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Sample records for superficial tangential zone

  1. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Ando

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-mediated tissue was more fibrocartilage-like, in contrast to the middle or deep zones that were more hyaline cartilage-like with Safranin O staining. Histological scoring of the TEC-mediated tissue was significantly lower in the superficial zone than in the middle and deep zones. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thick tangential bundle of collagen fibres at the most superficial layer of uninjured cartilage, while no corresponding structure was detected at the surface of TEC-mediated tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PRG4 was localised in the superficial area of uninjured cartilage, as well as the TEC-mediated tissue. Friction testing showed that the lubrication properties of the two tissues was similar, however, micro-indentation analysis revealed that the surface stiffness of the TEC-repair tissue was significantly lower than that of uninjured cartilage. Permeability testing indicated that the TEC-mediated tissue exhibited lower water retaining capacity than did uninjured cartilage, specifically at the superficial zone. Thus, TEC-mediated tissue exhibited compromised mechanical properties at the superficial zone, properties which need improvement in the future for maintenance of long term repair cartilage integrity.

  2. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Wataru; Fujie, Hiromichi; Moriguchi, Yu; Nansai, Ryosuke; Shimomura, Kazunori; Hart, David A; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakamura, Norimasa

    2012-09-28

    The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC) derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-mediated tissue was more fibrocartilage-like, in contrast to the middle or deep zones that were more hyaline cartilage-like with Safranin O staining. Histological scoring of the TEC-mediated tissue was significantly lower in the superficial zone than in the middle and deep zones. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thick tangential bundle of collagen fibres at the most superficial layer of uninjured cartilage, while no corresponding structure was detected at the surface of TEC-mediated tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PRG4 was localised in the superficial area of uninjured cartilage, as well as the TEC-mediated tissue. Friction testing showed that the lubrication properties of the two tissues was similar, however, micro-indentation analysis revealed that the surface stiffness of the TEC-repair tissue was significantly lower than that of uninjured cartilage. Permeability testing indicated that the TEC-mediated tissue exhibited lower water retaining capacity than did uninjured cartilage, specifically at the superficial zone. Thus, TEC-mediated tissue exhibited compromised mechanical properties at the superficial zone, properties which need improvement in the future for maintenance of long term repair cartilage integrity.

  3. Superficial dose distribution in breast for tangential radiation treatment, Monte Carlo evaluation of Eclipse algorithms in case of phantom and patient geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarova, Roumiana; Gustafsson, Magnus; Bäck, Anna; Drugge, Ninni; Palm, Åsa; Lindberg, Andreas; Berglund, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine experimentally and by the Monte Carlo method the accuracy of the Eclipse Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) and Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) algorithms in the superficial region (0–2 cm) of the breast for tangential photon beams in a phantom case as well as in a number of patient geometries. The aim is also to identify differences in how the patient computer tomography data are handled by the treatment planning system and in the Monte Carlo simulations in order to reduce influences of these effects on the evaluation. Materials and methods: Measurements by thermoluminescent dosimeters and gafchromic film are performed for six MV tangential irradiation of the cylindrical solid water phantom. Tangential treatment of seven patients is investigated considering open beams. Dose distributions are obtained by the Eclipse PBC and AAA algorithms. Monte Carlo calculations are carried out by BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code package. Calculations are performed with a calculation grid of 1.25 × 1.25 × 5 mm 3 for PBC and 2 × 2 × 5 mm 3 for AAA and Monte Carlo, respectively. Dose comparison is performed in both dose and spatial domains by the normalized dose difference method. Results: Experimental profiles from the surface toward the geometrical center of the cylindrical phantom are obtained at the beam entrance and exit as well as laterally. Full dose is received beyond 2 mm in the lateral superficial region and beyond 7 mm at the beam entrance. Good agreement between experimental, Monte Carlo and AAA data is obtained, whereas PBC is seen to underestimate the entrance dose the first 3–4 mm and the lateral dose by more than 5% up to 8 mm depth. In the patient cases considered, AAA and Monte Carlo show agreement within 3% dose and 4 mm spatial tolerance. PBC systematically underestimates the dose at the breast apex. The dimensions of region out of tolerance vary with the local breast shape. Different interpretations of patient

  4. Effects of immobilization on thickness of superficial zone of articular cartilage of patella in rats

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    Khadija Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Each segment of superficial zone behaves differentially on immobilization and remobilization. Perhaps a much longer duration of remobilization is required to reverse changes of immobilization in articular cartilage and plays a significant role in knee joint movements.

  5. Central recirculation zone analysis in an unconfined tangential swirl burner with varying degrees of premixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera-Medina, A. [CIATEQ, Parque Industrial Bernardo Quintana, Turbomachinery Department, Queretaro (Mexico); Syred, N.; Kay, P.; Griffiths, A. [Cardiff University, School of Engineering, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Swirl-stabilised combustion is one of the most widely used techniques for flame stabilisation, uses ranging from gas turbine combustors to pulverised coal-fired power stations. In gas turbines, lean premixed systems are of especial importance, giving the ability to produce low NOx systems coupled with wide stability limits. The common element is the swirl burner, which depends on the generation of an aerodynamically formed central recirculation zone (CRZ) and which serves to recycle heat and active chemical species to the root of the flame as well as providing low-velocity regions where the flame speed can match the local flow velocity. Enhanced mixing in and around the CRZ is another beneficial feature. The structure of the CRZ and hence that of the associated flames, stabilisation and mixing processes have shown to be extremely complex, three-dimensional and time dependent. The characteristics of the CRZ depend very strongly on the level of swirl (swirl number), burner configuration, type of flow expansion, Reynolds number (i.e. flowrate) and equivalence ratio. Although numerical methods have had some success when compared to experimental results, the models still have difficulties at medium to high swirl levels, with complex geometries and varied equivalence ratios. This study thus focuses on experimental results obtained to characterise the CRZ formed under varied combustion conditions with different geometries and some variation of swirl number in a generic swirl burner. CRZ behaviour has similarities to the equivalent isothermal state, but is strongly dependent on equivalence ratio, with interesting effects occurring with a high-velocity fuel injector. Partial premixing and combustion cause more substantive changes to the CRZ than pure diffusive combustion. (orig.)

  6. Transforming growth factor β-induced superficial zone protein accumulation in the surface zone of articular cartilage is dependent on the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNary, Sean M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

    2014-03-01

    The phenotype of articular chondrocytes is dependent on the cytoskeleton, specifically the actin microfilament architecture. Articular chondrocytes in monolayer culture undergo dedifferentiation and assume a fibroblastic phenotype. This process can be reversed by altering the actin cytoskeleton by treatment with cytochalasin. Whereas dedifferentiation has been studied on chondrocytes isolated from the whole cartilage, the effects of cytoskeletal alteration on specific zones of cells such as superficial zone chondrocytes are not known. Chondrocytes from the superficial zone secrete superficial zone protein (SZP), a lubricating proteoglycan that reduces the coefficient of friction of articular cartilage. A better understanding of this phenomenon may be useful in elucidating chondrocyte dedifferentiation in monolayer and accumulation of the cartilage lubricant SZP, with an eye toward tissue engineering functional articular cartilage. In this investigation, the effects of cytoskeletal modulation on the ability of superficial zone chondrocytes to secrete SZP were examined. Primary superficial zone chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer and treated with a combination of cytoskeleton modifying reagents and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) 1, a critical regulator of SZP production. Whereas cytochalasin D maintains the articular chondrocyte phenotype, the hallmark of the superficial zone chondrocyte, SZP, was inhibited in the presence of TGFβ1. A decrease in TGFβ1-induced SZP accumulation was also observed when the microtubule cytoskeleton was modified using paclitaxel. These effects of actin and microtubule alteration were confirmed through the application of jasplakinolide and colchicine, respectively. As Rho GTPases regulate actin organization and microtubule polymerization, we hypothesized that the cytoskeleton is critical for TGFβ-induced SZP accumulation. TGFβ-mediated SZP accumulation was inhibited by small molecule inhibitors ML141 (Cdc42), NSC23766 (Rac1

  7. Increased friction coefficient and superficial zone protein expression in patients with advanced osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, C P; Reddi, A H; Komvopoulos, K; Schmid, T M; Di Cesare, P E

    2010-09-01

    To quantify the concentration of superficial zone protein (SZP) in the articular cartilage and synovial fluid of patients with advanced osteoarthritis (OA) and to further correlate the SZP content with the friction coefficient, OA severity, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Samples of articular cartilage and synovial fluid were obtained from patients undergoing elective total knee replacement surgery. Additional normal samples were obtained from donated body program and tissue bank sources. Regional SZP expression in cartilage obtained from the femoral condyles was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and visualized by immunohistochemistry. Friction coefficient measurements of cartilage plugs slid in the boundary lubrication system were obtained. OA severity was graded using histochemical analyses. The concentrations of SZP and proinflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid were determined by ELISA. A pattern of SZP localization in knee cartilage was identified, with load-bearing regions exhibiting high SZP expression. SZP expression patterns were correlated with friction coefficient and OA severity; however, SZP expression was observed in all samples at the articular surface, regardless of OA severity. SZP expression and aspirate volume of synovial fluid were higher in OA patients than in normal controls. Expression of cytokines was elevated in the synovial fluid of some patients. Our findings indicate a mechanochemical coupling in which physical forces regulate OA severity and joint lubrication. The findings of this study also suggest that SZP may be ineffective in reducing joint friction in the boundary lubrication mode at an advanced stage of OA, where other mechanisms may dominate the observed tribological behavior.

  8. Squeeze-film Lubrication of the Human Ankle Joint with Synovial Fluid Filtrated by Articular Cartilage with the Superficial Zone Worn out

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Miroslav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 11 (2000), s. 1415-1422 ISSN 0021-9290 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/00/0008 Keywords : human ankle joint * squeeze-film lubrication * synovial fluid filtration * worn-out cartilage superficial zone Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2000

  9. Meningeal defects alter the tangential migration of cortical interneurons in Foxc1hith/hith mice

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    Zarbalis Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tangential migration presents the primary mode of migration of cortical interneurons translocating into the cerebral cortex from subpallial domains. This migration takes place in multiple streams with the most superficial one located in the cortical marginal zone. While a number of forebrain-expressed molecules regulating this process have emerged, it remains unclear to what extent structures outside the brain, like the forebrain meninges, are involved. Results We studied a unique Foxc1 hypomorph mouse model (Foxc1hith/hith with meningeal defects and impaired tangential migration of cortical interneurons. We identified a territorial correlation between meningeal defects and disruption of interneuron migration along the adjacent marginal zone in these animals, suggesting that impaired meningeal integrity might be the primary cause for the observed migration defects. Moreover, we postulate that the meningeal factor regulating tangential migration that is affected in homozygote mutants is the chemokine Cxcl12. In addition, by using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we provide evidence that the Cxcl12 gene is a direct transcriptional target of Foxc1 in the meninges. Further, we observe migration defects of a lesser degree in Cajal-Retzius cells migrating within the cortical marginal zone, indicating a less important role for Cxcl12 in their migration. Finally, the developmental migration defects observed in Foxc1hith/hith mutants do not lead to obvious differences in interneuron distribution in the adult if compared to control animals. Conclusions Our results suggest a critical role for the forebrain meninges to promote during development the tangential migration of cortical interneurons along the cortical marginal zone and Cxcl12 as the factor responsible for this property.

  10. Axial Length Variation Impacts on Superficial Retinal Vessel Density and Foveal Avascular Zone Area Measurements Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Danuta M; Gong, Peijun; An, Di; Menghini, Moreno; Hansen, Alex; Mackey, David A; Sampson, David D; Chen, Fred K

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of image magnification correction on superficial retinal vessel density (SRVD) and foveal avascular zone area (FAZA) measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Participants with healthy retinas were recruited for ocular biometry, refraction, and RTVue XR Avanti OCTA imaging with the 3 × 3-mm protocol. The foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA were quantified with custom software before and after correction for magnification error using the Littman and the modified Bennett formulae. Relative changes between corrected and uncorrected SRVD and FAZA were calculated. Forty subjects were enrolled and the median (range) age of the participants was 30 (18-74) years. The mean (range) spherical equivalent refractive error was -1.65 (-8.00 to +4.88) diopters and mean (range) axial length was 24.42 mm (21.27-28.85). Images from 13 eyes were excluded due to poor image quality leaving 67 for analysis. Relative changes in foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA after correction ranged from -20% to +10%, -3% to +2%, and -20% to +51%, respectively. Image size correction in measurements of foveal SRVD and FAZA was greater than 5% in 51% and 74% of eyes, respectively. In contrast, 100% of eyes had less than 5% correction in measurements of parafoveal SRVD. Ocular biometry should be performed with OCTA to correct image magnification error induced by axial length variation. We advise caution when interpreting interocular and interindividual comparisons of SRVD and FAZA derived from OCTA without image size correction.

  11. NSTX Tangential Divertor Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; Ted Biewer; Johnson, D.; Zweben, S.J.; Nobuhiro Nishino; Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Strong magnetic field shear around the divertor x-point is numerically predicted to lead to strong spatial asymmetries in turbulence driven particle fluxes. To visualize the turbulence and associated impurity line emission near the lower x-point region, a new tangential observation port has been recently installed on NSTX. A reentrant sapphire window with a moveable in-vessel mirror images the divertor region from the center stack out to R 80 cm and views the x-point for most plasma configurations. A coherent fiber optic bundle transmits the image through a remotely selected filter to a fast camera, for example a 40500 frames/sec Photron CCD camera. A gas puffer located in the lower inboard divertor will localize the turbulence in the region near the x-point. Edge fluid and turbulent codes UEDGE and BOUT will be used to interpret impurity and deuterium emission fluctuation measurements in the divertor

  12. Study of the collagen structure in the superficial zone and physiological state of articular cartilage using a 3D confocal imaging technique

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    Zheng Ming H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The collagen structure in the superficial zone of articular cartilage is critical to the tissue's durability. Early osteoarthritis is often characterized with fissures on the articular surface. This is closely related to the disruption of the collagen network. However, the traditional histology can not offer visualization of the collagen structure in articular cartilage because it uses conventional optical microscopy that does not have insufficient imaging resolution to resolve collagen from proteoglycans in hyaline articular cartilage. This study examines the 3D collagen network of articular cartilage scored from 0 to 2 in the scoring system of International Cartilage Repair Society, and aims to develop a 3D histology for assessing early osteoarthritis. Methods Articular cartilage was visually classified into five physiological groups: normal cartilage, aged cartilage, cartilage with artificial and natural surface disruption, and fibrillated. The 3D collagen matrix of the cartilage was acquired using a 3D imaging technique developed previously. Traditional histology was followed to grade the physiological status of the cartilage in the scoring system of International Cartilage Repair Society. Results Normal articular cartilage contains interwoven collagen bundles near the articular surface, approximately within the lamina splendens. However, its collagen fibres in the superficial zone orient predominantly in a direction spatially oblique to the articular surface. With age and disruption of the articular surface, the interwoven collagen bundles are gradually disappeared, and obliquely oriented collagen fibres change to align predominantly in a direction spatially perpendicular to the articular surface. Disruption of the articular surface is well related to the disappearance of the interwoven collagen bundles. Conclusion A 3D histology has been developed to supplement the traditional histology and study the subtle changes in

  13. Retinal Changes Induced by Epiretinal Tangential Forces

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    Mario R. Romano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of forces are active in vitreoretinal traction diseases: tangential and anterior-posterior forces. However, tangential forces are less characterized and classified in literature compared to the anterior-posterior ones. Tangential epiretinal forces are mainly due to anomalous posterior vitreous detachment (PVD, vitreoschisis, vitreopapillary adhesion (VPA, and epiretinal membranes (ERMs. Anomalous PVD plays a key role in the formation of the tangential vectorial forces on the retinal surface as consequence of gel liquefaction (synchysis without sufficient and fast vitreous dehiscence at the vitreoretinal interface. The anomalous and persistent adherence of the posterior hyaloid to the retina can lead to vitreomacular/vitreopapillary adhesion or to a formation of avascular fibrocellular tissue (ERM resulting from the proliferation and transdifferentiation of hyalocytes resident in the cortical vitreous remnants after vitreoschisis. The right interpretation of the forces involved in the epiretinal tangential tractions helps in a better definition of diagnosis, progression, prognosis, and surgical outcomes of vitreomacular interfaces.

  14. Dynamic membrane filtration in tangential flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Oil-containing waste water is produced in many cleaning processes and also on production of compressed air. Dynamic membrane filtration in the tangential flow mode has proved effective in the treatment of these stable emulsions. The possible applications of ceramic membrane filters are illustrated for a variety of examples. (orig.) [de

  15. Superficial skin ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaila, Modupeola O.; Rafindadi, Abdulmumini H.; Oluwole, Olabode P.; Adewuyi, Sunday A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the underlying cause of superficial skin ulcers over a 15-year period. A retrospective histopathological analysis of 670 cases of superficial skin ulcers diagnosed in the Dept. of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria from January 1991 to December 2005. A total of 670 superficial skin ulcers were analyzed. The mail to female gender ratio was 409:261(1.5:1.0) and a peakage frequency of 44.3 %( 297) in the 5th and 6th decades. Spectrum of lesions encountered was categorized into inflammatory, infections, benign and malignant diseases. The malignant lesions were 309 (46.1%), non-specific inflammation 302 (45.1%), granulation tissue 25 (3.7%) and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia 14 (2.1%). A total of 18(2.7%) specific infections were encountered, which included bacterial, fungal and viral infection. Benign lesions were 2(0.3%), comprising of neurofibroma and Bowen's disease. The most common malignant lesion was squamous cell carcinoma 203 (30.3%) with a male to female ratio of 128:75 (1.7:1.0). Of these 161 were well differentiated tumors. The lower limb was the prevalent site distribution of all the ulcers. Superficial ulcers may be harbinger of malignant diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma remains the most common malignant lesion arising from chronic superficial ulcers from our setting. Adequate tissue biopsy and early diagnosis may reduce the attendant morbidity of these ulcers. (author)

  16. Superficies de segundo orden

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Salazar, Luis Álvaro

    1987-01-01

    Este trabajo se propone poner al alcance de estudiantes de primeros semestres de carreras de aplicación de la matemática, un algoritmo proporcionado por el álgebra lineal, para tratar con mas generalidad, agilidad y libertad unos objetos de la geometría analítica de no fácil manipulación por otros métodos y que se conocen como superficies de segundo orden o superficies cuádricas. En este orden de ideas, el autor considera importante que con este tratamiento se incluya este tema en una asignat...

  17. Experimental Highlights upon Tangential Percussions in Mechanical Systems

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    Stelian Alaci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a proposed method for underlying the presence of tangential percussions occurring in multibody systems. Tangential percussions define a relatively newly introduced concept required by the necessity of explaining the sudden change in the state of motion for two bodies interacting only on a direction from the common tangent plane. In robotics domain, normal and tangential percussions are widely met in the case of robotic hands in the moment of contacting the manipulated object.

  18. Do uniform tangential interfacial stresses enhance adhesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menga, Nicola; Carbone, Giuseppe; Dini, Daniele

    2018-03-01

    We present theoretical arguments, based on linear elasticity and thermodynamics, to show that interfacial tangential stresses in sliding adhesive soft contacts may lead to a significant increase of the effective energy of adhesion. A sizable expansion of the contact area is predicted in conditions corresponding to such scenario. These results are easily explained and are valid under the assumptions that: (i) sliding at the interface does not lead to any loss of adhesive interaction and (ii) spatial fluctuations of frictional stresses can be considered negligible. Our results are seemingly supported by existing experiments, and show that frictional stresses may lead to an increase of the effective energy of adhesion depending on which conditions are established at the interface of contacting bodies in the presence of adhesive forces.

  19. Streamside management zone (SMZ efficiency in herbicide retention from simulated surface flow Eficiência de zonas ripárias (SMZ na retenção de herbicidas presentes em escoamento superficial simulado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Matos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Plot-scale overland flow experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of streamside management zones (SMZs in retaining herbicides in runoff generated from silvicultural activities. Herbicide retention was evaluated for five different slopes (2, 5, 10, 15, and 20%, two cover conditions (undisturbed O horizon and raked surface, and two periods under contrasting soil moisture conditions (summer dry and winter wet season and correlated to O horizon and site conditions. Picloram (highly soluble in water and atrazine (moderately sorbed into soil particles at concentrations in the range of 55 and 35 µg L-1 and kaolin clay (approximately 5 g L-1 were mixed with 13.000 liters of water and dispersed over the top of 5 x 10 m forested plots. Surface flow was collected 2, 4, 6, and 10 m below the disperser to evaluate the changes in concentration as it moved through the O horizon and surface soil horizon-mixing zone. Results showed that, on average, a 10 m long forested SMZ removed around 25% of the initial concentration of atrazine and was generally ineffective in reducing the more soluble picloram. Retention of picloram was only 6% of the applied quantity. Percentages of mass reduction by infiltration were 36% for atrazine and 20% for picloram. Stronger relationships existed between O horizon depth and atrazine retention than in any other measured variable, suggesting that better solid-solution contact associated with flow through deeper O horizons is more important than either velocity or soil moisture as a determinant of sorption.Experimento de escoamento superficial, em escala piloto, foi conduzido para se avaliar a eficiência de zonas ripárias (SMZs na retenção de herbicidas presentes no escoamento superficial gerado em atividades silviculturais. A retenção do herbicida foi avaliada em terrenos com cinco diferentes declividades (2, 5, 10, 15 e 20%, duas condições de cobertura do solo (com e sem o horizonte O e dois períodos de

  20. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  1. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

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    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  2. GABA regulates the multidirectional tangential migration of GABAergic interneurons in living neonatal mice.

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    Hiroyuki Inada

    Full Text Available Cortical GABAergic interneurons originate from ganglionic eminences and tangentially migrate into the cortical plate at early developmental stages. To elucidate the characteristics of this migration of GABAergic interneurons in living animals, we established an experimental design specialized for in vivo time-lapse imaging of the neocortex of neonate mice with two-photon laser-scanning microscopy. In vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VGAT-Venus transgenic mice from birth (P0 through P3, we observed multidirectional tangential migration of genetically-defined GABAergic interneurons in the neocortical marginal zone. The properties of this migration, such as the motility rate (distance/hr, the direction moved, and the proportion of migrating neurons to stationary neurons, did not change through P0 to P3, although the density of GABAergic neurons at the marginal zone decreased with age. Thus, the characteristics of the tangential motility of individual GABAergic neurons remained constant in development. Pharmacological block of GABA(A receptors and of the Na⁺-K⁺-Cl⁻ cotransporters, and chelating intracellular Ca²⁺, all significantly reduced the motility rate in vivo. The motility rate and GABA content within the cortex of neonatal VGAT-Venus transgenic mice were significantly greater than those of GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, suggesting that extracellular GABA concentration could facilitate the multidirectional tangential migration. Indeed, diazepam applied to GAD67-GFP mice increased the motility rate substantially. In an in vitro neocortical slice preparation, we confirmed that GABA induced a NKCC sensitive depolarization of GABAergic interneurons in VGAT-Venus mice at P0-P3. Thus, activation of GABA(AR by ambient GABA depolarizes GABAergic interneurons, leading to an acceleration of their multidirectional motility in vivo.

  3. Tangential inlet supersonic separators: a novel apparatus for gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Chuang; Walther, Jens Honore; Yang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    A novel supersonic separator with a tangential inlet is designed to remove the condensable components from gas mixtures. The dynamic parameters of natural gas in the supersonic separation process are numerically calculated using the Reynolds stress turbulence model with the Peng-Robinson real gas...... be generated by the tangential inlet, and it increases to the maximum of 200 m/s at the nozzle throat due to decrease of the nozzle area of the converging part. The tangential velocity can maintain the value of about 160 m/s at the nozzle exit, and correspondingly generates the centrifugal acceleration of 3...

  4. Pneumothorax in intensive-care patients: Ranking of tangential views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantsch, H.; Winkler, M.; Pichler, W.; Mauritz, W.; Lechner, G.; Vienna Univ.

    1990-01-01

    In 55 intensive-care patients an additional tangential view of the chest was taken to demonstrate or exclude a pneumothorax in patients with sudden deterioration of gas exchange and negative ap-chest x-ray, if there was a suspicion of pneumothorax or a confirmed small pneumothorax in the ap-view. In 14 of 42 cases (33.3%) with negative or suspected ap-chest x-ray the tangential view revealed a pneumothorax. 6 of these 14 pneumothoraces were under tension. In 7 out of 11 patients (63.6%) with small pneumothorax, the tangential view showed additionally a tensionpneumothorax. (orig.) [de

  5. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  6. Gamma Activation Analysis in the Havana Bay superficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, N.; Gelen, A.; Diaz Riso, O.; Manso, M.V.; Simon, M.J.; Maslov, A.G.; Gustova, M.V.; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary study of 26 elements of Havana Bay superficial sediments were made using Gamma Activation Analysis. Samples from five zones of Havana Bay were analyzed. The results show a close interrelation between the concentration levels of the studied elements and the contaminant sources

  7. An alternative to FASTSIM for tangential solution of the wheel-rail contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichani, Matin Sh.; Enblom, Roger; Berg, Mats

    2016-06-01

    In most rail vehicle dynamics simulation packages, tangential solution of the wheel-rail contact is gained by means of Kalker's FASTSIM algorithm. While 5-25% error is expected for creep force estimation, the errors of shear stress distribution, needed for wheel-rail damage analysis, may rise above 30% due to the parabolic traction bound. Therefore, a novel algorithm named FaStrip is proposed as an alternative to FASTSIM. It is based on the strip theory which extends the two-dimensional rolling contact solution to three-dimensional contacts. To form FaStrip, the original strip theory is amended to obtain accurate estimations for any contact ellipse size and it is combined by a numerical algorithm to handle spin. The comparison between the two algorithms shows that using FaStrip improves the accuracy of the estimated shear stress distribution and the creep force estimation in all studied cases. In combined lateral creepage and spin cases, for instance, the error in force estimation reduces from 18% to less than 2%. The estimation of the slip velocities in the slip zone, needed for wear analysis, is also studied. Since FaStrip is as fast as FASTSIM, it can be an alternative for tangential solution of the wheel-rail contact in simulation packages.

  8. Estimation of Power Consumption in the Circular Sawing of Stone Based on Tangential Force Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoqin; Zhang, Meiqin; Huang, Hui; Guo, Hua; Xu, Xipeng

    2018-04-01

    Circular sawing is an important method for the processing of natural stone. The ability to predict sawing power is important in the optimisation, monitoring and control of the sawing process. In this paper, a predictive model (PFD) of sawing power, which is based on the tangential force distribution at the sawing contact zone, was proposed, experimentally validated and modified. With regard to the influence of sawing speed on tangential force distribution, the modified PFD (MPFD) performed with high predictive accuracy across a wide range of sawing parameters, including sawing speed. The mean maximum absolute error rate was within 6.78%, and the maximum absolute error rate was within 11.7%. The practicability of predicting sawing power by the MPFD with few initial experimental samples was proved in case studies. On the premise of high sample measurement accuracy, only two samples are required for a fixed sawing speed. The feasibility of applying the MPFD to optimise sawing parameters while lowering the energy consumption of the sawing system was validated. The case study shows that energy use was reduced 28% by optimising the sawing parameters. The MPFD model can be used to predict sawing power, optimise sawing parameters and control energy.

  9. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  10. Superficial parotidectomy via facelift incision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohuis, Peter J. F. M.; Tan, M. Liane; Bonte, Katrien; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Vermeersch, Hubert B.

    2009-01-01

    The stigma of a visually prominent facial scar following parotid surgery can be distressing to a young patient. The surgical technique of parotidectomy via a facelift incision is described and evaluated. Thirty patients with a benign lesion of the parotid gland underwent a partial superficial

  11. Meninges control tangential migration of hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells via CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Víctor; Marín, Oscar

    2006-10-01

    Cajal-Retzius cells are critical in the development of the cerebral cortex, but little is known about the mechanisms controlling their development. Three focal sources of Cajal-Retzius cells have been identified in mice-the cortical hem, the ventral pallium and the septum-from where they migrate tangentially to populate the cortical surface. Using a variety of tissue culture assays and in vivo manipulations, we demonstrate that the tangential migration of cortical hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells is controlled by the meninges. We show that the meningeal membranes are a necessary and sufficient substrate for the tangential migration of Cajal-Retzius cells. We also show that the chemokine CXCL12 secreted by the meninges enhances the dispersion of Cajal-Retzius cells along the cortical surface, while retaining them within the marginal zone in a CXCR4-dependent manner. Thus, the meningeal membranes are fundamental in the development of Cajal-Retzius cells and, hence, in the normal development of the cerebral cortex.

  12. Intensity modulated tangential beam irradiation of the intact breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.; Hunt, M.; Chui, C.; Forster, K.; Lee, H.; Lutz, W.; Yahalom, J.; Kutcher, G.J.; McCormick, B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of intensity modulated tangential beams in the irradiation of the intact breast. The primary goal was to develop an intensity modulated treatment which would substantially decrease the dose to coronary arteries, lung and contralateral breast while still using a standard tangential beam arrangement. Improved target dose homogeneity, within the limits imposed by opposed fields, was also desired. Since a major goal of the study was the development of a technique which was practical for use on a large population of patients, the design of 'standard' intensity profiles analogous in function to conventional wedges was also investigated. Materials and Methods: Three dimensional treatment planning was performed using both conventional and intensity modulated tangential beams. Plans were developed for both the right and left breast for a range of patient sizes and shapes. For each patient, PTV, lung, heart, origin and peripheral branches of the coronary artery, and contralateral breast were contoured. Optimum tangential beam direction and shape were designed using Beams-Eye-View display and then used for both the conventional and intensity modulated plans. For the conventional plan, the optimum wedge combination and beam weighting were chosen based on the dose distribution in a single transverse plane through the field center. Intensity modulated plans were designed using an algorithm which allows the user to specify the prescribed, maximum and minimum acceptable doses and dose volume constraints for each organ of interest. Plans were compared using multiple dose distributions and DVHs. Results: Significant improvements in the doses to critical structures were achieved using the intensity modulated plan. Coronary artery dose decreased substantially for patients treated to the left breast. Ipsilateral lung and contralateral breast doses decreased for all patients. For one patient treated to

  13. Superficie

    OpenAIRE

    Corna, Pablo María

    2015-01-01

    En la época posclásica del derecho romano se buscó, por parte del Estado y ciudadanos, utilizar ciertos terrenos que formaban parte de su patrimonio para arrendarlos por largo término —y a veces a perpetuidad— a personas que tenían el derecho de edificar o plantar mediante el pago de un precio llamado pensio o solárium. En el siglo II de nuestra era ya era utilizado para asentar tribus romanizadas en la frontera del imperio como para el cultivo de vid y los olivos que demoran varios años e...

  14. Radial and tangential friction in heavy ion strongly damped collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.K.; Sarma, N.

    1979-01-01

    Deeply inelastic heavy ion collisions have been successfully described in terms of a nucleon exchange mechanism between two nucleon clouds. This model has also predicted the large angular momentum that is induced in the colliding nuclei. However computations were simplified in the earlier work by assuming that the friction was perturbation on the elastic scattering trajectory. Results of a more rigorous calculation are reported and the effect of modification of the trajectory on the energy transfer, the angular momentum induced and on the ratio of the radial to the tangential friction coefficients is reported. (auth.)

  15. Shielding of the contralateral breast during tangential irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E; Miller, Michael; Laronga, Christine; Oliver, Shelly; Wong, Ping

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate both optimal and practical contralateral breast shielding during tangential irradiation in young patients. A shaped sheet of variable thickness of lead was tested on a phantom with rubber breasts, and an optimized shield was created. Testing on 18 consecutive patients 50 years or younger showed shielding consistently reduced contralateral breast dose to at least half, with small additional reduction after removal of the medial wedge. For younger patients in whom radiation exposure is of considerable concern, a simple shield of 2 mm lead thickness proved practical and effective.

  16. Bi-tangential hybrid IMRT for sparing the shoulder in whole breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, P; Deidda, M A; Iamundo de Cumis, I; Iamundo de Curtis, I; Deiana, E; Farigu, R; Lay, G; Porru, S

    2013-11-01

    A bi-tangential technique is proposed to reduce undesired doses to the shoulder produced by standard tangential irradiation. A total of 6 patients affected by shoulder pain and reduced functional capacity after whole-breast irradiation were retrospectively analysed. The standard tangential plan used for treatment was compared with (1) a single bi-tangential plan where, to spare the shoulder, the lateral open tangent was split into two half-beams at isocentre, with the superior portion rotated by 10-20° medially with respect to the standard lateral beam; (2) a double bi-tangential plan, where both the tangential open beams were split. The planning target volume (PTV) coverage and the dose to the portion of muscles and axilla included in the standard tangential beams were compared. PTV95 % of standard plan (91.9 ± 3.8) was not significantly different from single bi-tangential plan (91.8 ± 3.4); a small but significant (p < 0.01) decrease was observed with the double bi-tangential plan (90.1 ± 3.7). A marked dose reduction to the muscle was produced by the single bi-tangential plan around 30-40 Gy. The application of the double bi-tangential technique further reduced the volume receiving around 20 Gy, but did not markedly affect the higher doses. The dose to the axilla was reduced both in the single and the double bi-tangential plans. The single bi-tangential technique would have been able to reduce the dose to shoulder and axilla, without compromising target coverage. This simple technique is valuable for irradiation after axillary lymph node dissection or in patients without dissection due to negative or low-volume sentinel lymph node disease.

  17. Bi-tangential hybrid IMRT for sparing the shoulder in whole breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farace, P.; Deidda, M. A.; Iamundo de Curtis, I.; Deiana, E.; Farigu, R.; Lay, G.; Porru, S. [Regional Oncological Hospital, Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radio-Oncology

    2013-11-15

    Background and purpose: A bi-tangential technique is proposed to reduce undesired doses to the shoulder produced by standard tangential irradiation. Patients and methods: A total of 6 patients affected by shoulder pain and reduced functional capacity after whole-breast irradiation were retrospectively analysed. The standard tangential plan used for treatment was compared with (1) a single bi-tangential plan where, to spare the shoulder, the lateral open tangent was split into two half-beams at isocentre, with the superior portion rotated by 10-20 medially with respect to the standard lateral beam; (2) a double bi-tangential plan, where both the tangential open beams were split. The planning target volume (PTV) coverage and the dose to the portion of muscles and axilla included in the standard tangential beams were compared. Results: PTV95 % of standard plan (91.9 {+-} 3.8) was not significantly different from single bi-tangential plan (91.8 {+-} 3.4); a small but significant (p < 0.01) decrease was observed with the double bi-tangential plan (90.1 {+-} 3.7). A marked dose reduction to the muscle was produced by the single bi-tangential plan around 30-40 Gy. The application of the double bi-tangential technique further reduced the volume receiving around 20 Gy, but did not markedly affect the higher doses. The dose to the axilla was reduced both in the single and the double bi-tangential plans. Conclusion: The single bi-tangential technique would have been able to reduce the dose to shoulder and axilla, without compromising target coverage. This simple technique is valuable for irradiation after axillary lymph node dissection or in patients without dissection due to negative or low-volume sentinel lymph node disease. (orig.)

  18. Bi-tangential hybrid IMRT for sparing the shoulder in whole breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farace, P.; Deidda, M.A.; Iamundo de Curtis, I.; Deiana, E.; Farigu, R.; Lay, G.; Porru, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: A bi-tangential technique is proposed to reduce undesired doses to the shoulder produced by standard tangential irradiation. Patients and methods: A total of 6 patients affected by shoulder pain and reduced functional capacity after whole-breast irradiation were retrospectively analysed. The standard tangential plan used for treatment was compared with (1) a single bi-tangential plan where, to spare the shoulder, the lateral open tangent was split into two half-beams at isocentre, with the superior portion rotated by 10-20 medially with respect to the standard lateral beam; (2) a double bi-tangential plan, where both the tangential open beams were split. The planning target volume (PTV) coverage and the dose to the portion of muscles and axilla included in the standard tangential beams were compared. Results: PTV95 % of standard plan (91.9 ± 3.8) was not significantly different from single bi-tangential plan (91.8 ± 3.4); a small but significant (p < 0.01) decrease was observed with the double bi-tangential plan (90.1 ± 3.7). A marked dose reduction to the muscle was produced by the single bi-tangential plan around 30-40 Gy. The application of the double bi-tangential technique further reduced the volume receiving around 20 Gy, but did not markedly affect the higher doses. The dose to the axilla was reduced both in the single and the double bi-tangential plans. Conclusion: The single bi-tangential technique would have been able to reduce the dose to shoulder and axilla, without compromising target coverage. This simple technique is valuable for irradiation after axillary lymph node dissection or in patients without dissection due to negative or low-volume sentinel lymph node disease. (orig.)

  19. Esophagectomy for Superficial Esophageal Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Thomas J

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic therapies have become the standard of care for most cases of Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal adenocarcinoma. Despite a rapid and dramatic evolution in treatment paradigms, esophagectomy continues to occupy a place in the therapeutic armamentarium for superficial esophageal neoplasia. The managing physician must remain cognizant of the limitations of endoscopic approaches and consider surgical resection when they are exceeded. Esophagectomy, performed at experienced centers for appropriately selected patients with early-stage disease can be undertaken with the expectation of cure as well as low mortality, acceptable morbidity, and good long-term quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis of non premixed reactive flows

    KAUST Repository

    Valorani, Mauro

    2016-10-16

    We discuss how the Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis, originally developed and tested for spatially homogeneous systems (batch reactors), is extended to spatially non homogeneous systems. To illustrate the effectiveness of the TSR diagnostics, we study the ignition transient in a non premixed, reaction–diffusion model in the mixture fraction space, whose dependent variables are temperature and mixture composition. The reactive mixture considered is syngas/air. A detailed H2/CO mechanism with 12 species and 33 chemical reactions is employed. We will discuss two cases, one involving only kinetics as a model of front propagation purely driven by spontaneous ignition, the other as a model of deflagration wave involving kinetics/diffusion coupling. We explore different aspects of the system dynamics such as the relative role of diffusion and kinetics, the evolution of kinetic eigenvalues, and of the tangential stretching rates computed by accounting for the combined action of diffusion and kinetics as well for kinetics only. We propose criteria based on the TSR concept which allow to identify the most ignitable conditions and to discriminate between spontaneous ignition and deflagration front.

  1. Spiral Galaxy Central Bulge Tangential Speed of Revolution Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, Laurence

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to, for the first time in a century, scientifically analyze the ``rotation curves'' (sic) of the central bulges of scores of spiral galaxies. I commenced with a methodological, rational, geometrical, arithmetic, and statistical examination--none of them carried through before--of the radial velocity data. The requirement for such a thorough treatment is the paucity of data typically available for the central bulge: fewer than 10 observations and frequently only five. The most must be made of these. A consequence of this logical handling is the discovery of a unique model for the central bulge volume mass density resting on the positive slope, linear, rise of its tangential speed of revolution curve and hence--for the first time--a reliable mass estimate. The deduction comes from a known physics-based, mathematically valid, derivation (not assertion). It rests on the full (not partial) equations of motion plus Poisson's equation. Following that is a prediction for the gravitational potential energy and thence the gravitational force. From this comes a forecast for the tangential speed of revolution curve. It was analyzed in a fashion identical to that of the data thereby closing the circle and demonstrating internal self-consistency. This is a hallmark of a scientific method-informed approach to an experimental problem. Multiple plots of the relevant quantities and measures of goodness of fit will be shown. Astronomy related

  2. Tandem collimators for the JET tangential gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soare, Sorin; Balshaw, Nick; Blanchard, Patrick; Craciunescu, Teddy; Croft, David; Curuia, Marian; Edlington, Trevor; Kiptily, Vasily; Murari, Andrea; Prior, Phil; Sanders, Steven; Syme, Brian; Zoita, Vasile

    2011-01-01

    The tangential gamma-ray spectrometer (TGRS) of the JET tokamak fusion facility is an important diagnostics for investigating the fast particle evolution. A well defined field of view for the TGRS diagnostics is essential for its proper operation and this is to be determined by a rather complex system of collimators and shields both for the neutron and gamma radiations. A conceptual design for this system has been carried out with the main design target set to maximize the signal-to-background ratio at the spectrometer detector, the ratio being defined in terms of the plasma emitted gamma radiation and the gamma-ray background. As a first phase of the TGRS diagnostics upgrade a set of two tandem collimators has been designed with the aim of determining a quasi-tangential field of view through JET tokamak plasmas. A modular design of the tandem system has been developed in order to allow for the construction of different configurations for deuterium and deuterium-tritium discharges. The internal structure of the collimators consists of nuclear grade lead and high density polyethylene slabs arranged in an optimized pattern. The performance of a simplified geometry of the tandem collimator configuration has been evaluated by neutron and photon transport calculations and the numerical results show that the design parameters can be attained.

  3. Accuracy in tangential breast treatment set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tienhoven, G. van; Lanson, J.H.; Crabeels, D.; Heukelom, S.; Mijnheer, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    To test accuracy and reproducibility of tangential breast treatment set-up used in The Netherlands Cancer Institute, a portal imaging study was performed in 12 patients treated for early stage breast cancer. With an on-line electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images were obtained of each patient in several fractions and compared with simulator films and with each other. In 5 patients multiple images (on the average 7) per fraction were obtained to evaluate set-up variations due to respiratory movement. The central lung distance (CLD) and other set-up parameters varied within 1 fraction about 1mm (1SD). The average variation of these parameters between various fractions was about 2 mm (1SD). The differences between simulator and treatment set-up over all patients and all fractions was on the average 2-3mm for the central beam edge to skin distance and CLD. It can be concluded that the tangential breast treatment set-up is very stable and reproducible and that respiration does not have a significant influence on treatment volume. EPID appears to be an adequate tool for studies of treatment set-up accuracy like this. (author). 35 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Superficial or deep implantation of motor nerve after denervation: an experimental study--superficial or deep implantation of motor nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Ibrahím; Sabuncuoglu, Bízden Tavíl

    2002-01-01

    Neurorraphy, conventional nerve grafting technique, and artificial nerve conduits are not enough for repair in severe injuries of peripheral nerves, especially when there is separation of motor nerve from muscle tissue. In these nerve injuries, reinnervation is indicated for neurotization. The distal end of a peripheral nerve is divided into fascicles and implanted into the aneural zone of target muscle tissue. It is not known how deeply fascicles should be implanted into muscle tissue. A comparative study of superficial and deep implantation of separated motor nerve into muscle tissue is presented in the gastrocnemius muscle of rabbits. In this experimental study, 30 white New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into 3 groups of 10 rabbits each. In the first group (controls, group I), only surgical exposure of the gastrocnemius muscle and motor nerve (tibial nerve) was done without any injury to nerves. In the superficial implantation group (group II), tibial nerves were separated and divided into their own fascicles. These fascicles were implanted superficially into the lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle-aneural zone. In the deep implantation group (group III), the tibial nerves were separated and divided into their own fascicles. These fascicles were implanted around the center of the muscle mass, into the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle-aneural zone. Six months later, histopathological changes and functional recovery of the gastrocnemius muscle were investigated. Both experimental groups had less muscular weight than in the control group. It was found that functional recovery was achieved in both experimental groups, and was better in the superficial implantation group than the deep implantation group. EMG recordings revealed that polyphasic and late potentials were frequently seen in both experimental groups. Degeneration and regeneration of myofibrils were observed in both experimental groups. New motor end-plates were formed in a scattered

  5. PIV measurements of the turbulence integral length scale on cold combustion flow field of tangential firing boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-fei; Xie, Jing-xing; Gong, Zhi-jun; Li, Bao-wei [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). Inner Mongolia Key Lab. for Utilization of Bayan Obo Multi-Metallic Resources: Elected State Key Lab.

    2013-07-01

    The process of the pulverized coal combustion in tangential firing boiler has prominent significance on improving boiler operation efficiency and reducing NO{sub X} emission. This paper aims at researching complex turbulent vortex coherent structure formed by the four corners jets in the burner zone, a cold experimental model of tangential firing boiler has been built. And by employing spatial correlation analysis method and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique, the law of Vortex scale distribution on the three typical horizontal layers of the model based on the turbulent Integral Length Scale (ILS) has been researched. According to the correlation analysis of ILS and the temporal average velocity, it can be seen that the turbulent vortex scale distribution in the burner zone of the model is affected by both jet velocity and the position of wind layers, and is not linear with the variation of jet velocity. The vortex scale distribution of the upper primary air is significantly different from the others. Therefore, studying the ILS of turbulent vortex integral scale is instructive to high efficiency cleaning combustion of pulverized coal in theory.

  6. Intensity-modulated tangential beam irradiation of the intact breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.; Hunt, M.; Chui, C.; Spirou, S.; Forster, K.; Lee, H.; Yahalom, J.; Kutcher, G.J.; McCormick, B.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential benefits of intensity modulated tangential beams in the irradiation of the intact breast. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional treatment planning was performed on five left and five right breasts using standard wedged and intensity modulated (IM) tangential beams. Optimal beam parameters were chosen using beams-eye-view display. For the standard plans, the optimal wedge angles were chosen based on dose distributions in the central plane calculated without inhomogeneity corrections, according to our standard protocol. Intensity-modulated plans were generated using an inverse planning algorithm and a standard set of target and critical structure optimization criteria. Plans were compared using multiple dose distributions and dose volume histograms for the planning target volume (PTV), ipsilateral lung, coronary arteries, and contralateral breast. Results: Significant improvements in the doses to critical structures were achieved using intensity modulation. Compared with a standard-wedged plan prescribed to 46 Gy, the dose from the IM plan encompassing 20% of the coronary artery region decreased by 25% (from 36 to 27 Gy) for patients treated to the left breast; the mean dose to the contralateral breast decreased by 42% (from 1.2 to 0.7 Gy); the ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 46 Gy decreased by 30% (from 10% to 7%); the volume of surrounding soft tissue receiving more than 46 Gy decreased by 31% (from 48% to 33%). Dose homogeneity within the target volume improved greatest in the superior and inferior regions of the breast (approximately 8%), although some decrease in the medial and lateral high-dose regions (approximately 4%) was also observed. Conclusion: Intensity modulation with a standard tangential beam arrangement significantly reduces the dose to the coronary arteries, ipsilateral lung, contralateral breast, and surrounding soft tissues. Improvements in dose homogeneity throughout the target volume can also be

  7. Tangential filtration technologies membrane and applications for the industry agribusiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, Gian Paolo; Russo, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The membrane tangential filtration technologies are separation techniques based on the use of semipermeable filters through which, under a pushing force, it is possible to achieve separation of components or suspended in solution as a function of their dimensional characteristics and / or chemical-physical. At the laboratories of the ENEA Research Center Casaccia, as part of the program activities of the Biotechnology and agro-industry division, were studied and developed various filtration processes to membrane in the food industry. The problems have been studied by following a vision sustainable overall, always trying to pair the purification treatment to that of recovery and reuse of water and high value-added components. Ultimate goal of the research conducted is to close the production circuit, ensuring a discharge cycle zero and turning in fact a so-called spread in first, from which to obtain new products. [it

  8. The estimation of tissue loss during tangential hydrosurgical debridement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hajime; Nozaki, Motohiro; Watanabe, Katsueki; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Shigehiko; Nakazawa, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Izumi; Katahira, Jiro; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Ichioka, Shigeru; Ikeda, Hiroto; Mole, Trevor; Smith, Jennifer; Martin, Robin; Aikawa, Naoki

    2012-11-01

    The preservation of healthy tissue during surgical debridement is desirable as this may improve clinical outcomes. This study has estimated for the first time the amount of tissue lost during debridement using the VERSAJET system of tangential hydrosurgery. A multicenter, prospective case series was carried out on 47 patients with mixed wound types: 21 (45%) burns, 13 (28%) chronic wounds, and 13 (28%) acute wounds. Overall, 44 (94%) of 47 patients achieved appropriate debridement after a single debridement procedure as verified by an independent photographic assessment. The percentage of necrotic tissue reduced from a median of 50% to 0% (P < 0.001). Median wound area and depth increased by only 0.3 cm (6.8%) and 0.5 mm (25%), respectively. Notably, 43 (91%) of 47 wounds did not progress into a deeper compartment, indicating a high degree of tissue preservation.

  9. Dual role for DOCK7 in tangential migration of interneuron precursors in the postnatal forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamuta, Shinichi; Yang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Chia-Lin; Gallo, Nicholas B; Yu, Jia-Ray; Tai, Yilin; Van Aelst, Linda

    2017-12-04

    Throughout life, stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone generate neuroblasts that migrate via the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb, where they differentiate into local interneurons. Although progress has been made toward identifying extracellular factors that guide the migration of these cells, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms that govern the dynamic reshaping of the neuroblasts' morphology required for their migration along the RMS. In this study, we identify DOCK7, a member of the DOCK180-family, as a molecule essential for tangential neuroblast migration in the postnatal mouse forebrain. DOCK7 regulates the migration of these cells by controlling both leading process (LP) extension and somal translocation via distinct pathways. It controls LP stability/growth via a Rac-dependent pathway, likely by modulating microtubule networks while also regulating F-actin remodeling at the cell rear to promote somal translocation via a previously unrecognized myosin phosphatase-RhoA-interacting protein-dependent pathway. The coordinated action of both pathways is required to ensure efficient neuroblast migration along the RMS. © 2017 Nakamuta et al.

  10. Dosimetric improvements following 3D planning of tangential breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref, Amr; Thornton, Dale; Youssef, Emad; He, Tony; Tekyi-Mensah, Samuel; Denton, Lori; Ezzell, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric difference between a simple radiation therapy plan utilizing a single contour and a more complex three-dimensional (3D) plan utilizing multiple contours, lung inhomogeneity correction, and dose-based compensators. Methods and Materials: This is a study of the radiation therapy (RT) plans of 85 patients with early breast cancer. All patients were considered for breast-conserving management and treated by conventional tangential fields technique. Two plans were generated for each patient. The first RT plan was based on a single contour taken at the central axis and utilized two wedges. The second RT plan was generated by using the 3D planning system to design dose-based compensators after lung inhomogeneity correction had been made. The endpoints of the study were the comparison between the volumes receiving greater than 105% and greater than 110% of the reference dose, as well as the magnitude of the treated volume maximum dose. Dosimetric improvement was defined to be of significant value if the volume receiving > 105% of one plan was reduced by at least 50% with the absolute difference between the volumes being 5% or greater. The dosimetric improvements in 49 3D plans (58%) were considered of significant value. Patients' field separation and breast size did not predict the magnitude of improvement in dosimetry. Conclusion: Dose-based compensator plans significantly reduced the volumes receiving > 105%, >110%, and volume maximum dose.

  11. Generation of a rotating liquid liner by tangential injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, R.L.; Turchi, P.J.; Jenkins, D.J.; Lanham, R.E.; Cameron, J.; Cooper, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    Efficient compression of low mass-density payloads by the implosion of higher mass-density liquid cylinders or liners, as in the NRL LINUS concept for controlled thermonuclear fusion, requires rotation of the liner material to avoid Rayleigh--Taylor instabilities at the liner-payload interface. Experimentally, such implosions have been demonstrated with liners formed within rotating implosion chambers. The present work uses a scale-model experimental apparatus to investigate the possibility of creating liner rotation by tangential injection of the liquid liner material. Different modes of behavior are obtained depending on the fluid exhaust procedures. Right-circular, cylindrical free surfaces are achieved with axial exhaust of fluid at radii interior to the injection nozzles, for which the liner exhibits a combination of solid-body and free vortex flows in different regions. Measurements allow estimates of power losses to viscous shear, turbulence, etc. A simple model based on open-channel flow is then derived, which is in good agreement with experiment, and is used to extrapolate results to the scale of a possible LINUS fusion reactor

  12. The tangential velocity of M31: CLUES from constrained simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Sorce, Jenny G.; Gottlöber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo; Courtois, Hélène; Tully, R. Brent

    2016-07-01

    Determining the precise value of the tangential component of the velocity of M31 is a non-trivial astrophysical issue that relies on complicated modelling. This has recently lead to conflicting estimates, obtained by several groups that used different methodologies and assumptions. This Letter addresses the issue by computing a Bayesian posterior distribution function of this quantity, in order to measure the compatibility of those estimates with Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM). This is achieved using an ensemble of Local Group (LG) look-alikes collected from a set of constrained simulations (CSs) of the local Universe, and a standard unconstrained ΛCDM. The latter allows us to build a control sample of LG-like pairs and to single out the influence of the environment in our results. We find that neither estimate is at odds with ΛCDM; however, whereas CSs favour higher values of vtan, the reverse is true for estimates based on LG samples gathered from unconstrained simulations, overlooking the environmental element.

  13. Tangential breast irradiation - rationale and methods for improving dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, A.J.; Mayles, W.P.M.; Yarnold, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    In recent years there have been great advances and innovations in all technical aspects of radiotherapy, including three dimensional (3D) computer planning, patient immobilization, radiation delivery and treatment verification. Despite this progress, the technique of tangential breast irradiation has changed little over this period and has not exploited these advances. There is increasing evidence that dose inhomogeneity within the breast is greater than at other anatomical sites, especially in women with large breasts. This paper is a review of the factors contributing to poor dosimetry in the breast, the clinical consequences of an inhomogeneous dose distribution, and how breast dosimetry could be improved by considering each of the stages from planning to accurate treatment delivery. It also highlights the particular problem of women with large breasts who may be more likely to have a poorer outcome after a fractionated course of radiotherapy than women with small/medium-sized breasts, and supports the clinical impression that such women are also more likely to have greater inhomogenicity when 3D treatment plans are examined. Preliminary data from our current computed tomography (CT) planning study are presented to support these observations. (author)

  14. The tangential breast match plane: Practical problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, M.

    1989-01-01

    The three-field breast set-up, in which tangential oblique opposed fields are joined to an anterior supraclavicular field, has been the method of choice for treatment of breast cancer for many years. In the last several years many authors have suggested refinements to the technique that improve the accuracy with which fields join at a match plane. The three-field breast set-up, using a rotatable half-beam block is the technique used at our institution. In instituting this procedure, several practical problems were encountered. Due to the small collimator rotation angles used it is possible to clinically reverse the collimator angle without observing an error noticeable on fluoroscopy. A second error can occur when the table base angle is used to compensate for the incorrect collimator rotation. These potential sources of error can be avoided if a programmable calculator or computer program is used to assist the dosimetrist during the simulation. Utilization of fluoroscopy, digital table position displays and a caliper provide accurate input for the computer program. This paper will present a hybrid procedure that combines practical set-up procedures with the mathematical calculation of ideal angles to result in an accurate and practical approach to breast simulation

  15. Assessment of Set-up Accuracy in Tangential Breast Treatment Using Electronic Portal Imaging Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Koo; Kang, Soo Man

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the setup accuracy for tangential breast treatment patients using electronic portal image and 2-D reconstruction image Twenty two patients undergoing tangential breast treatment. To explore the setup accuracy, distances between chosen landmarks were taken as reference parameters. The difference between measured reference parameters on simulation films and electronic portal images (EPIs) was calculated as the setup error. A total of 22 simulation films and 110 EPIs were evaluated. In the tangential fields, the calculated reference parameters were the central lung distance (CLD), central soft-tissue distance (CSTD), and above lung distance (ALD), below lung distance (BLD). In the medial tangential field, the average difference values for these parameters were 1.0, -6.4, -2.1 and 2.0, respectively; and the values were 1.5, 2.3, 4.1 and 1.1, respectively. In the lateral tangential field, the average difference values for these parameters were -1.5, -4.3, -2.7 and -1.3, respectively; and the values were 3.3, 2.1, 2.9 and 2.5, respectively. CLD, CSTD, ALD and BLD in the tangential fields are easily identifiable and are helpful for detecting setup errors using EPIs in patients undergoing tangential breast radiotherapy treatment.

  16. Assessment of Set-up Accuracy in Tangential Breast Treatment Using Electronic Portal Imaging Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Koo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Soo Man [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Gospel Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the setup accuracy for tangential breast treatment patients using electronic portal image and 2-D reconstruction image Twenty two patients undergoing tangential breast treatment. To explore the setup accuracy, distances between chosen landmarks were taken as reference parameters. The difference between measured reference parameters on simulation films and electronic portal images (EPIs) was calculated as the setup error. A total of 22 simulation films and 110 EPIs were evaluated. In the tangential fields, the calculated reference parameters were the central lung distance (CLD), central soft-tissue distance (CSTD), and above lung distance (ALD), below lung distance (BLD). In the medial tangential field, the average difference values for these parameters were 1.0, -6.4, -2.1 and 2.0, respectively; and the values were 1.5, 2.3, 4.1 and 1.1, respectively. In the lateral tangential field, the average difference values for these parameters were -1.5, -4.3, -2.7 and -1.3, respectively; and the values were 3.3, 2.1, 2.9 and 2.5, respectively. CLD, CSTD, ALD and BLD in the tangential fields are easily identifiable and are helpful for detecting setup errors using EPIs in patients undergoing tangential breast radiotherapy treatment.

  17. The three-dimensional distributions of tangential velocity and total- temperature in vortex tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderstrøm-Lang, C.U.

    1971-01-01

    The axial and radial gradients of the tangential velocity distribution are calculated from prescribed secondary flow functions on the basis of a zero-order approximation to the momentum equations developed by Lewellen. It is shown that secondary flow functions may be devised which meet pertinent...... physical requirements and which at the same time lead to realistic tangential velocity gradients. The total-temperature distribution in both the axial and radial directions is calculated from such secondary flow functions and corresponding tangential velocity results on the basis of an approximate...

  18. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  19. Assessment of cardiac exposure in left-tangential breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vees, H.; Bigler, R.; Gruber, G.; Bieri, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. - To assess the value of treatment-planning related parameters namely, the breast volume; the distance of the inferior field border to diaphragm; and the cardio-thoracic ratio for left-tangential breast irradiation. Patients and methods. - Treatment plans of 27 consecutively left-sided breast cancer patients after breast conserving surgery were evaluated for several parameters concerning heart-irradiation. We measured the heart distance respective to the cardio-thoracic ratio and the distance of the inferior field border to diaphragm, as well as the breast volume in correlation with the irradiated heart volume. Results. - The mean heart and left breast volumes were 504 cm 3 and 672.8 cm 3 , respectively. The mean heart diameter was 13.4 cm; the mean cardio-thoracic ratio 0.51 and the mean distance of the inferior field border to diaphragm was 1.4 cm. Cardio-thoracic ratio (p = 0.01), breast volume (p = 0.0002), distance of the inferior field border to diaphragm (p = 0.02) and central lung distance (p = 0.02) were significantly correlated with the measured heart distance. A significant correlation was also found between cardio-thoracic ratio, breast volume and distance of the inferior field border to diaphragm with the irradiated heart volume measured by V10, V20 and V40. Conclusion. - The verification of parameters like cardio-thoracic ratio, distance of the inferior field border to diaphragm and breast volume in left-sided breast cancer patients may help in determining which patients could benefit from more complex planning techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy to reduced risk of late cardiac injury. (authors)

  20. Operation of a tangential bolometer on the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.; Fonck, R.J.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1987-04-01

    A compact 15-channel bolometer array that views plasma emission tangentially across the midplane has been installed on the PBX tokamak to supplement a 19-channel poloidal array which views the plasma perpendicular to the toroidal direction. By comparing measurements from these arrays, poloidal asymmetries in the emission profile can be assessed. The detector array consists of 15 discrete 2-mm x 2-mm Thinistors, a mixed semiconductor material whose temperature coefficient of resistance is relatively high. The accumulated heat incident on a detector gives rise to a change in the resistance in each active element. Operated in tandem with an identical blind detector, the resistance in each pair is compared in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The variation in voltage resulting from the change in resistance is amplified, stored on a CAMAC transient recorder during the plasma discharge, and transferred to a VAX data acquisition computer. The instantaneous power is obtained by digitally smoothing and differentiating the signals in time, with suitable compensation for the cooling of the detector over the course of a plasma discharge. The detectors are ''free standing,'' i.e., they are supported only by their electrical leads. Having no substrate in contact with the detector reduces the response time and increases the time it takes for the detector to dissipate its accumulated heat, reducing the compensation for cooling required in the data analysis. The detectors were absolutely calibrated with a tungsten-halogen filament lamp and were found to vary by +-3%. The irradiance profiles are inverted to reveal the radially resolved emitted power density from the plasma, which is typically in the 0.1 to 0.5 W/cm 3 range

  1. Variation of Drying Strains between Tangential and Radial Directions in Asian White Birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongying Fu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wood disks of 30 mm in thickness cut from white birch (Betula platyphylla Suk logs were dried at a constant temperature (40 °C. The drying strains including practical shrinkage strain, elastic strain, viscoelastic creep strain and mechano-sorptive creep were measured both tangentially and radially. The effects of moisture content and radial position on each strain were also discussed qualitatively. Overall, the difference of the practical shrinkage strain between the tangential and radial directions was proportional to the distance from the pith. The tangential elastic strain and viscoelastic creep strain were higher than these strains in a radial direction, and they all decreased with the decrease of moisture content. Additionally, there were opposite mechano-sorptive creep between tangential and radial directions.

