cancer. Endoscopic submucosal dissection has become the gold standard for the resection of superficial squamous cell neoplasia. Combinations of endoscopic mucosal resection and radiofrequency ablation are the mainstay of the management of Barrett's associated neoplasia. However, protruded, non-lifting or large lesions may be better managed by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Novel ablation tools, such as argon plasma coagulation with submucosal lifting and cryoablation balloons, are being developed for the treatment of residual Barrett's esophagus, since iatrogenic strictures still hamper the development of extensive circumferential resections in the esophagus. Optimal surveillance modalities after endoscopic resection are still to be determined. The assessment of the risk of lymph-node metastases, as well as of the need for additional treatments based on qualitative and quantitative histological criteria, balanced to the patient's condition, requires a dedicated multidisciplinary team decision process. The need for trained endoscopists, expert pathologists and surgeons, and specialized multidisciplinary meetings underlines the role of expert centers in the management of superficial esophageal cancer.

  20. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J

    2015-09-30

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  1. Tratamento do aneurisma aterosclerótico da artéria temporal superficial: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Dayana Matkovski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAneurismas da artéria temporal superficial são incomuns segundo a literatura. A grande maioria é secundária a traumatismos ou cirurgia na região temporal, sendo que 95% dos casos evoluem para pseudoaneurismas. Entretanto, os aneurismas verdadeiros ou espontâneos são extremamente raros e representam 8% dos casos de aneurismas da artéria temporal superficial, sendo estes, geralmente, de origem aterosclerótica. Aneurismas temporais espontâneos podem coexistir com outras lesões vasculares, incluindo aneurismas intracranianos. Nosso relato trata de um paciente com aneurisma de artéria temporal superficial esquerda, de origem aterosclerótica, no qual foi realizada a excisão cirúrgica, sob anestesia geral.

  2. Breast development and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G

    2011-03-01

    In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.

  3. Anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle; Anatomie des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Nabhan, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    2006-03-15

    The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an anatomically complex region of the brain. In this article we describe the anatomy of the CPA cisterns, of the internal auditory canal, the topography of the cerebellum and brainstem, and the neurovascular structures of this area. (orig.) [German] Der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel ist eine umschriebene anatomische Region. Im diesem Artikel werden die Subarachnoidalraeume im Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel, die Anatomie der Felsenbeinflaeche, Anatomie und Topographie des Kleinhirns und des Hirnstamms, die arteriellen Beziehungen und venoese Drainage des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels besprochen. (orig.)

  4. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Superficial Dorsal Venous Rupture of the Penis: False Penile Fracture That Needs to be Treated as a True Urologic Emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hong; Ferenczi, Basil; Cleary, Ryan; Healy, Kelly A

    2016-11-01

    A 38-year-old man with history of repaired penile fracture presented with rapid detumescence, penile pain, and ecchymosis during vaginal sexual intercourse concerning for recurrent fracture. Surgical exploration revealed ruptured superficial dorsal vein of the penis, which was subsequently ligated. Patients with traumatic penile vascular injuries often present with clinical features indistinguishable from a true penile fracture. Gradual detumescence and an absence of characteristic popping sound may indicate a vascular injury but they cannot safely rule out a true penile fracture. Both true and false penile fractures require emergent surgical exploration and repair to prevent long-term complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association Between Vascular Anatomy and Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Anil; Ho, Allen L; Emmer, Bart J; Dammers, Ruben; Dirven, Clemens M F; Du, Rose

    2015-11-01

    Hemodynamic stress, conditioned by the geometry and morphology of the vessel trees, plays an important role in the formation of intracranial aneurysms. The aim of this study was to identify image-based location-specific morphologic parameters that are associated with posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms. Morphologic parameters obtained from computed tomography angiography of 56 patients with PCoA aneurysms and 23 control patients were evaluated with 3D Slicer, an open-source image analysis software, to generate 3-dimensional models of the aneurysms and surrounding vasculature. Segment lengths, diameters, and vessel-to-vessel angles were examined. To control for genetic and clinical risk factors, the unaffected contralateral side of patients with unilateral PCoA aneurysms was used as a control group for internal carotid artery (ICA)-related parameters. A separate control group with visible PCoAs and aneurysms elsewhere was used as a control group for PCoA-related parameters. Internal carotid artery-related parameters were not statistically different between the PCoA aneurysm and control groups. Univariate and multivariate subgroup analysis for patients with visualized PCoAs demonstrated that a larger PCoA diameter was significantly associated with the presence of a PCoA aneurysm (odds ratio = 12.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-17.1, P = 0.04) after adjusting for other morphologic parameters. Larger PCoA diameters are associated with the presence of PCoA aneurysms. These parameters may provide objective metrics to assess aneurysm formation and growth risk stratification in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-Indication for live kidney donation and transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Lafranca (Jeffrey); M.V. Bruggen (Mark Van); H.J.A.N. Kimenai (Hendrikus); T.C.K. Tran (Thi C. K.); T. Terkivatan (Türkan); M.G.H. Betjes (Michiel); J.N.M.I. Jzermans (Jan N. M.I.); F.J.M.F. Dor (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate. Methods: Data from all live kidney donors from 2006-2013 (n=951) was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or

  9. Superficial tension: experimental model with simple materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintori Ferreira, María Alejandra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work appears a didactic offer based on an experimental activity using materials of very low cost, orientated to achieving that the student understand and interpret the phenomenon of superficial tension together with the importance of the modeling in sciences. It has as principal aim of education bring the student over to the mechanics of the static fluids and the intermolecular forces, combining scientific contents with questions near to the student what provides an additional motivation to the reflection of the scientific investigation.

  10. Superficial Vein Thrombophlebitis in a Football Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Kevin T; Smoot, M Kyle

    2016-03-01

    A 22-year-old professional football player presented to a preparticipation physical examination with a 2-week history of left leg discomfort extending from the groin to the knee over the previous 2 weeks. He was found to have superficial vein thrombophlebitis (SVT) of the left great saphenous vein extending from the knee to within approximately 1.6 cm of the saphenofemoral junction. There is paucity in the literature regarding the management of SVT, particularly in actively training athletes. This case addresses the considerations of anticoagulation management for SVT as well as the unique challenge of managing anticoagulation therapy in an athlete that is actively training.

  11. Temperature distributions in 136 superficial radiothermotherapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willich, N.; Duve, S.; Pfluger, T.; Bachmeier, K.

    1992-01-01

    Temperature distributions from 136 superficial radiothermotherapies in patients were analysed and three-dimensionally reconstructed. The calculation of mean values and standard deviations of the temperature measuring probes considering water bolus temperature, master probe temperature, site of the probes relatively to different applicator positions and site of the probes in the heated tissues yielded satisfactory temperature distributions for chest wall treatment in contrast to other regions of the body. Radiothermotherapy was statistically not superior to radiotherapy alone with respect to local tumor control. (authors)

  12. Superficial femoral artery: current treatment options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe, Gunnar; Schmehl, Joerg; Heller, Stephan; Wiesinger, Benjamin; Claussen, Claus D.; Duda, Stephan H.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) has been among the least effective of all endovascular procedures in terms of long-term patency. The relatively small vessel lumen, in conjunction with a high plaque burden, slow flow, and a high frequency of primary occlusions, contributes to a considerable rate of acute technical failures. Because of these technical limitations a much effort has been made during the past years. This manuscript should summarize the hopes and limitations of different approaches such as brachytherapy, cutting balloons, stents and stent grafts, drug-eluting stents, and drug-coated balloons. (orig.)

  13. A Literature Review of Renal Surgical Anatomy and Surgical Strategies for Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Tobias; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Gratzke, Christian; Kaouk, Jihad; Kutikov, Alexander; Macchi, Veronica; Mottrie, Alexandre; Porpiglia, Francesco; Porter, James; Rogers, Craig G; Russo, Paul; Thompson, R Houston; Uzzo, Robert G; Wood, Christopher G; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-12-01

    A detailed understanding of renal surgical anatomy is necessary to optimize preoperative planning and operative technique and provide a basis for improved outcomes. To evaluate the literature regarding pertinent surgical anatomy of the kidney and related structures, nephrometry scoring systems, and current surgical strategies for partial nephrectomy (PN). A literature review was conducted. Surgical renal anatomy fundamentally impacts PN surgery. The renal artery divides into anterior and posterior divisions, from which approximately five segmental terminal arteries originate. The renal veins are not terminal. Variations in the vascular and lymphatic channels are common; thus, concurrent lymphadenectomy is not routinely indicated during PN for cT1 renal masses in the setting of clinically negative lymph nodes. Renal-protocol contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is used for standard imaging. Anatomy-based nephrometry scoring systems allow standardized academic reporting of tumor characteristics and predict PN outcomes (complications, remnant function, possibly histology). Anatomy-based novel surgical approaches may reduce ischemic time during PN; these include early unclamping, segmental clamping, tumor-specific clamping (zero ischemia), and unclamped PN. Cancer cure after PN relies on complete resection, which can be achieved by thin margins. Post-PN renal function is impacted by kidney quality, remnant quantity, and ischemia type and duration. Surgical renal anatomy underpins imaging, nephrometry scoring systems, and vascular control techniques that reduce global renal ischemia and may impact post-PN function. A contemporary ideal PN excises the tumor with a thin negative margin, delicately secures the tumor bed to maximize vascularized remnant parenchyma, and minimizes global ischemia to the renal remnant with minimal complications. In this report we review renal surgical anatomy. Renal mass imaging allows detailed delineation of the

  14. Small renal mass cryosurgery: Imaging and vascular changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    The combined use of a fluorescent casting technique, cryomicrotome imaging, and 3-D computer analysis as a new static method for visualizing and reconstructing the vascular anatomy in a porcine renal model was studied. The arterial blood supply in 3-D at a resolution of up to 50μm of the whole could

  15. Vascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, D B; Ricci, M A

    1998-04-01

    Surgeon-interpreted diagnostic ultrasound has become the preferred screening test and often the definitive test for the diagnosis of arterial stenosis, aneurysm, and venous thrombosis. As a modality for surveillance, its noninvasive quality makes it particularly appealing as the test of choice to screen patients for abdominal aortic aneurysms or to perform follow-up examinations on those patients with a carotid endartectomy or in situ bypass grafts. The increasing reliance on intraoperative duplex imaging of vascular procedures demands that the surgeon learn the skills to perform the studies without a technologist or radiologist to interpret the examination.

  16. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  17. Superficial basal cell carcinoma: A comparison of superficial only subtype with superficial combined with other subtypes by age, sex and anatomic site in 3150 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, John H; Myint, Esther; Barr, Elizabeth M; Clark, Simon P; David, Michael; Na, Renua; Hou, Ruihang

    2017-08-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) may present as superficial subtype alone (sBCC) or superficial combined with other subtypes. The objective of this study was to compare sBCC without or with other BCC subtypes by age, sex and anatomic site. We retrospectively collected superficial BCC with the above characteristics from an Australian center during 2009 to 2014. We recorded 1528 sBCC and 1622 superficial BCC combined with other BCC subtype cases. Males numbered 2007 and females 1140. On males, head sites (forehead, cheek, nose and ear combined) compared to limb plus trunk sites displayed a higher incidence of superficial BCC combined with either nodular and or aggressive BCC subtypes (OR 13.15 CI 95% 8.9-19.5 P < .0001). On females a similar comparison also found a higher incidence of superficial BCC combined with solid subtype BCC on head sites compared to trunk and limb sites (OR 9.66 CI 95% 5.8-16.1 P < .0001). Superficial BCC alone is more likely on younger females on trunk and limb sites. Small partial biopsies reported as sBCC may miss other BCC subtypes present with higher risk on facial sites for males and females. Males had smaller proportions of superficial only subtype BCC on facial and ear sites compared to females. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A reappraisal of adult abdominal surface anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sara L; Buckenham, Tim; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Descriptions of clinically important surface landmarks often vary between and within contemporary anatomical texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface anatomy of major abdominal vessels, kidneys, spleen, gastroesophageal junction, and duodenojejunal flexure in living adults using computed tomography (CT). After excluding patients with distorting space-occupying lesions, scoliosis, abnormal lordosis, and obvious visceromegaly, 108 abdominal CT scans of supine adults (mean age 60 years, range 18-97 years; 64 female) at end tidal inspiration were available for analysis by dual consensus reporting. Intra-observer agreement was assessed by repeat blind assessment of a random sample of scans. The vertebral level of the aortic bifurcation and almost all of its major branches, and the origin of the inferior vena cava were consistent with current descriptions. Important differences from contemporary descriptions of surface anatomy were as follows: the renal arteries were most commonly at the L1 vertebral level (left 55%, right 43%); the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2 (left 68%, right 40%); the 11th rib was a posterior relation of the left kidney in only 28% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs (48%) with its long axis in line with the 11th rib (55%). Although the majority of vascular surface landmarks are consistent with standard descriptions, the surface anatomy of the kidneys, renal arteries, and spleen needs to be revised in accordance with observations using modern imaging techniques in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Patient specific anatomy: the new area of anatomy based on computer science illustrated on liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Luc; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick; Marescaux, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, medical imaging has brought a new revolution: internal anatomy of a patient could be seen without any invasive technique. This revolution has highlighted the two main limits of current anatomy: the anatomical description is physician dependent, and the average anatomy is more and more frequently insufficient to describe anatomical variations. These drawbacks can sometimes be so important that they create mistakes but they can be overcome through the use of 3D patient-specific surgical anatomy. In this article, we propose to illustrate such improvement of standard anatomy on liver. We first propose a general scheme allowing to easily compare the four main liver anatomical descriptions by Takasaki, Goldsmith and Woodburne, Bismuth and Couinaud. From this general scheme we propose four rules to apply in order to correct these initial anatomical definitions. Application of these rules allows to correct usual vascular topological mistakes of standard anatomy. We finally validate such correction on a database of 20 clinical cases compared to the 111 clinical cases of a Couinaud article. Out of the 20 images of the database, we note a revealing difference in 14 cases (70%) on at least one important branch of the portal network. Only six cases (30%) do not present a revealing difference between both labellings. We also show that the right portal fissure location on our 20 cases defined between segment V and VI of our anatomical definition is well correlated with the real position described by Couinaud on 111 cases, knowing that the theoretical position was only found in 46 cases out of 111, i.e., 41.44% of cases with the non-corrected Couinaud definition. We have proposed a new anatomical segmentation of the liver based on four main rules to apply in order to correct topological errors of the four main standard segmentations. Our validation clearly illustrates that this new definition corrects the large amount of mistakes created by the current

  20. Effect of Injecting Hydrogen Peroxide into Heavy Clay Loam Soil on Plant Water Status, NET CO2 Assimilation, Biomass, and Vascular Anatomy of Avocado Trees Efecto de la Inyección de Peróxido de Hidrógeno en Suelo Franco Arcilloso Pesado, sobre el Estado Hídrico, Asimilación Neta de CO2, Biomasa y Anatomía Vascular de Paltos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar M Gil M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In Chile, avocado (Persea americana Mill. orchards are often located in poorly drained, low-oxygen soils, situation which limits fruit production and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of injecting soil with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a source of molecular oxygen, on plant water status, net CO2 assimilation, biomass and anatomy of avocado trees set in clay loam soil with water content maintained at field capacity. Three-year-old ‘Hass’ avocado trees were planted outdoors in containers filled with heavy loam clay soil with moisture content sustained at field capacity. Plants were divided into two treatments, (a H2O2 injected into the soil through subsurface drip irrigation and (b soil with no H2O2 added (control. Stem and root vascular anatomical characteristics were determined for plants in each treatment in addition to physical soil characteristics, net CO2 assimilation (A, transpiration (T, stomatal conductance (gs, stem water potential (SWP, shoot and root biomass, water use efficiency (plant biomass per water applied [WUEb]. Injecting H2O2 into the soil significantly increased the biomass of the aerial portions of the plant and WUEb, but had no significant effect on measured A, T, gs, or SWP. Xylem vessel diameter and xylem/phloem ratio tended to be greater for trees in soil injected with H2O2 than for controls. The increased biomass of the aerial portions of plants in treated soil indicates that injecting H2O2 into heavy loam clay soils may be a useful management tool in poorly aerated soil.En Chile, los huertos de palto (Persea americana Mill. se ubican comúnmente en suelos pobremente drenados con bajo contenido de oxígeno, lo que limita producción y calidad de fruta. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la inyección de peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2 al suelo como fuente de O2, sobre el estado hídrico, asimilación de CO2, biomasa y anatomía de paltos en suelo franco arcilloso con

  1. Microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Wonil; Yoshioka, Fumitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Rhoton, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate and review the detailed microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve and surrounding structures along its entire course and to provide its topographic measurements. Ten cadaveric heads were examined using ×3 to ×40 magnification after the arteries and veins were injected with colored silicone. Both sides of each cadaveric head were dissected using different skull base approaches to demonstrate the entire course of the abducens nerve from the pontomedullary sulcus to the lateral rectus muscle. The anatomy of the petroclival area and the cavernous sinus through which the abducens nerve passes are complex due to the high density of critically important neural and vascular structures. The abducens nerve has angulations and fixation points along its course that put the nerve at risk in many clinical situations. From a surgical viewpoint, the petrous tubercle of the petrous apex is an intraoperative landmark to avoid damage to the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve is quite different from the other nerves. No other cranial nerve has a long intradural path with angulations and fixations such as the abducens nerve in petroclival venous confluence. A precise knowledge of the relationship between the abducens nerve and surrounding structures has allowed neurosurgeon to approach the clivus, petroclival area, cavernous sinus, and superior orbital fissure without surgical complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Normal cranial CT anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M.H.; Rao, K.C.V.G.

    1987-01-01

    The human brain consists of well-known anatomical components. Some parts of these components have been shown to be concerned with certain functions. A complete cranial CT examination consists of a series of several slices obtained in a sequence usually from the base to the vertex of the cranial vault, in the axial mode. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to pinpoint those slices that depict a given anatomical structure or several structures that deal with a given function. To achieve this goal, the discussion of CT cranial anatomy is presented in three sections

  3. Profunda Anchor Technique for Ipsilateral Antegrade Approach in Endovascular Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Ostial Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pua, Uei

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The “profunda anchor” technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA

  4. Profunda Anchor Technique for Ipsilateral Antegrade Approach in Endovascular Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Ostial Occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Uei, E-mail: druei@yahoo.com [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2015-04-15

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The “profunda anchor” technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA.

  5. Anatomía de la arteria temporal superficial: importancia quirúrgica: estudio piloto en cadáveres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Pradel-Mora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento preciso de los patrones vasculares permite mejorar los resultados de la reconstrucción regional del pabellón auricular y el diseño de colgajos regionales dependientes de la arteria temporal superficial para la reconstrucción facial. En México, no contamos en la actualidad con descripciones anatómicas de las variantes vasculares normales de la arteria temporal superficial. El objetivo de este trabajo es la descripción de las variantes anatómicas de la arteria temporal superficial a través de la disección de este vaso en 12 regiones tempo-parieto-occipitales en cadáveres. Nuestros resultados muestran que la arteria temporal superficial siempre se divide en dos ramas, una anterior y otra posterior, la distribución de ésta se sitúa en el cuarto más posterior de la región temporal, con una bifurcación alta. La distribución de la anatomía vascular, tomando en cuenta el calibre mayor de la arteria temporal superficial con respecto a la arteria auricular posterior, la ausencia de esta última en 4 de las regiones estudiadas, así como la distancia de dichos vasos con respecto al conducto auditivo externo, sugieren que en nuestra población la irrigación del pabellón auricular depende de la arteria temporal superficial, restándole importancia a la aportación del riego sanguíneo de esta región por parte de la arteria auricular posterior. Nuestro estudio arroja resultados que indican la existencia de variaciones importantes en la anatomía vascular regional que justifican la realización de estudios posteriores que permitan una descripción mas detallada de la misma para aumentar el éxito de las intervenciones quirúrgicas.

  6. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W.; Golinski, M.; Schroeder, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [de

  7. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  8. Volumetric visualization of anatomy for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelizzari, Charles A.; Grzeszczuk, Robert; Chen, George T. Y.; Heimann, Ruth; Haraf, Daniel J.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Ryan, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Delineation of volumes of interest for three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning is usually performed by contouring on two-dimensional sections. We explore the usage of segmentation-free volumetric rendering of the three-dimensional image data set for tumor and normal tissue visualization. Methods and Materials: Standard treatment planning computed tomography (CT) studies, with typically 5 to 10 mm slice thickness, and spiral CT studies with 3 mm slice thickness were used. The data were visualized using locally developed volume-rendering software. Similar to the method of Drebin et al., CT voxels are automatically assigned an opacity and other visual properties (e.g., color) based on a probabilistic classification into tissue types. Using volumetric compositing, a projection into the opacity-weighted volume is produced. Depth cueing, perspective, and gradient-based shading are incorporated to achieve realistic images. Unlike surface-rendered displays, no hand segmentation is required to produce detailed renditions of skin, muscle, or bony anatomy. By suitable manipulation of the opacity map, tissue classes can be made transparent, revealing muscle, vessels, or bone, for example. Manually supervised tissue masking allows irrelevant tissues overlying tumors or other structures of interest to be removed. Results: Very high-quality renditions are produced in from 5 s to 1 min on midrange computer workstations. In the pelvis, an anteroposterior (AP) volume rendered view from a typical planning CT scan clearly shows the skin and bony anatomy. A muscle opacity map permits clear visualization of the superficial thigh muscles, femoral veins, and arteries. Lymph nodes are seen in the femoral triangle. When overlying muscle and bone are cut away, the prostate, seminal vessels, bladder, and rectum are seen in 3D perspective. Similar results are obtained for thorax and for head and neck scans. Conclusion: Volumetric visualization of anatomy is useful in treatment

  9. Convergent evolution of vascular optimization in kelp (Laminariales)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobnitch, Sarah Tepler; Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Prentice, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plants and mammals, although separated by a great evolutionary distance, have each arrived at a highly conserved body plan in which universal allometric scaling relationships govern the anatomy of vascular networks and key functional metabolic traits. The universality of allometric...... (Phaeophyceae) are one such group—as distantly related to plants as mammals, they have convergently evolved a plant-like body plan and a specialized phloem-like transport network. To evaluate possible scaling and optimization in the kelp vascular system, we developed a model of optimized transport anatomy...... and tested it with measurements of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, which is among the largest and most successful of macroalgae. We also evaluated three classical allometric relationships pertaining to plant vascular tissues with a diverse sampling of kelp species. Macrocystis pyrifera displays strong...

  10. Social network extraction based on Web: 1. Related superficial methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin Matyuso Nasution, Mahyuddin

    2018-01-01

    Often the nature of something affects methods to resolve the related issues about it. Likewise, methods to extract social networks from the Web, but involve the structured data types differently. This paper reveals several methods of social network extraction from the same sources that is Web: the basic superficial method, the underlying superficial method, the description superficial method, and the related superficial methods. In complexity we derive the inequalities between methods and so are their computations. In this case, we find that different results from the same tools make the difference from the more complex to the simpler: Extraction of social network by involving co-occurrence is more complex than using occurrences.

  11. Antibody conjugate radioimmunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Alan; Hopper, Melanie; Murray, Andrea; Frier, Malcolm; Bishop, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The administration of antibody conjugates for cancer therapy is now proving to be of clinical value. We are currently undertaking a programme of clinical studies using the monoclonal antibody C 595 (gG3) which reacts with the MUC1 glycoprotein antigen that is aberrantly expressed in a high proportion of bladder tumours. Radio immuno conjugates of the C 595 antibody have been produced with high radiolabelling efficiency and immuno reactivity using Tc-99 m and In-111 for diagnostic imaging, and disease staging and the cytotoxic radionuclides Cu-67 and Re-188 for therapy of superficial bladder cancer. A Phase I/II therapeutic trail involving the intravesical administration of antibody directly into the bladder has now begun. (author)

  12. Superficial biopsy of the cervix: new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore De Girolami

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytological examination of the cervix in all patients is considered a necessity. A new technique of superficial biopsy is described and advantages en. numeratedEl Autor presenta una nueva técnica para biopsia superficial, considerando la necesidad de hacer rutinariamente a todas las pacientes el examen citológico del cérvix. La muestra se toma con el extremo de un aplicador cubierto de gaza. Este dispositivo, humedecido previamente en una solución de etanol, metanol y éter etílico, se aplica inmediatamente al cérvix del útero y, dándole un movimiento como el de las manecillas del reloj, se toma la muestra con la que se hacen frotis por aposición que se colorean por el método de Giemsa. Esta técnica ofrece la ventaja de que el tejido en estudio se adhiere perfectamente a la gaza, la cual, con el movimiento de rotación, desprende las células del "os uteri", las que son fijadas al mismo tiempo. La preparación del dispositivo es sumamente sencilla. La prueba resulta de bajo costo como de breve y fácil realizaciónL' Autore prende in considerazione l'utilitá dell' esame citologico del collo dell'utero, fatto rutinariamente a tutte le pazienti. Si descrive una nuova tecnica di biopsia superficiale che oltfe ad offrire dei vantaggi é di poca spesa e si puó eseguire con facilitá ed in breve tempo

  13. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated; Caracterizacion volumetrica y superficial de carbon activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Gerencia de Ciencias Basicas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  14. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    behind DBR is that new knowledge is generated through processes that simultaneously develop, test and improve a design, in this case, an educational design (1) The main principles used in the project is blended learning and flipped learning (2). …"I definitely learn best in practice, but the theory...... in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students......The aim of the project was to bridge the gap between theory and practice by working more collaboratively, both peer-to-peer and between student and lecturer. Furthermore the aim was to create active learning environments. The methodology of the project is Design-Based Research (DBR). The idea...

  15. Vascular lesions of head and neck: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Masoom Syed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular lesions are among the most common congenital and neonatal abnormalities. These anomalies can occur throughout the whole body, with 60%, however, being located in the head and neck region probably due to its intricate vascular anatomy of region. There is a significant confusion in the literature because of the use of confusing descriptive terminology for the same vascular entity and eponyms. Correct naming of lesion, appropriate classification, and clinical appearance of vascular lesions have a direct impact on understanding of etiologies of these complex lesions, diagnosis, and in treating patients. Thus, the aim of this article is to provide comprehensive knowledge about classifications and to have an insight of various important vascular lesions affecting head and neck region based on its pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management.

  16. The peritoneum - anatomy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribarova, V.

    2017-01-01

    The peritoneum is a large and complex serous membrane The peritoneal spaces and the natural flow of peritoneal fluid determine the route of spread of the disease processes within the abdominal cavity. The goal of this article is to review the normal peritoneal anatomy and the role of the imaging in the diagnostic of the disease processes. Among the imaging methods, the computed tomography at greater extent allows the accurate examination of the complex anatomy of the peritoneal cavity and to assess the extent of the pathological processes affecting it. Key words: Peritoneal Anatomy. Imaging. CT [bg

  17. Does ultrasound contrast agent improve the diagnostic value of colour and power Doppler sonography in superficial lymph node enlargement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte-Altedorneburg, Gernot; Demharter, Johannes; Linne, Renate; Droste, Dirk W.; Bohndorf, Klaus; Buecklein, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to analyse whether ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) improves the diagnostic accuracy to differentiate between benign and malignant superficial lymph node enlargement by using colour-coded duplex sonography (CCDS) and power Doppler (PD). Methods: 32 patients with suspected malignant superficial lymph node enlargement prospectively underwent standardised ultrasound examinations using B-mode sonography and native and contrast-enhanced CCDS and PD immediately before biopsy. Solbiati-Index (longitudinal-transverse diameter ratio) and intranodal flow patterns by using different vascularisation types were assessed. Histological and sonographical findings were correlated. Results: 27 malignant and 5 benign lymph nodes were found. Solbiati-Index was lower in malignant lymph nodes than in benign nodes (mean 1.5 vs. 2.4, P<0.045). More intranodal flow patterns could be detected after UCA (53 vs. 43) but the number of correctly identified malignant nodes decreased after UCA (26 vs. 24) and the number of correctly identified benign nodes remained constant compared with native CCDS and PD. In 31% of the colour-mode studies, PD was considered to visualise more clearly intranodal vascular flow patterns than CCDS. Conclusion: despite depicting more intranodal vascular patterns, the use of an ultrasound contrast agent seems not to improve the diagnostic value of CCDS and PD compared with native colour-mode studies in superficial lymph node enlargement

  18. Size exclusion chromatography with superficially porous particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, Mark R; Moran, Robert E

    2017-01-13

    A comparison is made using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of synthetic polymers between fully porous particles (FPPs) and superficially porous particles (SPPs) with similar particle diameters, pore sizes and equal flow rates. Polystyrene molecular weight standards with a mobile phase of tetrahydrofuran are utilized for all measurements conducted with standard HPLC equipment. Although it is traditionally thought that larger pore volume is thermodynamically advantageous in SEC for better separations, SPPs have kinetic advantages and these will be shown to compensate for the loss in pore volume compared to FPPs. The comparison metrics include the elution range (smaller with SPPs), the plate count (larger for SPPs), the rate production of theoretical plates (larger for SPPs) and the specific resolution (larger with FPPs). Advantages to using SPPs for SEC are discussed such that similar separations can be conducted faster using SPPs. SEC using SPPs offers similar peak capacities to that using FPPs but with faster operation. This also suggests that SEC conducted in the second dimension of a two-dimensional liquid chromatograph may benefit with reduced run time and with equivalently reduced peak width making SPPs advantageous for sampling the first dimension by the second dimension separator. Additional advantages are discussed for biomolecules along with a discussion of optimization criteria for size-based separations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Superficial siderosis: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresojević Nikola D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Superficial siderosis (SS is caused by chronic subarachnoid bleeding and is characterized by free iron and hemosiderin deposition along the pial and subpial structures of central nervous system. SS leads to progressive and irreversible CNS damage. The most common causes of chronic subarachnoidal bleeding are tumors, head and spinal cord trauma, arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms. SS is characterized by clinical triad: sensorineural hearing loss, cerebellar ataxia and piramydal signs. Brain MR imaging is the investigation of choice for the diagnosis of SS. Typical findings include hypointensities seen on T2­weighted MR imaging around the brain, cerebellum, brain stem, spinal cord, VIII cranial nerve and atrophy of cerebellum and medulla. Case Outline. A 71-year­old female patient noticed hand tremor in the middle of the third decade of life, and later slowly progressive bilateral hearing loss. At the age of 64 she developed un­ steady gate, hand clumsiness and dysarthria, to became incapable of independent walking and standing five years later. Clinical course and brain MRI findings were typical for SS, but additional investigation did not reveal the couse of subarahnoidal bleeding. Conclusion. SS represents a rare and under­recognized condition that must be considered in all patients with cerebellar syndrome of unknown cause. Early diagnosis of SS in some cases with identified cause of chronic bleeding allowes therapeutic interventions that may prevent further progression of the disease. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175090

  20. Modified Functional Superficial Parotidectomy With Ligation of the Major Branch of the Parotid Duct Extending to the Superficial Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung Woo; Leem, Soo Seong; Choi, Hwan Jun; Lee, Jang Hyun

    2017-05-01

    A functional superficial parotidectomy can maintain salivary function by preserving the Stensen duct. However, this technique still brings the possibility of salivary leakage, because major branches of the parotid duct from the resected site do not get ligated. To reduce this complication, this study introduces a modified technique with major branch ligation. From December 2008 to February 2015, 14 patients who underwent superficial parotidectomy were divided into 2 groups. Group A was treated with the modified functional superficial parotidectomy involving the major branch between the superficial lobe and parotid duct. Group B was treated with the conventional superficial parotidectomy without involving the major branch of the parotid duct. The clinical complications, period of Hemovac usage, and surgical duration were noted in each group. Two of 8 patients in group A had a major branch from Stensen duct that was ligated, and there was no evidence of salivary leakage or sialocele in any of the patients of group A, whereas group B contained 2 cases of salivary leakage, one of which became sialocele. Group A had a significantly longer Hemovac maintenance period than group B (P < 0.05), and the duration of surgery was also significantly different between the 2 groups (P < 0.05). Because a solitary major branch of the main parotid duct occasionally extends toward the superficial lobe, our modified technique-functional superficial parotidectomy with ligation of the major branch toward the superficial lobe-is a useful option for treatment of a benign parotid mass in such cases.

  1. Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilecki, Stanisław; Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Świętaszczyk, Cyprian; Junik, Roman; Lasek, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution. Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters. A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies appearing progressively in the upper and lower right limbs, chest wall and spleen. A Parkes Weber syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical picture. Due to the occurrence of new foci of malformations, a whole-body scintigraphic examination was performed. A 12-years-old girl reported a lump in the right lower limb present for approximately 2 years, which was clinically identified as a vascular lesion in the area of calcaneus and talus. Phleboscintigraphy visualized normal radiomarker outflow from the feet via the deep venous system, also observed in the superficial venous system once the tourniquets were released. In static and whole-body examinations vascular malformations were visualised in the area of the medial cuneiform, navicular and talus bones of the left foot, as well as in the projection of right calcaneus and above the right talocrural joint. People with undiagnosed disorders related to the presence of vascular malformations should undergo periodic follow-up to identify lesions that may be the cause of potentially serious complications and to assess the results of treatment. Presented scintigraphic methods may be used for both diagnosing and monitoring of disease progression

  2. Evaluation of pelvic floor anatomy with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.; Pringle, K.C.; Bergman, R.A.; Yuh, W.T.C.; Smith, W.C.; Franken, E.A. Jr.; Schreiber, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging allows direct diagnostic imaging of the anorectal sphincter. This report reviews the normal anatomy of the musculature of the pelvic floor as demonstrated by MR imaging with emphasis on its relationship to the rectum and anal canal correlating with cadaver dissection. Anatomic landmarks routinely depicted by MR imaging include the levator ani, striated muscle complex, superficial transverse perineal muscle, and the urogenital diaphragm. The following abnormalities of the sphincteric musculature were also studied: hindgut duplication, hypoplasia, both abnormal and normal placement of the rectum after surgical procedures for anorectal anomalies, rectal inflammation, and displacement of the musculature by mass lesions. MR imaging plays an important role for the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of pelvic floor pathology

  3. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-06-29

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  4. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Yiee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  5. Anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de cuatro especies de Lupinus (Fabaceae Foliar and petiole anatomy of four species of Lupinus (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Zamora-Natera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y compara la anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de 4 especies del género Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth y L. reflexus Rose que se distribuyen en un gradiente altitudinal en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Las hojas se fijaron en campo y se procesaron mediante la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Parte de las láminas se deshidrataron para caracterizar la superficie foliar por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las especies comparten la epidermis papilosa de paredes anticlinales con diferentes grados de ondulación, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas simples lineares y mesofilo bifacial. Los folíolos de L. montanus son glabros en la superficie abaxial, las estrías cuticulares sobre las células localizadas en la base de los tricomas es un rasgo característico de L. montanus y de L. reflexus. Las diferencias encontradas en espesor de la lámina y del mesofilo así como la abundancia de ceras epicuticulares pueden estar influenciadas por el ambiente. Distintivamente, el número y distribución de haces vasculares en los pecíolos difieren entre las 4 especies y podrían ser de utilidad para diferenciarlas si estos resultados se confirman al estudiar un mayor número de especies de Lupinus.The aims of this study were to describe and compare the foliar and petiole anatomy of 4 species of Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth, and L. reflexus Rose distributed in an elevation gradient at Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Leaves were fixed in the field and prepared using the paraffin embedding technique. In addition, part of the blades was dehydrated to describe leaf surface through the scanning electron microscope. The 4 species shared a papillose epidermis with undulated anticlinal walls in different degrees, stomata anomocytic, simple unicellular trichomes, and bifacial mesophyll. Leaflets of L. montanus are glabrous on the abaxial surface

  6. Using biplanar fluoroscopy to guide radiopaque vascular injections: a new method for vascular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley D O'Brien

    Full Text Available Studying vascular anatomy, especially in the context of relationships with hard tissues, is of great interest to biologists. Vascular studies have provided significant insight into physiology, function, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary patterns. Injection of resin or latex into the vascular system has been a standard technique for decades. There has been a recent surge in popularity of more modern methods, especially radiopaque latex vascular injection followed by CT scanning and digital "dissection." This technique best displays both blood vessels and bone, and allows injections to be performed on cadaveric specimens. Vascular injection is risky, however, because it is not a standardizable technique, as each specimen is variable with regard to injection pressure and timing. Moreover, it is not possible to view the perfusion of injection medium throughout the vascular system of interest. Both data and rare specimens can therefore be lost due to poor or excessive perfusion. Here, we use biplanar video fluoroscopy as a technique to guide craniovascular radiopaque latex injection. Cadaveric domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were injected with radiopaque latex under guidance of fluoroscopy. This method was found to enable adjustments, in real-time, to the rate, location, and pressure at which latex is injected in order to avoid data and specimen loss. In addition to visualizing the injection process, this technique can be used to determine flow patterns, and has facilitated the development of consistent markers for complete perfusion.

  7. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-01-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author)

  8. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-02-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author).

  9. Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology Drug Delivery Technologies in the Superficial Femoral Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Akshaar; Misra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) affects over 8 million people in the United States alone. While great strides have been made in reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease the prevalence of PAD is expected to rise as the global population ages. PAD characterized by narrowing of arterial blood can be asymptomatic or cause acute limb threatening claudication. It has been classically treated with bypass, but these techniques have been supplanted by endovascular therapy. Plain old Balloon Angioplasty (POBA) has been successful in helping revascularize lesions, but its effect has not been durable due to restenosis. This prompted the creation of several technologies aimed at reducing restenosis. These advances slowly improved outcomes and the durability of endovascular management. Amongst the main tools used in current endovascular practice are drug delivery devices aimed at inhibiting the inflammatory and proliferative pathways that lead to restenosis. This review will examine the current drug delivery technologies used in the SFA. PMID:27423996

  10. Noninvasive in vivo optical characterization of blood flow and oxygen consumption in the superficial plexus of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liasi, Faezeh Talebi; Samatham, Ravikant; Jacques, Steven L.

    2017-11-01

    Assessing the metabolic activity of a tissue, whether normal, damaged, aged, or pathologic, is useful for diagnosis and evaluating the effects of drugs. This report describes a handheld optical fiber probe that contacts the skin, applies pressure to blanch the superficial vascular plexus of the skin, then releases the pressure to allow refill of the plexus. The optical probe uses white light spectroscopy to record the time dynamics of blanching and refilling. The magnitude and dynamics of changes in blood content and hemoglobin oxygen saturation yield an estimate of the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in units of attomoles per cell per second. The average value of OCR on nine forearm sites on five subjects was 10±5 (amol/cell/s). This low-cost, portable, rapid, noninvasive optical probe can characterize the OCR of a skin site to assess the metabolic activity of the epidermis or a superficial lesion.

  11. Magnetic resonance venography of congenital vascular malformations of the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laor, T.; Burrows, P.E.; Hoffer, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    Contrast angiography can demonstrate the vascular components of a vascular malformation, but can be technically challenging in small patients with complex venous anomalies. We reviewed the role of magnetic resonance venography (MRV) in the evaluation of children with predominantly low-flow, vascular malformations of the extremities. MRV (2D time-of-flight technique) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations were performed in ten young patients with congential predominantly low-flow vascular malformations of the extremities. MR imaging was used to characterize and determine the extent of the malformations, and MRV to evaluate the deep and superficial venous channels. In all patients, MRV studies were reviewed in conjunction with contrast angiograms, considered the gold standard, to confirm the findings. All signficant channel anomalies seen with contrast angiography were identified with MRV. In addition, MRV demonstrated some veins that were not intentionally opacified during contrast studies. MRV demonstrates both the superficial and deep conducting veins, whereas contrast angiography is a more directed study, evaluating only those channels intentionally opacified. Together, MR imaging and MRV data can non-invasively form the basis for determining the prognosis and choosing the individual treatment of congenital vascular malformations of the extremities. (orig.)

  12. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  13. Trauma ocupacional por corpo estranho corneano superficial Occupational trauma due to superficial corneal foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Miroski Gerente

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a epidemiologia do trauma ocular por corpo estranho superficial de córnea. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes atendidos no Pronto-Socorro da Universidade Federal de São Paulo entre abril e junho de 2005 que apresentaram corpo estranho superficial de córnea foram entrevistados. Foram avaliados: sexo, idade, profissão, registro legal do emprego, uso, disponibilidade e tipo de equipamentos de proteção utilizados e a fiscalização do seu uso. O conhecimento das complicações deste tipo de acidente também foi avaliado. Os resultados foram analisados com teste do qui quadrado ou teste de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 123 pacientes. Apenas 3 eram do sexo feminino e a idade média foi de 36 anos. A maioria destes traumas ocorreu no ambiente de trabalho (86,2% e 58,4% não possuíam registro legal do emprego. As profissões mais freqüentemente envolvidas foram serralheiro, pedreiro e metalúrgico. Em 79,8% dos locais de trabalho havia equipamentos de proteção e 85,3% dos pacientes eram orientados a usá-los. Em 52,4% dos locais sua utilização era fiscalizada, mas apenas 34,2% usavam no momento do trauma. A utilização foi mais freqüente (p=0,008 e fiscalização mais presente (p=0,0415 entre pacientes com registro legal de emprego. Questionados sobre os riscos, 68,9% dos pacientes tinham consciência das complicações graves deste tipo de acidente. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria dos pacientes tem conhecimento sobre a gravidade do trauma ocular e este tipo de lesão ocorre mesmo em locais com equipamentos de proteção disponíveis, alguns deles até durante o seu uso. Os dados sugerem que enfoque maior da prevenção deve ser na fiscalização e utilização de equipamentos adequados.PURPOSE: To evaluate the epidemiology of superficial corneal foreign body. METHODS: Patients who were seen at the Emergency Service of the Federal University of São Paulo, from April/05 to June/05, were screened and those with superficial corneal

  14. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Micro-endoscopic ear anatomy of guinea pig applied to experimental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Bruno Borges de Carvalho; Andrade, José Santos Cruz de; Garcia, Leandro Borborema; Pifaia, Gustavo Ribeiro; Cruz, Oswaldo Laércio Mendonça; Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Penido, Norma de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    To describe topographic and endoscopic anatomy of guinea pig ear for development of surgical approaches in experimental studies. Experimental study. Eight adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used in this study. Four animals were described through endoscopic view and four animals were used to describe topographic anatomy. The main structures of middle ear were well identified through endoscopy view: oval and round window, ossicles and vascular structures. Temporal bone position, landmarks and its relations to skull are perceived with topographic description. Topographic anatomic description allowed exposition of temporal bone relations for external surgical approaches. Alternatively, grooves and middle ear structures were identified and may be used to transcanal accesses.

  16. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-08

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  18. Microsurgical anatomy of the central lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, Thomas; Paglioli, Eliseu; de Oliveira, Evandro; Rhoton, Albert L

    2015-03-01

    The central lobe consists of the pre- and postcentral gyri on the lateral surface and the paracentral lobule on the medial surface and corresponds to the sensorimotor cortex. The objective of the present study was to define the neural features, craniometric relationships, arterial supply, and venous drainage of the central lobe. Cadaveric hemispheres dissected using microsurgical techniques provided the material for this study. The coronal suture is closer to the precentral gyrus and central sulcus at its lower rather than at its upper end, but they are closest at a point near where the superior temporal line crosses the coronal suture. The arterial supply of the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the central lobe was from the central, precentral, and anterior parietal branches that arose predominantly from the superior trunk of the middle cerebral artery. The medial surface and the superior third of the lateral surface were supplied by the posterior interior frontal, paracentral, and superior parietal branches of the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. The venous drainage of the superior two-thirds of the lateral surface and the central lobe on the medial surface was predominantly through the superior sagittal sinus, and the inferior third of the lateral surface was predominantly through the superficial sylvian veins to the sphenoparietal sinus or the vein of Labbé to the transverse sinus. The pre- and postcentral gyri and paracentral lobule have a morphological and functional anatomy that differentiates them from the remainder of their respective lobes and are considered by many as a single lobe. An understanding of the anatomical relationships of the central lobe can be useful in preoperative planning and in establishing reliable intraoperative landmarks.

  19. Superficial herpes simplex virus wound infection following lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Wojtek; Wojarski, Jacek; Zegleń, Sławomir; Ochman, Marek; Urlik, Maciej; Hudzik, Bartosz; Wozniak-Grygiel, Elzbieta; Maruszewski, Marcin

    2017-08-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are infections of tissues, organs, or spaces exposed by surgeons during performance of an invasive procedure. SSIs are classified into superficial, which are limited to skin and subcutaneous tissues, and deep. The incidence of deep SSIs in lung transplant (LTx) patients is estimated at 5%. No reports have been published as to the incidence of superficial SSIs specifically in LTx patients. Common sense would dictate that the majority of superficial SSIs would be bacterial. Uncommonly, fungal SSIs may occur, and we believe that no reports exist as to the incidence of viral wound infections in LTx patients, or in any solid organ transplant patients. We report a de novo superficial wound infection with herpes simplex virus following lung transplantation, its possible source, treatment, and resolution. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Vascular Multiplicity Should Not Be a Contra-Indication for Live Kidney Donation and Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Lafranca

    Full Text Available Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate.Data from all live kidney donors from 2006-2013 (n = 951 was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or other modalities was compared with intraoperative findings. Furthermore, the influence of vascular multiplicity on outcome of donors and recipients was studied.In 237 out of 951 donors (25%, vascular multiplicity was present. CTA had the highest accuracy levels regarding vascular anatomy assessment. Regarding outcome of donors with vascular multiplicity, warm ischemia time (WIT and skin-to-skin time were significantly longer if arterial multiplicity (AM was present (5.1 vs. 4.0 mins and 202 vs. 178 mins. Skin-to-skin time was significantly longer, and complication rates were higher in donors with venous multiplicity (203 vs. 180 mins and 17.2% vs. 8.4%. Outcome of renal transplant recipients showed a significantly increased WIT (30 vs. 26.7 minutes, higher rate of DGF (13.9% vs. 6.9% and lower rate of BPAR (6.9% vs. 13.9% in patients receiving a kidney with AM compared to kidneys with singular anatomy.We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients.

  1. Vascular Multiplicity Should Not Be a Contra-Indication for Live Kidney Donation and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafranca, Jeffrey A; van Bruggen, Mark; Kimenai, Hendrikus J A N; Tran, Thi C K; Terkivatan, Türkan; Betjes, Michiel G H; IJzermans, Jan N M; Dor, Frank J M F

    2016-01-01

    Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate. Data from all live kidney donors from 2006-2013 (n = 951) was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or other modalities was compared with intraoperative findings. Furthermore, the influence of vascular multiplicity on outcome of donors and recipients was studied. In 237 out of 951 donors (25%), vascular multiplicity was present. CTA had the highest accuracy levels regarding vascular anatomy assessment. Regarding outcome of donors with vascular multiplicity, warm ischemia time (WIT) and skin-to-skin time were significantly longer if arterial multiplicity (AM) was present (5.1 vs. 4.0 mins and 202 vs. 178 mins). Skin-to-skin time was significantly longer, and complication rates were higher in donors with venous multiplicity (203 vs. 180 mins and 17.2% vs. 8.4%). Outcome of renal transplant recipients showed a significantly increased WIT (30 vs. 26.7 minutes), higher rate of DGF (13.9% vs. 6.9%) and lower rate of BPAR (6.9% vs. 13.9%) in patients receiving a kidney with AM compared to kidneys with singular anatomy. We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients.

  2. Anatomy and histology of the transverse humeral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Brian J; Narvy, Steven J; Omid, Reza; Atkinson, Roscoe D; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The classic literature describes the transverse humeral ligament (THL) as a distinct anatomic structure with a role in biceps tendon stability; however, recent literature suggests that it is not a distinct anatomic structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gross and microscopic anatomy of the THL, including a specific investigation of the histology of this ligament. Thirty frozen, embalmed cadaveric specimens were dissected to determine the gross anatomy of the THL. Seven specimens were evaluated histologically for the presence of mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings. Two tissue layers were identified in the area described as the THL. In the deep layer, fibers of the subscapularis tendon were found to span the bicipital groove with contributions from the coracohumeral ligament and the supraspinatus tendon. Superficial to this layer was a fibrous fascial covering consisting of distinct bands of tissue. Neurohistology staining revealed the presence of free nerve endings but no mechanoreceptors. This study's findings demonstrate that the THL is a distinct structure continuous with the rotator cuff tendons and the coracohumeral ligament. The finding of free nerve endings in the THL suggests a potential role as a shoulder pain generator. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Imaging of the most frequent superficial soft-tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Melanie; Taieb, Sophie; Ceugnart, Luc; Penel, Nicolas; Mortier, Laurent; Vanseymortier, Luc; Robin, Y.M.; Gosset, Pierre; Cotten, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors located within the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous layers. Most superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors; yet, the risk of local recurrence is high, and initial wide surgery is the main prognostic factor. Some of these superficial sarcomas may grow, following an infiltrative pattern, and their real extent may be underestimated clinically. Imaging techniques are useful to determine precisely the real margins of the tumor, especially in cases of clinically doubtful or recurrent or large superficial lesions. Imaging tools enable one to determine the relationship with the superficial fascia separating the subcutaneous layer from the underlying muscle. In our institution ultrasonographic examination is followed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging when the size of the lesion exceeds 3-5 cm. Imaging assessment is performed prior to biopsy, enabling optimal surgical management. Imaging features of the main superficial sarcomas are detailed in the following article, according to their major locations: those arising in the epidermis and/or dermis, which are most often diagnosed by dermatologists, and the subcutaneous sarcomas. (orig.)

  4. Imaging of the most frequent superficial soft-tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, Melanie; Taieb, Sophie; Ceugnart, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Penel, Nicolas [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Oncology, Lille (France); Mortier, Laurent [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Dermatology, Hopital Claude Huriez, Lille (France); Vanseymortier, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Surgery, Lille (France); Robin, Y.M. [Centre Oscar Lambret, Departement of Pathology, Lille (France); Gosset, Pierre [Groupement Hospitalier de l' Institut Catholique-Faculte Libre de Medecine de Lille, Department of Pathology, Hopital Saint-Philibert, Lomme (France); Cotten, Anne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Centre Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-03-15

    Superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors located within the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous layers. Most superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors; yet, the risk of local recurrence is high, and initial wide surgery is the main prognostic factor. Some of these superficial sarcomas may grow, following an infiltrative pattern, and their real extent may be underestimated clinically. Imaging techniques are useful to determine precisely the real margins of the tumor, especially in cases of clinically doubtful or recurrent or large superficial lesions. Imaging tools enable one to determine the relationship with the superficial fascia separating the subcutaneous layer from the underlying muscle. In our institution ultrasonographic examination is followed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging when the size of the lesion exceeds 3-5 cm. Imaging assessment is performed prior to biopsy, enabling optimal surgical management. Imaging features of the main superficial sarcomas are detailed in the following article, according to their major locations: those arising in the epidermis and/or dermis, which are most often diagnosed by dermatologists, and the subcutaneous sarcomas. (orig.)

  5. Pocket atlas of radiographic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.; Stark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy' presents 170 radiographs of the various body regions of adults, showing only the normal radiographic anatomy. Each radiograph is supplemented on the opposite page by a drawing of the particular body region. There is no commenting text, but the drawings are provided with captions in English. The atlas is a useful guide for interpreting radiographs. The pictures are arranged in chapters entitled as follows: Skeletal Imaging (skull, spine, upper extremity), lower extremity; Miscellaneous Plain Films (chest, mammogram, trachea, lung tomograms); Contrast Examinations (gastrointestinal tract, intravenous contrast examinations, arthrography, angiography); Special Examinations (myelograms, lymphangiograms, bronchograms, sialograms). (UWA). 348 figs [de

  6. Effects of vaginal prolapse surgery and ageing on vaginal vascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Ageing affects pelvic floor anatomy and function, resulting in several disorders like pelvic organ prolapse (POP), lower urinary tract symptoms and vaginal atrophy (VA). In this thesis we searched for methods to link the function of pelvic organs to physiological changes. The effects of POP and vaginal prolapse surgery on vaginal vascularization and the influence of ageing and topical oestrogens on pelvic floor disorders were examined. The lack of knowledge regarding the effects of ageing on ...

  7. Anatomy of the subcutaneous tissue of the trunk and lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, B; Barton, F E

    1987-08-01

    Dissections on 8 fresh and 10 embalmed cadavers were used to determine the anatomy of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the trunk and extremities. These dissections, along with CT scans, confirmed Gray's original description of the subcutaneous tissue consisting of a superficial and deep adipose layer. The superficial adipose layer is contained within organized, compact fascial septa. The deep adipose layer demonstrated regional variations with respect to its fascial framework, but was contained within a relatively loose, less organized, and more widely spaced fascial septa. We observed that the adipose layers are partitioned by a discrete subcutaneous fascia which fuses with the underlying muscle fascia at particular anatomic locations. The deep layer is thus contained by the subcutaneous fascia above and the muscle fascia below to form what we termed the deep adipose compartments. The deep adipose compartments contributed significantly to overall adipose thickness, are bilateral, and are found in the abdomen and paralumbar and gluteal-thigh regions.

  8. Drenaje suplementario del sistema venoso superficial en colgajos pediculados Supplementary drainage of superficial venous system in pedicled flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los colgajos pediculados pueden sufrir edema y congestión debido a que su drenaje a trevés del sistema venoso superfical es imposible y el flujo hacia el sistema profundo a nivel del pedículo es precario. Esta situación suele evolucionar hacia la necrosis parcial o la pérdida total del colgajo en pocas horas. La apertura del sistema venoso superficial permite el drenaje adecuado de los tejidos transferidos y evita estas complicaciones. Este artículo analiza el papel de las anastomosis microquirúrgicas en el sistema venoso superficial de los colgajos pediculados. Esta técnica permite comunicar el sistema venoso superfical de los tejidos transferidos con el sistema venoso superficial del territorio que rodea al defecto. Presentamos los resultados obtenidos con esta técnica en colgajos de perforante en hélice, colgajos miocutáneos, colgajos neurocutáneos y colgajos fasciograsos volteados.The pedicled flaps can suffer edema and congestion due to the impossibility of drainage toward the superficial venous system and the precarious flow via the deep system at the level of the pedicle. The evolution of this situation is usually partial necrosis or total loss of the flap in a few hours. The opening of the venous superficial system achieves an appropriate drainage of the transfered tissues and avoids these complications. In this article we analyze the role of the microsurgical anastomosis at the level of the superficial venous system of pedicled flaps. This technique allows to communicate the superficial venous system of the transfered tissues with the superficial venous system of the territory around the defect. We report the results with this method in propeller perforator flaps, miocutaneous flaps, neurocutaneous flaps and adipofascial turn over flaps.

  9. External and internal anatomy of mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L F; Sousa Neto, M D; Fidel, S R; da Costa, W F; Pécora, J D

    1996-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 628 extracted, mandibular first and second molars was studied. The external anatomy was studied by measuring each tooth and by observing the direction of the root curvatures from the facial surface. The internal anatomy of the pulp cavity was studied by a method of making the teeth translucent.

  10. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  11. Vascularization in Ornamented Osteoderms: Physiological Implications in Ectothermy and Amphibious Lifestyle in the Crocodylomorphs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarac, F; De Buffrénil, V; Cubo, J; Quilhac, A

    2018-01-01

    Vascularization in the core of crocodylian osteoderms, and in their superficial pits has been hypothesized to be a key feature involved in physiological thermoregulation and/or acidosis buffering during anoxia (apnea). However, up to now, there have been no quantitative data showing that the inner, or superficial, blood supply of the osteoderms is greater than that occurring in neighboring dermal tissues. We provide such data: our results clearly indicate that the vascular networks in both the osteoderms and the pits forming their superficial ornamentation are denser than in the overlying dermis. These results support previous physiological assumptions and indicate that vascularization in pseudosuchian (crocodylians and close relatives) ornamented osteoderms could be part of a broad eco-physiological adaptation towards ectothermy and aquatic ambush predation acquired by the crocodylomorphs during their post-Triassic evolution. Moreover, regressions demonstrate that the number of enclosed vessels is correlated with the sectional area of the cavities housing them (superficial pits and inner cavities). These regressions can be used to infer the degree of vascularization on dry and fossilized osteoderms and thus document the evolution of the putative function of the osteoderms in the Pseudosuchia. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 301:175-183, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Tinjauan Anatomi Klinik dan Manajemen Bell's Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Mujaddidah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bell's Palsy is a peripheral facial nerve weakness (facial nerve with acute onset on one side of the face. This condition causes the inability of the patient to move half of his face consciously (volunter on the affected side. The Bell's Palsy incidence is 20-30 cases out of 100.000 people and accounts for 60-70% of all cases of unilateral facial paralysis. The disease is self-limited, but causes great suffering for patients who are not treated properly. Controversy in the management is still debated, and the cause is still unknown. The underlying hypothesis is ischemic, vascular, viral, bacterial, hereditary, and immunologic. Therapy done so far is to improve facial nerve function and healing process. The management of the therapy used will be closely related to the structure of the anatomy and its functions and associated abnormalities. The modalities of Bell's Palsy therapy are with corticosteroids and antivirals, facial exercises, electrostimulation, physiotherapy and decompression operations. Approximately 80-90% of patients with Bell's palsy recover completely within 6 months, even in 50-60% of cases improved within 3 weeks. Approximately 10% experienced persistent facial muscle asymmetry, and 5% experienced severe sequelae, and 8% of cases were recurrent.

  13. Bronchial arteries: anatomy, function, hypertrophy, and anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher M; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Kunin, Jeffrey R; Wible, Brandt C

    2015-01-01

    The two main sources of blood supply to the lungs and their supporting structures are the pulmonary and bronchial arteries. The bronchial arteries account for 1% of the cardiac output but can be recruited to provide additional systemic circulation to the lungs in various acquired and congenital thoracic disorders. An understanding of bronchial artery anatomy and function is important in the identification of bronchial artery dilatation and anomalies and the formulation of an appropriate differential diagnosis. Visualization of dilated bronchial arteries at imaging should alert the radiologist to obstructive disorders that affect the pulmonary circulation and prompt the exclusion of diseases that produce or are associated with pulmonary artery obstruction, including chronic infectious and/or inflammatory processes, chronic thromboembolic disease, and congenital anomalies of the thorax (eg, proximal interruption of the pulmonary artery). Conotruncal abnormalities, such as pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, are associated with systemic pulmonary supply provided by aortic branches known as major aortopulmonary collaterals, which originate in the region of the bronchial arteries. Bronchial artery malformation is a rare left-to-right or left-to-left shunt characterized by an anomalous connection between a bronchial artery and a pulmonary artery or a pulmonary vein, respectively. Bronchial artery interventions can be used successfully in the treatment of hemoptysis, with a low risk of adverse events. Multidetector computed tomography helps provide a vascular road map for the interventional radiologist before bronchial artery embolization. RSNA, 2015

  14. Perforator anatomy of the radial forearm free flap versus the ulnar forearm free flap for head and neck reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekner, D.D.; Roeling, TAP; van Cann, EM

    The aim of this study was to investigate the vascular anatomy of the distal forearm in order to optimize the choice between the radial forearm free flap and the ulnar forearm free flap and to select the best site to harvest the flap. The radial and ulnar arteries of seven fresh cadavers were

  15. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the innervation of the head and neck area, together with other cranial and spinal nerves. Knowledge of the nerve’s anatomy is very important for the correct application of local anaesthetics.

  16. CONTRIBUTIONS OF SUSHRUTA TO ANATOMY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-08

    Aug 8, 2005 ... Learning anatomy through the dissected ... practice. Sushruta was the first person who had established the ... graduate had to obtain the permission of the ... importance to neuroembryology in the Sarira- .... Faculty of the History of Medicine and Pharmacy, and held at the Royal College of Physicians.

  17. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  18. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  19. Stem anatomy variation in cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.N. Foulger; J. Hacskaylo

    1968-01-01

    Investigations of mineral nutrient-tree growth relationships have dealt mainly with associations involving foliage composition, root formation, or volume production of wood. Few studies have been concerned with changes in wood anatomy associated with element deficiency. In 1949 Davis reported that calcium deficiency was accompanied by a reduction of primary tissue and...

  20. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    mucoperichondrium, septum, vascular anatomy, and airway dynamics. No operative complications, postoperative airway compromise, or infections were observed. Access to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage is feasible through a variety of surgical approaches and techniques. To date, this is the first study to meticulously document and review the surgical approaches to the rabbit nasal cavity. This approach describes a novel, 3-osteotomy method of accessing the nasal cavity bilaterally and successfully harvesting rabbit septal cartilage in a submucoperichondrial plane. The ability to preserve native anatomy and function allows for improved outcomes in translational and animal guided clinical research. NA.

  1. [Analysis of anatomical pieces preservation with polyester resin for human anatomy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ítalo Martins; Mindêllo, Marcela Maria Aguiar; Martins, Yasmin de Oliveira; da Silva Filho, Antônio Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the use of polyester resin in preserving anatomical specimens for the study of human anatomy. We used 150 anatomical specimens, comprised of unfixed (fresh), fixed in 10% formalin and vascular casts of organs injected with vinyl acetate and polyester resin. The solution used consisted of polyester resin with the diluent styrene monomer and catalyst (peroxol). After embedding in this solution, models in transparent resin were obtained, allowing full observation of structures and conservation of the specimens used. upon evaluation of the specimens, we observed a high degree of transparency, which promoted a complete visualization of structures with perfect preservation of the anatomy. The average time for the completion of the embedding was 48 hours. Only 14 specimens (9.3%) were lost during the preparation. Polyester resin can be used for preserving anatomical specimens for teaching human anatomy in a practical, aesthetic and durable way.

  2. Superficial dose evaluation of four dose calculation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhen; Qiu, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhiping; Lei, Mingjun; Liu, Gui; Zhang, Zijian; Hu, Yongmei

    2017-08-01

    Accurate superficial dose calculation is of major importance because of the skin toxicity in radiotherapy, especially within the initial 2 mm depth being considered more clinically relevant. The aim of this study is to evaluate superficial dose calculation accuracy of four commonly used algorithms in commercially available treatment planning systems (TPS) by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and film measurements. The superficial dose in a simple geometrical phantom with size of 30 cm×30 cm×30 cm was calculated by PBC (Pencil Beam Convolution), AAA (Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm), AXB (Acuros XB) in Eclipse system and CCC (Collapsed Cone Convolution) in Raystation system under the conditions of source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm and field size (FS) of 10×10 cm2. EGSnrc (BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc) program was performed to simulate the central axis dose distribution of Varian Trilogy accelerator, combined with measurements of superficial dose distribution by an extrapolation method of multilayer radiochromic films, to estimate the dose calculation accuracy of four algorithms in the superficial region which was recommended in detail by the ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement) and the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). In superficial region, good agreement was achieved between MC simulation and film extrapolation method, with the mean differences less than 1%, 2% and 5% for 0°, 30° and 60°, respectively. The relative skin dose errors were 0.84%, 1.88% and 3.90%; the mean dose discrepancies (0°, 30° and 60°) between each of four algorithms and MC simulation were (2.41±1.55%, 3.11±2.40%, and 1.53±1.05%), (3.09±3.00%, 3.10±3.01%, and 3.77±3.59%), (3.16±1.50%, 8.70±2.84%, and 18.20±4.10%) and (14.45±4.66%, 10.74±4.54%, and 3.34±3.26%) for AXB, CCC, AAA and PBC respectively. Monte Carlo simulation verified the feasibility of the superficial dose measurements by multilayer Gafchromic films. And the rank

  3. Colgajos de perforantes de las arterias epigástricas inferiores profunda y superficial Deep and superficial inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Gagnon

    2006-12-01

    the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA flap becoming more mainstream, patients are increasingly seeking these reconstructive options. This article reviews the surgical anatomy of the abdominal wall as related to the SIEA and DIEP flaps. Key steps of preoperative preparation, operative technique and postoperative care are explained in details. Specific advantages and disadvantages are discussed and technical tips are presented to help improve final outcome. In addition, typical and atypical indications are illustrated with the use of clinical cases.