  2. Effects of magnetic drift tangential to magnetic surfaces on neoclassical transport in non-axisymmetric plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Seikichi; Satake, Shinsuke; Kanno, Ryutaro; Sugama, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    In evaluating neoclassical transport by radially local simulations, the magnetic drift tangential to a flux surface is usually ignored in order to keep the phase-space volume conservation. In this paper, effect of the tangential magnetic drift on the local neoclassical transport is investigated. To retain the effect of the tangential magnetic drift in the local treatment of neoclassical transport, a new local formulation for the drift kinetic simulation is developed. The compressibility of the phase-space volume caused by the tangential magnetic drift is regarded as a source term for the drift kinetic equation, which is solved by using a two-weight δf Monte Carlo method for non-Hamiltonian system [G. Hu and J. A. Krommes, Phys. Plasmas 1, 863 (1994)]. It is demonstrated that the effect of the drift is negligible for the neoclassical transport in tokamaks. In non-axisymmetric systems, however, the tangential magnetic drift substantially changes the dependence of the neoclassical transport on the radial electric field E r . The peaked behavior of the neoclassical radial fluxes around E r  =   0 observed in conventional local neoclassical transport simulations is removed by taking the tangential magnetic drift into account

  3. Effects of magnetic drift tangential to magnetic surfaces on neoclassical transport in non-axisymmetric plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Seikichi, E-mail: matsuoka@rist.or.jp [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, 6F Kimec-Center Build., 1-5-2 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Satake, Shinsuke; Kanno, Ryutaro [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sugama, Hideo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    In evaluating neoclassical transport by radially local simulations, the magnetic drift tangential to a flux surface is usually ignored in order to keep the phase-space volume conservation. In this paper, effect of the tangential magnetic drift on the local neoclassical transport is investigated. To retain the effect of the tangential magnetic drift in the local treatment of neoclassical transport, a new local formulation for the drift kinetic simulation is developed. The compressibility of the phase-space volume caused by the tangential magnetic drift is regarded as a source term for the drift kinetic equation, which is solved by using a two-weight δf Monte Carlo method for non-Hamiltonian system [G. Hu and J. A. Krommes, Phys. Plasmas 1, 863 (1994)]. It is demonstrated that the effect of the drift is negligible for the neoclassical transport in tokamaks. In non-axisymmetric systems, however, the tangential magnetic drift substantially changes the dependence of the neoclassical transport on the radial electric field E{sub r}. The peaked behavior of the neoclassical radial fluxes around E{sub r }={sub  }0 observed in conventional local neoclassical transport simulations is removed by taking the tangential magnetic drift into account.

  4. Robust optimization methods for cardiac sparing in tangential breast IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Houra, E-mail: houra@mie.utoronto.ca [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Lee, Jenny [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y. [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Purdie, Thomas G. [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: In left-sided tangential breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the heart may enter the radiation field and receive excessive radiation while the patient is breathing. The patient’s breathing pattern is often irregular and unpredictable. We verify the clinical applicability of a heart-sparing robust optimization approach for breast IMRT. We compare robust optimized plans with clinical plans at free-breathing and clinical plans at deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) using active breathing control (ABC). Methods: Eight patients were included in the study with each patient simulated using 4D-CT. The 4D-CT image acquisition generated ten breathing phase datasets. An average scan was constructed using all the phase datasets. Two of the eight patients were also imaged at breath-hold using ABC. The 4D-CT datasets were used to calculate the accumulated dose for robust optimized and clinical plans based on deformable registration. We generated a set of simulated breathing probability mass functions, which represent the fraction of time patients spend in different breathing phases. The robust optimization method was applied to each patient using a set of dose-influence matrices extracted from the 4D-CT data and a model of the breathing motion uncertainty. The goal of the optimization models was to minimize the dose to the heart while ensuring dose constraints on the target were achieved under breathing motion uncertainty. Results: Robust optimized plans were improved or equivalent to the clinical plans in terms of heart sparing for all patients studied. The robust method reduced the accumulated heart dose (D10cc) by up to 801 cGy compared to the clinical method while also improving the coverage of the accumulated whole breast target volume. On average, the robust method reduced the heart dose (D10cc) by 364 cGy and improved the optBreast dose (D99%) by 477 cGy. In addition, the robust method had smaller deviations from the planned dose to the

  5. A Study of Wall Jets and Tangentially Blown Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    Blowing coefficient C Chapman’constant CFF Far field constant CL Lift coefficient SCp Pressure coefficient D Reduced exit height E Normalized stagnation...that the wave interactiop zone there is (6(4/ 3 ). 74 C3471A/jos Oil % Rockwell International Science Cenier SC5055.21FR TABLE 4 - PARAMETRIC SUIMMY OF...34Analysis of Embedded Shock Waves Calculated by Relaxation Methods," Proc. Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, Palm Springs, Calif., July 19-20, 1973, pp

  6. Superficial Granulomatous Pyoderma Gangrenosum of the Penis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala S. Gopi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Classic type of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG is an uncommon ulceronecrotic cutaneous disease of uncertain aetiology characterised by broad zones of confluent ulceration with violaceous undermined margins. Some 50% of cases are associated with systemic diseases. The superficial granulomatous variant of pyoderma gangrenosum (SGPG of the external genitalia is extremely rare Patients with this condition develop single or multiple ulcerated skin lesions often with sinus tract formation. The majority of these lesions were found on the trunk and limbs. SGPG is less likely to be associated with underlying disease processes than classic PG. We present a 58 year-old with recalcitrant penile ulceration demonstrated to be SGPG on biopsy. Although rare and poorly recognised, the histological features are sufficiently typical to allow the correct diagnosis to be established.

  7. HIGH ORIGIN OF SUPERFICIAL ULNAR ARTERY- A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Jayakumaran Nair

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND High origin and superficially placed ulnar artery is a rare anatomical variant that usually arises either in the axilla or arm and runs a superficial course in the forearm, enters the hand and participates in the formation of superficial palmar arch. During routine dissection of cadavers in our department, we observed a unilateral case of high origin and superficial ulnar artery in a human male cadaver. It originated from the brachial artery in the lower third of arm 4 cm above its bifurcation. From its origin, it passed downwards along the medial aspect of forearm, superficial to the flexors, entered hand superficial to the flexor retinaculum and formed superficial palmar arch. The knowledge of existence of a superficial ulnar artery is important during vascular and reconstructive surgery and also in evaluation of angiographic images. Superficial position makes it more vulnerable to trauma and more accessible to cannulation.

  8. Intravesical Gemcitabine for Treatment of Superficial Bladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the mainstay of treatment and prophylaxis in superficial bladder cancer (SBC) as it reduces tumor recurrence and disease progression. About one-third of patients do not respond to BCG. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of intravesical ...

  9. [Superficial venous thrombosis. A state of art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    For a long time superficial thrombophlebitis has been thought to be a rather benign condition. Recently, when duplex ultrasound technique is used for the diagnosis more and more often, the disease is proved to be more dangerous than anticipated. Thrombosis propagates to the deep veins in 6-44% and pulmonary embolism was observed on the patients in 1,5-33%. We can calculate venous thromboembolic complications on every fourth patient. Diagnosis is clinical, but duplex ultrasound examination is mandatory, for estimation of the thrombus extent, for exclusion of the deep venous thrombosis and for follow up. Both legs should be checked with ultrasound, because simultaneous deep venous thrombosis can develop on the contralateral limb. Two different forms can be distinguished: superficial venous thrombosis with, or without varicose veins. In cases of spontaneous, non varicous form, especially when the process is migrating or recurrent, a careful clinical examination is necessery for exclusion of malignant diseases and thrombophilia. The treatment options are summarised on the basis of recent international consensus statements. The American and German guidelines are similar. Compression and mobilisation are cornerstones of the therapy. For a short segment thrombosis non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs are effective. For longer segments low molecular-weight heparins are preferred. Information on the effect of the novel oral anticoagulants for the therapy is lacking but they may appear to be effective in the future for this indication. When thrombus is close to the sapheno-femoral or sapheno-popliteal junction crossectomy (high ligation), or low molecular-weight heparin in therapeutic doses are indicated. The term superficial thrombophlebitis should be discouraged, because inflammation and infection is not the primary pathology. It should be called correctly superficial venous thrombosis in order to avoid the unnecessary administration of antibiotics and the misconception

  10. Tangential channel for nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy in thermal neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogurov, V.N.; Bondars, H.Ya.; Lapenas, A.A.; Reznikov, R.S.; Senkov, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Design of a tangential reactor channel which has been made to replace the radial one in the pulsed research reactor IRT-2000 is described. It allows to use the same hole in biological reactor schielding. Characteristics of neutron and gamma-background spectra at the excit of the channel are given and compared with analogous characteristics of the radial one. The gamma background in the tangential channel is lower than in the radial channel. The gamma spectra in the Gd 155 (n, γ)Gd 156 , Gd 157 (n, γ)Gd 158 , Er 167 (n, γ)Er 168 and Hf 177 (n, γ)Hf 178 reactions show that the application of X-ray detection units BDR with the tangential channel allows to carry out the gamma spectrometry of gamma quanta emitted in the thermal neutron capture by both high and low neutron capture cross section nuclei (e.g., Gdsup(157, 155) and Er 167 , Hf 177 , respectively)

  11. Design of tangential viewing phase contrast imaging for turbulence measurements in JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K., E-mail: ktanaka@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Coda, S. [EPFL–SPC, Lausanne (Switzerland); Yoshida, M.; Sasao, H.; Kawano, Y.; Imazawa, R.; Kubo, H.; Kamada, Y. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    A tangential viewing phase contrast imaging system is being designed for the JT-60SA tokamak to investigate microturbulence. In order to obtain localized information on the turbulence, a spatial-filtering technique is applied, based on magnetic shearing. The tangential viewing geometry enhances the radial localization. The probing laser beam is injected tangentially and traverses the entire plasma region including both low and high field sides. The spatial resolution for an Internal Transport Barrier discharge is estimated at 30%–70% of the minor radius at k = 5 cm{sup −1}, which is the typical expected wave number of ion scale turbulence such as ion temperature gradient/trapped electron mode.

  12. Reduction of NOx emission in tangential fired - furnace by changing the, mode of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, B.; Talanker, A.; Levin, L.; Kahana, S

    1998-01-01

    The present work analyses tile results of tests on 575 MW units with tangential firing furnace arrangement in sub-stoichiometric combustion. Tangential firing provides good conditions for implementing sub-stoichiometric combustion owing to the delivery scheme of pulverized coal and air. The furnace was tested in several different modes of operation (Over Fire Air, Bunkers Out Of Service, Excess air, Tilt etc.) to achieve low cost NOx reduction. Actual performance data are presented based on experiments made on lEC's boiler in M.D. 'B' power station

  13. Malignant transformation of superficial peritoneal endometriosis lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Eva; Hequet, Delphine; Thoury, Anne; Barranger, Emmanuel

    2013-08-26

    A 63-year-old woman with no medical history underwent an abdominal surgery with hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a 10 cm peritoneal cyst with increased cancer antigene-125. A large suspicious tumour of the Douglas space, with contact to the uterus and the rectal wall was described. The rest of the exploration was normal, specially the rest of the peritoneum. Histopathology revealed a malignant transformation of a superficial peritoneal endometriosis. Secondary surgery was thus completed by laparoscopy with bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissections, omentectomy and multiple peritoneal biopsies. All staging samples were free of cancer; therefore no complementary therapy was administered. After 18 months of follow-up, consisting of clinical examination and pelvis magnetic resonance imaging every 6 months, we did not observe any recurrence. Malignant transformation of superficial peritoneal endometriosis is a rare disease and surgical management seems to be the main treatment.

  14. Clinico Mycological Study of Superficial Mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana J. Magdum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generally it is well established fact that geographical distribution of the fungi may change from time to time; hence this study was planned. Aim and Objectives: To analyze the prevalence of superficial mycoses, its clinical presentation and species identification of the fungal isolates responsible for the disease. Material and Methods: A total 125 clinically diagnosed cases of superficial mycoses visiting Dermatology and Venereology outpatient department of Bharati Hospital, Sangli, for a period of one year were included in the study. Specimens like skin scrapping, nail clipping, hair were collected and subjected to KOH mount and culture. Identification of species was done by macroscopic examination of culture, tease mount and other physiological tests including Urease test, Hair perforation tests and Germ tube test. Results: Superficial mycosis was more common in the age group of 21-30 years (28% and in males (60.8%. The infection was more common in students (29.6%. Tinea corporis (42.4% was the commonest clinical type followed by tinea cruris (22.4%. 61.6% cases were positive by direct microscopy and 60.8% cases showed culture positive. Out of 125 samples, dermatophytes were grown in 63 cases (82.89% followed by non dermatophytic moulds in 10 cases (13.16% and Candida albicans in 3 cases (3.95%. The most common isolate among dermtophytosis was T. rubrum (46.05% followed by T. mentagrophyte (25%. Conclusion: It was concluded that along with dermatophytes, non dermatophytic moulds are also important to cause of superficial mycoses

  15. Spectral characterization of superficial coal groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Khan, M.A.; Ishaq, M.; Shakirullah; Bahadur, A.

    2004-01-01

    Spectral characterization of superficial coal groups was performed in KBr pellets. KBr Pellets were prepared for virgin and variously pretreated coal samples. Spectra of satisfactory resolution were obtained in wave number range-4000-400 cm /sup -1/. Presence of broad absorption bands corresponds to hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and phenolic functionalities in the spectra clearly define their presence in all samples understudy. Forced oxidation proved effective for oxidation of both aliphatic and aromatic configurations, which can be revealed from the respective spectra. (author)

  16. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  17. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF MARGINAL SUPERFICIAL PERIODONTIUM AT MENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Premises: Sexual hormones may affect the general health condition of women, as early as puberty, continuing during pregnancy and also after menopause. Variations of the hormonal levels may cause different – either local or general – pathological modifications. Sexual hormones may also affect periodontal status, favourizing gingival inflammations and reducing periodontal resistance to the action of the bacterial plaque. Scope: Establishment of the correlations between the debut or the manifestation of menopause and the modifications produced in the superficial periodontium. Materials and method: Clinical and paraclinical investigations were performed on female patients with ages between 45 and 66 years, involving macroscopic, microscopic and radiological recording of the aspect of the superificial periodontium (gingiva. Results: Analysis of the histological sections evidenced atrophic and involutive modifications in the marginal superficial periodontium of female patients at menopause. Conclusions: Sexual hormones intervene in the histological equilibrium of the marginal superficial periodontium, influencing the periodontal health status, which explains the correlation between the subjective symptomatology specific to menopause and the histopatological aspect at epithelial level.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maximilien; Prat, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    Endoscopy allows for the screening, early diagnosis, treatment and follow up of superficial esophageal cancer. Endoscopic submucosal dissection has become the gold standard for the resection of superficial squamous cell neoplasia. Combinations of endoscopic mucosal resection and radiofrequency ablation are the mainstay of the management of Barrett's associated neoplasia. However, protruded, non-lifting or large lesions may be better managed by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Novel ablation tools, such as argon plasma coagulation with submucosal lifting and cryoablation balloons, are being developed for the treatment of residual Barrett's esophagus, since iatrogenic strictures still hamper the development of extensive circumferential resections in the esophagus. Optimal surveillance modalities after endoscopic resection are still to be determined. The assessment of the risk of lymph-node metastases, as well as of the need for additional treatments based on qualitative and quantitative histological criteria, balanced to the patient's condition, requires a dedicated multidisciplinary team decision process. The need for trained endoscopists, expert pathologists and surgeons, and specialized multidisciplinary meetings underlines the role of expert centers in the management of superficial esophageal cancer.

  19. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J

    2015-09-30

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  1. Vibrotactile Compliance Feedback for Tangential Force Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Seongkook; Lee, Geehyuk

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method to generate a haptic illusion of compliance using a vibrotactile actuator when a tangential force is applied to a rigid surface. The novel method builds on a conceptual compliance model where a physical object moves on a textured surface in response to a tangential force. The method plays vibration patterns simulating friction-induced vibrations as an applied tangential force changes. We built a prototype consisting of a two-dimensional tangential force sensor and a surface transducer to test the effectiveness of the model. Participants in user experiments with the prototype perceived the rigid surface of the prototype as a moving, rubber-like plate. The main findings of the experiments are: 1) the perceived stiffness of a simulated material can be controlled by controlling the force-playback transfer function, 2) its perceptual properties such as softness and pleasantness can be controlled by changing friction grain parameters, and 3) the use of the vibrotactile compliance feedback reduces participants' workload including physical demand and frustration while performing a force repetition task.

  2. Mirror System for Collecting Thomson-Scattered Light in a Tangential Direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, C. J.; Grobben, B. J. J.; Verhaag, G. C. H. M.

    1994-01-01

    We describe an optical system for collecting Thomson-scattering light in the tangential direction of a tokamak. The key part of the optics is a set of mirrors arranged as a Venetian blind. This system makes it possible to look around the corner of the tokamak vessel. Design considerations and test

  3. Rationale and Application of Tangential Scanning to Industrial Inspection of Hardwood Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand K. Gupta; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Bruce Isaacson

    1998-01-01

    Industrial computed tomography (CT) inspection of hardwood logs has some unique requirements not found in other CT applications. Sawmill operations demand that large volumes of wood be scanned quickly at high spatial resolution for extended duty cycles. Current CT scanning geometries and commercial systems have both technical and economic [imitations. Tangential...

  4. Absence of Tangentially Migrating Glutamatergic Neurons in the Developing Avian Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando García-Moreno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Several neuronal populations orchestrate neocortical development during mammalian embryogenesis. These include the glutamatergic subplate-, Cajal-Retzius-, and ventral pallium-derived populations, which coordinate cortical wiring, migration, and proliferation, respectively. These transient populations are primarily derived from other non-cortical pallial sources that migrate to the dorsal pallium. Are these migrations to the dorsal pallium conserved in amniotes or are they specific to mammals? Using in ovo electroporation, we traced the entire lineage of defined chick telencephalic progenitors. We found that several pallial sources that produce tangential migratory neurons in mammals only produced radially migrating neurons in the avian brain. Moreover, ectopic expression of VP-specific mammalian Dbx1 in avian brains altered neurogenesis but did not convert the migration into a mammal-like tangential movement. Together, these data indicate that tangential cellular contributions of glutamatergic neurons originate from outside the dorsal pallium and that pallial Dbx1 expression may underlie the generation of the mammalian neocortex during evolution. : Neocortical formation crucially depends on the early tangential arrival of several transient glutamatergic neuronal populations. García-Moreno et al. find that these neuronal migrations are absent in the developing brain of chicks. The mammalian uniqueness of these developing migrations suggests a crucial role of these cells in the evolutionary origin of the neocortex. Keywords: neocortex, chick, pallium, ventral pallium, evo-devo, evolution, Dbx1, telencephalon

  5. Kalker's algorithm Fastsim solves tangential contact problems with slip-dependent friction and friction anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, J.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents two extensions of Kalker's algorithm Fastsim of the simplified theory of rolling contact. The first extension is for solving tangential contact problems with the coefficient of friction depending on slip velocity. Two friction laws have been considered: with and without recuperation of the static friction. According to the tribological hypothesis for metallic bodies shear failure, the friction law without recuperation of static friction is more suitable for wheel and rail than the other one. Sample results present local quantities inside the contact area (division to slip and adhesion, traction) as well as global ones (creep forces as functions of creepages and rolling velocity). For the coefficient of friction diminishing with slip, the creep forces decay after reaching the maximum and they depend on the rolling velocity. The second extension is for solving tangential contact problems with friction anisotropy characterised by a convex set of the permissible tangential tractions. The effect of the anisotropy has been shown on examples of rolling without spin and in the presence of pure spin for the elliptical set. The friction anisotropy influences tangential tractions and creep forces. Sample results present local and global quantities. Both extensions have been described with the same language of formulation and they may be merged into one, joint algorithm.

  6. Tangential Flow Filtration of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles: A "Green" Laboratory Experiment for Chemistry and Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Kevin M.; Baker, Joshua D.; Edwards, Michelle L.; Kanel, Sushil R.; O'Malley, Matthew; Pavel Sizemore, Ioana E.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous nanoparticle (NP) fabrication methodologies employ "bottom-up" syntheses, which may result in heterogeneous mixtures of NPs or may require toxic capping agents to reduce NP polydispersity. Tangential flow filtration (TFF) is an alternative "green" technique for the purification, concentration, and size-selection of…

  7. Tests of the frozen-flux and tangentially geostrophic assumptions using magnetic satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chulliat, A.; Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, T.

    In 1984, Jean-Louis Le Mouël published a paper suggesting that the flow at the top of the Earth’s core is tangentially geostrophic, i.e., the Lorentz force is much smaller than the Coriolis force in this particular region of the core. This new assumption wassubsequently used to discriminate among...

  8. Initial boundary-value problem for the spherically symmetric Einstein equations with fluids with tangential pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Irene; Mena, Filipe C

    2017-08-01

    We prove that, for a given spherically symmetric fluid distribution with tangential pressure on an initial space-like hypersurface with a time-like boundary, there exists a unique, local in time solution to the Einstein equations in a neighbourhood of the boundary. As an application, we consider a particular elastic fluid interior matched to a vacuum exterior.

  9. Superficial tension: experimental model with simple materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintori Ferreira, María Alejandra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work appears a didactic offer based on an experimental activity using materials of very low cost, orientated to achieving that the student understand and interpret the phenomenon of superficial tension together with the importance of the modeling in sciences. It has as principal aim of education bring the student over to the mechanics of the static fluids and the intermolecular forces, combining scientific contents with questions near to the student what provides an additional motivation to the reflection of the scientific investigation.

  10. Superficial Vein Thrombophlebitis in a Football Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Kevin T; Smoot, M Kyle

    2016-03-01

    A 22-year-old professional football player presented to a preparticipation physical examination with a 2-week history of left leg discomfort extending from the groin to the knee over the previous 2 weeks. He was found to have superficial vein thrombophlebitis (SVT) of the left great saphenous vein extending from the knee to within approximately 1.6 cm of the saphenofemoral junction. There is paucity in the literature regarding the management of SVT, particularly in actively training athletes. This case addresses the considerations of anticoagulation management for SVT as well as the unique challenge of managing anticoagulation therapy in an athlete that is actively training.

  11. Temperature distributions in 136 superficial radiothermotherapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willich, N.; Duve, S.; Pfluger, T.; Bachmeier, K.

    1992-01-01

    Temperature distributions from 136 superficial radiothermotherapies in patients were analysed and three-dimensionally reconstructed. The calculation of mean values and standard deviations of the temperature measuring probes considering water bolus temperature, master probe temperature, site of the probes relatively to different applicator positions and site of the probes in the heated tissues yielded satisfactory temperature distributions for chest wall treatment in contrast to other regions of the body. Radiothermotherapy was statistically not superior to radiotherapy alone with respect to local tumor control. (authors)

  12. Superficial femoral artery: current treatment options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe, Gunnar; Schmehl, Joerg; Heller, Stephan; Wiesinger, Benjamin; Claussen, Claus D.; Duda, Stephan H.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) has been among the least effective of all endovascular procedures in terms of long-term patency. The relatively small vessel lumen, in conjunction with a high plaque burden, slow flow, and a high frequency of primary occlusions, contributes to a considerable rate of acute technical failures. Because of these technical limitations a much effort has been made during the past years. This manuscript should summarize the hopes and limitations of different approaches such as brachytherapy, cutting balloons, stents and stent grafts, drug-eluting stents, and drug-coated balloons. (orig.)

  13. The irradiation lung volume in tangential fields for the treatment of a breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y. T.; Kim, J. R.; Kang, H. J.; Sohn, J. H.; Kang, S. H.; Chun, M. S.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis is one of the complications caused by radiation therapy that includes a portion of the lung tissue. The severity of radiation induced pulmonary dysfunction depends on the irradiated lung volume, total dose, dose rate and underlying pulmonary function. The lung volume was measured for 25 patients with breast cancer irradiated with tangential field from Jan. 1995 to Aug. 1996. Parameters that can predict the irradiated lung volume included; (1) the perpendicular distance from the posterior tangential edge to the posterior part of the anterior chest wall at the center of the field (CLD); (2) the maximum perpendicular distance from the posterior tangential field edge to the posterior part of the anterior chest wall (MLD); (3) the greatest perpendicular distance from the posterior tangential edge to the posterior part of anterior chest wall on CT image at the center of the longitudinal field (GPD); (4) the length of the longitudinal field (L). The irradiated lung volume(RV), the entire both lung volume(EV) and the ipsilateral lung volume(IV) were measured using dose volume histogram. The RV is 61-279cc, the RV/EV is 2.9-13.0% and the RV/EN is 4.9-29.6%. The CLD, the MLD and the GPD are 1.9-3.3cm and 1.4-3.1cm respectively. The significant relations between the irradiated lung volume such as RV, RV/EV, RV/IV and parameters such as CLD, MLD, GPD, L, CLD x L, MLD x L and GPD x L are not found with little variances in parameters. The RV/IV of the left breast irradiation is significances. The significant relationship between the irradiated lung volume and predictors is not found with little variation on parameters. The irradiated lung volume in the tangential field is less than 10% of entire lung volume when CLD is less than 3cm. The RV/IV of the left tangential field is larger than that of the right but there was no significant differences in RV/EVs. Symptomatic radiation pneumonitis has not occurred during minimum 6 months follow up. (author)

  14. Superficial basal cell carcinoma: A comparison of superficial only subtype with superficial combined with other subtypes by age, sex and anatomic site in 3150 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, John H; Myint, Esther; Barr, Elizabeth M; Clark, Simon P; David, Michael; Na, Renua; Hou, Ruihang

    2017-08-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) may present as superficial subtype alone (sBCC) or superficial combined with other subtypes. The objective of this study was to compare sBCC without or with other BCC subtypes by age, sex and anatomic site. We retrospectively collected superficial BCC with the above characteristics from an Australian center during 2009 to 2014. We recorded 1528 sBCC and 1622 superficial BCC combined with other BCC subtype cases. Males numbered 2007 and females 1140. On males, head sites (forehead, cheek, nose and ear combined) compared to limb plus trunk sites displayed a higher incidence of superficial BCC combined with either nodular and or aggressive BCC subtypes (OR 13.15 CI 95% 8.9-19.5 P < .0001). On females a similar comparison also found a higher incidence of superficial BCC combined with solid subtype BCC on head sites compared to trunk and limb sites (OR 9.66 CI 95% 5.8-16.1 P < .0001). Superficial BCC alone is more likely on younger females on trunk and limb sites. Small partial biopsies reported as sBCC may miss other BCC subtypes present with higher risk on facial sites for males and females. Males had smaller proportions of superficial only subtype BCC on facial and ear sites compared to females. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Analysis of residual swirl in tangentially-fired natural gas-boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasril Hasini; Muhammad Azlan Muad; Mohd Zamri Yusoff; Norshah Hafeez Shuaib

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation on residual swirl flow in a 120 MW natural gas, full-scale, tangential-fired boiler. Emphasis is given towards the understanding of the behavior of the combustion gas flow pattern and temperature distribution as a result of the tangential firing system of the boiler. The analysis was carried out based on three-dimensional computational modeling on full scale boiler with validation from key design parameter as well as practical observation. Actual operating parameters of the actual boiler are taken as the boundary conditions for this modeling. The prediction of total heat flux was found to be in agreement with the key design parameter while the residual swirl predicted at the upper furnace agrees qualitatively with the practical observation. Based on this comparison, detail analysis was carried out for comprehensive understanding on the generation and destruction of the residual swirl behavior in boiler especially those with high capacity. (author)

  16. Uncertainties in estimating heart doses from 2D-tangential breast cancer radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugaard Lorenzen, Ebbe; Brink, Carsten; Taylor, Carolyn W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We evaluated the accuracy of three methods of estimating radiation dose to the heart from two-dimensional tangential radiotherapy for breast cancer, as used in Denmark during 1982-2002. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three tangential radiotherapy regimens were reconstructed using CT......-based planning scans for 40 patients with left-sided and 10 with right-sided breast cancer. Setup errors and organ motion were simulated using estimated uncertainties. For left-sided patients, mean heart dose was related to maximum heart distance in the medial field. RESULTS: For left-sided breast cancer, mean...... to the uncertainty of estimates based on individual CT-scans. For right-sided breast cancer patients, mean heart dose based on individual CT-scans was always

  17. Combined tangential-normal vector elements for computing electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, S.; Cendes, Z.J.

    1993-01-01

    A direct method for computing electric and magnetic fields in two dimensions is developed. This method determines both the fields and fluxes directly from Maxwell's curl and divergence equations without introducing potential functions. This allows both the curl and the divergence of the field to be set independently in all elements. The technique is based on a new type of vector finite element that simultaneously interpolates to the tangential component of the electric or the magnetic field and the normal component of the electric or magnetic flux. Continuity conditions are imposed across element edges simply by setting like variables to be the same across element edges. This guarantees the continuity of the field and flux at the mid-point of each edge and that for all edges the average value of the tangential component of the field and of the normal component of the flux is identical

  18. Wall Thickness Measurement Of Insulated Pipe By Tangential Radiography Technique Using Ir 192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedarjo

    2000-01-01

    Insulation pipe wall thickness by tangential radiography technique has been carried out using 41 Curie Iridium 192 source has activity for two carbon steel pipes. The outer diameter of the first pipe is 90 mm, wall thickness is 75.0 mm, source film film distance is 609.5 mm, source tangential point of insulation is 489.5 mm and exposure time 3 minute and 25 second. From the calculation, the first pipe thickness is found to be 12.54 mm and for the second pipe is 8.42 mm. The thickness is due to inaccuracy in reading the pipe thickness on radiography film and the geometry distortion radiation path

  19. Vastus Medialis advancement: clinical results and correlation with tangential X-rays of the patellofemoral joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, J.; O'Connell, R.J.; White, M.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen patients who had recurrent dislocation of the patella treated by vastus medialis advancement were reviewed, and tangential X-rays of the patellofemoral joint were taken at the time of review. Clinically the results were excellent or good in ten (77%). However, the X-ray appearances were similar to what would be expected in a group of patients with untreated recurrent dislocation, probably because the corrective action of the vastus medialis did not apply with the quadriceps relaxed for X-ray. We conclude that vastus medialis advancement is a successful operation for recurrent patellar dislocation but that tangential X-rays of the patellofemoral joint are not an indicator of the outcome of surgery. (author)

  20. Investigation of the noise effect on tomographic reconstructions for a tangentially viewing vacuum ultraviolet imaging diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Tingfeng; Ohdachi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Tomographic reconstruction for a tangentially viewing two-dimensional (2D) imaging system is studied. A method to calculate the geometry matrix in 2D tomography is introduced. An algorithm based on a Phillips-Tikhonov (P-T) type regularization method is investigated, and numerical tests using the P-T method are conducted with both tokamak and Heliotron configurations. The numerical tests show that the P-T method is not sensitive to the added noise levels and the emission profiles with higher mode numbers can be reconstructed with adequate resolution. The results indicate that this method is suitable for 2D tomographic reconstruction for a tangentially viewing vacuum ultraviolet telescope system. (author)

  1. Asymmetry of radial and symmetry of tangential neuronal migration pathways in developing human fetal brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta eMiyazaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe radial and tangential neural migration pathways are two major neuronal migration streams in humans that are critical during corticogenesis. Corticogenesis is a complex process of neuronal proliferation that is followed by neuronal migration and the formation of axonal connections. Existing histological assessments of these two neuronal migration pathways have limitations inherent to microscopic studies and are confined to small anatomic regions of interest. Thus, little evidence is available about their three-dimensional fiber pathways and development throughout the entire brain. In this study, we imaged and analyzed radial and tangential migration pathways in the whole human brain using high-angular resolution diffusion MR imaging (HARDI tractography. We imaged ten fixed, postmortem fetal (17 gestational weeks (GW, 18 GW, 19 GW, three 20 GW, three 21 GW and 22 GW and eight in vivo newborn (two 30 GW, 34 GW, 35 GW and four 40 GW brains with no neurological/pathological conditions. We statistically compared the volume of the left and right radial and tangential migration pathways, and the volume of the radial migration pathways of the anterior and posterior regions of the brain. In specimens 22 GW or younger, the volume of radial migration pathways of the left hemisphere was significantly larger than that of the right hemisphere. The volume of posterior radial migration pathways was also larger when compared to the anterior pathways in specimens 22 GW or younger. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the radial migration pathways of brains older than 22 GW. Moreover, our study did not identify any significant differences in volumetric laterality in the tangential migration pathways. These results suggest that these two neuronal migration pathways develop and regress differently, and radial neuronal migration varies regionally based on hemispheric and anterior-posterior laterality, potentially explaining regional

  2. Ammonia-methane combustion in tangential swirl burners for gas turbine power generation

    OpenAIRE

    Valera Medina, Agustin; Marsh, Richard; Runyon, Jon; Pugh, Daniel; Beasley, Paul; Hughes, Timothy Richard; Bowen, Philip John

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia has been proposed as a potential energy storage medium in the transition towards a low-carbon economy. This paper details experimental results and numerical calculations obtained to progress towards optimisation of fuel injection and fluidic stabilisation in swirl burners with ammonia as the primary fuel. A generic tangential swirl burner has been employed to determine flame stability and emissions produced at different equivalence ratios using ammonia–methane blends. Experiments were...

  3. Fuelling effect of tangential compact toroid injection in STOR-M Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onchi, T.; Liu, Y., E-mail: tao668@mail.usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Dreval, M. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Inst. of Plasma Physics NSC KIPT, Kharkov (Ukraine); McColl, D. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Asai, T. [Inst. of Plasma Physics NSC KIPT, Kharkov (Ukraine); Wolfe, S. [Nihon Univ., Dept. of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Xiao, C.; Hirose, A. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Compact torus injection (CTI) is the only known candidate for directly fuelling the core of a tokamak fusion reactor. Compact torus (CT) injection into the STOR-M tokamak has induced improved confinement accompanied by an increase in the electron density, reduction in Hα emission, and suppression of the saw-tooth oscillations. The measured change in the toroidal flow velocity following tangential CTI has demonstrated momentum injection into the STOR-M plasma. (author)

  4. Pneumodissection for skin protection in image-guided cryoablation of superficial musculoskeletal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybody, Majid; Tang, Peter Q; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Hsu, Meier; Yarmohammadi, Hooman; Boas, F Edward

    2017-03-01

    Pneumodissection is described as a simple method for preventing skin injury during cryoablation of superficial musculoskeletal tumours. Superficial tumour cryoablations performed from 2009 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Pneumodissection was performed in 13 patients when the shortest tumour-skin distance was less than 25 mm. Indications were pain palliation (n = 9) and local tumour control (n = 4). Patients, target tumours, technical characteristics and complications up to 60 days post ablation were reviewed. The ice ball-skin distances with and without pneumodissection were compared by a paired t-test and further assessed for association with covariates using ANCOVA. Technical success for ablation was 12 of 13. The mean shortest tumour-skin distance was 15.0 mm (3.2-24.5 mm). The mean thickness of pneumodissection was 9.6 mm (5.2-16.6 mm) resulting in mean elevation of skin of 3.4 mm (1.2-5.3 mm). Mean shortest ice ball-skin distance after pneumodissection was 10.5 mm (4.2-19.7 mm). No infection or systemic air embolism was noted. No intraprocedural frostbite was observed. Pneumodissection is feasible, effective and safe in protecting the skin during image-guided cryoablation of superficial tumours. • Frostbite during image-guided cryoablation of superficial tumours is commonly under-reported. • Frostbites are painful and may introduce infection into the superficial ablation zone. • Warm compress, saline and CO 2 have shortcomings in protecting the skin. • Pneumodissection is free, readily available, easy to use and safe and effective.

  5. Tangential Biopsy Thickness versus Lesion Depth in Longitudinal Melanonychia: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Di Chiacchio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal melanonychia can be caused by melanocyte activation (hypermelanosis or proliferation (lentigo, nevus or melanoma. Histopathologic examination is mandatory for suspicious cases of melanomas. Tangential biopsy of the matrix is an elegant technique avoiding nail plate dystrophy, but it was unknown whether the depth of the sample obtained by this method is adequate for histopathologic diagnosis. Twenty-two patients with longitudinal melanonychia striata were submitted to tangential matrix biopsies described by Haneke. The tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the specimens were measured at 3 distinct points according to the total thickness: largest (A, intermediate (B and narrowest (C then divided into 4 groups according to the histopathologic diagnosis (G1: hypermelanosis; G2: lentigos; G3: nevus; G4: melanoma. The lesions were measured using the same method. The mean specimen/lesion thickness measure values for each group was: G1: 0,59/0,10 mm, G2: 0,67/0,08 mm, G3: 0,52/0,05 mm, G4: 0,58/0,10 mm. The general average thickness for all the specimens/lesions was 0,59/0,08 mm. We concluded that the tangential excision, for longitudinal melanonychia, provides an adequate material for histopathological diagnosis.

  6. Towards Noncommutative Topological Quantum Field Theory: Tangential Hodge-Witten cohomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zois, I P

    2014-01-01

    Some years ago we initiated a program to define Noncommutative Topological Quantum Field Theory (see [1]). The motivation came both from physics and mathematics: On the one hand, as far as physics is concerned, following the well-known holography principle of 't Hooft (which in turn appears essentially as a generalisation of the Hawking formula for black hole entropy), quantum gravity should be a topological quantum field theory. On the other hand as far as mathematics is concerned, the motivation came from the idea to replace the moduli space of flat connections with the Gabai moduli space of codim-1 taut foliations for 3 dim manifolds. In most cases the later is finite and much better behaved and one might use it to define some version of Donaldson-Floer homology which, hopefully, would be easier to compute. The use of foliations brings noncommutative geometry techniques immediately into the game. The basic tools are two: Cyclic cohomology of the corresponding foliation C*-algebra and the so called ''tangential cohomology'' of the foliation. A necessary step towards this goal is to develop some sort of Hodge theory both for cyclic (and Hochschild) cohomology and for tangential cohomology. Here we present a method to develop a Hodge theory for tangential cohomology of foliations by mimicing Witten's approach to ordinary Morse theory by perturbations of the Laplacian

  7. Contralateral breast doses measured by film dosimetry: tangential techniques and an optimized IMRT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saur, S; Frengen, J; Fjellsboe, L M B; Lindmo, T

    2009-01-01

    The contralateral breast (CLB) doses for three tangential techniques were characterized by using a female thorax phantom and GafChromic EBT film. Dose calculations by the pencil beam and collapsed cone algorithms were included for comparison. The film dosimetry reveals a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution within the CLB, and skin doses due to the medial fields that are several times higher than the interior dose. These phenomena are not correctly reproduced by the calculation algorithms. All tangential techniques were found to give a mean CLB dose of approximately 0.5 Gy. All wedged fields resulted in higher CLB doses than the corresponding open fields, and the lateral open fields resulted in higher CLB doses than the medial open fields. More than a twofold increase in the mean CLB dose from the medial open field was observed for a 90 deg. change of the collimator orientation. Replacing the physical wedge with a virtual wedge reduced the mean dose to the CLB by 35% and 16% for the medial and lateral fields, respectively. Lead shielding reduced the skin dose for a tangential technique by approximately 50%, but the mean CLB dose was only reduced by approximately 11%. Finally, a technique based on open medial fields in combination with several IMRT fields is proposed as a technique for minimizing the CLB dose. With and without lead shielding, the mean CLB dose using this technique was found to be 0.20 and 0.27 Gy, respectively.

  8. The quality assessment of radial and tangential neutron radiography beamlines of TRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastjerdi, M.H. Choopan; Movafeghi, A.; Khalafi, H.; Kasesaz, Y.

    2017-01-01

    To achieve a quality neutron radiographic image in a relatively short exposure time, the neutron radiography beam must be of good quality and relatively high neutron flux. Characterization of a neutron radiography beam, such as determination of the image quality and the neutron flux, is vital for producing quality radiographic images and also provides a means to compare the quality of different neutron radiography facilities. This paper provides a characterization of the radial and tangential neutron radiography beamlines at the Tehran research reactor. This work includes determination of the facilities category according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards, and also uses the gold foils to determine the neutron beam flux. The radial neutron beam is a Category I neutron radiography facility, the highest possible quality level according to the ASTM. The tangential beam is a Category IV neutron radiography facility. Gold foil activation experiments show that the measured neutron flux for radial beamline with length-to-diameter ratio (L/D) =150 is 6.1× 10 6 n cm −2 s −1 and for tangential beamline with (L/D)=115 is 2.4× 10 4 n cm −2 s −1 .

  9. Social network extraction based on Web: 1. Related superficial methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin Matyuso Nasution, Mahyuddin

    2018-01-01

    Often the nature of something affects methods to resolve the related issues about it. Likewise, methods to extract social networks from the Web, but involve the structured data types differently. This paper reveals several methods of social network extraction from the same sources that is Web: the basic superficial method, the underlying superficial method, the description superficial method, and the related superficial methods. In complexity we derive the inequalities between methods and so are their computations. In this case, we find that different results from the same tools make the difference from the more complex to the simpler: Extraction of social network by involving co-occurrence is more complex than using occurrences.

  10. Antibody conjugate radioimmunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Alan; Hopper, Melanie; Murray, Andrea; Frier, Malcolm; Bishop, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The administration of antibody conjugates for cancer therapy is now proving to be of clinical value. We are currently undertaking a programme of clinical studies using the monoclonal antibody C 595 (gG3) which reacts with the MUC1 glycoprotein antigen that is aberrantly expressed in a high proportion of bladder tumours. Radio immuno conjugates of the C 595 antibody have been produced with high radiolabelling efficiency and immuno reactivity using Tc-99 m and In-111 for diagnostic imaging, and disease staging and the cytotoxic radionuclides Cu-67 and Re-188 for therapy of superficial bladder cancer. A Phase I/II therapeutic trail involving the intravesical administration of antibody directly into the bladder has now begun. (author)

  11. Impact of setup variability on incidental lung irradiation during tangential breast treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.C.; Marks, L.B.; Bentel, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: 1) To determine the variability in treatment setup during a 5 week course of tangential breast treatment. 2) To assess the relationship between the height of the lung shadow at the central axis (Central Lung Distance: CLD) on the tangential port film and the percent of total lung volume included within the tangential fields (to verify the previously reported result from Bornstein, et al, IJROBP 18:181, 90). 3) To determine the impact of the variabilities in treatment setup on the volume of lung that is incidentally included within the radiation fields. Methods: 1) 172 port films of tangential breast/chest wall fields were reviewed from 20 patients who received tangential beam treatment for breast cancer. All patients were immobilized in customized hemibody foam cradles during simulation and treatment. The CLD (height of the lung shadow at the central axis) seen on each of the port films was compared to the corresponding simulator film (correcting for differences in magnification) as an assessment of setup variability. Both inter and intrapatient differences were considered. 2) A three-dimensional dose calculation (reflecting lung density) was performed, and the percent of total lung volume within the field was compared to the CLD. 3) The three-dimensional dose calculation was repeated for selected patients with the location of the treatment beams modified to reflect typical setup variations, in order to assess the impact of this variability on the volume of lung irradiated. Results: 1) The CLD measured on the port films was within 3 mm of that prescribed on the simulator film in 43% ((74(172))) of the port films. The variation was 3-5 mm in 26 %, 5-10 mm in 25 % and > 10 mm in 6 %. The data are shown in Figure 1. 2) There was an excellent correlation found between the height of the lung shadow and the percent of total lung volume seen within the radiation field, (Figure 2), thus verifying the concept previously reported by Bornstein. 3) A 1 cm setup

  12. Superficial biopsy of the cervix: new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore De Girolami

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytological examination of the cervix in all patients is considered a necessity. A new technique of superficial biopsy is described and advantages en. numeratedEl Autor presenta una nueva técnica para biopsia superficial, considerando la necesidad de hacer rutinariamente a todas las pacientes el examen citológico del cérvix. La muestra se toma con el extremo de un aplicador cubierto de gaza. Este dispositivo, humedecido previamente en una solución de etanol, metanol y éter etílico, se aplica inmediatamente al cérvix del útero y, dándole un movimiento como el de las manecillas del reloj, se toma la muestra con la que se hacen frotis por aposición que se colorean por el método de Giemsa. Esta técnica ofrece la ventaja de que el tejido en estudio se adhiere perfectamente a la gaza, la cual, con el movimiento de rotación, desprende las células del "os uteri", las que son fijadas al mismo tiempo. La preparación del dispositivo es sumamente sencilla. La prueba resulta de bajo costo como de breve y fácil realizaciónL' Autore prende in considerazione l'utilitá dell' esame citologico del collo dell'utero, fatto rutinariamente a tutte le pazienti. Si descrive una nuova tecnica di biopsia superficiale che oltfe ad offrire dei vantaggi é di poca spesa e si puó eseguire con facilitá ed in breve tempo

  13. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated; Caracterizacion volumetrica y superficial de carbon activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Gerencia de Ciencias Basicas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  14. An elemental abundance analysis of the superficially normal A star Vega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, S.J.; Gulliver, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    An elemental abundance analysis of Vega has been performed using high-signal-to-noise 2.4 A/mm Reticon observations of the region 4313-4809 A. Vega is found to be a metal-poor star with a mean underabundance of 0.60 dex. The He/H ratio of 0.03 as derived from He I 4472 A suggests that the superficial helium convection zone has disappeared and that radiative diffusion is producing the photospheric abundance anomalies. 45 refs

  15. Drag reduction and thrust generation by tangential surface motion in flow past a cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuerui; Pearson, Emily

    2018-03-01

    Sensitivity of drag to tangential surface motion is calculated in flow past a circular cylinder in both two- and three-dimensional conditions at Reynolds number Re ≤ 1000 . The magnitude of the sensitivity maximises in the region slightly upstream of the separation points where the contour lines of spanwise vorticity are normal to the cylinder surface. A control to reduce drag can be obtained by (negatively) scaling the sensitivity. The high correlation of sensitivities of controlled and uncontrolled flow indicates that the scaled sensitivity is a good approximation of the nonlinear optimal control. It is validated through direct numerical simulations that the linear range of the steady control is much higher than the unsteady control, which synchronises the vortex shedding and induces lock-in effects. The steady control injects angular momentum into the separating boundary layer, stabilises the flow and increases the base pressure significantly. At Re=100 , when the maximum tangential motion reaches 50% of the free-stream velocity, the vortex shedding, boundary-layer separation and recirculation bubbles are eliminated and 32% of the drag is reduced. When the maximum tangential motion reaches 2.5 times of the free-stream velocity, thrust is generated and the power savings ratio, defined as the ratio of the reduced drag power to the control input power, reaches 19.6. The mechanism of drag reduction is attributed to the change of the radial gradient of spanwise vorticity (partial r \\hat{ζ } ) and the subsequent accelerated pressure recovery from the uncontrolled separation points to the rear stagnation point.

  16. Impact of setup variability on incidental lung irradiation during tangential breast treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Dennis L.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Bentel, Gunilla C.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the variability in treatment setup during a 5-week course of tangential breast treatment for patients immobilized in a customized hemibody cradle, to assess the relationship between the height of the lung shadow on the tangential port film and the percentage of lung volume irradiated, and to estimate the impact of setup variabilities on irradiated lung volume. Methods: One hundred seventy-two port films were reviewed from 20 patients who received tangential beam treatment for breast cancer. The height of the lung shadow at the central axis (CLD) on each port film was compared to the corresponding simulator film as an assessment of setup variability. A three-dimensional dose calculation was performed, and the percentage of total lung volume within the field was correlated with the CLD. The three-dimensional dose calculation was repeated for selected patients with the location of the treatment beams modified to reflect typical setup variations. Results: The CLD measured on the port films was within 3 mm of that prescribed on the simulator film in 43% (74 of 172) of the port films. The variation was 3-5 mm in 26%, 5-10 mm in 25%, and >10 mm in 6%. The height of the lung shadow correlated with the percentage of lung volume included in the radiation field (r 2 = 0.6). Typical variations in treatment setup resulted in ≤5% fluctuation in the absolute volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated. Conclusion: The current immobilization system used in our clinic provides a clinically acceptable reproducibility of patient setup. The height of the lung shadow is reasonably well correlated with the percentage of irradiated lung volume. During a typical 5-week course of radiotherapy, the ipsilateral irradiated lung volume fluctuates <5%

  17. Cardiac Dose From Tangential Breast Cancer Radiotherapy in the Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Carolyn W.; Povall, Julie M.; McGale, Paul; Nisbet, Andrew; Dodwell, David; Smith, Jonathan T.; Darby, Sarah C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the radiation doses received by the heart and coronary arteries from contemporary tangential breast or chest wall radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Fifty consecutive patients with left-sided breast cancer and 5 consecutive patients with right-sided breast cancer treated at a large United Kingdom radiotherapy center during the year 2006 were selected. All patients were irradiated with 6- or 8-MV tangential beams to the breast or chest wall. For each dose plan, dose-volume histograms for the heart and left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery were calculated. For 5 of the left-sided and all 5 right-sided patients, dose-volume histograms for the right and circumflex coronary arteries were also calculated. Detailed spatial assessment of dose to the LAD coronary artery was performed for 3 left-sided patients. Results: For the 50 patients given left-sided irradiation, the average mean (SD) dose was 2.3 (0.7) Gy to the heart and 7.6 (4.5) Gy to the LAD coronary artery, with the distal LAD receiving the highest doses. The right and circumflex coronary arteries received approximately 2 Gy mean dose. Part of the heart received >20 Gy in 22 left-sided patients (44%). For the 5 patients given right-sided irradiation, average mean doses to all cardiac structures were in the range 1.2 to 2 Gy. Conclusions: Heart dose from left-tangential radiotherapy has decreased considerably over the past 40 years, but part of the heart still receives >20 Gy for approximately half of left-sided patients. Cardiac dose for right-sided patients was generally from scattered irradiation alone

  18. Individualized Selection of Beam Angles and Treatment Isocenter in Tangential Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninkhof, Joan, E-mail: j.penninkhof@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Spadola, Sara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Baaijens, Margreet [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lanconelli, Nico [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Heijmen, Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose and Objective: Propose a novel method for individualized selection of beam angles and treatment isocenter in tangential breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: For each patient, beam and isocenter selection starts with the fully automatic generation of a large database of IMRT plans (up to 847 in this study); each of these plans belongs to a unique combination of isocenter position, lateral beam angle, and medial beam angle. The imposed hard planning constraint on patient maximum dose may result in plans with unacceptable target dose delivery. Such plans are excluded from further analyses. Owing to differences in beam setup, database plans differ in mean doses to organs at risk (OARs). These mean doses are used to construct 2-dimensional graphs, showing relationships between: (1) contralateral breast dose and ipsilateral lung dose; and (2) contralateral breast dose and heart dose (analyzed only for left-sided). The graphs can be used for selection of the isocenter and beam angles with the optimal, patient-specific tradeoffs between the mean OAR doses. For 30 previously treated patients (15 left-sided and 15 right-sided tumors), graphs were generated considering only the clinically applied isocenter with 121 tangential beam angle pairs. For 20 of the 30 patients, 6 alternative isocenters were also investigated. Results: Computation time for automatic generation of 121 IMRT plans took on average 30 minutes. The generated graphs demonstrated large variations in tradeoffs between conflicting OAR objectives, depending on beam angles and patient anatomy. For patients with isocenter optimization, 847 IMRT plans were considered. Adding isocenter position optimization next to beam angle optimization had a small impact on the final plan quality. Conclusion: A method is proposed for individualized selection of beam angles in tangential breast IMRT. This may be especially important for patients with cardiac risk factors or an

  19. Automated Planning of Tangential Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Using Heuristic Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, Thomas G.; Dinniwell, Robert E.; Letourneau, Daniel; Hill, Christine; Sharpe, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To present an automated technique for two-field tangential breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning. Method and Materials: A total of 158 planned patients with Stage 0, I, and II breast cancer treated using whole-breast IMRT were retrospectively replanned using automated treatment planning tools. The tools developed are integrated into the existing clinical treatment planning system (Pinnacle 3 ) and are designed to perform the manual volume delineation, beam placement, and IMRT treatment planning steps carried out by the treatment planning radiation therapist. The automated algorithm, using only the radio-opaque markers placed at CT simulation as inputs, optimizes the tangential beam parameters to geometrically minimize the amount of lung and heart treated while covering the whole-breast volume. The IMRT parameters are optimized according to the automatically delineated whole-breast volume. Results: The mean time to generate a complete treatment plan was 6 min, 50 s ± 1 min 12 s. For the automated plans, 157 of 158 plans (99%) were deemed clinically acceptable, and 138 of 158 plans (87%) were deemed clinically improved or equal to the corresponding clinical plan when reviewed in a randomized, double-blinded study by one experienced breast radiation oncologist. In addition, overall the automated plans were dosimetrically equivalent to the clinical plans when scored for target coverage and lung and heart doses. Conclusion: We have developed robust and efficient automated tools for fully inversed planned tangential breast IMRT planning that can be readily integrated into clinical practice. The tools produce clinically acceptable plans using only the common anatomic landmarks from the CT simulation process as an input. We anticipate the tools will improve patient access to high-quality IMRT treatment by simplifying the planning process and will reduce the effort and cost of incorporating more advanced planning into clinical practice.

  20. Size exclusion chromatography with superficially porous particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, Mark R; Moran, Robert E

    2017-01-13

    A comparison is made using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of synthetic polymers between fully porous particles (FPPs) and superficially porous particles (SPPs) with similar particle diameters, pore sizes and equal flow rates. Polystyrene molecular weight standards with a mobile phase of tetrahydrofuran are utilized for all measurements conducted with standard HPLC equipment. Although it is traditionally thought that larger pore volume is thermodynamically advantageous in SEC for better separations, SPPs have kinetic advantages and these will be shown to compensate for the loss in pore volume compared to FPPs. The comparison metrics include the elution range (smaller with SPPs), the plate count (larger for SPPs), the rate production of theoretical plates (larger for SPPs) and the specific resolution (larger with FPPs). Advantages to using SPPs for SEC are discussed such that similar separations can be conducted faster using SPPs. SEC using SPPs offers similar peak capacities to that using FPPs but with faster operation. This also suggests that SEC conducted in the second dimension of a two-dimensional liquid chromatograph may benefit with reduced run time and with equivalently reduced peak width making SPPs advantageous for sampling the first dimension by the second dimension separator. Additional advantages are discussed for biomolecules along with a discussion of optimization criteria for size-based separations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Superficial siderosis: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresojević Nikola D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Superficial siderosis (SS is caused by chronic subarachnoid bleeding and is characterized by free iron and hemosiderin deposition along the pial and subpial structures of central nervous system. SS leads to progressive and irreversible CNS damage. The most common causes of chronic subarachnoidal bleeding are tumors, head and spinal cord trauma, arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms. SS is characterized by clinical triad: sensorineural hearing loss, cerebellar ataxia and piramydal signs. Brain MR imaging is the investigation of choice for the diagnosis of SS. Typical findings include hypointensities seen on T2­weighted MR imaging around the brain, cerebellum, brain stem, spinal cord, VIII cranial nerve and atrophy of cerebellum and medulla. Case Outline. A 71-year­old female patient noticed hand tremor in the middle of the third decade of life, and later slowly progressive bilateral hearing loss. At the age of 64 she developed un­ steady gate, hand clumsiness and dysarthria, to became incapable of independent walking and standing five years later. Clinical course and brain MRI findings were typical for SS, but additional investigation did not reveal the couse of subarahnoidal bleeding. Conclusion. SS represents a rare and under­recognized condition that must be considered in all patients with cerebellar syndrome of unknown cause. Early diagnosis of SS in some cases with identified cause of chronic bleeding allowes therapeutic interventions that may prevent further progression of the disease. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175090

  2. Modified Functional Superficial Parotidectomy With Ligation of the Major Branch of the Parotid Duct Extending to the Superficial Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung Woo; Leem, Soo Seong; Choi, Hwan Jun; Lee, Jang Hyun

    2017-05-01

    A functional superficial parotidectomy can maintain salivary function by preserving the Stensen duct. However, this technique still brings the possibility of salivary leakage, because major branches of the parotid duct from the resected site do not get ligated. To reduce this complication, this study introduces a modified technique with major branch ligation. From December 2008 to February 2015, 14 patients who underwent superficial parotidectomy were divided into 2 groups. Group A was treated with the modified functional superficial parotidectomy involving the major branch between the superficial lobe and parotid duct. Group B was treated with the conventional superficial parotidectomy without involving the major branch of the parotid duct. The clinical complications, period of Hemovac usage, and surgical duration were noted in each group. Two of 8 patients in group A had a major branch from Stensen duct that was ligated, and there was no evidence of salivary leakage or sialocele in any of the patients of group A, whereas group B contained 2 cases of salivary leakage, one of which became sialocele. Group A had a significantly longer Hemovac maintenance period than group B (P < 0.05), and the duration of surgery was also significantly different between the 2 groups (P < 0.05). Because a solitary major branch of the main parotid duct occasionally extends toward the superficial lobe, our modified technique-functional superficial parotidectomy with ligation of the major branch toward the superficial lobe-is a useful option for treatment of a benign parotid mass in such cases.

  3. Slideline verification for multilayer pressure vessel and piping analysis including tangential motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear finite element method (FEM) computer codes with slideline algorithm implementations should be useful for the analysis of prestressed multilayer pressure vessels and piping. This paper presents closed form solutions including the effects of tangential motion useful for verifying slideline implementations for this purpose. The solutions describe stresses and displacements of a long internally pressurized elastic-plastic cylinder initially separated from an elastic outer cylinder by a uniform gap. Comparison of closed form and FEM results evaluates the usefulness of the closed form solution and the validity of the sideline implementation used

  4. Tangential neutral-beam-driven instabilities in the princeton beta experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Heidbrink, WW; Bol, K; Buchenauer, D; Fonck, R; Gammel, G; Ida, K; Kaita, R; Kaye, S; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B; Morris, W; Okabayashi, M; Powell, E; Sesnic, S; Takahashi, H

    1986-01-01

    During tangential neutral-beam injection into the PBX tokamak, bursts of two types of instabilities are observed. One instability occurs in the frequency range 120-210 kHz and the other oscillates predominantly near the frequency of bulk plasma rotation (20-30 kHz). Both instabilities correlate with drops in neutron emission and bursts in charge-exchange neutral flux, indicating that beam ions are removed from the center of the plasma by the instabilities. The central losses are comparable to...

  5. Tangential neutral-beam--driven instabilities in the Princeton beta experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.

    1986-01-01

    During tangential neutral-beam injection into the PBX tokamak, bursts of two types of instabilities are observed. One instability occurs in the frequency range 120--210 kHz and the other oscillates predominantly near the frequency of bulk plasma rotation (20--30 kHz). Both instabilities correlate with drops in neutron emission and bursts in charge-exchange neutral flux, indicating that beam ions are removed from the center of the plasma by the instabilities. The central losses are comparable to the losses induced by the fishbone instability during perpendicular injection

  6. Radial and tangential gravity rates from GRACE in areas of glacial isostatic adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Kurtenbach, Enrico; Kusche, Jürgen; Vermeersen, Bert

    2011-11-01

    In areas dominated by Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA), the free-air gravity anomaly rate can be converted to uplift rate to good approximation by using a simple spectral relation. We provide quantitative comparisons between gravity rates derived from monthly gravity field solutions (GFZ Potsdam, CSR Texas, IGG Bonn) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission with uplift rates measured by GPS in these areas. The band-limited gravity data from the GRACE satellite mission can be brought to very good agreement with the point data from GPS by using scaling factors derived from a GIA model (the root-mean-square of differences is 0.55 mm yr-1 for a maximum uplift rate signal of 10 mm yr-1). The root-mean-square of the differences between GRACE derived uplift rates and GPS derived uplift rates decreases with increasing GRACE time period to a level below the uncertainty that is expected from GRACE observations, GPS measurements and the conversion from gravity rate to uplift rate. With the current length of time-series (more than 8 yr) applying filters and a hydrology correction to the GRACE data does not reduce the root-mean-square of differences significantly. The smallest root-mean-square was obtained with the GFZ solution in Fennoscandia and with the CSR solution in North America. With radial gravity rates in excellent agreement with GPS uplift rates, more information on the GIA process can be extracted from GRACE gravity field solutions in the form of tangential gravity rates, which are equivalent to a rate of change in the deflection of the vertical scaled by the magnitude of gravity rate vector. Tangential gravity rates derived from GRACE point towards the centre of the previously glaciated area, and are largest in a location close to the centre of the former ice sheet. Forward modelling showed that present day tangential gravity rates have maximum sensitivity between the centre and edge of the former ice sheet, while radial gravity

  7. Use of a tangential filtration unit for processing liquid waste from nuclear laundries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, X.; Buzonniere, A. de; Barnier, H.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear laundries produce large quantities of weakly contaminated effluents charged with insoluble and soluble products. In collaboration with CEA, TECHNICATOME has developed an ultrafiltration process for liquid waste from nuclear laundries, associated with prior in-solubilization of the radiochemical activity. This process 'seeded ultrafiltration' is based on the use of decloggable mineral filter media and combines very high separation efficiency with long membrane life. The efficiency of the tangential filtration unit which has been processing effluents from the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center (CEA-France) nuclear laundry since mid-1988, has been confirmed on several sites

  8. Tangential boundary values of Laplace transforms. Applications to Muntz-Szasz type approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedletskii, A. M.

    2003-02-01

    We consider the Laplace transforms (LT) of functions in L^q(\\mathbb R_+), 1, with a slowly varying weight. We prove that if the weight satisfies certain conditions, then each LT of this class has tangential boundary values almost everywhere on the imaginary axis, and the structure of the corresponding neighbourhoods depends on the weight only. This result is applied to distinguish a wide class of weighted L^p spaces on the half-line such that the Szasz condition is not necessary for the completeness of the system \\exp(-\\lambda_n t) in these spaces.

  9. Tangential boundary values of Laplace transforms. Applications to Muntz-Szasz type approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedletskii, A M [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-02-28

    We consider the Laplace transforms (LT) of functions in L{sup q}(R{sub +}), 1tangential boundary values almost everywhere on the imaginary axis, and the structure of the corresponding neighbourhoods depends on the weight only. This result is applied to distinguish a wide class of weighted L{sup p} spaces on the half-line such that the Szasz condition is not necessary for the completeness of the system exp(-{lambda}{sub n}t) in these spaces.

  10. Status of Far Infrared Tangential Interferometry/Polarimetry (FIReTIP) on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.K.; Edwards, S.; Guttadora, L.; Deng, B.; Domier, C.W.; Lee, K.C.; Johnson, M.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The Influence of paramagnetism and diamagnetism will significantly alter the vacuum toroidal magnetic field in the spherical torus. Therefore, plasma parameters dependent upon BT such as the q-profile and the local b value need an independent measurement of BT(r,t). The multi-chord Tangential Far Infrared Interferometer/Polarimeter (FIReTIP) system [1] currently under development for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) will provide temporally and radially resolved toroidal field profile [BT(r,t)] and 2-D electron density profile [ne(r,t)] data. A two-channel interferometer will be operational this year and the full system will be ready by 2002

  11. Large Object Irradiation Facility In The Tangential Channel Of The JSI TRIGA Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Radulovic, Vladimir; Kaiba, Tanja; Kavsek, Darko; Cindro, Vladimir; Mikuz, Marko; Snoj, Luka

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and installation of a new irradiation device in the Tangential Channel of the JSI TRIGA reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The purpose of the device is to enable on-line irradiation testing of electronic components considerably larger in size (of lateral dimensions of at least 12 cm) than currently possible in the irradiation channels located in the reactor core, in a relatively high neutron flux (exceeding 10^12 n cm^-2 s^-1) and to provide adequate neutron and gamma radiation shielding.