  4. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  5. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  6. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  7. ANATOMY OF GYNURA AURANTIACA (BLUME) SCH.BIP. EX DC. (ASTERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica BERCU

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description, of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf) and photographs as well of Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) Sch.Bip. ex DC. It was observed that the root have typical primary dictos structure. The stem has a differentiated in two regions cortex and the stele comprise one ring of open collateral vascular bundles with secondary xylem due to the cambium activity. The petiole anatomy is quite similar in its basic structure with the stem. The blad...

  8. Anatomy of the bovine ascending aorta and brachiocephalic artery found unfavorable for total artificial heart implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Sunagawa, Gengo; Such, Kimberly A; Sale, Shiva; Golding, Leonard A R; Moazami, Nader; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2015-12-01

    The biocompatibility assessment of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart is an important part of the device developmental program. Surgical and postoperative management are key factors in achieving optimal outcomes. However, the presence of vascular anatomical abnormalities in experimental animal models is often unpredictable and may worsen the expected outcomes. We report a technical impediment encountered during total artificial heart implantation complicated by unfavorable bovine anatomy of the ascending aorta and brachiocephalic arterial trunk.

  9. Prefabricated neck expanded skin flap with the superficial temporal vessels for facial resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Su, Weijie; Qian, Yunliang; Messmer, Caroline; Agostini, Tommaso; Spinelli, Giuseppe; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Levin, L Scott; Zenn, Micheal R; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2013-05-01

    The achievement of a normal-appearing face after surgical resurfacing remains an elusive goal. This is due in part to insufficient color matching, restoration of contours, and the persistence of visible scars. Flap prefabrication is a staged procedure that provides an independent axial blood supply to local expanded tissues. We describe a new reconstructive alternative with superior reconstructive surgical options for facial resurfacing that better matches damaged or discarded facial tissues. A superficial temporal fascial flap was harvested as the vascular supply of the prefabricated neck flap and located in a subcutaneous neck pocket over a tissue expander. After a 5-month period for expansion and maturation, the prefabricated skin flap was raised, islanded, and rotated to resurface the facial defect. Four patients with hemifacial postburn contracture and two patients affected by hemifacial vascular malformations aged 17 to 42 years (mean 29 years) were successfully treated with no major complication after a mean period of 15 months. Prefabricated neck-expanded skin flap demonstrated an excellent color and texture match with facial skin that surrounded the repair sites, and optimal aesthetic results were obtained. Importantly, facial expression was completely maintained due to thinness and pliability of the rotated skin. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Hasbún Acuña

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El carcinoma basocelular es el cáncer de piel más frecuente, especialmente en personas de edad avanzada. El carcinoma basocelular pigmentado es una variante poco común que se ha descrito en la literatura como una lesión nodular hiperpigmentada. En raras ocasiones puede presentarse en forma de una extensa placa pigmentada, la cual puede ser clínicamente indistinguible del melanoma maligno de extensión superficial y de la enfermedad de Bowen. La dermatoscopía tiene una alta sensibilidad en el diagnóstico del carcinoma basocelular, cuando se utilizan los criterios de Menzies, aunque el diagnóstico final es histopatológico. El objetivo del presente trabajo es reportar y analizar el caso de una paciente con un extenso carcinoma basocelular superficial pigmentado, que simula un melanoma maligno de extensión superficial.

  11. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system - A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannalini, S.

    1997-01-01

    There is little information on superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (CNS) in the literature, mainly due to the rarity of the disease, the difficulties in diagnosis (autopsy pre magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and the long latency of the symptoms. With the advent of MRI, for the first time we are able to make a positive in vivo diagnosis. But this comes at a time of less disease incidence, and little clinical awareness. MRI is able to make the diagnosis because of the strong paramagnetic effect of haemosiderin, the blood by-product that is deposited on the brain surface in superficial siderosis of the CNS. The ability of the brain to biosynthesize ferritin in response to prolonged contact with haemosiderin is thought to be the most important factor in the pathogenesis of superficial siderosis. (author)

  12. Quantification of Macular Vascular Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Its Relationship with Retinal Thickness in Myopic Eyes of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To quantify macular vascular density using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA and to investigate its relationship with retinal thickness in myopic eyes of young adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 268 myopic eyes without pathological changes were recruited and divided into three groups: mild myopia (n=81, moderate myopia (n=117, and high myopia (n=70. Macular vascular density was quantified by OCTA and compared among three groups. Average retinal thickness, central subfield thickness, and macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC thickness were also evaluated and compared. Correlations among these variables were analyzed. Results. There was no statistical difference in superficial (62.3 ± 5.7% versus 62.7 ± 5.9% versus 63.8 ± 5.5% and deep macular vascular densities (58.3 ± 9.6% versus 59.2 ± 9.3% versus 60.9 ± 7.9% among mild-myopia, moderate-myopia, and high-myopia groups (both P>0.05. Superficial and deep macular vascular densities both had correlations with mean arterial pressure. Furthermore, superficial macular vascular density was significantly correlated with mGCC thickness. Conclusions. Varying degrees of myopia did not affect macular vascular density in young healthy adults. In addition, superficial macular vascular density, as an independent factor, was positively correlated with mGCC thickness.

  13. Leadless pacemaker implantation in a patient with complex congenital heart disease and limited vascular access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ferrero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Management of rhythm related issues might be particularly challenging in patients with congenital heart disease due to complex anatomy and restricted vascular access. The leadless technology appears a suitable and attractive alternative for this population. We describe a patient with single ventricle physiology who successfully underwent implantation of a leadless pacemaker.

  14. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  15. Experiments on the superficial irradiation of spherical vegetables and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, B.; Kiraly, Z.

    1974-01-01

    A revolving facility was made for the homogeneous superficial irradiation of spherical vegetables and fruits (apricot, peach, tomato, apple, etc.) with fast electrons. After the building of the technological apparatus described in detail, dosimetrical measurements were carried out by a Van de Graff generator of 2 MV and it was proved, that the superficial irradiation had a smaller effect on the quality of the fresh fruits, than of the stored ones. The developed apparatus can be altered according to the ripe-rate of the products. (K.A.)

  16. Aneurysm of the superficial femoral artery in an infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M.; Komuro, H.; Matoba, K.; Kaneko, M. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Niitsu, M.; Itai, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    An isolated arterial aneurysm in childhood is extremely rare. We report a 1-year-old girl with an aneurysm of the right superficial femoral artery, presenting as an asymptomatic mass of the thigh. The aneurysm involved the whole superficial femoral artery (9 cm in length), and surgical treatment would have required replacement of the affected artery. Conservative treatment was chosen, influenced by the patient's rapid growth at that time. Non-invasive, 3-D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was useful as an alternative to conventional angiography for detailed evaluation of the femoral arteries, including the aneurysm. (orig.)

  17. Pig Pancreas Anatomy: Implications for Pancreas Procurement, Preservation, and Islet Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Joana; Scott, William E; Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2009-01-01

    Background Islet transplantation is emerging as a treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. The limited human islet supply from cadavers and poor islet yield and quality remain substantial impediments to progress in the field. Use of porcine islets holds great promise for large-scale application of islet transplantation. Consistent isolation of porcine islets is dependent on advances in pancreas procurement and preservation, and islet isolation requiring detailed knowledge of the porcine pancreatic anatomy. The primary aim of this study was to describe the vascular and ductal anatomy of the porcine pancreas in order to guide and improve organ preservation and enzyme perfusion. Methods Pancreata were removed by en bloc viscerectomy from 65 female Landrace pigs. Results 15% of organs exhibited inconsistent vascular branching from the celiac trunk. All organs had uniform patterns of branching at the superior mesenteric artery. The superior and inferior mesenteric veins (IMV) merged to become the portal vein in all but one case in which the IMV drained into the splenic vein. 97% of pancreata had three lobes: duodenal (DL), connecting (CL), and splenic (SL); 39% demonstrated ductal communication between the CL and the other two lobes; 50% had ductal communication only between the CL and DL; and 11% presented other types of ductal delineation. Conclusions Accounting for the variations in vascular and ductal anatomy, as detailed in this study, will facilitate development of protocols for preservation, optimal enzyme administration, and pancreas distention and digestion, and ultimately lead to substantial improvements in isolation outcomes. PMID:19077881

  18. Clinically related anatomy for physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.E.; Boyer, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of CT and MR imaging, delineation of malignancies and the shaping of radiation treatment fields have become much more precise. Treatment planning in more than one transverse plane is more widely practiced as the use of sophisticated computers grow. These developments emphasize the need for the physicist to have a basic knowledge of human anatomy. This course is designed to familiarize the clinical physicist with the gross anatomy and topographic landmarks used by the physician in planning three-dimensional radiation treatment volumes. The significance of the various anatomic structures and their related lymphatics in the spread of disease is discussed. Emphasis is placed on disease entities that pose particular problems due to overlying or nearby healthy structures at risk

  19. Magkänslans anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    Varför dog 1500 personer i onödan i biltrafiken efter den 11 september 2001? Vad har FBI-agenter gemensamt med barn till alkoholister? Och vad fick författaren George Orwell att börja utöva svart magi? Magkänslans anatomi är en fascinerande kartläggning av de psykologiska mekanismer som ligger...

  20. Roentgenologic anatomy of dog arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, J.; Hlava, A.; Bavor, J.

    1984-01-01

    In catheter methods in dogs the knowledge of the roentgenologic anatomy of blood vessels is very important. Because of lacking in such roentgenologic anatomic schemes 5 arterial schemes in relation to the skeleton were elaborated. The system of arteries was divided into five regions: chest, head and neck in submentooccipital and lateral projection, abdomen and pelvis. The schemes comprise 75 of the main arteries of the dog. (author)

  1. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the secon....... A visual interface displays the registered visualization of the first and second images. The system and method are particularly useful for imaging during minimally invasive surgery, such as robotic surgery....

  2. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D. Berfin; Chong, Diana C.; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M.; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. PMID:27789228

  3. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D Berfin; Chong, Diana C; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-12-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time in-depth cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  5. Superficial parotidectomy versus retrograde partial superficial parotidectomy in treating benign salivary gland tumor (pleomorphic adenoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi, Omri; El-Naaj, Imad Abu; Gordin, Arye; Akrish, Sharon; Peled, Micha

    2010-09-01

    Of all benign salivary gland tumors of the parotid gland, pleomorphic adenoma (mixed tumor) is the most common. It accounts for 60% to 70% of all benign tumors of the parotid gland. This neoplasm arises in patients in the fourth to sixth decade of life, with a female predominance. The surgical excision of this lesion continues to be the subject of major debate. The goal is to avoid facial disability yet attain complete resection without perforation of the capsule/pseudocapsule. The purpose of our study is to compare 2 surgical techniques performed at the Ear, Nose, and Throat and Maxillofacial Departments, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel, and determine which is preferable in treating this lesion. We reviewed 48 patients who underwent excision of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland between 1996 and 2005 at Rambam Medical Center: 18 were treated surgically with the classical superficial parotidectomy (SP) technique, using an anterograde approach, and 30 were treated with retrograde partial superficial parotidectomy (PSP). We compared the 2 surgical techniques in terms of surgical time, histopathologic size of the lesion, amount of excised healthy parotid tissue, histologic margin, and the preservation of the capsule/pseudocapsule. We also made clinical records of temporary or definitive injury to the facial nerve, which branches of the facial nerve were temporarily or definitively injured, the occurrence of Frey syndrome, esthetic satisfaction, and the amount of recurrence or infection after surgery. Of the 48 patients, 19 (39.6%) were male and 29 (60.4%) were female, with a mean age (+/- SD) of 43.8 +/- 16.97 years (median, 50 years; range, 12-79 years). We found a significant difference (P = .029) in mean surgical time (+/- SD): 171 +/- 49.7 minutes (median, 165 minutes) when performing the classical SP and 145 +/- 42.7 minutes (median, 130 minutes) when performing the retrograde PSP. Much more healthy parotid tissue was taken out with the classical

  6. Vascular imaging with spiral CT. The way to CY angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, M.; Schaefer, C.; Kalender, W.A.; Polacin, A.; Galanski, M.

    1993-01-01

    Spiral CT is a technique that allows for high-quality two-dimensional angiographic projections and 3D imaging of vascular structures. The authors present the technical and methodological principles of the technique, including scan parameters and parameters of contrast application for various clinical imaging tasks. They present their experience with over 150 clinical cases using spiral CT angiography. Suitable applications of this technique include cogenital anomalies, aneurysms, dissections, stenoses, thrombi and vascular tumor involvement. Given a problem-adapted examination technique, pathologic changes in vessels of as little as 2 mm can be visualized. In some cases with complex vascular anatomy, spiral CT angiography can be superior to arterial angiography. (orig.) [de

  7. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Gamma Activation Analysis in the Havana Bay superficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, N.; Gelen, A.; Diaz Riso, O.; Manso, M.V.; Simon, M.J.; Maslov, A.G.; Gustova, M.V.; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary study of 26 elements of Havana Bay superficial sediments were made using Gamma Activation Analysis. Samples from five zones of Havana Bay were analyzed. The results show a close interrelation between the concentration levels of the studied elements and the contaminant sources

  9. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Treatment Planning for Superficial Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacarias, Albert S.; Brown, Mellonie F.; Mills, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The physician's planning objective is often a uniform dose distribution throughout the planning target volume (PTV), including superficial PTVs on or near the surface of a patient's body. Varian's Eclipse treatment planning system uses a progressive resolution optimizer (PRO), version 8.2.23, for RapidArc dynamic multileaf collimator volumetric modulated arc therapy planning. Because the PRO is a fast optimizer, optimization convergence errors (OCEs) produce dose nonuniformity in the superficial area of the PTV. We present a postsurgical cranial case demonstrating the recursive method our clinic uses to produce RapidArc treatment plans. The initial RapidArc treatment plan generated using one 360 o arc resulted in substantial dose nonuniformity in the superficial section of the PTV. We demonstrate the use of multiple arcs to produce improved dose uniformity in this region. We also compare the results of this superficial dose compensation method to the results of a recursive method of dose correction that we developed in-house to correct optimization convergence errors in static intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment plans. The results show that up to 4 arcs may be necessary to provide uniform dose to the surface of the PTV with the current version of the PRO.

  10. A method for determination of the superficial charge density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, F.

    1992-10-01

    In this article is presented a new methodism for determination of superficial charge density in nonconducting materials which is based in the combination of laboratory calibrated experiments in conducting surfaces with theoretical calculations for nonconducting surfaces. (author). 19 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  11. Superficial skin infections and the use of topical and systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superficial bacterial infections of the skin are very common. With the increasing burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), this is likely to worsen. Examples of such infections include impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, ecthyma, furuncles, carbuncles and subcutaneous abscesses. Common causative organisms are ...

  12. Frey′s Syndrome as a Sequela of Superficial Parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Kumar Bali

    2006-01-01

    The disorder is characterized by unilateral sweating and flushing of facial skin in the area of parotid gland occurring during meals. We present a case of a patient who developed symptoms of Frey Syndrome 4 months after undergoing superficial parotidectomy on left side.

  13. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in superficial CNS siderosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Lindelof, M.; Haziri, Donika

    2015-01-01

    the challenges related to the diagnosis and treatment of superficial siderosis. RESULTS: A potential bleeding aetiology was identified in all patients, but removal of the offending bleeding source was achieved only in three (33%). Symptom progression was halted in just one patient (11%), which suggests...... neurotoxicity due to accumulating iron toxicity. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  14. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system | Govind | SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    progression of clinical deterioration but halting the chronic subarachoid haemorrhage will reduce the iron load in the CSF and hence the cytotoxic risk. We present a case of superficial siderosis presenting with hearing loss and cerebellar signs highlighting the imaging findings. South African Journal of Radiology Vol.

  15. Treatment for superficial infusion thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nisio, Marcello; Peinemann, Frank; Porreca, Ettore; Rutjes, Anne W. S.

    2015-01-01

    Although superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity represents a frequent complication of intravenous catheters inserted into the peripheral veins of the forearm or hand, no consensus exists on the optimal management of this condition in clinical practice. To summarise the evidence from

  16. Risk factors associated with acquiring superficial fungal infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extensively documented. It is therefore imperative to identify the factors that predispose to the development of SFI so as to provide evidence-based and effective pre- ventive measures, thus reducing the prevalence and the attendant morbidity associated with superficial fungal in- fections and this was our aim in this present ...

  17. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  18. Anatomy of Cyberterrorism: Is America Vulnerable?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashley, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    ... it means. It also presents a model to understand the anatomy of cyberterrorism, describing some real-world cyber events, assesses cyberterrorist capabilities, and finally makes specific recommendations...

  19. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  20. Procedure Oriented Torsional Anatomy of the Forearm for Spasticity Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou-Tan, Faye; Cianca, John; John, Joslyn; Furr-Stimming, Erin; Pandit, Sindhu; Taber, Katherine H

    2015-01-01

    : This is the second in a series of articles related to the concept of "torsional" anatomy. The objective of this article is to provide musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) anatomy of the forearm in the position of hemispastic flexion as a reference relevant to needle procedures. The MSKUS images were obtained in a healthy human subject. Marker dots were placed over common injection sites in the forearm for spasticity. The MSKUS probe was centered over each dot to obtain a cross-sectional view. A pair of MSKUS images was recorded for each site: the first in anatomic neutral and second in hemiparetic spastic position. The images were compared side to side. In addition, a video recording was made at each site to track the movement of the muscles and nerves during internal rotation. The pronator teres (PT) rotated medially and the brachialis and biceps tendon rotated in view. In addition, the median nerve became more superficial. The flexor carpi radialis rotated medially and was replaced by PT and the median nerve. The flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus rotated medially and were replaced by the flexor carpi radialis, PT and median nerve. The flexor digitorum superficialis was replaced by the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and radial nerve. The brachioradialis was replaced by the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis. Intended muscle targets rotate out of view and injection range. These are replaced by other muscles and nerves that could inadvertently be injected. This potentially could result in both increased complications and decreased efficacy of the procedure. It is hoped that this series of images will increase the accuracy and safety of needle placement for spasticity injections in the forearm.

  1. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  2. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  3. ANGIOGRAPHIC ANATOMY OF THE MAJOR ABDOMINAL ARTERIAL BLOOD SUPPLY IN THE DOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William T N; Mayhew, Philipp D; Pascoe, Peter J; Zwingenberger, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Vascular-based interventional radiology (IR) procedures are being more regularly performed in veterinary patients for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. A complete description of the fluoroscopic arterial anatomy of the canine abdominal cavity has not been published. This information is essential for performance of IR procedures to allow for improved preparation before and during a particular procedure. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a fluoroscopic description of the vascular branching from the abdominal aorta in a ventro-dorsal projection with a secondary goal of producing pictorial reference images of the major abdominal arterial blood vessels. Five healthy female hound type dogs were enrolled and underwent fluoroscopic arteriography. During fluoroscopy, both nonselective and selective arteriography were performed. The nonselective arteriograms were obtained in the aorta at four locations: cranial to the celiac artery, cranial to the renal arteries, cranial to the caudal mesenteric artery, and cranial to the branching of the external iliac arteries. Selective arteriography was conducted by performing injections into the following arteries: celiac, splenic, common hepatic, cranial mesenteric, left and right renal, and caudal mesenteric. Fluoroscopic arteriography allowed for excellent characterization of the aortic ostia and the location of the lower order vascular branches. Future evaluation of vascular-based treatment options will likely increase as the understanding of the normal and pathologic anatomy improves. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  4. Horseshoe kidney: a review of anatomy and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Piagkou, Maria; Skotsimara, Antonia; Protogerou, Vassilis; Tsitouridis, Ioannis; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2014-08-01

    Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is the most common renal fusion, which is characterized by three anatomic anomalies: ectopia, malrotation and vascular changes. Patients with HSK are prone to a variety of complications, genitourinary and non-genitourinary. In this paper, the anatomy of HSK is delineated with a great emphasis on its blood supply. After reviewing the literature, the arterial supply patterns found by each author were categorized according to the classification system proposed by Graves. The majority of HSKs were found to be supplied by renal arteries derived from the abdominal aorta below the isthmus or by vessels originating from the common iliac arteries. In addition, the abnormalities associated with HSK are highlighted and classified in anatomical variations, congenital anomalies as well as in pathologic conditions related to HSK.

  5. Anatomy of the Corrugator Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Jung Hun; Lim, Hee Joong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to systematically review the anatomy and action of the corrugator muscle. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the terms "corrugator" AND "anatomy." Among the 60 full texts from the 145 relevant abstracts, 34 articles without sufficient content were excluded and 4 articles drawn from the reference lists were added. Among the 30 articles analyzed (721 hemifaces), 28% classified by oblique head and transverse head, and 72% did not. Corrugator originated mostly from the medial supraorbital rim (45%), followed by the medial frontal bone (31%), the medial infraorbital rim (17%), and the upper nasal process (7%). Corrugator extended through the frontalis and orbicularis oculi (41%), only the frontalis (41%), or only the orbicularis oculi (18%). Corrugator ran superolaterally (59%), or laterally (41%). Corrugators inserted mostly to the middle of the eyebrow (57%), or the medial half of the eyebrow (36%), but also to the glabella region (7%). The length of the corrugator ranged 38 to 53 mm. The transverse head (23.38 mm) was longer than the oblique head (19.75 mm). Corrugator was thicker at the medial canthus than at the midpupillary line. Corrugator was innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (66%), the zygomatic branch (17%), or the angular nerve (zygomatic branch and buccal branch, 17%). Supraorbital nerve (60%) or supratrochlear nerve (40%) penetrated the corrugator. The action was depressing, pulling the eyebrow medially (91%), or with medial eyebrow elevation and lateral eyebrow depression (9%). Surgeons must keep this anatomy in mind during surgical procedures.

  6. SnapAnatomy, a computer-based interactive tool for independent learning of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George W; Rajendran, Kanagasuntheram

    2008-06-01

    Computer-aided instruction materials are becoming increasing popular in medical education and particularly in the teaching of human anatomy. This paper describes SnapAnatomy, a new interactive program that the authors designed for independent learning of anatomy. SnapAnatomy is primarily tailored for the beginner student to encourage the learning of anatomy by developing a three-dimensional visualization of human structure that is essential to applications in clinical practice and the understanding of function. The program allows the student to take apart and to accurately put together body components in an interactive, self-paced and variable manner to achieve the learning outcome.

  7. Anatomy studies for an artificial heart. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiraly, R.J.; Nose, Y.

    1977-12-01

    In the interval from February of 1972 through December of 1977, studies were conducted relating to the anatomical feasibility of implanting a total artificial heart system. These studies included both the calf as an experimental animal as well as the ultimate human recipient of the artificial heart system. Studies with the calf included definition of the thoracic anatomy relative to the size, shape, and vascular connections for implanting the blood pump. To test the animal's tolerance to an implanted engine system, mockups of the thermal converter were implanted chronically in various locations within the calf. No problems developed in retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal implants ranging from 8 to 15 months. A study to determine accelerations experienced by an abdominally implanted thermal converter was performed in calves. Under the most severe conditions, accelerations of a maximum of 34 Gs were experienced. The largest effort was devoted to defining the human anatomy relative to implanting an artificial heart in the thorax. From a number of data sources, including cadavers as well as living patients, a quantitative, statistical analysis of the size and shape of the male thorax was obtained. Finally, an in vivo study of a functional intrathoracic compliance bag in a calf demonstrated the feasibility of this method

  8. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  9. ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account that many of today?s digital artists?particularly 3D character animators?lack foundational artistic instruction, this book teaches anatomy in a coherent and succinct style. A clear writing style explains how to sculpt an accurate human figure, starting with the skeleton and working out to muscle, fat, and skin. Insightful explanations enable you to quickly and easily create and design characters that can be used in film, game, or print, and allows you to gain a strong understanding of the foundational artistic concepts.

  10. Right colic artery anatomy: a systematic review of cadaveric studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, M; Molyneux, C; Mahadevan, V; Srinivasaiah, N

    2017-12-01

    Complete mesocolic excision for right-sided colon cancer may offer an oncologically superior excision compared to traditional right hemicolectomy through high vascular tie and adherence to embryonic planes during dissection, supported by preoperative scanning to accurately define the tumour lymphovascular supply and drainage. The authors support and recommend precision oncosurgery based on these principles, with an emphasis on the importance of understanding the vascular anatomy. However, the anatomical variability of the right colic artery (RCA) has resulted in significant discord in the literature regarding its precise arrangement. We systematically reviewed the literature on the incidence of the different origins of the RCA in cadaveric studies. An electronic search was conducted as per Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses recommendations up to October 2016 using the MESH terms 'right colic artery' and 'anatomy' (PROSPERO registration number CRD42016041578). Ten studies involving 1073 cadavers were identified as suitable for analysis from 211 articles retrieved. The weighted mean incidence with which the right colic artery arose from other parent vessels was calculated at 36.8% for the superior mesenteric artery, 31.9% for the ileocolic artery, 27.7% for the root of the middle colic artery and 2.5% for the right branch of the middle colic artery. In 1.1% of individuals the RCA shared a trunk with the middle colic and ileocolic arteries. The weighted mean incidence of 2 RCAs was 7.0%, and in 8.9% of cadavers the RCA was absent. This anatomical information will add to the technical nuances of precision oncosurgery in right-sided colon resections.

  11. Variant anatomy of renal arteries in a Kenyan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogeng'o, Julius A; Masaki, Charles O; Sinkeet, Simeon R; Muthoka, Johnstone M; Murunga, Acleus K

    2010-01-01

    Variant anatomy of renal arteries is important in renal transplant, vascular reconstruction, and uroradiological procedures. The variations show ethnic and population differences. Data from Africans are scarce and altogether absent for Kenyans. To describe patterns of origin, trajectories and branching of renal arteries in a Kenyan population. Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. Three hundred and fifty six kidneys from 178 cadavers and postmortem specimens were used in the study. Aorta, renal arteries and kidneys were exposed by dissection. Number, trajectories, level of branching, number of branches and point of entry into the kidney were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0, and presented using macrographs, tables, and bar charts. Additional arteries occurred in 14.3% of the cases. In 82.4% of these, there was one additional artery. Fifty nine point five per cent of the double renal arteries were parallel and 7.1% crossed. Of the 305 single arteries, 76.4% showed hilar, 21.6% prehilar and 2% intraparenchymal branching. In the hilar branching, ladder type was present in 65% and fork type in 35%. Bifurcation and trifurcation were present in 59.6% and 33.1% respectively. Polar arteries were present in 16.9% cases. Over 14% of the Kenyan population may have additional renal arteries while more than 20% show early branching. Several trajectories and hilar branching patterns exist which renal transplant surgeons and radiologists should be aware of to avoid inadvertent vascular injury.

  12. Estudio in vitro de permeabilidad, porosidad y crecimiento celular en membranas electrohiladas para prótesis vasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A. Valencia

    2017-03-01

    Conclusiones: La variación de estructuras microporosas de gran área superficial para obtener implantes con la técnica de electrospinning, incide en el crecimiento celular y subsecuentemente en la permeabilidad y la porosidad, hecho que abre una gran oportunidad para su uso potencial en aplicaciones vasculares de diámetros pequeños.

  13. Optical coherence tomography angiography indicates associations of the retinal vascular network and disease activity in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, Nikolaus; Maier, Mathias; Lepennetier, Gildas; Pettenkofer, Moritz; Wetzlmair, Carmen; Daltrozzo, Tanja; Scherm, Pauline; Zimmer, Claus; Hoshi, Muna-Miriam; Hemmer, Bernhard; Korn, Thomas; Knier, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) may show alterations of retinal layer architecture as measured by optical coherence tomography. Little is known about changes in the retinal vascular network during MS. To characterize retinal vessel structures in patients with MS and CIS and to test for associations with MS disease activity. In all, 42 patients with MS or CIS and 50 healthy controls underwent retinal optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) with analysis of the superficial and deep vascular plexuses and the choriocapillaries. We tested OCT-A parameters for associations with retinal layer volumes, history of optic neuritis (ON), and the retrospective disease activity. Inner retinal layer volumes correlated positively with the density of both the superficial and deep vascular plexuses. Eyes of MS/CIS patients with a history of ON revealed reduced vessel densities of the superficial and deep vascular plexuses as compared to healthy controls. Higher choriocapillary vessel densities were associated with ongoing inflammatory disease activity during 24 months prior to OCT-A examination in MS and CIS patients. Optic neuritis is associated with rarefaction of the superficial and deep retinal vessels. Alterations of the choriocapillaries might be linked to disease activity in MS.

  14. Vascular Access in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Keller, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  15. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  16. Anatomy and development of the meninges: implications for subdural collections and CSF circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Julie [Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Squier, Waney [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Neuropathology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Eastman, James T. [Lancaster General Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Lancaster, PA (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The dura is traditionally viewed as a supportive fibrous covering of the brain containing the dural venous sinuses but otherwise devoid of vessels and lacking any specific function. However, review of the embryology and anatomy reveals the dura to be a complex, vascularized and innervated structure, not a simple fibrous covering. The dura contains an inner vascular plexus that is larger in the infant than in the adult, and this plexus likely plays a role in CSF absorption. This role could be particularly important in the infant whose arachnoid granulations are not completely developed. Although subdural hemorrhage is frequently traumatic, there are nontraumatic conditions associated with subdural hemorrhage, and the inner dural plexus is a likely source of bleeding in these nontraumatic circumstances. This review outlines the development and age-specific vascularity of the dura and offers an alternative perspective on the role of the dura in homeostasis of the central nervous system. (orig.)

  17. Anatomy and development of the meninges: implications for subdural collections and CSF circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Julie; Squier, Waney; Eastman, James T

    2009-03-01

    The dura is traditionally viewed as a supportive fibrous covering of the brain containing the dural venous sinuses but otherwise devoid of vessels and lacking any specific function. However, review of the embryology and anatomy reveals the dura to be a complex, vascularized and innervated structure, not a simple fibrous covering. The dura contains an inner vascular plexus that is larger in the infant than in the adult, and this plexus likely plays a role in CSF absorption. This role could be particularly important in the infant whose arachnoid granulations are not completely developed. Although subdural hemorrhage is frequently traumatic, there are nontraumatic conditions associated with subdural hemorrhage, and the inner dural plexus is a likely source of bleeding in these nontraumatic circumstances. This review outlines the development and age-specific vascularity of the dura and offers an alternative perspective on the role of the dura in homeostasis of the central nervous system.