  12. Teledetection applied to the superficial oceanography phenomena study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jeimmy

    2002-01-01

    The present document is consider the physical and biological variables important part in the integration of the climatic system, like improvement to the knowledge of the present marine processes in the Colombian marine areas by means of the advantage of the technological resources available at the present time for the obtaining of information in real time of physical and biological processes, agreed to the constitutional mandate of sustainable development. The images of color of the ocean provided by located remote sensors in the satellites allow considering primary the organic productivity of a synoptic way, in great areas. This is of great importance to more effectively support the rational handling of the fishing resources and to make a contribution on the paper of the ocean in the global climatic change. The marine phytoplankton can significantly alter to the carbon interchange in interactions ocean-atmosphere. The marine photosynthesis reduces the partial pressure of superficial water CO 2 , with the result of which a portion of organic carbon just formed (new productivity) sinks outside the afotica zone. The previous thing induces a net effect of carbon flow from the atmosphere to the ocean. One of the potential applications of the use of the images of satellite of color of the ocean is the calculation of the chlorophyll concentration and its relation with the sobreexperience of larvae of fish of commercial interest. Different types from developed mathematical models for concerning oceanic waters in the accomplishment of estimations of primary productivity with base in color images of the ocean exist mainly - time out - for that reason, the necessity of develop model similar for the calculation of the productivity primary of the phytoplankton of the Colombian marine area

  13. Terbinafine-loaded wound dressing for chronic superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskiabi, Farnoush Asghari; Bonakdar, Shahin; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Imani, Mohammad; Jahanshiri, Zahra; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    In spite of developing new drugs and modern formulations, the treatments of chronic fungal infections are still challenging. Fibrous wound dressings are new suggestions for the treatment of chronic superficial infections. In the present study, we formulated an antifungal agent, terbinafine hydrochloride (TFH), which is a hydrophobic drug, in wound dressings prepared by electrospun polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50 w/w) and gelatin. To obtain more water-stable meshes, the preparations were treated by glutaraldehyde and their properties were determined before and after treatment. The morphology of fibrous meshes was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Drug loading efficiency and release rate were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the release rate was monitored for 144h. Antifungal tests were performed on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans cultured on Muller-Hinton agar. The toxicity of the meshes was measured after 24h and 14days by MTT assay. Terbinafine loading of polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50) was 100% and it released the highest amount of TFH too. In antifungal tests, all samples were able to hinderT. mentagrophytes and A. fumigatus but not C. albicans growth among them, polycaprolactone fibers made the largest inhibition zone. In MTT assay, none of prepared samples showed toxicity against L929 cells. Teken together, the prepared TFH-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun meshes were able to release TFH slowly and in a steady state in time. With respect to no obvious cytotoxicity in MTT assay and stong antifungal activity toward T. mentagrophytesin vitro, these TFH-based meshes could be considered as potential candidates in clinical application as wound dressing for treatment of chronic dermatophytosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of a porcine model of chronic superficial varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory T; Grant, Mark W; Thomson, Ian A; Hill, B Geraldine; van Rij, André M

    2009-06-01

    Previous animal models of venous disease, while inducing venous hypertension and valvular insufficiency, do not produce superficial varicose veins. In this study, we aimed to develop and characterize a pig-based model of superficial varicose veins. Right femoral arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) were surgically fashioned in young adult pigs. Animals were examined at postoperative times up to 15 weeks to determine the development of varicose veins and measurement of both blood pressure and flow velocities within the superficial thigh veins. Histology and vascular corrosion casts were used to characterize the resulting structural venous alterations. Porcine pathophysiological features were compared with those of human primary superficial varicose veins. Gross superficial varicosities developed over the ipsilateral medial thigh region after an initial lag period of 1-2 weeks. Veins demonstrated retrograde filling with valvular incompetence, and a moderate, non-pulsatile, venous hypertension, which was altered by changes in posture and Valsalva. Venous blood flow velocities were elevated to 15-30 cm/s in varicose veins. Structurally, pig varicose veins were enlarged, tortuous, had valvular degeneration, and regions of focal medial atrophy with or without overlying intimal thickening. The superficial varicose veins, which developed within this model, have a pathophysiology that is consistent with that observed in humans. The porcine femoral AVF model is proposed as a suitable experimental model to evaluate the pathobiology of superficial venous disease. It may also be suitable for the evaluation of treatment interventions including drug therapy.

  15. Quasistatic Seismic Damage Indicators for RC Structures from Dissipating Energies in Tangential Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried B. Krätzig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies recent research on structural damage description to earthquake-resistant design concepts. Based on the primary design aim of life safety, this work adopts the necessity of additional protection aims for property, installation, and equipment. This requires the definition of damage indicators, which are able to quantify the arising structural damage. As in present design, it applies nonlinear quasistatic (pushover concepts due to code provisions as simplified dynamic design tools. Substituting so nonlinear time-history analyses, seismic low-cycle fatigue of RC structures is approximated in similar manner. The treatment will be embedded into a finite element environment, and the tangential stiffness matrix KT in tangential subspaces then is identified as the most general entry for structural damage information. Its spectra of eigenvalues λi or natural frequencies ωi of the structure serve to derive damage indicators Di, applicable to quasistatic evaluation of seismic damage. Because det KT=0 denotes structural failure, such damage indicators range from virgin situation Di=0 to failure Di=1 and thus correspond with Fema proposals on performance-based seismic design. Finally, the developed concept is checked by reanalyses of two experimentally investigated RC frames.

  16. Current Profile and Magnetic Structure Measurements through Tangential Soft X-Ray Imaging in Compact Tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, Raymond J.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the fabrication and tests of a tangentially imaging soft X-ray (SXR) camera diagnostic for fusion energy plasma research. It can be used for the determination of the current distribution in strongly shaped toroidal magnetically confined plasmas, such as those found in spherical tori or advanced tokamaks. It included the development of both an appropriate imaging SXR camera and image analysis techniques necessary to deduce the plasma shape and current distribution. The basic camera concept consists of a tangentially viewing pinhole imaging system with thin-film SXR filters, a scintillator screen to provide SXR to visible conversion, a fast shuttering system, and an sensitive visible camera imaging device. The analysis approach consists of integrating the 2-D SXR image data into a Grad-Shafranov toroidal equilibrium solver code to provide strong constraints on the deduced plasma current and pressure profiles. Acceptable sensitivity in the deduced current profile can be obtained if the relative noise in the measured image can be kept in the range of 1% or less. Tests on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment indicate very flat safety factor profiles in the plasma interior

  17. Simulation study on vertically distributed multi-channel tangential interferometry for KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Y U; Juhn, J W

    2012-01-01

    Interferometry is powerful and reliable diagnostics which measures line-integrated electron density. Since this technique only measures an averaged value over whole probing line, a multi-channel scheme is used for an analysis for spatial distribution and variation of electron density. Typical setups of the multi-channel measurement are schemes of radially distributed vertical lines, vertically distributed horizontal lines and horizontally distributed tangential lines. In Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research, a vertically distributed multi-channel tangential interferometry is planned instead of above typical schemes due to limitation of complex in-vessel geometry and narrow diagnostics port through cryostat. Total 5-channels will be vertically placed as symmetric with the mid-plain. One of the characteristic features of the vertically distributed channels is that each channel is viewing different poloidal angle, while the horizontally distributed channels are viewing different toroidal angle. This scheme also can be used on an investigation of the up-down asymmetry and the vertical oscillation of plasma. Simulation has been performed and the result will be discussed to verify the possibility and the estimated effectiveness of the scheme on this paper.

  18. Cascade ultrafiltering of 210Pb and 210Po in freshwater using a tangential flow filtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Takaku, Y.; Hisamatsu, S.; Inaba, J.; Yamamoto, M.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid method was developed using ultrafilters with a tangential flow filtering system for molecular size separation of naturally occurring 210 Pb and 210 Po in a freshwater sample. Generally, ultrafiltering of a large volume water sample for measuring the nuclides was too time consuming and not practical. The tangential flow filtering system made the filtering time short enough to adapt for in-situ ultrafiltering the large volume sample. In this method, a 20 liter water sample was at first passed through the 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter immediately after sample collection to obtain suspended particle matter [>0.45 μm particulate fraction (PRT)]. Two ultrafilters (Millipore Pellicon 2 R ) were used sequentially. The nuclides in the filtrate were separated into three fractions: high molecular mass (100 kDa-0.45μm; HMM), low molecular mass (10 k-100 kDa; LMM) and ionic ( 210 Pb and 210 Po in an oligotrophic lake, Lake Towada located in the northern area of Japan. (author)

  19. Analysis of interfraction and intrafraction variation during tangential breast irradiation with an electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ryan P.; Bloch, Peter; Harris, Eleanor E.; McDonough, James; Sarkar, Abhirup; Kassaee, Alireza; Avery, Steven; Solin, Lawrence J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the daily setup variation and the anatomic movement of the heart and lungs during breast irradiation with tangential photon beams, as measured with an electronic portal imaging device. Methods and materials: Analysis of 1,709 portal images determined changes in the radiation field during a treatment course in 8 patients. Values obtained for every image included central lung distance (CLD) and area of lung and heart within the irradiated field. The data from these measurements were used to evaluate variation from setup between treatment days and motion due to respiration and/or patient movement during treatment delivery. Results: The effect of respiratory motion and movement during treatment was minimal: the maximum range in CLD for any patient on any day was 0.25 cm. The variation caused by day-to-day setup variation was greater, with CLD values for patients ranging from 0.59 cm to 2.94 cm. Similar findings were found for heart and lung areas. Conclusions: There is very little change in CLD and corresponding lung and heart area during individual radiation treatment fractions in breast tangential fields, compared with a relatively greater amount of variation that occurs between days

  20. Tangential vitreous traction: a possible mechanism of development of cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Takezawa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mikiko Takezawa, Soichi Tetsuka, Akihiro KakehashiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Saitama, JapanAbstract: We report the possible mechanism of development of cystoid macular edema (CME in retinitis pigmentosa (RP in the case of a 68-year-old woman with RP and CME in the right eye and resolving CME in the left eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed CME and posterior vitreoschisis in the nasal quadrant of the fundus without a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD. This vitreous pathology suggested bilateral thickening and shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex. In the right eye, CME was evident with no vitreofoveal separation. However, in the left eye, minimal change was seen in the CME associated with a focal shallow PVD over the fovea. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA in the left eye increased to 0.3 from 0.15 7 years after the first visit. Tangential vitreous traction on the macula may have caused the CME in the right eye. The shallow PVD over the fovea might have released the tangential vitreous traction from the fovea, induced spontaneous resolution of the CME, and improved the BCVA in the left eye.Keywords: retinitis pigmentosa, cystoid macular edema, posterior vitreous detachment, posterior vitreoschisis, optical coherence tomography

  1. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-01-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author)

  2. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-02-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author).

  3. Trauma ocupacional por corpo estranho corneano superficial Occupational trauma due to superficial corneal foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Miroski Gerente

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a epidemiologia do trauma ocular por corpo estranho superficial de córnea. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes atendidos no Pronto-Socorro da Universidade Federal de São Paulo entre abril e junho de 2005 que apresentaram corpo estranho superficial de córnea foram entrevistados. Foram avaliados: sexo, idade, profissão, registro legal do emprego, uso, disponibilidade e tipo de equipamentos de proteção utilizados e a fiscalização do seu uso. O conhecimento das complicações deste tipo de acidente também foi avaliado. Os resultados foram analisados com teste do qui quadrado ou teste de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 123 pacientes. Apenas 3 eram do sexo feminino e a idade média foi de 36 anos. A maioria destes traumas ocorreu no ambiente de trabalho (86,2% e 58,4% não possuíam registro legal do emprego. As profissões mais freqüentemente envolvidas foram serralheiro, pedreiro e metalúrgico. Em 79,8% dos locais de trabalho havia equipamentos de proteção e 85,3% dos pacientes eram orientados a usá-los. Em 52,4% dos locais sua utilização era fiscalizada, mas apenas 34,2% usavam no momento do trauma. A utilização foi mais freqüente (p=0,008 e fiscalização mais presente (p=0,0415 entre pacientes com registro legal de emprego. Questionados sobre os riscos, 68,9% dos pacientes tinham consciência das complicações graves deste tipo de acidente. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria dos pacientes tem conhecimento sobre a gravidade do trauma ocular e este tipo de lesão ocorre mesmo em locais com equipamentos de proteção disponíveis, alguns deles até durante o seu uso. Os dados sugerem que enfoque maior da prevenção deve ser na fiscalização e utilização de equipamentos adequados.PURPOSE: To evaluate the epidemiology of superficial corneal foreign body. METHODS: Patients who were seen at the Emergency Service of the Federal University of São Paulo, from April/05 to June/05, were screened and those with superficial corneal

  4. Study of the superficial ozone concentrations in the atmosphere of Comunidad de Madrid using passive samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Galán Madruga

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The ozone is a secondary atmospheric pollutant which is generated for photochemical reactions of volatil organic compounds (VOC’s and nitrogen oxides (NOx. In Spain the ozone is a big problem as a consequence of the solar radiation to reach high levels. Exposure over a period of time to elevated ozone concentrations can cause damage in the public health and alterations in the vegetation.The aim of this study is to carry out the development and validation of a measurement method to let asses the superficial ozone levels in the Comunidad de Madrid, by identifing the zones more significants, where to measure with UV photometric monitors (automatics methods this pollutant and where the health and the vegetation can be affected. To such effect, passive samplers are used, which have glass fiber filters coated with a solution of sodium nitrite, potassium carbonate, glycerol and water. The nitrite ion in the presence of ozone is oxidized to nitrato ion, which it is extrated with ultrapure water and analyzed for ion chromatography, by seen proportional to the concentration existing in the sampling point.The results of validation from field tests indicate a excellent correlation between the passive and the automatic method.The higher superficial ozone concentrations are placed in rural zones, distanced of emission focus of primary pollutants (nitrogen oxides and volatil organic compounds... principally in direction soutwest and northwest of the Comunidad of Madrid.

  5. Superficial herpes simplex virus wound infection following lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Wojtek; Wojarski, Jacek; Zegleń, Sławomir; Ochman, Marek; Urlik, Maciej; Hudzik, Bartosz; Wozniak-Grygiel, Elzbieta; Maruszewski, Marcin

    2017-08-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are infections of tissues, organs, or spaces exposed by surgeons during performance of an invasive procedure. SSIs are classified into superficial, which are limited to skin and subcutaneous tissues, and deep. The incidence of deep SSIs in lung transplant (LTx) patients is estimated at 5%. No reports have been published as to the incidence of superficial SSIs specifically in LTx patients. Common sense would dictate that the majority of superficial SSIs would be bacterial. Uncommonly, fungal SSIs may occur, and we believe that no reports exist as to the incidence of viral wound infections in LTx patients, or in any solid organ transplant patients. We report a de novo superficial wound infection with herpes simplex virus following lung transplantation, its possible source, treatment, and resolution. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Two-dimensional versus three-dimensional treatment planning of tangential breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damen, E.M.F.; Bruinvis, I.A.D.; Mijnheer, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Full three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning requires 3-D patient contours and density information, derived either from CT scanning or from other 3-D contouring methods. These contouring techniques are time consuming, and are often not available or cannot be used. Two-dimensional (2-D) treatment planning can be performed using only a few patient contours, made with much simpler techniques, in combination with simulator images for estimating the lung position. In order to investigate the need for full 3-D planning, we compared the performance of both a 2-D and a 3-D planning system in calculating absolute dose values and relative dose distributions in tangential breast irradiation. Methods: Two breast-shaped phantoms were used in this study. The first phantom consists of a polyethylene mould, filled with water and cork to mimic the lung. An ionization chamber can be inserted in the phantom at fixed positions. The second phantom is made of 25 transverse slices of polystyrene and cork, made with a computerized milling machine from CT information. In this phantom, films can be inserted in three sagittal planes. Both phantoms have been irradiated with two tangential 8 MV photon beams. The measured dose distribution has been compared with the dose distribution predicted by the two planning systems. Results: In the central plane, the 3-D planning system predicts the absolute dose with an accuracy of 0.5 - 4%. The dose at the isocentre of the beams agrees within 0.5% with the measured dose. The 2-D system predicts the dose with an accuracy of 0.9 - 3%. The dose calculated at the isocentre is 2.6% higher than the measured dose, because missing lateral scatter is not taken into account in this planning system. In off-axis planes, the calculated absolute dose agrees with the measured dose within 4% for the 2-D system and within 6% for the 3-D system. However, the relative dose distribution is predicted better by the 3-D planning system. Conclusions: This study

  7. Kinetic equilibrium for an asymmetric tangential layer with rotation of the magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, Gérard; Dorville, Nicolas; Aunai, Nicolas; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-04-01

    Finding kinetic equilibria for tangential current layers is a key issue for modeling plasma phenomena such as magnetic reconnection instabilities, for which theoretical and numerical studies have to start from steady-state current layers. Until 2012, all theoretical models -starting with the most famous "Harris" one- relied on distribution functions built as mono-valued functions of the trajectories invariants. For a coplanar anti-symmetric magnetic field and in absence of electric field, these models were only able to model symmetric variations of the plasma, so precluding any modeling of "magnetopause-like'' layers, which separate two plasmas of different densities and temperatures. Recently, the "BAS" model was presented (Belmont et al., 2012), where multi-valued functions were taken into account. This new tool is made necessary each time the magnetic field reversal occurs on scales larger than the particle Larmor radii, and therefore guaranties a logical transition with the MHD modeling of large scales. The BAS model so provides a new asymmetric equilibrium. It has been validated in a hybrid simulation by Aunai et al (2013), and more recently in a fully kinetic simulation as well. For this original equilibrium to be computed, the magnetic field had to stay coplanar inside the layer. We present here an important generalization, where the magnetic field rotates inside the layer (although restricted to a 180° rotation hitherto). The tangential layers so obtained are thus closer to those encountered at the real magnetopause. This will be necessary, in the future, for comparing directly the theoretical profiles with the experimental ones for the various physical parameters. As it was done previously, the equilibrium is presently tested with a hybrid simulation. Belmont, G.; Aunai, N.; Smets, R., Kinetic equilibrium for an asymmetric tangential layer, Physics of Plasmas, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp. 022108-022118-10, 2012 Aunai, N.; Belmont, G.; Smets, R., First

  8. Imaging of the most frequent superficial soft-tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Melanie; Taieb, Sophie; Ceugnart, Luc; Penel, Nicolas; Mortier, Laurent; Vanseymortier, Luc; Robin, Y.M.; Gosset, Pierre; Cotten, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors located within the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous layers. Most superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors; yet, the risk of local recurrence is high, and initial wide surgery is the main prognostic factor. Some of these superficial sarcomas may grow, following an infiltrative pattern, and their real extent may be underestimated clinically. Imaging techniques are useful to determine precisely the real margins of the tumor, especially in cases of clinically doubtful or recurrent or large superficial lesions. Imaging tools enable one to determine the relationship with the superficial fascia separating the subcutaneous layer from the underlying muscle. In our institution ultrasonographic examination is followed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging when the size of the lesion exceeds 3-5 cm. Imaging assessment is performed prior to biopsy, enabling optimal surgical management. Imaging features of the main superficial sarcomas are detailed in the following article, according to their major locations: those arising in the epidermis and/or dermis, which are most often diagnosed by dermatologists, and the subcutaneous sarcomas. (orig.)

  9. Imaging of the most frequent superficial soft-tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, Melanie; Taieb, Sophie; Ceugnart, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Penel, Nicolas [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Oncology, Lille (France); Mortier, Laurent [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Dermatology, Hopital Claude Huriez, Lille (France); Vanseymortier, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Surgery, Lille (France); Robin, Y.M. [Centre Oscar Lambret, Departement of Pathology, Lille (France); Gosset, Pierre [Groupement Hospitalier de l' Institut Catholique-Faculte Libre de Medecine de Lille, Department of Pathology, Hopital Saint-Philibert, Lomme (France); Cotten, Anne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Centre Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-03-15

    Superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors located within the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous layers. Most superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors; yet, the risk of local recurrence is high, and initial wide surgery is the main prognostic factor. Some of these superficial sarcomas may grow, following an infiltrative pattern, and their real extent may be underestimated clinically. Imaging techniques are useful to determine precisely the real margins of the tumor, especially in cases of clinically doubtful or recurrent or large superficial lesions. Imaging tools enable one to determine the relationship with the superficial fascia separating the subcutaneous layer from the underlying muscle. In our institution ultrasonographic examination is followed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging when the size of the lesion exceeds 3-5 cm. Imaging assessment is performed prior to biopsy, enabling optimal surgical management. Imaging features of the main superficial sarcomas are detailed in the following article, according to their major locations: those arising in the epidermis and/or dermis, which are most often diagnosed by dermatologists, and the subcutaneous sarcomas. (orig.)

  10. Preliminary design of a tangentially viewing imaging bolometer for NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B. J., E-mail: peterson@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Mukai, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advance Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sano, R. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Reinke, M. L.; Canik, J. M.; Lore, J. D.; Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Jaworski, M. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Eden, G. G. van [FOM Institute DIFFER, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    The infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) measures plasma radiated power images using a thin metal foil. Two different designs with a tangential view of NSTX-U are made assuming a 640 × 480 (1280 × 1024) pixel, 30 (105) fps, 50 (20) mK, IR camera imaging the 9 cm × 9 cm × 2 μm Pt foil. The foil is divided into 40 × 40 (64 × 64) IRVB channels. This gives a spatial resolution of 3.4 (2.2) cm on the machine mid-plane. The noise equivalent power density of the IRVB is given as 113 (46) μW/cm{sup 2} for a time resolution of 33 (20) ms. Synthetic images derived from Scrape Off Layer Plasma Simulation data using the IRVB geometry show peak signal levels ranging from ∼0.8 to ∼80 (∼0.36 to ∼26) mW/cm{sup 2}.

  11. The anisotropy of fluorescence in ring units III: Tangential versus radial dipole arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Zapletal, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Department of Mathematics, University of Pardubice (Czech Republic)], E-mail: david.zapletal@upce.cz; Barvik, I. [Institute of Physics of Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2008-05-15

    The time dependence of the anisotropy of fluorescence can indicate the coherent exciton transfer regime in molecular rings. We are comparing time development of this quantity after an impulsive excitation obtained for the ring models of bacterial antenna complexes with tangential and radial optical transition dipole moments arrangement as in nonameric LH2 and octameric LH4 units. We use non-correlated static Gaussian disorder in the local exciton energies. We take into account simultaneously dynamic disorder using a Markovian treatment of the interaction with the bath. We show that the influence of dynamic disorder on difference of the anisotropy of fluorescence is more important then the influence of static disorder in consequence of different band width.

  12. The anisotropy of fluorescence in ring units III: Tangential versus radial dipole arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, P.; Zapletal, D.; Barvik, I.

    2008-01-01

    The time dependence of the anisotropy of fluorescence can indicate the coherent exciton transfer regime in molecular rings. We are comparing time development of this quantity after an impulsive excitation obtained for the ring models of bacterial antenna complexes with tangential and radial optical transition dipole moments arrangement as in nonameric LH2 and octameric LH4 units. We use non-correlated static Gaussian disorder in the local exciton energies. We take into account simultaneously dynamic disorder using a Markovian treatment of the interaction with the bath. We show that the influence of dynamic disorder on difference of the anisotropy of fluorescence is more important then the influence of static disorder in consequence of different band width

  13. Burning low volatile fuel in tangentially fired furnaces with fuel rich/lean burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xiaolin; Xu Tongmo; Hui Shien

    2004-01-01

    Pulverized coal combustion in tangentially fired furnaces with fuel rich/lean burners was investigated for three low volatile coals. The burners were operated under the conditions with varied value N d , which means the ratio of coal concentration of the fuel rich stream to that of the fuel lean stream. The wall temperature distributions in various positions were measured and analyzed. The carbon content in the char and NO x emission were detected under various conditions. The new burners with fuel rich/lean streams were utilized in a thermal power station to burn low volatile coal. The results show that the N d value has significant influences on the distributions of temperature and char burnout. There exists an optimal N d value under which the carbon content in the char and the NO x emission is relatively low. The coal ignition and NO x emission in the utilized power station are improved after retrofitting the burners

  14. Microalgae fractionation using steam explosion, dynamic and tangential cross-flow membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, E; Hapońska, M; Clavero, E; Torras, C; Salvadó, J

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana was subjected to acid catalysed steam explosion treatment and the resulting exploded material was subsequently fractionated to separate the different fractions (lipids, sugars and solids). Conventional and vibrational membrane setups were used with several polymeric commercial membranes. Two different routes were followed: 1) filtration+lipid solvent extraction and 2) lipid solvent extraction+filtration. Route 1 revealed to be much better since the used membrane for filtration was able to permeate the sugar aqueous phase and retained the fraction containing lipids; after this, an extraction required a much lower amount of solvent and a better recovering yield. Filtration allowed complete lipid rejection. Dynamic filtration improved permeability compared to the tangential cross-flow filtration. Best membrane performance was achieved using a 5000Da membrane with the dynamic system, obtaining a permeability of 6L/h/m 2 /bar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CFD analysis of temperature imbalance in superheater/reheater region of tangentially coal-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, A. F.; Hasini, H.; Fadhil, S. S. A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a CFD analysis of the flow, velocity and temperature distribution in a 700 MW tangentially coal-fired boiler operating in Malaysia. The main objective of the analysis is to gain insights on the occurrences in the boiler so as to understand the inherent steam temperature imbalance problem. The results show that the root cause of the problem comes from the residual swirl in the horizontal pass. The deflection of the residual swirl due to the sudden reduction and expansion of the flow cross-sectional area causes velocity deviation between the left and right side of the boiler. This consequently results in flue gas temperature imbalance which has often caused tube leaks in the superheater/reheater region. Therefore, eliminating the residual swirl or restraining it from being diverted might help to alleviate the problem.

  16. Far-infrared tangential interferometer/polarimeter design and installation for NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, E. R., E-mail: evrscott@ucdavis.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Barchfeld, R. [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Riemenschneider, P.; Domier, C. W.; Sohrabi, M.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Muscatello, C. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Kaita, R.; Ren, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The Far-infrared Tangential Interferometer/Polarimeter (FIReTIP) system has been refurbished and is being reinstalled on the National Spherical Torus Experiment—Upgrade (NSTX-U) to supply real-time line-integrated core electron density measurements for use in the NSTX-U plasma control system (PCS) to facilitate real-time density feedback control of the NSTX-U plasma. Inclusion of a visible light heterodyne interferometer in the FIReTIP system allows for real-time vibration compensation due to movement of an internally mounted retroreflector and the FIReTIP front-end optics. Real-time signal correction is achieved through use of a National Instruments CompactRIO field-programmable gate array.

  17. Optimizing of verification photographs by using the so-called tangential field technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proske, H.; Merte, H.; Kratz, H.

    1991-01-01

    When irradiating under high voltage condition, verification photographs prove to be difficult to take if the Gantry position is not aligned to 0deg respectively 180deg, since the patient is being irradiated diagonally. Under these conditions it is extremely difficult to align the X-ray-cartridge vertically to the central beam of the therapeutic radiation. This results in, amongst others, misprojections, so that definite dimensions of portrayed organ structures become practical impossible to determine. This paper describes how we have solved these problems on our high voltage units (tele-gamma cobalt unit and linear-accelerator). By using simple accessories, determination of dimensions of organ structures, as shown on the verification photographs, are made possible. We illustrate our method by using the so-called tangential fields technique when irradiating mamma carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  18. Lung and heart dose volume analyses with CT simulator in tangential field irradiation of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Indra J.; Cheng, Elizabeth C.; Fowble, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Radiation pneumonitis and cardiac effects are directly related to the irradiated lung and heart volumes in the treatment fields. The central lung distance (CLD) from a tangential breast radiograph is shown to be a significant indicator of ipsilateral irradiated lung volume based on empirically derived functions which accuracy depends on the actual measured volume in treatment position. A simple and accurate linear relationship with CLD and retrospective analysis of the pattern of dose volume of lung and heart is presented with actual volume data from a CT simulator in the treatment of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: The heart and lung volumes in the tangential treatment fields were analyzed in 45 consecutive (22 left and 23 right breast) patients referred for CT simulation of the cone down treatment. All patients in this study were immobilized and placed on an inclined breast board in actual treatment setup. Both arms were stretched over head uniformly to avoid collision with the scanner aperture. Radiopaque marks were placed on the medial and lateral borders of the tangential fields. All patients were scanned in spiral mode with slice width and thickness of 3 mm each, respectively. The lung and heart structures as well as irradiated areas were delineated on each slice and respective volumes were accurately measured. The treatment beam parameters were recorded and the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated for the CLD and analysis. Results: Table 1 shows the volume statistics of patients in this study. There is a large variation in the lung and heart volumes among patients. Due to differences in the shape of right and left lungs the percent irradiated volume (PIV) are different. The PIV data have shown to correlate with CLD with 2nd and 3rd degree polynomials; however, in this study a simple straight line regression is used to provide better confidence than the higher order polynomial. The regression lines for the left and right

  19. Status of the tangentially fired LIMB Demonstration Program at Yorktown Unit No. 2: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.; Gogineni, M.R.; Koucky, R.W.; Gootzait, E.; Lachapelle, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion Engineering, Inc., under EPA sponsorship, is conducting a program to demonstrate furnace sorbent injection on a tangentially fired, coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180 MW(e) Yorktown Unit No. 2. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate significant reductions in sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) while minimizing any negative impacts on boiler performance. Engineering and procurement activities and baseline testing have been completed. Construction and installation of the sorbent injection and low-NO x equipment is nearly complete. An 8-month demonstration of furnace sorbent injection plus flue gas humidification will be conducted in 1992. Details of the sorbent injection concept to be tested at Yorktown, results of baseline testing, overall demonstration program organization and schedule, and preliminary plans for the 8-month demonstration test are discussed in the paper

  20. Integrated axial and tangential serpentine cooling circuit in a turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J; Dalton, John P

    2015-05-05

    A continuous serpentine cooling circuit forming a progression of radial passages (44, 45, 46, 47A, 48A) between pressure and suction side walls (52, 54) in a MID region of a turbine airfoil (24). The circuit progresses first axially, then tangentially, ending in a last radial passage (48A) adjacent to the suction side (54) and not adjacent to the pressure side (52). The passages of the axial progression (44, 45, 46) may be adjacent to both the pressure and suction side walls of the airfoil. The next to last radial passage (47A) may be adjacent to the pressure side wall and not adjacent to the suction side wall. The last two radial passages (47A, 48A) may be longer along the pressure and suction side walls respectively than they are in a width direction, providing increased direct cooling surface area on the interiors of these hot walls.

  1. Drenaje suplementario del sistema venoso superficial en colgajos pediculados Supplementary drainage of superficial venous system in pedicled flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los colgajos pediculados pueden sufrir edema y congestión debido a que su drenaje a trevés del sistema venoso superfical es imposible y el flujo hacia el sistema profundo a nivel del pedículo es precario. Esta situación suele evolucionar hacia la necrosis parcial o la pérdida total del colgajo en pocas horas. La apertura del sistema venoso superficial permite el drenaje adecuado de los tejidos transferidos y evita estas complicaciones. Este artículo analiza el papel de las anastomosis microquirúrgicas en el sistema venoso superficial de los colgajos pediculados. Esta técnica permite comunicar el sistema venoso superfical de los tejidos transferidos con el sistema venoso superficial del territorio que rodea al defecto. Presentamos los resultados obtenidos con esta técnica en colgajos de perforante en hélice, colgajos miocutáneos, colgajos neurocutáneos y colgajos fasciograsos volteados.The pedicled flaps can suffer edema and congestion due to the impossibility of drainage toward the superficial venous system and the precarious flow via the deep system at the level of the pedicle. The evolution of this situation is usually partial necrosis or total loss of the flap in a few hours. The opening of the venous superficial system achieves an appropriate drainage of the transfered tissues and avoids these complications. In this article we analyze the role of the microsurgical anastomosis at the level of the superficial venous system of pedicled flaps. This technique allows to communicate the superficial venous system of the transfered tissues with the superficial venous system of the territory around the defect. We report the results with this method in propeller perforator flaps, miocutaneous flaps, neurocutaneous flaps and adipofascial turn over flaps.

  2. A tangentially viewing VUV TV system for the DIII-D divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, D.G.; Ellis, R.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Brewis, G.; Jalufka, N.

    1998-07-01

    A video camera system capable of imaging VUV emission in the 120--160 nm wavelength range, from the entire divertor region in the DIII-D tokamak, was designed. The new system has a tangential view of the divertor similar to an existing tangential camera system which has produced two dimensional maps of visible line emission (400--800 nm) from deuterium and carbon in the divertor region. However, the overwhelming fraction of the power radiated by these elements is emitted by resonance transitions in the ultraviolet, namely the C IV line at 155.0 nm and Ly-α line at 121.6 nm. To image the ultraviolet light with an angular view including the inner wall and outer bias ring in DIII-D, a 6-element optical system (f/8.9) was designed using a combination of reflective and refractive optics. This system will provide a spatial resolution of 1.2 cm in the object plane. An intermediate UV image formed in a secondary vacuum is converted to the visible by means of a phosphor plate and detected with a conventional CID camera (30 ms framing rate). A single MgF 2 lens serves as the vacuum interface between the primary and secondary vacuums; a second lens must be inserted in the secondary vacuum to correct the focus at 155 nm. Using the same tomographic inversion method employed for the visible TV, they reconstruct the poloidal distribution of the UV divertor light. The grain size of the phosphor plate and the optical system aberrations limit the best focus spot size to 60 microm at the CID plane. The optical system is designed to withstand 350 C vessel bakeout, 2 T magnetic fields, and disruption-induced accelerations of the vessel

  3. Comparison of Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) and clinical assessment in differentiating between superficial and deep partial thickness burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Saadia Nosheen; Khan, Farid Ahmed; Bashir, Muhammad Mustehsan; Nasir, Muneeb; Ansari, Hamid Hussain; Shami, Hussan Birkhez; Nazir, Umer; Hanif, Asif; Sohail, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    To compare the accuracy of Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) and clinical assessment in differentiating between superficial and deep partial thickness burns to decide whether early tangential excision and grafting or conservative management should be employed to optimize burn and patient management. March 2015 to November 2016. Ninety two wounds in 34 patients reporting within 5days of less than 40% burn surface area were included. Unstable patients, pregnant females and those who expired were excluded. The wounds were clinically assessed and LDI done concomitantly Plastic Surgeons blinded to each other's findings. Wound appearance, color, blanching, pain, hair follicle dislodgement were the clinical parameters that distinguished between superficial and deep partial thickness burns. On day 21, the wounds were again assessed for the presence of healing by the same plastic surgeons. The findings were correlated with the initial findings on LDI and clinical assessment and the results statistically analyzed. The data of 92 burn wounds was analyzed using SPSS (ver. 17). Clinical assessment correctly identified the depth of 75 and LDI 83 wounds, giving diagnostic accuracies of 81.52% and 90.21% respectively. The sensitivity of clinical assessment was 81% and of LDI 92.75%, whereas the specificity was 82% for both. The positive predictive value was 93% for clinical assessment and 94% for LDI while the negative predictive value was 59% and 79% respectively. Predictive accuracy of LDI was found to be better than clinical assessment in the prediction of wound healing, the gold standard for wound healing being 21 days. As such it can prove to be a reliable and viable cost effective alternative per se to clinical assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous and superficial radial nerves in the forearm: a cadaveric and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldner, Steven; Zlotolow, Dan A; Melone, Charles P; Agnes, Ann Marie; Jones, Morgan H

    2005-11-01

    To define the anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN) and the superficial radial nerve (SRN) in relation to easily identifiable landmarks in the dorsoradial forearm to minimize the risk to both nerves during surgical approaches to the dorsal radius. In this study 37 cadaveric forearms and 20 patients having distal radius external fixation were dissected to identify these nerves in relation to various anatomic landmarks. Based on these dissections the anatomy was divided into 2 zones that can be identified by easily visible and palpable landmarks. Zone 1 extends from the elbow to the cross-over of the abductor pollicis longus with the extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus. Zone 2 is distal to the cross-over. In zone 1 the 2 nerves can be differentiated through limited incisions based on their depth and anatomic location. Within this zone the SRN is deep to the brachioradialis until 1.8 cm proximal to zone 2 (9 cm proximal to the radial styloid), where it becomes superficial and pierces the fascia of the mobile wad and then remains deep to the subcutaneous fat. In contrast the LACN pierces the fascia between the brachialis and biceps muscles at the level of the elbow. In all specimens the LACN ran parallel to the cephalic vein within the subcutaneous fat. In 31 specimens it ran volar to the vein and in 5 specimens the nerve crossed under the cephalic vein at the elbow and ran dorsal to the vein in the forearm. One specimen had 2 branches with 1 on either side of the vein. Differentiation of these nerves was found to be possible through limited incisions in zone 1 during placement of external fixation pins for distal radius fractures. The LACN always was located in the superficial fat running with the cephalic vein, whereas the SRN was deeper to this nerve either covered by the brachioradialis or closely adherent to it within the investing fascia of the mobile wad. In zone 2 the nerves arborized and ran in the same tissue plane, making

  5. Terbinafine-loaded wound dressing for chronic superficial fungal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskiabi, Farnoush Asghari; Bonakdar, Shahin; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Imani, Mohammad; Jahanshiri, Zahra; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    In spite of developing new drugs and modern formulations, the treatments of chronic fungal infections are still challenging. Fibrous wound dressings are new suggestions for the treatment of chronic superficial infections. In the present study, we formulated an antifungal agent, terbinafine hydrochloride (TFH), which is a hydrophobic drug, in wound dressings prepared by electrospun polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50 w/w) and gelatin. To obtain more water-stable meshes, the preparations were treated by glutaraldehyde and their properties were determined before and after treatment. The morphology of fibrous meshes was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Drug loading efficiency and release rate were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the release rate was monitored for 144 h. Antifungal tests were performed on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans cultured on Muller-Hinton agar. The toxicity of the meshes was measured after 24 h and 14 days by MTT assay. Terbinafine loading of polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50) was 100% and it released the highest amount of TFH too. In antifungal tests, all samples were able to hinderT. mentagrophytes and A. fumigatus but not C. albicans growth among them, polycaprolactone fibers made the largest inhibition zone. In MTT assay, none of prepared samples showed toxicity against L929 cells. Teken together, the prepared TFH-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun meshes were able to release TFH slowly and in a steady state in time. With respect to no obvious cytotoxicity in MTT assay and stong antifungal activity toward T. mentagrophytesin vitro, these TFH-based meshes could be considered as potential candidates in clinical application as wound dressing for treatment of chronic dermatophytosis. - Highlights: • Terbinafine (TFH)-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun fibers were successfully fabricated. • TFH-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun fibers showed a slow drug release

  6. Terbinafine-loaded wound dressing for chronic superficial fungal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskiabi, Farnoush Asghari [Department of Mycology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran 13164. Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Microbiology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran 13164. Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bonakdar, Shahin; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali [National Cell Bank Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran 13164 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imani, Mohammad [Department of Novel Drug Delivery Systems, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahanshiri, Zahra [Department of Mycology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran 13164. Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh [Department of Mycology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi, E-mail: mrab442@yahoo.com [Department of Mycology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran 13164. Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Microbiology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran 13164. Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    In spite of developing new drugs and modern formulations, the treatments of chronic fungal infections are still challenging. Fibrous wound dressings are new suggestions for the treatment of chronic superficial infections. In the present study, we formulated an antifungal agent, terbinafine hydrochloride (TFH), which is a hydrophobic drug, in wound dressings prepared by electrospun polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50 w/w) and gelatin. To obtain more water-stable meshes, the preparations were treated by glutaraldehyde and their properties were determined before and after treatment. The morphology of fibrous meshes was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Drug loading efficiency and release rate were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the release rate was monitored for 144 h. Antifungal tests were performed on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans cultured on Muller-Hinton agar. The toxicity of the meshes was measured after 24 h and 14 days by MTT assay. Terbinafine loading of polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50) was 100% and it released the highest amount of TFH too. In antifungal tests, all samples were able to hinderT. mentagrophytes and A. fumigatus but not C. albicans growth among them, polycaprolactone fibers made the largest inhibition zone. In MTT assay, none of prepared samples showed toxicity against L929 cells. Teken together, the prepared TFH-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun meshes were able to release TFH slowly and in a steady state in time. With respect to no obvious cytotoxicity in MTT assay and stong antifungal activity toward T. mentagrophytesin vitro, these TFH-based meshes could be considered as potential candidates in clinical application as wound dressing for treatment of chronic dermatophytosis. - Highlights: • Terbinafine (TFH)-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun fibers were successfully fabricated. • TFH-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun fibers showed a slow drug release

  7. Validation and Application of Computed Radiography (CR) Tangential Technique for Wall Thickness Measurement of 10 Inch Carbon Steel Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhazleena Azaman; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Amry Amin Abas; Arshad Yassin; Sukhri Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas industry requires Non Destructive Testing (NDT) to ensure each components, in-service and critical, are fit-for-purpose. Pipes that are used to transfer oil or gas are amongst the critical component that needs to be well maintained and inspected. Typical pipe discontinuities that may lead to unintended incidents are erosion, corrosion, dent, welding defects, etc. Wall thickness assessment, with Radiography Testing (RT) is normally used to inspect such discontinuities and can be performed with two approaches; (a) center line beam tangential technique (b) offset from the centre pipe tangential technique. The latter is a method of choice for this work because of the pipe dimension and limited radiation safe distance at site. Two successful validation approaches (simulation and experimental) were performed to determine the probability of successfulness before the actual RT work with tangential technique is carried out. The pipe was a 10 inch diameter in-service wrapped carbon steel. A 9 Ci Ir-192 and white Imaging Plate (IP) were used as a gamma radiation source and to record the radiographic image. Result of this work suggest that RT with tangential technique for 10 inch wrapped in-service carbon steel pipe can be successfully performed. (author)

  8. The fall of the Northern Unicorn: Tangential motions in the Galactic Anti-centre with SDSS and Gaia

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, T. J. L.; Belokurov, V.; Koposov, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first detailed study of the behaviour of the stellar proper motion across the entire Galactic Anti-centre area visible in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. We use recalibrated SDSS astrometry in combination with positions from {\\it Gaia} DR1 to provide tangential motion measurements with a systematic uncertainty $

  9. Superficial dose evaluation of four dose calculation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhen; Qiu, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhiping; Lei, Mingjun; Liu, Gui; Zhang, Zijian; Hu, Yongmei

    2017-08-01

    Accurate superficial dose calculation is of major importance because of the skin toxicity in radiotherapy, especially within the initial 2 mm depth being considered more clinically relevant. The aim of this study is to evaluate superficial dose calculation accuracy of four commonly used algorithms in commercially available treatment planning systems (TPS) by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and film measurements. The superficial dose in a simple geometrical phantom with size of 30 cm×30 cm×30 cm was calculated by PBC (Pencil Beam Convolution), AAA (Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm), AXB (Acuros XB) in Eclipse system and CCC (Collapsed Cone Convolution) in Raystation system under the conditions of source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm and field size (FS) of 10×10 cm2. EGSnrc (BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc) program was performed to simulate the central axis dose distribution of Varian Trilogy accelerator, combined with measurements of superficial dose distribution by an extrapolation method of multilayer radiochromic films, to estimate the dose calculation accuracy of four algorithms in the superficial region which was recommended in detail by the ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement) and the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). In superficial region, good agreement was achieved between MC simulation and film extrapolation method, with the mean differences less than 1%, 2% and 5% for 0°, 30° and 60°, respectively. The relative skin dose errors were 0.84%, 1.88% and 3.90%; the mean dose discrepancies (0°, 30° and 60°) between each of four algorithms and MC simulation were (2.41±1.55%, 3.11±2.40%, and 1.53±1.05%), (3.09±3.00%, 3.10±3.01%, and 3.77±3.59%), (3.16±1.50%, 8.70±2.84%, and 18.20±4.10%) and (14.45±4.66%, 10.74±4.54%, and 3.34±3.26%) for AXB, CCC, AAA and PBC respectively. Monte Carlo simulation verified the feasibility of the superficial dose measurements by multilayer Gafchromic films. And the rank

  10. Long-term evolution of superficial optic disc drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Malmqvist; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Hamann, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    with hereditary ODD were included. Results: Mean age at initial and follow-up examination was, respectively, 16.8 and 73.3 years. The median follow-up time was 56 years. A minimal or non-existing change in superficial ODD anatomy (size and number) was seen in 10 of 12 eyes. There was a tendency towards more......Purpose: Optic disc drusen (ODD) is hyaline deposits in the optic nerve head seen in 1-2% of the population. Long-term evolution of ODD anatomy and visual field defects in ODD patients is a key factor for learning more about pathophysiology and prognosis of the condition. With a median follow......-up period of 56 years, this is the first study that evaluates superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in patients with ODD over a life span. Methods: Observational case series investigating progression of superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in ODD patients. Eight patients...

  11. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Hasbún Acuña

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El carcinoma basocelular es el cáncer de piel más frecuente, especialmente en personas de edad avanzada. El carcinoma basocelular pigmentado es una variante poco común que se ha descrito en la literatura como una lesión nodular hiperpigmentada. En raras ocasiones puede presentarse en forma de una extensa placa pigmentada, la cual puede ser clínicamente indistinguible del melanoma maligno de extensión superficial y de la enfermedad de Bowen. La dermatoscopía tiene una alta sensibilidad en el diagnóstico del carcinoma basocelular, cuando se utilizan los criterios de Menzies, aunque el diagnóstico final es histopatológico. El objetivo del presente trabajo es reportar y analizar el caso de una paciente con un extenso carcinoma basocelular superficial pigmentado, que simula un melanoma maligno de extensión superficial.

  12. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system - A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannalini, S.

    1997-01-01

    There is little information on superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (CNS) in the literature, mainly due to the rarity of the disease, the difficulties in diagnosis (autopsy pre magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and the long latency of the symptoms. With the advent of MRI, for the first time we are able to make a positive in vivo diagnosis. But this comes at a time of less disease incidence, and little clinical awareness. MRI is able to make the diagnosis because of the strong paramagnetic effect of haemosiderin, the blood by-product that is deposited on the brain surface in superficial siderosis of the CNS. The ability of the brain to biosynthesize ferritin in response to prolonged contact with haemosiderin is thought to be the most important factor in the pathogenesis of superficial siderosis. (author)

  13. Dosimetric comparison of treatment planning systems in irradiation of breast with tangential fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-W.; Das, Indra J.; Tang, Walter; Chang Sha; Tsai, J.-S.; Ceberg, Crister; Gaspie, Barbara de; Singh, Rajinder; Fein, Douglas A.; Fowble, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study are: (1) to investigate the dosimetric differences of the different treatment planning systems (TPS) in breast irradiation with tangential fields, and (2) to study the effect of beam characteristics on dose distributions in tangential breast irradiation with 6 MV linear accelerators from different manufacturers. Methods and Materials: Nine commercial and two university-based TPS are evaluated in this study. The computed tomographic scan of three representative patients, labeled as 'small', 'medium' and 'large' based on their respective chest wall separations in the central axis plane (CAX) were used. For each patient, the tangential fields were set up in each TPS. The CAX distribution was optimized separately with lung correction, for each TPS based on the same set of optimization conditions. The isodose distributions in two other off-axis planes, one 6 cm cephalic and the other 6 cm caudal to the CAX plane were also computed. To investigate the effect of beam characteristics on dose distributions, a three-dimensional TPS was used to calculate the isodose distributions for three different linear accelerators, the Varian Clinac 6/100, the Siemens MD2 and the Philips SL/7 for the three patients. In addition, dose distributions obtained with 6 MV X-rays from two different accelerators, the Varian Clinac 6/100 and the Varian 2100C, were compared. Results: For all TPS, the dose distributions in all three planes agreed qualitatively to within ± 5% for the 'small' and the 'medium' patients. For the 'large' patient, all TPS agreed to within ± 4% on the CAX plane. The isodose distributions in the caudal plane differed by ± 5% among all TPS. In the cephalic plane in which the patient separation is much larger than that in the CAX plane, six TPS correctly calculated the dose distribution showing a cold spot in the center of the breast contour. The other five TPS showed that the center of the breast received adequate dose. Isodose

  14. Experiments on the superficial irradiation of spherical vegetables and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, B.; Kiraly, Z.

    1974-01-01

    A revolving facility was made for the homogeneous superficial irradiation of spherical vegetables and fruits (apricot, peach, tomato, apple, etc.) with fast electrons. After the building of the technological apparatus described in detail, dosimetrical measurements were carried out by a Van de Graff generator of 2 MV and it was proved, that the superficial irradiation had a smaller effect on the quality of the fresh fruits, than of the stored ones. The developed apparatus can be altered according to the ripe-rate of the products. (K.A.)

  15. Aneurysm of the superficial femoral artery in an infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M.; Komuro, H.; Matoba, K.; Kaneko, M. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Niitsu, M.; Itai, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    An isolated arterial aneurysm in childhood is extremely rare. We report a 1-year-old girl with an aneurysm of the right superficial femoral artery, presenting as an asymptomatic mass of the thigh. The aneurysm involved the whole superficial femoral artery (9 cm in length), and surgical treatment would have required replacement of the affected artery. Conservative treatment was chosen, influenced by the patient's rapid growth at that time. Non-invasive, 3-D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was useful as an alternative to conventional angiography for detailed evaluation of the femoral arteries, including the aneurysm. (orig.)

  16. Purification of infectious adenovirus in two hours by ultracentrifugation and tangential flow filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugai, Hideyo; Yamasaki, Takahito; Hirose, Megumi; Inabe, Kumiko; Kujime, Yukari; Terashima, Miho; Liu, Bingbing; Tang, Hong; Zhao, Mujun; Murata, Takehide; Kimura, Makoto; Pan, Jianzhi; Obata, Yuichi; Hamada, Hirofumi; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.

    2005-01-01

    Adenoviruses are excellent vectors for gene transfer and are used extensively for high-level expression of the products of transgenes in living cells. The development of simple and rapid methods for the purification of stable infectious recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) remains a challenge. We report here a method for the purification of infectious adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) that involves ultracentrifugation on a cesium chloride gradient at 604,000g for 15 min at 4 deg C and tangential flow filtration. The entire procedure requires less than two hours and infectious Ad5 can be recovered at levels higher than 64% of the number of plaque-forming units (pfu) in the initial crude preparation of viruses. We have obtained titers of infectious purified Ad5 of 1.35 x 10 10 pfu/ml and a ratio of particle titer to infectious titer of seven. The method described here allows the rapid purification of rAds for studies of gene function in vivo and in vitro, as well as the rapid purification of Ad5

  17. Advantages of the technique with segmented fields for tangential breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovski, Zoran; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Petrova, Deva; Lazarova, Emilija

    2013-01-01

    In the case of breast cancer, the prominent role of radiation therapy is an established fact. Depending on the stage of the disease, the breast is most often irradiated with two tangential fields and a direct supraclavicular field. Planning target volume is defined through the recommendations in ICRU Reports 50 and 62. The basic ‘dogma’ of radiotherapy requires the dose in the target volume to be homogenous. The favorable situation would be if the dose width was between 95% and 107%; this, however, is often not possible to be fulfilled. A technique for enhancement of homogeneity of isodose distribution would be using one or more additional fields, which will increase the dose in the volume where it is too low. These fields are called segmented fields (a technique also known as ‘field in field’) because they occupy only part of the primary fields. In this study we will show the influence of this technique on the dose homogeneity improvement in the PTV region. The mean dose in the target volume was increased from 49.51 Gy to 50.79 Gy in favor of the plans with segmented fields; and the dose homogeneity (measured in standard deviations) was also improved - 1.69 vs. 1.30. The increase in the target volume, encompassed by 95% isodose, was chosen as a parameter to characterize overall planning improvement. Thus, in our case, the improvement of dose coverage was from 93.19% to 97.06%. (Author)

  18. Optimum Energy Extraction from Coherent Vortex Rings Passing Tangentially Over Flexible Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnia, Alireza; Browning, Emily A.; Peterson, Sean D.; Erath, Byron D.

    2017-11-01

    Coherent vortical structures can incite self-sustained oscillations in flexible membranes. This concept has recently gained interest for energy extraction from ambient environments. In this study the special case of a vortex ring passing tangentially over a cantilevered flexible plate is investigated. This problem is governed by the Kirchhoff-Love plate equation, which can be expressed in terms of a non-dimensional mass parameter of the plate, non-dimensional pressure loading induced by the vortex ring, and a Strouhal (St) number which expresses the duration of pressure loading relative to the period of plate oscillation. For a plate with a fixed mass parameter immersed in a fluid environment, the St number specifies the beam dynamics and the energy exchange process. The aim of this study is to identify the St number corresponding to maximum energy exchange between plates and vortex rings. The energy exchange process between the vortex ring and the plate is investigated over a range of 0.3 transfer is reported in each case and an empirical correlation is provided for predictive purposes. Supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grant No. CBET-1511761, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), under Grant No. 05778-2015.

  19. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L [PPPL; Bell, R E [PPPL; Faust, I [MIT; Tritz, K [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21209, USA; Diallo, A [PPPL; Gerhardt, S P [PPPL; Kozub, T A [PPPL; LeBlanc, B P [PPPL; Stratton, B C [PPPL

    2014-07-01

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  20. The fall of the Northern Unicorn: tangential motions in the Galactic anticentre with SDSS and Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, T. J. L.; Belokurov, V.; Koposov, S. E.

    2018-01-01

    We present the first detailed study of the behaviour of the stellar proper motion across the entire Galactic anticentre area visible in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. We use recalibrated SDSS astrometry in combination with positions from Gaia DR1 to provide tangential motion measurements with a systematic uncertainty <5 km s-1 for the Main Sequence stars at the distance of the Monoceros Ring. We demonstrate that Monoceros members rotate around the Galaxy with azimuthal speeds of ∼230 km s-1, only slightly lower than that of the Sun. Additionally, both vertical and azimuthal components of their motion are shown to vary considerably but gradually as a function of Galactic longitude and latitude. The stellar overdensity in the anti-centre region can be split into two components, the narrow, stream-like ACS and the smooth Ring. According to our analysis, these two structures show very similar but clearly distinct kinematic trends, which can be summarized as follows: the amplitude of the velocity variation in vϕ and vz in the ACS is higher compared to the Ring, whose velocity gradients appear to be flatter. Currently, no model available can explain the entirety of the data in this area of the sky. However, the new accurate kinematic map introduced here should provide strong constraints on the genesis of the Monoceros Ring and the associated substructure.

  1. Cavitation control on a 2D hydrofoil through a continuous tangential injection of liquid: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshevskiy, M. V.; Zapryagaev, I. I.; Pervunin, K. S.; Markovich, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    In the paper, the possibility of active control of a cavitating flow over a 2D hydrofoil that replicates a scaled-down model of high-pressure hydroturbine guide vane (GV) was tested. The flow manipulation was implemented by a continuous tangential liquid injection at different flow rates through a spanwise slot in the foil surface. In experiments, the hydrofoil was placed in the test channel at the attack angle of 9°. Different cavitation conditions were reached by varying the cavitation number and injection velocity. In order to study time dynamics and spatial patterns of partial cavities, high-speed imaging was employed. A PIV method was used to measure the mean and fluctuating velocity fields over the hydrofoil. Hydroacoustic measurements were carried out by means of a pressure transducer to identify spectral characteristics of the cavitating flow. It was found that the present control technique is able to modify the partial cavity pattern (or even totally suppress cavitation) in case of stable sheet cavitation and change the amplitude of pressure pulsations at unsteady regimes. The injection technique makes it also possible to significantly influence the spatial distributions of the mean velocity and its turbulent fluctuations over the GV section for non-cavitating flow and sheet cavitation.

  2. Wide-angle ITER-prototype tangential infrared and visible viewing system for DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, C. J., E-mail: lasnier@LLNL.gov; Allen, S. L.; Ellis, R. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; McLean, A. G.; Meyer, W. H.; Morris, K.; Seppala, L. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Crabtree, K. [College of Optics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    An imaging system with a wide-angle tangential view of the full poloidal cross-section of the tokamak in simultaneous infrared and visible light has been installed on DIII-D. The optical train includes three polished stainless steel mirrors in vacuum, which view the tokamak through an aperture in the first mirror, similar to the design concept proposed for ITER. A dichroic beam splitter outside the vacuum separates visible and infrared (IR) light. Spatial calibration is accomplished by warping a CAD-rendered image to align with landmarks in a data image. The IR camera provides scrape-off layer heat flux profile deposition features in diverted and inner-wall-limited plasmas, such as heat flux reduction in pumped radiative divertor shots. Demonstration of the system to date includes observation of fast-ion losses to the outer wall during neutral beam injection, and shows reduced peak wall heat loading with disruption mitigation by injection of a massive gas puff.

  3. On the effect of a tangential discontinuity on ions specularly reflected at an oblique shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, D.

    1989-01-01

    In seeking to explain the events observed close to the Earth's bow shock known as hot, diamagnetic cavities (HDC), or active current sheets (ACS), attention has focused on the microphysics of the interaction of a magnetic field directional discontinuity and a collisionless, supercritical shock. Here the author investigates the case of a tangential discontinuity (TD) convecting into a shock at some arbitrary angle. As a first stage he adopted an approach in which test particles represent ions specularly reflected at the shock front. Widely different behavior is possible depending on the sense of ion gyration relative to the TD. Particles can be injected into the plane of the TD so that they travel upstream trapped close to the TD. This implies that ACS events, presumed to be the result of the interaction of the solar wind with a large density reflected component, are detached from the bow shock. For other geometries, ions interact with the TD but stay close to the shock, implying that ACS events are modifications of the shock. The TD can deprive a limited spatial region of a downstream reflected gyrating ion population (necessary for the quasi-perpendicular supercritical shock to be steady), and so he could anticipate where the shock will not be in equilibrium, and consequently where strong reflection may occur. The detailed behavior of the shock in such a situation must be investigated with self-consistent simulations

  4. The design of a second harmonic tangential array interferometer for C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretz, N.; Jobes, F.; Irby, J.

    1997-01-01

    A design for a tangential array interferometer for C-Mod operating at 1.06 and 0.53 μm is presented. This is a special type of two color interferometer in which a Nd:YAG laser is frequency doubled in a nonlinear crystal. Because the doubling efficiency is imperfect, two frequencies propagate collinearly through the plasma after which the 1.06 μm ray is doubled again mixing in the optical domain with the undoubled ray. The resulting interference is insensitive to path length but is affected by plasma dispersion in the usual way. A typical central fringe shift in C-Mod is expected to be 0.1 endash 1.0, but the absolute and relative accuracy in n e l measurements can be as high as in a conventional interferometer. This design uses a repetitively pulsed laser which is converted to a fan beam crossing the horizontal midplane. The chordal array is defined by internal retroreflectors on the C-Mod midplane which return the beam to the second doubler and a detector array. This interferometer design has beam diameters of a few millimeters and element spacings of a few centimeters, uses a repetitively pulsed, TEM 00 Nd:YAG laser, fiber optic beam transport, commercial components, and a compact optical design which minimizes port space requirements. An optical system design is presented which is based on the performance of a tabletop prototype at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Influence of chemical treatment on dimensional stability of narrow-leaved ash - part one: Tangential swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional change in wood occurs with the change in hygroscopic moisture content, as a consequence of available hydroxyl groups in wood constituents, allowing for the hydrogen bonding with water molecules. Various pretreatments of wood material are being frequently applied in the wood processing industry. One of the main effects of such processes is the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, which is the main carrier of the free hydroxyl groups in wood material. Hence, the influence of water treatment and the acetic acid treatment on dimensional stability of narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. ssp. Pannonica Soó & Simon were examined in this paper. Duration of treatments was 1h, 2h, 3h and 4h for both solvents. In addition the acetic acid was separately used in concentrations of 3% and 6%. Dimensional stability of the control (referent and treated sample groups were tested on oven dried samples which were consequently submerged in the distilled water during 32 days. The increase of dimensional stability of narrow-leaved ash was achieved with all of the three treatments (one treatment with water and the two with acetic acid solutions. Simultaneously, it was noticed that the results of water uptake and tangential swelling were not significantly affected by the duration (length of the treatments. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP-031041

  6. A tangentially viewing visible TV system for the DIII-D divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Meyer, W.H.; Wood, R.D.; Nilson, D.G.; Ellis, R.; Brooks, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    A video camera system has been installed on the DIII-D tokamak for two-dimensional spatial studies of line emission in the lower divertor region. The system views the divertor tangentially at approximately the height of the X point through an outer port. At the tangency plane, the entire divertor from the inner wall to outside the DIII-D bias ring is viewed with spatial resolution of ∼1 cm. The image contains information from ∼90 deg of toroidal angle. In a recent upgrade, remotely controllable filter changers were added which have produced images from nominally identical discharges using different spectral lines. Software was developed to calculate the response function matrix of the optical system using distributed computing techniques and assuming toroidal symmetry. Standard sparse matrix algorithms are then used to invert the three-dimensional images onto a poloidal plane. Spatial resolution of the inverted images is 2 cm; higher resolution simply increases the size of the response function matrix. Initial results from a series of experiments with multiple identical discharges show that the emission from CII and CIII, which appears along the inner scrape-off layer above and below the X point during ELMing H mode, moves outward and becomes localized near the X point in radiative divertor operation induced by deuterium injection. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. An Approximate Cone Beam Reconstruction Algorithm for Gantry-Tilted CT Using Tangential Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available FDK algorithm is a well-known 3D (three-dimensional approximate algorithm for CT (computed tomography image reconstruction and is also known to suffer from considerable artifacts when the scanning cone angle is large. Recently, it has been improved by performing the ramp filtering along the tangential direction of the X-ray source helix for dealing with the large cone angle problem. In this paper, we present an FDK-type approximate reconstruction algorithm for gantry-tilted CT imaging. The proposed method improves the image reconstruction by filtering the projection data along a proper direction which is determined by CT parameters and gantry-tilted angle. As a result, the proposed algorithm for gantry-tilted CT reconstruction can provide more scanning flexibilities in clinical CT scanning and is efficient in computation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated with turbell clock phantom and thorax phantom and compared with FDK algorithm and a popular 2D (two-dimensional approximate algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better image quality for gantry-tilted CT image reconstruction.