  18. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  19. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  20. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  1. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  2. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy accepts for publication manuscripts of high standard containing reports of original scientific research in the morphology, mechanical functioning and development of man and animals. The scope the journal embraces articles of human and comparative anatomy, embryology ...

  3. Superficial evolution and compacting aptitude of uranium dioxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danroc, J.

    1982-04-01

    Long term storage of UO 2 powder improves slightly shaping and solidity of compacted powder. The aim of this work is the study of material evolution and the increase of this evolution rate for application to industrial fabrication. Aging in wet air at different temperatures is examined. Evolution of texture and superficial composition is followed. Below 80 0 C UO 3 , 2H 2 O is formed at crystal surface and thermal decomposition gives different hydrates. Kinetics of the transformation is studied. Oxidohydratation in liquid phase is rapid with hydrogen peroxide. The aged or treated material is compacted and mechanical behaviour is examined. Improvement is explained by inter-layer water molecule of the superficial hydrate giving lubricant and pseudo-plastic properties [fr

  4. Vascular malformations in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Shamdeen, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Effects of superficial gas velocity and fluid property on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the influence of superficial gas velocity and fluid properties on gas holdup and liquid circulation velocity in a three-phase external loop airlift column using polystyrene (0.0036 m diameter and 1025.55 kg/m3 density) and nylon-6 (0.0035 m diameter and 1084.24 kg/m3 density) particles with aqueous ...

  6. Isolated core vs. superficial cooling effects on virtual maze navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jennifer; Cheung, Stephen S

    2007-07-01

    Cold impairs cognitive performance and is a common occurrence in many survival situations. Altered behavior patterns due to impaired navigation abilities in cold environments are potential problems in lost-person situations. We investigated the separate effects of low core temperature and superficial cooling on a spatially demanding virtual navigation task. There were 12 healthy men who were passively cooled via 15 degrees C water immersion to a core temperature of 36.0 degrees C, then transferred to a warm (40 degrees C) water bath to eliminate superficial shivering while completing a series of 20 virtual computer mazes. In a control condition, subjects rested in a thermoneutral (approximately 35 degrees C) bath for a time-matched period before being transferred to a warm bath for testing. Superficial cooling and distraction were achieved by whole-body immersion in 35 degree water for a time-matched period, followed by lower leg immersion in 10 degree C water for the duration of the navigational tests. Mean completion time and mean error scores for the mazes were not significantly different (p > 0.05) across the core cooling (16.59 +/- 11.54 s, 0.91 +/- 1.86 errors), control (15.40 +/- 8.85 s, 0.82 +/- 1.76 errors), and superficial cooling (15.19 +/- 7.80 s, 0.77 +/- 1.40 errors) conditions. Separately reducing core temperature or increasing cold sensation in the lower extremities did not influence performance on virtual computer mazes, suggesting that navigation is more resistive to cooling than other, simpler cognitive tasks. Further research is warranted to explore navigational ability at progressively lower core and skin temperatures, and in different populations.

  7. Superficial or deep implantation of motor nerve after denervation: an experimental study--superficial or deep implantation of motor nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Ibrahím; Sabuncuoglu, Bízden Tavíl

    2002-01-01

    Neurorraphy, conventional nerve grafting technique, and artificial nerve conduits are not enough for repair in severe injuries of peripheral nerves, especially when there is separation of motor nerve from muscle tissue. In these nerve injuries, reinnervation is indicated for neurotization. The distal end of a peripheral nerve is divided into fascicles and implanted into the aneural zone of target muscle tissue. It is not known how deeply fascicles should be implanted into muscle tissue. A comparative study of superficial and deep implantation of separated motor nerve into muscle tissue is presented in the gastrocnemius muscle of rabbits. In this experimental study, 30 white New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into 3 groups of 10 rabbits each. In the first group (controls, group I), only surgical exposure of the gastrocnemius muscle and motor nerve (tibial nerve) was done without any injury to nerves. In the superficial implantation group (group II), tibial nerves were separated and divided into their own fascicles. These fascicles were implanted superficially into the lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle-aneural zone. In the deep implantation group (group III), the tibial nerves were separated and divided into their own fascicles. These fascicles were implanted around the center of the muscle mass, into the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle-aneural zone. Six months later, histopathological changes and functional recovery of the gastrocnemius muscle were investigated. Both experimental groups had less muscular weight than in the control group. It was found that functional recovery was achieved in both experimental groups, and was better in the superficial implantation group than the deep implantation group. EMG recordings revealed that polyphasic and late potentials were frequently seen in both experimental groups. Degeneration and regeneration of myofibrils were observed in both experimental groups. New motor end-plates were formed in a scattered

  8. Human fetal anatomy: MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, J C; Lowe, T; Cohen, J M; Kutler, M

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four pregnant women carrying 26 fetuses (two sets of twins) were imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T following sonographic evaluation. Each study was retrospectively evaluated to determine which of 33 normal fetal structures were visible on the images and which imaging parameters were most useful for depicting fetal anatomy. Fetal motion degraded fetal images in all but two cases, both with oligohydramnios and in the third trimester of gestation. Nevertheless, many fetal structures were identifiable, particularly in the third trimester. Visualization of fetal anatomy improved with intravenous maternal sedation in five cases. Relatively T1-weighted images occasionally offered the advantage of less image degradation owing to fetal motion and improved contrast between different fetal structures. More T2 weighting was believed to be advantageous in one case for outlining the fetal head and in one case for delineation of the brain. In many cases, structures were similarly identifiable (though with different signal intensities) regardless of the parameters selected. The authors conclude that MR imaging of many fetal structures is currently unsatisfactory and is probably of limited value, particularly in the first and second trimesters. However, the relative frequency and detail with which the fetal head and liver can be depicted indicate that these may be areas for further investigation, and the potential utility of imaging fetal fat warrants further investigation.

  9. Anatomy of the Spinal Meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Gabrillargues, Jean; Coll, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    The spinal meninges have received less attention than the cranial meninges in the literature, although several points remain debatable and poorly understood, like their phylogenesis, their development, and their interactions with the spinal cord. Their constancy among the chordates shows their crucial importance in central nervous system homeostasis and suggests a role far beyond mechanical protection of the neuraxis. This work provides an extensive study of the spinal meninges, from an overview of their phylogenesis and embryology to a descriptive and topographic anatomy with clinical implications. It examines their involvement in spinal cord development, functioning, and repair. This work is a review of the literature using PubMed as a search engine on Medline. The stages followed by the meninges along the phylogenesis could not be easily compared with their development in vertebrates for methodological aspects and convergence processes throughout evolution. The distinction between arachnoid and pia mater appeared controversial. Several points of descriptive anatomy remain debatable: the functional organization of the arterial network, and the venous and lymphatic drainages, considered differently by classical anatomic and neuroradiological approaches. Spinal meninges are involved in neurodevelopment and neurorepair producing neural stem cells and morphogens, in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and neuraxis functioning by the synthesis of active molecules, and the elimination of waste products of central nervous system metabolism. The spinal meninges should be considered as dynamic functional formations evolving over a lifetime, with ultrastructural features and functional interactions with the neuraxis remaining not fully understood.

  10. Interdigital foot infections: Corynebacterium minutissimum and agents of superficial mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Mutlu Sariguzel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Interdigital foot infections are mostly caused initially by dermatophytes, yeasts and less frequently by bacteria. Erythrasma caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum can be confused with superficial mycoses. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the etiologic agents of superficial mycoses and the frequency of Corynebacterium minutissimum in interdigital foot infections. All the samples obtained from the 121 patients with interdigital foot infections were examined directly with the use of 20% potassium hydroxide mounts and Gram stain under the microscope and cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates. In identification of superficial mycoses, the rate was found to be 14% with the cultural method and 14% with direct microscopic examination. Using a combination of direct microscopic examination and culture, a 33.8% ratio was achieved. In the culture of these samples, the most isolated factor was Trichophyton rubrum (33.7%. In 24 of the patients (19.8% Corynebacterium minutissimum was detected by Gram staining, in 6 of these patients Trichophyton rubrum was found, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was found in 2 and Trichosporon spp. was found in 1. The examination of interdigital foot lesions in the laboratory, the coexistence of erythrasma with dermatophytes and yeast should be considered.

  11. Superficies in the form of the right to superpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona CHIRICĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the current legal framework related to the superficies right in the form of the right to superpose, and especially to draw the attention and put certain question marks regarding the actuality or even the urgency of the need for regulation regarding the right to superpose. First, as a preliminary aspect, in order to emphasize the historical evolution of the superficies right, we will briefly present the development of this concept starting from the Roman law up to the present date. Second, by analysing the relevant legislation, the doctrine and the jurisprudence, the authors set themselves to present the main methods for constituting the superficies right. Third, the characteristics related to the right to superpose will be correlatively laid out. Fourth, the possibility to obtain a building permit on the basis of the right to superpose will also be analysed. Fifth, the recently entered-into-force legislative framework regarding the registration of the right to superpose and of the building thus erected is presented. Last but not least, the conclusions of this paper are presented, highlighting the necessity for more clearly defined rules regulating the legal status of the right to superpose, in order to avoid any confusions and inconsistencies in practice.

  12. The spinoglenoid ligament. Anatomy, morphology, and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, Kevin D; Peterson, Robert K; Johnston, Jack C; Luke, Timothy A

    2005-02-01

    Dysfunction of the distal branch of the suprascapular nerve has been reported in athletes involved in throwing or overhead sports. The consistent presence of a dynamic anatomic structure, the spinoglenoid ligament, overlying the nerve in the spinoglenoid notch may be a contributing factor to the dysfunction of this nerve. The purpose of this study was to report the anatomy, morphology, and histological characteristics of the spinoglenoid ligament. The spinoglenoid ligaments of fifty-eight fresh-frozen cadaver shoulders were dissected to evaluate their anatomic dimensions, histological characteristics, and relationship to the suprascapular nerve, the posterior part of the capsule, and the glenoid rim. The spinoglenoid ligament was harvested, with its insertions on the scapular spine and on the capsule and glenoid left intact, for the histological analysis. Dissection revealed that a spinoglenoid ligament was present in all specimens. The ligament was found to form an irregular quadrangular shape. On gross examination, the deep fibers of the ligament extended from the lateral aspect of the scapular spine to the posterior part of the glenoid and the superficial fibers blended with the posterior aspect of the shoulder capsule. Histological sections demonstrated Sharpey fibers inserting into bone at the scapular spine and blending with the posterior aspect of the shoulder capsule to insert into the posterior surface of the glenoid, findings that confirmed the ligamentous nature of this structure. This study revealed the presence of the spinoglenoid ligament in all of the shoulders that were examined, with some variation in the size of the ligament.

  13. Perforator anatomy of the ulnar forearm fasciocutaneous flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, Jon A; Moaveni, Zachary; Tan, Swee T

    2012-08-01

    The ulnar forearm fasciocutaneous flap (UFFF) is a favourable alternative to the radial forearm flap when thin and pliable tissue is required. The precise anatomy of the cutaneous perforators of UFFF has not been previously reported. The position of cutaneous perforators>0.5 mm was recorded while raising 52 consecutive free UFFFs in 51 patients at our Centre. Three (6%) UFFFs in two patients demonstrated direct cutaneous supply through a superficial ulnar artery, a known anatomic variance. There was no cutaneous perforator>0.5 mm in one flap. Among the remaining 48 dissections, an average of 3 (range, 1-6) cutaneous perforators were identified. Ninety-four percent of these forearms demonstrated at least one perforator>0.5 mm within 3 cm, and all had at least one perforator within 6 cm of the midpoint of the forearm. Proximal perforators were more likely to be musculo-cutaneous through the edge of flexor carpi ulnaris or flexor digitorum superficialis, while mid- to distal perforators were septo-cutaneous. UFFF skin paddle designed to overlie an area within 3 cm of the midpoint between the medial epicondyle and the pisiform is most likely to include at least one cutaneous perforator from the ulnar artery, without a need for intra-operative skin island adjustment. This novel anatomic finding and other practical generalisations are discussed to facilitate successful elevation of UFFF. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  15. Magnetic resonance vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axel, L

    1989-01-01

    The basis principles of MRI are reviewed in order to understand how blood flow effects arise in conventional imaging. Then some of the ways these effects have ben used in MRI techniques specifically designed for vascular imaging, are considered. (author)

  16. KELAINAN BANGUN ANATOMIS KUKU KUDA KOLEKSI LABORATORIUM ANATOMI FKH IPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemaz A Dewangga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to observe the anatomical structure of horse hooves collected from the Laboratory of Anatomy FKH IPB. Twenty five hoof specimens, consisting of ten fore hooves and fifteen hind hooves were used as research materials. The external morphology such as color, angle, structure and condition of the hoof wall were described. The observation on external morphology showed that the hooves have two basic colors, black and white. Generally, all of the hoof specimens showed abnormalities in such aspect as angle, structure and condition of the wall. The structures of fore hoof and hind hoof from this study are classified into 8 categories, they are: flat foot, flared foot, knol hoef, fever rings, sand crack, club foot, contracted foot and bull nosed foot.

  17. Preoperative evaluation of hilar vessel anatomy with 3-D computerized tomography in living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombul, S T; Aki, F T; Gunay, M; Inci, K; Hazirolan, T; Karcaaltincaba, M; Erkan, I; Bakkaloglu, A; Yasavul, U; Bakkaloglu, M

    2008-01-01

    Digital subtract angiography is the gold standard for anatomic assessment of renal vasculature for living renal donors. However, multidetector-row computerized tomography (MDCT) is less invasive than digital subtract angiography and provides information of kidney stones and other intra-abdominal organs. In this study, preoperative MDCT angiography results were compared with the peroperative findings to evaluate the accuracy of MDCT for the evaluation of renal anatomy. From December 2002 to May 2007, all 60 consecutive living kidney donors were evaluated with MDCT angiography preoperatively. We reported the number and origin of renal arteries, presence of early branching arteries, and any intrinsic renal artery disease. Renal venous anatomy was evaluated for the presence of accessory, retroaortic, and circumaortic veins using venous phase axial images. The calyces and ureters were assessed with delayed topograms. The results of the MDCT angiography were compared with the peroperative findings. A total of 67 renal arteries were seen peroperatively in 60 renal units. Preoperative MDCT angiography detected 64 of them. The two arteries not detected by MDCT had diameters less than 3 mm. Anatomic variations were present in nine veins, five of which were detected by CT angiography. Sensitivity of MDCT angiography for arteries and veins was 95% and 93%, respectively. Positive predictive values were 100% for both arteries and veins. MDCT angiography offers a less invasive, rapid, and accurate preoperative investigation modality for vascular anatomy in living kidney donors. It also provides sufficient information about extrarenal anatomy important for donor surgery.

  18. The effect of UV-blocking contact lenses as a therapy for canine chronic superficial keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Nora; Fritsche, Jens; Reese, Sven

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of UV-blocking soft contact lenses in treatment for chronic superficial keratitus (CSK). Twenty six dogs with CSK were treated continuously with UV-blocking contact lenses for 6 months. A contact lens was placed on one eye of each dog; the other eye remained without a lens as a control eye. After this primary study, five of the dogs were further treated and they wore then contact lenses in both eyes. Continuously, all patients were concurrently treated topically with cyclosporine. The contact lenses were changed every 4 weeks and an ophthalmic examination performed. Evaluation criteria included corneal alterations as pigmentation, edema, pannus and vascularization. To determine the transmittance characteristics of the contact lenses before and after use, 32 contact lenses were measured with a UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer. Pigmentation increased in eyes wearing lenses and in control eyes over the evaluation period of 6 months. Corneal edema increased in the eyes wearing lenses, but remained unaffected in the control eyes. A significant difference in the incidence of pannus and the extent of corneal vascularisation could not be evaluated. Adverse effects were noted in six cases (corneal edema and vascularisation, conjunctivitis, blepharospasm). All new lenses studied reduced UV-radiation to a safe level, whereas used lenses did not maintain their transmittance characteristics. No positive effect of UV-blocking contact lenses could be proven with the study design used. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Traumatismos vasculares revisão de 5 anos Vascular Trauma a five year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Antunes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretende avaliar a casuística dos traumatismos vasculares agudos admitidos no Serviço de Cirurgia Vascular dos Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra (HUC durante o período de 5 anos, compreendido entre Julho de 2004 e Junho de 2009. Foram avaliados 97 doentes, sendo a principal causa de traumatismo as lesões iatrogénicas, seguida dos acidentes de viação. No grupo de doentes não relacionados com procedimentos coronários percutâneos verificou-se que no membro superior as artérias umeral e radial foram as mais afectadas, enquanto no membro inferior foram as artérias femoral superficial e poplítea. A isquémia aguda foi a principal forma de apresentação. Relativamente ao tratamento deste grupo de doentes, a RATT (ressecção e anastomose topo-topo e o enxerto foram os mais utlizados no membro superior, enquanto a trombectomia e o bypass foram as técnicas mais aplicadas a nível do membro inferior. Não houve mortalidade mas a morbilidade foi elevada, predominando as lesões neurológicas nos traumatismos do membro superior, e a amputação nos do membro inferior. Os resultados deste trabalho foram concordantes com o que está publicado na literatura em que se demonstra um aumento progressivo dos traumatismos de origem iatrogénica.This review intended to evaluate the series of acute vascular trauma in the Vascular Surgery Service of the Coimbra University Hospital in the period between July 2004 and June 2009. A total of 97 patients were evaluated with iatrogenic lesions being the main cause of trauma injuries, followed by traffic accidents. In group of patients not related with percutaneous coronary angioplasty, it was found that brachial and radial arteries were the most affected in upper limb, while in the lower limb were the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries. The main clinical manifestation was acute ischemic limb. In this group, resection with end-to-end anastomosis and grafts were the main treatment

  20. LEARNING ANATOMY WITH AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Cita; Dyhrberg O'Neill, Lotte; Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard

    An Augmented Reality (AR) app for Hololens glasses was developed to help students learn the anatomy of the human body mediastinum. In this research project, we wanted to evaluate whether AR: strengthened the students’ self-efficacy and motivation, helped students to improve learning, and provided...... a questionnaire regarding their self-efficacy and motivation, presence in the virtual room, experiences with Hololens teaching, and how they used the quizzes. In addition, students answered a test with the same 20 questions used in the app and three additional transfer questions new to students. Finally, students......’ scores on the mediastinum questions in the exam 2 month later were collected to examine the long-term memory of content. Internal consistency was estimated for all measures. Correlations between measures were examined with a correlation matrix, and group differences were examined with one-way analysis...

  1. An atlas of radiological anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains a wealth of radiologic images of normal human anatomy; plain radiographs, contrast-enhanced radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) scans. There are 18 pages of magnetic resonance (MR) images, most on the brain and spinal cord, so that there are only two pages on MR imaging of the heart and two pages on abdominal and pelvic MR imaging. Twelve pages of ultrasound (US) images are included. This book has the radiologic image paired with an explanatory drawing; the image is on the left with a paragraph or two of text, and the drawing is on the right with legends. This book includes images of the brain and spinal cord obtained with arteriography, venography, myelography, encephalography, CT, and MR imaging

  2. Anterior ethmoid anatomy facilitates dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V

    1990-12-01

    The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.

  3. Anatomy of the Platysma Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the anatomy the platysma systematically.The term "platysma AND anatomy" was used to search PubMed and Scopus, producing 394 and 214 papers, respectively. After excluding 95 duplicate titles, 513 abstracts and 98 full papers were reviewed. Among these 98 papers, 83 were excluded and 5 were added. Ultimately, 20 papers were analyzed.The most common aging-related change of the platysma was shortening (70.7%), followed by thinning (25.2%). The platysma most commonly originated from the upper portion of thorax anterior to clavicle (67.7%), followed by the subcutaneous tissue of the subclavicular and acromial regions (22.6%) and pectoralis (9.7%). The platysma ascended upward and medially (68.5%) or ascended from the clavicle to the face (31.5%). The platysma most commonly inserted on the cheek skin (57.5%), followed by the cutaneous muscles around the mouth (18.6%), the mandibulocutaneous ligament or zygoma (18.6%), and the parotid fascia or periosteum of the mandible (5.3%). The platysma was most commonly innervated by the cervical branch of the facial nerve (38.2%) or the cervical branch and mandibular branch of the facial nerve (60.5%), followed by the cervical plexus (0.6%), the cervical motor nucleus (0.6%), and the glossopharyngeal nerve (0.1%). The most common action of the platysma was drawing the lips inferiorly (83.3%) or posteriorly (12.9%). Four papers classified the platysma into subtypes; however, these classification strategies used arbitrary standards.Further studies will be necessary to establish the thickness of the platysma and to characterize age-related changes of the platysma.

  4. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High precision anatomy for MEG☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1 mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were < 1.5 mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6 month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5 mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  6. Normal CT anatomy of the calcaneus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Gyu; Kang, Heung Sik

    1986-01-01

    Normal sectional anatomy of the calcaneus with multiplanar CT examination was studied in 5 volunteers as the background for interpretation of various abnormalities. Major 3 sectional anatomy including plantar, coronal, sagittal and additional tuberosity planes are described. With CT examination of the calcaneus, 1. More detailed anatomy of 3 facets of subtalar joint (anterior, middle, and posterior facet) can be well visualized. 2. Its clinical applications in the tarsal trauma, tarsal coalition, subtalar infection, degenerative arthritis, club foot, pes planus and tarsal tumor could provide much more information's, which not obtained by conventional radiographic studies.

  7. Ultra-high field upper extremity peripheral nerve and non-contrast enhanced vascular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh B Raval

    proper digital palmar arteries and superficial palmar arch could also be clearly visualized using TOF nCE 7T MRI.Ultra-high resolution neurovascular imaging in upper extremities is possible at 7T without use of renal toxic intravenous contrast. 7T MRI can provide superior peripheral nerve [based on fiber anisotropy and diffusion coefficient parameters derived from diffusion tensor/spectrum imaging] and vascular [nCE MRA and vessel segmentation] imaging.

  8. Beyond the G-spot: clitourethrovaginal complex anatomy in female orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannini, Emmanuele A; Buisson, Odile; Rubio-Casillas, Alberto

    2014-09-01

    The search for the legendary, highly erogenous vaginal region, the Gräfenberg spot (G-spot), has produced important data, substantially improving understanding of the complex anatomy and physiology of sexual responses in women. Modern imaging techniques have enabled visualization of dynamic interactions of female genitals during self-sexual stimulation or coitus. Although no single structure consistent with a distinct G-spot has been identified, the vagina is not a passive organ but a highly dynamic structure with an active role in sexual arousal and intercourse. The anatomical relationships and dynamic interactions between the clitoris, urethra, and anterior vaginal wall have led to the concept of a clitourethrovaginal (CUV) complex, defining a variable, multifaceted morphofunctional area that, when properly stimulated during penetration, could induce orgasmic responses. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the CUV complex might help to avoid damage to its neural, muscular, and vascular components during urological and gynaecological surgical procedures.

  9. Ultrasound assessment of the posterior circumflex humeral artery in elite volleyball players: Aneurysm prevalence, anatomy, branching pattern and vessel characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    van de Pol, Daan; Maas, Mario; Terpstra, Aart; Pannekoek-Hekman, Marja; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Planken, R. Nils

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) aneurysms and vessel characteristics of the PCHA and deep brachial artery (DBA) in elite volleyball players. Methods Two-hundred and eighty players underwent standardized ultrasound assessment of the dominant arm by a vascular technologist. Assessment included determination of PCHA aneurysms (defined as segmental vessel dilatation ?150 %), PCHA and DBA anatomy, branching pattern, vessel course and diameter. R...

  10. Functional compartmentalization of the human superficial masseter muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A Guzmán-Venegas

    Full Text Available Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM muscle's motor units using high-density surface electromyography (EMGs at different bite force levels. Twenty healthy natural dentate participants (men: 4; women: 16; age 20±2 years; mass: 60±12 kg, height: 163±7 cm were selected from 316 volunteers and included in this study. Using a gnathodynamometer, bites from 20 to 100% maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF were randomly requested. Using a two-dimensional grid (four columns, six electrodes located on the dominant SM, EMGs in the anterior, middle-anterior, middle-posterior and posterior portions were simultaneously recorded. In bite ranges from 20 to 60% MVBF, the EMG activity was higher in the anterior than in the posterior portion (p-value = 0.001.The center of mass of the EMG activity was displaced towards the posterior part when bite force increased (p-value = 0.001. The topographic distribution of EMGs was more homogeneous at high levels of MVBF (p-value = 0.001. The results of this study show that the superficial masseter is organized into three functional compartments: an anterior, a middle and a posterior compartment. However, this compartmentalization is only seen at low levels of bite force (20-60% MVBF.

  11. [Occupational trauma due to superficial corneal foreign body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerente, Vanessa Miroski; Melo, Gustavo Barreto de; Regatieri, Caio Vinícius Saito; Alvarenga, Lênio Souza; Martins, Elizabeth Nogueira

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of superficial corneal foreign body. Patients who were seen at the Emergency Service of the Federal University of São Paulo, from April/05 to June/05, were screened and those with superficial corneal foreign body were interviewed. Data regarding gender, age, occupation, employment status, availability and use of protective devices and supervision of their use were collected. Awareness of the possible complications was also assessed. Results were analyzed using chi-square or Fisher exact test. One hundred twenty-three patients were interviewed. Only 3 patients were female. The mean age was 36 years. Most injuries occurred at the workplace (86.2%), and 58.4% of the patients did not have a legal employment registration. The occupational activities most frequently reported were construction related activities (44.3%) and welding/soldering (11.3%). In most workplaces (79.8%) protective devices were available and 85.3% of the patients were instructed to use them. A safety device was being used during the accident in 34.2% of the cases and this was more frequent among patients that had legal employment registry (p=0.008) and among those under supervision (p=0.0415). The majority of the patients (68.9%) were aware of the risk of severe complications. Most patients with superficial corneal foreign body are aware of its severe complications and injuries usually occur in places where safety devices are available and often during their use. Our findings suggest that prevention should focus on supervision and correct use of safety devices.

  12. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the renal arteries: normal anatomy and its variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando de Mello Júnior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conventional angiography is still considered the gold standard for the study of the anatomy and of vascular diseases of the abdomen. However, the advent of multidetector computed tomography and techniques of digital image reconstruction has provided an alternative means of performing angiography, without the risks inherent to invasive angiographic examinations. Therefore, within the field of radiology, there is an ever-increasing demand for deeper knowledge of the anatomy of the regional vasculature and its variations. Variations in the renal vascular system are relatively prevalent in the venous and arterial vessels. For various conditions in which surgical planning is crucial to the success of the procedure, knowledge of this topic is important. The aim of this study was to familiarize the general radiologist with variations in the renal vascular system. To that end, we prepared a pictorial essay comprising multidetector computed tomography images obtained in a series of cases. We show patterns representative of the most common anatomical variations in the arterial blood supply to the kidneys, calling attention to the nomenclature, as well as to the clinical and surgical implications of such variations.

  13. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the renal arteries: normal anatomy and its variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello Junior, Carlos Fernando de; Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; Carvalho Junior, Arlindo Monteiro de; Negromonte, Gustavo Ramalho Pessoa; Oliveira, Carollyne Dantas de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Reboucas, Rafael Batista, E-mail: severinoaires@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Conventional angiography is still considered the gold standard for the study of the anatomy and of vascular diseases of the abdomen. However, the advent of multidetector computed tomography and techniques of digital image reconstruction has provided an alternative means of performing angiography, without the risks inherent to invasive angiographic examinations. Therefore, within the field of radiology, there is an ever-increasing demand for deeper knowledge of the anatomy of the regional vasculature and its variations. Variations in the renal vascular system are relatively prevalent in the venous and arterial vessels. For various conditions in which surgical planning is crucial to the success of the procedure, knowledge of this topic is important. The aim of this study was to familiarize the general radiologist with variations in the renal vascular system. To that end, we prepared a pictorial essay comprising multidetector computed tomography images obtained in a series of cases. We show patterns representative of the most common anatomical variations in the arterial blood supply to the kidneys, calling attention to the nomenclature, as well as to the clinical and surgical implications of such variations. (author)

  14. Cell walls and the developmental anatomy of the Brachypodium distachyon stem internode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick A Matos

    Full Text Available While many aspects of plant cell wall polymer structure are known, their spatial and temporal distribution within the stem are not well understood. Here, we studied vascular system and fiber development, which has implication for both biofuel feedstock conversion efficiency and crop yield. The subject of this study, Brachypodium distachyon, has emerged as a grass model for food and energy crop research. Here, we conducted our investigation using B. distachyon by applying various histological approaches and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the stem internode from three key developmental stages. While vascular bundle size and number did not change over time, the size of the interfascicular region increased dramatically, as did cell wall thickness. We also describe internal stem internode anatomy and demonstrate that lignin deposition continues after crystalline cellulose and xylan accumulation ceases. The vascular bundle anatomy of B. distachyon appears to be highly similar to domesticated grasses. While the arrangement of bundles within the stem is highly variable across grasses, B. distachyon appears to be a suitable model for the rind of large C4 grass crops. A better understanding of growth and various anatomical and cell wall features of B. distachyon will further our understanding of plant biomass accumulation processes.

  15. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the renal arteries: normal anatomy and its variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Junior, Carlos Fernando de; Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; Carvalho Junior, Arlindo Monteiro de; Negromonte, Gustavo Ramalho Pessoa; Oliveira, Carollyne Dantas de; Reboucas, Rafael Batista

    2016-01-01

    Conventional angiography is still considered the gold standard for the study of the anatomy and of vascular diseases of the abdomen. However, the advent of multidetector computed tomography and techniques of digital image reconstruction has provided an alternative means of performing angiography, without the risks inherent to invasive angiographic examinations. Therefore, within the field of radiology, there is an ever-increasing demand for deeper knowledge of the anatomy of the regional vasculature and its variations. Variations in the renal vascular system are relatively prevalent in the venous and arterial vessels. For various conditions in which surgical planning is crucial to the success of the procedure, knowledge of this topic is important. The aim of this study was to familiarize the general radiologist with variations in the renal vascular system. To that end, we prepared a pictorial essay comprising multidetector computed tomography images obtained in a series of cases. We show patterns representative of the most common anatomical variations in the arterial blood supply to the kidneys, calling attention to the nomenclature, as well as to the clinical and surgical implications of such variations. (author)

  16. Vascular damage after acute local irradiation: a light and electron microscope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verola, O.; Brocheriou, C.

    1986-01-01

    A pig model was used to examine histological and ultrastructural changes after high-dose local irradiation. This model was chosen to simulate accidents which have occurred in man, enabling the determination of several post-irradiation phases. After an initial phase, with superficial lesions, ischaemic necrosis occurred 3 weeks after irradiation as the result of early vascular alterations. After 2 months, expanding necrosis became obvious in the deep muscle, preceded by an initial spread of vascular lesions: these alterations were obvious from the 30th day by light microscopy but could be detected by electron microscopy from the 9th day. (author)

  17. Superficial thrombophlebitis (Mondor′s Disease after breast augmentation surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viana Giovanni Andre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the aetiology of Mondor′s disease remains unclear, the most commonly cited cause is trauma of some sort. Although surgical trauma has frequently been quoted, reports that specifically implicate aesthetic breast surgery are unusual in the literature. In this article, the authors report a case of superficial thrombophlebitis of the anterolateral chest wall secondary to breast augmentation surgery in a woman, five months after the procedure. The authors performed an analysis of the disease′s main etiologic components and preponderant clinical aspects, and determined all appropriate therapeutic measures.