  8. VITRECTOMY FOR INTERMEDIATE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION ASSOCIATED WITH TANGENTIAL VITREOMACULAR TRACTION: A CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziada, Jean; Hagenau, Felix; Compera, Denise; Wolf, Armin; Scheler, Renate; Schaumberger, Markus M; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Schumann, Ricarda G

    2018-03-01

    To describe the morphologic characteristics of the vitreomacular interface in intermediate age-related macular degeneration associated with tangential traction due to premacular membrane formation and to correlate with optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings and clinical data. Premacular membrane specimens were removed sequentially with the internal limiting membrane from 27 eyes of 26 patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration during standard vitrectomy. Specimens were processed for immunocytochemical staining of epiretinal cells and extracellular matrix components. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images and patient charts were evaluated in retrospect. Immunocytochemistry revealed hyalocytes and myofibroblasts as predominant cell types. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated evidence of vitreoschisis in all eyes. Myofibroblasts with contractile properties were observed to span between folds of the internal limiting membrane and vitreous cortex collagen. Retinal pigment epithelial cells or inflammatory cells were not detected. Mean visual acuity (Snellen) showed significant improvement from 20/72 ± 20/36 to 20/41 ± 20/32 (P age-related macular degeneration predominantly consists of vitreous collagen, hyalocytes, and myofibroblasts with contractile properties. Vitreoschisis and vitreous-derived cells appear to play an important role in traction formation of this subgroup of eyes. In patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration and contractile premacular membrane, release of traction by vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling results in significantly functional and anatomical improvement.

  9. Superficial parotidectomy versus retrograde partial superficial parotidectomy in treating benign salivary gland tumor (pleomorphic adenoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi, Omri; El-Naaj, Imad Abu; Gordin, Arye; Akrish, Sharon; Peled, Micha

    2010-09-01

    Of all benign salivary gland tumors of the parotid gland, pleomorphic adenoma (mixed tumor) is the most common. It accounts for 60% to 70% of all benign tumors of the parotid gland. This neoplasm arises in patients in the fourth to sixth decade of life, with a female predominance. The surgical excision of this lesion continues to be the subject of major debate. The goal is to avoid facial disability yet attain complete resection without perforation of the capsule/pseudocapsule. The purpose of our study is to compare 2 surgical techniques performed at the Ear, Nose, and Throat and Maxillofacial Departments, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel, and determine which is preferable in treating this lesion. We reviewed 48 patients who underwent excision of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland between 1996 and 2005 at Rambam Medical Center: 18 were treated surgically with the classical superficial parotidectomy (SP) technique, using an anterograde approach, and 30 were treated with retrograde partial superficial parotidectomy (PSP). We compared the 2 surgical techniques in terms of surgical time, histopathologic size of the lesion, amount of excised healthy parotid tissue, histologic margin, and the preservation of the capsule/pseudocapsule. We also made clinical records of temporary or definitive injury to the facial nerve, which branches of the facial nerve were temporarily or definitively injured, the occurrence of Frey syndrome, esthetic satisfaction, and the amount of recurrence or infection after surgery. Of the 48 patients, 19 (39.6%) were male and 29 (60.4%) were female, with a mean age (+/- SD) of 43.8 +/- 16.97 years (median, 50 years; range, 12-79 years). We found a significant difference (P = .029) in mean surgical time (+/- SD): 171 +/- 49.7 minutes (median, 165 minutes) when performing the classical SP and 145 +/- 42.7 minutes (median, 130 minutes) when performing the retrograde PSP. Much more healthy parotid tissue was taken out with the classical

  10. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Treatment Planning for Superficial Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacarias, Albert S.; Brown, Mellonie F.; Mills, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The physician's planning objective is often a uniform dose distribution throughout the planning target volume (PTV), including superficial PTVs on or near the surface of a patient's body. Varian's Eclipse treatment planning system uses a progressive resolution optimizer (PRO), version 8.2.23, for RapidArc dynamic multileaf collimator volumetric modulated arc therapy planning. Because the PRO is a fast optimizer, optimization convergence errors (OCEs) produce dose nonuniformity in the superficial area of the PTV. We present a postsurgical cranial case demonstrating the recursive method our clinic uses to produce RapidArc treatment plans. The initial RapidArc treatment plan generated using one 360 o arc resulted in substantial dose nonuniformity in the superficial section of the PTV. We demonstrate the use of multiple arcs to produce improved dose uniformity in this region. We also compare the results of this superficial dose compensation method to the results of a recursive method of dose correction that we developed in-house to correct optimization convergence errors in static intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment plans. The results show that up to 4 arcs may be necessary to provide uniform dose to the surface of the PTV with the current version of the PRO.

  11. A method for determination of the superficial charge density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, F.

    1992-10-01

    In this article is presented a new methodism for determination of superficial charge density in nonconducting materials which is based in the combination of laboratory calibrated experiments in conducting surfaces with theoretical calculations for nonconducting surfaces. (author). 19 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  12. Superficial skin infections and the use of topical and systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superficial bacterial infections of the skin are very common. With the increasing burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), this is likely to worsen. Examples of such infections include impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, ecthyma, furuncles, carbuncles and subcutaneous abscesses. Common causative organisms are ...

  13. Frey′s Syndrome as a Sequela of Superficial Parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Kumar Bali

    2006-01-01

    The disorder is characterized by unilateral sweating and flushing of facial skin in the area of parotid gland occurring during meals. We present a case of a patient who developed symptoms of Frey Syndrome 4 months after undergoing superficial parotidectomy on left side.

  14. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in superficial CNS siderosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Lindelof, M.; Haziri, Donika

    2015-01-01

    the challenges related to the diagnosis and treatment of superficial siderosis. RESULTS: A potential bleeding aetiology was identified in all patients, but removal of the offending bleeding source was achieved only in three (33%). Symptom progression was halted in just one patient (11%), which suggests...... neurotoxicity due to accumulating iron toxicity. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  15. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system | Govind | SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    progression of clinical deterioration but halting the chronic subarachoid haemorrhage will reduce the iron load in the CSF and hence the cytotoxic risk. We present a case of superficial siderosis presenting with hearing loss and cerebellar signs highlighting the imaging findings. South African Journal of Radiology Vol.

  16. Treatment for superficial infusion thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nisio, Marcello; Peinemann, Frank; Porreca, Ettore; Rutjes, Anne W. S.

    2015-01-01

    Although superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity represents a frequent complication of intravenous catheters inserted into the peripheral veins of the forearm or hand, no consensus exists on the optimal management of this condition in clinical practice. To summarise the evidence from

  17. Risk factors associated with acquiring superficial fungal infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extensively documented. It is therefore imperative to identify the factors that predispose to the development of SFI so as to provide evidence-based and effective pre- ventive measures, thus reducing the prevalence and the attendant morbidity associated with superficial fungal in- fections and this was our aim in this present ...

  18. Comparison of histologic margin status in low-grade cutaneous and subcutaneous canine mast cell tumours examined by radial and tangential sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, C B; Milovancev, M; Russell, D S

    2018-03-01

    Radial sections are widely used to estimate adequacy of excision in canine cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCTs); however, this sectioning technique estimates only a small fraction of total margin circumference. This study aimed to compare histologic margin status in grade II/low grade MCTs sectioned using both radial and tangential sectioning techniques. A total of 43 circumferential margins were evaluated from 21 different tumours. Margins were first sectioned radially, followed by tangential sections. Tissues were examined by routine histopathology. Tangential margin status differed in 10 of 43 (23.3%) margins compared with their initial status on radial section. Of 39 margins, 9 (23.1%) categorized as histologic tumour-free margin (HTFM) >0 mm were positive on tangential sectioning. Tangential sections detected a significantly higher proportion of positive margins relative to radial sections (exact 2-tailed P-value = .0215). The HTFM was significantly longer in negative tangential margins than positive tangential margins (mean 10.1 vs 3.2 mm; P = .0008). A receiver operating characteristic curve comparing HTFM and tangentially negative margins found an area under the curve of 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.96). Although correct classification peaked at the sixth cut-point of HTFM ≥1 mm, radial sections still incorrectly classified 50% of margins as lacking tumour cells. Radial sections had 100% specificity for predicting negative tangential margins at a cut-point of 10.9 mm. These data indicate that for low grade MCTs, HTFMs >0 mm should not be considered completely excised, particularly when HTFM is <10.9 mm. This will inform future studies that use HTFM and overall excisional status as dependent variables in multivariable prognostic models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  20. Subsurface nitrate reduction under wetlands takes place in narrow superficial zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos Ribas, Osmar; Calderer, M.; Marti, Vicens

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the depth distribution of the Nitrate Reduction Potential (NRP) on a natural and a re-established wetland. The obtained NRP provides a valuable data of the driving factors affecting denitrification, the Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium (DNRA) process and ...... that wetlands can be restored satisfactorily.......This study aims to investigate the depth distribution of the Nitrate Reduction Potential (NRP) on a natural and a re-established wetland. The obtained NRP provides a valuable data of the driving factors affecting denitrification, the Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium (DNRA) process...... and the performance of a re-established wetland. Intact soil cores were collected and divided in slices for the determination of Organic Matter (OM) through Loss of Ignition (LOI) as well as Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and NRP spiking nitrate in batch tests. The Nitrate Reduction (NR) was fitted as a pseudo...

  1. Assessment of bacterial superficial contamination in classical or ritually slaughtered cattle using metagenetics and microbiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Hupperts, C; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Delcenserie, V; Daube, G

    2017-04-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the slaughter technique (Halal vs Classical slaughter) on the superficial contamination of cattle carcasses, by using traditional microbiological procedures and 16S rDNA metagenetics. The purpose was also to investigate the neck area to identify bacteria originating from the digestive or the respiratory tract. Twenty bovine carcasses (10 from each group) were swabbed at the slaughterhouse, where both slaughtering methods are practiced. Two swabbing areas were chosen: one "legal" zone of 1600cm 2 (composed of zones from rump, flank, brisket and forelimb) and locally on the neck area (200cm 2 ). Samples were submitted to classical microbiology for aerobic Total Viable Counts (TVC) at 30°C and Enterobacteriaceae counts, while metagenetic analysis was performed on the same samples. The classical microbiological results revealed no significant differences between both slaughtering practices; with values between 3.95 and 4.87log CFU/100cm 2 and 0.49 and 1.94log CFU/100cm 2 , for TVC and Enterobacteriaceae respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data showed that differences in the bacterial population abundance between slaughtering methods were mainly observed in the "legal" swabbing zone compared to the neck area. Bacterial genera belonging to the Actinobacteria phylum were more abundant in the "legal" swabbing zone in "Halal" samples, while Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium were encountered more in "Halal" samples, in all swabbing areas. This was also the case for Firmicutes bacterial populations (families of Aerococcaceae, Planococcaceae). Except for Planococcoceae, the analysis of Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) abundances of bacteria from the digestive or respiratory tract revealed no differences between groups. In conclusion, the slaughtering method does not influence the superficial microbiological pattern in terms of specific microbiological markers of the digestive or respiratory tract. However

  2. Measurements of beam-ion confinement during tangential beam-driven instabilities in PBX [Princeton Beta Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Kaita, R.; Takahashi, H.; Gammel, G.; Hammett, G.W.; Kaye, S.

    1987-01-01

    During tangential injection of neutral beams into low density tokamak plasmas with β > 1% in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX), instabilities are observed that degrade the confinement of beam ions. Neutron, charge-exchange, and diamagnetic loop measurements are examined in order to identify the mechanism or mechanisms responsible for the beam-ion transport. The data suggest a resonant interaction between the instabilities and the parallel energetic beam ions. Evidence for some nonresonant transport also exists

  3. An automated portal verification system for the tangential breast portal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, F.-F.; Lai, W.; Chen, C. W.; Nelson, D. F.

    1995-01-01

    Hough transform was used to detect and quantify the field edge. Then, the anatomical landmarks (skin line and chest wall) were extracted using both histogram equalization method and Canny edge detector in different subregions. The resulting parameters such as relative shift and rotation from the matching procedure were related to the patient setup variations and were used as the basis for the positioning correction suggestion. Results: The automated portal verification technique was tested using over 100 clinical tangential breast portal images. Both field widths and collimator angles were calculated and were compared to the machine setup parameters. The computer identified anatomical features were evaluated by an expert oncologist by comparing computer-identified edge lines to manual drawings. Results indicated that the computerized algorithm was able to detect the setup field size within an error less than 1.5 mm and collimator angle with an error less than one degree compared to the original field setup. Note that these are the tolerances of the treatment machine. The radiation oncologist rated computer extracted features as absolutely acceptable except 10% of chest walls were acceptable. The subjective evaluation indicated that the computer-identified features was reliable enough for potential clinical applications. The Chamfer matching method provided a matching results between features in two images in an accuracy of within 2 mm. Conclusions: A fully automated portal verification system is developed for the radiation therapy of breast cancer. With a newly developed hierarchical region feature processing and a feature-weighted Chamfer matching techniques, the treatment port for the tangential breast port can be automatically verified. The technique we developed can be also used for the development of automated portal verification systems for the other treatment sites. Our preliminary results showed potentials for the clinical applications

  4. Detecting tangential dislocations on planar faults from traction free surface observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Ioan R; Volkov, Darko

    2009-01-01

    We propose in this paper robust reconstruction methods for tangential dislocations on planar faults. We assume that only surface observations are available, and that a traction free condition applies at that surface. This study is an extension to the full three dimensions of Ionescu and Volkov (2006 Inverse Problems 22 2103). We also explore in this present paper the possibility of detecting slow slip events (such as silent earthquakes, or earthquake nucleation phases) from GPS observations. Our study uses extensively an asymptotic estimate for the observed surface displacement. This estimate is first used to derive what we call the moments reconstruction method. Then it is also used for finding necessary conditions for a surface displacement field to have been caused by a slip on a fault. These conditions lead to the introduction of two parameters: the activation factor and the confidence index. They can be computed from the surface observations in a robust fashion. They indicate whether a measured displacement field is due to an active fault. We also infer a second, combined, reconstruction technique blending least square minimization and the moments method. We carefully assess how our reconstruction method is affected by the sensitivity of the observation apparatus and the stepsize for the grid of surface observation points. The maximum permissible stepsize for such a grid is computed for different values of fault depth and orientation. Finally we present numerical examples of reconstruction of faults. We demonstrate that our combined method is sharp, robust and computationally inexpensive. We also note that this method performs satisfactorily for shallow faults, despite the fact that our asymptotic formula deteriorates in that case

  5. LONGITUDINAL RESIDUAL AND TANGENTIAL STRAIN (LRS and LRT IN SIX Eucalyptus spp. CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The species of Eucalyptus genus present high levels of growth stress. These stresses are mechanical efforts generated during the tree growth to help maintaining the balance of the cup, in response to environmental (light, wind and inclination of the land and silvicultural agents (pruning, thinning and planting density. The growth stresses are responsible for the cracks of tops, in logs and boards, and for the warp after the breaking down. This research evaluated the level of growth stress, measured by the longitudinal residual and tangential strain (DRL and DRT, around the circumference of the trunks of alive trees of six clones of Eucalyptus spp., at the age of 10.5 years, and verified the effect of the planting parcel. The clones belong to VMM-AGRO, and they are coming from a clonal test area implanted in the Bom Sucesso farm, located in Vazante-MG. For evaluating the experiment, the model adopted was the completely randomized one disposed in factorial outline with two factors (clone and portion in three repetitions. The results indicated that the average LRS was 0.093 mm and that the average LRT was 0.025 mm. It was verified that, for LRS, the clone effects and planting parcel were significant, while the interaction effect was not significant. For LRT the parcel and interaction effect were significant, while clone effect was not significant. Clones 44, 58 and 47 presented the smallest levels and better distributions of LRS, while, the clones 27, 44 and 58 presented the highest LRS levels. The clones 44 and 58 presented the best distribution and the smallest level of growth stress and may be considered potentially apt for producing sawn wood or solid wood.

  6. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. AAA and PBC calculation accuracy in the surface build-up region in tangential beam treatments. Phantom and breast case study with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panettieri, Vanessa; Barsoum, Pierre; Westermark, Mathias; Brualla, Lorenzo; Lax, Ingmar

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: In tangential beam treatments accurate dose calculation of the absorbed dose in the build-up region is of major importance, in particular when the target has superficial extension close to the skin. In most analytical treatment planning systems (TPSs) calculations depend on the experimental measurements introduced by the user in which accuracy might be limited by the type of detector employed to perform them. To quantify the discrepancy between analytically calculated and delivered dose in the build-up region, near the skin of a patient, independent Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the PENELOPE code were performed. Dose distributions obtained with MC simulations were compared with those given by the Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) algorithm and the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) implemented in the commercial TPS Eclipse. Material and methods: A cylindrical phantom was used to approximate the breast contour of a patient for MC simulations and the TPS. Calculations of the absorbed doses were performed for 6 and 18 MV beams for four different angles of incidence: 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg. and 75 deg. and different field sizes: 3 x 3 cm 2 , 10 x 10 cm 2 and 40 x 40 cm 2 . Absorbed doses along the phantom central axis were obtained with both the PBC algorithm and the AAA and compared to those estimated by the MC simulations. Additionally, a breast patient case was calculated with two opposed 6 MV photon beams using all the aforementioned analytical and stochastic algorithms. Results: For the 6 MV photon beam in the phantom case, both the PBC algorithm and the AAA tend to underestimate the absorbed dose in the build-up region in comparison to MC results. These differences are clinically irrelevant and are included in a 1 mm range. This tendency is also confirmed in the breast patient case. For the 18 MV beam the PBC algorithm underestimates the absorbed dose with respect to the AAA. In comparison to MC simulations the PBC algorithm tends

  8. A Modified EPA Method 1623 that Uses Tangential Flow Hollow-Fiber Ultrafiltration and Heat Dissociation Steps to Detect Waterborne Cryptosporidum and Giardia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol describes the use of a tangential flow hollow-fiber ultrafiltration sample concentration system and a heat dissociation as alternative steps for the detection of waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia species using EPA Method 1623.

  9. Superficial evolution and compacting aptitude of uranium dioxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danroc, J.

    1982-04-01

    Long term storage of UO 2 powder improves slightly shaping and solidity of compacted powder. The aim of this work is the study of material evolution and the increase of this evolution rate for application to industrial fabrication. Aging in wet air at different temperatures is examined. Evolution of texture and superficial composition is followed. Below 80 0 C UO 3 , 2H 2 O is formed at crystal surface and thermal decomposition gives different hydrates. Kinetics of the transformation is studied. Oxidohydratation in liquid phase is rapid with hydrogen peroxide. The aged or treated material is compacted and mechanical behaviour is examined. Improvement is explained by inter-layer water molecule of the superficial hydrate giving lubricant and pseudo-plastic properties [fr

  10. The concept of the average stress in the fracture process zone for the search of the crack path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.G. Matvienko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the average stress has been employed to propose the maximum average tangential stress (MATS criterion for predicting the direction of fracture angle. This criterion states that a crack grows when the maximum average tangential stress in the fracture process zone ahead of the crack tip reaches its critical value and the crack growth direction coincides with the direction of the maximum average tangential stress along a constant radius around the crack tip. The tangential stress is described by the singular and nonsingular (T-stress terms in the Williams series solution. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed MATS criterion, this criterion is directly applied to experiments reported in the literature for the mixed mode I/II crack growth behavior of Guiting limestone. The predicted directions of fracture angle are consistent with the experimental data. The concept of the average stress has been also employed to predict the surface crack path under rolling-sliding contact loading. The proposed model considers the size and orientation of the initial crack, normal and tangential loading due to rolling–sliding contact as well as the influence of fluid trapped inside the crack by a hydraulic pressure mechanism. The MATS criterion is directly applied to equivalent contact model for surface crack growth on a gear tooth flank.

  11. Effects of superficial gas velocity and fluid property on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the influence of superficial gas velocity and fluid properties on gas holdup and liquid circulation velocity in a three-phase external loop airlift column using polystyrene (0.0036 m diameter and 1025.55 kg/m3 density) and nylon-6 (0.0035 m diameter and 1084.24 kg/m3 density) particles with aqueous ...

  12. Isolated core vs. superficial cooling effects on virtual maze navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jennifer; Cheung, Stephen S

    2007-07-01

    Cold impairs cognitive performance and is a common occurrence in many survival situations. Altered behavior patterns due to impaired navigation abilities in cold environments are potential problems in lost-person situations. We investigated the separate effects of low core temperature and superficial cooling on a spatially demanding virtual navigation task. There were 12 healthy men who were passively cooled via 15 degrees C water immersion to a core temperature of 36.0 degrees C, then transferred to a warm (40 degrees C) water bath to eliminate superficial shivering while completing a series of 20 virtual computer mazes. In a control condition, subjects rested in a thermoneutral (approximately 35 degrees C) bath for a time-matched period before being transferred to a warm bath for testing. Superficial cooling and distraction were achieved by whole-body immersion in 35 degree water for a time-matched period, followed by lower leg immersion in 10 degree C water for the duration of the navigational tests. Mean completion time and mean error scores for the mazes were not significantly different (p > 0.05) across the core cooling (16.59 +/- 11.54 s, 0.91 +/- 1.86 errors), control (15.40 +/- 8.85 s, 0.82 +/- 1.76 errors), and superficial cooling (15.19 +/- 7.80 s, 0.77 +/- 1.40 errors) conditions. Separately reducing core temperature or increasing cold sensation in the lower extremities did not influence performance on virtual computer mazes, suggesting that navigation is more resistive to cooling than other, simpler cognitive tasks. Further research is warranted to explore navigational ability at progressively lower core and skin temperatures, and in different populations.

  13. Interdigital foot infections: Corynebacterium minutissimum and agents of superficial mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Mutlu Sariguzel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Interdigital foot infections are mostly caused initially by dermatophytes, yeasts and less frequently by bacteria. Erythrasma caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum can be confused with superficial mycoses. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the etiologic agents of superficial mycoses and the frequency of Corynebacterium minutissimum in interdigital foot infections. All the samples obtained from the 121 patients with interdigital foot infections were examined directly with the use of 20% potassium hydroxide mounts and Gram stain under the microscope and cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates. In identification of superficial mycoses, the rate was found to be 14% with the cultural method and 14% with direct microscopic examination. Using a combination of direct microscopic examination and culture, a 33.8% ratio was achieved. In the culture of these samples, the most isolated factor was Trichophyton rubrum (33.7%. In 24 of the patients (19.8% Corynebacterium minutissimum was detected by Gram staining, in 6 of these patients Trichophyton rubrum was found, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was found in 2 and Trichosporon spp. was found in 1. The examination of interdigital foot lesions in the laboratory, the coexistence of erythrasma with dermatophytes and yeast should be considered.

  14. Superficies in the form of the right to superpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona CHIRICĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the current legal framework related to the superficies right in the form of the right to superpose, and especially to draw the attention and put certain question marks regarding the actuality or even the urgency of the need for regulation regarding the right to superpose. First, as a preliminary aspect, in order to emphasize the historical evolution of the superficies right, we will briefly present the development of this concept starting from the Roman law up to the present date. Second, by analysing the relevant legislation, the doctrine and the jurisprudence, the authors set themselves to present the main methods for constituting the superficies right. Third, the characteristics related to the right to superpose will be correlatively laid out. Fourth, the possibility to obtain a building permit on the basis of the right to superpose will also be analysed. Fifth, the recently entered-into-force legislative framework regarding the registration of the right to superpose and of the building thus erected is presented. Last but not least, the conclusions of this paper are presented, highlighting the necessity for more clearly defined rules regulating the legal status of the right to superpose, in order to avoid any confusions and inconsistencies in practice.

  15. The use of a compensator library to reduce dose inhomogeneity in tangential radiotherapy of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, Robin J.; Bliss, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: The dose variation throughout the volume of the breast from tangential fields can exceed 20% for large breasts. This is postulated to result in poor cosmesis [Radiother Oncol 16 (1989) 253], particularly at the inframammary fold, where the dose is highest. Compensators may be used to reduce this variation, but at the cost of the time to manufacture each unique compensator for the individual patients. This paper outlines the implementation and routine use of a library of reusable compensators. Materials and methods: For the period of December 1999 to May 2001, 94 patients attending for breast radiotherapy received treatment using breast compensators calculated from multiple outlines measured using the Osiris system. The compensators manufactured for the early patients were added to a library for possible reuse by later patients. Of the 94 patients, 28 patients' compensators formed the library and 66 subsequent patients have been treated using compensators derived from the library. Selection of the most appropriate library compensator was determined from the analysis of the distribution of the calculated dose-volume histogram for the whole breast, excluding lung, penumbra and build-up regions. Once the library was complete, approximately 50% of all subsequent breast patients were treated with compensators (46% from the library and 4% with individual compensators). This represented a usage rate of 92% for the library compensators for those patients requiring compensation. Results: In all cases the compensators reduced the variation in the dose distribution. For example, the group treated with a library compensator demonstrated a mean reduction from 29 to 9% for the volume of breast tissue receiving more than 5% greater than the reference dose. If the same patients had been treated using their own individual compensators, the corresponding value would have been 7%. There is a small systematic, but negligible, difference in the two populations of

  16. Upstream pumping of radial lip seals by tangentially deforming, rough seal surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavel, van P.G.M.; Ruijl, T.A.M.; Leeuwen, van H.J.; Muijderman, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at a theoretical explanation of the following two experimental observations of radial lip seals: fluid film formation and upstream pumping action. The origins of these observations are still poorly understood. A hydrodynamic analysis is presented for the fully flooded contact zone of

  17. SMAS Fusion Zones Determine the Subfascial and Subcutaneous Anatomy of the Human Face: Fascial Spaces, Fat Compartments, and Models of Facial Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessa, Joel E

    2016-05-01

    Fusion zones between superficial fascia and deep fascia have been recognized by surgical anatomists since 1938. Anatomical dissection performed by the author suggested that additional superficial fascia fusion zones exist. A study was performed to evaluate and define fusion zones between the superficial and the deep fascia. Dissection of fresh and minimally preserved cadavers was performed using the accepted technique for defining anatomic spaces: dye injection combined with cross-sectional anatomical dissection. This study identified bilaminar membranes traveling from deep to superficial fascia at consistent locations in all specimens. These membranes exist as fusion zones between superficial and deep fascia, and are referred to as SMAS fusion zones. Nerves, blood vessels and lymphatics transition between the deep and superficial fascia of the face by traveling along and within these membranes, a construct that provides stability and minimizes shear. Bilaminar subfascial membranes continue into the subcutaneous tissues as unilaminar septa on their way to skin. This three-dimensional lattice of interlocking horizontal, vertical, and oblique membranes defines the anatomic boundaries of the fascial spaces as well as the deep and superficial fat compartments of the face. This information facilitates accurate volume augmentation; helps to avoid facial nerve injury; and provides the conceptual basis for understanding jowls as a manifestation of enlargement of the buccal space that occurs with age. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Radial force distribution changes associated with tangential force production in cylindrical grasping, and the importance of anatomical registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Todd C; Slota, Gregory P; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2012-01-10

    Radial force (F(r)) distributions describe grip force coordination about a cylindrical object. Recent studies have employed only explicit F(r) tasks, and have not normalized for anatomical variance when considering F(r) distributions. The goals of the present study were (i) to explore F(r) during tangential force production tasks, and (ii) to examine the extent to which anatomical registration (i.e. spatial normalization of anatomically analogous structures) could improve signal detectability in F(r) data. Twelve subjects grasped a vertically oriented cylindrical handle (diameter=6 cm) and matched target upward tangential forces of 10, 20, and 30 N. F(r) data were measured using a flexible pressure mat with an angular resolution of 4.8°, and were registered using piecewise-linear interpolation between five manually identified points-of-interest. Results indicate that F(r) was primarily limited to three contact regions: the distal thumb, the distal fingers, and the fingers' metatacarpal heads, and that, while increases in tangential force caused significant increases in F(r) for these regions, they did not significantly affect the F(r) distribution across the hand. Registration was found to substantially reduce between-subject variability, as indicated by both accentuated F(r) trends, and amplification of the test statistic. These results imply that, while subjects focus F(r) primarily on three anatomical regions during cylindrical grasp, inter-subject anatomical differences introduce a variability that, if not corrected for via registration, may compromise one's ability to draw anatomically relevant conclusions from grasping force data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  20. Numerical Analysis of a New Pressure Sensor for Measuring Normal and Tangential Stresses in the Roll Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presz, Wojtek P.; Wanheim, Tarras

    2003-01-01

    The paper is in polish. Orig. title: "Analiza numeryczna nowego czujnika do pomiaru nacisków i naprê¿eñ stycznych w procesie walcowania" A new strain gauge sensor for measuring normal and tangential stresses in the contact arc of a rolling process has been designed and constructed. The complicated...... load history of the sensor results in complicated deformation patterns of it, and consequently the calibration procedure of the sensor should cover a wide range of loading cases, and would thus be very difficult and time-consuming to carry out. As an alternative to this, a FEM simulative experiment has...

  1. Three-dimensional photon dose distributions with and without lung corrections for tangential breast intact treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, L.M.; Cheng, C.W.; Siddon, R.L.; Rice, R.K.; Mijnheer, B.J.; Harris, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of lung volume and photon energy on the 3-dimensional dose distribution for patients treated by intact breast irradiation is not well established. To investigate this issue, we studied the 3-dimensional dose distributions calculated for an 'average' breast phantom for 60Co, 4 MV, 6 MV, and 8 MV photon beams. For the homogeneous breast, areas of high dose ('hot spots') lie along the periphery of the breast near the posterior plane and near the apex of the breast. The highest dose occurs at the inferior margin of the breast tissue, and this may exceed 125% of the target dose for lower photon energies. The magnitude of these 'hot spots' decreases for higher energy photons. When lung correction is included in the dose calculation, the doses to areas at the left and right margin of the lung volume increase. The magnitude of the increase depends on energy and the patient anatomy. For the 'average' breast phantom (lung density 0.31 g/cm3), the correction factors are between 1.03 to 1.06 depending on the energy used. Higher energy is associated with lower correction factors. Both the ratio-of-TMR and the Batho lung correction methods can predict these corrections within a few percent. The range of depths of the 100% isodose from the skin surface, measured along the perpendicular to the tangent of the skin surface, were also energy dependent. The range was 0.1-0.4 cm for 60Co and 0.5-1.4 cm for 8 MV. We conclude that the use of higher energy photons in the range used here provides lower value of the 'hot spots' compared to lower energy photons, but this needs to be balanced against a possible disadvantage in decreased dose delivered to the skin and superficial portion of the breast

  2. Functional compartmentalization of the human superficial masseter muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A Guzmán-Venegas

    Full Text Available Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM muscle's motor units using high-density surface electromyography (EMGs at different bite force levels. Twenty healthy natural dentate participants (men: 4; women: 16; age 20±2 years; mass: 60±12 kg, height: 163±7 cm were selected from 316 volunteers and included in this study. Using a gnathodynamometer, bites from 20 to 100% maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF were randomly requested. Using a two-dimensional grid (four columns, six electrodes located on the dominant SM, EMGs in the anterior, middle-anterior, middle-posterior and posterior portions were simultaneously recorded. In bite ranges from 20 to 60% MVBF, the EMG activity was higher in the anterior than in the posterior portion (p-value = 0.001.The center of mass of the EMG activity was displaced towards the posterior part when bite force increased (p-value = 0.001. The topographic distribution of EMGs was more homogeneous at high levels of MVBF (p-value = 0.001. The results of this study show that the superficial masseter is organized into three functional compartments: an anterior, a middle and a posterior compartment. However, this compartmentalization is only seen at low levels of bite force (20-60% MVBF.

  3. [Occupational trauma due to superficial corneal foreign body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerente, Vanessa Miroski; Melo, Gustavo Barreto de; Regatieri, Caio Vinícius Saito; Alvarenga, Lênio Souza; Martins, Elizabeth Nogueira

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of superficial corneal foreign body. Patients who were seen at the Emergency Service of the Federal University of São Paulo, from April/05 to June/05, were screened and those with superficial corneal foreign body were interviewed. Data regarding gender, age, occupation, employment status, availability and use of protective devices and supervision of their use were collected. Awareness of the possible complications was also assessed. Results were analyzed using chi-square or Fisher exact test. One hundred twenty-three patients were interviewed. Only 3 patients were female. The mean age was 36 years. Most injuries occurred at the workplace (86.2%), and 58.4% of the patients did not have a legal employment registration. The occupational activities most frequently reported were construction related activities (44.3%) and welding/soldering (11.3%). In most workplaces (79.8%) protective devices were available and 85.3% of the patients were instructed to use them. A safety device was being used during the accident in 34.2% of the cases and this was more frequent among patients that had legal employment registry (p=0.008) and among those under supervision (p=0.0415). The majority of the patients (68.9%) were aware of the risk of severe complications. Most patients with superficial corneal foreign body are aware of its severe complications and injuries usually occur in places where safety devices are available and often during their use. Our findings suggest that prevention should focus on supervision and correct use of safety devices.

  4. Superficial thrombophlebitis (Mondor′s Disease after breast augmentation surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viana Giovanni Andre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the aetiology of Mondor′s disease remains unclear, the most commonly cited cause is trauma of some sort. Although surgical trauma has frequently been quoted, reports that specifically implicate aesthetic breast surgery are unusual in the literature. In this article, the authors report a case of superficial thrombophlebitis of the anterolateral chest wall secondary to breast augmentation surgery in a woman, five months after the procedure. The authors performed an analysis of the disease′s main etiologic components and preponderant clinical aspects, and determined all appropriate therapeutic measures.

  5. High dose rate brachytherapy for superficial cancer of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingon, Philippe; D'Hombres, Anne; Truc, Gilles; Barillot, Isabelle; Michiels, Christophe; Bedenne, Laurent; Horiot, Jean Claude

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: We analyzed our experience with external radiotherapy, combined modality treatment, or HDR brachytherapy alone to limited esophageal cancers. Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 1996, 25 patients with limited superficial esophagus carcinomas were treated by high dose rate brachytherapy. The mean age was 63 years (43-86 years). Five patients showed superficial local recurrence after external radiotherapy. Eleven patients without invasion of the basal membrane were staged as Tis. Fourteen patients with tumors involving the submucosa without spreading to the muscle were staged as T1. Treatment consisted of HDR brachytherapy alone in 13 patients, external radiotherapy and brachytherapy in 8 cases, and concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy in 4 cases. External beam radiation was administered to a total dose of 50 Gy using 2 Gy daily fractions in 5 weeks. In cases of HDR brachytherapy alone (13 patients), 6 applications were performed once a week. Results: The mean follow-up is 31 months (range 24-96 months). Twelve patients received 2 applications and 13 patients received 6 applications. Twelve patients experienced a failure (48%), 11/12 located in the esophagus, all of them in the treated volume. One patient presented an isolated distant metastasis. In the patients treated for superficial recurrence, 4/5 were locally controlled (80%) by brachytherapy alone. After brachytherapy alone, 8/13 patients were controlled (61%). The mean disease-free survival is 14 months (1-36 months). Overall survival is 76% at 1 year, 37% at 2 years, and 14% at 3 years. Overall survival for Tis patients is 24% vs. 20% for T1 (p 0.83). Overall survival for patients treated by HDR brachytherapy alone is 43%. One patient presented with a fistula with local failure after external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Four stenosis were registered, two were diagnosed on barium swallowing without symptoms, and two required dilatations. Conclusion: High dose rate brachytherapy permits the treating

  6. Modelos de mantenimiento y reemplazo de equipos en mineria superficial

    OpenAIRE

    Llanque Maquera, Oscar Eloy; Llanque Maquera, Oscar Eloy

    1999-01-01

    El mantenimiento y reemplazamiento de equipos en Minería Superficie tiene una gran importada por el mismo hecho que se mueven volumen de material y por las altas inversiones hechas en maquinaria, a su vez por la influencia en los costos de operación. Por tal razón es el interés en desarrollar los modelos de mantenimiento y reemplazamiento de equipos en minería e implemento el mantenimiento predictivo, como una actividad complementaria a los mantenimientos que se realizan comúnmente como son p...

  7. Measuring irradiated lung and heart area in breast tangential fields using a simulator-based computerized tomography device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, Raj; Fowler, Allan; Hunt, Peter

    1995-01-15

    Purpose: To illustrate the use of a simulator based computerized tomography system (SIMCT) in the simulation and planning of tangential breast fields. Methods and Materials: Forty-five consecutive patients underwent treatment planning using a radiotherapy simulator with computerized tomography attachment. One to three scans were obtained for each patient, calculations were made on the central axis scan. Due to the wide aperture of this system all patients were able to be scanned in the desired treatment position with arm abducted 90 deg. . Using available software tools the area of lung and/or heart included within the tangential fields was calculated. The greatest perpendicular distance (GPD) from the chest wall to posterior field edge was also measured. Results: The mean GPD for the group was 25.40 mm with 71% of patients having GPDs of {<=} 30 mm. The mean area of irradiated lung was 1780 sq mm which represented 18.0% of the total ipsilateral lung area seen in the central axis. Seven of the patients with left sided tumors had an average 1314 sq mm heart irradiated in the central axis. This represented 11.9% of total heart area in these patients. Conclusion: Measurements of irradiated lung and heart area can be easily and accurately made using a SIMCT device. Such measurements may help identify those patients potentially at risk for lung or heart toxicity as a consequence of their treatment. A major advantage of this device is the ability to scan patients in the actual treatment position.

  8. Relationship between linear velocity and tangential push force while turning to change the direction of the manual wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Lin, Yen-Sheng; Hogaboom, Nathan S; Wang, Lin-Hwa; Koontz, Alicia M

    2017-08-28

    Wheelchair propulsion is a major cause of upper limb pain and injuries for manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Few studies have investigated wheelchair turning biomechanics on natural ground surfaces. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tangential push force and linear velocity of the wheelchair during the turning portions of propulsion. Using an instrumented handrim, velocity and push force data were recorded for 25 subjects while they propel their own wheelchairs on a concrete floor along a figure-eight-shaped course at a maximum velocity. The braking force (1.03 N) of the inside wheel while turning was the largest of all other push forces (p<0.05). Larger changes in squared velocity while turning were significantly correlated with higher propulsive and braking forces used at the pre-turning, turning, and post-turning phases (p<0.05). Subjects with less change of velocity while turning needed less braking force to maneuver themselves successfully and safely around the turns. Considering the magnitude and direction of tangential force applied to the wheel, it seems that there are higher risks of injury and instability for upper limb joints when braking the inside wheel to turn. The results provide insight into wheelchair setup and mobility skills training for wheelchair users.

  9. Measuring irradiated lung and heart area in breast tangential fields using a simulator-based computerized tomography device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, Raj; Fowler, Allan; Hunt, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the use of a simulator based computerized tomography system (SIMCT) in the simulation and planning of tangential breast fields. Methods and Materials: Forty-five consecutive patients underwent treatment planning using a radiotherapy simulator with computerized tomography attachment. One to three scans were obtained for each patient, calculations were made on the central axis scan. Due to the wide aperture of this system all patients were able to be scanned in the desired treatment position with arm abducted 90 deg. . Using available software tools the area of lung and/or heart included within the tangential fields was calculated. The greatest perpendicular distance (GPD) from the chest wall to posterior field edge was also measured. Results: The mean GPD for the group was 25.40 mm with 71% of patients having GPDs of ≤ 30 mm. The mean area of irradiated lung was 1780 sq mm which represented 18.0% of the total ipsilateral lung area seen in the central axis. Seven of the patients with left sided tumors had an average 1314 sq mm heart irradiated in the central axis. This represented 11.9% of total heart area in these patients. Conclusion: Measurements of irradiated lung and heart area can be easily and accurately made using a SIMCT device. Such measurements may help identify those patients potentially at risk for lung or heart toxicity as a consequence of their treatment. A major advantage of this device is the ability to scan patients in the actual treatment position

  10. Purification of monoclonal antibodies from clarified cell culture fluid using Protein A capture continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Amit K; Tran, Travis; Napadensky, Boris; Teella, Achyuta; Brookhart, Gary; Ropp, Philip A; Zhang, Ada W; Tustian, Andrew D; Zydney, Andrew L; Shinkazh, Oleg

    2015-11-10

    Recent studies using simple model systems have demonstrated that continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography (CCTC) has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of conventional Protein A chromatography using packed columns. The objective of this work was to optimize and implement a CCTC system for monoclonal antibody purification from clarified Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture fluid using a commercial Protein A resin. Several improvements were introduced to the previous CCTC system including the use of retentate pumps to maintain stable resin concentrations in the flowing slurry, the elimination of a slurry holding tank to improve productivity, and the introduction of an "after binder" to the binding step to increase antibody recovery. A kinetic binding model was developed to estimate the required residence times in the multi-stage binding step to optimize yield and productivity. Data were obtained by purifying two commercial antibodies from two different manufactures, one with low titer (∼ 0.67 g/L) and one with high titer (∼ 6.9 g/L), demonstrating the versatility of the CCTC system. Host cell protein removal, antibody yields and purities were similar to those obtained with conventional column chromatography; however, the CCTC system showed much higher productivity. These results clearly demonstrate the capabilities of continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography for the commercial purification of monoclonal antibody products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Purification of monoclonal antibodies from clarified cell culture fluid using Protein A capture continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Amit K.; Tran, Travis; Napadensky, Boris; Teella, Achyuta; Brookhart, Gary; Ropp, Philip A.; Zhang, Ada W.; Tustian, Andrew D.; Zydney, Andrew L.; Shinkazh, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies using simple model systems have demonstrated that Continuous Countercurrent Tangential Chromatography (CCTC) has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of conventional Protein A chromatography using packed columns. The objective of this work was to optimize and implement a CCTC system for monoclonal antibody purification from clarified Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture fluid using a commercial Protein A resin. Several improvements were introduced to the previous CCTC system including the use of retentate pumps to maintain stable resin concentrations in the flowing slurry, the elimination of a slurry holding tank to improve productivity, and the introduction of an “after binder” to the binding step to increase antibody recovery. A kinetic binding model was developed to estimate the required residence times in the multi-stage binding step to optimize yield and productivity. Data were obtained by purifying two commercial antibodies from two different manufactures, one with low titer (~0.67 g/L) and one with high titer (~6.9 g/L), demonstrating the versatility of the CCTC system. Host cell protein removal, antibody yields and purities were similar to that obtained with conventional column chromatography; however, the CCTC system showed much higher productivity. These results clearly demonstrate the capabilities of continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography for the commercial purification of monoclonal antibody products. PMID:25747172

  12. An experimental and numerical study of endwall heat transfer in a turbine blade cascade including tangential heat conduction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Luca; Satta, Francesca; Tanda, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of heat transfer in the endwall region of a large scale turbine cascade. The steady-state liquid crystal technique has been used to obtain the map of the heat transfer coefficient for a constant heat flux boundary condition. In the presence of two- and three-dimensional flows with significant spatial variations of the heat transfer coefficient, tangential heat conduction could lead to error in the heat transfer coefficient determination, since local heat fluxes at the wall-to-fluid interface tend to differ from point to point and surface temperatures to be smoothed out, thus making the uniform-heat-flux boundary condition difficult to be perfectly achieved. For this reason, numerical simulations of flow and heat transfer in the cascade including the effect of tangential heat conduction inside the endwall have been performed. The major objective of numerical simulations was to investigate the influence of wall heat conduction on the convective heat transfer coefficient determined during a nominal iso-flux heat transfer experiment and to interpret possible differences between numerical and experimental heat transfer results. Results were presented and discussed in terms of local Nusselt number and a convenient wall heat flux function for two values of the Reynolds number (270,000 and 960,000).

  13. The Field Radiated by a Ring Quasi-Array of an Infinite Number of Tangential or Radial Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H. L.

    1953-01-01

    A homogeneous ring array of axial dipoles will radiate a vertically polarized field that concentrates to an increasing degree around the horizontal plane with increasing increment of the current phase per revolution. There is reason to believe that by using a corresponding antenna system with tan......A homogeneous ring array of axial dipoles will radiate a vertically polarized field that concentrates to an increasing degree around the horizontal plane with increasing increment of the current phase per revolution. There is reason to believe that by using a corresponding antenna system...... with tangential or radial dipoles, a field may be obtained that has a similar useful structure as the above-mentioned ring array, but which in contrast to the latter is essentially horizontally polarized. In this paper a systematic investigation has been made of the field from such an antenna system...... with tangential or radial dipoles. Recently it was stated in the literature that it is impossible to treat the general case where the increase of the current phase per revolution is arbitrarily large by using ordinary functions. The results obtained in this paper disprove this statement. A similar investigation...

  14. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloga, Jan; Stapf, Marcus; Nowak, Johannes; Pöttler, Marina; Friedrich, Ralf P; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-08-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEON(LA-BSA), which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEON(LA-BSA) particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v). Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEON(LA-BSA) changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment.

  15. Optical coherence tomography and polarimetry of superficial skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Utz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. Of this study was to develop and assess the efficacy of polarization probing of biotissues in vitro. The method is based on the determination of polarization parameters of scattered radiation. Materials and methods. The well-known superficial epidermis stripping method was applied using the Sulfacrylate self-sterile medical adhesive. Small portions of thin layers of the adhesive were applied to slide plates and then to different skin sites. The corneous layer in the normal condition and in case of skin diseases (psoriasis, lichen acuminatus, discoid lupus erythematosus, alopecia, itching and demodectic mange was examined based on the optical coherence tomography (OCT method using the 0CS1300SS device (Thorlabs Inc, USA. Results. The authors obtained pictures visualizing the structural organization of different layers of the epidermis using the superficial epidermis biopsy method in case of lichen acuminatus, hyperkeratosis, itching and other skin diseases. Conclusion. This method ensures non-invasive high-precision measurement of the structure of different layers of the epidermis, which may be useful both for research purposes and practical dermatology.

  16. Superficially located enlarged lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.

  17. Lactic acid peeling in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Silonie

    2010-09-01

    Chemical peeling with both alpha and beta hydroxy acids has been used to improve acne scarring with pigmentation. Lactic acid, a mild alpha hydroxy acid, has been used in the treatment of various dermatological indications but no study is reported in acne scarring with pigmentation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of full strength pure lactic acid 92% (pH 2.0) chemical peel in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin. Seven patients, Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V, in age group 20-30 years with superficial acne scarring were enrolled in the study. Chemical peeling was done with lactic acid at an interval of 2 weeks to a maximum of four peels. Pre- and post-peel clinical photographs were taken at every session. Patients were followed every month for 3 months after the last peel to evaluate the effects. At the end of 3 months, there was definite improvement in the texture, pigmentation, and appearance of the treated skin, with lightening of scars. Significant improvement (greater than 75% clearance of lesions) occurred in one patient (14.28%), good improvement (51-75% clearance) in three patients (42.84%), moderate improvement (26-50% clearance) in two patients (28.57%), and mild improvement (1-25% clearance) in one patient (14.28%). © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Superficial corneal crosslinking during laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Theo G; Fischinger, Isaak; Koller, Tobias; Derhartunian, Viktor; Seiler, Theo

    2015-10-01

    To determine the safety of superficial corneal crosslinking after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Institut für Refraktive und Ophthalmo-Chirurgie, Zurich, Switzerland. Prospective study. Eyes with an ectasia risk score of 2 or higher were treated with standard LASIK (90 μm flap) for myopia correction, after which a rapid corneal crosslinking was performed in the interface (riboflavin 0.5% for 2 minutes, 9 mW/cm(2) for 5 minutes) (Group 1). The follow-up was up to 1 year. The prevalence of complications was statistically compared with that in a group of eyes matched regarding age, sex, and attempted refractive correction that were treated with standard LASIK only (Group 2). One month postoperatively, 5 eyes in Group 1 lost 1 line of corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) compared with 1 eye in Group 2 (P rate of less than 5%. The refractive success was identical in both groups. Early postoperative complications such as erosions (16%), diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) stage 1 (38%), and DLK stage 2 (5%) were statistically significantly more frequent after superficial corneal crosslinking, leading to a statistically significantly reduced uncorrected distance visual acuity at 1 month (P interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Local superficial hyperthermia in combination with low-dose radiation therapy for palliation of superficially localized metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarek, G.; Miszczyk, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is to evaluate the response of superficially located metastases and local toxicity to microwave hyperthermia combined with radiation therapy. From May 2003 through December 2004 58 patients (33 male, 25 female; mean age 60 years) with lymph nodes or skin metastases were treated with microwave superficial hyperthermia combined with low-dose radiation therapy. Hyperthermia was administered twice weekly with high frequency applicator (∼900 Mhz) with water bolus. The temperature was set to 43 o C for 45 minutes. Radiotherapy was performed daily with dose 2 Gy or 4 Gy per fraction, to a total dose 20 Gy. There were 47 patients with carcinoma, 4 with sarcoma, 7 with melanoma. Treated regions were: head and neck (37 patients), chest wall 8, abdomen wall and groins 4, upper and lower limb 2 and 8 patients respectively. Primary tumor sites were: head and neck region (9 patients), lung 15, alimentary tract 8, breast 5, soft tissue 8, urogenital 4 and 9 patients with primary tumor site unknown. The toxicity was evaluated using 6 step scale: 0-no skin reaction, 1-faint red mark, 2-distinct red mark, 3-blisters, 4-brown mark, 5-necrosis. Presence of pain and its intensity were also analyzed. Diameter of tumor after the treatment was observed. Complete response was achieved in 5 patients (8.5 %), and partial response in 29 patients (50 %), no response was observed in 12 patients (20 %) and progression of tumor in 7 patients (12 %). No skin reaction was observed in 3 patients, faint red mark in 14 patients, distinct red mark in 28 patients, blisters in 8 patients, brown mark in 4 patients and necrosis in 1 patient. The pain occurred in 9 patients but it was no the cause of stopping treatment. Local superficial hyperthermia combined with low-dose radiation therapy is an effective method of treatment in a proportion of patients with superficial metastases. This combination of treatment modalities is well tolerated and is useful for palliation

  20. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  1. The superficial ulnar artery: development and clinical significance Artéria ulnar superficial: desenvolvimento e relevância clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasulu Reddy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal arteries of the upper limb show a wide range of variation that is of considerable interest to orthopedic surgeons, plastic surgeons, radiologists and anatomists. We present here a case of superficial ulnar artery found during the routine dissection of right upper limb of a 50-year-old male cadaver. The superficial ulnar artery originated from the brachial artery, crossed the median nerve anteriorly and ran lateral to this nerve and the brachial artery. The superficial ulnar artery in the arm gave rise to a narrow muscular branch to the biceps brachii. At the elbow level the artery ran superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis where it was crossed by the median cubital vein. It then ran downward and medially superficial to the forearm flexor muscles, and then downward to enter the hand. At the palm, it formed the superficial and deep palmar arches together with the branches of the radial artery. The presence of a superficial ulnar artery is clinically important when raising forearm flaps in reconstructive surgery. The embryology and clinical significance of the variation are discussed.As principais artérias do membro superior apresentam uma ampla variação, que é relativamente importante a cirurgiões ortopédicos e plásticos, radiologistas e anatomistas.Apresentamosumcaso de artéria ulnar superficial encontrada durante dissecção de rotina de membro superior direito de um cadáver masculino de 50 anos de idade.Aartéria ulnar superficial originava-se da artéria braquial, cruzava o nervo mediano anteriormente e percorria lateralmente esse nervo e a artéria braquial. A artéria ulnar superficial no braço deu origem a um ramo muscular estreito do músculo bíceps braquial. Ao nível do cotovelo, a artéria percorria superficialmente a aponeurose bicipital, onde era cruzada pela veia cubital mediana. Percorria, então, em sentido descendente e medialmente superficial aos músculos flexores do antebraço, e então descendia para

  2. Large-scale bedforms induced by supercritical flows and wave-wave interference in the intertidal zone (Cap Ferret, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, Romain; Pittet, Bernard; Humbert, Thomas; Ferry, Serge

    2017-11-01

    The Cap Ferret sand spit is situated along the wave-dominated, tidally modulated Atlantic coast of western France, characterized by a semidiurnal macrotidal range. It displays peculiar dome-like bedforms that can be observed at low tide across the intertidal zone. These bedforms exhibit a wavelength of ca. 1.2 m and an elevation of ca. 30 cm. They occur only when the incident wave heights reach 1.5-2 m. The internal stratifications are characterized by swaley-like, sub-planar, oblique-tangential, oblique-tabular, as well as hummocky-like stratifications. The tabular and tangential stratifications comprise prograding oblique sets (defined as foresets and backsets) that almost always show variations in their steepness. Downcutting into the bottomsets of the oblique-tangential stratifications is common. The sets of laminae observed in the bedforms share common characteristics with those formed by supercritical flows in flume experiments of earlier studies. These peculiar bedforms are observed at the surf-swash transition zone where the backwash flow reaches supercritical conditions. This type of flow can explain their internal architecture but not their general dome-like (three-dimensional) morphology. Wave-wave interference induced by the geomorphology (i.e. tidal channel) of the coastal environment is proposed as explanation for the localized formation of such bedforms. This study highlights that the combination of supercritical flows occurring in the surf-swash transition zone and wave-wave interferences can generate dome-like bedforms in intertidal zones.

  3. What factors control the superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoit; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-04-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style; lava domes result from intermittent, slow extrusion of viscous lava. Most dome-forming eruptions produce highly microcrystallized and highly- to almost totally-degassed magmas which have a low explosive potential. During lava dome growth, recurrent collapses of unstable parts are the main destructive process of the lava dome, generating concentrated pyroclastic density currents (C-PDC) channelized in valleys. These C-PDC have a high, but localized, damage potential that largely depends on the collapsed volume. Sometimes, a dilute ash cloud surge develops at the top of the concentrated flow with an increased destructive effect because it may overflow ridges and affect larger areas. In some cases, large lava dome collapses can induce a depressurization of the magma within the conduit, leading to vulcanian explosions. By contrast, violent, laterally directed, explosions may occur at the base of a growing lava dome: this activity generates dilute and turbulent, highly-destructive, pyroclastic density currents (D-PDC), with a high velocity and propagation poorly dependent on the topography. Numerous studies on lava dome behaviors exist, but the triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood. Here, seven dome-forming eruptions are investigated: in the Lesser Antilles arc: Montagne Pelée, Martinique (1902-1905, 1929-1932 and 650 y. BP eruptions), Soufrière Hills, Montserrat; in Guatemala, Santiaguito (1929 eruption); in La Chaîne des Puys, France (Puy de Dome and Puy Chopine eruptions). We propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by these key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite

  4. Two Crosslinking Technologies for Superficial Reticular Dermis Injection: A Comparative Ultrasound and Histologic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Micheels, Patrick; Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few hyaluronic acid fillers have been developed for superficial injection. Objective: To compare the diffusion and integration properties of cohesive polydensified matrix and Vycross® technology hyaluronic acid fillers with lidocaine following injection into the superficial reticular dermis. Methods and materials: Two subjects received two injections each of cohesive polydensified matrix and Vycross® hyaluronic acid (0.2mL/site) in the superficial reticular dermis of the buttock u...

  5. Myxoid stroma and delicate vasculature of a superficial angiomyxoma give rise to the red planet sign

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Margaret; Logemann, Nichola; Sulit, Daryl J

    2014-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas are uncommon benign mesenchymal tumors. They often recur locally if partially removed. This case report demonstrates not only the characteristic pathological findings of a superficial angiomyxoma in a 33- year-old man, but also shows a unique dermatoscopic image, which in our estimation resembles a celestial red planet such as the blood moon seen during a lunar eclipse. We propose to call this the “red planet” sign for a superficial angiomyxoma on dermoscopic examinat...

  6. Myxoid stroma and delicate vasculature of a superficial angiomyxoma give rise to the red planet sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Margaret; Logemann, Nichola; Sulit, Daryl J

    2014-09-16

    Superficial angiomyxomas are uncommon benign mesenchymal tumors. They often recur locally if partially removed. This case report demonstrates not only the characteristic pathological findings of a superficial angiomyxoma in a 33- year-old man, but also shows a unique dermatoscopic image, which in our estimation resembles a celestial red planet such as the blood moon seen during a lunar eclipse. We propose to call this the "red planet" sign for a superficial angiomyxoma on dermoscopic examination.

  7. Contact problem on indentation of an elastic half-plane with an inhomogeneous coating by a flat punch in the presence of tangential stresses on a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Sergei S.; Vasiliev, Andrey S.; Aizikovich, Sergei M.; Sadyrin, Evgeniy V.

    2018-05-01

    Indentation of an elastic half-space with functionally graded coating by a rigid flat punch is studied. The half-plane is additionally subjected to distributed tangential stresses. Tangential stresses are represented in a form of Fourier series. The problem is reduced to the solution of two dual integral equations over even and odd functions describing distribution of unknown normal contact stresses. The solutions of these dual integral equations are constructed by the bilateral asymptotic method. Approximated analytical expressions for contact normal stresses are provided.

  8. Understanding the three-dimensional anatomy of the superficial lymphatics of the limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2014-11-01

    There are minimal data in the current literature regarding the depth of the superficial lymphatic collectors of the limbs in relation to the various subcutaneous tissue layers. Injection, microdissection, radiographic, and histologic studies of the superficial lymphatics and the subcutaneous tissues of 32 limbs from 15 human cadavers were performed. Five layers were consistently identified in the integument of all the upper and lower limb specimens: (1) skin, (2) subcutaneous fat, (3) superficial fascia, (4) loose areolar tissue, and (5) deep fascia. Layer 2 was further divided into superficial (2a) and deep (2c) compartments by a thin, transparent, horizontal septum (layer 2b). The main superficial veins and the superficial nerves coursed in layer 4. The lymphatic collectors were found at layer 2c and layer 4. The use of consistent nomenclature to describe the subcutaneous tissue layers facilitates a greater understanding and discussion of the anatomy. In lymphovenous anastomosis for the treatment of lymphedema, indocyanine green lymphography is an unreliable method for identification of the superficial collectors of the thigh. The medial proximal leg, the dorsum of the wrist over the anatomical snuffbox, and the volar proximal forearm provide suitable areas for locating superficial collectors with nearby matching size veins. In vertical medial thigh lift, choosing a dissection plane superficial to the great saphenous vein is unlikely to preserve the collectors of the ventromedial bundle.

  9. Superficies de titanio en implantes dentales de carga inmediata

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio, C.; Padrós, A.; Planell Estany, Josep Anton; Gil, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Se ha obtenido una capa de fosfato de calcio del mismo contenido mineral que el hueso en la superficie del implante dental de titanio, que tiene como consecuencia una muy rápida y eficaz osteointegración. Esta capa se ha obtenido mediante un método biomimético por vía termoquímica. La capa se une al substrato por enlace químico. Este hecho evita todos los inconvenientes de los métodos de recubrimiento convencionales (plasma spray, ablación láser...) cuya unión es por interacción mecánica, lo ...

  10. Photoluminescence of acupoint 'Waiqiu' in human superficial fascia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuan; Yan Xiaohui; Liu Chenglin; Dang Ruishan; Zhang Xinyi

    2006-01-01

    The spectral characters of an acupuncture point named 'Waiqiu' in superficial fascia tissue have been studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy under the excitation of 457.9 nm. The PL around 'Waiqiu' acupuncture point consists of two sub-bands resulting from the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and phospholipids, and the porphyrins (including purine, isoxanthopterin and tryptophan), respectively. More emission due to FAD and phospholipids is found inside the acupuncture effect area of 'Waiqiu' than its marginal or outside acupuncture regions. The ratio of emission intensity of FAD and phospholipids to one of porphyrins gradually decreases along the direction away from the center of the acupuncture point. It implies that the component proportion changes between FAD, phospholipids and porphyrins around the 'Waiqiu' acupuncture point. We suggest that there might be a certain relationship between redox function of FAD and 'Waiqiu' acupuncture effect

  11. Transient superficial peroneal nerve palsy after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Alrowaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage and knee brace was removed and a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was ruled out. After eight hours, post-operatively, the patient started receiving physiotherapy. He complained of numbness and tingling in the same area. After 24 h, post-operatively, the patient started to regain dorsiflexion and eversion gradually. Two days after the surgery, the patient exhibited complete recovery of neurological status.

  12. Superficial plantar cutaneous sensation does not trigger barefoot running adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M A; Hoffman, K M

    2017-09-01

    It has long been proposed that the gait alterations associated with barefoot running are mediated by alterations in sensory feedback, yet there has been no data to support this claim. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of superficial plantar cutaneous feedback in barefoot and shod running. 10 healthy active subjects (6 male, 4 female); mass: 65.2+9.7kg; age: 27+7.1years participated in this study. 10 over-ground running trials were completed in each of the following conditions: barefoot (BF), shod (SHOD), anesthetized barefoot (ANEST BF) and anesthetized shod (ANEST SHOD). For the anesthetized conditions 0.1-0.3mL of 1% lidocaine was injected into the dermal layer of the plantar foot below the metatarsal heads, lateral column and heel. 3-dimensional motion analysis and ground reaction force (GRF) data were captured as subjects ran over a 20m runway with a force plate at 12m. Kinematic and kinetic differences were analyzed via two-way repeated measure ANOVAs. The differences in gait between the BF and SHOD conditions were consistent with previous research, with subjects exhibiting a significant decrease in stride length and changing from rearfoot strike when SHOD to fore/midfoot strike when BF. Additionally, BF running was associated with decreased impact peak magnitudes and peak vertical GRFs. Despite anesthetizing the plantar surface, there was no difference between the BF and ANEST BF conditions in terms of stride length, foot strike or GRFs. Superficial cutaneous sensory receptors are not primarily responsible for the gait changes associated with barefoot running. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy for proud nebulae in keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodaley, L; Liu, C; Woodward, E G; O'Brart, D; Muir, M K; Buckley, R

    1994-06-01

    Contact lens intolerance in keratoconus may be due to the formation of a proud nebula at or near the apex of the cone. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy was performed as an outpatients with proud nebulae as treatment patients with proud nebulae as treatment for their contact lens intolerance. The mean period of contact lens wear before the development of intolerance was 13.4 years (range 2 to 27 years). Following the development of intolerance, three patients abandoned contact lens wear in the affected eye while the remainder experienced a reduction in comfortable wearing time (mean = 3.75 hours; range: 0-14 hours). All patients had good potential Snellen visual acuity with a contact lens of 6/9 (nine eyes) and 6/12 (one eye). The proud nebulae were directly ablated with a 193 nm ArF excimer laser using a 1 mm diameter beam. Between 100-150 pulses were sufficient to ablate the raised area. Patients experienced no pain during the procedure and reported minimal discomfort postoperatively. In all cases flattening of the proud nebulae was achieved. Seven patients were able to resume regular contact lens wear (mean wearing time = 10.17 hours; range 8 to 16 hours). In three patients, resumption of contact lens wear was unsuccessful because of cone steepness. All patients achieved postoperative Snellen visual acuity of 6/12 or better with a contact lens. Four patients experienced a loss of one line in Snellen acuity. The mean follow up period was 8.3 months (range 2 to 17 months). Excimer laser superficial keratectomy is a useful technique for the treatment of contact lens intolerance caused by proud nebulae in patients with keratoconus. Penetrating keratoplasty is thus avoided.