  18. High dose rate brachytherapy for superficial cancer of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingon, Philippe; D'Hombres, Anne; Truc, Gilles; Barillot, Isabelle; Michiels, Christophe; Bedenne, Laurent; Horiot, Jean Claude

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: We analyzed our experience with external radiotherapy, combined modality treatment, or HDR brachytherapy alone to limited esophageal cancers. Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 1996, 25 patients with limited superficial esophagus carcinomas were treated by high dose rate brachytherapy. The mean age was 63 years (43-86 years). Five patients showed superficial local recurrence after external radiotherapy. Eleven patients without invasion of the basal membrane were staged as Tis. Fourteen patients with tumors involving the submucosa without spreading to the muscle were staged as T1. Treatment consisted of HDR brachytherapy alone in 13 patients, external radiotherapy and brachytherapy in 8 cases, and concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy in 4 cases. External beam radiation was administered to a total dose of 50 Gy using 2 Gy daily fractions in 5 weeks. In cases of HDR brachytherapy alone (13 patients), 6 applications were performed once a week. Results: The mean follow-up is 31 months (range 24-96 months). Twelve patients received 2 applications and 13 patients received 6 applications. Twelve patients experienced a failure (48%), 11/12 located in the esophagus, all of them in the treated volume. One patient presented an isolated distant metastasis. In the patients treated for superficial recurrence, 4/5 were locally controlled (80%) by brachytherapy alone. After brachytherapy alone, 8/13 patients were controlled (61%). The mean disease-free survival is 14 months (1-36 months). Overall survival is 76% at 1 year, 37% at 2 years, and 14% at 3 years. Overall survival for Tis patients is 24% vs. 20% for T1 (p 0.83). Overall survival for patients treated by HDR brachytherapy alone is 43%. One patient presented with a fistula with local failure after external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Four stenosis were registered, two were diagnosed on barium swallowing without symptoms, and two required dilatations. Conclusion: High dose rate brachytherapy permits the treating

  19. Modelos de mantenimiento y reemplazo de equipos en mineria superficial

    OpenAIRE

    Llanque Maquera, Oscar Eloy; Llanque Maquera, Oscar Eloy

    1999-01-01

    El mantenimiento y reemplazamiento de equipos en Minería Superficie tiene una gran importada por el mismo hecho que se mueven volumen de material y por las altas inversiones hechas en maquinaria, a su vez por la influencia en los costos de operación. Por tal razón es el interés en desarrollar los modelos de mantenimiento y reemplazamiento de equipos en minería e implemento el mantenimiento predictivo, como una actividad complementaria a los mantenimientos que se realizan comúnmente como son p...

  20. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE FEEDING APPARATUS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in body size and jaw force are thought to reduce competition for food between ...... through the water and prey is taken by surprise or actively pursued (Van ..... differences in limb and axial anatomy probably exist among the four South African.

  1. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  2. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose contains shelf-like ... white). Soft tissue, such as the eye, is gray. The maxillary sinus of adults has a volume ...

  3. Cochlear anatomy: CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Manuel; Bruno, Claudio; Martin, Eduardo; Canale, Nancy; De Luca, Laura; Spina, Juan C. h

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a brief overview of the normal cochlear anatomy with CT and MR images in order to allow a more complete identification of the pathological findings in patients with perceptive hipoacusia. (author)

  4. Ecological anatomy of some hydrophytes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... tissues and counter stained in Aniline Blue to increase contrast. Sections were viewed with microscope equipped with the ocular eye-piece at 100 x magnification. .... the relationship between anatomy, ecology and evolution.

  5. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  6. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  7. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  8. Overview of vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisset, G.S. III

    1998-01-01

    Vascular disease in the pediatric population is a poorly understood process which is often underestimated in its incidence. The common beginnings of such ubiquitous diseases as atherosclerosis manifest themselves at a cellular level shortly after birth. Other common systemic disorders, including congestive heart failure and sepsis, are also intricately associated with dysfunctional vasculature. Progress in the understanding of normal and pathophysiologic processes within the vascular system begins with the 'control center' - the endothelial cell. The purpose of this review is to consolidate a body of knowledge on the processes that occur at the cellular level within the blood vessel wall, and to simplify the understanding of how imbalances in these physiologic parameters result in vascular disease. (orig.)

  9. Radiological anatomy of the groin region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.C. van den; Valois, J.C. de; Go, P.M.N.Y.H.; Rosenbusch, G.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the anatomy of the inguinal region, and to discuss the value of various imaging modalities in the diagnosis of groin hernias. After description of the gross anatomy of the groin, attention is focused on the anatomic features of conventional herniography, US, CT, and MRI. Advantages, disadvantages, and accuracy of each technique is discussed briefly. (orig.)

  10. External and internal anatomy of third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerisoli, D M; de Souza, R A; de Sousa Neto, M D; Silva, R G; Pécora, J D

    1998-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 269 third molars (155 maxillary and 114 mandibular) were studied. The teeth were measured, classified according to their root number and shape and the internal anatomy was observed by the use of diaphanization. A great anatomical variability was found, with the presence of up to 5 roots in maxillary third molars and 3 roots in mandibular third molars. The number of root canals followed the same pattern.

  11. Renal anatomy as applied to uroradiologic interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.C.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.; Miller, R.P.; Amplatz, K.

    1987-01-01

    Through the experience at the University of Minnesota with over 650 stone removals and over 1,000 percutaneous nephrostomies and ureteral manipulations, the authors developed an approach to the urinary system that has minimized their complication rate and maximized their successes. The exhibit demonstrates the salient anatomic relationships of the kidney with respect to urologic interventions. The kidney's position within the body, lobar anatomy, arterial anatomy, relationship to the ribs and pleura, and relationship to adjacent organs are shown

  12. CT anatomy of hilar lymphadenopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, S.; Higashihara, T.; Morimoto, S.; Ikezoe, J.; Arisawa, J.; Monden, Y.; Nahakara, K.

    1983-01-01

    The normal distributions of lymph nodes in the pulmonary hili is diagrammatically shown with a typical computed tomographic (CT) demonstration of hilar lymphadenopathy. On the basis of observations in anatomic cross sections of cadaver lungs, the lympth nodes in the right lung can be divided into four principal groups (right upper lobe, interlobar, middle lobe, and lower lobe) and in the left lung into three principal groups (left upper lobe, interlobar, and lower lobe). Most of the hilar lymph nodes are situated along the bronchi in close relation with the pulmonary vascular branches. Because of this close proximity, contrast-enhanced CT images are indispensable for precise CT interpretation of a hilar lymphadenopathy

  13. Optical coherence tomography and polarimetry of superficial skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Utz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. Of this study was to develop and assess the efficacy of polarization probing of biotissues in vitro. The method is based on the determination of polarization parameters of scattered radiation. Materials and methods. The well-known superficial epidermis stripping method was applied using the Sulfacrylate self-sterile medical adhesive. Small portions of thin layers of the adhesive were applied to slide plates and then to different skin sites. The corneous layer in the normal condition and in case of skin diseases (psoriasis, lichen acuminatus, discoid lupus erythematosus, alopecia, itching and demodectic mange was examined based on the optical coherence tomography (OCT method using the 0CS1300SS device (Thorlabs Inc, USA. Results. The authors obtained pictures visualizing the structural organization of different layers of the epidermis using the superficial epidermis biopsy method in case of lichen acuminatus, hyperkeratosis, itching and other skin diseases. Conclusion. This method ensures non-invasive high-precision measurement of the structure of different layers of the epidermis, which may be useful both for research purposes and practical dermatology.

  14. Superficially located enlarged lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.

  15. Lactic acid peeling in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Silonie

    2010-09-01

    Chemical peeling with both alpha and beta hydroxy acids has been used to improve acne scarring with pigmentation. Lactic acid, a mild alpha hydroxy acid, has been used in the treatment of various dermatological indications but no study is reported in acne scarring with pigmentation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of full strength pure lactic acid 92% (pH 2.0) chemical peel in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin. Seven patients, Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V, in age group 20-30 years with superficial acne scarring were enrolled in the study. Chemical peeling was done with lactic acid at an interval of 2 weeks to a maximum of four peels. Pre- and post-peel clinical photographs were taken at every session. Patients were followed every month for 3 months after the last peel to evaluate the effects. At the end of 3 months, there was definite improvement in the texture, pigmentation, and appearance of the treated skin, with lightening of scars. Significant improvement (greater than 75% clearance of lesions) occurred in one patient (14.28%), good improvement (51-75% clearance) in three patients (42.84%), moderate improvement (26-50% clearance) in two patients (28.57%), and mild improvement (1-25% clearance) in one patient (14.28%). © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Superficial corneal crosslinking during laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Theo G; Fischinger, Isaak; Koller, Tobias; Derhartunian, Viktor; Seiler, Theo

    2015-10-01

    To determine the safety of superficial corneal crosslinking after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Institut für Refraktive und Ophthalmo-Chirurgie, Zurich, Switzerland. Prospective study. Eyes with an ectasia risk score of 2 or higher were treated with standard LASIK (90 μm flap) for myopia correction, after which a rapid corneal crosslinking was performed in the interface (riboflavin 0.5% for 2 minutes, 9 mW/cm(2) for 5 minutes) (Group 1). The follow-up was up to 1 year. The prevalence of complications was statistically compared with that in a group of eyes matched regarding age, sex, and attempted refractive correction that were treated with standard LASIK only (Group 2). One month postoperatively, 5 eyes in Group 1 lost 1 line of corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) compared with 1 eye in Group 2 (P rate of less than 5%. The refractive success was identical in both groups. Early postoperative complications such as erosions (16%), diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) stage 1 (38%), and DLK stage 2 (5%) were statistically significantly more frequent after superficial corneal crosslinking, leading to a statistically significantly reduced uncorrected distance visual acuity at 1 month (P interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Local superficial hyperthermia in combination with low-dose radiation therapy for palliation of superficially localized metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarek, G.; Miszczyk, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is to evaluate the response of superficially located metastases and local toxicity to microwave hyperthermia combined with radiation therapy. From May 2003 through December 2004 58 patients (33 male, 25 female; mean age 60 years) with lymph nodes or skin metastases were treated with microwave superficial hyperthermia combined with low-dose radiation therapy. Hyperthermia was administered twice weekly with high frequency applicator (∼900 Mhz) with water bolus. The temperature was set to 43 o C for 45 minutes. Radiotherapy was performed daily with dose 2 Gy or 4 Gy per fraction, to a total dose 20 Gy. There were 47 patients with carcinoma, 4 with sarcoma, 7 with melanoma. Treated regions were: head and neck (37 patients), chest wall 8, abdomen wall and groins 4, upper and lower limb 2 and 8 patients respectively. Primary tumor sites were: head and neck region (9 patients), lung 15, alimentary tract 8, breast 5, soft tissue 8, urogenital 4 and 9 patients with primary tumor site unknown. The toxicity was evaluated using 6 step scale: 0-no skin reaction, 1-faint red mark, 2-distinct red mark, 3-blisters, 4-brown mark, 5-necrosis. Presence of pain and its intensity were also analyzed. Diameter of tumor after the treatment was observed. Complete response was achieved in 5 patients (8.5 %), and partial response in 29 patients (50 %), no response was observed in 12 patients (20 %) and progression of tumor in 7 patients (12 %). No skin reaction was observed in 3 patients, faint red mark in 14 patients, distinct red mark in 28 patients, blisters in 8 patients, brown mark in 4 patients and necrosis in 1 patient. The pain occurred in 9 patients but it was no the cause of stopping treatment. Local superficial hyperthermia combined with low-dose radiation therapy is an effective method of treatment in a proportion of patients with superficial metastases. This combination of treatment modalities is well tolerated and is useful for palliation

  18. Normal distal pulmonary vein anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that the pulmonary veins (PVs, especially their myocardial sleeves play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Understanding the PV anatomy is crucial for the safety and efficacy of all procedures performed on PVs. The aim of this study was to present normal distal PV anatomy and to create a juxtaposition of all PV ostium variants.Methods. A total of 130 randomly selected autopsied adult human hearts (Caucasian were examined. The number of PVs ostia was evaluated and their diameter was measured. The ostium-to-last-tributary distance and macroscopic presence of myocardial sleeves were also evaluated.Results. Five hundred forty-one PV ostia were identified. Four classical PV ostia patterns (two left and two right PVs were observed in 70.8% of all cases. The most common variant was the classical pattern with additional middle right PV (19.2%, followed by the common ostium for the left superior and the inferior PVs (4.44%. Mean diameters of PV ostia (for the classical pattern were: left superior = 13.8 ± 2.9 mm; left inferior = 13.3 ± 3.4 mm; right superior = 14.3 ± 2.9 mm; right inferior = 13.7 ± 3.3 mm. When present, the additional middle right PV ostium had the smallest PV ostium diameter in the heart (8.2 ± 4.1 mm. The mean ostium-to-last-tributary (closest to the atrium distances were: left superior = 15.1 ± 4.6 mm; left inferior = 13.5 ± 4.0 mm; right superior = 11.8 ± 4.0 mm; right inferior = 11.0 ± 3.7 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes in ostia diameters and ostium-to-last-tributary distances.Conclusion. Only 71% of the cases have four standard pulmonary veins. The middle right pulmonary vein is present in almost 20% of patients. Presented data can provide useful information for the clinicians during interventional procedures or radiologic examinations of PVs.

  19. Assessment of the kidney tumor vascular supply by two-phase MDCT-angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferda, Jiri [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: ferda@fnplzen.cz; Hora, Milan [Department of Urology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Dr. Edvarda Benese 13, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Hes, Ondrej [Institute of Pathology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Ferdova, Eva [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Kreuzberg, Boris [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: Current kidney surgery uses less invasive laparoscopic and nephron-sparring procedures. Thus, perfect imaging of the renal vasculature is essential for surgery planning. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of 16-detector-row CT-angiography in assessing the vascular anatomy of the kidney with a tumor. Subjects and methods: Referred for computed tomography (CT) because of a suspected renal tumor, 50 consecutive patients (mean age 58.6 years; range 43-82) were enrolled into our retrospective study. All examinations were performed with 16 x 0.75 mm collimation after the intravenous application of 80 ml of a non-ionic contrast material. The imaging protocol contained two-phase scanning in the arterial and then in the venous phase. The vascular anatomy of the kidney with tumor was evaluated using volume rendered (VRT) and maximum intensity images (MIP). Findings were compared with the anatomy found during surgery. Results: Forty-seven patients underwent nephrectomy, with an advanced clinical stage (IV) found in the three remaining ones. Correct topography of the renal hilus, including a number of arteries and veins, and the anatomy of their branching, was described in 46 patients. A very small upper polar artery was overlooked in one patient. The accuracy for the only-arterial was 97.9% and only-venous anatomy was 100%. The parasitic vasculature of the tumor was discovered in 10 cases and all of them were confirmed by surgery (100% accuracy). Macroscopic intravenous spread of the tumor was discovered in two cases, but microscopic intravenous invasion was confirmed during histology of the kidney specimens in another two cases, the overall tumor staging accuracy reaching 95.7%. Conclusion: Two-phase multidetector CT is a valuable tool for assessing vascular supply of the kidney before surgery due to the tumor and can fully replace catheter-based angiography.

  20. Assessment of the kidney tumor vascular supply by two-phase MDCT-angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferda, Jiri; Hora, Milan; Hes, Ondrej; Ferdova, Eva; Kreuzberg, Boris

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Current kidney surgery uses less invasive laparoscopic and nephron-sparring procedures. Thus, perfect imaging of the renal vasculature is essential for surgery planning. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of 16-detector-row CT-angiography in assessing the vascular anatomy of the kidney with a tumor. Subjects and methods: Referred for computed tomography (CT) because of a suspected renal tumor, 50 consecutive patients (mean age 58.6 years; range 43-82) were enrolled into our retrospective study. All examinations were performed with 16 x 0.75 mm collimation after the intravenous application of 80 ml of a non-ionic contrast material. The imaging protocol contained two-phase scanning in the arterial and then in the venous phase. The vascular anatomy of the kidney with tumor was evaluated using volume rendered (VRT) and maximum intensity images (MIP). Findings were compared with the anatomy found during surgery. Results: Forty-seven patients underwent nephrectomy, with an advanced clinical stage (IV) found in the three remaining ones. Correct topography of the renal hilus, including a number of arteries and veins, and the anatomy of their branching, was described in 46 patients. A very small upper polar artery was overlooked in one patient. The accuracy for the only-arterial was 97.9% and only-venous anatomy was 100%. The parasitic vasculature of the tumor was discovered in 10 cases and all of them were confirmed by surgery (100% accuracy). Macroscopic intravenous spread of the tumor was discovered in two cases, but microscopic intravenous invasion was confirmed during histology of the kidney specimens in another two cases, the overall tumor staging accuracy reaching 95.7%. Conclusion: Two-phase multidetector CT is a valuable tool for assessing vascular supply of the kidney before surgery due to the tumor and can fully replace catheter-based angiography

  1. The superficial ulnar artery: development and clinical significance Artéria ulnar superficial: desenvolvimento e relevância clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasulu Reddy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal arteries of the upper limb show a wide range of variation that is of considerable interest to orthopedic surgeons, plastic surgeons, radiologists and anatomists. We present here a case of superficial ulnar artery found during the routine dissection of right upper limb of a 50-year-old male cadaver. The superficial ulnar artery originated from the brachial artery, crossed the median nerve anteriorly and ran lateral to this nerve and the brachial artery. The superficial ulnar artery in the arm gave rise to a narrow muscular branch to the biceps brachii. At the elbow level the artery ran superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis where it was crossed by the median cubital vein. It then ran downward and medially superficial to the forearm flexor muscles, and then downward to enter the hand. At the palm, it formed the superficial and deep palmar arches together with the branches of the radial artery. The presence of a superficial ulnar artery is clinically important when raising forearm flaps in reconstructive surgery. The embryology and clinical significance of the variation are discussed.As principais artérias do membro superior apresentam uma ampla variação, que é relativamente importante a cirurgiões ortopédicos e plásticos, radiologistas e anatomistas.Apresentamosumcaso de artéria ulnar superficial encontrada durante dissecção de rotina de membro superior direito de um cadáver masculino de 50 anos de idade.Aartéria ulnar superficial originava-se da artéria braquial, cruzava o nervo mediano anteriormente e percorria lateralmente esse nervo e a artéria braquial. A artéria ulnar superficial no braço deu origem a um ramo muscular estreito do músculo bíceps braquial. Ao nível do cotovelo, a artéria percorria superficialmente a aponeurose bicipital, onde era cruzada pela veia cubital mediana. Percorria, então, em sentido descendente e medialmente superficial aos músculos flexores do antebraço, e então descendia para

  2. Descripción anatómica vegetativa de dos especies de Nymphoides (Menyanthaceae Vegetative anatomy of two Nymphoides species (Menyanthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahinda Martínez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En México crecen dos especies de Nymphoides, N. indica y N. fallax. El conocimiento de la anatomía del género es incompleto y N. fallax no se ha tratado. Este trabajo presenta la descripción anatómica de ambas, a partir de cortes con micrótomo, a mano libre y diafanizados. La raíz tiene la superficie cubierta por una exodermis de varias capas de células con una sustancia mucilaginosa, con un córtex primario compuesto de células redondeadas sin espacios intercelulares en N. fallax y escasos en N. indica, con abundante inulina como material de reserva; el sistema vascular tiene de 9 a 10 cordones de xilema poliarco que alternan con el floema, hay una endodermis bien definida. El tallo muestra aerénquima y astrosclereidas. La hoja tiene estomas anomocíticos en la epidermis superior e hidropoten abundante en el envés; la venación de la lámina es actinodroma flavelada con las terminaciones modificadas a hidatodos y abundantes astroesclereidas en pecíolo y lámina. En corte transversal, la lámina tiene epidermis uniseriada, parénquima en empalizada de tres a cinco estratos de células y aerénquima hacia el lado inferior y esclereidas abundantes. La exodermis multicelular mucilaginosa no se había descritao con anterioridad y los cristales citados por otros autores están ausentes.Two species of Nymphoides grow in Mexico, N. indica and N. fallax. Since only a few species in the genus have been anatomically studied, we worked on the vegetative anatomy of both species and N. fallax is studied for the first time. We describe the anatomy of both, as seen in slides obtained through microtome, by free hand and transparentations. We found the root surface covered by several exodermis layers with a mucilaginous secretion; the primary cortex is constituted by rounded cells and lacks intercellular spaces in N. fallax, whereas N. indica has only a few, the cells contain abundant inuline for storage; the vascular system is composed from 9 to 10

  3. Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSIREP SUMARDI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sumardi I, Wulandari M (2011 Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level. Biodiversitas 12: 167-175. In Indonesia there are many cultivars of banana, and some of them produce edible fruits. Beside their morphology, the character which necessary as a tool for classification is anatomical character. The aim of this research were to describe the anatomical character and morphology of fives Indonesian banana cultivars based on their level of ploidy. The cultivars were collected from Banana Germplasm Plantation, Yogyakarta District, Indonesia. The samples of roots, rhizome, and leaf were collected from five banana cultivars i.e.: Musa acuminata cv Penjalin, M.balbisiana cv Kluthuk warangan, M.acuminata cv Ambon warangan, M.paradisiaca cv Raja nangka , and M. paradisiaca cv Kluthuk susu. For anatomy observation samples were prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranin in 70% ethanol. To observe the structure of stomata and epidermis surface, slide were prepared using modification of whole mount method. Slides were observed using Olympus BHB microscope completed with Olympus camera BM-10A. Stem and leaf morphology character of diploid level (AA and BB genome is different with triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome. Anatomy and morphology character of root and rhizome of banana in diploid level (AA and BB genome and triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome is quite similar. Distribution of stomata is found in leaf and pseudostem. Stomata is found in adaxial and abaxial epidermis layer. The size of guard cells in triploid cultivars was longer than that diploid cultivars. The root composse of epidermis layer, cortex and cylinder vascular of five cultivar’s root show anomalous structure. Rhizome consist of peripheric and centre zone. Anatomically, this was no differences in the rizome structur among five banana cultivars. The row of vascular bundles act as demarcation area

  4. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  5. What Do the Public Know about Anatomy? Anatomy Education to the Public and the Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Adam M.; Diggle, Peter; Wessels, Quenton

    2018-01-01

    Public knowledge of the anatomical "self" is lacking and evidence points towards a growing need for anatomy education to the wider public. The public were offered the opportunity to learn human anatomy and complete an anatomical knowledge survey afterwards. Sixty-three participants volunteered to attempt to place 20 anatomical structures…

  6. Microvascular anatomy of the cerebellar parafloccular perforating space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Pablo; Dujovny, Manuel; Onyekachi, Ibe; Sockwell, Noressia; Cremaschi, Fabián; Savastano, Luis E

    2016-02-01

    The cerebellopontine angle is a common site for tumor growth and vascular pathologies requiring surgical manipulations that jeopardize cranial nerve integrity and cerebellar and brainstem perfusion. To date, a detailed study of vessels perforating the cisternal surface of the middle cerebellar peduncle-namely, the paraflocculus or parafloccular perforating space-has yet to be published. In this report, the perforating vessels of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) in the parafloccular space, or on the cisternal surface of the middle cerebellar peduncle, are described to elucidate their relevance pertaining to microsurgery and the different pathologies that occur at the cerebellopontine angle. Fourteen cadaveric cerebellopontine cisterns (CPCs) were studied. Anatomical dissections and analysis of the perforating arteries of the AICA and posterior inferior cerebellar artery at the parafloccular space were recorded using direct visualization by surgical microscope, optical histology, and scanning electron microscope. A comprehensive review of the English-language and Spanish-language literature was also performed, and findings related to anatomy, histology, physiology, neurology, neuroradiology, microsurgery, and endovascular surgery pertaining to the cerebellar flocculus or parafloccular spaces are summarized. A total of 298 perforating arteries were found in the dissected specimens, with a minimum of 15 to a maximum of 26 vessels per parafloccular perforating space. The average outer diameter of the cisternal portion of the perforating arteries was 0.11 ± 0.042 mm (mean ± SD) and the average length was 2.84 ± 1.2 mm. Detailed schematics and the surgical anatomy of the perforating vessels at the CPC and their clinical relevance are reported. The parafloccular space is a key entry point for many perforating vessels toward the middle cerebellar peduncle and lateral brainstem, and it must be respected and protected during surgical approaches to the

  7. DSA - a helpful tool in diagnosis of aberrant left pulmonary artery (vascular sling) in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooyaart, E.L.; Boomsma, J.H.B.; Postmus, P.E.; Formanek, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two new adult patients with aberrant origin of the left pulmonary artery from the right pulmonary artery - pulmonary artery sling - are described, totalling the published adult cases to eight. Differentiation from a mediastinal mass closely mimicking this vascular anomaly is discussed. For the definitive diagnosis, digital subtraction angiography was applied for the first time. The clearest demonstration of the anatomy is in 20-25 0 RPO and 20-25 0 sitting position. The aberrant left pulmonary artery in adults is asymptomatic.

  8. What factors control the superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoit; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-04-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style; lava domes result from intermittent, slow extrusion of viscous lava. Most dome-forming eruptions produce highly microcrystallized and highly- to almost totally-degassed magmas which have a low explosive potential. During lava dome growth, recurrent collapses of unstable parts are the main destructive process of the lava dome, generating concentrated pyroclastic density currents (C-PDC) channelized in valleys. These C-PDC have a high, but localized, damage potential that largely depends on the collapsed volume. Sometimes, a dilute ash cloud surge develops at the top of the concentrated flow with an increased destructive effect because it may overflow ridges and affect larger areas. In some cases, large lava dome collapses can induce a depressurization of the magma within the conduit, leading to vulcanian explosions. By contrast, violent, laterally directed, explosions may occur at the base of a growing lava dome: this activity generates dilute and turbulent, highly-destructive, pyroclastic density currents (D-PDC), with a high velocity and propagation poorly dependent on the topography. Numerous studies on lava dome behaviors exist, but the triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood. Here, seven dome-forming eruptions are investigated: in the Lesser Antilles arc: Montagne Pelée, Martinique (1902-1905, 1929-1932 and 650 y. BP eruptions), Soufrière Hills, Montserrat; in Guatemala, Santiaguito (1929 eruption); in La Chaîne des Puys, France (Puy de Dome and Puy Chopine eruptions). We propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by these key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite

  9. Two Crosslinking Technologies for Superficial Reticular Dermis Injection: A Comparative Ultrasound and Histologic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Micheels, Patrick; Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few hyaluronic acid fillers have been developed for superficial injection. Objective: To compare the diffusion and integration properties of cohesive polydensified matrix and Vycross® technology hyaluronic acid fillers with lidocaine following injection into the superficial reticular dermis. Methods and materials: Two subjects received two injections each of cohesive polydensified matrix and Vycross® hyaluronic acid (0.2mL/site) in the superficial reticular dermis of the buttock u...

  10. Myxoid stroma and delicate vasculature of a superficial angiomyxoma give rise to the red planet sign

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Margaret; Logemann, Nichola; Sulit, Daryl J

    2014-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas are uncommon benign mesenchymal tumors. They often recur locally if partially removed. This case report demonstrates not only the characteristic pathological findings of a superficial angiomyxoma in a 33- year-old man, but also shows a unique dermatoscopic image, which in our estimation resembles a celestial red planet such as the blood moon seen during a lunar eclipse. We propose to call this the “red planet” sign for a superficial angiomyxoma on dermoscopic examinat...

  11. Myxoid stroma and delicate vasculature of a superficial angiomyxoma give rise to the red planet sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Margaret; Logemann, Nichola; Sulit, Daryl J

    2014-09-16

    Superficial angiomyxomas are uncommon benign mesenchymal tumors. They often recur locally if partially removed. This case report demonstrates not only the characteristic pathological findings of a superficial angiomyxoma in a 33- year-old man, but also shows a unique dermatoscopic image, which in our estimation resembles a celestial red planet such as the blood moon seen during a lunar eclipse. We propose to call this the "red planet" sign for a superficial angiomyxoma on dermoscopic examination.

  12. Relaxin as a natural agent for vascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniele BaniDepartment of Anatomy, Histology and Forensic Medicine, Sect. Histology, University of Florence, ItalyAbstract: Hypertension, atherothrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and renal failure are the main manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD, the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. Continuing insight into the pathophysiology of CVD can allow identification of effective therapeutic strategies to reduce the occurrence of death and/or severe disabilities. In this context, a healthy endothelium is deemed crucial to proper functioning and maintenance of anatomical integrity of the vascular system in many organs. Of note, epidemiologic studies indicate that the incidence of CVD in women is very low until menopause and increases sharply thereafter. The loss of protection against CVD in post-menopausal women has been chiefly attributed to ovarian steroid deficiency. However, besides steroids, the ovary also produces the peptide hormone relaxin (RLX, which provides potent vasoactive effects which render it the most likely candidate as the elusive physiological shield against CVD in fertile women. In particular, RLX has a specific relaxant effect on peripheral and coronary vasculature, exerted by the stimulation of endogenous nitric oxide (NO generation by cells of the vascular wall, and can induce angiogenesis. Moreover, RLX inhibits the activation of inflammatory leukocytes and platelets, which play a key role in CVD. Experimental studies performed in vascular and blood cell in vitro and in animal models of vascular dysfunction, as well as pioneer clinical observations, have provided evidence that RLX can prevent and/or improve CVD, thus offering background to clinical trials aimed at exploring the broad therapeutic potential of human recombinant RLX as a new cardiovascular drug.Keywords: relaxin, blood vessels, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle, nitric oxide

  13. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow – Implication for treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, C.; Alfredson, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Methods: Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin & eosin, H&E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). Results: All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. Conclusion: The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. Level of Evidence: IV. PMID:28574416

  14. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow - Implication for treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, C; Alfredson, H

    2017-06-01

    Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin and eosin, H and E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. IV.

  15. ANATOMY OF GYNURA AURANTIACA (BLUME SCH.BIP. EX DC. (ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description, of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf and photographs as well of Gynura aurantiaca (Blume Sch.Bip. ex DC. It was observed that the root have typical primary dictos structure. The stem has a differentiated in two regions cortex and the stele comprise one ring of open collateral vascular bundles with secondary xylem due to the cambium activity. The petiole anatomy is quite similar in its basic structure with the stem. The blade presents a heterogenous and hypostomatic mesophyll and a number of vascular bundles in the midrib zone. Remarkable is the presence of the filamentous, uniseriate non-glandular hairs in the stem, petiole and leaf blade. The mechanical tissue is present in the stem, petiole and blade as well.

  16. Rare variations in renal anatomy and blood supply: CT appearances and embryological background. A pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocheteux, B.; Gaxotte, V.; Beregi, J.P.; Mounier-Vehier, C.; McFadden, E.P.; Francke, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Helical CT angiography is increasingly used for the evaluation of the kidneys and the renal vessels. Knowledge of the potential variants in renal and renal vascular anatomy and of their appearances on helical CT are thus indispensable for radiologists who perform and interpret such examinations. We report six cases of anatomic variants that we encountered in our tertiary referral centre over the past 5 years, during which time we have performed 4850 helical CT angiograms, including 1432 renal artery examinations. These represent rarer anomalies in renal vascularization, most of which were associated with renal malformations (horseshoe kidney with or without cortical torsion, renal malrotation, single kidney, and thoracic origin of a renal artery). We present the helical CT findings and discuss the possible embryological mechanisms and the practical implications of these abnormalities for the radiologist. (orig.)

  17. Rare variations in renal anatomy and blood supply: CT appearances and embryological background. A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheteux, B.; Gaxotte, V.; Beregi, J.P. [Dept. of Vascular Radiology, Hopital Cardiologique, CHRU de Lille (France); Mounier-Vehier, C. [Service d' Hypertension Arterielle et Medecine Interne, Hopital Cardiologique, CHRU de Lille (France); McFadden, E.P. [Service de Cardiologie B, Hopital Cardiologique, CHRU de Lille (France); Francke, J.P. [Lab. d' Anatomie, Faculte de Medecine, Lille (France)

    2001-05-01

    Helical CT angiography is increasingly used for the evaluation of the kidneys and the renal vessels. Knowledge of the potential variants in renal and renal vascular anatomy and of their appearances on helical CT are thus indispensable for radiologists who perform and interpret such examinations. We report six cases of anatomic variants that we encountered in our tertiary referral centre over the past 5 years, during which time we have performed 4850 helical CT angiograms, including 1432 renal artery examinations. These represent rarer anomalies in renal vascularization, most of which were associated with renal malformations (horseshoe kidney with or without cortical torsion, renal malrotation, single kidney, and thoracic origin of a renal artery). We present the helical CT findings and discuss the possible embryological mechanisms and the practical implications of these abnormalities for the radiologist. (orig.)

  18. Anatomy and Histochemistry of Roots and Shoots in Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaodong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb. is a famous, perennial, emergent vegetable in China. The current work explores the anatomy and histochemistry of roots, stems, and leaves and the permeability of apoplastic barriers of wild rice. The adventitious roots in wild rice have suberized and lignified endodermis and adjacent, thick-walled cortical layers and suberized and lignified hypodermis, composed of a uniseriate sclerenchyma layer (SC underlying uniseriate exodermis; they also have lysigenous aerenchyma. Stems have a thickened epidermal cuticle, a narrow peripheral mechanical ring (PMR, an outer ring of vascular bundles, and an inner ring of vascular bundles embedded in a multiseriate sclerenchyma ring (SCR. There is evidence of suberin in stem SCR and PMR sclerenchyma cells. Sheathing leaves are characterized by thick cuticles and fibrous bundle sheath extensions. Air spaces in stems and leaves consist of mostly lysigenous aerenchyma and pith cavities in stems. Apoplastic barriers are found in roots and stems.

  19. Superficies de titanio en implantes dentales de carga inmediata

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio, C.; Padrós, A.; Planell Estany, Josep Anton; Gil, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Se ha obtenido una capa de fosfato de calcio del mismo contenido mineral que el hueso en la superficie del implante dental de titanio, que tiene como consecuencia una muy rápida y eficaz osteointegración. Esta capa se ha obtenido mediante un método biomimético por vía termoquímica. La capa se une al substrato por enlace químico. Este hecho evita todos los inconvenientes de los métodos de recubrimiento convencionales (plasma spray, ablación láser...) cuya unión es por interacción mecánica, lo ...

  20. Photoluminescence of acupoint 'Waiqiu' in human superficial fascia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuan; Yan Xiaohui; Liu Chenglin; Dang Ruishan; Zhang Xinyi

    2006-01-01

    The spectral characters of an acupuncture point named 'Waiqiu' in superficial fascia tissue have been studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy under the excitation of 457.9 nm. The PL around 'Waiqiu' acupuncture point consists of two sub-bands resulting from the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and phospholipids, and the porphyrins (including purine, isoxanthopterin and tryptophan), respectively. More emission due to FAD and phospholipids is found inside the acupuncture effect area of 'Waiqiu' than its marginal or outside acupuncture regions. The ratio of emission intensity of FAD and phospholipids to one of porphyrins gradually decreases along the direction away from the center of the acupuncture point. It implies that the component proportion changes between FAD, phospholipids and porphyrins around the 'Waiqiu' acupuncture point. We suggest that there might be a certain relationship between redox function of FAD and 'Waiqiu' acupuncture effect

  1. Transient superficial peroneal nerve palsy after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Alrowaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage and knee brace was removed and a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was ruled out. After eight hours, post-operatively, the patient started receiving physiotherapy. He complained of numbness and tingling in the same area. After 24 h, post-operatively, the patient started to regain dorsiflexion and eversion gradually. Two days after the surgery, the patient exhibited complete recovery of neurological status.

  2. Superficial Granulomatous Pyoderma Gangrenosum of the Penis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala S. Gopi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Classic type of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG is an uncommon ulceronecrotic cutaneous disease of uncertain aetiology characterised by broad zones of confluent ulceration with violaceous undermined margins. Some 50% of cases are associated with systemic diseases. The superficial granulomatous variant of pyoderma gangrenosum (SGPG of the external genitalia is extremely rare Patients with this condition develop single or multiple ulcerated skin lesions often with sinus tract formation. The majority of these lesions were found on the trunk and limbs. SGPG is less likely to be associated with underlying disease processes than classic PG. We present a 58 year-old with recalcitrant penile ulceration demonstrated to be SGPG on biopsy. Although rare and poorly recognised, the histological features are sufficiently typical to allow the correct diagnosis to be established.

  3. Superficial plantar cutaneous sensation does not trigger barefoot running adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M A; Hoffman, K M

    2017-09-01

    It has long been proposed that the gait alterations associated with barefoot running are mediated by alterations in sensory feedback, yet there has been no data to support this claim. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of superficial plantar cutaneous feedback in barefoot and shod running. 10 healthy active subjects (6 male, 4 female); mass: 65.2+9.7kg; age: 27+7.1years participated in this study. 10 over-ground running trials were completed in each of the following conditions: barefoot (BF), shod (SHOD), anesthetized barefoot (ANEST BF) and anesthetized shod (ANEST SHOD). For the anesthetized conditions 0.1-0.3mL of 1% lidocaine was injected into the dermal layer of the plantar foot below the metatarsal heads, lateral column and heel. 3-dimensional motion analysis and ground reaction force (GRF) data were captured as subjects ran over a 20m runway with a force plate at 12m. Kinematic and kinetic differences were analyzed via two-way repeated measure ANOVAs. The differences in gait between the BF and SHOD conditions were consistent with previous research, with subjects exhibiting a significant decrease in stride length and changing from rearfoot strike when SHOD to fore/midfoot strike when BF. Additionally, BF running was associated with decreased impact peak magnitudes and peak vertical GRFs. Despite anesthetizing the plantar surface, there was no difference between the BF and ANEST BF conditions in terms of stride length, foot strike or GRFs. Superficial cutaneous sensory receptors are not primarily responsible for the gait changes associated with barefoot running. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy for proud nebulae in keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodaley, L; Liu, C; Woodward, E G; O'Brart, D; Muir, M K; Buckley, R

    1994-06-01

    Contact lens intolerance in keratoconus may be due to the formation of a proud nebula at or near the apex of the cone. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy was performed as an outpatients with proud nebulae as treatment patients with proud nebulae as treatment for their contact lens intolerance. The mean period of contact lens wear before the development of intolerance was 13.4 years (range 2 to 27 years). Following the development of intolerance, three patients abandoned contact lens wear in the affected eye while the remainder experienced a reduction in comfortable wearing time (mean = 3.75 hours; range: 0-14 hours). All patients had good potential Snellen visual acuity with a contact lens of 6/9 (nine eyes) and 6/12 (one eye). The proud nebulae were directly ablated with a 193 nm ArF excimer laser using a 1 mm diameter beam. Between 100-150 pulses were sufficient to ablate the raised area. Patients experienced no pain during the procedure and reported minimal discomfort postoperatively. In all cases flattening of the proud nebulae was achieved. Seven patients were able to resume regular contact lens wear (mean wearing time = 10.17 hours; range 8 to 16 hours). In three patients, resumption of contact lens wear was unsuccessful because of cone steepness. All patients achieved postoperative Snellen visual acuity of 6/12 or better with a contact lens. Four patients experienced a loss of one line in Snellen acuity. The mean follow up period was 8.3 months (range 2 to 17 months). Excimer laser superficial keratectomy is a useful technique for the treatment of contact lens intolerance caused by proud nebulae in patients with keratoconus. Penetrating keratoplasty is thus avoided.

  5. Anatomy of the ward round.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, James A

    2008-07-01

    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient\\'s narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient\\'s right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  6. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially

  7. Major Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder: A Reappraisal to Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kumral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Major vascular neurocognitive disorder (NCD is the second leading form of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, accounting for 17-20% of all dementias. Vascular NCD is a progressive disease caused by reduced cerebral blood flow related to multiple large volume or lacunar infarcts that induce a sudden onset and stepwise decline in cognitive abilities. Despite its prevalence and clinical importance, there is still controversy in the terminology of vascular NCD. Only after the release of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5 (2013 did the American Psychiatric Association define vascular dementia as “major vascular NCD”. This review includes an overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, types, diagnostic and clinical features of major vascular NCD, and current treatment options of vascular NCD regarding to DSM-5 criteria

  8. Surgical anatomy of the radial nerve at the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, M; Telera, S; Tiengo, C; Stecco, C; Macchi, V; Porzionato, A; Vigato, E; Parenti, A; De Caro, R

    2009-02-01

    An anatomical study of the brachial portion of the radial nerve with surgical implications is proposed. Thirty specimens of arm from 20 fresh cadavers (11 male, 9 female) were used to examine the topographical relations of the radial nerve with reference to the following anatomical landmarks: acromion angle, medial and lateral epicondyles, point of division between the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii, lateral intermuscular septum, site of division of the radial nerve into its superficial and posterior interosseous branches and entry and exit point of the posterior interosseous branch into the supinator muscle. The mean distances between the acromion angle and the medial and lateral levels of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus were 109 (+/-11) and 157 (+/-11) mm, respectively. The mean length and calibre of the nerve in the groove were 59 (+/-4) and 6 (+/-1) mm, respectively. The division of the lateral and long heads of the triceps was found at a mean distance of 126 (+/-13) mm from the acromion angle. The mean distances between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 125 (+/-13) and 121 (+/-13) mm, respectively. The mean distance between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the entry point in the lateral intermuscular septum (LIS) was 29 (+/-6) mm. The mean distances between the entry point of the nerve in the LIS and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 133 (+/-14) and 110 (+/-23) mm, respectively. Our study provides reliable and objective data of surgical anatomy of the radial nerve which should be always kept in mind by surgeons approaching to the surgery of the arm, in order to avoid iatrogenic injuries.

  9. Tear trough – Anatomy and treatment by autologous fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yung Chia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tear trough is the main irregularity at midface, of which treatment is difficult. There is no agreement in literature about its anatomy and best treatment. The author presented an anatomical study and personal autologous fat grafting technique for tear trough treatment. Anatomical dissections were done on two fresh cadavers to examine the skin, subcutaneous, muscle and bone layers, spaces, and attachments. Safety and efficacy were evaluated via retrospective analysis of the last 200 consecutive procedures performed by the author. Tear trough is caused by the abrupt transition of the palpebral orbicular oculi muscle (OOM (i.e., thin skin without subcutaneous fat compartment to the orbital OOM (i.e., thicker skin with malar fat compartment. The tear trough region is located at the OOM bony origin at the medial canthus where no specific ligament was found. The grafted fat volume stabilized at two or three months after the procedure, instead of six months as stated in literature, with excellent results and no severe complications. Tear trough is a personal characteristic, a natural anatomical depression caused by subcutaneous irregularity and can worsen with age. The lack of volume is not effectively corrected by surgeries and thus it must be filled. Fat grafting has several advantages over alloplastic fillers, although it may be more difficult. Fat graft is autologous and abundant, and tissue transplantation could enhance skin quality. Fat grafting is a simple, safe, and effective solution for adding extra volume to correct the deflation phenomenon of the midface aging process. There is no specific anatomical plane for volume injection; the fat graft must be evenly distributed in the deep and superficial plane for uniformity.

  10. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  11. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  12. Vascular Surgery and Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of robotics to Vascular surgery has not progressed as rapidly as of endovascular technology, but this is changing with the amalgamation of these two fields. The advent of Endovascular robotics is an exciting field which overcomes many of the limitations of endovascular therapy like vessel tortuosity and operator fatigue. This has much clinical appeal for the surgeon and hold significant promise of better patient outcomes. As with most newer technological advances, it is still limited by cost and availability. However, this field has seen some rapid progress in the last decade with the technology moving into the clinical realm. This review details the development of robotics, applications, outcomes, advantages, disadvantages and current advances focussing on Vascular and Endovascular robotics

  13. [Motor nerves of the face. Surgical and radiologic anatomy of facial paralysis and their surgical repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, C; Cyna-Gorse, F

    2015-10-01

    Motor innervation of the face depends on the facial nerve for the mobility of the face, on the mandibular nerve, third branch of the trigeminal nerve, which gives the motor innervation of the masticator muscles, and the hypoglossal nerve for the tongue. In case of facial paralysis, the most common palliative surgical techniques are the lengthening temporalis myoplasty (the temporal is innervated by the mandibular nerve) and the hypoglossal-facial anastomosis. The aim of this work is to describe the surgical anatomy of these three nerves and the radiologic anatomy of the facial nerve inside the temporal bone. Then the facial nerve penetrates inside the parotid gland giving a plexus. Four branches of the facial nerve leave the parotid gland: they are called temporal, zygomatic, buccal and marginal which give innervation to the cutaneous muscles of the face. Mandibular nerve gives three branches to the temporal muscles: the anterior, intermediate and posterior deep temporal nerves which penetrate inside the deep aspect of the temporal muscle in front of the infratemporal line. The hypoglossal nerve is only the motor nerve to the tongue. The ansa cervicalis, which is coming from the superficial cervical plexus and joins the hypoglossal nerve in the submandibular area is giving the motor innervation to subhyoid muscles and to the geniohyoid muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  15. Vascular lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  16. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques

  17. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, W.

    1985-01-01

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  18. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Retention of anatomy knowledge by student radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A. Susanne; Durward, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Anatomy has long been regarded as an integral part of the core curriculum. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that long-term retention of anatomy knowledge may be deficient. This study aims to evidence whether student radiographers demonstrate the same level of knowledge of anatomy after a period of time has elapsed and to correlate to approaches to learning and studying. Methodology: A repeated measures design was utilised to measure retention of anatomy knowledge for both MCQs and short-response answers to a Practical Radiographic Anatomy Examination; alpha value p < 0.05. Fifty-one students from levels 2 and 3 were retested after a time lapse of 10 and 22 months respectively. The students were not aware that their knowledge was being retested. Approaches to learning and studying were measured using the ASSIST inventory. Results: Statistical analysis found no difference in performance on MCQ assessment, in either the combined sample or levels 2 and 3 separately, from baseline to retention occasions; average retention rate being 99%. However, a statistical difference in performance on PRAE assessment was found, with level 2 experiencing a larger reduction in scores; retention rate of 67% compared to level 3 at 77%. The students perceived themselves to be principally strategic in their approach to learning and studying but no strong relationships were found when correlated to test scores. Conclusion: The student radiographers in this study demonstrated varied anatomy retention rates dependent on assessment method employed and time interval that had elapsed. It is recommended that diverse teaching and assessment strategies are adopted to encourage a deeper approach to learning and studying.

  20. "CEPHALIC VEIN ANATOMY IN ANTECUBITAL FOSSA DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Alamshah

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to create an effective arteriovenous fistula (AVF in patients with sustained chronic renal failure (CRF, surgeons need to become familiar with various anatomical variations of venous structures in the operating field. Because of variety and different types of cubital venous anatomies, there is more than a 90% possibility of creating suitable AVFs in the cubital fossa , but in the wrist and forearm, due to old injections and thrombophlebitis, there is less chance to do so. Since cephalic vein is the main venous conduit for constructing an AVF in the antecubital region, this study focuses on the various anatomical variations of cephalic vein and its communicating branches. We studied the cubital cephalic anatomy of 103 patients with CRF during construction of an AVF from July 1999 to June 2001. Five types of cephalic vein anatomy were seen: type A (44.66%, type B (30.1%, type C (18.44%, type D (3.88% and type E (2.29% in 39 right and 64 left arms. Seventy-six anastomoses were performed to brachial trunk, 25 to the radial and 2 to the ulnar artery. Eleven cases with progressive swelling after AVF were uneventfully cured by hand elevation. No infection, false aneurysm, venous hypertension or steal syndrome was detected. In order to obtain the best results and select appropriate operative technique for reliable vascular access in CRF, it is necessary to understand the anatomical variety of cephalic vein.

  1. Importance of variants in cerebrovascular anatomy for potential retrograde embolization in cryptogenic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Semaan, Edouard; Carr, James; Collins, Jeremy [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Stromberg, LeRoy [Northwestern University, Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Edward Hospital, Department of Radiology, Naperville, IL (United States); Prabhakaran, Shyam [Northwestern University, Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-10-15

    To test the hypothesis that variants in cerebrovascular anatomy will affect the number of patients demonstrating a plausible retrograde embolization mechanism from plaques in the descending aorta (DAo). Thirty-five patients (aged 63 ± 17 years) with cryptogenic stroke underwent 4D flow MRI for the assessment of aortic 3D blood flow and MR angiography for the evaluation of circle of Willis, posterior circulation, and aortic arch architecture. In patients with proven DAo plaque, retrograde embolization was considered a potential mechanism if retrograde flow extended from the DAo to a supra-aortic vessel supplying the cerebral infarct territory. Retrograde embolization with matching cerebral infarct territory was detected in six (17%) patients. Circle of Willis and aortic arch variant anatomy was found in 60% of patients, leading to reclassification of retrograde embolization risk as present in three (9%) additional patients, for a total 26% of cryptogenic stroke patients. 4D flow MRI demonstrated 26% concordance with infarct location on imaging with retrograde diastolic flow into the feeding vessels of the affected cerebral area, identifying a potential etiology for cryptogenic stroke. Our findings further demonstrate the importance of cerebrovascular anatomy when determining concordance of retrograde flow pathways with vascular stroke territory from DAo plaques. (orig.)

  2. Importance of variants in cerebrovascular anatomy for potential retrograde embolization in cryptogenic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markl, Michael; Semaan, Edouard; Carr, James; Collins, Jeremy; Stromberg, LeRoy; Prabhakaran, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that variants in cerebrovascular anatomy will affect the number of patients demonstrating a plausible retrograde embolization mechanism from plaques in the descending aorta (DAo). Thirty-five patients (aged 63 ± 17 years) with cryptogenic stroke underwent 4D flow MRI for the assessment of aortic 3D blood flow and MR angiography for the evaluation of circle of Willis, posterior circulation, and aortic arch architecture. In patients with proven DAo plaque, retrograde embolization was considered a potential mechanism if retrograde flow extended from the DAo to a supra-aortic vessel supplying the cerebral infarct territory. Retrograde embolization with matching cerebral infarct territory was detected in six (17%) patients. Circle of Willis and aortic arch variant anatomy was found in 60% of patients, leading to reclassification of retrograde embolization risk as present in three (9%) additional patients, for a total 26% of cryptogenic stroke patients. 4D flow MRI demonstrated 26% concordance with infarct location on imaging with retrograde diastolic flow into the feeding vessels of the affected cerebral area, identifying a potential etiology for cryptogenic stroke. Our findings further demonstrate the importance of cerebrovascular anatomy when determining concordance of retrograde flow pathways with vascular stroke territory from DAo plaques. (orig.)

  3. Relevant radiological anatomy of the pig as a training model in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dondelinger, R.F.; Ghysels, M.P.; Brisbois, D.; Donkers, E.; Snaps, F.R.; Saunders, J.; Deviere, J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of swine for teaching purposes in medicine and surgery has largely increased in recent years. Detailed knowledge of the porcine anatomy and physiology is a prerequisite for proper use of pigs as a teaching or an experimental model in interventional radiology. A systematic study of the radiological anatomy was undertaken in more than 100 female pigs aged 6-8 weeks. All studies were performed under general anesthesia in a single session. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study. Selective angiographies were systematically obtained in all anatomical territories. In other animals CT and MRI examinations were performed and were correlated to anatomical sections and acrylic casts of the vascular structures. Endoscopical examinations of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including retrograde opacification of the biliary and pancreatic ducts, were added in selected animals. The main angiographic aspects of the brain, head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were recorded. Similarities and differences in comparison with human anatomy are stressed. Potential applications in interventional radiology are indicated. (orig.)

  4. Improving gross anatomy learning using reciprocal peer teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Manyama, Mange; Stafford, Renae; Mazyala, Erick; Lukanima, Anthony; Magele, Ndulu; Kidenya, Benson R.; Kimwaga, Emmanuel; Msuya, Sifael; Kauki, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of cadavers in human anatomy teaching requires adequate number of anatomy instructors who can provide close supervision of the students. Most medical schools are facing challenges of lack of trained individuals to teach anatomy. Innovative techniques are therefore needed to impart adequate and relevant anatomical knowledge and skills. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the traditional teaching method and reciprocal peer teaching (RPT) method during anatomy dissec...

  5. Differences in intramuscular vascular connections of human and dog latissimus dorsi muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Morris, S F

    1999-02-01

    Distal ischemia and necrosis of the dog latissimus dorsi muscle flap used in experimental cardiomyoplasty have been reported. However, little information on the intramuscular vascular anatomy of the dog latissimus dorsi is available. It is unclear whether there are any anatomic factors relating to the muscle flap ischemia and necrosis, and whether the dog latissimus dorsi is a suitable experimental model. To study the intramuscular vascular territories in the dog latissimus dorsi muscle, and to compare the intramuscular vasculature of the dog with that of the human, 5 fresh dog cadavers and 7 fresh human cadavers were injected with a mixture of lead oxide, gelatin, and water (200 mL/kg) through the carotid artery. Both the dog and the human latissimus dorsi muscles and neurovascular pedicles were dissected and radiographed. The intramuscular vascular anatomy of the latissimus dorsi muscles was compared. Radiographs demonstrate clearly that the pattern of latissimus dorsi intramuscular anastomoses between branches of the thoracodorsal artery and the perforators of posterior intercostal arteries in the proximal half of the muscle are different between the dog and the human. In the dog muscle, vascular connections between the thoracodorsal artery and the posterior intercostal arteries are formed by reduced-caliber choke arteries, whereas four to six true anastomoses without a change in caliber between them are found in the human muscle. The portion of the latissimus dorsi muscle supplied by the dominant thoracodorsal vascular territory was 25.9% +/- 0.3% in the dog and 23.9% +/- 0.5% in the human. For further comparison, an extended vascular territory in the latissimus dorsi muscle was demonstrated, including both the thoracodorsal territory and the posterior intercostal territories. The area of the extended vascular territory was 52% +/- 0.5% of the total muscle. The dog latissimus dorsi model may not be a perfect predictor of the behavior of the human latissimus

  6. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations

  7. Anatomy, normal variants, and basic biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Johnson, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the anatomy and basic functions of the foot and ankle important to physicians involved in imaging procedures, clinical medicine, and surgery. New radiographic techniques especially magnetic resonance imaging, provide more diagnostic information owing to improved tissue contrast and the ability to obtain multiple image planes (axial, sagittal, coronal, oblique). Therefore, a thorough knowledge of skeletal and soft tissue anatomy is even more essential. Normal variants must also be understood in order to distinguish normal from pathologic changes in the foot and ankle. A basic understanding of biomechanics is also essential for selecting the proper diagnostic techniques

  8. Anatomy and imaging of the normal meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neel; Kirmi, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The meninges are an important connective tissue envelope investing the brain. Their function is to provide a protective coating to the brain and also participate in the formation of blood-brain barrier. Understanding their anatomy is fundamental to understanding the location and spread of pathologies in relation to the layers. It also provides an insight into the characteristics of such pathologies when imaging them. This review aims to describe the anatomy of the meninges, and to demonstrate the imaging findings of specific features.

  9. Study of the renal segmental arterial anatomy with contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Francesco; Cozzi, Luigi Alberto; Cozzi, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    To use triphasic multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to study the renal segmental arterial anatomy and its relationship with the urinary tract to plan nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). One hundred and fifty nine patients underwent abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT. We evaluated renal arteries and parenchymal vasculature. In 61 patients, the arteries and the urinary tract were represented simultaneously. 86.60% presented a single renal artery; 13.4%, multiple arteries. All single renal arteries divided into anterior and posterior branch before the hilum. The anterior artery branched into a superior, middle, and inferior branch. In 43.14%, the inferior artery arose before the others; in 45.75%, the superior artery arose before the others; in 9.80%, the branches shared a common trunk. In 26.80%, the posterior artery supplies the entire posterior surface; in 73.20%, it ends along the inferior calyx. In 96.73%, the upper pole was vascularized by the anterior superior branch and the posterior artery: the "tuning fork". MDCT showed four vascular segments in 96.73% and five in 3.27%. MDCT showed two avascular areas: the first along the projection of the inferior calyx on the posterior aspect, the second between the branches of the "tuning fork". The arterial phase provides the arterial tree representation; the delayed phase shows arteries and urinary tract simultaneously. MDCT provides a useful representation of the renal anatomy prior to intervascular-intrarenal NSS.

  10. Critical Anatomy Relative to the Sacral Suture: A Postoperative Imaging Study After Robotic Sacrocolpopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Catrina C; Herfel, Charles V; Pauls, Rachel N; Westermann, Lauren B; Kleeman, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize pertinent anatomy relative to the sacral suture placed at time of robotic sacrocolpopexy using postoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. A vascular clip was placed at the base of the sacral suture at the time of robotic sacrocolpopexy. Six weeks postoperatively, subjects returned for a computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Ten subjects completed the study. The middle sacral artery and vein coursed midline or to the left of midline in all the subjects. The left common iliac vein was an average of 26 mm from the sacral suture. To the right of the suture, the right common iliac artery was 18 mm away. Following the right common iliac artery to its bifurcation, the right internal iliac was on average 10 mm from the suture. The bifurcations of the inferior vena cava and the aorta were 33 mm and 54 mm further cephalad, respectively.The right ureter, on average, was 18 mm from the suture. The thickness of the anterior longitudinal ligament was 2 mm.The mean angle of descent of the sacrum was 70 degrees. Lastly, we found that 70% of the time, a vertebral body was directly below the suture; the disc was noted in 30%. We describe critical anatomy surrounding the sacral suture placed during robotic sacrocolpopexy. Proximity of both vascular and urologic structures within 10 to 18 mm, as well as anterior ligament thickness of only 2 mm highlights the importance of adequate exposure, careful dissection, and surgeon expertise.

  11. Ocular anatomy in medieval arabic medicine. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; George, Androutsos

    2016-01-01

    In medieval Arabic medicine Ophthalmology had a central role. Ocular anatomy was described in many ophthalmological treatises of the physicians of the time. These physicians followed the doctrines of Galen according ocular anatomy, nevertheless their contribution to the history of ocular anatomy was the presentation of ocular anatomical sketches in their manuscripts for the fist time in medical history.

  12. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, P.; Bates, N.

    2004-01-01

    The anatomy of the anal canal is complex but well demonstrated by MRI. Understanding the anatomy is a prerequisite for determining the true site and the extent of pathology, especially for surgical workup. In this article, the MRI anatomy of the anal canal has been displayed using highlighted MRI images and line diagrams. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  15. Medical Students' Perception of Problem Areas in Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ranges of problems were extensive; neuro-anatomy in gross anatomy, slide review in histology, and cardiovascular embryology were amongst the most highlighted areas of concern. Most students attributed the problems in gross anatomy to difficulty with accessing the area during dissection and inability to grasp the ...

  16. Medicina regenerativa y superficie ocular Regenerative medicine and ocular surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimi Cárdenas Díaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha producido un extraordinario avance en los conocimientos relacionados con diferentes ramas biomédicas, entre ellas, la biología celular. Esto ha dado un notable impulso a una nueva rama de la medicina denominada medicina regenerativa. Esta nueva disciplina médica se basa fundamentalmente en los nuevos conocimientos sobre las células madre y en su capacidad de convertirse en células de diferentes tejidos. Una de las estructuras que tiene más interés, desde el punto de vista de la medicina regenerativa, es la superficie ocular. Por esto, se ha logrado notables progresos en la reconstrucción de la superficie ocular mediante la aplicación de procederes regenerativos. Los cultivos de células del epitelio corneal humano están siendo utilizados en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia limbar. Esto permite disminuir la incidencia de opacidades tipo Haze tras queratectomía fotorrefractiva, acelerar la curación y evitar la aparición de leucomas en pacientes con defectos epiteliares persistentes e intentar disminuir la incidencia de opacidades corneales en pacientes sometidos a queratectomía fototerapéutica por diferentes distrofias corneales.In the last few years, an extraordinary advance has taken place in the knowledge about several biomedical branches as is the case of cellular biology, which has remarkably encouraged the development of a new medical branch called regenerative medicine. This medical discipline is fundamentally based on the new knowledge on the stem cells and their capacity to become cells for different tissues. One of the most interesting structures for the regenerative medicine is the ocular surface. In the last few years, significant advances have been achieved in the field of the ocular surface reconstruction with regenerative procedures. Some cell cultures of the human corneal epithelium are being used to treat limber insufficiency, to reduce the incidence of haze-type opacities after

  17. 5-Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for superficial basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Want, David; Kennedy, James C.; Brundage, Michael; Rothwell, Deanna

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) offers an alternative to plastic surgery and radiotherapy with potential for good cosmetic outcome and local control of disease. We report our clinical experience with this technique. Patients were treated prospectively on a study protocol enrolling a total of 118 patients (63 male, 55 female) with an average age of 65 years. Consecutive patients meeting eligibility criteria were invited to participate over a four year period. Median followup was 27 months (range 1 to 76 months). In the study group, 62 patients had single lesions and 56 had multiple lesions. Of the 56 patients with multiple lesions, 33 had 2-4 lesions, 11 had 5-9, and 11 had 10 or more. All patients were treated with 20% ALA dissolved in Glaxal Base applied to the tumors for three to four hours. Following removal of the cream, fluorescence intensity and distribution were assessed using a UV-A lamp, and the lesions were exposed to photoactivating light of wavelength greater than 600 nm for a light dose ranging from 100-150 J/cm2. Lesions were reassessed in followup, and scored as complete or partial responses. At subsequent patient assessments, lesions were scored as continued complete responses or recurrences. In the patients with single lesions, there was an initial complete response rate of 90.3%. Of the 56 patients with multiple lesions, 44 had all of their lesions respond completely, and there was an overall average response rate of 95.5%. Sixty three percent of males and 44% of females had all of their lesions respond completely. (p=0.033, Chi-squared test). There was no difference in response rate with respect to age, or site of lesion. The recurrence rates were 35% for patients with single lesions, and 10.5% for patients with multiple lesions. ALA-PDT would appear to be a promising alternative to conventional treatment for superficial basal cell carcinoma. Based on these results

  18. Pollen cone anatomy of Classostrobus crossii sp. nov. (Cheirolepidiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Gar W.; Mapes, Gene [Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens OH 45701 (United States); Hilton, Jason [Department of Earth Sciences, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hollingworth, Neville T. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Winfrith Technology Centre, Winfrith Newburgh, Dorchester, Dorset, DT2 8ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-02

    Discovery of a permineralized fossil cone in Mesozoic deposits of southern England provides an opportunity to document the first detailed evidence of internal pollen cone anatomy for the extinct conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae. The specimen, described here as Classostrobus crossii sp. nov., occurs in a calcareous nodule recovered from Middle Jurassic marine sediments of the Lower Callovian Sigaloceras calloviense biozone, Kellaways, near Cirencester, England. The cone is 2.0 cm long and 1.8 cm wide. Sporophylls diverge helically from the axis. Each sporophyll displays a narrow stalk and a distal lamina approx. 11 mm long that tapers to a pointed tip. There is also a basal keel that bends inward at the bottom and sides to form a shallow pocket. A single vascular bundle diverges from the cone axis, extends distally into the sporophyll stalk at the contact of two distinctly different histological zones, and further expands into the distal lamina as transfusion tracheids. Several pollen sacs are attached abaxially at the juncture of the sporophyll stalk and keel. Pollen is roughly spheroidal, 26-35 {mu}m in diameter, with unequal polar caps separated by a striated belt with a subequatorial furrow. This specimen helps clarify the range of variation in the morphology of Mesozoic conifer pollen cones. (author)

  19. Secretory structures of Ipomoea asarifolia: anatomy and histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano M. Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cuticles. Paracytic stomata are found on both surfaces of the leaves at the same level as the ordinary epidermal cells. Trichomes producing polysaccharide secretions occur on the petiole and leaf blade and are considered colleters. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the vascular bundle of the central vein is bicollateral. Two opposed nectaries occur on the petiole near the leaf blade. Each nectary is composed of a small canal with internal ramifications and numerous secretory trichomes. The laticiferous glands are articulated, not anastomosed, and are composed of large diameter cells with thin cell walls. The secretions of the laticiferous glands are lipidic.