  14. Modeling Bottom Sediment Erosion Process by Swirling the Flow by Tangential Supply of Oil in the Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, V. O.

    2016-10-01

    The article carries out a statistical data processing of quantitative and territorial division of oil tanks operating in Tyumen region, intended for reception, storage and distribution of commercial oil through trunk pipelines. It describes the working principle of the new device of erosion and prevention of oil bottom sediment formation with tangential supply of oil pumped into reservoir. The most significant similarity criteria can be emphasized in modeling rotational flows exerting significant influence on the structure of the circulating flow of oil in tank when operation of the device described. The dependence of the distribution of the linear velocity of a point on the surface along the radius at the circular motion of the oil in the tank is characterized, and on the basis of this dependence, a formula of general kinetic energy of rotational motion of oil and asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits total volume in the oil reservoir is given.

  15. Development and verification of an excel program for calculation of monitor units for tangential breast irradiation with external photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldemariyam, M.G.

    2015-07-01

    The accuracy of MU calculation performed with Prowess Panther TPS (for Co-60) and Oncentra (for 6MV and 15MV x-rays) for tangential breast irradiation was evaluated with measurements made in an anthropomorphic phantom using calibrated Gafchromic EBT2 films. Excel programme which takes in to account external body surface irregularity of an intact breast or chest wall (hence absence of full scatter condition) using Clarkson’s sector summation technique was developed. A single surface contour of the patient obtained in a transverse plane containing the MU calculation point was required for effective implementation of the programme. The outputs of the Excel programme were validated with the respective outputs from the 3D treatment planning systems. The variations between the measured point doses and their calculated counterparts by the TPSs were within the range of -4.74% to 4.52% (mean of -1.33% and SD of 2.69) for the prowess panther TPS and -4.42% to 3.14% (mean of -1.47% and SD of -3.95) for the Oncentra TPS. The observed degree of deviation may be attributed to limitations of the dose calculation algorithm within the TPSs, set up inaccuracies of the phantom during irradiation and inherent uncertainties associated with radiochromic film dosimetry. The percentage deviations between MUs calculated with the two TPSs and the Excel program were within the range of -3.45% and 3.82% (mean of 0.83% and SD of 2.25). The observed percentage deviations are within the 4% action level recommended by TG-114. This indicates that the Excel program can be confidently employed for calculation of MUs for 2D planned tangential breast irradiations or to independently verify MUs calculated with another calculation methods. (au)

  16. Protection of skin with subcutaneous administration of 5% dextrose in water during superficial radiofrequency ablation in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Liu, Xia-Lei; Wang, Yu-Ling; Li, Jing-Yi; Lu, Wu-Zhu; Xian, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Bai-Meng; Li, Jian

    2014-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous administration of 5% dextrose in water (D5W), to prevent skin injury during radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Twenty-four rabbits were divided into three groups: a pre-injection group, a perfusion group, and a control group. Ablative zones were created in the superficial part of the thigh muscle for 6 min. A needle was placed subcutaneously for injection of D5W, and a thermal sensor was positioned nearby for real-time temperature monitoring. The sizes of the ablative zones were measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, and severity of the observed skin injury were scored semi-quantitatively and compared. The highest temperature, the duration of the temperature above 50 °C, and the rise time of the post-procedure temperature were all highest in the control group (p skin injury was most severe in the control group (p skin injury of the pre-injection group and the perfusion group (p = 0.091), while the skin injury of the perfusion group was less severe than that of the pre-injection group on post-procedure day 14 (p = 0.004). No significant difference was found in the sizes of the ablative zones among the groups (p = 0.720). Subcutaneous perfusion with D5W is effective in protecting the skin against burns during RF ablation without compromising the effect of ablation.

  17. Evolution and transition mechanisms of internal swirling flows with tangential entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxing; Wang, Xingjian; Yang, Vigor

    2018-01-01

    The characteristics and transition mechanisms of different states of swirling flow in a cylindrical chamber have been numerically investigated using the Galerkin finite element method. The effects of the Reynolds number and swirl level were examined, and a unified theory connecting different flow states was established. The development of each flow state is considered as a result of the interaction and competition between basic mechanisms: (1) the centrifugal effect, which drives an axisymmetric central recirculation zone (CRZ); (2) flow instabilities, which develop at the free shear layer and the central solid-body rotating flow; (3) the bouncing and restoring effects of the injected flow, which facilitate the convergence of flow on the centerline and the formation of bubble-type vortex breakdown; and (4) the damping effect of the end-induced flow, which suppresses the development of the instability waves. The results show that the CRZ, together with the free shear layer on its surface, composes the basic structure of swirling flow. The development of instability waves produces a number of discrete vortex cores enclosing the CRZ. The azimuthal wave number is primarily determined by the injection angle. Generally, the wave number is smaller at a higher injection angle, due to the reduction of the perimeter of the free shear layer. At the same time, the increase in the Reynolds number facilitates the growth of the wave number. The end-induced flow tends to reduce the wave number near the head end and causes a change in wave number from the head end to the downstream region. Spiral-type vortex breakdown can be considered as a limiting case at a high injection angle, with a wave number equal to 0 near the head end and equal to 1 downstream. At lower Reynolds numbers, the bouncing and restoring effect of the injected flow generates bubble-type vortex breakdown.

  18. Full-wave analysis using a tangential vector finite-element formulation of arbitrary cross-section transmission lines for millimeter and microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, M.; Legier, J. F.; Pribetich, P.; Kennis, P.

    1994-06-01

    A tangential vector finite-element formulation is implemented to deal with arbitrary cross section and metallic strip shape. Classical planar transmission lines as well as nonconventional cross-section waveguides such as the new microshield line are treated. Effects on propagation characteristics for these lines are studied when the metallization shape is approximated by a lossy trapezoid area.

  19. Medicina regenerativa y superficie ocular Regenerative medicine and ocular surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimi Cárdenas Díaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha producido un extraordinario avance en los conocimientos relacionados con diferentes ramas biomédicas, entre ellas, la biología celular. Esto ha dado un notable impulso a una nueva rama de la medicina denominada medicina regenerativa. Esta nueva disciplina médica se basa fundamentalmente en los nuevos conocimientos sobre las células madre y en su capacidad de convertirse en células de diferentes tejidos. Una de las estructuras que tiene más interés, desde el punto de vista de la medicina regenerativa, es la superficie ocular. Por esto, se ha logrado notables progresos en la reconstrucción de la superficie ocular mediante la aplicación de procederes regenerativos. Los cultivos de células del epitelio corneal humano están siendo utilizados en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia limbar. Esto permite disminuir la incidencia de opacidades tipo Haze tras queratectomía fotorrefractiva, acelerar la curación y evitar la aparición de leucomas en pacientes con defectos epiteliares persistentes e intentar disminuir la incidencia de opacidades corneales en pacientes sometidos a queratectomía fototerapéutica por diferentes distrofias corneales.In the last few years, an extraordinary advance has taken place in the knowledge about several biomedical branches as is the case of cellular biology, which has remarkably encouraged the development of a new medical branch called regenerative medicine. This medical discipline is fundamentally based on the new knowledge on the stem cells and their capacity to become cells for different tissues. One of the most interesting structures for the regenerative medicine is the ocular surface. In the last few years, significant advances have been achieved in the field of the ocular surface reconstruction with regenerative procedures. Some cell cultures of the human corneal epithelium are being used to treat limber insufficiency, to reduce the incidence of haze-type opacities after

  20. 5-Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for superficial basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Want, David; Kennedy, James C.; Brundage, Michael; Rothwell, Deanna

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) offers an alternative to plastic surgery and radiotherapy with potential for good cosmetic outcome and local control of disease. We report our clinical experience with this technique. Patients were treated prospectively on a study protocol enrolling a total of 118 patients (63 male, 55 female) with an average age of 65 years. Consecutive patients meeting eligibility criteria were invited to participate over a four year period. Median followup was 27 months (range 1 to 76 months). In the study group, 62 patients had single lesions and 56 had multiple lesions. Of the 56 patients with multiple lesions, 33 had 2-4 lesions, 11 had 5-9, and 11 had 10 or more. All patients were treated with 20% ALA dissolved in Glaxal Base applied to the tumors for three to four hours. Following removal of the cream, fluorescence intensity and distribution were assessed using a UV-A lamp, and the lesions were exposed to photoactivating light of wavelength greater than 600 nm for a light dose ranging from 100-150 J/cm2. Lesions were reassessed in followup, and scored as complete or partial responses. At subsequent patient assessments, lesions were scored as continued complete responses or recurrences. In the patients with single lesions, there was an initial complete response rate of 90.3%. Of the 56 patients with multiple lesions, 44 had all of their lesions respond completely, and there was an overall average response rate of 95.5%. Sixty three percent of males and 44% of females had all of their lesions respond completely. (p=0.033, Chi-squared test). There was no difference in response rate with respect to age, or site of lesion. The recurrence rates were 35% for patients with single lesions, and 10.5% for patients with multiple lesions. ALA-PDT would appear to be a promising alternative to conventional treatment for superficial basal cell carcinoma. Based on these results

  1. Comparison between intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 3D tangential beams technique used in patients with early-stage breast cancer who received breast-conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sas-Korczynska, B.; Kokoszka, A.; Korzeniowski, S.; Sladowska, A.; Rozwadowska-Bogusz, B.; Lesiak, J.; Dyczek, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The most often found complications in patients with breast cancer who received radiotherapy are cardiac and pulmonary function disorders and development of second malignancies. Aim: To compare the intensity modulated radiotherapy with the 3D tangential beams technique in respect of dose distribution in target volume and critical organs they generate in patients with early-stage breast cancer who received breast-conserving therapy. Materials and methods: A dosimetric analysis was performed to assess the three radiotherapy techniques used in each of 10 consecutive patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Radiotherapy was planned with the use of all the three techniques: 3D tangential beams with electron boost, IMRT with electron boost, and intensity modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost. Results: The use of the IMRT techniques enables more homogenous dose distribution in target volume. The range of mean and median dose to the heart and lung was lower with the IMRT techniques in comparison to the 3D tangential beams technique. The range of mean dose to the heart amounted to 0.3 - 3.5 Gy for the IMRT techniques and 0.4 - 4.3 for the tangential beams technique. The median dose to the lung on the irradiated side amounted to 4.9 - 5 Gy for the IMRT techniques and 5.6 Gy for the 3D tangential beams technique. Conclusion: The application of the IMRT techniques in radiotherapy patients with early-stage breast cancer allows to obtain more homogenous dose distribution in target volume, while permitting to reduce the dose to critical organs. (authors)

  2. Can simulation measurements be used to predict the irradiated lung volume in the tangential fields in patients treated for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornstein, B.A.; Cheng, C.W.; Rhodes, L.M.; Rashid, H.; Stomper, P.C.; Siddon, R.L.; Harris, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A simple method of estimating the amount of lung irradiated in patients with breast cancer would be of use in minimizing lung complications. To determine whether simple measurements taken at the time of simulation can be used to predict the lung volume in the radiation field, we performed CT scans as part of treatment planning in 40 cases undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. Parameters measured from simulator films included: (a) the perpendicular distance from the posterior tangential field edge to the posterior part of the anterior chest wall at the center of the field (CLD); (b) the maximum perpendicular distance from the posterior tangential field edge to the posterior part of the anterior chest wall (MLD); and (c) the length of lung (L) as measured at the posterior tangential field edge on the simulator film. CT scans of the chest were performed with the patient in the treatment position with 1 cm slice intervals, covering lung apex to base. The ipsilateral total lung area and the lung area included within the treatment port were calculated for each CT scan slice, multiplied by the slice thickness, and then integrated over all CT scan slices to give the volumes. The best predictor of the percent of ipsilateral lung volume treated by the tangential fields was the CLD. Employing linear regression analysis, a coefficient of determination r2 = 0.799 was calculated between CLD and percent treated ipsilateral lung volume on CT scan. In comparison, the coefficients for the other parameters were r2 = 0.784 for the MLD, r2 = 0.071 for L, and r2 = 0.690 for CLD x L. A CLD of 1.5 cm predicted that about 6% of the ipsilateral lung would be included in the tangential field, a CLD of 2.5 cm about 16%, and a CLD of 3.5 cm about 26% of the ipsilateral lung, with a mean 90% prediction interval of +/- 7.1% of ipsilateral lung volume

  3. Spinal meningeal melanocytoma and hydrocephalus and intracranial superficial siderosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Ratnagopal, P.; Puvanendran, K.; Teo, J.G.C.

    2001-01-01

    Meningeal melanocytomas are uncommon tumours of the central nervous system; fewer than 50 cases have been reported in the English literature. We review the unique clinical presentation, radiological appearance and histological features of a rare case of meningeal melanocytoma. The patient was a 50-year-old man with a history of hypertension who presented with complaints of severe headache, nausea, vomiting and blurry vision for 2 days. Clinical examination revealed no hyperpigmentation marks and he had no history of regressed skin melanocytic lesions. Apart from mild terminal neck stiffness, his general medical examination was unremarkable. On funduscopic examination he had marked bilateral papilloedema and the blind spots were enlarged bilaterally. His neurological examination was otherwise unremarkable. A magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI) of the brain showed hydrocephalus. On the precontrast T 2 -weighted images, there was hyperintensity of the meninges with little change after administration of gadolinium, which was suggestive of blood. On the T 2 -weighted sequences, there was evidence of hypo-i intensity on the surface of the pons and medulla, which was indicative of superficial siderosis

  4. Current status of superficial pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikitake, Ryoko; Ando, Mizuo; Saito, Yuki; Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Higashi, Takahiro

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the status and treatment of superficial pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan. We analyzed all cases diagnosed between 2011 and 2013, as recorded in the national database of hospital-based cancer registries. We extracted data on patient sex, age, tumor locations, histology, presentation routes, initial treatments, and TNM stages. Additionally, we compared the characteristics of pharyngeal carcinoma to those of esophageal cancer. A total of 16,521 oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers from 409 institutions were included. Diagnosis of Tis tumors was infrequent, and both cancers were likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage (n = 866, 5.3%). Tis diseases were the most commonly detected during follow-up examinations for other diseases (n = 608, 70%). While more oropharyngeal Tis patients were men compared to T1-4 patients (88 vs 82%, respectively), hypopharyngeal cancer patients comprised an equally high proportion of men (94 vs 92%, respectively). The most common location of oropharyngeal Tis tumors was the posterior wall (32%), whereas T1-4 tumors were most commonly found on the lateral wall (36%). In hypopharyngeal cancer, both Tis and T1-4 were most commonly located in the pyriform sinus (62%). The proportion of Tis tumors diagnosed at individual institutions showed a positive correlation with the number of endoscopic treatments (r = 0.32, P squamous cell carcinoma patients in Japan. Further improvements in early diagnosis and standardized treatments are warranted.

  5. Superficial effects during the activation of zirconium AB2 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbino, J; Visitin, A; Triaca, W

    2005-01-01

    The activation of zirconium nickel alloys with and without the addition of chromium and titanium is investigated through electrochemical and optical techniques.These alloys show high hydrogen absorption capacity and are extensively used in metal hydride batteries.Recent investigations in aqueous 1 M KOH indicate oxide layer growth and occlusion of hydrogen species in the alloys during the application of different cathodic potential programmes currently used in the activation process.In this research several techniques such as voltammetry, ellipsometry, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays EDAX, and scanning electron microscopy SEM are applied on the polished massive alloy Zr 1 -xTi x , x=0.36 y 0.43, and Zr 1 -xTi x CrNi, x=0.1,0.2 y 0.4.Data analysis shows that the stability, compactness and structure of the passive layers are strongly dependent on the applied potential programme.The alloy activation depends on the formation of deepen crevices that remain after a new polishing. Microscopic observation shows increase in the crevices thickness after the cathodic sweep potential cycling, which produces fragmentation of the grains and oxide growth during the activation process.This indicates metal breaking and intergranular dissolution that take place together with oxide and hydride formation.In some cases the resultant crevice thickness is one or two orders higher than that of the superficial oxide growth indicating intergranular localised corrosion

  6. Experimental Study of Phlebitis Ointment Administration in Acute Superficial Thrombophlebitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzong Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute superficial thrombophlebitis is a venous system disease. Animal models with mannitol induced phlebitis were treated with an orally administered “phlebitis ointment.” 24 rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups. The therapy group was treated with “phlebitis ointment” and a control group received “Mai Luo Shu Tong granules.” Levels of blood TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and IL-1β were measured. The tissue expression levels of NF-КBp65 and PKC genes were evaluated. The therapy group showed a better improvement of the clinical status and similar vascular morphology than the control group. A blank group showed no vascular changes through pathological investigation. In contrast, significant vascular changes were seen in the model group. The control group showed slight vascular modifications. Small thrombi could be found in the lumen despite the intact tunica intima. Both control and therapy group showed less inflammatory cells infiltration than the model group and upregulation of NF-КBp65 and PKC genes. The phlebitis ointment reduced the levels of necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-1ß. The expressions of NF-КBp65 and PKC genes, which are the primary mechanisms underlying the development of thrombophlebitis, were improved significantly in tissues of both therapy group and control group.

  7. Superficial vessel reconstruction with a multiview camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreiros, Filipe M. M.; Rossitti, Sandro; Karlsson, Per M.; Wang, Chunliang; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Carleberg, Per; Smedby, Örjan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. We aim at reconstructing superficial vessels of the brain. Ultimately, they will serve to guide the deformation methods to compensate for the brain shift. A pipeline for three-dimensional (3-D) vessel reconstruction using three mono-complementary metal-oxide semiconductor cameras has been developed. Vessel centerlines are manually selected in the images. Using the properties of the Hessian matrix, the centerline points are assigned direction information. For correspondence matching, a combination of methods was used. The process starts with epipolar and spatial coherence constraints (geometrical constraints), followed by relaxation labeling and an iterative filtering where the 3-D points are compared to surfaces obtained using the thin-plate spline with decreasing relaxation parameter. Finally, the points are shifted to their local centroid position. Evaluation in virtual, phantom, and experimental images, including intraoperative data from patient experiments, shows that, with appropriate camera positions, the error estimates (root-mean square error and mean error) are ∼1  mm. PMID:26759814

  8. Internet: Más Allá de la superficie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Andrés Tovar Cardozo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone un enfoque técnico de la Internet que da a conocer algunas características de su estructura, la cual muestra dos sectores distintos en donde se puede encontrar la información, es decir, esta se encuentra distribuida en niveles o capas de manera parcial o restringida, integrada o desagregada, todo ello dependiendo de lo que el usuario requiera realmente. La forma correcta para acceder a la información requerida está en saber a dónde ir a buscarla, la web profunda es información no visible para el usuario común que no tiene la habilidad de búsqueda, por lo cual se hace necesario verificar el tipo, la calidad y veracidad de la información a obtener antes de proceder a usar la información encontrada con los buscadores tradicionales. Acceder a Internet sin saber que existe una falsa cortina utilizada por la mayoría de los buscadores convencionales, es limitar las capacidades de navegar en un océano de información valiosa, en ello radica la importancia de conocer la web desde lo superficial (Surface Web a lo profundo (Deep Web.

  9. Inmersiones condicionadas de grafos en superficies y seudosuperficies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedriani Martel, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se procede a recapitular resultados conocidos sobre el problema de caracterizar los grafos que admiten inmersiones en superficies y en seudosuperficies con todos los vértices en la misma cara y se da una caracterización original de los grafos con dicha propiedad en seudosuperficies que surgen de manera natural y que han sido tratadas en la literatura especializada. Se comienza desarrollando algunos conceptos necesarios para la exposición de los problemas que se tratan, pero se suponen conocidos otros básicos de la Teoría de Grafos. Los resultados relacionados llevan de forma consecuente al planteamiento de otros problemas cuyas resoluciones originales también se incluyen. En cuanto a los objetivos finales que se pretenden lograr con esta comunicación, se basan, sobre todo, en aprovechar los resultados obtenidos por la Teoría de Grafos para resolver problemas pertenecientes a otras áreas, como la Economía. Se termina exponiendo un motivo topológico por el que estos estudios sobre las inmersiones y las inmersiones peri-S se hallan próximas a la Economía.

  10. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in children with superficial lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Corti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pediatric population Fine-Needle Aspiration Citology (FNAC is slowly gaining acceptance in clinical management of Superficial Lymphadenopathy (SL. Our experience adds some data about the usefulness of this technique in diagnosing the cause of a SL and therefore guiding further treatment. Patients and Methods: 238 FNAC were performed in 217 patients with SL, observed at our Institution from 2002 to 2006. The neck was the most frequent localization. The results were available within few hours. In cases of granulomatous findings, the samples were processed for microbiological and PCR test, in order to identify Mycobacteria. Results: 174 were reactive lesions, 38 granulomatous lymphadenopathies, 24 malignant lesions, 2 specimens inadequate for diagnosis. Among the 174 reactive SL, 22 required an incisional biopsy after 1 month follow-up. Among the granulomatous lymphadenopathies, 13 children with Cat-Scratch Disease recovered, 25 with Mycobacteria infection underwent surgical excision. For 24 malignant lesions, the diagnosis was confirmed by further biopsy. Two false negative and no false positive were detected (sensitivity 92%, specificity 100%. No complications were encountered. Conclusions: In our experience FNAC, performed by experienced cytopathologist, has revealed to be a fast, safe, non invasive and inexpensive method to achieve diagnosis in persistent SL. The use of FNAC gave us the possibility to select patients for further investigation and/or surgical treatment. Incisional biopsy remains necessary to confirm the diagnosis in case of malignancy or doubtful lesions.

  11. Triterpenes for Well-Balanced Scar Formation in Superficial Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kindler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Triterpenes are demonstrably effective for accelerating re-epithelialisation of wounds and known to improve scar formation for superficial lesions. Among the variety of triterpenes, betuline is of particular medical interest. Topical betuline gel (TBG received drug approval in 2016 from the European Commission as the first topical therapeutic agent with the proven clinical benefit of accelerating wound healing. Two self-conducted randomized intra-individual comparison clinical studies with a total of 220 patients involved in TBG treatment of skin graft surgical wounds have been screened for data concerning the aesthetic aspect of wound healing. Three months after surgery wound treatment with TBG resulted in about 30% of cases with more discreet scars, and standard of care in about 10%. Patients themselves appreciate the results of TBG after 3 months even more (about 50% compared to standard of care (about 10%. One year after surgery, the superiority of TBG counts for about 25% in comparison with about 10%, and from the patients’ point of view, for 25% compared to 4% under standard of care. In the majority of wound treatment cases, there is no difference visible between TBG treatment and standard of care after 1 year of scar formation. However, in comparison, TBG still offers a better chance for discreet scars and therefore happens to be superior in good care of wounds.

  12. Superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in facial dermatoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.U.; Iqbal, Z.; Rahman, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of salicylic acid chemical peeling in common dermatological conditions affecting face in people with predominant Fitzpatrick skin type IV and V. A total of 167 patients of either gender, aged between 13 to 60 years, having some facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, freckles, fine lines and wrinkles, post-inflammatory scars, actinic keratoses, and plane facial warts) were included. A series of eight weekly hospital based peeling sessions was conducted in all patients under standardized conditions with 30% salicylic acid. Clinical improvement in different disorders was evaluated by change in MASI score, decrease in the size of affected area and % reduction in lesions count. McNemar test was applied for data analysis. Majority of the patients showed moderate to excellent response. There was 35% to 63% improvement (p< 0.05) in all dermatoses. Significant side effects, as feared in Asian skins were not observed. Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is an effective and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses. (author)

  13. Multivectored Superficial Muscular Aponeurotic System Suspension for Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Garrison; Kurnik, Nicole; Joganic, Jessica; Joganic, Edward

    2017-06-01

    Facial paralysis is a devastating condition that may cause severe cosmetic and functional deformities. In this study we describe our technique for superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS) suspension using barbed suture and compare the vectors of suspension in relation to the underlying musculature. This study also quantifies the improvements in postoperative symmetry using traditional anthropologic landmarks. The efficacy of this procedure for improving facial paralysis was determined by comparing anthropometric indices and using Procrustes distance between 4 groupings of homologous landmarks plotted on each patient's preoperative and postoperative photos. Geometric morphometrics was used to evaluate change in facial shape and improvement in symmetry postoperatively.To analyze the vector of suspension in relation to the underlying musculature, specific anthropologic landmarks were used to calculate the vector of the musculature in 3 facial hemispheres from cadaveric controls against the vector of repair in our patients. Ten patients were included in our study. Subjectively, great improvement in functional status was achieved. Geometric morphometric analysis demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in facial symmetry. Cadaveric dissection demonstrated that the suture should be placed in the SMAS in vectors parallel to the underlying musculature to achieve these results. There were no complications in our study to date. In conclusion, multivectored SMAS suture suspension is an effective method for restoring static suspension of the face after facial paralysis. This method has the benefit of producing quick, reliable results with improved function, low cost, and low morbidity.

  14. DRENAGEM SUPERFICIAL DE SOLOS ARGILOSOS DO NORTE DO PARANÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Teixeira de Faria

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Foi avaliado o desempenho de práticas de drenagem superficial e cobertura morta em uma área de várzea do norte do Paraná. Antes e após o cultivo do arroz, foram comparadas as taxas de drenagem em tratamentos com e sem drenos torpedo e determinadas a vazão e a obstrução dos condutos. Sob o cultivo do feijoeiro, foram avaliados os efeitos dos drenos torpedo e de "camas" na drenagem e de cobertura morta (palha de arroz na retenção de água do solo. Os resultados indicaram que os drenos torpedo foram mais eficientes se construídos com solo menos úmido, porém sua longevidade foi menor que um ano. Sob o feijoeiro, os drenos torpedo e cobertura morta mantiveram o lençol freático mais profundo e o solo com menor tensão de umidade, mas esses efeitos ocorreram abaixo da zona radicular (15 cm, resultando em baixa produtividade.

  15. Recurrence of superficial vein thrombosis in patients with varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karathanos, Christos; Spanos, Konstantinos; Saleptsis, Vassileios; Tsezou, Aspasia; Kyriakou, Despina; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2016-08-01

    To investigate which factors other than history of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) are associated with recurrent spontaneous SVT episodes in patients with varicose veins (VVs). Patients with a history of spontaneous SVT and VVs were followed up for a mean period of 55 months. Demographics, comorbidities, and thrombophilia screening test were analyzed. Patients were grouped according to the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology classification. A multiple logistic regression analysis with the forward likelihood ratio method was undertaken. Thirteen patients out of 97 had a recurrence SVT episode during the follow-up period. All those patients were identified to have a thrombophilia defect. Protein C and S, antithrombin, and plasminogen deficiencies were more frequently present in patients without recurrence. Gene mutations were present in 38% in the nonrecurrence group and 77% in the recurrence group. After logistic regression analysis, patients with dislipidemia and mutation in prothrombin G20210A (FII) had an increased risk for recurrence by 5.4-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively. No deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurred. Dislipidemia and gene mutations of F II are associated with SVT recurrence in patients with VVs. A selection of patients may benefit from anticoagulation in the short term and from VVs intervention in the long term. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The influence of cutting speed and feed rate in surface integrity of aisi 1045//Influencia de la velocidad de corte y la velocidad de avance en la integridad superficial del acero aisi 1045

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jacas-Cabrera

    2015-09-01

    microstructure was feasible to observe the tertiary deformation zone due to the machining process. The hardness measured by nano-indentation showed that the thickness of this hardened zone can reach up to 50 µm.Key words: superficial integrity, surface roughness, nano-indentation, surface deformation.

  17. Tangential Volumetric Modulated Radiotherapy - A New Technique for Large Scalp Lesions with a Case Study in Lentigo Maligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Daniel Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dose homogeneity within and dose conformity to the target volume can be a challenge to achieve when treating large area scalp lesions. Traditionally High Dose Rate (HDR brachytherapy (BT scalp moulds have been considered the ultimate conformal therapy. We have developed a new technique, Tangential Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (TVMAT that treats with the beam tangential to the surface of the scalp. In the TVMAT plan the collimating jaws protect dose-sensitive tissue in close proximity to the planning target volume (PTV. Not all the PTV is within the beam aperture as defined by the jaws during all the beam-on time. We report the successful treatment of one patient. Methods: A patient with biopsy proven extensive lentigo maligna on the scalp was simulated and three plans were created; one using a HDR brachytherapy surface mould, another using a conventional VMAT technique and a third using our new TVMAT technique. The patient was prescribed 55 Gy in 25 fractions. Plans were optimised so that PTV V100% = 100%. Plans were compared using Dose-Value Histogram (DVH analysis, and homogeneity and conformity indices. Results: BT, VMAT and TVMAT PTV median coverage was 105.51%, 103.46% and 103.62%, with homogeneity index of 0.33, 0.07 and 0.07 and the conformity index of 0.30, 0.69 and 0.83 respectively. The median dose to the left hippocampus was 11.8 Gy, 9.0 Gy and 0.6 Gy and the median dose to the right hippocampus was 12.6 Gy, 9.4 Gy and 0.7 Gy for the BT, VMAT and TVMAT respectively. Overall TVMAT delivered the least doses to the surrounding organs, BT delivered the highest. Conclusions: TVMAT was superior to VMAT which was in turn superior to BT in PTV coverage, conformity and homogeneity and delivery of dose to the surrounding organs at risk. The patient was successfully treated to full dose with TVMAT. TVMAT was verified as being the best amongst the three techniques in a second patient.

  18. The quantitative measurements of foveal avascular zone using optical coherence tomography angiography in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Mirshahi, Reza; Bazvand, Fatemeh; Fadakar, Kaveh; Faghihi, Houshang; Sabour, Siamak

    2017-12-01

    To provide normative data of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and thickness. In this cross-sectional study both eyes of each normal subject were scanned with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) for foveal superficial and deep avascular zone (FAZ) and central foveal thickness (CFT) and parafoveal thickness (PFT). Out of a total of 224 eyes of 112 volunteers with a mean age of 37.03 (12-67) years, the mean superficial FAZ area was 0.27 mm 2 , and deep FAZ area was 0.35 mm 2 ( P  < 0.001), with no difference between both eyes. Females had a larger superficial (0.32 ± 0.11 mm 2 versus 0.23 ± 0.09 mm 2 ) and deep FAZ (0.40 ± 0.14 mm 2 versus 0.31 ± 0.10 mm 2 ) ( P  < 0.001) than males. By multivariate linear regression analysis, in normal eyes, superficial FAZ area varied significantly with the gender, CFT, and deep FAZ. Deep FAZ varied with the gender and CFT. The gender and CFT influence the size of normal superficial and deep FAZ of capillary network.

  19. Analyses of superficial and depth doses in intraoral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Santos de Oliveira, C.; Morais, R.P. de; Nascimento Souza, D. do [Universidade Federal de Sergipe - CCET - Dept. de Fisica, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In this work dosimetric analysis using thermoluminescence technique to study the beams characteristics of x-rays employed in dental radiology has been carried out. The obtained results with CaSO{sub 4}:Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were compared to the doses obtained with parallel-plates ionization chamber. Dosimetric evaluations were also done using radiographic films of large dimensions. The x-rays equipments analyzed were installed in the radiological services of Odontology Department of Sergipe Federal University (U.F.S.). Depending on the anatomical region to be examined the proper exposure time was select, for a fix voltage of 70 kV. The results with TLD and ionization chamber have been determined to female and male individuals. The intraoral regions analysed were the peri apical of the incisors, molar and pre-molar teeth and the occlusive region. These regions were simulated using acrylic plates absorbers installed on the film packet holder. The evaluation of the depth doses in the intraoral tissue was obtained using different acrylic plate thickness. The air kerma values have been evaluated with the ionization chamber located in the dental cone exit of the x-rays equipments. The integrated areas of the thermoluminescent glow curves showed coherent values when compared to the ones obtained with the ionization chamber and both methods presented a linear dependence with the exposition time. The analyses with films have allowed the evaluation of the beam scattering in the simulator apparatus. The studies had proven that the analysis of superficial dose and in depth used in dental radiology can be carried with thermoluminescent dosimeters. (authors)

  20. Analyses of superficial and depth doses in intraoral radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Santos de Oliveira, C.; Morais, R.P. de; Nascimento Souza, D. do

    2006-01-01

    In this work dosimetric analysis using thermoluminescence technique to study the beams characteristics of x-rays employed in dental radiology has been carried out. The obtained results with CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were compared to the doses obtained with parallel-plates ionization chamber. Dosimetric evaluations were also done using radiographic films of large dimensions. The x-rays equipments analyzed were installed in the radiological services of Odontology Department of Sergipe Federal University (U.F.S.). Depending on the anatomical region to be examined the proper exposure time was select, for a fix voltage of 70 kV. The results with TLD and ionization chamber have been determined to female and male individuals. The intraoral regions analysed were the peri apical of the incisors, molar and pre-molar teeth and the occlusive region. These regions were simulated using acrylic plates absorbers installed on the film packet holder. The evaluation of the depth doses in the intraoral tissue was obtained using different acrylic plate thickness. The air kerma values have been evaluated with the ionization chamber located in the dental cone exit of the x-rays equipments. The integrated areas of the thermoluminescent glow curves showed coherent values when compared to the ones obtained with the ionization chamber and both methods presented a linear dependence with the exposition time. The analyses with films have allowed the evaluation of the beam scattering in the simulator apparatus. The studies had proven that the analysis of superficial dose and in depth used in dental radiology can be carried with thermoluminescent dosimeters. (authors)

  1. HDR brachytherapy for superficial non-melanoma skin cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauden, Ruth; Pracy, Martin; Avery, Anne-Marie; Hodgetts, Ian; Gauden, Stan

    2013-01-01

    Our initial experience using recommended high dose per fraction skin brachytherapy (BT) treatment schedules, resulted in poor cosmesis. This study aimed to assess in a prospective group of patients the use of Leipzig surface applicators for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy, for the treatment of small non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) using a protracted treatment schedule. Treatment was delivered by HDR brachytherapy with Leipzig applicators. 36Gy, prescribed to between 3 to 4mm, was given in daily 3Gy fractions. Acute skin toxicity was evaluated weekly during irradiation using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Local response, late skin effects and cosmetic results were monitored at periodic intervals after treatment completion. From March 2002, 200 patients with 236 lesions were treated. Median follow-up was 66 months (range 25–121 months). A total of 162 lesions were macroscopic, while in 74 cases, BT was given after resection because of positive microscopic margins. There were 121 lesions that were basal cell carcinomas, and 115 were squamous cell carcinomas. Lesions were located on the head and neck (198), the extremities (26) and trunk (12). Local control was 232/236 (98%). Four patients required further surgery to treat recurrence. Grade 1 acute skin toxicity was detected in 168 treated lesions (71%) and grade 2 in 81 (34%). Cosmesis was good or excellent in 208 cases (88%). Late skin hypopigmentation changes were observed in 13 cases (5.5%). Delivering 36Gy over 2 weeks to superficial NMSC using HDR brachytherapy is well tolerated and provides a high local control rate without significant toxicity.

  2. Anatomical and Electrophysiological Clustering of Superficial Medial Entorhinal Cortex Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Local GABAergic interneurons regulate the activity of spatially-modulated principal cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), mediating stellate-to-stellate connectivity and possibly enabling grid formation via recurrent inhibitory circuitry. Despite the important role interneurons seem to play in the MEC cortical circuit, the combination of low cell counts and functional diversity has made systematic electrophysiological studies of these neurons difficult. For these reasons, there remains a paucity of knowledge on the electrophysiological profiles of superficial MEC interneuron populations. Taking advantage of glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (GAD2)-IRES-tdTomato and PV-tdTomato transgenic mice, we targeted GABAergic interneurons for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and characterized their passive membrane features, basic input/output properties and action potential (AP) shape. These electrophysiologically characterized cells were then anatomically reconstructed, with emphasis on axonal projections and pial depth. K-means clustering of interneuron anatomical and electrophysiological data optimally classified a population of 106 interneurons into four distinct clusters. The first cluster is comprised of layer 2- and 3-projecting, slow-firing interneurons. The second cluster is comprised largely of PV+ fast-firing interneurons that project mainly to layers 2 and 3. The third cluster contains layer 1- and 2-projecting interneurons, and the fourth cluster is made up of layer 1-projecting horizontal interneurons. These results, among others, will provide greater understanding of the electrophysiological characteristics of MEC interneurons, help guide future in vivo studies, and may aid in uncovering the mechanism of grid field formation. PMID:29085901

  3. Tangential vs. defined radiotherapy in early breast cancer treatment without axillary lymph node dissection. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, Mirko [Zentrum fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen (Germany); Universitaet Kiel, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Karl-Lennert-Krebscentrum, Kiel (Germany); Temme, Nils; Foerster, Manuela; Reible, Michael [Zentrum fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen (Germany); Hermann, Robert Michael [Zentrum fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen (Germany); Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Hannover (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated low regional recurrence rates in early-stage breast cancer omitting axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients who have positive nodes in sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND). This finding has triggered an active discussion about the effect of radiotherapy within this approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze the dose distribution in the axilla in standard tangential radiotherapy (SRT) for breast cancer and the effects on normal tissue exposure when anatomic level I-III axillary lymph node areas are included in the tangential radiotherapy field configuration. We prospectively analyzed the dosimetric treatment plans from 51 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. We compared and analyzed the SRT and the defined radiotherapy (DRT) methods for each patient. The clinical target volume (CTV) of SRT included the breast tissue without specific contouring of lymph node areas, whereas the CTV of DRT included the level I-III lymph node areas. We evaluated the dose given in SRT covering the axillary lymph node areas of level I-III as contoured in DRT. The mean V{sub D95} {sub %} of the entire level I-III lymph node area in SRT was 50.28 % (range, 37.31-63.24 %), V{sub D45} {sub Gy} was 70.1 % (54.8-85.4 %), and V{sub D40} {sub Gy} was 83.5 % (72.3-94.8 %). A significant difference was observed between lung dose and heart toxicity in SRT vs. DRT. The V{sub 20} {sub Gy} and V{sub 30} {sub Gy} of the right and the left lung in DRT were significantly higher in DRT than in SRT (p < 0.001). The mean heart dose in SRT was significantly lower (3.93 vs. 4.72 Gy, p = 0.005). We demonstrated a relevant dose exposure of the axilla in SRT that should substantially reduce local recurrences. Furthermore, we demonstrated a significant increase in lung and heart exposure when including the axillary lymph nodes regions in the tangential radiotherapy field set-up. (orig.) [German] Aktuelle Studien zeigen

  4. Numerical investigation on the flow, combustion, and NOX emission characteristics in a 660 MWe tangential firing ultra-supercritical boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to study the pulverized-coal combustion process in a tangentially fired ultra-supercritical boiler. The realizable k-ε model for gas coupled with discrete phase model for coal particles, P-1 radiation model for radiation, two-competing-rates model for devolatilization, and kinetics/diffusion-limited model for combustion process are considered. The characteristics of the flow field, particle motion, temperature distribution, species components, and NOx emissions were numerically investigated. The good agreement of the measurements and predictions implies that the applied simulation models are appropriate for modeling commercial-scale coal boilers. It is found that an ideal turbulent flow and particle trajectory can be observed in this unconventional pulverized-coal furnace. With the application of over-fire air and additional air, lean-oxygen combustion takes place near the burner sets region and higher temperature at furnace exit is acquired for better heat transfer. Within the limits of secondary air, more steady combustion process is achieved as well as the reduction of NOx. Furthermore, the influences of the secondary air, over-fire air, and additional air on the NOx emissions are obtained. The numerical results reveal that NOx formation attenuates with the decrease in the secondary air ratio (γ2nd and the ratio of the additional air to the over-fire air (γAA/γOFA was within the limits.

  5. High-pressure size exclusion chromatography analysis of dissolved organic matter isolated by tangential-flow ultra filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, C.R.; Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    A 1,000-Dalton tangential-flow ultrafiltration (TFUF) membrane was used to isolate dissolved organic matter (DOM) from several freshwater environments. The TFUF unit used in this study was able to completely retain a polystyrene sulfonate 1,800-Dalton standard. Unaltered and TFUF-fractionated DOM molecular weights were assayed by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The weight-averaged molecular weights of the retentates were larger than those of the raw water samples, whereas the filtrates were all significantly smaller and approximately the same size or smaller than the manufacturer-specified pore size of the membrane. Moreover, at 280 nm the molar absorptivity of the DOM retained by the ultrafilter is significantly larger than the material in the filtrate. This observation suggests that most of the chromophoric components are associated with the higher molecular weight fraction of the DOM pool. Multivalent metals in the aqueous matrix also affected the molecular weights of the DOM molecules. Typically, proton-exchanged DOM retentates were smaller than untreated samples. This TFUF system appears to be an effective means of isolating aquatic DOM by size, but the ultimate size of the retentates may be affected by the presence of metals and by configurational properties unique to the DOM phase.

  6. Evaluation of the dosimetric consequences of adding a single asymmetric or MLC shaped field to a tangential breast radiotherapy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, Neil D.; Turner, Robert N.; Dawes, Peter J.D.K.; Lambert, Geoff D.; Lawrence, Gill P.

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen consecutive patients had standard treatment plans generated using our departmental protocol and two further plans produced using either an asymmetric, or MLC shaped additional field, from each tangential direction. The mean percentage of the PTV receiving over 107% of the isocentre dose was 19.8% for the standard planned patients (95% confidence interval 12.3-27.4%). This was reduced to 6.0% for the asymmetric field technique (95% confidence interval 4.1-8.0%) and 5.3% for the MLC technique (95% confidence interval 2.8-7.7%). These high dose volume reductions were therefore significant at the 95% confidence level. It was also concluded that both alternative planning techniques offer the greatest potential when the standard plan indicated that more than 20% of the PTV would receive greater than 107% of the prescribed dose. Under these circumstances the segmented field techniques led to a reduction of at least 15 percentage points in this figure. It is this group of patients who stand to benefit most from application of these simple additional field techniques

  7. The Impact of Beam Deposition on Bootstrap Current of Fast Ion Produced by Neutral Beam Tangential Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qian-Hong; Gong Xue-Yu; Lu Xing-Qiang; Yu Jun; Cao Jin-Jia

    2015-01-01

    The density profile of fast ions arising from a tangentially injected diffuse neutral beam in tokamak plasma is calculated. The effects of mean free paths and beam tangency radius on the density profile are discussed under typical HL-2A plasmas parameters. The results show that the profile of fast ions is strongly peaked at the center of the plasma when the mean free path at the maximum deuteron density is larger than the minor radius, while the peak value decreases when the mean free path at the maximum deuteron density is larger than twice that of the minor radius due to the beam transmission loss. Moreover, the bootstrap current of fast ions for various mean free paths at the maximum deuteron density is calculated and its density is proved to be closely related to the deposition of the neutral beam. With the electron return current considered, the net current density obviously decreases. Meanwhile, the peak central fast ion density increases when the beam tangency radius approaches the major radius, and the net bootstrap current increases rapidly with the increasing beam tangency radius. (paper)

  8. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  9. Use your eyes - metallographic versus superficial traces of the crafting of Bronze Age ornaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Heide Wrobel

    and superficial archaeological examinations can be used to understand prehistoric craft. Furthermore, it will show that with an intensive knowledge about previous scientific investigations the superficial traces preserved can reveal a great amount of information and could talk for themselves. Taking as an example...... the early and middle Bronze Age bronze ornaments from North Germany, superficial traces of the metal crafting process, visible with the naked eye, will be compared with metallographic images. The aim of this presentation is to give an overview over the crafting traces everybody could see (with a bit...

  10. Unexpected diagnosis of superficial neurofibroma in a lesion with imaging features of a vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Patrick; Reid, Janet; Morrison, Stuart [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Vidimos, Allison [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Dermatology, Cleveland, OH (United States); DiFiore, John [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Plexiform neurofibroma is a pathognomonic, often disabling feature of neurofibromatosis type I. Although the target-like appearance of deep plexiform neurofibroma on T2-weighted MRI has been well-described, a second superficial form of plexiform neurofibroma has differing imaging features. We report a 15-year-old boy who presented with multiple cutaneous lesions exhibiting clinical and imaging characteristics of a venolymphatic malformation. These lesions were histologically proved to represent superficial plexiform neurofibromas. We wish to emphasize the unique MR findings of superficial plexiform neurofibromas; these findings are different from the imaging characteristics of the deep form and can be confused with a low-flow vascular malformation. (orig.)

  11. Comportamiento a fatiga del acero sae 4140 usando alta rugosidad superficial y ambiente corrosivo

    OpenAIRE

    CEBALLOS, WILSON FERNANDO; GÓMEZ, ADOLFO LEÓN; CORONADO, JOHN JAIRO

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el estudio del comportamiento a fatiga del acero SAE 4140 en condiciones diferentes: superficie pulida (acabado espejo), ambiente corrosivo (jugo de caña de azúcar), alta rugosidad superficial (superficie equivalente a la encontrada típicamente en los ejes de molino de caña) y una condición que involucra la combinación de las dos últimas. Las anteriores condiciones están presentes en los ejes de maza de molino de caña de azúcar durante el proceso de molienda. Se r...

  12. COMPORTAMIENTO A FATIGA DEL ACERO SAE 4140 USANDO ALTA RUGOSIDAD SUPERFICIAL Y AMBIENTE CORROSIVO

    OpenAIRE

    CEBALLOS, WILSON FERNANDO; GÓMEZ, ADOLFO LEÓN; CORONADO, JOHN JAIRO

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el estudio del comportamiento a fatiga del acero SAE 4140 en condiciones diferentes: superficie pulida (acabado espejo), ambiente corrosivo (jugo de caña de azúcar), alta rugosidad superficial (superficie equivalente a la encontrada típicamente en los ejes de molino de caña) y una condición que involucra la combinación de las dos últimas. Las anteriores condiciones están presentes en los ejes de maza de molino de caña de azúcar durante el proceso de molienda. Se r...

  13. Valoración de la superficie del dializador en la hemodiafiltración on-line. Elección objetiva de la superficie del dializador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maduell

    2015-05-01

    Conclusión: El incremento del 40% y el 80% de la superficie conlleva un aumento del volumen convectivo de un 6 y un 16% respectivamente, aunque se evidenció una reducción en su máximo rendimiento, mostrando mínimas diferencias tanto en el volumen convectivo como en la capacidad depurativa cuando el CUF era superior a 45 ml/h/mmHg. Es recomendable optimizar el rendimiento de los dializadores a la mínima superficie posible adecuando la prescripción de tratamiento.

  14. Biomass torrefaction characteristics in inert and oxidative atmospheres at various superficial velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lu, Ke-Miao; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Tsai, Chi-Ming; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Ta-Chang

    2013-10-01

    The reaction characteristics of four biomass materials (i.e. oil palm fiber, coconut fiber, eucalyptus, and Cryptomeria japonica) with non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction at various superficial velocities are investigated where nitrogen and air are used as carrier gases. Three torrefaction temperatures of 250, 300, and 350 °C are considered. At a given temperature, the solid yield of biomass is not affected by N2 superficial velocity, revealing that the thermal degradation is controlled by heat and mass transfer in biomass. Increasing air superficial velocity decreases the solid yield, especially in oil palm fiber and coconut fiber, implying that the torrefaction reaction of biomass is dominated by surface oxidation. There exists an upper limit of air superficial velocity in the decrement of solid yield, suggesting that beyond this limit the thermal degradation of biomass is no longer governed by surface oxidation, but rather is controlled by internal mass transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physiological Laterality of Superficial Cerebral Veins on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Gomi, Taku; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether laterality of the superficial cerebral veins can be seen on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in patients with no intracranial lesions that affect venous visualization. We retrospectively evaluated 386 patients who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging including SWI in our institute. Patients with a lesion with the potential to affect venous visualization on SWI were excluded. Two neuroradiologists visually evaluated the findings and scored the visualization of the superficial cerebral veins. Of the 386 patients, 315 (81.6%) showed no obvious laterality on venous visualization, 64 (16.6%) showed left-side dominant laterality, and 7 (1.8%) showed right-side dominant laterality. Left-side dominant physiological laterality exists in the visualization of the superficial cerebral veins on SWI. Therefore, when recognizing left-side dominant laterality of the superficial cerebral veins on SWI, the radiologist must also consider the possibility of physiological laterality.

  16. DETERMINATION OF SUPERFICIAL ABSORBED DOSE FROM EXTERNAL EXPOSURE OF WEAKLY PENETRATING RADIATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽姝

    1994-01-01

    The methods of determining the superficial absorbed dose distributions in a water phantom by means of the experiments and available theories have been reported.The distributions of beta dose were measured by an extrapolation ionization chamber at definite depthes corresponding to some superficial organs and tissues such as the radiosensitive layer of the skin,cornea,sclera,anterior chamber and lens of eyeball.The ratios among superficial absorbed dose D(0.07) and average absorbed doses at the depthes 1,2,3,4,5 and 6mm are also obtained with Cross's methods.They can be used for confining the deterministic effects of some superficial tissues and organs such as the skin and the components of eyeball for weakly penetrating radiations.

  17. MARCADO CON LÁSER SOBRE CERÁMICA VIDRIADA POR APORTE SUPERFICIAL DE UN PIGMENTO DE COBALTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryory Astrid Gómez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El procesamiento de materiales por láser tiene gran aplicación a escala industrial, para imprimir patrones gráficos sobre superficies cerámicas. La rápida implementación de este proceso se debe a que, respecto al proceso convencional de horneado, tiene ventajas tales como: se concentra el calor sólo en la zona irradiada, lo que conlleva un menor consumo de energía sin afectar significativamente el resto de la pieza; se obtienen patrones gráficos de alta resolución espacial; permite introducir cambios durante el proceso sin requerir largas paradas, y la generación de residuos es mínima o casi nula. En este estudio se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el vidriado con láser Nd:YAG (λ&=1064 nm sobre las superficies esmaltadas de azulejos, las cuales fueron previamente recubiertas con pigmento negro de cobalto. Con el láser operando en modo continuo (CW, se marcaron una serie de líneas, cuyo ancho y profundidad evidenciaron una dependencia directa con la variación de la potencia y velocidad de desplazamiento del haz láser sobre la superficie del azulejo. Estas líneas vidriadas fueron finalmente caracterizadas por microscopía óptica, espectroscopia de dispersión de energía (EDS y difracción de rayos X.Laser materials processing has great application to industrial scale, to print graphic patterns on ceramics surfaces. The fast implementation of this process is due to the fact that, with respect to the conventional baking process, has advantages, such as: heat is concentrated only in the radiated zone that involves a smaller energy consumption without affecting significantly the rest of the piece, graphic patterns with of highly spatial resolution are obtained, it permits to introduce changes during the process without requiring long stops, and low or almost none generation of residues. In this study the results obtained from Nd:YAG (λ=1064 nm laser glazing on the enameled surfaces of glazed tiles, which were previously

  18. Radiotherapy for superficial esophageal cancer of poor risk patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagami, Yoshikazu; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Tachimori, Yuji; Kato, Hoichi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Tokuue, Kouichi; Sumi, Minako; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Imai, Atsushi; Nakayama, Shuji

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The reported incidence of superficial esophageal cancer (SEC) has steadily increased in Japan as result of endoscopic examination has been become common. In Japan, treatment of SEC is endoscopical mucosal resection (EMR) for mucosal cancer or esophagectomy with 3 fields lymph nodes resection for submucosal cancer. Radiotherapy is little place for the management of SEC. Because of some reasons, we treated patients with SEC by radiotherapy alternative to surgery. Purpose of this report is to evaluate efficacy of radiotherapy for SEC. Methods and Materials: Between 1989 to 1996, eighteen patients with SEC were treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Reasons of radiotherapy that was chosen as the primary methods of treatment were refusal of surgery in one patient, poor medical condition in 4 patients and double primary cancer in 13 patients (head and neck: 11, simultaneously: 11). No patients had indication of EMR. Diagnosis was made by endoscopy and radiography. Some patients were examined with endoscopic ultrasound. Two patients (11.1%) had tumor limited to the mucosa and 16 patients (88.9%) had tumor invaded the submucosa. Seven of these tumors (38.9%) were multicentric. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma. There were 17 male patients and one female patient. The age range was 49 years to 87 years with a median of 62 years. Stage of all patients was T1N0M0 according to UICC staging system. Ten patients underwent external radiotherapy (Ex) (50 Gy - 66 Gy) alone and 8 patients did both Ex and intracavitary radiotherapy (IC) (30-60 Gy of Ex with 5-15 Gy of IC). No patients received chemotherapy. Duration of follow-up was 6 months to 96 months with a median of 30 months. Results: The overall survival rate was 55.9% in 3-year and 14% in 5-year, and the cause-specific 5-year survival rate was 100%. Causes of death were malignant tumor other than esophageal cancer in 4 patients, intercurrent disease other than malignant tumor in 3 patients and no

  19. Interaction of mobile phones with superficial passive metallic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtanen, H; Huttunen, J; Toropainen, A; Lappalainen, R

    2005-01-01

    The dosimetry of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields of mobile phones is generally based on the specific absorption rate (SAR, W kg -1 ), which is the electromagnetic energy absorbed in the tissues per unit mass and time. In this study, numerical methods and modelling were used to estimate the effect of a passive, metallic (conducting) superficial implant on a mobile phone EM field and especially its absorption in tissues in the near field. Two basic implant models were studied: metallic pins and rings in the surface layers of the human body near the mobile phone. The aim was to find out 'the worst case scenario' with respect to energy absorption by varying different parameters such as implant location, orientation, size and adjacent tissues. Modelling and electromagnetic field calculations were carried out using commercial SEMCAD software based on the FDTD (finite difference time domain) method. The mobile phone was a 900 MHz or 1800 MHz generic phone with a quarter wave monopole antenna. A cylindrical tissue phantom models different curved sections of the human body such as limbs or a head. All the parameters studied (implant size, orientation, location, adjacent tissues and signal frequency) had a major effect on the SAR distribution and in certain cases high local EM fields arose near the implant. The SAR values increased most when the implant was on the skin and had a resonance length or diameter, i.e. about a third of the wavelength in tissues. The local peak SAR values increased even by a factor of 400-700 due to a pin or a ring. These highest values were reached in a limited volume close to the implant surface in almost all the studied cases. In contrast, without the implant the highest SAR values were generally reached on the skin surface. Mass averaged SAR 1g and SAR 10g values increased due to the implant even by a factor of 3 and 2, respectively. However, at typical power levels of mobile phones the enhancement is unlikely to be

  20. A Novel Technique of Supra Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Hyaluronic Acid Injection for Lower Face Lifting

    OpenAIRE

    Sahawatwong, Sinijchaya; Sirithanabadeekul, Punyaphat; Patanajareet, Vasiyapha; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Thanasarnaksorn, Wilai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods attempting to correct sagging of the lower face focus mainly on manipulation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Each technique has its own limitation. The authors propose a relatively simple, conservative method utilizing hyaluronic acid injection just above the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Objective: To address a novel hyaluronic injection technique to lift the lower face. Methods: Details of the injection techniques are described. The Positio...

  1. Clinicomycological Characterization of Superficial Mycoses from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Khadka, Sundar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Pokharel, Dinesh Binod; Pokhrel, Bharat Mani; Mishra, Shyam Kumar; Dhital, Subhash; Rijal, Basista

    2016-01-01

    Background. Superficial mycosis is a common fungal infection worldwide, mainly caused by dermatophytes. However, the prevalence of species varies geographically. In addition, fungal treatment is best guided according to species isolated. This study was carried out to determine the clinical as well as mycological profile of superficial mycoses in a tertiary care hospital, Nepal. Methods. This was a prospective case-control laboratory based study conducted over a period of six months from Janua...

  2. Emotional words can be embodied or disembodied: the role of superficial vs. deep types of processing

    OpenAIRE

    Abbassi, Ensie; Blanchette, Isabelle; Ansaldo, Ana I.; Ghassemzadeh, Habib; Joanette, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Emotional words are processed rapidly and automatically in the left hemisphere (LH) and slowly, with the involvement of attention, in the right hemisphere (RH). This review aims to find the reason for this difference and suggests that emotional words can be processed superficially or deeply due to the involvement of the linguistic and imagery systems, respectively. During superficial processing, emotional words likely make connections only with semantically associated words in the LH. This pa...

  3. Topographical anatomy of superficial veins, cutaneous nerves, and arteries at venipuncture sites in the cubital fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuni, Yuko; Chiba, Shoji; Tonosaki, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated correlations among the superficial veins, cutaneous nerves, arteries, and venous valves in 128 cadaveric arms in order to choose safe venipuncture sites in the cubital fossa. The running patterns of the superficial veins were classified into four types (I-IV) and two subtypes (a and b). In types I and II, the median cubital vein (MCV) was connected obliquely between the cephalic and basilic veins in an N-shape, while the median antebrachial vein (MAV) opened into the MCV in type I and into the basilic vein in type II. In type III, the MCV did not exist. In type IV, additional superficial veins above the cephalic and basilic veins were developed around the cubital fossa. In types Ib-IVb, the accessory cephalic vein was developed under the same conditions as seen in types Ia-IVa, respectively. The lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm descended deeply along the cephalic vein in 124 cases (97 %), while the medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm descended superficially along the basilic vein in 94 (73 %). A superficial brachial artery was found in 27 cases (21 %) and passed deeply under the ulnar side of the MCV. A median superficial antebrachial artery was found in 1 case (1 %), which passed deeply under the ulnar side of the MCV and ran along the MAV. Venous valves were found at 239 points in 28 cases with superficial veins, with a single valve seen at 79 points (33 %) and double valves at 160 points (67 %). At the time of intravenous injection, caution is needed regarding the locations of cutaneous nerves, brachial and superficial brachial arteries, and venous valves. The area ranging from the middle segment of the MCV to the confluence between the MCV and cephalic vein appears to be a relatively safe venipuncture site.

  4. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system due to brachial plexus injury: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setogutti, Enio Tadashi; Cassuriaga, Jefferson; Valduga, Simone Gianella; Lorenzzoni, Pablo Longhi; Severgnini, Giancarlo Muraro; Feldman, Carlos Jader

    2005-01-01

    Superficial siderosis can be caused by hemosiderin deposition o the leptomeninges and subpial layers of the neuro-axis due to recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage. Probable intrathecal bleeding sites must be investigated. In ut t 50% of the patients the bleeding source may be identified and the progression of the disease can be interrupted. In this study, the authors present a case of superficial siderosis of the central nervous system developed two decades after a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus.(author)

  5. Quantitative assessment of irradiated lung volume and lung mass in breast cancer patients treated with tangential fields in combination with deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, Karin Sigrid; Zurl, Brigitte; Stranzl, Heidi; Winkler, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Comparison of the amount of irradiated lung tissue volume and mass in patients with breast cancer treated with an optimized tangential-field technique with and without a deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique and its impact on the normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP). Material and Methods: Computed tomography datasets of 60 patients in normal breathing (NB) and subsequently in DIBH were compared. With a Real-Time Position Management Respiratory Gating System (RPM), anteroposterior movement of the chest wall was monitored and a lower and upper threshold were defined. Ipsilateral lung and a restricted tangential region of the lung were delineated and the mean and maximum doses calculated. Irradiated lung tissue mass was computed based on density values. NTCP for lung was calculated using a modified Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. Results: Mean dose to the ipsilateral lung in DIBH versus NB was significantly reduced by 15%. Mean lung mass calculation in the restricted area receiving ≤ 20 Gy (M 20 ) was reduced by 17% in DIBH but associated with an increase in volume. NTCP showed an improvement in DIBH of 20%. The correlation of individual breathing amplitude with NTCP proved to be independent. Conclusion: The delineation of a restricted area provides the lung mass calculation in patients treated with tangential fields. DIBH reduces ipsilateral lung dose by inflation so that less tissue remains in the irradiated region and its efficiency is supported by a decrease of NTCP. (orig.)

  6. Vascular patterns of upper limb: an anatomical study with accent on superficial brachial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kachlik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the terminal segmentation of the axillary artery and to present four cases of anomalous branching of the axillary artery, the superficial brachial artery (arteria brachialis superficialis, which is defined as the brachial artery that runs superficially to the median nerve. Totally, 130 cadaveric upper arms embalmed by classical formaldehyde technique from collections of the Department of Anatomy, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, were macroscopically dissected with special focus on the branching arrangement of the axillary artery. The most distal part of the axillary artery (infrapectoral part terminated in four cases as a bifurcation into two terminal branches: the superficial brachial artery and profunda brachii artery, denominated according to their relation to the median nerve. The profunda brachii artery primarily gave rise to the main branches of the infrapectoral part of the axillary artery. The superficial brachial artery descended to the cubital fossa where it assumed the usual course of the brachial artery in two cases and in the other two cases its branches (the radial and ulnar arteries passed superficially to the flexors. The incidence of the superficial brachial artery in our study was 5% of cases. The reported incidence is a bit contradictory, from 0.12% to 25% of cases. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is of crucial importance for neurosurgeons and specialists using the radiodiagnostic techniques, particularly in cases involving traumatic injuries. The improved knowledge would allow more accurate diagnostic interpretations and surgical treatment.

  7. Parametric Raman crystalline anti-Stokes laser at 503 nm with collinear beam interaction at tangential phase matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanin, S. N.; Jelínek, M.; Kubeček, V.