  20. Vascular remodeling and mineralocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K T; Sun, Y; Campbell, S E; Slight, S H; Ganjam, V K

    1995-01-01

    Circulating mineralocorticoid hormones are so named because of their important homeostatic properties that regulate salt and water balance via their action on epithelial cells. A broader range of functions in nonclassic target cellular sites has been proposed for these steroids and includes their contribution to wound healing following injury. A chronic, inappropriate (relative to intravascular volume and dietary sodium intake) elevation of these circulating hormones evokes a wound healing response in the absence of tissue injury--a wound healing response gone awry. The adverse remodeling of vascularized tissues seen in association with chronic mineralocorticoid excess is the focus of this review.

  1. Computer assisted surgical anatomy mapping : applications in surgical anatomy research, tailor-made surgery and presonalized teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.A. Kerver (Anton)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis presents a novel anatomy mapping tool named Computer Assisted Surgical Anatomy Mapping (CASAM). It allows researchers to map complex anatomy of multiple specimens and compare their location and course. Renditions such as safe zones or danger zones can be visualized,

  2. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  3. Topical imiquimod treatment of cutaneous vascular disorders in pediatric patients: clinical evaluation on the efficacy and safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hong MAO; Jian-you WANG; Jian-liang YAN

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical effect of topical imiquimod treatment on cutaneous vascular disorders in pediatric patients.Methods:A retrospective investigation was conducted in 25 pediatric patients with cutaneous vascular disorders,including 19 infantile hemangiomas (IHs) (12 superficial/7 mixed type),5 nevus flammeus (NF),and 1 pyogenic granuloma (PG).Imiquimod 5% cream was applied every other day for 4 to 16 weeks (average 9.6weeks).Results:Of the 19 IHs treated,an overall efficacy of 52.6% was achieved,with a clinical resolution rate of 15.8%,excellent rate of 26.3%,and moderate rate of 10.5%.The superficial type responded the best at 66.7%,while the mixed type showed only 28.6% effectiveness,which was predominantly from their superficial parts.No obvious response was noted in the 5 patients with NF.Side effects were observed in 78.9% of the patients,mostly mild to moderate local irritations and occasionally severe reactions such as thick crusting and ulceration.Systemic side events were observed in 4 IH patients including fever and digestive tract reactions.No recurrence was observed during the follow-up examination.Conclusions:Topical imiquimod could be an alternative option for the treatment of uncomplicated superficial IHs with satisfactory tolerability.

  4. Spinal meningeal melanocytoma and hydrocephalus and intracranial superficial siderosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Ratnagopal, P.; Puvanendran, K.; Teo, J.G.C.

    2001-01-01

    Meningeal melanocytomas are uncommon tumours of the central nervous system; fewer than 50 cases have been reported in the English literature. We review the unique clinical presentation, radiological appearance and histological features of a rare case of meningeal melanocytoma. The patient was a 50-year-old man with a history of hypertension who presented with complaints of severe headache, nausea, vomiting and blurry vision for 2 days. Clinical examination revealed no hyperpigmentation marks and he had no history of regressed skin melanocytic lesions. Apart from mild terminal neck stiffness, his general medical examination was unremarkable. On funduscopic examination he had marked bilateral papilloedema and the blind spots were enlarged bilaterally. His neurological examination was otherwise unremarkable. A magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI) of the brain showed hydrocephalus. On the precontrast T 2 -weighted images, there was hyperintensity of the meninges with little change after administration of gadolinium, which was suggestive of blood. On the T 2 -weighted sequences, there was evidence of hypo-i intensity on the surface of the pons and medulla, which was indicative of superficial siderosis

  5. Current status of superficial pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikitake, Ryoko; Ando, Mizuo; Saito, Yuki; Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Higashi, Takahiro

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the status and treatment of superficial pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan. We analyzed all cases diagnosed between 2011 and 2013, as recorded in the national database of hospital-based cancer registries. We extracted data on patient sex, age, tumor locations, histology, presentation routes, initial treatments, and TNM stages. Additionally, we compared the characteristics of pharyngeal carcinoma to those of esophageal cancer. A total of 16,521 oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers from 409 institutions were included. Diagnosis of Tis tumors was infrequent, and both cancers were likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage (n = 866, 5.3%). Tis diseases were the most commonly detected during follow-up examinations for other diseases (n = 608, 70%). While more oropharyngeal Tis patients were men compared to T1-4 patients (88 vs 82%, respectively), hypopharyngeal cancer patients comprised an equally high proportion of men (94 vs 92%, respectively). The most common location of oropharyngeal Tis tumors was the posterior wall (32%), whereas T1-4 tumors were most commonly found on the lateral wall (36%). In hypopharyngeal cancer, both Tis and T1-4 were most commonly located in the pyriform sinus (62%). The proportion of Tis tumors diagnosed at individual institutions showed a positive correlation with the number of endoscopic treatments (r = 0.32, P squamous cell carcinoma patients in Japan. Further improvements in early diagnosis and standardized treatments are warranted.

  6. Superficial effects during the activation of zirconium AB2 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbino, J; Visitin, A; Triaca, W

    2005-01-01

    The activation of zirconium nickel alloys with and without the addition of chromium and titanium is investigated through electrochemical and optical techniques.These alloys show high hydrogen absorption capacity and are extensively used in metal hydride batteries.Recent investigations in aqueous 1 M KOH indicate oxide layer growth and occlusion of hydrogen species in the alloys during the application of different cathodic potential programmes currently used in the activation process.In this research several techniques such as voltammetry, ellipsometry, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays EDAX, and scanning electron microscopy SEM are applied on the polished massive alloy Zr 1 -xTi x , x=0.36 y 0.43, and Zr 1 -xTi x CrNi, x=0.1,0.2 y 0.4.Data analysis shows that the stability, compactness and structure of the passive layers are strongly dependent on the applied potential programme.The alloy activation depends on the formation of deepen crevices that remain after a new polishing. Microscopic observation shows increase in the crevices thickness after the cathodic sweep potential cycling, which produces fragmentation of the grains and oxide growth during the activation process.This indicates metal breaking and intergranular dissolution that take place together with oxide and hydride formation.In some cases the resultant crevice thickness is one or two orders higher than that of the superficial oxide growth indicating intergranular localised corrosion

  7. Superficial vessel reconstruction with a multiview camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreiros, Filipe M. M.; Rossitti, Sandro; Karlsson, Per M.; Wang, Chunliang; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Carleberg, Per; Smedby, Örjan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. We aim at reconstructing superficial vessels of the brain. Ultimately, they will serve to guide the deformation methods to compensate for the brain shift. A pipeline for three-dimensional (3-D) vessel reconstruction using three mono-complementary metal-oxide semiconductor cameras has been developed. Vessel centerlines are manually selected in the images. Using the properties of the Hessian matrix, the centerline points are assigned direction information. For correspondence matching, a combination of methods was used. The process starts with epipolar and spatial coherence constraints (geometrical constraints), followed by relaxation labeling and an iterative filtering where the 3-D points are compared to surfaces obtained using the thin-plate spline with decreasing relaxation parameter. Finally, the points are shifted to their local centroid position. Evaluation in virtual, phantom, and experimental images, including intraoperative data from patient experiments, shows that, with appropriate camera positions, the error estimates (root-mean square error and mean error) are ∼1  mm. PMID:26759814

  8. Internet: Más Allá de la superficie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Andrés Tovar Cardozo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone un enfoque técnico de la Internet que da a conocer algunas características de su estructura, la cual muestra dos sectores distintos en donde se puede encontrar la información, es decir, esta se encuentra distribuida en niveles o capas de manera parcial o restringida, integrada o desagregada, todo ello dependiendo de lo que el usuario requiera realmente. La forma correcta para acceder a la información requerida está en saber a dónde ir a buscarla, la web profunda es información no visible para el usuario común que no tiene la habilidad de búsqueda, por lo cual se hace necesario verificar el tipo, la calidad y veracidad de la información a obtener antes de proceder a usar la información encontrada con los buscadores tradicionales. Acceder a Internet sin saber que existe una falsa cortina utilizada por la mayoría de los buscadores convencionales, es limitar las capacidades de navegar en un océano de información valiosa, en ello radica la importancia de conocer la web desde lo superficial (Surface Web a lo profundo (Deep Web.

  9. Inmersiones condicionadas de grafos en superficies y seudosuperficies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedriani Martel, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se procede a recapitular resultados conocidos sobre el problema de caracterizar los grafos que admiten inmersiones en superficies y en seudosuperficies con todos los vértices en la misma cara y se da una caracterización original de los grafos con dicha propiedad en seudosuperficies que surgen de manera natural y que han sido tratadas en la literatura especializada. Se comienza desarrollando algunos conceptos necesarios para la exposición de los problemas que se tratan, pero se suponen conocidos otros básicos de la Teoría de Grafos. Los resultados relacionados llevan de forma consecuente al planteamiento de otros problemas cuyas resoluciones originales también se incluyen. En cuanto a los objetivos finales que se pretenden lograr con esta comunicación, se basan, sobre todo, en aprovechar los resultados obtenidos por la Teoría de Grafos para resolver problemas pertenecientes a otras áreas, como la Economía. Se termina exponiendo un motivo topológico por el que estos estudios sobre las inmersiones y las inmersiones peri-S se hallan próximas a la Economía.

  10. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in children with superficial lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Corti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pediatric population Fine-Needle Aspiration Citology (FNAC is slowly gaining acceptance in clinical management of Superficial Lymphadenopathy (SL. Our experience adds some data about the usefulness of this technique in diagnosing the cause of a SL and therefore guiding further treatment. Patients and Methods: 238 FNAC were performed in 217 patients with SL, observed at our Institution from 2002 to 2006. The neck was the most frequent localization. The results were available within few hours. In cases of granulomatous findings, the samples were processed for microbiological and PCR test, in order to identify Mycobacteria. Results: 174 were reactive lesions, 38 granulomatous lymphadenopathies, 24 malignant lesions, 2 specimens inadequate for diagnosis. Among the 174 reactive SL, 22 required an incisional biopsy after 1 month follow-up. Among the granulomatous lymphadenopathies, 13 children with Cat-Scratch Disease recovered, 25 with Mycobacteria infection underwent surgical excision. For 24 malignant lesions, the diagnosis was confirmed by further biopsy. Two false negative and no false positive were detected (sensitivity 92%, specificity 100%. No complications were encountered. Conclusions: In our experience FNAC, performed by experienced cytopathologist, has revealed to be a fast, safe, non invasive and inexpensive method to achieve diagnosis in persistent SL. The use of FNAC gave us the possibility to select patients for further investigation and/or surgical treatment. Incisional biopsy remains necessary to confirm the diagnosis in case of malignancy or doubtful lesions.

  11. Triterpenes for Well-Balanced Scar Formation in Superficial Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kindler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Triterpenes are demonstrably effective for accelerating re-epithelialisation of wounds and known to improve scar formation for superficial lesions. Among the variety of triterpenes, betuline is of particular medical interest. Topical betuline gel (TBG received drug approval in 2016 from the European Commission as the first topical therapeutic agent with the proven clinical benefit of accelerating wound healing. Two self-conducted randomized intra-individual comparison clinical studies with a total of 220 patients involved in TBG treatment of skin graft surgical wounds have been screened for data concerning the aesthetic aspect of wound healing. Three months after surgery wound treatment with TBG resulted in about 30% of cases with more discreet scars, and standard of care in about 10%. Patients themselves appreciate the results of TBG after 3 months even more (about 50% compared to standard of care (about 10%. One year after surgery, the superiority of TBG counts for about 25% in comparison with about 10%, and from the patients’ point of view, for 25% compared to 4% under standard of care. In the majority of wound treatment cases, there is no difference visible between TBG treatment and standard of care after 1 year of scar formation. However, in comparison, TBG still offers a better chance for discreet scars and therefore happens to be superior in good care of wounds.

  12. Superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in facial dermatoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.U.; Iqbal, Z.; Rahman, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of salicylic acid chemical peeling in common dermatological conditions affecting face in people with predominant Fitzpatrick skin type IV and V. A total of 167 patients of either gender, aged between 13 to 60 years, having some facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, freckles, fine lines and wrinkles, post-inflammatory scars, actinic keratoses, and plane facial warts) were included. A series of eight weekly hospital based peeling sessions was conducted in all patients under standardized conditions with 30% salicylic acid. Clinical improvement in different disorders was evaluated by change in MASI score, decrease in the size of affected area and % reduction in lesions count. McNemar test was applied for data analysis. Majority of the patients showed moderate to excellent response. There was 35% to 63% improvement (p< 0.05) in all dermatoses. Significant side effects, as feared in Asian skins were not observed. Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is an effective and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses. (author)

  13. Multivectored Superficial Muscular Aponeurotic System Suspension for Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Garrison; Kurnik, Nicole; Joganic, Jessica; Joganic, Edward

    2017-06-01

    Facial paralysis is a devastating condition that may cause severe cosmetic and functional deformities. In this study we describe our technique for superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS) suspension using barbed suture and compare the vectors of suspension in relation to the underlying musculature. This study also quantifies the improvements in postoperative symmetry using traditional anthropologic landmarks. The efficacy of this procedure for improving facial paralysis was determined by comparing anthropometric indices and using Procrustes distance between 4 groupings of homologous landmarks plotted on each patient's preoperative and postoperative photos. Geometric morphometrics was used to evaluate change in facial shape and improvement in symmetry postoperatively.To analyze the vector of suspension in relation to the underlying musculature, specific anthropologic landmarks were used to calculate the vector of the musculature in 3 facial hemispheres from cadaveric controls against the vector of repair in our patients. Ten patients were included in our study. Subjectively, great improvement in functional status was achieved. Geometric morphometric analysis demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in facial symmetry. Cadaveric dissection demonstrated that the suture should be placed in the SMAS in vectors parallel to the underlying musculature to achieve these results. There were no complications in our study to date. In conclusion, multivectored SMAS suture suspension is an effective method for restoring static suspension of the face after facial paralysis. This method has the benefit of producing quick, reliable results with improved function, low cost, and low morbidity.

  14. DRENAGEM SUPERFICIAL DE SOLOS ARGILOSOS DO NORTE DO PARANÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Teixeira de Faria

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Foi avaliado o desempenho de práticas de drenagem superficial e cobertura morta em uma área de várzea do norte do Paraná. Antes e após o cultivo do arroz, foram comparadas as taxas de drenagem em tratamentos com e sem drenos torpedo e determinadas a vazão e a obstrução dos condutos. Sob o cultivo do feijoeiro, foram avaliados os efeitos dos drenos torpedo e de "camas" na drenagem e de cobertura morta (palha de arroz na retenção de água do solo. Os resultados indicaram que os drenos torpedo foram mais eficientes se construídos com solo menos úmido, porém sua longevidade foi menor que um ano. Sob o feijoeiro, os drenos torpedo e cobertura morta mantiveram o lençol freático mais profundo e o solo com menor tensão de umidade, mas esses efeitos ocorreram abaixo da zona radicular (15 cm, resultando em baixa produtividade.

  15. Las plantas vasculares de los afloramientos rocosos de Suesca, Cordillera Oriental colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Avellaneda Cadena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se muestrearon las plantas vasculares presentes en tres tipos de afloramientos rocosos del municipio de Suesca, departamento de Cundinamarca (Colombia, ubicados entre 2.800 y 3.000 m de altitud. Estos sitios se denominaron Valle de los Halcones (VH, Farallones de Suesca (FS y Los Monolitos (LM. Cada planta fue recolectada, determinada y se le anotó la superficie en la que crecía (placa, repisa o fisura y el hábito de crecimiento (erecta, colgante o perpendicular a la superficie. Se encontraron 97 especies, correspondientes a 38 familias y 70 géneros. La familia más diversa fue Asteraceae, seguida de Poaceae, Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae y Polypodiaceae. El género con más especies fue Tillandsia, seguido de Polypodium. Los sitos de muestreo con mayor diversidad fueron VH y FS. En LM las familias con más especies fueron Asteraceae y Poaceae, en FS Poaceae y Asteraceae y en VH Asteraceae y Orchidaceae. En VH las placas fue la superficie con mayor número de especies, mientras que en LM fueron las repisas y en FS las placas y las repisas. La mayoría de las especies encontradas en todos los sitos fueron erectas, seguidas de las perpendiculares a la superficie. Los tres sitios de muestreo mostraron alta similitud florística entre sí.

  16. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin

    1992-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  17. [Computer technologies in teaching pathological anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc.

  18. Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, M

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Understanding the normal anatomic and physiologic relationships described in this article will help perioperative nurses care for patients who are undergoing cardiac procedures. Such knowledge also assists nurses in educating patients about cardiac procedures and about activities that can prevent, reverse, or improve cardiac illness.

  19. Digital interactive learning of oral radiographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchkova, J; Maybury, T; Farah, C S

    2012-02-01

    Studies reporting high number of diagnostic errors made from radiographs suggest the need to improve the learning of radiographic interpretation in the dental curriculum. Given studies that show student preference for computer-assisted or digital technologies, the purpose of this study was to develop an interactive digital tool and to determine whether it was more successful than a conventional radiology textbook in assisting dental students with the learning of radiographic anatomy. Eighty-eight dental students underwent a learning phase of radiographic anatomy using an interactive digital tool alongside a conventional radiology textbook. The success of the digital tool, when compared to the textbook, was assessed by quantitative means using a radiographic interpretation test and by qualitative means using a structured Likert scale survey, asking students to evaluate their own learning outcomes from the digital tool. Student evaluations of the digital tool showed that almost all participants (95%) indicated that the tool positively enhanced their learning of radiographic anatomy and interpretation. The success of the digital tool in assisting the learning of radiographic interpretation is discussed in the broader context of learning and teaching curricula, and preference (by students) for the use of this digital form when compared to the conventional literate form of the textbook. Whilst traditional textbooks are still valued in the dental curriculum, it is evident that the preference for computer-assisted learning of oral radiographic anatomy enhances the learning experience by enabling students to interact and better engage with the course material. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  1. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  2. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in goats | Makungu | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the thorax of small East African goats as a reference for clinical use. Radiography of the thorax was performed under general anaesthesia in 10 healthy small East African goats. Right lateral (RL), left lateral (LL), dorsoventral (DV) and ventrodorsal ...

  3. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  4. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  5. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Competition Matters Tech@FTC Comment Policy Contests IoT Home Inspector Challenge Robocalls: Humanity Strikes Back DetectaRobo Zapping ... File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer ...

  6. Anatomy and Physiology. Revised Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Danene; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units of instruction for a course in anatomy and physiology for surgical technology students. The units cover the following topics: (1) organization of the body; (2) cells, tissues, and membranes; (3) integumentary system; (4) skeletal system; (5) muscular system; (6) nervous system; (7) special sense organs; (8)…

  7. The functional anatomy of the ureterovesical junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, A. S.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Verbeek, F. J.; Lamers, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    To obtain a new insight into the anti-reflux mechanism of the ureterovesical junction by studying the topographical anatomy of the juxta- and intravesical ureter and its relationship to the surrounding bladder musculature. Fresh pig bladders were fixed, frozen and serially sectioned. Enzyme

  8. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  10. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  12. Surgical anatomy of the nail apparatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneke, E.

    2006-01-01

    Nail surgery is an integral part of dermatologic surgery. An in-depth knowledge of the anatomy, biology, physiology, and gross pathology of the entire nail unit is essential. In particular, knowledge of nail histopathology is necessary to perform diagnostic nail biopsies and other nail procedures

  13. EVAR using the Nellix Sac-anchoring endoprosthesis: treatment of favourable and adverse anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krievins, D K; Holden, A; Savlovskis, J; Calderas, C; Donayre, C E; Moll, F L; Katzen, B; Zarins, C K

    2011-07-01

    The study aimed to review the results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using a novel sac-anchoring endoprosthesis in patients with favourable and adverse anatomy. This is a prospective, multicentre, clinical trial. The Nellix endoprosthesis consists of dual, balloon-expandable endoframes, surrounded by polymer-filled endobags, which obliterate the aneurysm sac and maintain endograft position. The study reviewed worldwide clinical experience and Core Lab evaluation of computed tomography (CT) scans. From 2008 to 2010, 34 patients (age 71 ± 8 years, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter 5.8 ± 0.8 cm) were treated at four clinical sites. Seventeen patients (50%) met the inclusion criteria for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved endografts (favourable anatomy); 17 (50%) had one or more adverse anatomic feature: neck length 60° (9%) and iliac diameter >23 mm (38%). Device deployment was successful in all patients; iliac aneurysm treatment preserved hypogastric patency. Perioperative mortality was 1/34 (2.9%); one patient died at 10 months of congestive heart failure (CHF); one patient had a secondary procedure at 15 months. During 15 ± 6 months follow-up, there were no differences in outcome between favourable and adverse anatomy patients. Follow-up CT extending up to 2 years revealed no change in aneurysm size or endograft position and no new endoleaks. Favourable and adverse anatomy patients can be successfully treated using the Nellix sac-anchoring endoprosthesis. Early results are promising but longer-term studies are needed. Copyright © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ligament of the head of femur: A comprehensive review of its anatomy, embryology, and potential function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Vivek; Woodley, Stephanie J; Nicholson, Helen D

    2016-03-01

    The functional significance of the ligament of the head of femur (LHF), or ligamentum teres has often been debated. Having gained recent attention in clinical practice, it is suggested to partly provide some mechanical stability to the hip joint. However, the anatomy of this ligament is not well studied. This paper systematically reviews the anatomy of the LHF with the aim of exploring our current understanding of this structure and identifying any gaps in knowledge regarding its morphology and function. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, ProQuest, Web of Science, and Scopus databases was undertaken and relevant data extracted, analyzed. A total of 69 references were obtained, that included 53 full text articles, three published abstracts, and 13 textbooks. Many publications related to clinical studies (n = 11) rather than gross anatomy (n = 7), with one report on variation of the LHF. Considerable inconsistency in the naming and description of the LHF morphology was observed. Variable attachment sites were reported except for the acetabular notch, transverse acetabular ligament, and the femoral fovea. Presence and patency of the ligamental arteries supplying the head of the femur and their exact location were variably described and were often incomplete. The LHF is believed to be taught in extreme hip adduction, but there is little evidence to support this. In conclusions, further investigation of the anatomy of the LHF is recommended, particularly to clarify its mechanical role, innervation, and vascular contribution to the developing and adult femur, so to better inform clinical practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Renal artery anatomy assessed by quantitative analysis of selective renal angiography in 1,000 patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Lucas; Ewen, Sebastian; Tzafriri, Abraham Rami; Edelman, Elazer Reuven; Lüscher, Thomas Felix; Blankenstijn, Peter J; Dörr, Oliver; Schlaich, Markus; Sharif, Faisal; Voskuil, Michiel; Zeller, Thomas; Ukena, Christian; Scheller, Bruno; Böhm, Michael; Mahfoud, Felix

    2018-05-20

    With increasing attention to renovascular causes and targets for hypertension there arises a critical need for more detailed knowledge of renal arterial anatomy. However, a standardised nomenclature is lacking. The present study sought to develop a standardised nomenclature for renal anatomy considering the complexity and variation of the renal arterial tree and to assess the applicability of the nomenclature. One thousand hypertensive patients underwent invasive selective renal artery angiography in nine centres. Further, renovasography was performed in 249 healthy swine as a surrogate for normotensive anatomy. Anatomical parameters were assessed by quantitative vascular analysis. Patients' mean blood pressure was 168/90±26/17 mmHg. The right main renal artery was longer than the left (41±15 mm vs. 35±13 mm, prenal arteries and renal artery disease were documented in 22% and 9% of the patients, respectively. Other than exhibiting a longer left main renal artery in uncontrolled hypertensives (+2.7 mm, p=0.034) there was no anatomical difference between patients with controlled and uncontrolled hypertension. Main renal artery mean diameter was smaller in patients with impaired kidney function (GFR Renal arterial anatomy differs between sides but shows no difference between patients with and without blood pressure control. Impaired GFR was associated with small main renal artery diameter.

  16. "Digit anatomy": a new technique for learning anatomy using motor memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice the movements which express (1) the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches, (2) the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and their branches, and formation of the portal vein, (3) the heart and the coronary arteries, and (4) the brachial, lumbar, and sacral plexuses. A feedback survey showed that digit anatomy was helpful for the students not only in memorizing anatomical structures but also in understanding their functions. Out of 40 students, 34 of them who learned anatomy with the help of digit anatomy were "very satisfied" or "generally satisfied" with this new teaching method. Digit anatomy that was used to express the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches was more helpful than those representing other structures. Although the movements of digit anatomy are expected to be remembered longer than the exact meaning of each movement, invoking the motor memory of the movement may help to make relearning of the same information easier and faster in the future. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Interventional vascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, H.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The papers published during this past year in the area of interventional vascular radiology presented some useful modifications and further experiences both in the area of thromboembolic therapy and in dilation and thrombolysis, but no new techniques. As an introductory subject, an excellent monograph reviewing the current spectrum of pharmacoangiography was presented in Radiographics. Although the presented material is primarily in diagnostic application of various pharmacologic agents used today to facilitate demonstration of certain diagnostic criteria of various disease processes, both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive reaction to these agents are widely used in various therapeutic vascular procedures. This monograph should be reviewed by every angiographer whether or not he or she performs interventional procedures, and it would be very convenient to have this table available in the angiography suite. In a related subject, Bookstein and co-workers have written an excellent review concerning pharmacologic manipulations of various blood coagulative parameters during angiography. Understanding the proper method of manipulation of the bloodclotting factors during angiography, and especially during interventional angiography, is extremely important. Particularly, the method of manipulating the coagulation with the use of heparin and protamine and modification of the platelet activity by using aspirin and dipyridamole are succinctly reviewed. The systemic and selective thrombolytic activities of streptokianse are also discussed

  18. Vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lesley J; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex disorder which affects an estimated 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is diagnosed by hypertension in the presence of proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a prominent cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As delivery is currently the only known treatment, preeclampsia is also a leading cause of preterm delivery. Preeclampsia is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased peripheral resistance, is an integral part of the maternal syndrome. While the cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, placental ischemia resulting from aberrant placentation is a fundamental characteristic of the disorder. Poor placentation is believed to stimulate the release of a number of factors including pro- and antiangiogenic factors and inflammatory activators into the maternal systemic circulation. These factors are critical mediators of vascular function and impact the endothelium in distinctive ways, including enhanced endothelial oxidative stress. The mechanisms of action and the consequences on the maternal vasculature will be discussed in this review. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  20. Vascular pattern formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpella, Enrico; Helariutta, Ykä

    2010-01-01

    Reticulate tissue systems exist in most multicellular organisms, and the principles underlying the formation of cellular networks have fascinated philosophers, mathematicians, and biologists for centuries. In particular, the beautiful and varied arrangements of vascular tissues in plants have intrigued mankind since antiquity, yet the organizing signals have remained elusive. Plant vascular tissues form systems of interconnected cell files throughout the plant body. Vascular cells are aligned with one another along continuous lines, and vascular tissues differentiate at reproducible positions within organ environments. However, neither the precise path of vascular differentiation nor the exact geometry of vascular networks is fixed or immutable. Several recent advances converge to reconcile the seemingly conflicting predictability and plasticity of vascular tissue patterns. A control mechanism in which an apical-basal flow of signal establishes a basic coordinate system for body axis formation and vascular strand differentiation, and in which a superimposed level of radial organizing cues elaborates cell patterns, would generate a reproducible tissue configuration in the context of an underlying robust, self-organizing structure, and account for the simultaneous regularity and flexibility of vascular tissue patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Vascular Grafts and Vascularized Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Laura; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2017-10-01

    There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs. Various inkjet-, extrusion-, and photocrosslinking-based AM techniques have been applied to the fabrication of both self-standing vascular grafts and porous, vascularized tissue constructs. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of AM for vascular applications and the key criteria for biomaterials in the AM of both acellular and cellular constructs. We envision that new smart printing materials that can adapt to their environment and encourage rapid endothelialization and remodeling will be the key factor in the future for the successful AM of personalized and dynamic vascular tissue applications.