    2017-07-01

    Stimulated-Raman-scattering in crystals can be used for the single-pass frequency-conversion to the Stokes-shifted wavelengths. The anti-Stokes shift can also be achieved but the phase-matching condition has to be fulfilled because of the parametric four-wave mixing process. To widen the angular-tolerance of four-wave mixing and to obtain high-conversion-efficiency into the anti-Stokes, we developed a new scheme of the parametric Raman anti-Stokes laser at 503 nm with phase-matched collinear beam interaction of orthogonally-polarized Raman components in calcite oriented at the phase-matched angle under 532 nm 20 ps laser excitation. The excitation laser beam was split into two orthogonally-polarized components entering the calcite at the certain incidence angles to fulfill the nearly collinear phase-matching and also to compensate walk-off of extraordinary waves for collinear beam interaction. The phase matching of parametric Raman interaction is tangential and insensitive to the angular mismatch if the Poynting vectors of the biharmonic pump and parametrically generated (anti-Stokes) waves are collinear. For the first time it allows to achieve experimentally the highest conversion efficiency into the anti-Stokes wave (503 nm) up to 30% from the probe wave and up to 3.5% from both pump and probe waves in the single-pass picosecond parametric calcite Raman laser. The highest anti-Stokes pulse energy was 1.4 μJ.

  8. Prediction of unburned carbon and NOx in a tangentially fired power station using single coals and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.I. Backreedy; J.M. Jones; L. Ma; M. Pourkashanian; A. Williams; A. Arenillas; B. Arias; J.J. Pis; F. Rubiera [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Energy and Resources Research Institute

    2005-12-01

    Two approaches can be employed for prediction of NOx and unburned carbon. The first approach uses global models such as the 'slice' model which requires the combustor reaction conditions as an input but which has a detailed coal combustion mechanism. The second involves a computational fluid dynamic model that in principle can give detailed information about all aspects of combustion, but usually is restricted in the detail of the combustion model because of the heavy computational demands. The slice model approach can be seen to be complimentary to the CFD approach since the NOx and carbon burnout is computed using the slice model as a post-processor to the CFD model computation. The slice model that has been used previously by our group is applied to a commercial tangentially fired combustor operated in Spain and using a range of Spanish coals and imported coals, some of which are fired as blends. The computed results are compared with experimental measurements, and the accuracy of the approach assessed. The CFD model applied to this case is one of the commercial codes modified to use a number of coal combustion sub-models developed by our group. In particular it can use two independent streams of coal and as such it can be used for the combustion of coal blends. The results show that both model approaches can give good predictions of the NOx and carbon in ash despite the fact that certain parts of the coal combustion models are not exactly the same. However, if a detailed insight into the combustor behaviour is required then the CFD model must be used. 28 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Association Between Tangential Beam Treatment Parameters and Cardiac Abnormalities After Definitive Radiation Treatment for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Candace R.; Das, Indra J.; Litt, Harold I.; Ferrari, Victor; Hwang, W.-T.; Solin, Lawrence J.; Harris, Eleanor E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the association between radiation treatment (RT) parameters, cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities, and clinical cardiovascular diagnoses among patients with left-sided breast cancer after breast conservation treatment with tangential beam RT. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 416 patients treated between 1977 and 1995 with RT for primary left-sided breast cancer were reviewed for myocardial perfusion imaging and echocardiograms. Sixty-two patients (62/416, 15%) underwent these cardiac diagnostic tests for cardiovascular symptoms and were selected for further study. Central lung distance and maximum heart width and length in the treatment field were determined for each patient. Medical records were reviewed for cardiovascular diagnoses and evaluation of cardiac risk factors. Results: At a median of 12 years post-RT the incidence of cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities among symptomatic left-sided irradiated women was significantly higher than the predicted incidence of cardiovascular disease in the patient population, 6/62 (9%) predicted vs. 24/62 (39%) observed, p 0.001. As compared with patients with normal tests, patients with cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities had a larger median central lung distance (2.6 cm vs. 2.2 cm, p = 0.01). Similarly, patients with vs. without congestive heart failure had a larger median central lung distance (2.8 cm vs. 2.3 cm, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Contemporary RT for early breast cancer may be associated with a small, but potentially avoidable, risk of cardiovascular morbidity that is associated with treatment technique

  10. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  11. Comparisons Between Histology and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of the Periarterial Capillary-Free Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; An, Dong; Sakurada, Yoichi; Lee, Cecilia S; Lee, Aaron Y; McAllister, Ian L; Freund, K Bailey; Sarunic, Marinko; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2018-05-01

    To use the capillary-free zone along retinal arteries, a physiologic area of superficial avascularization, as an anatomic paradigm to investigate the reliability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) for visualizing the deep retinal circulation. Validity analysis and laboratory investigation. Five normal human donor eyes (mean age 69.8 years) were perfusion-labeled with endothelial antibodies and the capillary networks of the perifovea were visualized using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Regions of the capillary-free zone along the retinal artery were imaged using OCTA in 16 normal subjects (age range 24-51 years). Then, 3 × 3-mm scans were acquired using the RTVue XR Avanti (ver. 2016.1.0.26; Optovue, Inc, Fremont, California, USA), PLEX Elite 9000 (ver. 1.5.0.15909; Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin, California, USA), Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 (Family acquisition module 6.7.21.0; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and DRI-OCT Triton (Ver. 1.1.1; Topcon Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Images of the superficial plexus, deep vascular plexus, and a slab containing all vascular plexuses were generated using manufacturer-recommended default settings. Comparisons between histology and OCTA were performed. Histologic analysis revealed that the capillary-free zone along the retinal artery was confined to the plane of the superficial capillary plexus and did not include the intermediate and deep capillary plexuses. Images derived from OCTA instruments demonstrated a prominent capillary-free zone along the retinal artery in slabs of the superficial plexus, deep plexus, and all capillary plexuses. The number of deep retinal capillaries seen in the capillary-free zone was significantly greater on histology than on OCTA (P zone as an anatomic paradigm, we show that the deep vascular beds of the retina are not completely visualized using OCTA. This may be a limitation of current OCTA techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating optimal superficial limb perfusion at different angles using non-invasive micro-lightguide spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanin, Geraldine; Jaggard, Matthew; Hettiaratchy, Shehan; Nanchahal, Jagdeep; Jain, Abhilash

    2013-06-01

    It is common practice to elevate the limbs postoperatively to reduce oedema and hence optimise perfusion and facilitate rehabilitation. However, elevation may be counterproductive as it reduces the mean perfusion pressure. There are no clear data on the optimal position of the limbs even in normal subjects. The optimal position of limbs was investigated in 25 healthy subjects using a non-invasive micro-lightguide spectrophotometry system "O2C", which indirectly measures skin and superficial tissue perfusion through blood flow, oxygen saturation and relative haemoglobin concentration. We found a reduction in skin and superficial tissue blood flow of 17% (p=0.0001) on arm elevation (180° shoulder flexion) as compared to heart level and an increase in skin and superficial tissue blood flow of 25% (p=0.02) on forearm elevation of 45°. Lower limb skin and superficial tissue blood flow decreased by 15% (p=0.004) on elevation to 47 cm and by 70% on dependency (p=0.0001) compared to heart level. However, on elevation of the lower limb there was also a 28% reduction in superficial venous pooling (p=0.0001) compared to heart level. In the normal limb, the position for optimal superficial perfusion of the upper limb is with the arm placed at heart level and forearm at 45°. In the lower limb the optimal position for superficial perfusion would be at heart level. However, some degree of elevation may be useful if there is an element of venous congestion. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Computations in the deep vs superficial layers of the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Mills, W Patrick C

    2017-11-01

    A fundamental question is how the cerebral neocortex operates functionally, computationally. The cerebral neocortex with its superficial and deep layers and highly developed recurrent collateral systems that provide a basis for memory-related processing might perform somewhat different computations in the superficial and deep layers. Here we take into account the quantitative connectivity within and between laminae. Using integrate-and-fire neuronal network simulations that incorporate this connectivity, we first show that attractor networks implemented in the deep layers that are activated by the superficial layers could be partly independent in that the deep layers might have a different time course, which might because of adaptation be more transient and useful for outputs from the neocortex. In contrast the superficial layers could implement more prolonged firing, useful for slow learning and for short-term memory. Second, we show that a different type of computation could in principle be performed in the superficial and deep layers, by showing that the superficial layers could operate as a discrete attractor network useful for categorisation and feeding information forward up a cortical hierarchy, whereas the deep layers could operate as a continuous attractor network useful for providing a spatially and temporally smooth output to output systems in the brain. A key advance is that we draw attention to the functions of the recurrent collateral connections between cortical pyramidal cells, often omitted in canonical models of the neocortex, and address principles of operation of the neocortex by which the superficial and deep layers might be specialized for different types of attractor-related memory functions implemented by the recurrent collaterals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Superficial corneal foreign body: laboratory and epidemiologic aspects Corpo estranho corneal superficial: aspectos laboratoriais e epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednajar Tavares Macedo Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine by bacterioscopy and culture the microorganisms carried by corneal foreign body and their sensitivity to antibiotics by antibiotic sensitivity test. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out and information was collected on 101 patients who presented with corneal foreign body at the São Paulo Hospital Eye Emergency Service. Prior to any treatment, a sample of the ipsilateral inferior conjunctival fornix and the foreign body were collected and immersed in thioglycolate broth. Samples were sown on solid culture media including blood, chocolate and Sabouraud agar. Bacterioscopic examination using Gram and Giemsa staining and sensitivity test were performed. Positive foreign body culture results were compared to ipsilateral conjunctival fornix culture to exclude possible normal flora growth. RESULTS: Approximately 92% of patients were males with a mean age of 35 years and in 62.4% (95% confidence interval: 52.2 - 71.8% had the right eye was affected. Foreign body positive cultures were achieved in 32.7% (95% confidence interval: 23.7 - 42.7% of the cases. The microorganisms isolated from the foreign body culture were identified as: Streptococcus, alpha-hemolytic (n=4, Staphylococcus aureus (n=4, Staphylococcus, coagulase-negative (n=4, Corynebacterium xerosis (n=3, unidentified Gram-positive bacillus (n=2, Moraxella sp (n=1, Serratia sp (n=1, Acynetobacter sp (n=1. The microbial sensitivity test showed that 95% of the cases were sensitive to chloramphenicol and 90% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, these being antibiotics used in our routine service. CONCLUSION: Superficial corneal foreign body acts as important contaminant vector and the great majority of isolated bacteria were sensitive to the antibiotic prophylaxis used in the treatment.OBJETIVOS: Identificar por meio de cultura e bacterioscopia os microrganismos veiculados por corpo estranho corneal e sua sensibilidade aos antibióticos em teste de antibiograma. M

  15. Flashback analysis in tangential swirl burners; Analisis de reflujo de flama en combustores tangenciales de flujo giratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera-Medina, A. [CIATEQ A.C., Centro de Tecnologia Avanzada, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: agustin.valera@ciateq.mx; Syred, N. Abdulsada, M. [United Kingdom Cardiff University (United Kingdom)]. E-mails: syredn@cf.ac.uk; abdulsadam@cf.ac.uk

    2011-10-15

    Premixed lean combustion is widely used in Combustion Processes due to the benefits of good flame stability and blow off limits coupled with low NO{sub x} emissions. However, the use of novel fuels and complex flows have increased the concern about flashback, especially for the use of syngas and highly hydrogen enriched blends. Thus, this paper describes a combined practical and numerical approach to study the phenomenon in order to reduce the effect of flashback in a pilot scale 100 kW tangential swirl burner. Natural gas is used to establish the baseline results and effects of different parameters changes. The flashback phenomenon is studied with the use of high speed photography. The use of a central fuel injector demonstrates substantial benefits in terms of flashback resistance, eliminating coherent structures that may appear in the flow channels. The critical boundary velocity gradient is used for characterization, both via the original Lewis and von Elbe formula and via analysis using CFD and investigation of boundary layer conditions in the flame front. [Spanish] La combustion ligera premezclada se utiliza ampliamente en los procesos de combustion debido a los beneficios que brinda en terminos de buena estabilidad de flama y limites de extincion, aunado a la baja emision de NO{sub x}. Sin embargo, el uso de nuevos combustibles y de flujos complejos han incrementado la preocupacion por el reflujo de flama, especialmente para el uso de gas sintetico (syngas) y mezclas altamente hidrogenadas. Por ello, en este articulo se describe un metodo practico y numerico para el estudio del fenomeno a modo de reducir los efectos del reflujo de flama en un combustor piloto de tipo tangencial de flujo giratorio de 100 kW. Se usa gas natural para establecer la linea base de resultados y los efectos del cambio de diferentes parametros. El fenomeno de reflujo de flama se estudia por medio de fotografia de rapida adquisicion. El uso de un inyector central de combustible

  16. Clinicopahological features of superficial basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguma, J; Ozawa, S; Kazuno, A; Nitta, M; Ninomiya, Y; Tomita, S

    2017-12-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSC) of the esophagus is classified as an epithelial malignant tumor and is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Most previous reports have suggested that advanced BSC has a poorer prognosis than typical SCC because of its high biological malignancy, but the biological activity of superficial BSC remains unclear. Twenty cases of superficial BSC, which underwent surgical resection in Tokai University Hospital between January 2004 and December 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Among these cases, 19 cases with a T1 depth of invasion (BSC group) were compared with 180 cases of SCC that were resected during the same period and were pathologically diagnosed as T1 (SCC group). The frequency of lymph node metastasis in the T1 BSC group was significantly lower (2 patients, 11%) than that in the SCC group (84 patients, 47%) (P = 0.005). The frequency of lymphatic invasion in the BSC group was also lower (9 patients, 47%) than that in the SCC group (131 patients, 73%) (P = 0.021). The pathological type of the metastatic lymph node was BSC in all the superficial BSC cases with lymph node metastasis. This study demonstrated that lymph node metastasis was less likely to occur in cases with superficial BSC than in cases with superficial SCC. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Clinicomycological Characterization of Superficial Mycoses from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Sundar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Pokharel, Dinesh Binod; Pokhrel, Bharat Mani; Mishra, Shyam Kumar; Dhital, Subhash; Rijal, Basista

    2016-01-01

    Background . Superficial mycosis is a common fungal infection worldwide, mainly caused by dermatophytes. However, the prevalence of species varies geographically. In addition, fungal treatment is best guided according to species isolated. This study was carried out to determine the clinical as well as mycological profile of superficial mycoses in a tertiary care hospital, Nepal. Methods . This was a prospective case-control laboratory based study conducted over a period of six months from January to June 2014 at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Nepal. A total of 200 specimens were collected from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses. The specimens were macroscopically as well as microscopically examined. The growth was observed up to 4 weeks. Results. Out of total 200 specimens from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses, tinea corporis 50 (25%) was most common clinical types. KOH mount was positive in 89 (44.5%) and culture was positive in 111 (55.5%). Trichophyton mentagrophytes 44 (39.6%) was the most common isolate. Conclusions. The diagnostic yields of KOH mount and culture were found to be complementary to each other. Thus both the methods added with clinical findings are equally important to establish superficial mycosis.

  18. Clinicomycological Characterization of Superficial Mycoses from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Khadka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Superficial mycosis is a common fungal infection worldwide, mainly caused by dermatophytes. However, the prevalence of species varies geographically. In addition, fungal treatment is best guided according to species isolated. This study was carried out to determine the clinical as well as mycological profile of superficial mycoses in a tertiary care hospital, Nepal. Methods. This was a prospective case-control laboratory based study conducted over a period of six months from January to June 2014 at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Nepal. A total of 200 specimens were collected from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses. The specimens were macroscopically as well as microscopically examined. The growth was observed up to 4 weeks. Results. Out of total 200 specimens from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses, tinea corporis 50 (25% was most common clinical types. KOH mount was positive in 89 (44.5% and culture was positive in 111 (55.5%. Trichophyton mentagrophytes 44 (39.6% was the most common isolate. Conclusions. The diagnostic yields of KOH mount and culture were found to be complementary to each other. Thus both the methods added with clinical findings are equally important to establish superficial mycosis.

  19. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to study the gross anatomy of future localized fat deposits (LFDs area of abdomen in fetus. Materials and Methods: Four fetus (two male & two female of four month of intrauterine life were dissected. Attachments & layers of superficial fascia and future subcutaneous fat deposit area of upper and lower abdomen were noted. Results: Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multi layered in mid line and number of layers reduced laterally as in adult. The future abdominal LFD (localized fat deposits area in fetus shows brownish-white blubbary tissue without well-defined adult fat lobules. Conclusion: The attachment and gross anatomy of superficial fascia of the fetus was similar to that in adults. The future LFD areas showed brownish white blubbary tissue with ill-defined fat lobules.

  20. Studio della superficie degli impianti dentali in titanio: La nanotecnologia nella valutazione delle nuove superfici implantari in rapporto all'osteointegrazione dei mascellari

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Il presente lavoro parte dalla descrizione dei processi di rimodellamento osseo mascellare a seguito della perdita di elementi dentari e la successiva riabilitazione mediante impianto dentale osteointegrato. Approfondiremo proprio i complessi aspetti dell’osteointegrazione su superfici implantari in titanio sia a livello micro che macroscopico. Nel campo dell’implantologia, infatti, il titanio risulta essere il materiale maggiormente impiegato in virtù della sua eccellente biocompatibilità...

  1. Superficial x-ray in-vivo dosimetry with MOSFET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This note investigates in-vivo dosimetry using a Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) for radiotherapy treatment at superficial and orthovoltage x-ray energies. This was performed within one fraction of the patient's treatment. Standard measurements along with energy response of the detector are given. Results showed that the MOSFET measurements in-vivo agreed with calculated results on average within ± 5.6% over all superficial and orthovoltage energies. These variations were slightly larger than TLD results with variations between measured and calculated results being ± 5.0% for the same patient measurements. The MOSFET device provides adequate in-vivo dosimetry for superficial and orthovoltage energy treatments with the accuracy of the measurements seeming to be relatively on par with TLD in our case. The MOSFET does have the advantage of returning a relatively immediate dosimetric result after irradiation. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  2. Castelli di carta. La piega per la costruzione di superfici articolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Casale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L’antica arte del piegare la carta, l’Origami, sta vivendo un rinnovato interesse che coinvolge molti aspetti della ricerca.  Con il termine origami, si intende lo studio del modo di piegare il foglio di carta per imporgli una specifica forma.  La superficie tassellata per mezzo di specifiche pieghe, si propone come un nuovo soggetto di studio: la superficie piegata articolata. La forma congiunta al movimento, assume un particolare interesse nella contemporanea ricerca geometrica e architettonica. Il panorama contemporaneo, propone opere di architettura “responsiva”, capaci di modificare le proprie caratteristiche per adeguarsi a nuove condizioni. La superficie piegata articolata sembra particolarmente adatta a descrivere questo modo d’intendere l’architettura, reagendo a diverse volontà e di conseguenza modificando la propria conformazione attraverso un attento controllo progettuale della forma.

  3. Neurothekeoma palpebrae in association with multiple superficial angiomyxomas: Tegumental Angiomyxoma- Neurothekeoma syndrome (TAN syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Aik Kah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 10-year-old Indian girl with history of multiple superficial angiomyxoma, presented with three months history of painless right upper lid swelling. There were no visual dysfunctions. Previously, the patient had multiple superficial angiomyxoma (left pinna, left upper cheek, left upper limb, chest, right axilla, hard palate and epidermal cyst (chin. The histopathological specimens were negative to S-100 protein antibody. Systemic review and family history was unremarkable. Excision biopsy and upper lid reconstruction were performed. Intraoperatively the tumor was multilobulated, firm, well encapsulated and did not invade the underlying tarsal plate. Histopathological features of the upperlid tumor were consistent with nerves sheath myxoma (neurothekeoma. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of neurothekeoma in association with multiple superficial angiomyxoma.

  4. Neurothekeoma palpebrae in association with multiple superficial angiomyxomas: Tegumental Angiomyxoma-Neurothekeoma syndrome (TAN syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Tan Aik; Yong, Ku Chui; Annuar, Faridah Hanom

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of 10-year-old Indian girl with history of multiple superficial angiomyxoma, presented with three months history of painless right upper lid swelling. There were no visual dysfunctions. Previously, the patient had multiple superficial angiomyxoma (left pinna, left upper cheek, left upper limb, chest, right axilla, hard palate) and epidermal cyst (chin). The histopathological specimens were negative to S-100 protein antibody. Systemic review and family history was unremarkable. Excision biopsy and upper lid reconstruction were performed. Intraoperatively the tumor was multilobulated, firm, well encapsulated and did not invade the underlying tarsal plate. Histopathological features of the upperlid tumor were consistent with nerves sheath myxoma (neurothekeoma). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of neurothekeoma in association with multiple superficial angiomyxoma.

  5. Effects of pressure drop and superficial velocity on the bubbling fluidized bed incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Jehng; Chen, Suming; Lei, Perng-Kwei; Wu, Chung-Hsing

    2007-12-01

    Since performance and operational conditions, such as superficial velocity, pressure drop, particles viodage, and terminal velocity, are difficult to measure on an incinerator, this study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine numerical solutions. The effects of pressure drop and superficial velocity on a bubbling fluidized bed incinerator (BFBI) were evaluated. Analytical results indicated that simulation models were able to effectively predict the relationship between superficial velocity and pressure drop over bed height in the BFBI. Second, the models in BFBI were simplified to simulate scale-up beds without excessive computation time. Moreover, simulation and experimental results showed that minimum fluidization velocity of the BFBI must be controlled in at 0.188-3.684 m/s and pressure drop was mainly caused by bed particles.

  6. Superficie Específica y Estado Vital de la Materia

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hernando Ordoñez

    1992-01-01

    Se propone reemplazar el término de materia viva por el de estado vital de la materia por considerarlo adecuado, pues la materia es la misma, lo que cambia es su estado. Se estudia la relación entre la superficie específica y el estado vital de la materia. Constante del estado vital y el valor crítico de la superficie específica. Qué es la fuerza de inducción vital? Diferenciación funcional de las células. Cómo regula la unidad biológica su superficie específica? La materia que piens...

  7. "A Tale of Two Planes": Deep Versus Superficial Serratus Plane Block for Postmastectomy Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piracha, Mohammad M; Thorp, Stephen L; Puttanniah, Vinay; Gulati, Amitabh

    Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a significant burden for breast cancer survivors. Although multiple therapies have been described, an evolving field of serratus anterior plane blocks has been described in this population. We describe the addition of the deep serratus anterior plane block (DSPB) for PMPS. Four patients with history of PMPS underwent DSPB for anterior chest wall pain. A retrospective review of these patients' outcomes was obtained through postprocedure interviews. Three of the patients previously had a superficial serratus anterior plane block, which was not as efficacious as the DSPB. The fourth patient had a superficial serratus anterior plane that was difficult to separate with hydrodissection but had improved pain control with a DSPB. We illustrate 4 patients who have benefitted from a DSPB and describe indications that this block may be more efficacious than a superficial serratus plane block. Further study is recommended to understand the intercostal nerve branches within the lateral and anterior muscular chest wall planes.

  8. MOSFET dosimetry in-vivo at superficial and orthovoltage x-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong, NSW

    2003-01-01

    This note investigates in-vivo dosimetry using a Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) for radiotherapy treatment at superficial and orthovoltage x-ray energies. This was performed within one fraction of the patients treatment. Standard measurements along with energy response of the detector are given. Results showed that the MOSFET measurements in-vivo agreed with calculated results on average within ± 5.6% over all superficial and orthovoltage energies. These variations were slightly larger than TLD results with variations between measured and calculated results being ± 5.0% for the same patient measurements. The MOSFET device provides adequate in-vivo dosimetry for superficial and orthovoltage energy treatments with the accuracy of the measurements seeming to be relatively on par with TLD in our case. The MOSFET does have the advantage of returning a relatively immediate dosimetric result after irradiation. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  9. Prevalence and causative agents of superficial mycoses in a textile factory in Adana, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, E; Ilkit, M; Tanir, F

    2003-09-01

    This study was carried out in a textile factory settled in the city center of Adana, Turkey. The workers were evaluated for the presence of superficial mycoses and the interaction of their working environment or working condition. A total of 431 textile workers were included in the study, with a male to female ratio of 378 (87.7%) to 53 (12.3%) and an age range of 19-52 (mean: 33.7 +/- 6.8). Direct examination and/or culture revealed superficial mycoses in 73 (16.9%) workers, among them 56 (76.7%) were classified as dermatophytoses, 8 (11.0%) as Pityriasis versicolor while in nine (12.3%) of the cases, no causative agent could be determined. Trichophyton rubrum (57.1%) and T. mentagrophytes (42.9%) were the two species isolated on culture. This study emphasized that textile workers should be admitted as a risk group for superficial mycoses, especially tinea pedis.

  10. Cardiac and pulmonary dose reduction for tangentially irradiated breast cancer, utilizing deep inspiration breath-hold with audio-visual guidance, without compromising target coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikstroem, Johan; Hjelstuen, Mari H.B.; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Dybvik, Kjell Ivar

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose. Cardiac disease and pulmonary complications are documented risk factors in tangential breast irradiation. Respiratory gating radiotherapy provides a possibility to substantially reduce cardiopulmonary doses. This CT planning study quantifies the reduction of radiation doses to the heart and lung, using deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). Patients and methods. Seventeen patients with early breast cancer, referred for adjuvant radiotherapy, were included. For each patient two CT scans were acquired; the first during free breathing (FB) and the second during DIBH. The scans were monitored by the Varian RPM respiratory gating system. Audio coaching and visual feedback (audio-visual guidance) were used. The treatment planning of the two CT studies was performed with conformal tangential fields, focusing on good coverage (V95>98%) of the planning target volume (PTV). Dose-volume histograms were calculated and compared. Doses to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, ipsilateral lung and the contralateral breast were assessed. Results. Compared to FB, the DIBH-plans obtained lower cardiac and pulmonary doses, with equal coverage of PTV. The average mean heart dose was reduced from 3.7 to 1.7 Gy and the number of patients with >5% heart volume receiving 25 Gy or more was reduced from four to one of the 17 patients. With DIBH the heart was completely out of the beam portals for ten patients, with FB this could not be achieved for any of the 17 patients. The average mean dose to the LAD coronary artery was reduced from 18.1 to 6.4 Gy. The average ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 20 Gy was reduced from 12.2 to 10.0%. Conclusion. Respiratory gating with DIBH, utilizing audio-visual guidance, reduces cardiac and pulmonary doses for tangentially treated left sided breast cancer patients without compromising the target coverage

  11. Cardiac and pulmonary dose reduction for tangentially irradiated breast cancer, utilizing deep inspiration breath-hold with audio-visual guidance, without compromising target coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikstroem, Johan; Hjelstuen, Mari H.B.; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Dybvik, Kjell Ivar (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Stavanger Univ. Hospital, Stavanger (Norway)), e-mail: vijo@sus.no

    2011-01-15

    Background and purpose. Cardiac disease and pulmonary complications are documented risk factors in tangential breast irradiation. Respiratory gating radiotherapy provides a possibility to substantially reduce cardiopulmonary doses. This CT planning study quantifies the reduction of radiation doses to the heart and lung, using deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). Patients and methods. Seventeen patients with early breast cancer, referred for adjuvant radiotherapy, were included. For each patient two CT scans were acquired; the first during free breathing (FB) and the second during DIBH. The scans were monitored by the Varian RPM respiratory gating system. Audio coaching and visual feedback (audio-visual guidance) were used. The treatment planning of the two CT studies was performed with conformal tangential fields, focusing on good coverage (V95>98%) of the planning target volume (PTV). Dose-volume histograms were calculated and compared. Doses to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, ipsilateral lung and the contralateral breast were assessed. Results. Compared to FB, the DIBH-plans obtained lower cardiac and pulmonary doses, with equal coverage of PTV. The average mean heart dose was reduced from 3.7 to 1.7 Gy and the number of patients with >5% heart volume receiving 25 Gy or more was reduced from four to one of the 17 patients. With DIBH the heart was completely out of the beam portals for ten patients, with FB this could not be achieved for any of the 17 patients. The average mean dose to the LAD coronary artery was reduced from 18.1 to 6.4 Gy. The average ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 20 Gy was reduced from 12.2 to 10.0%. Conclusion. Respiratory gating with DIBH, utilizing audio-visual guidance, reduces cardiac and pulmonary doses for tangentially treated left sided breast cancer patients without compromising the target coverage

  12. Investigation of Superficial Resistance of Different Purity Copper at Boiling Nitrogen Temperature Depending on Treatment of Current-Conducting Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutovoj, V.A.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Stoev, P.I.

    2007-01-01

    Results of this scientific work show influence of annealing temperature and deformation degree of initial MOB copper and after electron beam refining on superficial resistance at temperature of boiling nitrogen. It is shown, that 30 % deformation and annealing in 873...923 K temperature range results in appreciable reduction of superficial resistance at the investigated samples of copper. The lowest values of superficial resistance after thermal and mechanical treatment were observed in the samples after electron beam refinement

  13. Corte y sellado reversible de dientes para obtener superficies internas de esmalte incólumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Santiago-Medina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Las superficies internas de los dientes, que se obtienen por cortes con discos, están generalmente desorganizadas por los giros, la velocidad y la rugosidad del disco. El calor altera la superficie y el agua de la refrigeración la composición química porque disuelve los componentes. En estudios de difusión, el perfil se borra por el corte, lo que anula resultados. Objetivo: desarrollar un método de sellado de superficies internas, ya cortadas antes de los ensayos de difusión, sin dejar trazas químicas o partículas. Materiales y metedos: se probó in vitro la habilidad de cuatro materiales de sellado con 40 especimenes, provenientes de 20 coronas de terceros molares, cortadas sagitalmente. Los especímenes se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos (n = 10: G1: Teflón (Topex®, G2: Tela de caucho (Dental DAM®, G3: película de cloruro de polivinilo (Vinilpel® y G4: Cinta aislante (Tesa®. Se usó una solución de azul de metileno (AM al 2% por 6 días como indicadora de filtración. Por observación visual de cada muestra, se le asignó un valor (sí o no dependiendo de la presencia o ausencia de cualquier punto MB sobre la superficie de sellado. Los resultados fueron analizados siguiendo un modelo estadístico de respuesta binomial. Resultados: Siguiendo los procedimientos descritos, el teflón es el único material que previene la filtración de AM en la superficie interna expuesta por el corte. Conclusión: Se propone un protocolo de sellado reversible de las superficies internas con teflón, previo al corte de los dientes, para no alterar los resultados experimentales.

  14. Evaluation of anatomy and variations of superficial palmar arch and upper extremity arteries with CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplanoglu, Hatice; Beton, Osman

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the abnormalities and variations of the arterial system of upper extremities and superficial palmar arch with computed tomography angiography and to guide the clinician during this procedure. A total of 156 upper extremities of 78 cases were retrospectively analyzed using computed tomography angiography. The study was approved by the local ethics committee of the hospital. From the analysis of the computed tomography angiography images, the following information was recorded; the diameters and abnormalities of radial, ulnar and brachial arteries in both upper extremities, the presence of atherosclerotic changes or stenosis in these arteries, whether the superficial palmar arch was complete or incomplete, and arterial dominance. Also, the computed tomography angiography classification of superficial palmar arch distribution and anatomic configuration was performed. The mean baseline diameters of the radial, ulnar and brachial arteries of the cases were; 2.8 ± 0.6, 2.5 ± 0.7, and 4.7 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. A complete superficial palmar arch was observed in 69.2 % of the right hands and 70.5 % of the left hands. For the superficial palmar arches on the right side, the radial artery was dominant in two and the ulnar artery was dominant in 47 with the remaining showing codominance. On the left side, the radial artery was dominant in one hand, with the ulnar artery being dominant in 49 cases, and in 28 cases, there was codominance. In the superficial palmar arch classification, four of the arches (A-D) were defined as complete and the remaining three (E-G) as incomplete. The current study clarified different variations in palmar circulation and forearm arteries to aid the surgeon during trans-radial or trans-ulnar catheterization, hemodialysis, or coronary artery bypass grafting.

  15. Ultrasound of musculoskeletal soft-tissue tumors superficial to the investing fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Esther Hiu Yee; Griffith, James Francis; Ng, Alex Wing Hung; Lee, Ryan Ka Lok; Lau, Domily Ting Yi; Leung, Jason Chi Shun

    2014-06-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in assessing musculoskeletal soft-tissue tumors superficial to the investing fascia. Seven hundred fourteen superficial soft-tissue tumors evaluated with ultrasound by two musculoskeletal radiologists were retrospectively reviewed. In all ultrasound reports, the reporting radiologists provided one, two, or three diagnoses depending on their perceived level of diagnostic certainty. Two hundred forty-seven tumors had subsequent histologic correlation, thus allowing the accuracy of the ultrasound diagnosis to be determined. Images of the lesions with a discordant ultrasound diagnosis and histologic diagnosis were reviewed, and the ultrasound features were further classified as concordant with the known histologic diagnosis, concordant with the known histologic diagnosis with atypical features present, or discordant with the known histologic diagnosis. Four hundred sixty-seven tumors without pathologic confirmation were followed up clinically. Overall the accuracy of ultrasound examination for assessing superficial soft-tissue masses was 79.0% when all differential diagnoses were considered and 77.0% when only the first differential diagnosis was considered. The sensitivity and specificity of the first ultrasound diagnosis were 95.2% and 94.3%, respectively, for lipoma; 73.0% and 97.7% for vascular malformation; 80.0% and 95.4% for epidermoid cyst; and 68.8% and 95.2% for nerve sheath tumor. Reduced observer awareness of specific tumor entities tended to contribute to underdiagnosis more than poor specificity of ultrasound findings. Most tumors (236/247, 96%) were benign. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for identifying malignant superficial soft-tissue tumors was 94.1% and 99.7%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in the assessment of superficial musculoskeletal soft-tissue tumors is high and can be improved through increased radiologist awareness of less

  16. Bacterias en superficies contactadas durante las tomas radiográficas intraorales

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Guihan; Calderón-Ubaquí, Victor; Sacsaquispe-Contreras, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de bacterias mediante el análisis microbiológico en las superficies contactadas por el operador durante la toma y procesado de radiografías intraorales en diferentes momentos del día en el Servicio de Radiología Oral de la UPCH. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un muestreo en nueve superficies del servicio de radiología oral. Las muestras se tomaron en dos momentos por el mismo investigador; al inicio y al finalizar las actividades en el servicio, se realizó ...

  17. Recent advances in high-throughput molecular marker identification for superficial and invasive bladder cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Zieger, Karsten; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2007-01-01

    individually contributed to the management of the disease. However, the development of high-throughput techniques for simultaneous assessment of a large number of markers has allowed classification of tumors into clinically relevant molecular subgroups beyond those possible by pathological classification. Here......Bladder cancer is the fifth most common neoplasm in industrialized countries. Due to frequent recurrences of the superficial form of this disease, bladder cancer ranks as one of the most common cancers. Despite the description of a large number of tumor markers for bladder cancers, none have......, we review the recent advances in high-throughput molecular marker identification for superficial and invasive bladder cancers....

  18. Managment of superficial infantile capillary hemangiomas with topical timolol maleate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Ali Raza; Yusuf, Faraz; Sharma, Rajeev; Rizvi, Syed Wajahat Ali

    2015-01-01

    Capillary hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of eyelids and orbit in children. Recently, a topical beta blocker has been reported as an effective treatment for superficial capillary hemangiomas. We present a case report of two children having large capillary hemangiomas who responded well to topical treatment by 0.5% timolol maleate solution. After 12 months of treatment, the lesion has significantly reduced in size, thickness, and color in both cases. Thus, we conclude that long-term use of topical 0.5% timolol maleate solution is safe and effective in treating superficial capillary hemangiomas.

  19. Superficial Temporal Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Conservative Approach in a Critically Ill Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Crucitti, Pierfilippo; Carboni, Giampiero; Coppola, Roberto; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2007-01-01

    A 71-year-old man affected by cardio- and cerebrovascular disease experienced an accidental fall and trauma to the fronto-temporal area of the head. A few weeks later a growing mass appeared on his scalp. A diagnosis of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm was made following CT and color Doppler ultrasound. His clinical condition favoured a conservative approach by ultrasound-guided compression and subsequent surgical resection. A conservative approach should be considered the treatment of choice in critically ill patients affected by superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm

  20. Secondary superficial siderosis of the central nervous system in a patient presenting with sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmerling, M.; De Praeter, G.; Mollet, P.; Mortele, K.; Kunnen, M.; Mastenbroek, G.

    1998-01-01

    We present a 50-year-old man who was investigated for sensorineural hearing loss. On MRI of the brain superficial siderosis of the central nervous system was seen, while MRI of the spine revealed an ependymoma of the cauda equina. This case illustrates the importance of performing T2-weighted imaging of the brain and posterior fossa when sensorineural hearing loss is present. Spine imaging is mandatory when superficial siderosis of the brain is diagnosed without identification of a bleeding source in the brain. (orig.)

  1. Harvest Date Influences Superficial Scald Development in Granny Smith Apples During Long Term Storage

    OpenAIRE

    ERKAN, Mustafa; PEKMEZCİ, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The effects of harvest dates on superficial scald development and postharvest quality in 'Granny Smith' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) were investigated. Apples were harvested at 15-day intervals during 2 consecutive years (2000-2001) and stored at 0 °C with 90% relative humidity for 8 months. At the end of the 8 - month storage period plus an additional 1 week at 20 °C the percentage of superficial scald was lower (24.4%) in late harvested (November 15) apples than in ap...

  2. Caracterizacion dosimetrica del equipo de Terapia Superficial Therapax del Hospital Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernui De Vivanco, Maria Giselle; Rojas Rivas, Jorge; Cardenas Retuerto, Augusto

    2007-01-01

    The Servicio de Radioterapia of the Hospital Mexico in San Jose, Costa Rica has a Superficial Therapy equipment Therapax model DXT 300. It describes the measurements for the dosimetric characterization of the configurations 100 kVp, 25 mA and filter of 2.4 mm of Al, and 250 kVp, 10 mA and filter of 2.5 mm of Cu, taking into account that the uncertainties in the measurements of the superficial therapy equipment are higher than in the rank of the megavoltage [es

  3. Radiación acústica por superficies planas: Aplicación a altavoces

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Jesús; Ramis, Jaime; Espinosa, Víctor; Sánchez, Víctor

    2003-01-01

    En los sistemas de reproducción sonora es habitual la utilización de altavoces dinámicos. Sin embargo, en aplicaciones específicas, puede ser necesaria y/o conveniente la utilización de altavoces alternativos con superficies planas como diafragma, como los electrostáticos o los basados en la tecnología NXT© . Estos altavoces generan el campo acústico mediante la vibración de una superficie rectangular. Se puede suponer, en una primera aproximación, que todos los puntos sobre su su...

  4. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF A SUPERFICIAL TREATMENT USING BIFENTHRIN TO PROTECT RADIATA PINE FRAMING FROM DAMAGE BY SUBTERRANEAN AND DRYWOOD TERMITES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paimin Sukartana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Various experimental testing procedures were undertaken in Indonesia to determine the effectiveness of a patented superficial (envelope treatment using bifenthrin to protect radiata pine framing material from damage by two species of subterranean termites (Macrotermes gilvus and Coptotermes curvignathus and one species of drywood termite (Cryptotermes cynocephalus. Lengths of framing material (Pinus radiata sapwood were commercially treated to the targeted retention of 0.02% m/m of bifenthrin in the outer 2 mm depth penetration zone of the material. The treated and untreated materials were subsequently cut into test specimens and exposed to M. gilvus in the field and a semi-laboratory trial, to C. curvignathus in the laboratory and a semi-laboratory trial and to C. cynocephalus in a laboratory trial. No supplementary treatment was performed on the exposed cut ends of the treated test specimens. The results from the trials clearly demonstrated that the superficial treatment of bifenthrin seemed effective in protecting test specimens of radiata pine framing material from significant damage by Indonesia’s most notorious termite species that often causes serious economic loss to the timbers. Termites were unable to damage any of the bifenthrin-treated surfaces of test specimens. Any obser ved damage by termites, albeit minor, was in all cases confined to the exposed cut ends of test specimens. In contrast, attack by termites on the untreated control test specimens caused damage of the samples ranging from light to heavy.

  6. [Study on the change of optical zone after femtosecond laser assisted laser in situ keratomileusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Chen, M; Tian, L; Li, D W; Peng, Y S; Zhang, F F

    2018-01-11

    Objective: To explore the change of optical zone after femtosecond laser assisted laser in sitn keratomileusis(FS-LASIK) so as to provide the reference for measurement and design of clinical optical zone. Methods: This retrospective case series study covers 41 eyes of 24 patients (7 males and 17 females, aged from 18 to 42 years old) with myopia and myopic astigmatism who have received FS-LASIK surgery at Corneal Refractive Department of Qingdao Eye Hospital and completed over 6 months of clinical follow-up. Pentacam system (with the application of 6 corneal topographic map modes including: the pure axial curvature topographic map, the pure tangential curvature topographic map, the axial curvature difference topographic map, the tangential curvature difference topographic map, the postoperative front elevation map and the corneal thickness difference topographic map), combined with transparent concentric software (a system independently developed by Qingdao Eye Hospital) was used to measure the optical zone at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively, the optical zone diameters measurement results among different follow-up times in group were analyzed with the repeated measures analysis of variance, and the actual measured values and the theoretical design values of the optical zone were analyzed with independent-samples t-testing. Spearman correlation coefficient ( r(s) ) have been applied to evaluate the relationship between postoperative optical zone measurement values and the potential influencing factors. Results: The optical zone diameters measured by pure axial curvature topographic map at 1, 3 and 6 months after FS-LASIK showed (6.55±0.50)mm, (6.50±0.53)mm and (6.48±0.53)mm respectively. The differences between values are of no statistical significance ( F= 1.60, P= 0.21), the optical zone diameter measured by pure tangential curvature topographic map at 1, 3 and 6 months after FS-LASIK showed (5.44±0.46)mm, (5.46±0.52)mm and (5.44±0.50)mm respectively, the

  7. Flurbiprofen Axetil Enhances Analgesic Effects of Sufentanil and Attenuates Postoperative Emergence Agitation and Systemic Proinflammation in Patients Undergoing Tangential Excision Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wujun Geng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Our present study tested whether flurbiprofen axetil could reduce perioperative sufentanil consumption and provide postoperative analgesia with decrease in emergency agitation and systemic proinflammatory cytokines release. Methods. Ninety patients undergoing tangential excision surgery were randomly assigned to three groups: (1 preoperative dose of 100 mg flurbiprofen axetil and a postoperative dose of 2 μg/kg sufentanil and 10 mL placebo by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA pump, (2 preoperative dose of 100 mg flurbiprofen axetil and a postoperative dose of 2 μg/kg sufentanil and 100 mg flurbiprofen axetil by PCA pump, and (3 10 mL placebo and a postoperative dose of 2 μg/kg sufentanil and 10 mL placebo by PCA pump. Results. Preoperative administration of flurbiprofen axetil decreased postoperative tramadol consumption and the visual analog scale at 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery, which were further decreased by postoperative administration of flurbiprofen axetil. Furthermore, flurbiprofen axetil attenuated emergency agitation score and Ramsay score at 0, 5, and 10 min after extubation and reduced the TNF-α and interleukin- (IL- 6 levels at 24 and 48 h after the operation. Conclusion. Flurbiprofen axetil enhances analgesic effects of sufentanil and attenuates emergence agitation and systemic proinflammation in patients undergoing tangential excision surgery.

  8. Flurbiprofen Axetil Enhances Analgesic Effects of Sufentanil and Attenuates Postoperative Emergence Agitation and Systemic Proinflammation in Patients Undergoing Tangential Excision Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wujun; Hong, Wandong; Wang, Junlu; Dai, Qinxue; Mo, Yunchang; Shi, Kejian; Sun, Jiehao; Qin, Jinling; Li, Mei; Tang, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    Our present study tested whether flurbiprofen axetil could reduce perioperative sufentanil consumption and provide postoperative analgesia with decrease in emergency agitation and systemic proinflammatory cytokines release. Ninety patients undergoing tangential excision surgery were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) preoperative dose of 100 mg flurbiprofen axetil and a postoperative dose of 2 μg/kg sufentanil and 10 mL placebo by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump, (2) preoperative dose of 100 mg flurbiprofen axetil and a postoperative dose of 2 μg/kg sufentanil and 100 mg flurbiprofen axetil by PCA pump, and (3) 10 mL placebo and a postoperative dose of 2 μg/kg sufentanil and 10 mL placebo by PCA pump. Preoperative administration of flurbiprofen axetil decreased postoperative tramadol consumption and the visual analog scale at 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery, which were further decreased by postoperative administration of flurbiprofen axetil. Furthermore, flurbiprofen axetil attenuated emergency agitation score and Ramsay score at 0, 5, and 10 min after extubation and reduced the TNF-α and interleukin- (IL-) 6 levels at 24 and 48 h after the operation. Flurbiprofen axetil enhances analgesic effects of sufentanil and attenuates emergence agitation and systemic proinflammation in patients undergoing tangential excision surgery.

  9. A tangential CO{sub 2} laser collective scattering system for measuring short-scale turbulent fluctuations in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, G.M., E-mail: gmcao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Y.D. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Q. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, X.D.; Sun, P.J.; Wu, G.J.; Hu, L.Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A tangential CO{sub 2} laser collective scattering system was first installed on EAST. • It can measure the short-scale fluctuations in different regions simultaneously. • It can study the broadband fluctuations, QC fluctuations, MHD phenomenon, etc. - Abstract: A tangential CO{sub 2} laser collective scattering system has been first installed on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to measure short-scale turbulent fluctuations in EAST plasmas. The system can measure fluctuations with up to four distinct wavenumbers simultaneously ranging from 10 cm{sup −1} to 26 cm{sup −1}, and correspondingly k{sub ⊥}ρ{sub s}∼1.5−4.3. The system is designed based on the oblique propagation of the probe beam with respect to the magnetic field, and thus the enhanced spatial localization can be achieved by taking full advantage of turbulence anisotropy and magnetic field inhomogeneity. The simultaneous measurements of turbulent fluctuations in different regions can be taken by special optical setup. Initial measurements indicate rich short-scale turbulent dynamics in both core and outer regions of EAST plasmas. The system will be a powerful tool for investigating the features of short-scale turbulent fluctuations in EAST plasmas.

  10. Experimental and finite element study of the effect of temperature and moisture on the tangential tensile strength and fracture behavior in timber logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2014-01-01

    Timber is normally dried by kiln drying, in the course of which moisture-induced stresses and fractures can occur. Cracks occur primarily in the radial direction due to tangential tensile strength (TSt) that exceeds the strength of the material. The present article reports on experiments and nume......Timber is normally dried by kiln drying, in the course of which moisture-induced stresses and fractures can occur. Cracks occur primarily in the radial direction due to tangential tensile strength (TSt) that exceeds the strength of the material. The present article reports on experiments...... and numerical simulations by finite element modeling (FEM) concerning the TSt and fracture behavior of Norway spruce under various climatic conditions. Thin log disc specimens were studied to simplify the description of the moisture flow in the samples. The specimens designed for TS were acclimatized...... to a moisture content (MC) of 18% before TSt tests at 20°C, 60°C, and 90°C were carried out. The maximum stress results of the disc simulations by FEM were compared with the experimental strength results at the same temperature levels. There is a rather good agreement between the results of modeling...

  11. The value of setup portal films as an estimate of a patient's position throughout fractionated tangential breast irradiation: an on-line study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, Kiaran P.; Fein, Douglas A.; Hanlon, Alex L.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Fowble, Barbara L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if portal setup films are an accurate representation of a patient's position throughout the course of fractionated tangential breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients undergoing external beam irradiation for T1-T2 infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast following excisional biopsy and axillary dissection were imaged using an on-line portal imaging device attached to a 6 MV linear accelerator. Medial and lateral tangential fields were imaged and a total of 139 fractions, 225 portal fields, and 4450 images were obtained. Interfractional and intrafractional variations for anatomical parameters including the central lung distance (CLD), central flash distance (CFD), and inferior central margin (ICM) were calculated from these images. A pooled estimate of the random error associated with a given treatment was determined by adding the interfractional and intrafractional standard deviations in quadrature. A 95% confidence level assigned a value of two standard deviations of the random error estimate. Central lung distance, CFD, and ICM distances were then measured for all portal setup films. Significant differences were defined as occurring when the simulation-setup difference was greater than the 95% confidence value. Results: Differences between setup portal and simulation films were less than their 95% confidence values in 70 instances indicating that in 90% of the time these differences are a result of random differences in daily treatment positioning. Conclusions: In 90% of cases tested, initial portal setup films are an accurate representation of a patients daily treatment setup

  12. Structure Optimization of a Grain Impact Piezoelectric Sensor and Its Application for Monitoring Separation Losses on Tangential-Axial Combine Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenwei; Li, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhan; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-01

    Grain separation losses is a key parameter to weigh the performance of combine harvesters, and also a dominant factor for automatically adjusting their major working parameters. The traditional separation losses monitoring method mainly rely on manual efforts, which require a high labor intensity. With recent advancements in sensor technology, electronics and computational processing power, this paper presents an indirect method for monitoring grain separation losses in tangential-axial combine harvesters in real-time. Firstly, we developed a mathematical monitoring model based on detailed comparative data analysis of different feeding quantities. Then, we developed a grain impact piezoelectric sensor utilizing a YT-5 piezoelectric ceramic as the sensing element, and a signal process circuit designed according to differences in voltage amplitude and rise time of collision signals. To improve the sensor performance, theoretical analysis was performed from a structural vibration point of view, and the optimal sensor structural has been selected. Grain collide experiments have shown that the sensor performance was greatly improved. Finally, we installed the sensor on a tangential-longitudinal axial combine harvester, and grain separation losses monitoring experiments were carried out in North China, which results have shown that the monitoring method was feasible, and the biggest measurement relative error was 4.63% when harvesting rice. PMID:25594592

  13. Structure optimization of a grain impact piezoelectric sensor and its application for monitoring separation losses on tangential-axial combine harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenwei; Li, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhan; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-14

    Grain separation losses is a key parameter to weigh the performance of combine harvesters, and also a dominant factor for automatically adjusting their major working parameters. The traditional separation losses monitoring method mainly rely on manual efforts, which require a high labor intensity. With recent advancements in sensor technology, electronics and computational processing power, this paper presents an indirect method for monitoring grain separation losses in tangential-axial combine harvesters in real-time. Firstly, we developed a mathematical monitoring model based on detailed comparative data analysis of different feeding quantities. Then, we developed a grain impact piezoelectric sensor utilizing a YT-5 piezoelectric ceramic as the sensing element, and a signal process circuit designed according to differences in voltage amplitude and rise time of collision signals. To improve the sensor performance, theoretical analysis was performed from a structural vibration point of view, and the optimal sensor structural has been selected. Grain collide experiments have shown that the sensor performance was greatly improved. Finally, we installed the sensor on a tangential-longitudinal axial combine harvester, and grain separation losses monitoring experiments were carried out in North China, which results have shown that the monitoring method was feasible, and the biggest measurement relative error was 4.63% when harvesting rice.

  14. Major therapeutic effect of pentoxifylline-tocopherol association in the superficial radioinduced fibrosis: phase II test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delanian, S.; Balla-Mekias, S.; Maylin, C.; Lefaix, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The association of pentoxifylline-tocopherol seems efficient in the reduction of the superficial human radioinduced fibrosis. This phase II invites to realize a randomized test and to a comparison with the results got with the dismutase superoxide. (N.C.)

  15. Primary temporal region squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed by a superficial temporal artery biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S A W; Kiss, K

    2015-01-01

    artery biopsy was performed. The histopathology revealed perineural invasion of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A thorough investigation revealed no other primary site for the SCC and the patient was treated with surgical excision. CONCLUSION: Malignancy is rarely found in superficial temporal artery...

  16. Automatic and Deliberate Affective Associations with Sexual Stimuli in Women with Superficial Dyspareunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Marieke; de Jong, Peter J.; Huijding, Jorg; Laan, Ellen; ter Kuile, Moniek M.

    Current views suggest that in women with superficial dyspareunia the prospect of penile-vaginal intercourse automatically activates fear-related associations. The automatic activation of negative associations is assumed to interfere with the development of sexual arousal. In turn, this may further

  17. Treatment of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma with superficial x-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Malene E; Gniadecki, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The optimal radiation schedule for primary cutaneous anaplastic lymphoma (PCALCL) has not been investigated. We report here satisfactory outcomes of low-dose (16-20 Gy, 3-5 fractions), superficial X-ray radiation (40-50 kV) in a series of 10 patients with PCALCL. Only 1 patient developed a local...

  18. Removal of dissolved organic carbon in pilot wetlands of subsuperficial and superficial flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Agudelo C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare removal of dissolved organic carbon (d o c obtained with pilot wetlands of subsuperficial flow (p h s s and superficial flow (p h s, with Phragmites australis as treatment alternatives for domestic residual waters of small communities and rural areas. Methodology: an exploratory and experimental study was carried out adding 100,12 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon to synthetic water contaminated with Chlorpyrifos in order to feed the wetlands. A total amount of 20 samples were done, 16 of them in four experiments and the other ones in the intervals with no use of pesticides. Samples were taken on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 in the six wetlands, three of them subsuperficial, and three of them superficial. The main variable answer was dissolved organic carbon, measured in the organic carbon analyzer. Results: a high efficiency in the removal of d o c was obtained with the two types of wetlands: 92,3% with subsuperficial flow and 95,6% with superficial flow. Such a high removal was due to the interaction between plants, gravel and microorganisms. Conclusion: although in both types of wetlands the removal was high and similar, it is recommended to use those of subsuperficial flow because in the superficial ones algae and gelatinous bio-films are developed, which becomes favorable to the development of important epidemiologic vectors in terms of public health.

  19. Honey compared with silver sulphadiazine in the treatment of superficial partial-thickness burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Kamran Ishaque; Malik, M A Nasir; Aslam, Azhar

    2010-10-01

    Burn injury is associated with a high incidence of death and disability; yet, its management remains problematic and costly. We conducted this clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of honey in the treatment of superficial and partial-thickness burns covering less than 40% of body surface area and compared its results with those of silver sulphadiazine (SSD). In this randomised comparative clinical trial, carried out Burn Center of POF Hospital, Wah Cantt, Pakistan, from May 2007 to February 2008, 150 patients of all ages having similar types of superficial and partial-thickness burns at two sites on different parts of body were included. Each patient had one burn site treated with honey and one treated with topical SSD, randomly. The rate of re-epithelialization and healing of superficial and partial-thickness burns was significantly faster in the sites treated with honey than in the sites treated with SSD (13·47 ± 4·06 versus 15·62 ± 4·40 days, respectively: P honey healed completely in less than 21 days versus 24 days for the site treated with SSD. Six patients had positive culture for Pseudomonas aeroginsa in honey-treated site, whereas 27 patients had positive culture in SSD-treated site. The results clearly showed greater efficacy of honey over SSD cream for treating superficial and partial-thickness burns. 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  20. Thrombophlebitis of the penile superficial vein, penile mondor's disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Hwa; Kim, Doo Sang; Shin, Hyung Chul; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Soonchunhyang University, Chunan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Cheol [Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    Mondor's disease is commonly known as thrombophlebitis of the superficial vein in the breast, and this disease occurs rarely in the penis. Despite extensive information about the clinical presentation and course of this disease, imaging findings for this disease are limited. We report gray scale and power Doppler sonographic findings of penile Mondor's disease.

  1. Protocolo nacional de monitoreo de la calidad de los en cuerpos naturales de agua superficial

    OpenAIRE

    Autoridad Nacional del Agua. Dirección de Gestión de Calidad de los Recursos Hídricos

    2011-01-01

    Estandariza la metodología para el desarrollo del monitoreo de la calidad de los recursos hídricos en los cuerpos naturales de agua superficial, asimismo pretende convertirse en un instrumento de gestión en el desarrollo del Plan Nacional de Vigilancia de la Calidad de Agua en el Perú.

  2. The defence architecture of the superficial cells of the oral mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asikainen, P.; Ruotsalainen, T.J.; Mikkonen, J.J.W.; Koistinen, A.; ten Bruggenkate, C.M.; Kullaa, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The oral epithelium together with the saliva and its components forms a complex structure which is the first line of defence in the oral cavity. The surface of superficial cells of the oral epithelium contains ridge-like folds, microplicae (MPL), which are typical of the surfaces of areas covered

  3. The Effects of Test Anxiety on Learning at Superficial and Deep Levels of Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Claire E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Using a deep-level processing strategy, low test-anxious college students performed significantly better than high test-anxious students in learning a paired-associate word list. Using a superficial-level processing strategy resulted in no significant difference in performance. A cognitive-attentional theory and test anxiety mechanisms are…

  4. The flexural stiffness of superficial neuromasts in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) lateral line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHenry, Matthew J.; van Netten, Sietse M.

    2007-01-01

    Superficial neuromasts are structures that detect water flow on the surface of the body of fish and amphibians. As a component of the lateral line system, these receptors are distributed along the body, where they sense flow patterns that mediate a wide variety of behaviors. Their ability to detect

  5. Subintimal angioplasty for the treatment of long segment occlusion of superficial femoral artery: the midterm results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Wensheng; Gu Jianping; He Xu; Chen Liang; Chen Guoping; Su Haobo; Song Jinhua; Wang Tao; Xu Ke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical value of subintimal angioplasty in treating long segment occlusion of superficial femoral artery and to observe its midterm results. Methods: Subintimal angioplasty was performed in 45 patients with long segment occlusion of superficial femoral artery, whose clinical presentation was intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia. The primary patency, limb salvage and factors influencing long-term patency were observed, and the clinical data were analyzed. Results: Of the total 45 cases, the subintimal angioplasty was successfully accomplished in 43. The success rate of antegrade approach technique via the superficial femoral artery was 80% (n=36), the occlusion was recanalized by using retrograde approach technique via ipsilateral popliteal artery in 7 case. The total technical success rate was 95.6%. The primary patency in 43 successful cases at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months was 85.7%, 69.0% 57.3% and 50.9%, respectively. No statistically significant difference in primary patency existed between the group of intermittent claudication and the group of critical limb ischemia (P>0.05). Statistically significant prediction factors for primary patency included the number of the run off vessels below the knee and the length of the occlusion (P<0.05). Conclusion: Subintimal angioplasty is an effective procedure for the treatment of long segment occlusions of superficial femoral artery with satisfactory mid-term results. (authors)

  6. The analogy between dreams and the ancient art of memory is tempting but superficial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Fell, Juergen

    2013-12-01

    Although the analogy between dreams and ancient mnemotechniques is tempting because they share several phenomenological characteristics, this analogy is superficial at a closer look. Unlike mneomotechnically encoded material, rapid eye movement (REM) dreams are inherently difficult to remember, do not usually allow conscious subsequent retrieval of all interconnected elements, and have been found to support subsequent episodic memory in only rare cases.

  7. Masaje circulatorio superficial en la enfermedad arterial periférica

    OpenAIRE

    Cebrià Iranzo, M. Àngels

    2010-01-01

    En la enfermedad arterial periférica crónica se indica el masaje circulatorio superficial por producir una vasodilatación refleja en las zonas afectadas. Este masaje manual tiene dos objetivos fundamentales: 1) Favorecer la vasodilatación refleja e hiperemia local; 2) Drenar el retorno vascular sanguíneo y linfático.

  8. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the superficial femoral artery by retrograde catheterization via the popliteal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Sager, P; Karle, A

    1988-01-01

    We report the results of 50 angioplasty procedures via the popliteal artery. A 3-year follow-up including control of blood pressures at ankle and toe levels show results comparable to reports in the literature. This new approach for angioplasty of the superficial femoral artery and eventually of ...

  9. Patient Perception of Imiquimod Treatment for Actinic Keratosis and Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma in 202 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalboer-Spuij, Rick; Holterhues, Cynthia; van Hattem, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise A.; Gaastra, Menno T. W.; Kuijpers, Danielle I. M.; Hollestein, Loes M.; Nijsten, Tamar E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To document the impact on patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of treatment with imiquimod cream in patients with actinic keratosis (AK) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC). Methods: This open-label, multicenter study included AK and sBCC patients

  10. Induction of superficial cortical layer neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells by valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliandi, Berry; Abematsu, Masahiko; Sanosaka, Tsukasa; Tsujimura, Keita; Smith, Austin; Nakashima, Kinichi

    2012-01-01

    Within the developing mammalian cortex, neural progenitors first generate deep-layer neurons and subsequently more superficial-layer neurons, in an inside-out manner. It has been reported recently that mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can, to some extent, recapitulate cortical development in vitro, with the sequential appearance of neurogenesis markers resembling that in the developing cortex. However, mESCs can only recapitulate early corticogenesis; superficial-layer neurons, which are normally produced in later developmental periods in vivo, are under-represented. This failure of mESCs to reproduce later corticogenesis in vitro implies the existence of crucial factor(s) that are absent or uninduced in existing culture systems. Here we show that mESCs can give rise to superficial-layer neurons efficiently when treated with valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor. VPA treatment increased the production of Cux1-positive superficial-layer neurons, and decreased that of Ctip2-positive deep-layer neurons. These results shed new light on the mechanisms of later corticogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved superficial brain hemorrhage visualization in susceptibility weighted images by constrained minimum intensity projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John

    2016-03-01

    Minimum intensity projection is a technique commonly used to display magnetic resonance susceptibility weighted images, allowing the observer to better visualize hemorrhages and vasculature. The technique displays the minimum intensity in a given projection within a thick slab, allowing different connectivity patterns to be easily revealed. Unfortunately, the low signal intensity of the skull within the thick slab can mask superficial tissues near the skull base and other regions. Because superficial microhemorrhages are a common feature of traumatic brain injury, this effect limits the ability to proper diagnose and follow up patients. In order to overcome this limitation, we developed a method to allow minimum intensity projection to properly display superficial tissues adjacent to the skull. Our approach is based on two brain masks, the largest of which includes extracerebral voxels. The analysis of the rind within both masks containing the actual brain boundary allows reclassification of those voxels initially missed in the smaller mask. Morphological operations are applied to guarantee accuracy and topological correctness, and the mean intensity within the mask is assigned to all outer voxels. This prevents bone from dominating superficial regions in the projection, enabling superior visualization of cortical hemorrhages and vessels.