  2. Vascular Structures of the Right Colon: Incidence and Variations with Their Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabilah, J; Kim, W R; Kim, N K

    2017-06-01

    There is a demand for a better understanding of the vascular structures around the right colonic area. Although right hemicolectomy with the recent concept of meticulous lymph node dissection is a standardized procedure for malignant diseases among most surgeons, variations in the actual anatomical vascular are not well understood. The aim of the present review was to present a detailed overview of the vascular variation pertinent to the surgery for right colon cancer. Medical literature was searched for the articles highlighting the vascular variation relevant to the right colon cancer surgery. Recently, there have been many detailed studies on applied surgical vascular anatomy based on cadaveric dissections, as well as radiological and intraoperative examinations to overcome misconceptions concerning the arterial supply and venous drainage to the right colon. Ileocolic artery and middle colic artery are consistently present in all patients arising from the superior mesenteric artery. Even though the ileocolic artery passes posterior to the superior mesenteric vein in most of the cases, in some cases courses anterior to the superior mesenteric artery. The right colic artery is inconsistently present ranging from 63% to 10% across different studies. Ileocolic vein and middle colic vein is always present, while the right colic vein is absent in 50% of patients. The gastrocolic trunk of Henle is present in 46%-100% patients across many studies with variation in the tributaries ranging from bipodal to tetrapodal. Commonly, it is found that the right colonic veins, including the right colic vein, middle colic vein, and superior right colic vein, share the confluence forming the gastrocolic trunk of Henle in a highly variable frequency and different forms. Understanding the incidence and variations of the vascular anatomy of right side colon is of crucial importance. Failure to recognize the variation during surgery can result in troublesome bleeding especially during

  3. Analyses of superficial and depth doses in intraoral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Santos de Oliveira, C.; Morais, R.P. de; Nascimento Souza, D. do [Universidade Federal de Sergipe - CCET - Dept. de Fisica, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In this work dosimetric analysis using thermoluminescence technique to study the beams characteristics of x-rays employed in dental radiology has been carried out. The obtained results with CaSO{sub 4}:Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were compared to the doses obtained with parallel-plates ionization chamber. Dosimetric evaluations were also done using radiographic films of large dimensions. The x-rays equipments analyzed were installed in the radiological services of Odontology Department of Sergipe Federal University (U.F.S.). Depending on the anatomical region to be examined the proper exposure time was select, for a fix voltage of 70 kV. The results with TLD and ionization chamber have been determined to female and male individuals. The intraoral regions analysed were the peri apical of the incisors, molar and pre-molar teeth and the occlusive region. These regions were simulated using acrylic plates absorbers installed on the film packet holder. The evaluation of the depth doses in the intraoral tissue was obtained using different acrylic plate thickness. The air kerma values have been evaluated with the ionization chamber located in the dental cone exit of the x-rays equipments. The integrated areas of the thermoluminescent glow curves showed coherent values when compared to the ones obtained with the ionization chamber and both methods presented a linear dependence with the exposition time. The analyses with films have allowed the evaluation of the beam scattering in the simulator apparatus. The studies had proven that the analysis of superficial dose and in depth used in dental radiology can be carried with thermoluminescent dosimeters. (authors)

  4. Teledetection applied to the superficial oceanography phenomena study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jeimmy

    2002-01-01

    The present document is consider the physical and biological variables important part in the integration of the climatic system, like improvement to the knowledge of the present marine processes in the Colombian marine areas by means of the advantage of the technological resources available at the present time for the obtaining of information in real time of physical and biological processes, agreed to the constitutional mandate of sustainable development. The images of color of the ocean provided by located remote sensors in the satellites allow considering primary the organic productivity of a synoptic way, in great areas. This is of great importance to more effectively support the rational handling of the fishing resources and to make a contribution on the paper of the ocean in the global climatic change. The marine phytoplankton can significantly alter to the carbon interchange in interactions ocean-atmosphere. The marine photosynthesis reduces the partial pressure of superficial water CO 2 , with the result of which a portion of organic carbon just formed (new productivity) sinks outside the afotica zone. The previous thing induces a net effect of carbon flow from the atmosphere to the ocean. One of the potential applications of the use of the images of satellite of color of the ocean is the calculation of the chlorophyll concentration and its relation with the sobreexperience of larvae of fish of commercial interest. Different types from developed mathematical models for concerning oceanic waters in the accomplishment of estimations of primary productivity with base in color images of the ocean exist mainly - time out - for that reason, the necessity of develop model similar for the calculation of the productivity primary of the phytoplankton of the Colombian marine area

  5. Analyses of superficial and depth doses in intraoral radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Santos de Oliveira, C.; Morais, R.P. de; Nascimento Souza, D. do

    2006-01-01

    In this work dosimetric analysis using thermoluminescence technique to study the beams characteristics of x-rays employed in dental radiology has been carried out. The obtained results with CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were compared to the doses obtained with parallel-plates ionization chamber. Dosimetric evaluations were also done using radiographic films of large dimensions. The x-rays equipments analyzed were installed in the radiological services of Odontology Department of Sergipe Federal University (U.F.S.). Depending on the anatomical region to be examined the proper exposure time was select, for a fix voltage of 70 kV. The results with TLD and ionization chamber have been determined to female and male individuals. The intraoral regions analysed were the peri apical of the incisors, molar and pre-molar teeth and the occlusive region. These regions were simulated using acrylic plates absorbers installed on the film packet holder. The evaluation of the depth doses in the intraoral tissue was obtained using different acrylic plate thickness. The air kerma values have been evaluated with the ionization chamber located in the dental cone exit of the x-rays equipments. The integrated areas of the thermoluminescent glow curves showed coherent values when compared to the ones obtained with the ionization chamber and both methods presented a linear dependence with the exposition time. The analyses with films have allowed the evaluation of the beam scattering in the simulator apparatus. The studies had proven that the analysis of superficial dose and in depth used in dental radiology can be carried with thermoluminescent dosimeters. (authors)

  6. Terbinafine-loaded wound dressing for chronic superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskiabi, Farnoush Asghari; Bonakdar, Shahin; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Imani, Mohammad; Jahanshiri, Zahra; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    In spite of developing new drugs and modern formulations, the treatments of chronic fungal infections are still challenging. Fibrous wound dressings are new suggestions for the treatment of chronic superficial infections. In the present study, we formulated an antifungal agent, terbinafine hydrochloride (TFH), which is a hydrophobic drug, in wound dressings prepared by electrospun polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50 w/w) and gelatin. To obtain more water-stable meshes, the preparations were treated by glutaraldehyde and their properties were determined before and after treatment. The morphology of fibrous meshes was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Drug loading efficiency and release rate were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the release rate was monitored for 144h. Antifungal tests were performed on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans cultured on Muller-Hinton agar. The toxicity of the meshes was measured after 24h and 14days by MTT assay. Terbinafine loading of polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50) was 100% and it released the highest amount of TFH too. In antifungal tests, all samples were able to hinderT. mentagrophytes and A. fumigatus but not C. albicans growth among them, polycaprolactone fibers made the largest inhibition zone. In MTT assay, none of prepared samples showed toxicity against L929 cells. Teken together, the prepared TFH-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun meshes were able to release TFH slowly and in a steady state in time. With respect to no obvious cytotoxicity in MTT assay and stong antifungal activity toward T. mentagrophytesin vitro, these TFH-based meshes could be considered as potential candidates in clinical application as wound dressing for treatment of chronic dermatophytosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. HDR brachytherapy for superficial non-melanoma skin cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauden, Ruth; Pracy, Martin; Avery, Anne-Marie; Hodgetts, Ian; Gauden, Stan

    2013-01-01

    Our initial experience using recommended high dose per fraction skin brachytherapy (BT) treatment schedules, resulted in poor cosmesis. This study aimed to assess in a prospective group of patients the use of Leipzig surface applicators for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy, for the treatment of small non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) using a protracted treatment schedule. Treatment was delivered by HDR brachytherapy with Leipzig applicators. 36Gy, prescribed to between 3 to 4mm, was given in daily 3Gy fractions. Acute skin toxicity was evaluated weekly during irradiation using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Local response, late skin effects and cosmetic results were monitored at periodic intervals after treatment completion. From March 2002, 200 patients with 236 lesions were treated. Median follow-up was 66 months (range 25–121 months). A total of 162 lesions were macroscopic, while in 74 cases, BT was given after resection because of positive microscopic margins. There were 121 lesions that were basal cell carcinomas, and 115 were squamous cell carcinomas. Lesions were located on the head and neck (198), the extremities (26) and trunk (12). Local control was 232/236 (98%). Four patients required further surgery to treat recurrence. Grade 1 acute skin toxicity was detected in 168 treated lesions (71%) and grade 2 in 81 (34%). Cosmesis was good or excellent in 208 cases (88%). Late skin hypopigmentation changes were observed in 13 cases (5.5%). Delivering 36Gy over 2 weeks to superficial NMSC using HDR brachytherapy is well tolerated and provides a high local control rate without significant toxicity.

  8. Anatomical and Electrophysiological Clustering of Superficial Medial Entorhinal Cortex Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Local GABAergic interneurons regulate the activity of spatially-modulated principal cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), mediating stellate-to-stellate connectivity and possibly enabling grid formation via recurrent inhibitory circuitry. Despite the important role interneurons seem to play in the MEC cortical circuit, the combination of low cell counts and functional diversity has made systematic electrophysiological studies of these neurons difficult. For these reasons, there remains a paucity of knowledge on the electrophysiological profiles of superficial MEC interneuron populations. Taking advantage of glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (GAD2)-IRES-tdTomato and PV-tdTomato transgenic mice, we targeted GABAergic interneurons for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and characterized their passive membrane features, basic input/output properties and action potential (AP) shape. These electrophysiologically characterized cells were then anatomically reconstructed, with emphasis on axonal projections and pial depth. K-means clustering of interneuron anatomical and electrophysiological data optimally classified a population of 106 interneurons into four distinct clusters. The first cluster is comprised of layer 2- and 3-projecting, slow-firing interneurons. The second cluster is comprised largely of PV+ fast-firing interneurons that project mainly to layers 2 and 3. The third cluster contains layer 1- and 2-projecting interneurons, and the fourth cluster is made up of layer 1-projecting horizontal interneurons. These results, among others, will provide greater understanding of the electrophysiological characteristics of MEC interneurons, help guide future in vivo studies, and may aid in uncovering the mechanism of grid field formation. PMID:29085901

  9. [Vascular calcifications in subjects with and without chronic renal failure: types, sites and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Annibale; Di Napoli, Anteo

    2017-04-01

    Vascular calcifications worse outcomes in the general population and in patients on dialysis. We investigated 146 patients on chronic hemodialysis and 63 healthy controls with normal renal function under 65 years of age. All subjects underwent B-mode ultrasonography of common and internal carotid artery, abdominal aorta, common and superficial femoral artery and posterior tibial artery to assess the presence of intimal and medial calcifications. Intimal and media calcifications were present at the level of the carotid vessel, the abdominal aorta, the common femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery and the posterior tibial artery, respectively in 45%, 50%, 45%, 50%, 42% of patients on dialysis and in 5%, 15%, 24%, 5%, 2% of controls (p chronic hemodialysis. Ultrasonography currently available in Nephrology, is a sensitive, reproducible, inexpensive imaging technique to identify arterial intimal and medial calcification in high-risk cardiovascular subjects. Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.

  10. Use your eyes - metallographic versus superficial traces of the crafting of Bronze Age ornaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Heide Wrobel

    and superficial archaeological examinations can be used to understand prehistoric craft. Furthermore, it will show that with an intensive knowledge about previous scientific investigations the superficial traces preserved can reveal a great amount of information and could talk for themselves. Taking as an example...... the early and middle Bronze Age bronze ornaments from North Germany, superficial traces of the metal crafting process, visible with the naked eye, will be compared with metallographic images. The aim of this presentation is to give an overview over the crafting traces everybody could see (with a bit...

  11. Comportamiento a fatiga del acero sae 4140 usando alta rugosidad superficial y ambiente corrosivo

    OpenAIRE

    CEBALLOS, WILSON FERNANDO; GÓMEZ, ADOLFO LEÓN; CORONADO, JOHN JAIRO

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el estudio del comportamiento a fatiga del acero SAE 4140 en condiciones diferentes: superficie pulida (acabado espejo), ambiente corrosivo (jugo de caña de azúcar), alta rugosidad superficial (superficie equivalente a la encontrada típicamente en los ejes de molino de caña) y una condición que involucra la combinación de las dos últimas. Las anteriores condiciones están presentes en los ejes de maza de molino de caña de azúcar durante el proceso de molienda. Se r...

  12. COMPORTAMIENTO A FATIGA DEL ACERO SAE 4140 USANDO ALTA RUGOSIDAD SUPERFICIAL Y AMBIENTE CORROSIVO

    OpenAIRE

    CEBALLOS, WILSON FERNANDO; GÓMEZ, ADOLFO LEÓN; CORONADO, JOHN JAIRO

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el estudio del comportamiento a fatiga del acero SAE 4140 en condiciones diferentes: superficie pulida (acabado espejo), ambiente corrosivo (jugo de caña de azúcar), alta rugosidad superficial (superficie equivalente a la encontrada típicamente en los ejes de molino de caña) y una condición que involucra la combinación de las dos últimas. Las anteriores condiciones están presentes en los ejes de maza de molino de caña de azúcar durante el proceso de molienda. Se r...

  13. Cardiac and vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, S.; Ley-Zaporozhan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of the heart and great vessels show a high degree of variation. There are numerous variants and defects with only few clinical manifestations and are only detected by chance, such as a persistent left superior vena cava or a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Other cardiovascular malformations are manifested directly after birth and need prompt mostly surgical interventions. At this point in time echocardiography is the diagnostic modality of choice for morphological and functional characterization of malformations. Additional imaging using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is only required in a minority of cases. If so, the small anatomical structures, the physiological tachycardia and tachypnea are a challenge for imaging modalities and strategies. This review article presents the most frequent vascular, cardiac and complex cardiovascular malformations independent of the first line diagnostic imaging modality. (orig.) [de

  14. Anatomía y desarrollo del fruto en Piriqueta y Turnera (Turneraceae Anatomy and development of fruits in Piriqueta and Turnera (Turneraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gonzalez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analiza la anatomía, estructura y desarrollo de los frutos en 12 especies de Piriqueta y 30 especies de Turnera; con el objetivo de identificar la estructura involucrada en la dehiscencia y verificar la existencia de patrones en la organización del fruto entre las especies analizadas. El ovario es sincárpico, tricarpelar, unilocular con placentación parietal, presentando la misma estructura en todas las especies. Ambas epidermis carpelares son uniestratificadas y tienen estomas, el mesófilo es parenquimático con 3 haces dorsales y 3 marginales. Durante el desarrollo del fruto, la epidermis externa forma un epicarpo papiloso en las especies de Piriqueta. El mesocarpio deriva de los estratos medios del ovario, formando un estrato mecánico de braquiesclereidas. Estas esclereidas pueden organizarse como un cilindro continuo determinando frutos de superficie lisa o agruparse en nidos, unidos o no, determinando así frutos granulares, verrugosos, o tuberculados. Las cápsulas son loculicidas, con línea de dehiscencia formada por macroesclereidas dispuestas longitudinalmente en el fruto, paralelas al haz carpelar dorsal. Se concluye que los diferentes tipos de pericarpio son un rasgo post-fecundación, dado que la estructura del ovario es exactamente la misma en todas las especies analizadas. Se analiza la anatomía del fruto en relación al esquema taxonómico actualizado.The aims of this work were to describe the morphology, anatomy and development of the fruits of 12 species of Piriqueta and 30 species of Turnera; to identify the structures related to the process of dehiscence of the capsule; and to verify the occurrence of standards carpological structure between the studied species. The ovary is 3-carpellar, syncarpous, unilocular with parietal placentation and has the same anatomical structure in all studied species. The outer and inner epidermises are single-layered with stomata; the ovarian mesophyll is composed by

  15. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  16. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. The CIRSE registry of closure devices

  17. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  18. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  19. The vascular secret of Klotho

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, Ewa; Olgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Klotho is an evolutionarily highly conserved protein related to longevity. Increasing evidence of a vascular protecting effect of the Klotho protein has emerged and might be important for future treatments of uremic vascular calcification. It is still disputed whether Klotho is locally expressed ...

  20. Fístula arteriovenosa safeno-femoral superficial como acesso à hemodiálise: descrição de técnica operatória e experiência clínica inicial Superficial saphenofemoral arteriovenous fistula as access to hemodialysis: description of operative technique and initial clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antônio Corrêa

    2005-01-01

    distal portion. The superficial saphenofemoral arteriovenous fistulas were evaluated with regard to puncture, appropriate flow, spontaneous venous pressure, dialysis adequacy and intraoperative complications. RESULTS: There were no intraoperative complications and all the fistulas could be successfully concluded. There was one early death, but the other fistulas were able to the hemodialysis in the 30th postoperative day. Fourteen fistulas were used; in the evolution, three patients were submitted to renal transplant, four presented thrombosis and two presented puncture pseudoaneurysm. CONCLUSION: Superficial saphenofemoral arteriovenous fistulas proved to be a good alternative for patients who do not have other possibilities of vascular access in upper limbs, thus allowing an effective hemodialysis treatment, with a good patency rate at medium term.

  1. Lower extremity computed tomography angiography can help predict technical success of endovascular revascularization in the superficial femoral and popliteal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoga, Nathan K; Kim, Tanner; Sailer, Anna M; Fleischmann, Dominik; Mell, Matthew W

    2017-09-01

    Preprocedural computed tomography angiography (CTA) assists in evaluating vascular morphology and disease distribution and in treatment planning for patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). The aim of the study was to determine the predictive value of radiographic findings on CTA and technical success of endovascular revascularization of occlusions in the superficial femoral artery-popliteal (SFA-pop) region. Medical records and available imaging studies were reviewed for patients undergoing endovascular intervention for PAD between January 2013 and December 2015 at a single academic institution. Radiologists reviewed preoperative CTA scans of patients with occlusions in the SFA-pop region. Radiographic criteria previously used to evaluate chronic occlusions in the coronary arteries were used. Technical success, defined as restoration of inline flow through the SFA-pop region with technical failure (P = .014). Longer lengths of occlusion were also associated with technical failure (P = .042). Multiple occlusions (P = .55), negative remodeling (P = .69), vessel runoff (P = .56), and percentage of vessel calcification (P = .059) were not associated with failure. On multivariable analysis, 100% calcification remained the only significant predictor of technical failure (odds ratio, 9.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-45.8; P = .008). Analysis of preoperative CTA shows 100% calcification as the best predictor of technical failure of endovascular revascularization of occlusions in the SFA-pop region. Further studies are needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of obtaining preoperative CTA for lower extremity PAD. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Valoración de la superficie del dializador en la hemodiafiltración on-line. Elección objetiva de la superficie del dializador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maduell

    2015-05-01

    Conclusión: El incremento del 40% y el 80% de la superficie conlleva un aumento del volumen convectivo de un 6 y un 16% respectivamente, aunque se evidenció una reducción en su máximo rendimiento, mostrando mínimas diferencias tanto en el volumen convectivo como en la capacidad depurativa cuando el CUF era superior a 45 ml/h/mmHg. Es recomendable optimizar el rendimiento de los dializadores a la mínima superficie posible adecuando la prescripción de tratamiento.

  3. Social media in vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Gates, Lindsay; Mitchell, Erica L; Muhs, Bart E

    2013-04-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in the use of social media to expand the visibility of various specialties in medicine. The purpose of this paper is to describe the latest updates on some current applications of social media in the practice of vascular surgery as well as existing limitations of use. This investigation demonstrates that the use of social networking sites appears to have a positive impact on vascular practice, as is evident through the incorporation of this technology at the Cleveland Clinic and by the Society for Vascular Surgery into their approach to patient care and physician communication. Overall, integration of social networking technology has current and future potential to be used to promote goals, patient awareness, recruitment for clinical trials, and professionalism within the specialty of vascular surgery. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Overview of radiological anatomy and topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces the reader to the examination of the most common radiographs of the body that will be encountered by the x-ray operator. The discussion of the radiograph begins with a review of the anatomy and functions of the region. This is followed by a description of the normal anatomy that is imaged in the radiographs. The subjects discussed are follows - Skeleton; Axial Skeleton, Skull: functions, radiographic appearance. Vertebral Column, Thoracic Cage (Sternum and Ribs), The Chest Radiograph, Appendicular Skeleton, Shoulder Girdle and Upper Arm. Radiological Appearance of the Elbow, Radiological Appearance of the Wrist and Hand, Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs, Innominate (hip bones) Radiological Appearance of the Pelvis, Lower Extremities, Joints, Classification, Radiological Appearance of the Knee, Radiological Appearance of the Ankle and Foot, Systems and Cavities of the Body, Cranial Cavity, Thoracic Cavity, Abdominal Cavity, Pelvic Cavity

  5. Understanding chest radiographic anatomy with MDCT reformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, A.R. [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ko, J.P., E-mail: jane.ko@nyumc.or [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Chest radiograph interpretation requires an understanding of the mediastinal reflections and anatomical structures. Computed tomography (CT) improves the learning of three-dimensional (3D) anatomy, and more recently multidetector CT (MDCT) technology has enabled the creation of high-quality reformations in varying projections. Multiplanar reformations (MPRs) of varying thickness in the coronal and sagittal projections can be created for direct correlation with findings on frontal and lateral chest radiographs, respectively. MPRs enable simultaneous visualization of the craniocaudal extent of thoracic structures while providing the anatomic detail that has been previously illustrated using cadaveric specimens. Emphasis will be placed on improving knowledge of mediastinal anatomy and reflections including edges, lines, and stripes that are visible on chest radiographs.

  6. Fetal anatomy revealed with fast MR sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D; Hatabu, H; Gaa, J; Atkinson, M W; Edelman, R R

    1996-10-01

    Although all the imaging studies in this pictorial essay were done for maternal rather than fetal indications, fetal anatomy was well visualized. However, when scans are undertaken for fetal indications, fetal motion in between scout views and imaging sequences may make specific image planes difficult to obtain. Of the different techniques described in this review, we preferred the HASTE technique and use it almost exclusively for scanning pregnant patients. The T2-weighting is ideal for delineating fetal organs. Also, the HASTE technique allows images to be obtained in 430 msec, limiting artifacts arising from maternal and fetal motion. MR imaging should play a more important role in evaluating equivocal sonographic cases as fast scanning techniques are more widely used. Obstetric MR imaging no longer will be limited by fetal motion artifacts. When complex anatomy requires definition in a complicated pregnant patient, MR imaging should be considered as a useful adjunct to sonography.

  7. Pocket atlas of MRI body anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berquist, T.H.; Ehman, R.L.; May, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a guide to the anatomy of extracranial organs as seen in magnetic resonance images. This collection of 96 magnetic resonance images, accompanied by explanatory line drawings, covers all the major organs of the body- shoulder and humerus; elbow and forearm; hand and wrist; chest; abdomen; pelvis; thigh; knee; calf; and ankle. The images are displayed in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes, enabling radiologists to quickly review coronal and sagittal anatomy as it applies to routine MRI practice. Special emphasis is placed on the extremities, where spatial resolution, coronal and sagittal planes, and soft tissue contrast provide important anatomic detail. Each MRI image is carefully labeled - using numbers with legends at the top of the page - to highlight key anatomic features. Where applicable, special parameters and positioning are noted below the images. Accompanying each image is a line drawing demonstrating the level and plane of the image.

  8. Patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO; DEJOUR, DAVID; GRASSI, ALBERTO; BONANZINGA, TOMMASO; MUCCIOLI, GIULIO MARIA MARCHEGGIANI; COLLE, FRANCESCA; RAGGI, FEDERICO; BENZI, ANDREA; MARCACCI, MAURILIO

    2013-01-01

    The patellofemoral joint, due to its particular bone anatomy and the numerous capsuloligamentous structures and muscles that act dynamically on the patella, is considered one of the most complex joints in the human body from the biomechanical point of view. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been demonstrated to contribute 60% of the force that opposes lateral displacement of the patella, and MPFL injury results in an approximately 50% reduction in the force needed to dislocate the patella laterally with the knee extended. For this reason, recent years have seen a growing interest in the study of this important anatomical structure, whose aponeurotic nature has thus been demonstrated. The MPFL acts as a restraint during motion, playing an active role under conditions of laterally applied stress, but an only marginal role during natural knee flexion. However, it remains extremely difficult to clearly define the anatomy of the MPFL and its relationships with other anatomical structures. PMID:25606512

  9. Interoperability between phenotype and anatomy ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Oellrich, Anika; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2010-12-15

    Phenotypic information is important for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease. A formal ontological representation of phenotypic information can help to identify, interpret and infer phenotypic traits based on experimental findings. The methods that are currently used to represent data and information about phenotypes fail to make the semantics of the phenotypic trait explicit and do not interoperate with ontologies of anatomy and other domains. Therefore, valuable resources for the analysis of phenotype studies remain unconnected and inaccessible to automated analysis and reasoning. We provide a framework to formalize phenotypic descriptions and make their semantics explicit. Based on this formalization, we provide the means to integrate phenotypic descriptions with ontologies of other domains, in particular anatomy and physiology. We demonstrate how our framework leads to the capability to represent disease phenotypes, perform powerful queries that were not possible before and infer additional knowledge. http://bioonto.de/pmwiki.php/Main/PheneOntology.

  10. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Complementing anatomy education using three-dimensional anatomy mobile software applications on tablet computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T L; Burnett, B; Tunstall, R G; Abrahams, P H

    2014-04-01

    Anatomy has traditionally been a cornerstone of medical education, which has been taught via dissection and didactic lectures. The rising prevalence of mobile tablet technology means medical software applications ("apps") play an increasingly important role in medical education. The applications highlighted in this article will aid anatomical educators to identify which are the most useful in clinical, academic, and educational environments. These have been systematically identified by downloading all applications with keywords related to anatomy and then carrying out qualitative assessment. Novel anatomy applications from developers such as Visible Body, 3D4Medical, and Pocket Anatomy allow students to visualize and manipulate complex anatomical structures using detailed 3D models. They often contain additional content including clinical correlations and a range of media from instructional videos to interactive quiz functions. The strength of tablet technology lies in its ability to consolidate and present anatomical information to the user in the most appropriate manner for their learning style. The only question mark remains over the level of detail and accuracy of these applications. Innovative medical educators who embrace tablet technology will find that anatomy applications serve as a useful learning tool when used in conjunction with existing teaching setups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Anatomy education environment measurement inventory: A valid tool to measure the anatomy learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadie, Siti Nurma Hanim; Hassan, Asma'; Ismail, Zul Izhar Mohd; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Khan, Aaijaz Ahmed; Kasim, Fazlina; Yusof, Nurul Aiman Mohd; Manan Sulong, Husnaida Abdul; Tg Muda, Tg Fatimah Murniwati; Arifin, Wan Nor; Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri

    2017-09-01

    Students' perceptions of the education environment influence their learning. Ever since the major medical curriculum reform, anatomy education has undergone several changes in terms of its curriculum, teaching modalities, learning resources, and assessment methods. By measuring students' perceptions concerning anatomy education environment, valuable information can be obtained to facilitate improvements in teaching and learning. Hence, it is important to use a valid inventory that specifically measures attributes of the anatomy education environment. In this study, a new 11-factor, 132-items Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory (AEEMI) was developed using Delphi technique and was validated in a Malaysian public medical school. The inventory was found to have satisfactory content evidence (scale-level content validity index [total] = 0.646); good response process evidence (scale-level face validity index [total] = 0.867); and acceptable to high internal consistency, with the Raykov composite reliability estimates of the six factors are in the range of 0.604-0.876. The best fit model of the AEEMI is achieved with six domains and 25 items (X 2  = 415.67, P education environment in Malaysia. A concerted collaboration should be initiated toward developing a valid universal tool that, using the methods outlined in this study, measures the anatomy education environment across different institutions and countries. Anat Sci Educ 10: 423-432. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-01

    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Final Results of the Protected Superficial Femoral Artery Trial Using the FilterWire EZ System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Huemme, Tim H.; Philipp Schaefer, J.; Charalambous, Nikolas; Paulsen, Friedrich; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of debris-capture for distal protection using the FilterWire EZ Embolic Protection System (Boston Scientific, Mountain View, CA) with the additional aim to further define the incidence of distal embolization during superficial femoral artery (SFA) interventions. A prospective, single-centre registry was designed to evaluate the performance of the FilterWire EZ in capturing debris during standard SFA percutaneous intervention. The PRO-RATA study included 30 patients suitable for PTA (Fontaine IIb to III or Rutherford I to II classification). The primary end points were occurrence of distal embolization or decreased runoff, improvement in ankle-brachial index ankle-brachial index (ABI) after the procedure, and number of filters containing emboli. Secondary end points included major adverse events (i.e., procedure- or device-related death and/or clinical target lesion revascularisation), device delivery, deployment success, and incidence of embolic recovery (patients with device success exhibiting embolic protection in the filter). Procedural success was determined as ≤30% residual stenosis with no worsening of distal runoff as determined on angiography. A total of 29 patients (age 66.2 ± 12 years; total no. of limbs = 30; total no. of lesions = 30) suitable for PTA were enrolled in the study between February 2007 and March 2008. There were 26 patients with claudication (Fontaine IIB) and 3 patients with stage IV peripheral vascular disease. In one patient, lesions in both legs were treated. No procedural or device-related complications occured. The average degree of stenosis was 86 ± 7%. Stenosis length ranged from 8 to 88 mm. The average degree of residual stenosis was 10 ± 10%. ABI improved from 0.56 ± 0.16 to 0.92 ± 0.19 (P < 0.05). No restenosis or dissection was seen at 1-month ultrasound follow-up. Macroscopic debris was found in 27 of 30 filters of all distal protection devices used in

  15. Cerebral cross-perfusion and the Circle of Willis: does physiology trump anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musicki K

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Korana Musicki,1 Katherine Victoria Hurst,1,2 Zoltán Molnár,3 Elizabeth Hardy,4 Ashok Handa,1,2 1Department of Vascular Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, 2Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, 3Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, 4Vascular Studies Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK Introduction: Cerebral cross-perfusion is essential for ipsilateral brain viability during unilateral insult. Aortic arch and great vessel procedures depend on its function for safe practice, unless adjuncts like shunts are used. This paper assesses the contribution of cerebrovascular anatomy against physiology in determining requisite hemispheric perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA.Materials and methods: A review of shunting requirements for CEAs under locoregional anesthesia (LA at the John Radcliffe Hospital during 1999–2013 was performed. A PubMed search for “Circle of Willis” was screened for all original articles defining cerebrovascular anatomy by postmortem or angiography.Results: Over 14 years, 1137 CEAs were performed under cervical plexus block; during this period, the departmental standard of practice evolved from exclusively general anesthesia to predominantly LA. CEAs performed under LA during the early phase (1999–2003 had a shunt rate of 15.1%, compared to 20% as predicted by stump pressures alone. However, shunting decreased as higher perioperative systolic pressures were routinely practiced; shunt rates were 8.0% during the intermediate (2004–2007 and 6.4% during the later (2008–2013 phase. By comparison, 25 articles characterizing 6414 brains report an intact circle of Willis in 33–35% of people, with a complete hemi-circle anteriorly (77% seen more commonly than posteriorly (42%, and 11–16% deficient in both hemi-circles with no cross-flow.Conclusion: Cerebral cross-perfusion is fundamental for safe CEA. Anatomy of the circle of Willis alone does not itself determine adequacy

  16. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  17. Congenital Heart Defects and Coronary Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mawson, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are a well recognized feature of many cardiac malformations and have been catalogued in a number of reviews. This overview concentrates on 1) the interplay between congenital heart defects and coronary morphogenesis, examining how some of the embryology fits with the experiments of nature encountered in clinical practice; and 2) the influence of coronary anatomy on patient management. This overview uses, as examples, pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, ...

  18. Clinical anatomy of the periocular region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Pari N; Ortiz-Pérez, Santiago; Joshi, Naresh

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: (1) to provide the facial plastic surgeon with a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of periocular anatomy including the brow, midface, and temporal region and (2) to highlight important anatomical relationships that must be appreciated in order to achieve the best possible functional and aesthetic surgical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. The functional anatomy of forearm rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, Vivien C.

    2009-01-01

    The elbow, forearm and wrist act as a unified structure to provide a stable, strong and highly mobile strut for positioning the hand in space and for conducting load-bearing tasks. An understanding of the relevant anatomy and biomechanics is important for the surgeon assessing and treating disorders of forearm function. This paper is concerned with illuminating the principles and concepts governing forearm rotation and load-bearing functions.

  20. Exercises in anatomy: the normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    In the first of our exercises in anatomy, created for the Multimedia Manual of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery, we emphasized that thorough knowledge of intracardiac anatomy was an essential part of the training for all budding cardiac surgeons, explaining how we had used the archive of congenitally malformed hearts maintained at Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to prepare a series of videoclips, demonstrating the salient features of tetralogy of Fallot. In this series of videoclips, we extend our analysis of the normal heart, since for our initial exercise we had concentrated exclusively on the structure of the right ventricular outflow tract. We begin our overview of normal anatomy by emphasizing the need, in the current era, to describe the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion. Increasingly, clinicians are demonstrating the features of the heart as it is located within the body. It is no longer satisfactory, therefore, to describe these components in a 'Valentine' fashion, as continues to be the case in most textbooks of normal or cardiac anatomy. We then emphasize the importance of the so-called morphological method, which states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their own intrinsic morphology, and not according to other parts, which are themselves variable. We continue by using this concept to show how it is the appendages that serve to distinguish between the atrial chambers, while the apical trabecular components provide the features to distinguish the ventricles. We then return to the cardiac chambers, emphasizing features of surgical significance, in particular the locations of the cardiac conduction tissues. We proceed by examining the cardiac valves, and conclude by providing a detailed analysis of the septal structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.