  12. Effect of exposing pupae of flesh fly Parasarcophaga ruficornis F. to superficial X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.; Srivastava, U.S.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of pupae of Parasarcophaga ruficornis with different doses of superficial X-rays leads to lethality and interference with moulting and metamorphosis. Younger pupae are more radiosensitive in respect of lethality and metamorphosis to older ones. (author). 12 ref., 9 figs., 1 tab

  13. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  14. Investigation of the behaviour of a LILW superficial repository under aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Frano, Rosa; Stefanini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Safety assessment of a LILW superficial repository. • Investigation of the consequences of an aircraft impact with fuel burning. • Experimental material properties. • Numerical simulation of aircraft impact with fuel burning accident by MSC.MARC"© code. • Demonstration that the overall integrity resulted is guaranteed. - Abstract: Safety and security are the two fundamental aspects to guarantee when designing a LILW superficial repository. Because of its safety concern, we have to prove, and build confidence in, the primary and secondary consequences of the crashing will be acceptable. These goals are obtained generally by means of safety assessment supported by calculations. This study is intended to investigate the performance of a superficial repository subjected to aircraft impact and fuel burning. To the purpose a superficial repository similar to that of El Cabril has been considered. Moreover to be confident the facility is safe and that the consequences of such a type of accident on the environment and humans are negligible, an appropriate safety assessment was carried out. The potential damage that aircraft impact could bring into the repository has been therefore analysed and discussed. To attain the intent load functions, calculated according to the Riera approach, and the maximum temperature reached by fuel during its combustion have been considered. FEM (thermo-mechanical) simulations have been done, by MSC"© Marc code, assuming damaging phenomena of concrete and material properties variation with the temperature. The obtained results showed that an empty superficial repository with a wall thickness, ranging from 0.7 to 1 m, is not sufficient to avoid penetration. Nevertheless even in presence of a reduced strength and of (cone) cracking and plugging, the overall integrity resulted guaranteed.

  15. Investigation of the behaviour of a LILW superficial repository under aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it; Stefanini, Lorenzo

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Safety assessment of a LILW superficial repository. • Investigation of the consequences of an aircraft impact with fuel burning. • Experimental material properties. • Numerical simulation of aircraft impact with fuel burning accident by MSC.MARC{sup ©} code. • Demonstration that the overall integrity resulted is guaranteed. - Abstract: Safety and security are the two fundamental aspects to guarantee when designing a LILW superficial repository. Because of its safety concern, we have to prove, and build confidence in, the primary and secondary consequences of the crashing will be acceptable. These goals are obtained generally by means of safety assessment supported by calculations. This study is intended to investigate the performance of a superficial repository subjected to aircraft impact and fuel burning. To the purpose a superficial repository similar to that of El Cabril has been considered. Moreover to be confident the facility is safe and that the consequences of such a type of accident on the environment and humans are negligible, an appropriate safety assessment was carried out. The potential damage that aircraft impact could bring into the repository has been therefore analysed and discussed. To attain the intent load functions, calculated according to the Riera approach, and the maximum temperature reached by fuel during its combustion have been considered. FEM (thermo-mechanical) simulations have been done, by MSC{sup ©} Marc code, assuming damaging phenomena of concrete and material properties variation with the temperature. The obtained results showed that an empty superficial repository with a wall thickness, ranging from 0.7 to 1 m, is not sufficient to avoid penetration. Nevertheless even in presence of a reduced strength and of (cone) cracking and plugging, the overall integrity resulted guaranteed.

  16. Use of superficial peroneal nerve graft for treating peripheral nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ribak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical results from treating chronic peripheral nerve injuries using the superficial peroneal nerve as a graft donor source. METHODS: This was a study on eleven patients with peripheral nerve injuries in the upper limbs that were treated with grafts from the sensitive branch of the superficial peroneal nerve. The mean time interval between the dates of the injury and surgery was 93 days. The ulnar nerve was injured in eight cases and the median nerve in six. There were three cases of injury to both nerves. In the surgery, a longitudinal incision was made on the anterolateral face of the ankle, thus viewing the superficial peroneal nerve, which was located anteriorly to the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Proximally, the deep fascia between the extensor digitorum longus and the peroneal longus muscles was dissected. Next, the motor branch of the short peroneal muscle (one of the branches of the superficial peroneal nerve was identified. The proximal limit of the sensitive branch was found at this point. RESULTS: The average space between the nerve stumps was 3.8 cm. The average length of the grafts was 16.44 cm. The number of segments used was two to four cables. In evaluating the recovery of sensitivity, 27.2% evolved to S2+, 54.5% to S3 and 18.1% to S3+. Regarding motor recovery, 72.7% presented grade 4 and 27.2% grade 3. There was no motor deficit in the donor area. A sensitive deficit in the lateral dorsal region of the ankle and the dorsal region of the foot was observed. None of the patients presented complaints in relation to walking. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the superficial peroneal nerve as a graft source for treating peripheral nerve injuries is safe and provides good clinical results similar to those from other nerve graft sources.

  17. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  18. Extracción Automática de Edificios a partir de Modelos Digitales de Superficies : el sistema BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se plantea una aproximación al complicado problema de la localización, extracción y representación vectorial de manera semiautomática de edificaciones situadas en zonas urbanas o suburbanas, a partir del análisis de modelos de superficie, lo suficientemente densos como para representar la escena urbana, y de imágenes aéreas orientadas de la zona de estudio. Elmétodo propuesto utiliza como información de partida losmodelos digitales de superficie generados de forma automáticamediante técnicas fotogramétricas o de sistemas LIDAR con una densidad demalla elevada, así como de un modelo previo de forma geométrica de los edificios existentes en la zona. Estos modelos de superficie, serán tratados mediante operaciones de morfología matemática para la diferenciar los puntos que pertenecen al terreno propiamente dicho, de los pertenecientes a objetos situados sobre él, así como por momentos geométricos invariantes para obtener el rectángulo representativo del objeto localizado. Una vez localizados los posibles edificios, así como los rectángulos que representan a cada uno de ellos, se procederá a refinar estos resultados trabajando sobre los fotogramas aéreos correspondientes. Mediante análisis digital de imágenes se realizará una extracción de bordes y con la ayuda de la transformada de Hough se obtendrá el rectángulo principal de la imagen. Este rectángulo junto con la altura delmismo extraída en la fase anterior, formará el prisma de base rectangular que representará al edificio. Todas estas operaciones han sido implementadas en un sistema de desarrollo propio, el sistema BUILDING, cuyos resultados iniciales son presentados en este trabajo para poner de manifiesto las posibilidades y problemas de la metodología propuesta.In this work we present an approximation to the complicated problem of the semiautomatic location, extraction and vector representation of buildings. This approximation is based on

  19. Is superficial burn caused by ultraviolet radiation (sunburn) comparable to superficial burn caused by heat--a histomorphological comparison by in vivo Reflectance-Mode-Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, M A; Altintas, A A; Guggenheim, M; Busch, K H; Niederbichler, A D; Aust, M C; Vogt, P M

    2009-12-01

    Regardless of the underlying cause, both sunburn and superficial thermal injuries are classified as first-degree burns, since data on morphological differences are scarce. Reflectance-Mode-Confocal Microscopy (RMCM) enables high-resolution non-invasive investigation of the human skin. We studied in vivo histomorphological alterations in both sunburn and superficial thermal injuries using RMCM. Ten patients (6 female, 4 male; aged 28.4 +/- 10.6 years) with first-degree thermal-contact Injuries (TI group), and 9 sunburned patients (SB group; 7 female, 2 male; aged 30.2 +/- 16.4 years), to a maximum extent of 10% of the body surface were evaluated 24 h after burn injury using RMCM. The following parameters were obtained using RMCM: stratum corneum thickness, epidermal thickness, basal layer thickness, granular cell size. Compared to the controls (12.8 +/- 2.5 microm), stratum corneum thickness decreased significantly to 10.6 +/- 2.1 microm in the TI group, whereas it increased significantly to 16.4 +/- 3.1 microm in the SB group. The epidermal thickness did not differ significantly in the TI group (47.9 +/- 2.3 microm) and SB group (49.1 +/- 3.5 microm); however, both increased significantly compared to their respective controls (41.8 +/- 1.4 microm). The basal layer thickness increased more in the SB group compared to the TI group (17.9 +/- 1.4 microm vs. 15.6 +/- 1.1 microm). Both differed also significantly compared to their controls (13.8 +/- 0.9 microm). The granular cell size increased significantly in both groups compared to the controls (731 +/- 42 microm); however, a significantly higher increase was observed in the TI group (852 +/- 58 microm) compared to the SB group (784 +/- 61 microm). Ultraviolet radiation seems to influence predominantly deeper epidermal layers, whereas heat-induced burns affect more superficial epidermal layers. The term 'First-degree burn' should not be used synonymously for sunburn and superficial thermal burn injuries. Conflicts of

  20. SU-F-T-422: Detection of Optimal Tangential Partial Arc Span for VMAT Planning in IntactLeft-Breast Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, U; Sarkar, B; Munshi, A; Kaur, H; Jassal, K; Rathinamuthu, S; Kumar, S; Ganesh, T; Mohanti, B [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate an appropriate arc span for intact partial Left breast irradiation by VMAT planning. Methods: Four cases of carcinoma left intact breast was chosen randomly for this study. Both medial tangential and left-lateral tangential arc (G20°, G25°, G30°, G35°, G40°) were used having the same length and bilaterally symmetric. For each patient base plan was generated for 30° arc and rest of other arc plans were generated by keeping all plan parameters same, only arc span were changed. All patient plans were generated on treatment planning system Monaco (V 5.00.02) for 50 Gy dose in 25 fractions. PTV contours were clipped 3 mm from skin (patient). All plans were normalized in such a way that 95 % of prescription dose would cover 96 % of PTV volume. Results: Mean MU for 20°, 25°, 30°, 35° and 40° were 509 ± 18.8, 529.1 ± 20.2, 544.4 ± 20.8, 579.1 ±51.8, 607.2 ± 40.2 similarly mean hot spot (volume covered by 105% of prescription dose) were 2.9 ± 1.2, 3.7 ± 3.0, 1.5 ± 1.7, 1.3±0.6, 0.4 ± 0.4, mean contralateral breast dose (cGy) were 180.4 ± 242.3, 71.5 ± 52.7, 76.2 ± 58.8, 85.9 ± 70.5, 90.7 ± 70.1, mean heart dose (cGy) were 285.8 ± 87.2, 221.2 ± 62.8, 274.5 ± 95.5, 234.8 ± 73.8, 263.2 ± 81.6, V20 for ipsilateral lung were 15.4 ± 5.3, 14.3 ± 3.6, 15.3 ± 2.9, 14.2 ± 3.9, 14.7 ± 3.2 and V5 for ipsilateral lung were 33.9 ± 8.2, 31.0 ± 3.5, 42.6 ±15.6, 36.4 ± 12.9, 37.0 ± 7.5. Conclusion: The study concluded that appropriate arc span used for tangential intact breast treatment was optimally 30° because larger arc span were giving lower isodose spill in ipsilateral lung and smaller arc were giving heterogeneous dose distribution in PTV.

  1. Fundamental hematological parameters in peripheral blood of inhabitants from zones affected by the Chernobyl accident, who have received medical attention in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Cardenas, J.; Valdes, M.

    1993-01-01

    The fundamental hematological parameters in peripheral blood of 2537 children from 409 Ukrainian localities were studied to evaluate the radiological impact produced by the accident. The hematological analyses were performed as part of the ordinary program of medical examination. The results were grouped taking into account the superficial contamination levels by 137C s of the zones where the infants came from

  2. Work zone safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  3. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  4. Superficial structures cartography of the Essaouira basin under ground (Morocco, by small refraction seismic: contribution of the static corrections in the reinterpretation of the speeds variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahaoui M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The static corrections are a necessary step in the sequence of the seismic processing. This paper presents a study of these corrections in the Essaouira basin. The main objective of this study is to calculate the static corrections by exploiting the seismic data acquired in the field to improve the deep structures imaging. It is to determine the roof and the basis of the superficial layers which constitute the weathered zone while calculating the delays of seismic wave’s arrivals in these layers. The purpose is to cancel the effect of the topography and the weathered zone, in order to avoid any confusion when the seismic and geological interpretation. The results obtained show the average values of the static corrections varying between - 127 and 282 ms (double time, with existence of high values by location, particularly in the Eastern and North-Eastern of the basin, which meant the presence of altered zone with irregular topography and whose thickness and speeds vary laterally. In effect the variations of velocities in the fifty meters from the surface may introduce significant anomalies in seismic refraction, with heavy consequences when the interpretation or the drilling establishment. These variations are mainly due to lateral changes in facies and variations in the formations thickness. The calculation of the static corrections, revealed high values at certain areas (East and North-East, which will enable us to better orient the future campaigns in these zones. It is therefore necessary to concentrate the seismic cores drillings and the small refraction seismic profiles by tightening the seismic lines meshes in order to have the maximum values of static corrections and thereafter a better imaging of the reflectors.

  5. Fast ion confinement during high power tangential neutral beam injection into low plasma current discharges on the ISX-B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevali, A.; Scott, S.D.; Neilson, H.; Galloway, M.; Stevens, P.; Thomas, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The beam ion thermalization process during tangential neutral beam injection in the ISX-B tokamak is investigated. The classical model is tested in co- and counter-injected discharges at low plasma current, a regime where large orbit width excursions enhance the importance of the loss regions. To test the model, experimental charge exchange spectra are compared with the predictions of an orbit following Monte Carlo code. Measurements of beam-plasma neutron emission and measured decay rates of the emission following beam turnoff provide additional information. Good agreement is found between theory and experiment. Furthermore, beam additivity experiments show that, globally, the confinement of beam ions remains classical, independently of the injected beam power. However, some experimental evidence suggests that the fast ion density in the plasma core did not increase with beam power in a way consistent with classical processes. (author). 35 refs, 17 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Analytical and numerical calculation of magnetic field distribution in the slotted air-gap of tangential surface permanent-magnet motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boughrara Kamel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analytical and numerical analysis of the flux density distribution in the slotted air gap of permanent magnet motors with surface mounted tangentially magnetized permanent magnets. Two methods for magnetostatic field calculations are developed. The first one is an analytical method in which the effect of stator slots is taken into account by modulating the magnetic field distribution by the complex relative air gap permeance. The second one is a numerical method using 2-D finite element analysis with consideration of Dirichlet and anti-periodicity (periodicity boundary conditions and Lagrange Multipliers for simulation of movement. The results obtained by the analytical method are compared to the results of finite-element analysis.

  7. Frequency and Magnitude Analysis of the Macro-instability Related Component of the Tangential Force Affecting Radial Baffles in a Stirred Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hasal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data obtained by measuring the tangential component of force affecting radial baffles in a flat-bottomed cylindrical mixing vessel stirred with pitched blade impellers is analysed. The maximum mean tangential force is detected at the vessel bottom. The mean force value increases somewhat with decreasing impeller off-bottom clearance and is noticeably affected by the number of impeller blades. Spectral analysis of the experimental data clearly demonstrated the presence of its macro-instability (MI related low-frequency component embedded in the total force at all values of impeller Reynolds number. The dimensionless frequency of the occurrence of the MI force component is independent of stirring speed, position along the baffle, number of impeller blades and liquid viscosity. Its mean value is about 0.074. The relative magnitude (QMI of the MI-related component of the total force is evaluated by a combination of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD and spectral analysis. Relative magnitude QMI was analysed in dependence on the frequency of the impeller revolution, the axial position of the measuring point in the vessel, the number of impeller blades, the impeller off-bottom clearance, and liquid viscosity. Higher values of QMI are observed at higher impeller off-bottom clearance height and (generally QMI decreases slightly with increasing impeller speed. The QMI value decreases in the direction from vessel bottom to liquid level. No evident difference was observed between 4 blade and 6 blade impellers. Liquid viscosity has only a marginal impact on the QMI value.

  8. H3+: superficies de energía potencial, estados y transiciones rovibracionales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, M. Paniagua Y. A.

    Hemos calculado varias superficies globales de energía potencial para el estado fundamental y excitados del sistema H3+ en más de ocho mil geometrías diferentes usando una base (9s 3p 1d)/[4s 3p 1d] en cada átomo de Hidrógeno y mediante un método de cálculo de interacción de configuraciones completa (FCI). Hemos ajustado las superficies a formas analíticas del tipo Aguado y Paniagua con un error promedio menor de 50 cm-1 y menor en el pozo de potencial del estado fundamental. Finalmente hemos calculado y analizado los niveles vibracionales para los dos estados electrónicos más bajos, siendo la desviación respecto de los mejores valores publicados, tanto experimentales como teóricos, de unos pocos números de onda.

  9. Fissure sealants: in vitro evaluation of abrasion wear and superficial roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pardi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro wear and superficial roughness of four materials (Delton Dyract Flow, Dentsply; Filtek Flow, Vitremer, 3M ESPE used as fissure sealant in 32 extracted human molars divided in four groups (n = 8 after abrasion with toothbrush/dentifrice. Impressions of each occlusal surface were made to analyze wear and circular specimens were prepared to analyze the roughness. Teeth and specimens were mounted in a toothbrushing machine. The replicas were observed using a SEM to determine the superficial wear. Wear: there were no statistically significant differences either between Delton and Filtek Flow or between Dyract Flow and Vitremer. Roughness: there were no statistical differences between Filtek Flow and Dyract Flow, Dyract Flow and Vitremer, Vitremer and Delton., Considering the clinical practice, if caries activity is present the use of Vitremer is suggested not only for its well known fluoride release, but it presented good roughness results.

  10. Effect of superficial velocity on vaporization pressure drop with propane in horizontal circular tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianto, S.; Pamitran, A. S.; Nasruddin, Alhamid, M. I.

    2016-06-01

    Due to its friendly effect on the environment, natural refrigerants could be the best alternative refrigerant to replace conventional refrigerants. The present study was devoted to the effect of superficial velocity on vaporization pressure drop with propane in a horizontal circular tube with an inner diameter of 7.6 mm. The experiments were conditioned with 4 to 10 °C for saturation temperature, 9 to 20 kW/m2 for heat flux, and 250 to 380 kg/m2s for mass flux. It is shown here that increased heat flux may result in increasing vapor superficial velocity, and then increasing pressure drop. The present experimental results were evaluated with some existing correlations of pressure drop. The best prediction was evaluated by Lockhart-Martinelli (1949) with MARD 25.7%. In order to observe the experimental flow pattern, the present results were also mapped on the Wang flow pattern map.

  11. CRITERIOS PARA LA EVALUACIÓN DE SUPERFICIES MULTITÁCTILES Y SUS APLICACIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YENNY A. MÉNDEZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Las superficies multitáctiles son tecnologías que empiezan a tener un elevado uso. Se toman como referentes aspectos utilizados para la evaluación de usabilidad de sistemas interactivos, así como las característicasque los investigadores y desarrolladores sugieren que deberían tener las superficies multitáctiles y las aplicaciones desarrolladas. Se presenta una propuesta inicial de criterios que deberían tenerse en cuenta para incluir  aspectos de ergonomía, usabilidad y colaboración en el momento de realizar evaluaciones para estas tecnologías. Se ilustra cómo se pueden aplicar los criterios propuestos a través de un caso de estudio que cuenta con resultados promisorios.

  12. Do similar factors control the glomerular filtration rate of superficial and juxtamedullary nephrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouffignac, C. de

    1975-01-01

    The SNGFR intrarenal distribution was studied under conditions where the whole kidney GFR remains unchanged and then where it is altered as compared to the normal non diuretic state. Only data obtained from experiments in which the SNGFR of both superficial and juxtamedullary nephrons were measured with the same techniques were reported. The superficial over juxtamedullary SNGFR ratio appears to be relatively stable and independent of physiological conditions. Nevertheless, in cases which indicate changes in the SNGFR intrarenal distribution, these changes remain always of limited magnitude. Thus it seems possible to conclude, that the SNGFR is controlled by factors that act, at least qualitatively, in the same manner in the whole nephron population [fr

  13. The Superficial Dermis May Initiate Keloid Formation: Histological Analysis of the Keloid Dermis at Different Depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported on certain aspects of the characteristics of different sites within a keloid lesion, but detailed studies on the keloid dermis at different depths within a keloid lesion are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the histology of the keloid dermis at different depths. This study included 19 keloid tissue samples that were collected from 19 patients and 19 normal skin samples, which were harvested from subjects without keloids or hypertrophic scar. Samples were studied by light microscopy using routine hematoxylin and eosin histochemical staining, and immunohistochemistry to detect CD20-positive B-lymphocytes and CD3-positive T-lymphocytes. Sirius Red histochemical staining was used to determine the type of collagen in keloid tissue and normal skin samples. The migratory properties of fibroblasts within the keloid dermis at different depths was compared, using an in vitro migration assay. The findings of this study showed that although the papillary and reticular dermis could be clearly distinguished in normal skin, three tissue layers were identified in the keloid dermis. The superficial dermis of keloid was characterized by active fibroblasts and lymphocytes; the middle dermis contained dense extracellular matrix (ECM with large numbers fibroblasts, and the deep dermis was poorly cellular and characterized by hyalinized collagen bundles. In the keloid samples, from the superficial to the deep dermis, type I collagen increased and type III collagen decreased, and fibroblasts from the superficial dermis of the keloid were found to migrate more rapidly. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that different depths within the keloid dermis displayed different biological features. The superficial dermis may initiate keloid formation, in which layer intralesional injection of pharmaceuticals and other treatments should be performed for keloid.

  14. CT-based needle marking of superficial intracranial lesions for minimal invasive neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, G.; Wolff, R.; Schick, U.; Lorenz, R.

    2000-01-01

    A CT-based method of marking superficial intracranial lesions with a needle is presented. This form of neuronavigation can be applied in every neurosurgical centre. Owing to its rapid application it is also suitable for cases of emergency. The neurosurgical approach can be centred precisely over this lesion providing for a minimally invasive operation. The method has proved its efficacy in numerous cases of haematomas and cystic lesions. (author)

  15. Duplication of the superficial femoral artery: comprehensive review of imaging literature and insight into embryology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapugoda, Sachintha; Hsu, Charlie Chia-Tsong; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Watkins, Trevor William; Rophael, John A

    2016-01-01

    An extremely rare case of duplicated superficial femoral artery (SFA) was incidentally observed on computed tomography angiogram (CTA) of the lower limbs for presurgical planning for an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap in a patient with T4a oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case in the imaging literature. We performed a comprehensive review of the English literature and discuss the underlying embryological origin underpinning this rare anatomical variant

  16. Immediate Bilateral Breast Reconstruction with Unilateral Deep Superior Epigastric Artery and Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith S. Hansen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Autologous breast reconstruction utilizing a perforator flap is an increasingly popular method for reducing donor site morbidity and implant-related complications. However, aberrant anatomy not readily visible on computed tomography angiography is a rare albeit real risk when undergoing perforator flap reconstruction. We present an operative case of a patient who successfully underwent a bilateral breast reconstruction sourced from a unilateral abdominal flap divided into deep superior epigastric artery and superficial circumflex iliac artery flap segments.

  17. Fusarium musae as cause of superficial and deep-seated human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposto, M C; Prigitano, A; Tortorano, A M

    2016-12-01

    BLAST analysis in GenBank of 60 Fusarium verticillioides clinical isolates using the sequence of translation elongation factor 1-alpha allowed the identification of four F. musae confirming that this species is not a rare etiology of superficial and deep infections and that its habitat is not restricted to banana fruits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrathin endoscopy versus high-resolution endoscopy for diagnosing superficial gastric neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoizumi, Hirobumi; Kaise, Mitsuru; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Yonezawa, Jin; Yoshida, Yukinaga; Kato, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Noboru; Goda, Ken-ichi; Tajiri, Hisao

    2009-08-01

    Ultrathin endoscopy (UTE) is an acceptable and cost-effective alternative to EGD with the patient under sedation, although the diagnostic accuracy of UTE is not well established. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of UTE and high-resolution endoscopy (HRE) for superficial gastric neoplasia. Prospective comparative study. Academic center. Patients with or without superficial gastric neoplasia underwent peroral UTE and HRE, back-to-back in a random order while under standard sedation. The procedures were performed by 2 endoscopists who were blinded to the clinical information. The rate of missed lesions and misdiagnosis, sensitivity, and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric neoplasia when using pathology as the reference standard. In total, 126 lesions (41 superficial gastric neoplasias, 85 nonneoplastic lesions) were recorded in 57 enrolled patients. For the diagnosis of gastric neoplasia, the sensitivity of UTE (58.5%) was significantly (P = .021) lower than that of HRE (78%), and the specificity of UTE (91.8%) was significantly (P = .014) lower than that of HRE (100%). The rate of missed lesions and misdiagnosis of gastric neoplasias when using UTE (41.5%) was significantly (P > .001) higher than that of HRE (22.0%). The corresponding rate of neoplasias at the proximal portion (fornix and corpus) when using UTE (29%) was significantly (P = .002) higher than that of HRE (7.2%), although the rates of neoplasias at the distal portion (angulus and antrum) were comparable for UTE and HRE. Small sample numbers in an enriched population. The diagnostic accuracy of UTE is significantly lower than that of HRE for superficial gastric neoplasia, and this difference is particularly striking for neoplasias in the proximal stomach. For UTE to be used as an alternative modality, improvements in optical quality and the incorporation of additional procedures, including close-range observations and chromoendoscopy, are required to enhance visualization.

  19. Recanalisation of Chronically Occluded Remote Superficial Femoral Artery Endarterectomy Through Angioplasty for Limb Salvage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husainy, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: m.husainy@nhs.net [King’s College Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Slim, Hani; Rashid, Hisham [King’s College Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Huang, Dean Y. [King’s College Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    We report a novel application of balloon angioplasty to recanalise a chronically occluded remote endarterectomy superficial femoral artery. This patient previously had two occluded surgical bypass grafts in an attempt to revascularise the limb and presented with critical limb ischaemia and necrotic foot ulcerations. Following the angioplasty, the patient showed significant improvement in rest pain and healing of the ulcerations. This technique may be useful for limb salvage in patients where surgical options have been exhausted.

  20. White piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra: contribution to the diagnosis of superficial mycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi de; Miguel, Barbara Arruda Fraletti; Muramatu, Laura Hitomi

    2017-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections restricted to the stratum corneum and to the hair shafts, with no penetration in the epidermis; they are: white piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra. This study presents images of mycological tests performed in the laboratory, as well as exams performed at the authors office, in order to improve the dermatologist's knowledge about the diagnosis of these dermatoses, which are common in many countries.

  1. White piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra: contribution to the diagnosis of superficial mycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, John Verrinder; de Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi; Miguel, Barbara Arruda Fraletti; Muramatu, Laura Hitomi

    2017-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections restricted to the stratum corneum and to the hair shafts, with no penetration in the epidermis; they are: white piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra. This study presents images of mycological tests performed in the laboratory, as well as exams performed at the authors office, in order to improve the dermatologist's knowledge about the diagnosis of these dermatoses, which are common in many countries. PMID:29186263

  2. Reconstrucción 3D usando superficies trianguladas dados contornos paralelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Guillermo Forero

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra una técnica de triangulación empleada para la reconstrucción de superficies tridimensionales (3D a partir de contornos paralelos. Esta técnica es usada para el modelamiento de la cabeza y el cerebro a partir de imágenes de resonancia magnética (IRM.

  3. System for uranium superficial density measurement in U3Si2 MTR fuel plates using radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, Martin A.; Gomez Marlasca, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes a method for measuring uranium superficial density in high density uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ) MTR fuel plates, through the use of industrial radiography, a set of patterns built for this purpose, a transmission optical densitometer, and a quantitative model of analysis and measurement. Our choice for this particular method responds to its high accuracy, low cost and easy implementation according to the standing quality control systems. (author)

  4. Colloidal silver-based nanogel as nonocclusive dressing for multiple superficial pellet wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmshaktu, Ganesh Singh; Singhal, Aanshu; Pangtey, Tanuja

    2016-01-01

    A good dressing is mandatory to an uncomplicated wound healing, especially when foreign particles contaminate the wound. Various forms of dressing preparations are available for use and differ in chemical composition and efficacy. Silver has been a known agent with good antimicrobial and healing properties and recent times has seen an upsurge in various silver-based dressing supplements. We describe our report of use and efficacy of a silver nanoparticle- based gel dressing in the healing of multiple superficial firearm pellet wounds.

  5. Increase in sensitivity of sensor units of environment refraction index change based on superficial plasmon resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushenin Yu. V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of computer modeling of an angular spectrum superficial plasmon resonance in metal films measurements with device PLAZMON-5 with infra-red radiator are analysed. It is shown that use of an infra-red source of radiation allows to improve sensitivity of sensor device in comparison with source of visible light. On an example of dielectric refraction indexes measurement with PLAZMON-5 device experimental check of theoretical calculations has been carried out.

  6. Lateral luxation of the superficial digital flexor tendon from the calcaneal tuber in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meagher, D.M.; Aldrete, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Lateral luxation of the superficial digital flexor tendon from the calcaneal tuber occurs in horses as a result of tearing or rupture of the medial retinaculum of the tendon. This report describes the repair of this condition in 2 Thoroughbred race horses, using a surgical technique in which 2 cancellous bone screws were placed in the calcaneus lateral to the tendon, along with suturing the medial retinaculum

  7. Application of zonal combustion model for on-line furnace analysis of 575MW tangential coal firing boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, B.; Karasina, E.; Livshits, B.; Talanker, A. [Israel Electric Corporation (Israel). Engineering Division

    1999-07-01

    An advanced code for calculating heat transfer in the boiler of furnaces is considered. The code can be used to compute the flue gas temperature in the furnace volume and the absorbed and incident heat fluxes. The number of zones in the furnace, the points of the injection of the fuel, air and flue gas recirculation (if applicable), the radiative heat transfer properties of the flue gases as well as all the factors determining performance are taken into account in the calculation. The code also predicts water wall and superheater temperature and NO{sub x} emission. The validity of the proposed model was confirmed by comparison between calculated and measured values. The predicted results show good agreement with the experimental data. The code developed is for engineers using advanced PCS at the stage of designing new boilers as well as when retrofitting and adjusting boilers already in operation. In comparison with existing complex computational models the proposed system can be used in modern monitoring systems for the furnace diagnostic problems including NO{sub x} emission. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Transdermal drug delivery: feasibility for treatment of superficial bone stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh-Habashi, Ali; Yang, Yang; Tang, Kathy; Lőbenberg, Raimar; Doschak, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Transdermal drug delivery offers the promise of effective drug therapy at selective sites of pathology whilst reducing systemic exposure to the pharmaceutical agents in off-target organs and tissues. However, that strategy is often limited to cells comprising superficial tissues of the body (rarely to deeper bony structures) and mostly indicated with small hydrophobic pharmacological agents, such as steroid hormones and anti-inflammatory gels to skin, muscle, and joints. Nonetheless, advances in transdermal liposomal formulation have rendered the ability to readily incorporate pharmacologically active hydrophilic drug molecules and small peptide biologics into transdermal dosage forms to impart the effective delivery of those bioactive agents across the skin barrier to underlying superficial tissue structures including bone, often enhanced by some form of electrical, chemical, and mechanical facilitation. In the following review, we evaluate transdermal drug delivery systems, with a particular focus on delivering therapeutic agents to treat superficial bone pain, notably stress fractures. We further introduce and discuss several small peptide hormones active in bone (such as calcitonins and parathyroid hormone) that have shown potential for transdermal delivery, often under the added augmentation of transdermal drug delivery systems that employ lipo/hydrophilicity, electric charge, and/or microprojection facilitation across the skin barrier.

  9. Roles of PAD4 and NETosis in Experimental Atherosclerosis and Arterial Injury: Implications for Superficial Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Grégory; Mawson, Thomas L; Folco, Eduardo J; Molinaro, Roberto; Ruvkun, Victoria; Engelbertsen, Daniel; Liu, Xin; Tesmenitsky, Yevgenia; Shvartz, Eugenia; Sukhova, Galina K; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Nicoletti, Antonino; Lichtman, Andrew; Wagner, Denisa; Croce, Kevin J; Libby, Peter

    2018-06-22

    Neutrophils likely contribute to the thrombotic complications of human atheromata. In particular, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) could exacerbate local inflammation and amplify and propagate arterial intimal injury and thrombosis. PAD4 (peptidyl arginine deiminase 4) participates in NET formation, but an understanding of this enzyme's role in atherothrombosis remains scant. This study tested the hypothesis that PAD4 and NETs influence experimental atherogenesis and in processes implicated in superficial erosion, a form of plaque complication we previously associated with NETs. Bone marrow chimeric Ldlr deficient mice reconstituted with either wild-type or PAD4-deficient cells underwent studies that assessed atheroma formation or procedures designed to probe mechanisms related to superficial erosion. PAD4 deficiency neither retarded fatty streak formation nor reduced plaque size or inflammation in bone marrow chimeric mice that consumed an atherogenic diet. In contrast, either a PAD4 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells or administration of DNaseI to disrupt NETs decreased the extent of arterial intimal injury in mice with arterial lesions tailored to recapitulate characteristics of human atheroma complicated by erosion. These results indicate that PAD4 from bone marrow-derived cells and NETs do not influence chronic experimental atherogenesis, but participate causally in acute thrombotic complications of intimal lesions that recapitulate features of superficial erosion. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Superficial temporal artery flap for reconstruction of complex facial defects: A new algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Elbanoby

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background A variety of island flaps can be based on the superficial temporal artery with variable tissue composition. They can be used for defect reconstruction, cavity resurfacing, facial hair restoration, or contracture release. Methods Seventy-two patients underwent facial reconstruction using a superficial temporal artery island flap from October 2010 to October 2014. The defects had various etiologies, including trauma, burns, tumors, exposed hardware, and congenital causes. We classified the patients by indication into 5 groups: cavity resurfacing, contracture release, facial hair restoration, skin coverage, and combined. The demographic data of the patients, defect characteristics, operative procedures, postoperative results, and complications were retrospectively documented. The follow-up period ranged from 24 to 54 months. Results A total of 24 females and 48 males were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 33.7±15.6 years. The flaps were used for contracture release in 13 cases, cavity resurfacing in 10 cases, skin coverage in 17 cases, facial hair restoration in 19 cases, and combined defects in 13 cases. No major complications were reported. Conclusion: Based on our experiences with the use of superficial temporal artery island flaps, we have developed a detailed approach for the optimal management of patients with composite facial defects. The aim of this article is to provide the reader with a systematic algorithm to use for such patients.

  11. Caracterización superficial en fase gas y líquida de carbones activados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo Gutierréz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el área superficial de carbones activados obtenidos a partir de cascarilla de café y cáscara de coco, mediante isotermas de adsorción de N2 a 77K. Se compararon los resultados con aquellos obtenidos con un método comúnmente utilizado, el índice de azul de metileno, y se encontró una buena correlación entre las dos áreas determinadas por éste método. Se muestra que los dos métodos permiten realizar un análisis complementario de una superficie porosa./ The superficial area of an activated carbon obtained from coffee husk and coconut shell was determined, by means of isotherms of adsorption of N2 to 77K and the results they area compared with the method of index blue of methylene, finding an good correlation between the two areas determined by this method. This research shows that both methods allow making a complementary analysis of a porous surface.

  12. El agrietamiento superficial de las pastas puras de cemento: una interpretación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calleja, J.

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableSe aborda por métodos analíticos y técnicas de difracción de rayos X el problema de determinar las posibles causas del agrietamiento superficial de galletas de pasta pura de cemento. Se encuentran diferencias de composición y constitución entre la zona superficial agrietada de las galletas y el resto de la masa, hallándose concordancia entre determinados constituyentes químicos calculados a base del análisis químico y los resultados de difracción de rayos X. Se interpretan estas diferencias como atribuibles a una exudación de lechada de la pasta, con extracción de álcalis solubles y yeso. Como consecuencia, la exudación provoca una carbonatación, una mayor retracción y posiblemente un fraguado acelerado en la zona superficial en relación con la masa interior de las galletas. Como causa directa de la ·exudación se acepta la hipótesis de una granulometría anormal del cemento, probablemente debida a un exceso de finos o gruesos por una molienda grosera, y producida por una deficiencia de tipo mecánico en el proceso de molturación del clínker.

  13. Recanalization of superficial femoral artery by retrograde approach via popliteal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyu; Kim, Hyung Kil; Yun, Ung; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun

    1995-01-01

    To recanalize the occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery at origin site by retrograde approach via popliteal artery. 15 patients, who were poor surgical candidates due to coronary artery disease and who had severe occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery close to its origin with good distal runoffs to popliteal artery, were selected. Patients were all men and range of age were from 53 years to 66 years (mean age: 63 years). Range of lesion length were from 15 cm to 30 cm (mean length: 22.4 cm). Localization of popliteal artery was done with Doppler stethoscope or 'road-map' DSA. The method of recanalization were transluminal endarterectomy catheter (TEC), TEC and angioplasty, thrombolysoangioplasty (TLA). Retrograde puncture of popliteal artery was done in 15 patients successfully. TEC and PTA was performed in 9 patients, TEC only in 2 patients, and TLA and PTA in 2 patients. During the follow-up period of 5 months to 2 years reocclusion did not occur in 10 patients except for 1 patient with poor cardiac output in whom it occurred 1 day later. Remained 4 patients were lost in follow up. Any neurologic or vascular complication did not occur. Retrograde approach of superficial femoral artery via popliteal artery in patients with difficult vascular intervention by common method provides a useful, alternative recanalization method

  14. Recanalization of superficial femoral artery by retrograde approach via popliteal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kyu; Kim, Hyung Kil; Yun, Ung; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    To recanalize the occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery at origin site by retrograde approach via popliteal artery. 15 patients, who were poor surgical candidates due to coronary artery disease and who had severe occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery close to its origin with good distal runoffs to popliteal artery, were selected. Patients were all men and range of age were from 53 years to 66 years (mean age: 63 years). Range of lesion length were from 15 cm to 30 cm (mean length: 22.4 cm). Localization of popliteal artery was done with Doppler stethoscope or 'road-map' DSA. The method of recanalization were transluminal endarterectomy catheter (TEC), TEC and angioplasty, thrombolysoangioplasty (TLA). Retrograde puncture of popliteal artery was done in 15 patients successfully. TEC and PTA was performed in 9 patients, TEC only in 2 patients, and TLA and PTA in 2 patients. During the follow-up period of 5 months to 2 years reocclusion did not occur in 10 patients except for 1 patient with poor cardiac output in whom it occurred 1 day later. Remained 4 patients were lost in follow up. Any neurologic or vascular complication did not occur. Retrograde approach of superficial femoral artery via popliteal artery in patients with difficult vascular intervention by common method provides a useful, alternative recanalization method.

  15. Effect of routine repeat transurethral resection for superficial bladder cancer: a long-term observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Steinhoff, Christine; Simon, Xenia; Spiegelhalder, Philipp; Ackermann, Rolf; Vogeli, Thomas Alexander

    2003-08-01

    We determined the long-term outcome in patients with superficial bladder cancer (Ta and T1) undergoing routine second transurethral bladder tumor resection (ReTURB) in regard to recurrence and progression. We performed an inception cohort study of 124 consecutive patients with superficial bladder cancer undergoing transurethral resection and routine ReTURB (83) between November 1993 and October 1995 at a German university hospital. Immediately after transurethral resection all lesions were documented on a designed bladder map. ReTURB of the scar from initial resection and other suspicious lesions was performed at a mean of 7 weeks. Patients were followed until recurrence or death, or a minimum of 5 years. Residual tumor was found in 33% of all ReTURB cases, including 27% of Ta and 53% of T1 disease, and in 81% at the initial resection site. Five of the 83 patients underwent radical cystectomy due to ReTURB findings. The estimated risk of recurrence after years 1 to 3 was 18%, 29% and 32%, respectively. After 5 years 63% of the patients undergoing ReTURB were still disease-free (mean recurrence-free survival 62 months, median 87). Progression to muscle invasive disease was observed in only 2 patients (3%) after a mean observation of 61 months. These data suggest a favorable outcome regarding recurrence and progression in patients with superficial bladder cancer who undergo ReTURB. ReTURB is suggested at least in those at high risk when bladder preservation is intended.

  16. In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, E Z; Laufer, J G; Beard, P C; Pedley, R B

    2009-01-01

    The application of a photoacoustic imaging instrument based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor to imaging the superficial vasculature is described. This approach provides a backward mode-sensing configuration that has the potential to overcome the limitations of current piezoelectric based detection systems used in superficial photoacoustic imaging. The system has been evaluated by obtaining non-invasive images of the vasculature in human and mouse skin as well as mouse models of human colorectal tumours. These studies showed that the system can provide high-resolution 3D images of vascular structures to depths of up to 5 mm. It is considered that this type of instrument may find a role in the clinical assessment of conditions characterized by changes in the vasculature such as skin tumours and superficial soft tissue damage due to burns, wounds or ulceration. It may also find application in the characterization of small animal cancer models where it is important to follow the tumour vasculature over time in order to study its development and/or response to therapy.

  17. Photoluminescence of a superficial Si nanolayer and an example of its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, M.; Svrcek, V.; Kuznicki, Z.T.

    2003-01-01

    A characteristic photoluminescence of a superficial Si nanolayer realized by ion implantation has been observed. This effect, being totally independent of those shown recently for a nanoscale Si-layered system, is similar to that produced by Si nanocrystals (Si nc). To visualize the nature and give evidence of this effect, we fabricated samples in two different ways: (i) by incorporation of Si nc into thin SiO 2 films deposited on Si wafer by the spin-on-glass method and (ii) by a nanoscale superficial crystalline-Si modification using medium-energy ion implantation and thermal treatment. In both cases the UV-to-red light conversion has been observed to be independent of wafer post-implantation damage. To show the UV-to-red conversion contribution, we use the ion modified superficial Si layer with its well-defined potential barrier, the so-called carrier collection limit. Such a modified Si structure gives us a method of deconvoluting several optoelectronic features observed experimentally on modified Si. The practical realization is compatible with well-established Si technology

  18. Reducing the negative vocal effects of superficial laryngeal dehydration with humidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sundarrajan, Anusha; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2014-07-01

    Environmental humidification is a simple, cost-effective method believed to reduce superficial laryngeal drying. This study sought to validate this belief by investigating whether humidification treatment would reduce the negative effects of superficial laryngeal dehydration on phonation threshold pressure (PTP). Phonation threshold pressure data analysis may be vulnerable to bias because of lack of investigator blinding. Consequently, this study investigated the extent of PTP analysis reliability between unblinded and blinded investigators. Healthy male and female adults were assigned to a vocal fatigue (n = 20) or control group (n = 20) based on their responses to a questionnaire. PTP was assessed after 2 hours of mouth breathing in low humidity (dehydration challenge), following a 5-minute break in ambient humidity, and after 2 hours of mouth breathing in high humidity (humidification). PTP significantly increased following the laryngeal dehydration challenge. After humidification, PTP returned toward baseline. These effects were observed in both subject groups. PTP measurements were highly correlated between the unblinded and blinded investigator. Humidification may be an effective approach to decrease the detrimental voice effects of superficial laryngeal dehydration. These data lay the foundation for future investigations aimed at preventing and treating the negative voice changes associated with chronic, surface laryngeal drying.

  19. MR-angiogram-added surface anatomy scanning of superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Katase, Shichiro; Yoshino, Ayako; Hachiya, Junichi [Department of Radiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Shiokawa, Yoshiaki [Department of Neurosurgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the utility of surface anatomy scanning (SAS) of the brain with superimposition of MR angiograms in the diagnosis and presurgical planning of superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We performed SAS in 15 patients with superficial cerebral AVMs. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MR angiograms were then obtained in the same section and superimposed on the SAS images. The images were assessed regarding the visualization of each AVM component using a four-point grading scale (3=excellent to 0=poor). In 13 of the patients, the assessment was made comparing with conventional angiograms. The images were also compared with the surgical findings in 5 patients. The added images agreed well with the angiographic findings and demonstrated the relationships between the AVM components and the adjacent brain surface. The average scores of the feeder(s), nidus, and drainer(s) were 2.27, 2.33, and 2.67, respectively. The surgical findings also correlated well with the added images. Our technique can noninvasively demonstrate superficial AVMs along with the brain surface and provide information useful for planning surgery. (orig.)

  20. MR-angiogram-added surface anatomy scanning of superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Katase, Shichiro; Yoshino, Ayako; Hachiya, Junichi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the utility of surface anatomy scanning (SAS) of the brain with superimposition of MR angiograms in the diagnosis and presurgical planning of superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We performed SAS in 15 patients with superficial cerebral AVMs. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MR angiograms were then obtained in the same section and superimposed on the SAS images. The images were assessed regarding the visualization of each AVM component using a four-point grading scale (3=excellent to 0=poor). In 13 of the patients, the assessment was made comparing with conventional angiograms. The images were also compared with the surgical findings in 5 patients. The added images agreed well with the angiographic findings and demonstrated the relationships between the AVM components and the adjacent brain surface. The average scores of the feeder(s), nidus, and drainer(s) were 2.27, 2.33, and 2.67, respectively. The surgical findings also correlated well with the added images. Our technique can noninvasively demonstrate superficial AVMs along with the brain surface and provide information useful for planning surgery. (orig.)

  1. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Vainionpää

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp. at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  2. Thermographic imaging of the superficial temperature in racing greyhounds before and after the race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainionpää, Mari; Tienhaara, Esa-Pekka; Raekallio, Marja; Junnila, Jouni; Snellman, Marjatta; Vainio, Outi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  3. [Superficial mycoses: comparative study between type 2 diabetic patients and a non-diabetic control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Humbría, Leila; Richard-Yegres, Nicole; Pérez-Blanco, Maigualida; Yegres, Francisco; Mendoza, Mireya; Acosta, Arnaldo; Hernández, Rosaura; Zárraga, Eluz

    2005-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are considered to affect more frequently patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), specially onychomycosis and Tinea pedis. The purpose of this study was to compare the dermatophytoses, candidiasis and Pitiriasis versicolor frequency between 40 patients with DM-2 and 40 healthy persons of either sex, 40 years old or more. Clinical, metabolic, mycologic and inmunologic studies against Candida albicans, were carried out. Both diabetics 75% (30/40) and controls 65% (26/40) presented a high frequency of superficial mycoses (no significant difference p = 0.329). Pitiriasis versicolor was not detected in diabetic patients. They presented Tinea unguium, concomitant with Tinea pedis, with a higher frequency. The predominant dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum 18/23 (78%) in diabetics and 8/16 (50%) in non diabetics. Candida was isolated as commensal from oral mucous: 23/40 (58%) in diabetics and 21/40 (52%) in non diabetics (serotipo A was the more frequent), and from onychomycosis: 11/40 (28%) in diabetics and 12/40 (30%) in non diabetics. The immunological response was the same in both groups: celular 100%, humoral 20%. No statistical correlation among superficial mycoses, blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin values or the time suffering the disease was observed. The high susceptibility to dermatophytes and Candida sp. infection showed to be associated with age and no with the diabetic type 2 condition in those patients.

  4. In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, E Z; Laufer, J G; Beard, P C [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Pedley, R B [UCL Cancer Institute, Paul O' Gorman Building, University College London, 72 Huntley St, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-21

    The application of a photoacoustic imaging instrument based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor to imaging the superficial vasculature is described. This approach provides a backward mode-sensing configuration that has the potential to overcome the limitations of current piezoelectric based detection systems used in superficial photoacoustic imaging. The system has been evaluated by obtaining non-invasive images of the vasculature in human and mouse skin as well as mouse models of human colorectal tumours. These studies showed that the system can provide high-resolution 3D images of vascular structures to depths of up to 5 mm. It is considered that this type of instrument may find a role in the clinical assessment of conditions characterized by changes in the vasculature such as skin tumours and superficial soft tissue damage due to burns, wounds or ulceration. It may also find application in the characterization of small animal cancer models where it is important to follow the tumour vasculature over time in order to study its development and/or response to therapy.

  5. Outcome of superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a clinicopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the clinicopathological features and outcome of patients with pathologically proven superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. METHODS: A total of 234 consecutive cases of esophageal carcinoma in a 15-year period were reviewed. RESULTS: Superficial esophageal cancer was found in five patients (2.1%. They were four men and one woman and the mean age was 52.5 years. Smoking and alcohol were the main risk factors. Achalasia due to Chagas disease occurred in one patient and a second primary tumor developed in the larynx in another patient. Four patients underwent esophagectomy and one patient received chemoradiotherapy. The histopathologic diagnosis was of squamous cell carcinoma in all cases. Intramucosal tumor (Tis was identified in three cases and superficially invasive carcinoma in two cases. Four patients are free of disease with survival times of two, four, six and nine years. The patient who developed laryngeal cancer died six years after esophagectomy. CONCLUSION: Long-term survival in patients with esophageal cancer is related to early diagnosis. Therefore, a less aggressive surgical approach, such as endoscopic resection, may be a good option for these patients, if depth of tumor invasion can be accurately predicted by the new imaging tools.

  6. Efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in treatment of active acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talib, Hassanain; Al-Khateeb, Alyaa; Hameed, Ayad; Murugaiah, Chandrika

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is an extremely common condition affecting the pilosebaceous unit of the skin and characterized by presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, cysts, which might result in permanent scars. Acne vulgaris commonly involve adolescents and young age groups. Active acne vulgaris is usually associated with several complications like hyper or hypopigmentation, scar formation and skin disfigurement. Previous studies have targeted the efficiency and safety of local and systemic agents in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. Superficial chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure which might cause some potentially undesirable adverse events. This study was conducted to review the efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. It is a structured review of an earlier seven articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The clinical assessments were based on pretreatment and post-treatment comparisons and the role of superficial chemical peeling in reduction of papules, pustules and comedones in active acne vulgaris. This study showed that almost all patients tolerated well the chemical peeling procedures despite a mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema have been reported; also the incidence of major adverse events was very low and easily manageable. In conclusion, chemical peeling with glycolic acid is a well-tolerated and safe treatment modality in active acne vulgaris while salicylic acid peels is a more convenient for treatment of darker skin patients and it showed significant and earlier improvement than glycolic acid.

  7. Tolerance and safety of superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Zafar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure that may have some potentially undesirable side-effects. AIMS: The present study is directed towards safety concerns associated with superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses. METHODS: The study was a non-comparative and a prospective one. Two hundred and sixty-eight patients of either sex, aged between 10 to 60 years, undergoing superficial chemical peeling for various facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, freckles, post-inflammatory scars/pigmentation, actinic keratoses, plane facial warts, etc. were included in the study. Eight weekly peeling sessions were carried out in each patient. Tolerance to the procedure and any undesirable effects noted during these sessions were recorded. RESULTS: Almost all the patients tolerated the procedure well. Mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema were quite common but the incidence of major side-effects was very low and these too, were easily manageable. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side-effects between facial dermatoses (melasma, acne and other pigmentary disorders. CONCLUSION: Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is a well tolerated and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses.

  8. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  9. Risk Factors and Clinical Evaluation of Superficial Femoral Artery Stent Fracture: Prote'ge'GPS Stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Da Un; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jung, Hye Doo; Huh, Tae Wook; Yim, Nam Yeol; Oh, Hyun jun; Choi, Soo Jin Na; Chang, Nam Kyu

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of superficial femoral artery stent fractures, the risk factors of stent fracture, and the relationship between fractures and clinical findings. Of the 38 patients who underwent treatment with Prote'ge'GPS stenting due to arterial occlusions on the superficial femoral artery, 17 also underwent a clinical analysis. Forty-three stents were inserted in the 17 superficial femoral arteries, ranging between 15 and 50 cm in length, with a mean treated length of 26.4 cm (15-50 cm). A fracture was evaluated by taking a PA and lateral simple radiography, as well as a follow-up evaluation accompanied with a CT angiography, DSA, and a color Doppler sonography. The examination involved the assessment of the difference between bone fractures due to length, placement, and frequency. Fractures occurred in 13 of 43 stents (30.2%). A total of 10 (71.4%) occurred in the upper third, compared to 4 (28.6%) in the lower third of the superficial femoral artery. In addition, 10 stents (71.4%) had a single strut fracture, whereas 4 (28.6%) had multiple strut fractures. A stent fracture occurred more frequently when the stents and lesions were longer (p=0.021, 0.012) and the stents were inserted near the joint. However, there was no significant relationship between stent numbers and the fractures (p=0.126). When the stents were inserted along the popliteal artery, a stent fracture occurred more frequently in the lower third of the artery. The stent fractures did not significantly influence the patency rate of the stented artery (p=0.44) Prote'ge'GPS stents in the superficial femoral artery revealed a considerable number of fractures and the fracture frequency showed a significant relationship with the length of stents and lesions. The closer stent insertion was to the joints, the more frequently fractures occurred. There were no evident significant relationships between the presence of stent fractures and the patency of the stented arteries

  10. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  11. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  12. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  13. Study of the mechanisms involved in the laser superficial hardening process of metallic alloys; Estudo dos mecanismos envolvidos no processo de endurecimento superficial a laser de ligas metalicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edmara Marques Rodrigues da

    2001-07-01

    The laser superficial hardening process of a ferrous alloy (gray cast iron) and of an aluminum-silicon alloy was investigated in this work. These metallic alloys are used in the automobile industry for manufacturing cylinders and pistons, respectively. By application of individual pulses and single tracks, the involved mechanisms during the processing were studied. Variables such as energy density, power density, temporal width, beam diameter on the sample surface, atmosphere of the processing region, overlapping and scanning velocity. The hardened surface was characterized by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, dispersive energy microanalysis, X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction, and measurements of roughness and Vickers microhardness. Depending on the processing parameters, it is possible to obtain different microstructures. The affected area of gray cast iron, can be hardened by remelting or transformation hardening (total or partial) if the reached temperature is higher or not that of melting temperature. Laser treatment originated new structures such as retained austenite, martensite and, occasionally, eutectic of cellular dendritic structure. Aluminum-silicon alloy does not have phase transformation in solid state, it can be hardened only by remelting. The increase of hardness is a function of the precipitation hardening process, which makes the silicon particles smaller and more disperse in the matrix. Maximal values of microhardness (700-1000 HV) were reached with the laser treatment in gray cast iron samples. The initial microhardness is of 242 HV. For aluminum-silicon alloy, the laser remelting increases the initial microhardness of 128 HV to the range of 160-320 HV. The found results give a new perspective for using the CLA/IPEN's laser in the heat treatment area. Besides providing a higher absorptivity to the materials, compared with the CO{sub 2} laser, and optical fiber access, the superficial hardening with Nd:YAG laser, depending on the

  14. The relation between histological, tumor-biological and clinical parameters in deep and superficial leiomyosarcoma and leiomyoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, Justin; Broers, Gerben H Torn; Plaat, Boudewijn E Ch; Hundeiker, M; Otto, F; Mastik, Mirjam F; Hoekstra, Harald J; Graaf, Winette T A van der; van den Berg, Eva; Molenaar, Willemina M

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) of deep and superficial tissues were examined to identify prognostic markers explaining their different biological behaviour and to define differences between cutaneous and subcutaneous LMS. LMS and leiomyomas (LM) of the skin were compared to and consistent

  15. Case report: partial relapse of Bell's palsy following superficial radiotherapy to a basal cell carcinoma in the temple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brincat, Stephen; Mantell, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    A patient who developed a partial relapse of Bell's palsy following superficial radiotherapy to a basal cell carcinoma in the temple is reported. Nerves injured by Bell's palsy may be more susceptible to radiation induced damage. (author)

  16. Estudio comparativo de la rugosidad superficial en cerámicas de ultra baja fusión

    OpenAIRE

    Ccahuana Vásquez, Vanessa Zulema; Leite de Oliveira Morais, Andréia Alves; Sussumu Nishioka, Renato; Tomomitsu Kimpara, Estevão

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la rugosidad superficial en cerámicas de baja y ultra baja fusión, después del pulido mecánico y exposición a un medio corrosivo in vitro. El análisis de la superficie (Ra) fue realizado con un rugosímetro. Se confeccionaron 72 discos, divididos en cuatro grupos según el sistema cerámico utilizado: VitadurAplha (G1), Titankeramik (G2), HeraCeram (G3) y Finesse (G4), y según el tratamiento de superficie: (A) especímenes sin tratamiento de superficie. (B...

  17. Cyclic testing of porcelain laminiate veneers on superficial enamel and dentin: Pressed vs. conventional layered porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, Shweta

    Statement of Problem: Clinicians are inclined towards more aggressive teeth preparations to accommodate the thickness of the veneering material. The principle of conservative tooth preparation is compromised. Purpose: By using a conservative approach to treatment with porcelain veneers, long-lasting, esthetic and functional results may be achieved. Sacrificing as little tooth structure as possible and conserving the supporting tissues will facilitate prospective patients. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human maxillary and mandibular canines were selected. The teeth were divided into one of two groups (pressable and stackable) and further subdivided according to tooth substrate (all-enamel or mixed enamel-dentin exposure). Twenty canine teeth were allotted to the pressable veneer group and 20 were allotted to the stackable veneer group. Of the 20 teeth in the pressable group, all were pressed with a lithium disilicate ceramic system (IPS e.max Press), 10 with labial tooth reduction of 0.3-0.5 mm maintaining superficial enamel (PEN) and the remaining 10 teeth with labial veneer reduction of 0.8-1.0 mm exposing superficial dentin (PDN). Of the 20 teeth in the stackable group, all were stacked/ layered with conventional feldspathic porcelain (Fortune; Williams/ Ivoclar); with labial veneer reduction of 0.3-0.5 mm maintaining superficial enamel (SEN) and the remaining 10 teeth with labial veneer reduction of 0.8-1.0 mm exposing superficial dentin (SDN). Silicon putty matrix was fabricated prior to teeth preparation to estimate the teeth reduction. The prepared facial reduction was limited to the incisal edge. No incisal or palatal/lingual reduction was performed. Impressions of the prepared teeth were taken in medium/light-bodied PVS. Master casts were made in Resin Rock. The stackable group specimens were made with fabricating refractory dies and after following the recommended steps of laboratory procedure, stackable veneers were processed. The pressable group

  18. Modelado físico de la incidencia de un chorro de aire sobre una superficie de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenit, R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas jets (oxygen plays a key role in several steelmaking processes as in the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF or in the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF. Those jets improve heat, mass and momentum transfer in the liquid metal, mixing of chemical species enhancing and govern the formation of foaming slag. In this work experimental measurements were performed to determine the dimensions of the cavity formed at the liquid free surface caused by a gas jet impinging on it; also velocities vectors were measured in the zone affected by the gas jet. Cavities were measured from images from high speed camera and the vector maps were obtained with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV technique. Both velocities and cavities were determined as a function of the main process variables: gas flow rate, distance of the nozzle from the free surface and lance angle. Cavity dimensions were statistically processed treated as a function of the process variables and also as a function of the proper dimensionless numbers that govern these phenomena. It was found thatWeber and Froude numbers govern the cavity geometry. Liquid flow driven by the jet is mainly affected by the air flow rate, lance height and angle.El uso de chorros de gas (oxígeno es fundamental en diversos procesos de aceración, como el Horno Básico de Oxígeno (BOF, por sus siglas en inglés o en el Horno Eléctrico de Arco (EAF. Estos chorros mejoran la transferencia de calor, masa y cantidad de movimiento en el metal y el mezclado de especies y son muy importantes en la formación de escoria espumosa. En este trabajo, se realizaron mediciones experimentales de las dimensiones de la cavidad formada en la superficie líquida por la incidencia de un chorro, así como también se obtuvieron vectores de velocidad en la zona aledaña a dicha cavidad. Éstas, se midieron usando una cámara de alta velocidad, mientras que los mapas vectoriales se obtuvieron por la técnica PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry. Las

  19. Optimal Positioning of the Nipple-Areola Complex in Men Using the Mohrenheim-Estimated-Tangential-Tracking-Line (METT-Line): An Intuitive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mett, Tobias R; Krezdorn, Nicco; Luketina, Rosalia; Boyce, Maria K; Henseler, Helga; Ipaktchi, Ramin; Vogt, Peter M

    2017-12-01

    The reconstruction of the body shape after post-bariatric surgery or high-grade gynecomastia involves, besides skin tightening, the repositioning of anatomical, apparent landmarks. The surgeon usually defines these during the preoperative planning. In particular, the positions of the nipple-areola complexes (NAC) should contribute to the gender-appropriate appearance. While in the female breast numerous methods have been developed to determine the optimal position of the NACs, there are only a few, metric and often impractical algorithms for positioning the nipples and areoles in the male. With this study, we show the accuracy of the intuitive positioning of the nipple-areola complex in men. From a pre-examined and measured quantity of 10 young and healthy men, six subjects were selected, which corresponded, on the basis of their chest and trunk dimensions, to the average of known data from the literature. The photographed frontal views were retouched in two steps. Initially, only the NACs were removed and the chest contours were left. In a second step, all contours and the navel were blurred. These pictures were submitted to resident and consultant plastic surgeons, who were asked to draw the missing NACs without any tools. The original positions of the nipples were compared with the inscriptions. Furthermore, the results were compared between the contoured and completely retouched pictures and between the residents and consultants. A total of 8 consultants and 7 residents were included. In the contoured and completely retouched images, a significant deviation of the marked positions of the missing features was found. The height of the NAC was determined somewhat more precisely than the vertical position. There was no significant difference between the contoured and completely retouched images, with a discretely more accurate tendency on the contoured images. In comparison with the professional experience, the consultants were tangentially more precise, but

  20. Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the heat flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Eddings, E.G.; Ring, T.; Thornock, J.; Draper, T.; Isaac, B.; Rezeai, D.; Toth, P.; Wu, Y.; Kelly, K.

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this task is to produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers. Validation data came from the Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) for tangentially fired, oxy-coal operation. This task brings together experimental data collected under Alstom’s DOE project for measuring oxy-firing performance parameters in the BSF with this University of Utah project for large eddy simulation (LES) and validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ). The Utah work includes V/UQ with measurements in the single-burner facility where advanced strategies for O2 injection can be more easily controlled and data more easily obtained. Highlights of the work include: • Simulations of Alstom’s 15 megawatt (MW) BSF, exploring the uncertainty in thermal boundary conditions. A V/UQ analysis showed consistency between experimental results and simulation results, identifying uncertainty bounds on the quantities of interest for this system (Subtask 9.1) • A simulation study of the University of Utah’s oxy-fuel combustor (OFC) focused on heat flux (Subtask 9.2). A V/UQ analysis was used to show consistency between experimental and simulation results. • Measurement of heat flux and temperature with new optical diagnostic techniques and comparison with conventional measurements (Subtask 9.3). Various optical diagnostics systems were created to provide experimental data to the simulation team. The final configuration utilized a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) camera to measure heat flux and temperature, which was synchronized with a high-speed, visible camera to utilize two-color pyrometry to measure temperature and soot concentration. • Collection of heat flux and temperature measurements in the University of Utah’s OFC for use is subtasks 9.2 and 9.3 (Subtask 9.4). Several replicates were carried to better assess the experimental error. Experiments were specifically designed for the

  1. Tendon vibration attenuates superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during static arm exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooue Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superficial vein of the resting limb constricts sympathetically during exercise. Central command is the one of the neural mechanisms that controls the cardiovascular response to exercise. However, it is not clear whether central command contributes to venous vessel response during exercise. Tendon vibration during static elbow flexion causes primary muscle spindle afferents, such that a lower central command is required to achieve a given force without altering muscle force. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether a reduction in central command during static exercise with tendon vibration influences the superficial venous vessel response in the resting limb. Methods Eleven subjects performed static elbow flexion at 35% of maximal voluntary contraction with (EX + VIB and without (EX vibration of the biceps brachii tendon. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE in overall and exercising muscle were measured. The cross-sectional area (CSAvein and blood velocity of the basilic vein in the resting upper arm were assessed by ultrasound, and blood flow (BFvein was calculated using both variables. Results Muscle tension during exercise was similar between EX and EX + VIB. However, RPEs at EX + VIB were lower than those at EX (P P vein in the resting limb at EX decreased during exercise from baseline (P vein at EX + VIB did not change during exercise. CSAvein during exercise at EX was smaller than that at EX + VIB (P vein did not change during the protocol under either condition. The decreases in circulatory response and RPEs during EX + VIB, despite identical muscle tension, showed that activation of central command was less during EX + VIB than during EX. Abolishment of the decrease in CSAvein during exercise at EX + VIB may thus have been caused by a lower level of central command at EX + VIB rather than EX. Conclusion Diminished central command induced by tendon

  2. Engineering cartilaginous grafts using chondrocyte-laden hydrogels supported by a superficial layer of stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesallati, Tariq; Buckley, Conor T; Kelly, Daniel J

    2017-05-01

    During postnatal joint development, progenitor cells that reside in the superficial region of articular cartilage first drive the rapid growth of the tissue and later help direct the formation of mature hyaline cartilage. These developmental processes may provide directions for the optimal structuring of co-cultured chondrocytes (CCs) and multipotent stromal/stem cells (MSCs) required for engineering cartilaginous tissues. The objective of this study was to engineer cartilage grafts by recapitulating aspects of joint development where a population of superficial progenitor cells drives the development of the tissue. To this end, MSCs were either self-assembled on top of CC-laden agarose gels (structured co-culture) or were mixed with CCs before being embedded in an agarose hydrogel (mixed co-culture). Porcine infrapatellar fat pad-derived stem cells (FPSCs) and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) were used as sources of progenitor cells. The DNA, sGAG and collagen content of a mixed co-culture of FPSCs and CCs was found to be lower than the combined content of two control hydrogels seeded with CCs and FPSCs only. In contrast, a mixed co-culture of BMSCs and CCs led to increased proliferation and sGAG and collagen accumulation. Of note was the finding that a structured co-culture, at the appropriate cell density, led to greater sGAG accumulation than a mixed co-culture for both MSC sources. In conclusion, assembling MSCs onto CC-laden hydrogels dramatically enhances the development of the engineered tissue, with the superficial layer of progenitor cells driving CC proliferation and cartilage ECM production, mimicking certain aspects of developing cartilage. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. New methodology for mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue anisotropic behaviour in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, C; Stassen, B; Depta, K; Silber, G

    2017-07-01

    Mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue has important applications in biomedical science, computer assisted forensics, graphics, and consumer goods development. Specifically, the latter may include facial hair removal devices. Predictive accuracy of numerical models and their ability to elucidate biomechanically relevant questions depends on the acquisition of experimental data and mechanical tissue behavior representation. Anisotropic viscoelastic behavioral characterization of human facial tissue, deformed in vivo with finite strain, however, is sparse. Employing an experimental-numerical approach, a procedure is presented to evaluate multidirectional tensile properties of superficial tissue layers of the face in vivo. Specifically, in addition to stress relaxation, displacement-controlled multi-step ramp-and-hold protocols were performed to separate elastic from inelastic properties. For numerical representation, an anisotropic hyperelastic material model in conjunction with a time domain linear viscoelasticity formulation with Prony series was employed. Model parameters were inversely derived, employing finite element models, using multi-criteria optimization. The methodology provides insight into mechanical superficial facial tissue properties. Experimental data shows pronounced anisotropy, especially with large strain. The stress relaxation rate does not depend on the loading direction, but is strain-dependent. Preconditioning eliminates equilibrium hysteresis effects and leads to stress-strain repeatability. In the preconditioned state tissue stiffness and hysteresis insensitivity to strain rate in the applied range is evident. The employed material model fits the nonlinear anisotropic elastic results and the viscoelasticity model reasonably reproduces time-dependent results. Inversely deduced maximum anisotropic long-term shear modulus of linear elasticity is G ∞,max aniso =2.43kPa and instantaneous initial shear modulus at an

  4. Intravascular ultrasound evaluation of JETSTREAM atherectomy removal of superficial calcium in peripheral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Akiko; Mintz, Gary S; Shimshak, Thomas M; Ricotta, Joseph J; Ramaiah, Venkatesh; Foster, Malcolm T; Davis, Thomas P; Gray, William A

    2015-05-01

    Endovascular treatment of calcified femoral-popliteal disease is challenging. We sought to evaluate the mechanism of lumen gain when using the JETSTREAM Atherectomy System to treat calcified peripheral artery lesions. The JETSTREAM Calcium Study was a prospective, single-arm, multicentre study to evaluate the JETSTREAM Atherectomy System for severely calcified femoral-popliteal artery lesions, i.e., patients with claudication and lesions with superficial calcium >90° and >5 mm in length as determined by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). The 2.1 mm catheter was used in this study without distal protection. Fifty-five patients underwent angiographic screening: 26 (45%) met IVUS inclusion criteria. Angiographic calcium was moderate in eight cases and severe in 14, with no available data for four cases. Visual diameter stenosis was 86±9% pre-treatment, 37±13% post atherectomy, and 10±6% post adjunctive treatment (adjunctive PTA+stenting in eight and adjunct PTA alone in 16). IVUS showed lumen area increased from 6.6±3.7 mm2 to 10.0±3.6 mm2 (p=0.001): calcium reduction was responsible for 86±23% of the lumen increase. Although the superficial calcium arc did not change (151±70° to 146±71°, p=0.83), the arc of reverberation increased (23±20° to 65±40°, p=0.006), indicating device-related modification of calcium. Adjunctive balloon angioplasty was performed in 62% of the lesions, and stent implantation in 31%. In 11 cases with adjunctive balloon dilation, the MLA increased from 7.1 (6.4, 7.8) mm2 post atherectomy to 11.9 (10.3, 13.5) mm2 post balloon (pAtherectomy System increased lumen dimensions in moderately or severely calcified femoral-popliteal lesions by removing superficial calcium without major complications.

  5. ESTUDO DO ESCOAMENTO SUPERFICIAL NA BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DO RIO IVAÍ, PARANÁ, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Luiz dos Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante a  aplicação da equação proposta por Kirby (1976,  aliada a levantamento das variáveis físicas  da bacia do Ivaí, este trabalho se propõe a analisar o comportamento do escoamento superficial nessa importante bacia hidrográfica do estado do Paraná. Para tanto, foram levantadas as variáveis precipitação média anual, precipitação média por evento, capacidade de campo dos solos e evapotranspiração. Essas variáveis foram  espacializadas e analisadas com o suporte das características geológicas, geomorfológicas, pedológicas e climáticas da bacia hidrográfica. O resultado da análise foi integrado, em ambiente digital, em um Sistema de informação Geográfica, fornecendo uma carta síntese das taxas de escoamento superficial da bacia. O resultado mostra que no curso inferior da bacia hidrográfica, região do Arenito Caiuá (Kr, ocorrem as maiores taxas de escoamento superficial da bacia. Tal fato é atestado pela agressiva erosão que sofrem os solos desenvolvidos sobre estas litologias na região Noroeste do estado do Paraná.

  6. Feline superficial pyoderma: a retrospective study of 52 cases (2001-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui W; Vogelnest, Linda J

    2012-10-01

    Superficial pyoderma is traditionally considered rare in cats but may be more prevalent than previously reported. To better characterize superficial pyoderma in cats. Fifty-two cats from a dermatology referral population over a 10 year period. This study was retrospective. Cases were included if neutrophils and intracellular bacteria were reported from surface cytology of skin lesions. Medical records were reviewed for signalment, historical and clinical data, cytology results, primary skin diagnoses and treatment details. Disease prevalence was 20%, with no breed or sex predispositions. The estimated median age of onset was 2 years, affecting 54% of cats by 3 years and 23% after 9 years. Fewer cases presented during winter (15%) compared with other seasons. Skin lesions were typically multifocal, affecting the face (62%), neck (37%), limbs (33%) and ventral abdomen (29%) most commonly. Crusting (83%), alopecia (67%), ulceration/erosion (54%) and erythema (46%) were common lesion types. Pruritus was reported in 92% of cats. Underlying hypersensitivities (confirmed in 60%; suspected in 19%), and atopic dermatitis specifically (confirmed in 48%), were the most frequent primary dermatoses. Cats were treated with a variety of systemic and/or topical antimicrobials. The overall apparent response was considered good in 61% and poor in 27% of cats. Recurrence was confirmed or suspected in 42% of cats. Feline superficial pyoderma was more prevalent in this study population than previously reported. Young cats with hypersensitivities and older cats were more commonly affected, and a variety of lesion types and distributions occurred. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Superficial and deep learning approaches among medical students in an interdisciplinary integrated curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghani, Hisham M; Ezimokhai, Mutairu; Shaban, Sami; van Berkel, Henk J M

    2014-01-01

    Students' learning approaches have a significant impact on the success of the educational experience, and a mismatch between instructional methods and the learning approach is very likely to create an obstacle to learning. Educational institutes' understanding of students' learning approaches allows those institutes to introduce changes in their curriculum content, instructional format, and assessment methods that will allow students to adopt deep learning techniques and critical thinking. The objective of this study was to determine and compare learning approaches among medical students following an interdisciplinary integrated curriculum. This was a cross-sectional study in which an electronic questionnaire using the Biggs two-factor Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) with 20 questions was administered. Of a total of 402 students at the medical school, 214 (53.2%) completed the questionnaire. There was a significant difference in the mean score of superficial approach, motive and strategy between students in the six medical school years. However, no significant difference was observed in the mean score of deep approach, motive and strategy. The mean score for years 1 and 2 showed a significantly higher surface approach, surface motive and surface strategy when compared with students in years 4-6 in medical school. The superficial approach to learning was mostly preferred among first and second year medical students, and the least preferred among students in the final clinical years. These results may be useful in creating future teaching, learning and assessment strategies aiming to enhance a deep learning approach among medical students. Future studies are needed to investigate the reason for the preferred superficial approach among medical students in their early years of study.

  8. Efficiency in supercritical fluid chromatography with different superficially porous and fully porous particles ODS bonded phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesellier, E

    2012-03-09

    The chromatographic efficiency, in terms of plate number per second, was dramatically improved by the introduction of sub-two microns particles with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC). On the other hand, the recent development of superficially porous particles, called core-shell or fused-core particles, appears to allow the achievement of the same efficiency performances at higher speed without high pressure drops. CO₂-based mobile phases exhibiting much lower viscosities than aqueous based mobile phases allow better theoretical efficiencies, even with 3-5 μm particles, but with relative low pressure drops. They also allow much higher flow rates or much longer columns while using conventional instruments capable to operate below 400 bar. Moreover, the use of superficially porous particles in SFC could enhance the chromatographic performances even more. The kinetic behavior of ODS phases bonded on these particles was studied, with varied flow rates, outlet (and obviously inlet) pressures, temperatures, by using a homologous series (alkylbenzenes) with 10% modifier (methanol or acetonitrile) in the carbon dioxide mobile phase. Results were also compared with classical fully porous particles, having different sizes, from 2.5 to 5 μm. Superior efficiency (N) and reduced h were obtained with these new ODS-bonded particles in regards to classical ones, showing their great interest for use in SFC. However, surprising behavior were noticed, i.e. the increase of the theoretical plate number vs. the increase of the chain length of the compounds. This behavior, opposite to the one classically reported vs. the retention factor, was not depending on the outlet pressure, but on the flow rate and the temperature changes. The lower radial trans-column diffusion on this particle types could explain these results. This diffusion reduction with these ODS-bonded superficially porous particles seems to decrease with the increase of the residence time of compounds

  9. Reduced vaginal elasticity, reduced lubrication, and deep and superficial dyspareunia in irradiated gynecological cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinesen Kollberg, Karin; Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte; Bergmark, Karin; Dunberger, Gail; Rossander, Anna; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Steineck, Gunnar

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not vaginal elasticity or lack of lubrication is associated with deep or superficial dyspareunia. We investigated gynecological cancer survivors treated with radiation therapy. In a population-based study with 616 women answering a questionnaire (participation rate 78%) and who were treated with radiotherapy for gynecological cancer, we analyzed information from 243 women (39%) who reported that they had had intercourse during the previous six months. Analyses included log-binomial regression (relative risks) and multiple imputations by chained equations in combination with Bayesian Model Averaging, yielding a posterior probability value. Age range of this cancer recurrent-free group of women was 29-80. Dyspareunia affected 164 of 243 of the women (67%). One hundred thirty-four women (55%) reported superficial pain, 97 women (40%) reported deep pain, and 87 women (36%) reported both types of dyspareunia. The relative risk (RR) of deep dyspareunia was 1.87 (CI 1.41-2.49) with impaired vaginal elasticity compared to normal vaginal elasticity. Age and lower abdominal swelling were separate risk factors for deep dyspareunia. However, effects remain after adjusting for these factors. The relative risk of deep dyspareunia was almost twice as high with impaired vaginal elasticity compared to normal vaginal elasticity. If we wish to treat or even prevent deep dyspareunia in women with gynecological cancer, we may use our knowledge of the pathophysiology of deep dyspareunia and increasingly provide dilators together with instructions on how to use them for stretching exercises in order to retain vaginal elasticity. Results highlight the need for studies with more precise questions distinguishing superficial from deep dyspareunia so that in the future we may be able to primarily try to avoid reduced vaginal elasticity and secondarily reduce the symptoms.

  10. Efectos del entrenamiento en superficies inestables sobre el equilibrio y funcionalidad en adultos mayores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. López S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar los efectos de un programa de ocho semanas de entrenamiento en superficies inestables con y sin trabajo de fuerza, sobre el equilibrio y la capacidad funcional en adultos mayores de 60 años, pertenecientes al programa “Escuelas populares del deporte” del inder Medellín. Metodología: se llevó a cabo un estudio experimental simple, ciego y enmascarado con asignación al azar de 34 sujetos a dos grupos de intervención con y sin trabajo de fuerza sobre superficies inestables; se midió el equilibrio unipodal, bipodal con ojos abiertos y cerrados, además de pruebas funcionales como Up and Go, arm curl y chair test. Resultados: las intervenciones con y sin trabajo de fuerza mejoraron el equilibrio total en 57,0 y 69,5 segundos respectivamente, sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la comparación entre los grupos (p = 0,13. Se mejoró la velocidad de la marcha con ambas intervenciones sin diferencias intragrupos estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,33 pero importantes para la práctica. Conclusión: ambas intervenciones mejoran el equilibrio, sin embargo existen diferencias importantes para la práctica a favor del programa sobre superficies inestables sin trabajo de fuerza, pues la intervención tiene un mejor efecto sobre el equilibrio unipodal y bipodal tanto con ojos abiertos como con cerrados.

  11. Estudio anatómico de la rama superficial del nervio radial, implicaciones quirúrgicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vergara Amador

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Conocer la anatomía de la rama superficial del nervio radial, es indispensable para la adecuada práctica de cirugías que involucran la mano y la muñeca. Objetivo. Determinar las relaciones del nervio radial y sus ramas con el tubérculo de Lister, la apófisis estiloides del radio y la distribución en el dorso de la mano. Material y métodos. Se disecaron 25 piezas de cadáveres frescos. Se identificó la rama superficial del nervio radial y se midió la distancia entre la salida del nervio y la apófisis estiloides del radio. Se identificaron las ramas del nervio en el antebrazo distal y en la muñeca y se midieron respecto a la apófisis estiloides y al tubérculo de Lister. Resultados. La rama superficial del nervio radial emergió en la región dorsal y radial del tercio distal del antebrazo entre el músculo braquiradialis y el extensor carpis radialis longus, a una distancia de 8,45 cm proximal a la apófisis estiloides. Su primera rama de división discurrió palmar a la apófisis estiloides radial a una distancia promedio de 0,74 cm respecto a la misma. El tronco principal se dividió en varias ramas terminales así: proximal a la apófisis estiloides del radio (28%, a nivel de la misma (12% y distal (60%. El patrón de distribución de las ramas nerviosas en la base de los dedos más frecuente fue el del primero, segundo y el lado radial del tercer dedo (56%. Discusión. Este estudio mostró la gran variabilidad de la rama superficial del nervio radial en el dorso de la mano y la alta probabilidad de daño del mismo durante los procedimientos abiertos, artroscópicos o procedimientos percutáneos en la muñeca.

  12. Diseño nanotecnológico de superficies con propiedades antibacterianas: el grafeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P de la Peña Benítez

    Full Text Available La nanotecnología se está convirtiendo en los últimos años en una inmejorable herramienta en la elección de materiales para el diseño arquitectónico de espacios sensibles a las bacterias, como hospitales, clínicas, etc. El presente artículo hace un recorrido sobre las principales superficies antibacterianas. Siendo el grafeno un material que ofrece unas posibilidades inigualables gracias a sus propiedades, permitiéndonos mejorar los acabados superficiales por su alta actividad bactericida.

  13. Superficial deposits in northeast flank of Sierras Australes (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, R.; Fucks, E.; De Francesco, F.

    2004-01-01

    Pleistocene and Holocene superficial deposits, which have been recognized in an area of 1500 km2 in the northeast flank of Sierras Australes, are characterized. In divide they are underlain by silts and siltstone which are called Sediments Pampeanas. There, a lower sequence, consisting mainly of aeolian sediments (loess) with scarce fluvial deposits and diamictons, was recognized. In some places an upper sequence that is product of aeolian and anthropogenic activity, was also recognized. In the valley sequences, the loess deposits can not only be underlain by fluvial sediments but can also overlain them. The more recent fluvial deposits which have eroded loess sequences are of the post conquest age [es

  14. Percutaneous treatment of delayed post-atherectomy superficial femoral artery pseudoaneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Nuri Ilker; Fay, Matt; Varma, Jai

    2012-10-01

    SilverHawk atherectomy is commonly used in lower extremity percutaneous interventions. Minor perforations during SilverHawk atherectomy procedures are reported at a range of 0.8%. There are few reported cases in the literature about very late pseuodoaneursym formation after SilverHawk atherectomy. Herein we report a very unusual, late, concealed, acute rupture of superficial femoral artery with a large, painful pseuodoaneursym formation, 1 week after Silver- Hawk atherectomy and its treatment with Viabahn stent graft (W.L. Gore & Associates).

  15. Epidemiology of superficial and cutaneous mycosis in 5500 suspected patients in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayatollah Nasrollahi Omran

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Identification of the determatophytosis species and superficial mycosis agents may be useful in directing the survey for environmental and animal sources of infection to educate the danger of acquiring infections from infected persons and other animals. Based on this background the identification of cutaneous mycosis distribution was the main purpose."n"nMethods: From March 2005 to Feb 2009 we examined 5500 patients suspected to superficial and cutaneous mycosis referred to medical mycology labs in Tehran, Iran for Medical Mycology examination. Skin, hair and nail sampling were taken by scraping from patients and collected for diagnosis. Diagnosis was confirmed by direct microscopy and culture according to the mycology routine laboratory methods."n"nResults: A total of 2271 cases (41.3% suffered from superficial and cutaneous mycosis. The most common infections were dermatophytosis 1279 cases (56.31%, Tinea Versicolor 356 cases (15.47%, Erythersma 283 cases (12.46%, cutaneous candidiosis 243 cases (10.7% and sacrophytic cutaneous mycosis 110 cases (4.83%. Tichophyton mentagrophytes was the most common etiological agent with 198 cases (41.56%. The most common clinical type of cutaneous candidiasis was

  16. Successful penetration and bougie dilatation with Brockenbrough needle for severely calcified occlusion in superficial femoral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Toshio; Suzuki, Kenji; Takizawa, Kaname; Ootomo, Tatsushi; Inoue, Naoto; Meguro, Taiichirou

    2014-04-01

    A 75-year-old hemodialysis patient with right critical limb ischemia received endovascular therapy for a chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a diffusely calcified superficial femoral artery (SFA). During a retrograde approach, a Brockenbrough needle (BN) was able to penetrate the calcified hard plaque formed in the middle segment of the CTO. Moreover, bougie dilatation with the BN allowed balloon crossing and stent deployment, even after failure to pass a 2.0-mm monorail balloon across the plaque. These results suggest that the BN offers a new therapeutic option in the penetration and modification of severely calcified CTO in SFA.

  17. Superficial shell insulation in resting and exercising men in cold water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veicsteinas, A; Ferretti, G; Rennie, D W

    1982-06-01

    From measurements of subcutaneous fat temperature (Tsf) at known depths below the surface, skin surface temperature (Tsk), and direct skin heat flux (H), the superficial shell isulation (Iss) of the thigh (fat + skin) was calculated as Iss (degrees C.m2.w-1) = (Tsf - Tsk)/H in nine male subjects immersed head out in a well-stirred water bath. Also, at critical water temperature (CWT = 28-33 degrees C), eight of the subjects rested for 3 h, enabling overall maximal tissue insulation (It,max) to be calculated as It,max (degrees C.m2.W-1) = (Tre - Tw)/(0.92 M +/- delta S), where Tre is rectal temperature, Tw is water temperature, M is metabolic rate, and s is loss or gain of body heat. Five subjects performed up to 2 h of mild leg cycling, preceded and followed by 60 min of rest, and both thigh Iss and overall It were measured during exercise. Iss increased from minimal values in Tw greater than 33 degrees C to maximal values (Iss,max) at CWT or below. Iss,max was linearly related to tissue thickness (d) in millimeters of fat plus skin, Iss,max (degrees C.m2.W-1) = 0.0048d-0.0052; r = 0.95, n = 37, and was not influenced by leg exercise up to a metabolic rate of 150 W.m-2 in CWT despite large increases in Tsf and H and large decreases in overall It. The slope of Iss,max vs. depth, 0.0048 degrees C.m2.W-1.mm-1, is almost identical to thermal resistivity of fat in vitro, suggesting that the superficial shell is unperfused in CWT at rest or during mild exercise. When maximal superficial shell insulation (It,ss,max) for the whole body was calculated with allowance for differing fat thicknesses and surface areas of body regions, it could account for only 10-15% of overall It,max at rest and 35-40% of overall It in mild exercise. We suggest that the poorly perfused muscle shell plays a more important role as a defense against cooling at CWT than does the superficial shell (fat + skin), particularly at rest.

  18. Colloidal silver-based nanogel as nonocclusive dressing for multiple superficial pellet wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Singh Dharmshaktu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A good dressing is mandatory to an uncomplicated wound healing, especially when foreign particles contaminate the wound. Various forms of dressing preparations are available for use and differ in chemical composition and efficacy. Silver has been a known agent with good antimicrobial and healing properties and recent times has seen an upsurge in various silver-based dressing supplements. We describe our report of use and efficacy of a silver nanoparticle- based gel dressing in the healing of multiple superficial firearm pellet wounds.

  19. Estudio del comportamiento in vitro de osteoblastos cultivados sobre superficies de implantes dentales.

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez Cayón, Rocío Trinidad

    2015-01-01

    La osteointegración es el proceso por el cual se produce una fijación rígida de material aloplástico, clínicamente asintomática, es conseguida y mantenida en hueso durante una carga funciona. En este proceso el papel principal está representado por los osteoblastos, células diferenciadas que sintetizan el colágeno y la sustancia fundamental ósea. Los osteoblastos tienen dos destinos posibles: ser rodeados por la matriz ósea que producen y pasan a ser osteocitos o permanecer en la superfici...

  20. Carcinoma superficial multifocal do pênis: ênfase ao teste do azul de toluidina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Begliomini

    Full Text Available The author reports a case of penile multifocal superficial carcinoma in a white 66 years old male. The lesions on glans penis and prepuce were asymptomatic. Their appearence were plain reddish ulceration, irregular margins which became evident after circumcision. There was no palpable groin lymph node. The toluidine blue test was useful for guiding biopsies. A partial penectomy was undertaken with free surgical margins of tumor. In a follow-up of two years, penil erectile function is preserve with no tumor recurrence.

  1. Colgajos de perforantes de las arterias epigástricas inferiores profunda y superficial Deep and superficial inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Gagnon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el desarrollo de los colgajos miocutáneos de recto abdominal (TRAM, el abdomen inferior ha sido reconocido como la principal área dadora de tejidos autólogos de alta calidad, especialmente útiles en reconstrucción mamaria. Más recientemente la habilidad para obtener componentes adiposocutáneos similares sin sacrificar el músculo recto ha revolucionado el campo de la Cirugía Reconstructiva. El advenimiento de los colgajos de perforantes ha permitido a los cirujanos plásticos lograr los mismos buenos resultados estéticos que con los colgajos miocutáneos tradicionales, pero con un considerable descenso en la morbilidad del área donante. Con los colgajos de perforantes de la arteria epigástrica inferior profunda (DIEP y de la arteria epigástrica inferior superficial (SIEA, los pacientes han incrementado sus opciones de reconstrucción. Este artículo revisa la anatomía quirúrgica de la pared abdominal relativa a los colgajos SIEA y DIEP. Se explican detalladamente los pasos principales para la preparación preoperatoria, la técnica quirúrgica y los cuidados postoperatorios. Se discuten las ventajas y desventajas y se presen- tan los trucos técnicos que pueden ayudar a mejorar el resultado final. Además se ilustran con ayuda de casos clínicos las indicaciones típicas y atípicas.Following the development of the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM flap, the lower abdomen has been recognized as a prime source of high quality autogenous tissue, especially useful in breast reconstruction. More recently, the ability to harvest a similar adipocutaneous component without sacrifice of the rectus muscle has revolutionized the field of reconstructive surgery. The advent of perforator flaps has allowed plastic surgeons to achieve the same highly esthetic results as with the former myocutaneous flaps while significantly decreasing the donor site morbidity. With the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP flap and

  2. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...... is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections...

  3. Nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, T.

    1987-01-01

    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used? The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system

  4. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available -of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study... for the following equation: n∑ i=r ( n i ) pi(1− p)n−i = 0.95 . (1) Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results METHODS (cont. . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION...

  5. Dike zones on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Venusian dike zone structures were identified from Venera 15 and 16 radar images. These include: a zone of subparallel rows centered at 30 deg N, 7 deg E; a system of intersecting bands centered at 67 deg N, 284 deg E; polygonal systems in lavas covering the structural base uplift centered at 47 deg N, 200 deg E; a system of light bands in the region of the ring structure centered at 43 deg N, 13 deg E; and a dike band centered at 27 deg N, 36 deg E.

  6. Evaluation of coat uniformity and taste-masking efficiency of irregular-shaped drug particles coated in a modified tangential spray fluidized bed processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2015-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of coating irregular-shaped drug particles in a modified tangential spray fluidized bed processor (FS processor) and evaluate the coated particles for their coat uniformity and taste-masking efficiency. Paracetamol particles were coated to 20%, w/w weight gain using a taste-masking polymer insoluble in neutral and basic pH but soluble in acidic pH. In-process samples (5, 10 and 15%, w/w coat) and the resultant coated particles (20%, w/w coat) were collected to monitor the changes in their physicochemical attributes. After coating to 20%, w/w coat weight gain, the usable yield was 81% with minimal agglomeration (coat compared with the uncoated particles. A 15%, w/w coat was optimal for inhibiting drug release in salivary pH with subsequent fast dissolution in simulated gastric pH. The FS processor shows promise for direct coating of irregular-shaped drug particles with wide size distribution. The coated particles with 15% coat were sufficiently taste masked and could be useful for further application in orally disintegrating tablet platforms.

  7. Comparison of build-up region doses in oblique tangential 6 MV photon beams calculated by AAA and CCC algorithms in breast Rando phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunun, P.; Tangboonduangjit, P.; Dumrongkijudom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the build-up region doses on breast Rando phantom surface with the bolus covered, the doses in breast Rando phantom and also the doses in a lung that is the heterogeneous region by two algorithms. The AAA in Eclipse TPS and the collapsed cone convolution algorithm in Pinnacle treatment planning system were used to plan in tangential field technique with 6 MV photon beam at 200 cGy total doses in Breast Rando phantom with bolus covered (5 mm and 10 mm). TLDs were calibrated with Cobalt-60 and used to measure the doses in irradiation process. The results in treatment planning show that the doses in build-up region and the doses in breast phantom were closely matched in both algorithms which are less than 2% differences. However, overestimate of doses in a lung (L2) were found in AAA with 13.78% and 6.06% differences at 5 mm and 10 mm bolus thickness, respectively when compared with CCC algorithm. The TLD measurements show the underestimate in buildup region and in breast phantom but the doses in a lung (L2) were overestimated when compared with the doses in the two plannings at both thicknesses of the bolus.

  8. Numerical study of flow, combustion and emissions characteristics in a 625 MWe tangentially fired boiler with composition of coal 70% LRC and 30% MRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adiyah, Devy; Bangga, Galih; Widodo, Wawan; Ikhwan, Nur

    2017-08-01

    Tangential fired boiler is one of the methods that can produce more complete combustion. This method applied in Suralaya Power Plant, Indonesia. However, the boiler where supposed to use low rank coal (LRC), but at a given time must be mixed with medium rank coal (MRC) from another unit because of lack of LRC coal. Accordingly to the situation, the study about choosing the right position of LRC and MRC in the burner elevation must be investigated. The composition of coal is 70%LRC / 30%MRC where MRC will be placed at the lower (A & C - Case I)) or higher (E & G - Case II) elevation as the cases in this study. The study is carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The simulation with original case (100%LRC) has a good agreement with the measurement data. As the results, MRC is more recommended at the burner elevation A & C rather than burner elevation E & G because it has closer temperature (880 K) compared with 100%LRC and has smaller local heating area between upper side wall and front wall with the range of temperature 1900 - 2000 K. For emissions, case I has smaller NOx and higher CO2 with 104 ppm and 15,6%. Moreover, it has samller O2 residue with 5,8% due to more complete combustion.

  9. Superficial Siderosis of the Central Nervous System Caused by Hemorrhagic Intraventricular Craniopharyngioma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOSAKA, Masahiko; SATO, Koji; AMANUMA, Makoto; HIGUCHI, Tetsuya; ARAI, Motohiro; AISHIMA, Kaoru; SHIMIZU, Tatsuya; HORIGUCHI, Keishi; SUGAWARA, Kenichi; YOSHIMOTO, Yuhei

    2015-01-01

    Superficial siderosis is a rare condition caused by hemosiderin deposits in the central nervous system (CNS) due to prolonged or recurrent low-grade bleeding into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CNS tumor could be one of the sources of bleeding, both pre- and postoperatively. We report an extremely rare case of superficial siderosis associated with purely third ventricle craniopharyngioma, and review previously reported cases of superficial siderosis associated with CNS tumor. A 69-year-old man presented with headache, unsteady gait, blurred vision, and progressive hearing loss. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium revealed a well enhanced, intraventricular mass in the anterior part of the third ventricle. T2*-weighted gradient echo (GE) MR imaging revealed a hypointense rim around the brain particularly marked within the depth of the sulci. Superficial siderosis was diagnosed based on these findings. The tumor was diffusely hypointense on T2*-weighted GE imaging, indicating intratumoral hemorrhage. The lateral ventricles were dilated, suggesting hydrocephalus. [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed increased uptake in the tumor. The whole brain surface appeared dark ocher at surgery. Histological examination showed the hemorrhagic tumor was papillary craniopharyngioma. His hearing loss progressed after removal of the tumor. T2*-weighted GE MR imaging demonstrated not only superficial siderosis but also diffuse intratumoral hemorrhage in the tumor. Superficial siderosis and its related symptoms, including hearing loss, should be considered in patients with hemorrhagic tumor related to the CSF space. Purely third ventricle craniopharyngioma rarely has hemorrhagic character, which could cause superficial siderosis and progressive hearing loss. PMID:24670310

  10. Microstructural and superficial modification in a Cu-Al-Be shape memory alloy due to superficial severe plastic deformation under sliding wear conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, C. G.; Garcia-Castillo, F. N.; Jacobo, V. H.; Cortés-Pérez, J.; Schouwenaars, R.

    2017-05-01

    Stress induced martensitic transformation in copper-based shape memory alloys has been studied mainly in monocrystals. This limits the use of such results for practical applications as most engineering applications use polycristals. In the present work, a coaxial tribometer developed by the authors was used to characterise the tribological behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-11.5%Al-0.5%Be shape memory alloy in contact with AISI 9840 steel under sliding wear conditions. The surface and microstructure characterization of the worn material was conducted by conventional scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while the mechanical properties along the transversal section were measured by means of micro-hardness testing. The tribological behaviour of Cu-Al-Be showed to be optimal under sliding wear conditions since the surface only presented a slight damage consisting in some elongated flakes produced by strong plastic deformation. The combination of the plastically modified surface and the effects of mechanically induced martensitic transformation is well-suited for sliding wear conditions since the modified surface provides the necessary strength to avoid superficial damage while superelasticity associated to martensitic transformation is an additional mechanism which allows absorbing mechanical energy associated to wear phenomena as opposed to conventional ductile alloys where severe plastic deformation affects several tens of micrometres below the surface.

  11. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear weapons free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The article analyses the concept and problems of the two nuclear weapons free zones in Latin America and in the South Pacific established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty of Rarotonga. So far the nuclear weapons states except China have refused to sign the additional protocols of the Treaties or have signed them only with considerable provisos. Therefore they don't fully recognize the nuclear weapons free status of those zones, or they don't recognize it at all. Both Treaties contain no provisions to regulate the transit of nuclear weapons through the zones. This allows de facto the stationing of nuclear weapons in the military bases of the US which are located within the nuclear weapons free zone of Latin America. The Treaty of Tlatelolco contains also the right of the states, party to the Treaty, to explode nuclear devices for peaceful purposes. Since peaceful and military nuclear explosions cannot be distinguished technically, this right could also undermine the nuclear weapons free status of the region. Important nuclear threshold countries like Argentina and Brazil have furthermore refrained from putting the Treaty into force. (orig.) [de

  13. Navigating ECA-Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Hendriksen, Christian

    This report examines the effect that ECA-zone regulation has on the optimal vessel fuel strategies for compliance. The findings of this report are trifold, and this report is coupled with a calculation tool which is released to assist ship-owners in the ECA decision making. The first key insight...... much time their operated vessels navigate the ECA in the future....

  14. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  15. Buffer Zone, Nicosia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Marie Louise

    2010-01-01

    Images of the United Nations Buffer Zone or Green Line which has partitioned Cyprus since 1974 The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° 217411.

  16. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  17. Measurement system study using beta radiation for determining different paper superficial density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Thais Molina; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2000-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used now in some areas of the industry. For quality control purposes, they are used in non-destructive analysis (NDA) which is applied to the materials examination verifying if they are adequate to the patterns demanded by technical rules or the market. Gamma, beta or neutron radiation sources may be used to do NDA, depending on material to be analyzed and the industrial process. In this work, the study of measurement system applied to quality control area was conceived and, in the evaluation of the material in test, a radioactive beta source was used. A system was designed and mounted, using a plastic scintillator detector developed in the laboratories of the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes from IPEN-CNEN/SP. Two beta sources were used in the operational test: 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 204 Tl. Measures were obtained using several paper samples with different superficial density in g/m 2 . With the results, an equation correlating the relative activity with the superficial density in g/m 2 was established. (author)

  18. Emotional words can be embodied or disembodied: the role of superficial vs. deep types of processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensie eAbbassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Emotional words are processed rapidly and automatically in the left hemisphere (LH and slowly, with the involvement of attention, in the right hemisphere (RH. This review aims to find the reason for this difference and suggests that emotional words can be processed superficially or deeply due to the involvement of the linguistic and imagery systems, respectively. During superficial processing, emotional words likely make connections only with semantically associated words in the LH. This part of the process is automatic and may be sufficient for the purpose of language processing. Deep processing, in contrast, seems to involve conceptual information and imagery of a word’s perceptual and emotional properties using autobiographical memory contents. Imagery and the involvement of autobiographical memory likely differentiate between emotional and neutral word processing and explain the salient role of the RH in emotional word processing. It is concluded that the level of emotional word processing in the RH should be deeper than in the LH and, thus, it is conceivable that the slow mode of processing adds certain qualities to the output.

  19. Emotional words can be embodied or disembodied: the role of superficial vs. deep types of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, Ensie; Blanchette, Isabelle; Ansaldo, Ana I; Ghassemzadeh, Habib; Joanette, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Emotional words are processed rapidly and automatically in the left hemisphere (LH) and slowly, with the involvement of attention, in the right hemisphere (RH). This review aims to find the reason for this difference and suggests that emotional words can be processed superficially or deeply due to the involvement of the linguistic and imagery systems, respectively. During superficial processing, emotional words likely make connections only with semantically associated words in the LH. This part of the process is automatic and may be sufficient for the purpose of language processing. Deep processing, in contrast, seems to involve conceptual information and imagery of a word's perceptual and emotional properties using autobiographical memory contents. Imagery and the involvement of autobiographical memory likely differentiate between emotional and neutral word processing and explain the salient role of the RH in emotional word processing. It is concluded that the level of emotional word processing in the RH should be deeper than in the LH and, thus, it is conceivable that the slow mode of processing adds certain qualities to the output.

  20. Comparison of four different nerve conduction techniques of the superficial fibular sensory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarian, Mathew R; Condie, Nathan C; Austin, Erica A; Mccausland, Katie E; Andary, Michael T; Sylvain, James R; Mull, Iian R; Zemper, Eric D; Jannausch, Mary L

    2017-09-01

    There are many different nerve conduction study (NCS) techniques to study the superficial fibular sensory nerve (SFSN). We present reference distal latency values and comparative data regarding 4 different NCS for the SFSN. Four different NCS techniques, Spartan technique, Izzo techniques (medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches), and Daube technique, were performed on (114) healthy volunteers. A total of 108 subjects with 164 legs were included. The mean latency of the Spartan technique was longest (3.9 ± 0.3 ms) while the Daube technique was the shortest (3.6 ± 0.7 ms). The mean amplitude of the Daube technique displayed the highest (15.2 ± 8.2 μV) with the Spartan technique having the lowest (8.7 ± 4.2 μV). Among the absent sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs), the Spartan technique was absent only twice (1.2%) and the Izzo Medial technique was absent more than the other techniques (2.9%). All 4 techniques were reliable methods for obtaining the superficial fibular nerve SNAP, present in 95% of individuals. Muscle Nerve 56: 458-462, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Generación de superficies curvas utilizando el programa CADET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recuero, Alfonso

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an extension to the CADET program, for the perspective drawing of 3— dimensional objects, is described. By means of this extension playing contours can be defined in their plane, which can subsequently be used in the generation of complex primitives. This contours may define the meridian curve of surfaces of revolution, the directive curve of conical or cilindrical surfaces, the borders of complicate plane elements, etc. The listings of the subroutines, written in HP-BASIC, are included together with a comprehensive explanation of how to use it in generating a complet object.

    En el presente trabajo se muestra una extensión del programa CADET, para el dibujo de perspectivas de objetos tridimensionales, mediante la cual es posible generar contornos planos descritos en su propio plano y que posteriormente sirven de base en la definición de primitivas complejas. Estos contornos pueden representar las meridianas de superficies de revolución, la directriz de superficies cilíndricas o cónicas, los bordes de elementos planos complicados, etc. Se incluyen los listados en HP-BASIC de las subrutinas de generación y dibujo de estos contornos, así como una descripción detallada de su utilización con un objeto completo.

  2. Modification of a Superficial X-Ray Therapy Machine for Rectal Contact Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barish, Robert J.; Donohue, Karen Episcopia

    2015-01-15

    X-ray therapy of superficial rectal cancers using a hand-held 50 kV contact unit (Philips RT-50) in a technique first described by Papillon had reached a point of widening clinical acceptability when the manufacturer of this equipment discontinued its production. To pursue this endocavitary approach to rectal therapy, technical modifications have to be made to conventional superficial x-ray therapy machines. Advantages over the original Papillon method include remote viewing of the lesion through the proctoscopic cone and a lower radiation exposure for the operator. We have evaluated a Bucky Combination Therapy Unit under conditions in which the operating voltage (65 kV), target skin distance (23.6 cm), and added filtration (0.39 mm Al) were selected in order to match as closely as possible the beam penetration characteristics of the “standard” (Papillon) technique. With this equipment, the thermal characteristics of the tube anode and housing limit the amount of radiation that can be delivered before a “rest period” for the machine is needed. In practice, 3 minutes of irradiation at an exposure rate of 500 R/min can be performed followed by an interval of 3 minutes before irradiation can be resumed.

  3. Three-year results after directional atherectomy of calcified stenotic lesions of the superficial femoral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minko, P; Buecker, A; Jaeger, S; Katoh, M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the 3-year outcome of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and heavily calcified stenotic lesions of the superficial femoral artery after directional atherectomy. Fifty-three patients (mean age 67 ± 10 years; 18 females, 35 males, TASC B and C, mean lesion length 7.9 ± 3.5 cm) with PAD (Rutherford 2-6) were enrolled into this prospective monocentric study. In total, 59 calcified lesions of the superficial femoral artery were treated with the Silverhawk atherectomy device (Covidien, Plymouth, MN, USA). Patients were followed-up for 36 months with a 6-month interval to perform clinical re-evaluation, including measurement of maximum walking distance and ankle-brachial index (ABI) as well as duplex-sonography. The primary success rate of the procedure was 92 %. In five cases (8 %), additional balloon-PTA and/or stent-PTA was necessary. Procedure-related embolization occurred in seven cases (12 %), which were all successfully treated by aspiration. The primary patency rate after 3 years was 55 %. Median Rutherford score decreased significantly from 5 to 0 after 36 months (p atherectomy was successfully applied to decrease the plaque burden. Results after 3 years showed a significant decrease of Rutherford score with persistent improvement of ABI and reasonable patency rate.

  4. Pediatric superficial scald burns--reassessment of our follow-up protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egro, Francesco M; O'Neill, Jennifer K; Briard, Robert; Cubison, Tania C S; Kay, Alan R; Estela, Catalina M; Burge, Timothy S

    2010-01-01

    The most common pediatric burn injury is a superficial scald. The current follow-up protocol for such burns includes review of the patient at 2 weeks postinjury and then 2 months later. The authors decided to review the protocol to assess the need for this second follow-up. A retrospective study reviewed the case notes of patients younger than 16 years at the time of their injury presenting with a scald over 5% TBSA. The progress of healing and scar development up to 5 years follow-up was assessed. This study showed that scalds healing within 2 weeks following injury rarely became hypertrophic. A prospective study was performed over a 10-month period. All children who suffered a superficial partial-thickness scald injury were included. At the 2-week appointment, the need for further follow-up was predicted. The accuracy of this prediction was assessed 2 months later. This study showed that an experienced member of the burns team could reliably predict at 2-week appointment those children who could be safely discharged with no subsequent need for scar management. This study suggests that it will be safe to modify the follow-up protocol, reducing the number of clinic attendances.

  5. Imaging Features of Superficial and Deep Fibromatoses in the Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Walker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fibromatoses are a group of benign fibroblastic proliferations that vary from benign to intermediate in biological behavior. This article will discuss imaging characteristics and patient demographics of the adult type superficial (fascial and deep (musculoaponeurotic fibromatoses. The imaging appearance of these lesions can be characteristic (particularly when using magnetic resonance imaging. Palmar fibromatosis demonstrates multiple nodular or band-like soft tissue masses arising from the proximal palmar aponeurosis and extending along the subcutaneous tissues of the finger in parallel to the flexor tendons. T1 and T2-weighted signal intensity can vary from low (higher collagen to intermediate (higher cellularity, similar to the other fibromatoses. Plantar fibromatosis manifests as superficial lesions along the deep plantar aponeurosis, which typically blend with the adjacent plantar musculature. Linear tails of extension (“fascial tail sign” along the aponeurosis are frequent. Extraabdominal and abdominal wall fibromatosis often appear as a heterogeneous lesion with low signal intensity bands on all pulse sequences and linear fascial extensions (“fascial tail” sign with MR imaging. Mesenteric fibromatosis usually demonstrates a soft tissue density on CT with radiating strands projecting into the adjacent mesenteric fat. When imaging is combined with patient demographics, a diagnosis can frequently be obtained.

  6. Emotional words can be embodied or disembodied: the role of superficial vs. deep types of processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, Ensie; Blanchette, Isabelle; Ansaldo, Ana I.; Ghassemzadeh, Habib; Joanette, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Emotional words are processed rapidly and automatically in the left hemisphere (LH) and slowly, with the involvement of attention, in the right hemisphere (RH). This review aims to find the reason for this difference and suggests that emotional words can be processed superficially or deeply due to the involvement of the linguistic and imagery systems, respectively. During superficial processing, emotional words likely make connections only with semantically associated words in the LH. This part of the process is automatic and may be sufficient for the purpose of language processing. Deep processing, in contrast, seems to involve conceptual information and imagery of a word’s perceptual and emotional properties using autobiographical memory contents. Imagery and the involvement of autobiographical memory likely differentiate between emotional and neutral word processing and explain the salient role of the RH in emotional word processing. It is concluded that the level of emotional word processing in the RH should be deeper than in the LH and, thus, it is conceivable that the slow mode of processing adds certain qualities to the output. PMID:26217288

  7. Superficial Spreading Melanoma „Slumbered“ Behind the Shadow of Onychomycosis

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    Trayanova E.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of cutaneous cancer. Due to the continuously increasing rate of newly detected cases each year and because of its particular low survival rate, the scientific interest in this type of neoplasia is constantly growing. Sun exposure is identified as the major etiologic factor for malignant transformation of the melanocytes. According to the WHO, malignant melanoma is divided into four main groups, as the superficial spreading form is defined as the most “gentle” among them. The name of this subspecies does not have to “drowse” the attention of dermatologists considering the possible metastasic risk, even at a later stage. Due to lack of subjective complaints, patients do not seek active consultation on this occasion, as this type of lesions often remain missed within the clinical examination. Early diagnosis, however, as well as early surgical removal is the key to increasing the survival rate of the patients. We present a case of a 88 year-old female patient consulted with dermatologist on occasion of severe onychomycosis, as a pigment lesion on the anterior surface of the right leg. Clinically and dermatoscopically suspected superficial spreading melanoma was detected within the examination.

  8. LIBS, Raman spectroscopy, and optical microscopy analyses of superficial encrustations on ancient tesserae in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkowska, Anna; Chmielewski, Krzysztof; Skrzyczanowski, Wojciech; Mularczyk-Oliwa, Monika; Ostrowski, Roman; Strzelec, Marek

    2017-07-01

    The aim of research was determination of composition and nature of superficial deposits, cumulated at the selected mosaic's tesserae from Lebanon. Selected were three series of objects from different locations, namely from the seaside and mountain archaeological sites as well as from the mosaics exposed in the city center. Analyzed were stone and ceramic tesserae. The selection of objects was dictated by wide diversification of factors influencing the state of preservation and composition of deposits in given location. Investigations were performed including LIBS, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and optical 3D microscopy. The experimental results included composition and kind of deposit at the tesserae surfaces, and composition of tesserae itself. Compounds in the superficial deposits were identified. Confirmed was occurrence of different encrustations in dependence on geographic localization of a given sample. The interpretation of results was supported by multivariate statistical techniques, especially by the factor analysis. Performed analyses constitute the pioneer realization in terms of determination of deposits composition at the surface of mosaics from the Lebanon territory.

  9. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, A; Cobb, M A; Bond, R

    2011-09-03

    The clinical and antibacterial efficacy of two shampoos used as a sole antibacterial treatment in dogs with superficial pyoderma were investigated and compared. In a randomised, partially blinded study, a 3 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate shampoo (Chlorhex 3; Leo Animal Health) was compared against a 2.5 per cent benzoyl peroxide shampoo (Paxcutol; Virbac) in 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma. Dogs were washed two to three times weekly with a 10-minute contact time over 21 days. Clinical scores and bacterial counts were assessed on days 1, 8 and 22 and compared within and between treatment groups; overall response was assessed at the end of the study. Twenty dogs completed the study; 15 (68.2 per cent) showed an overall clinical improvement and the clinical signs resolved in three chlorhexidine-treated dogs. In the chlorhexidine-treated group, scores for papules/pustules (P<0.001), investigator-assessed pruritus (P=0.003), total bacterial counts (P=0.003) and counts for coagulase-positive staphylococci (P=0.003) were reduced after three weeks. Scores and bacterial counts did not vary significantly in the benzoyl peroxide-treated group.

  10. FDTD simulations to assess the performance of CFMA-434 applicators for superficial hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, H Petra; De Greef, Martijn; Correia, Davi; Vörding, Paul J Zum Vörde Sive; Van Stam, Gerard; Gelvich, Edward A; Bel, Arjan; Crezee, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Contact flexible microstrip applicators (CFMA), operating at 434 MHz, are applied at the Academic Medical Center (AMC) for superficial hyperthermia (e.g. chest wall recurrences and melanoma). This paper investigates the performance of CFMA, evaluating the stability of the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution, effective heating depth (EHD) and effective field size (EFS) under different conditions. Simulations were performed using finite differences and were compared to existing measurement data, performed using a rectangular phantom with a superficial fat-equivalent layer of 1 cm and filled with saline solution. The electrode plates of the applicators measure approximately 7 x 20, 29 x 21 and 20 x 29 cm(2). Bolus thickness varied between 1 and 2 cm. The impact of the presence of possible air layers between the rubber frame and the electrodes on the SAR distribution was investigated. The EHD was approximately 1.4 cm and the EFS ranged between approximately 60 and approximately 300 cm(2), depending on the applicator type. Both measurements and simulations showed a split-up of the SAR focus with a 2 cm water bolus. The extent and location of air layers has a strong influence on the shape and size of the iso-SAR contours with a value higher than 50%, but the impact on EFS and EHD is limited. Simulations, confirmed by measurements, showed that the presence of air between the rubber and the electrodes changes the iso-SAR contours, but the impact on the EFS and EHD is limited.

  11. Superficial Dsg2 Expression Limits Epidermal Blister Formation Mediated by Pemphigus Foliaceus Antibodies and Exfoliative Toxins

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    Donna Brennan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cell adhesion mediated by desmosomes is crucial for maintaining proper epidermal structure and function, as evidenced by several severe and potentially fatal skin disorders involving impairment of desmosomal proteins. Pemphigus foliaceus (PF and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS are subcorneal blistering diseases resulting from loss of function of the desmosomal cadherin, desmoglein 1 (Dsg1. To further study the pathomechanism of these diseases and to assess the adhesive properties of Dsg2, we employed a recently established transgenic (Tg mouse model expressing Dsg2 in the superficial epidermis. Neonatal Tg and wild type (WT mice were injected with purified ETA or PF Ig. We showed that ectopic expression of Dsg2 reduced the extent of blister formation in response to both ETA and PF Ig. In response to PF Ig, we observed either a dramatic loss or a reorganization of Dsg1-α, Dsg1-β, and, to a lesser extent, Dsg1-γ, in WT mice. The Inv-Dsg2 Tg mice showed enhanced retention of Dsg1 at the cell-cell border. Collectively, our data support the role for Dsg2 in cell adhesion and suggest that ectopic superficial expression of Dsg2 can increase membrane preservation of Dsg1 and limit epidermal blister formation mediated by PF antibodies and exfoliative toxins.

  12. The effects of kinesio taping on the color intensity of superficial skin hematomas: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercelli, Stefano; Colombo, Claudio; Tolosa, Francesca; Moriondo, Andrea; Bravini, Elisabetta; Ferriero, Giorgio; Francesco, Sartorio

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the effects of kinesio taping (KT) -applied with three different strains that induced or not the formation of skin creases (called convolutions)- on color intensity of post-surgical superficial hematomas. Single-blind paired study. Rehabilitation clinic. A convenience sample of 13 inpatients with post-surgical superficial hematomas. The tape was applied for 24 consecutive hours. Three tails of KT were randomly applied with different degrees of strain: none (SN); light (SL); and full longitudinal stretch (SF). We expected to obtain correct formation of convolutions with SL, some convolutions with SN, and no convolutions with SF. The change in color intensity of hematomas, measured by means of polar coordinates CIE L*a*b* using a validated and standardized digital images system. Applying KT to hematomas did not significantly change the color intensity in the central area under the tape (p > 0.05). There was a significant treatment effect (p  0.05). The changes observed along the edges of the tape could be related to the formation of a pressure gradient between the KT and the adjacent area, but were not dependent on the formation of skin convolutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydric properties of some iberian ornamental granites with different superficial finishes: a petrophysical interpretation

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    Rojo, A.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Some physical properties of three ornamental granites with different superficial finishes (polished, sawn and flamed were quantified by standard tests. These granites are commercially known as Rosa Porrino, Rosavel and Blanco Alcazar. The determined properties were: density, open porosity, water absorption, capillarity, evaporation, vapour absorption and water vapour permeability. The values of the hydric properties in the studied granites fundamentally depended on their textural characteristics, mainly grain size, micro cracking network and open porosity, and, to a lesser extent, on their superficial finish.

    El estudio analiza las diferencias en el comportamiento hídrico de tres granitos con diferentes acabados superficiales: pulido, corte de sierra y chorro de fuego. Estos granitos se comercializan con los nombres de Rosa Porrino, Rosavel y Blanco Alcázar. Las propiedades determinadas han sido: densidad, porosidad abierta, absorción libre de agua, absorción de vapor de agua, absorción de agua por capilaridad, evaporación y permeabilidad al vapor de agua. Los valores de las propiedades hídricas determinadas dependen fundamentalmente de las características texturales: tamaño de grano, microfisuras y porosidad abierta y, en menor medida, de los acabados superficiales.

  14. El tratamiento de las superficies pétreas en Venecia. Algunos casos de estudio

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    Alessandra Quendolo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio comparado de las superficies pétreas de tres edificios venecianos, la Biblioteca de Sansovino, el Palacio Corner y el Arco Foscari, reúne interés y novedad ya que demuestra que las superficies ennegrecidas no sólo representan la presencia de fenómenos de degradación como costra negra y depósitos sino que, a menudo, corresponden a patinados intencionales aplicados para proteger la piedra o tratamientos de entonación del color realizados en posteriores intervenciones. El artículo supone una doble aportación a la cultura de la conservación: la existencia de una tradición de los tratamientos de protección y conservación de los paramentos de piedra y la necesidad actual de conservar la presencia de estos patinados intencionales.

  15. Formulation, characterization and clinical evaluation of propranolol hydrochloride gel for transdermal treatment of superficial infantile hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenhu; He, Shiying; Yang, Yijun; Jian, Dan; Chen, Xiang; Ding, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to formulate and characterize propranolol hydrochloride (PPL · HCl) gel, and to evaluate the efficacy of this formulation in transdermal treatment for superficial infantile hemangioma (IH). The transdermal PPL · HCl gel was prepared by a direct swelling method, which chose hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as the matrix and used terpenes plus alcohols as permeation enhancer. Permeation studies of PPL · HCl were carried out with modified Franz diffusion cells through piglet skin. Our results pointed to that among all studied permeation enhancers, farnesol plus isopropanol was the most effective combination (Q24, 6027.4 ± 563.1 μg/cm(2), ER, 6.8), which was significantly higher than that of control gel (p homemade PPL · HCl oral solution as a control. Clinical studies also confirmed the excellent therapeutic response and few side effects of the PPL · HCl gel. These results suggest that transdermal application of the PPL · HCl gel is an effective and safe formulation in treating superficial IH.

  16. Expression of AQP3 gene in chronic atrophic and chronic superficial gastritis patients

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    Shijun Zhang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies about aquaporin 3 (AQP3 in the gastrointestinal tract were carried out on both in vivo and in vitro. The role of AQP3-mediated water transport in human gastrointestinal tract is still unclear. Our aim in this study was to explore the expression of AQP3 gene in chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG atients and to determine its possible function in the development of gastritis.
    METHODS: Twenty-two outpatients diagnosed as CSG and 12 outpatients diagnosed as CAG were selected randomly. Ten cases of healthy individuals were selected as normal control group. In all cases, AQP3 gene expression of gastric mucosa was detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR.
    RESULTS: The AQP3 gene expression was significantly higher in gastric mucosa of CSG and healthy individuals than that in CAG (P<0.01. However, there was no significant difference in the AQP3 gene expression between helicobacter pylori positive patients and helicobacter pylori negative patients (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: AQP3 expression might play certain role in the occurrence and development of gastritis.
    KEY WORDS: Aquaporin 3, chronic superficial gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis.

  17. A randomized clinical trial of hyperthermia and radiation versus radiation alone for superficially located cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, Sunao; Tsukiyama, Iwao; Watanabe, Shaw

    1989-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was performed in order to evaluate the effect of combined hyperthermia and radiation for superficially located tumors. Ten institutions participated in this study and 92 evaluable patients were entered from September 1985 to March 1987 (44 patients for radiation plus hyperthermia and 48 for radiation only). Superficially located tumors, more than 3x3 cm in diameter, regardless of whether they were primary or metastatic, and of their histology, were included in the study. Radiotherapy was performed by the conventional fractionation method (2 Gyx5/week). Hyperthermia was conducted once a week. There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding age, sex, the distribution of tumors and treatment parameters. The complete response (CR) and partial response (PR) rate for the hyperthermia plus radiation group was 81.8%, while the rate for the radiation alone group was 62.6% (p<0.05). Six factors were selected for analysis of the above effect by a multiple logistic model. Sex contributed the most (p=0.001), then the site of the tumor (p=0.016) and the method of treatment (p=0.023). Sex and the site influenced the results. Age, irradiation dose and frequency and duration of heating were not significant factors for response to treatment. (author)

  18. Superficial inflammatory and primary neoplastic lymphadenopathy: diagnostic accuracy of power-doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magarelli, N.; Guglielmi, G.; Savastano, M.; Toro, V.; Sborgia, M.; Fioritoni, G.; Mattei, P.A.; Steinbach, L.; Bonomo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of a cut-off of the resistive index of 0.5 for the differentiation between inflammatory and neoplastic primary lymphadenopathies. Subjects and methods: We measured the resistive index of superficial enlarged lymph nodes in a total of 50 patients (29 males and 21 females; age range 12-72 years, mean age 41.6 year) using an ATL 5000 HDI. A resistive index greater than or equal to 0.5 indicated an inflammatory lymph node and a resistive index <0.5 was consistent with neoplastic primary lymphadenopathies. The gold standard was either surgical biopsy or lymph-node reduction seen with ultrasound examination after antibiotic therapy. Results: The sensitivity of the resistive index for distinguishing inflammatory from neoplastic lymphadenopathy was 84.6%, the specificity 100% and the diagnostic accuracy 95.7% (P<0.001, statistically significant). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that power-Doppler using a resistive index cut-off of 0.5 was a valid technique for distinguising between inflammatory and primary neoplastic lymph nodes in patients with superficial lymphadenopathies

  19. Evaluation of the litcit software for thermal simulation of superficial lasers such as hair removal lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkavand A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : In this study, we evaluate LITCIT software for its application as a thermal simulation software for superficial hair removal laser systems. Materials and Methods: Two articles were used as our references. Complete information regarding the tissues, such as optical/thermal properties and geometrical modeling and also the laser systems such as wavelength, spot size, pulse duration and fluence were extracted from these texts. Then, this information regarding the tissues and systems was entered into the LITCIT simulation software. Further, we ran the program and saved the results. Finally, we compared our results with the results in references and evaluated the. Results : Output results of the LITCIT show that they are consistent with the results of references that were calculated with a different thermal modeling. Such a small average error shows the accuracy of the software for simulation and calculating the temperature. Conclusions : This simulating software has a good ability to be used as a treatment planning software for superficial lasers. Thus, it can be used for the optimization of treatment parameters and protocols.

  20. Superficial dorsal horn neurons with double spike activity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Dickenson, Anthony H; Condés-Lara, Miguel

    2007-05-29

    Superficial dorsal horn neurons promote the transfer of nociceptive information from the periphery to supraspinal structures. The membrane and discharge properties of spinal cord neurons can alter the reliability of peripheral signals. In this paper, we analyze the location and response properties of a particular class of dorsal horn neurons that exhibits double spike discharge with a very short interspike interval (2.01+/-0.11 ms). These neurons receive nociceptive C-fiber input and are located in laminae I-II. Double spikes are generated spontaneously or by depolarizing current injection (interval of 2.37+/-0.22). Cells presenting double spike (interval 2.28+/-0.11) increased the firing rate by electrical noxious stimulation, as well as, in the first minutes after carrageenan injection into their receptive field. Carrageenan is a polysaccharide soluble in water and it is used for producing an experimental model of semi-chronic pain. In the present study carrageenan also produces an increase in the interval between double spikes and then, reduced their occurrence after 5-10 min. The results suggest that double spikes are due to intrinsic membrane properties and that their frequency is related to C-fiber nociceptive activity. The present work shows evidence that double spikes in superficial spinal cord neurones are related to the nociceptive stimulation, and they are possibly part of an acute pain-control mechanism.