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Sample records for superficial tangential zone

  1. Contact models of repaired articular surfaces: influence of loading conditions and the superficial tangential zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John R; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2011-07-01

    The superficial tangential zone (STZ) plays a significant role in normal articular cartilage's ability to support loads and retain fluids. To date, tissue engineering efforts have not replicated normal STZ function in cartilage repairs. This finite element study examined the STZ's role in normal and repaired articular surfaces under different contact conditions. Contact area and pressure distributions were allowed to change with time, tension-compression nonlinearity modeled collagen behavior in the STZ, and nonlinear geometry was incorporated to accommodate finite deformation. Responses to loading via impermeable and permeable rigid surfaces were compared to loading via normal cartilage, a more physiologic condition, anticipating the two rigid loading surfaces would bracket that of normal. For models loaded by normal cartilage, an STZ placed over the inferior repair region reduced the short-term axial compression of the articular surface by 15%, when compared to a repair without an STZ. Covering the repair with a normal STZ shifted the flow patterns and strain levels back toward that of normal cartilage. Additionally, reductions in von Mises stress (21%) and an increase in fluid pressure (13%) occurred in repair tissue under the STZ. This continues to show that STZ properties of sufficient quality are likely critical for the survival of transplanted constructs in vivo. However, response to loading via normal cartilage did not always fall within ranges predicted by the rigid surfaces. Use of more physiologic contact models is recommended for more accurate investigations into properties critical to the success of repair tissues.

  2. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Wataru; Fujie, Hiromichi; Moriguchi, Yu; Nansai, Ryosuke; Shimomura, Kazunori; Hart, David A; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakamura, Norimasa

    2012-09-28

    The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC) derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-mediated tissue was more fibrocartilage-like, in contrast to the middle or deep zones that were more hyaline cartilage-like with Safranin O staining. Histological scoring of the TEC-mediated tissue was significantly lower in the superficial zone than in the middle and deep zones. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thick tangential bundle of collagen fibres at the most superficial layer of uninjured cartilage, while no corresponding structure was detected at the surface of TEC-mediated tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PRG4 was localised in the superficial area of uninjured cartilage, as well as the TEC-mediated tissue. Friction testing showed that the lubrication properties of the two tissues was similar, however, micro-indentation analysis revealed that the surface stiffness of the TEC-repair tissue was significantly lower than that of uninjured cartilage. Permeability testing indicated that the TEC-mediated tissue exhibited lower water retaining capacity than did uninjured cartilage, specifically at the superficial zone. Thus, TEC-mediated tissue exhibited compromised mechanical properties at the superficial zone, properties which need improvement in the future for maintenance of long term repair cartilage integrity.

  3. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Ando

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-mediated tissue was more fibrocartilage-like, in contrast to the middle or deep zones that were more hyaline cartilage-like with Safranin O staining. Histological scoring of the TEC-mediated tissue was significantly lower in the superficial zone than in the middle and deep zones. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thick tangential bundle of collagen fibres at the most superficial layer of uninjured cartilage, while no corresponding structure was detected at the surface of TEC-mediated tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PRG4 was localised in the superficial area of uninjured cartilage, as well as the TEC-mediated tissue. Friction testing showed that the lubrication properties of the two tissues was similar, however, micro-indentation analysis revealed that the surface stiffness of the TEC-repair tissue was significantly lower than that of uninjured cartilage. Permeability testing indicated that the TEC-mediated tissue exhibited lower water retaining capacity than did uninjured cartilage, specifically at the superficial zone. Thus, TEC-mediated tissue exhibited compromised mechanical properties at the superficial zone, properties which need improvement in the future for maintenance of long term repair cartilage integrity.

  4. Stimulation of Superficial Zone Protein/Lubricin/PRG4 by Transforming Growth Factor-β in Superficial Zone Articular Chondrocytes and Modulation by Glycosaminoglycans.

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    Cuellar, Araceli; Reddi, A Hari

    2015-07-01

    Superficial zone protein (SZP), also known as lubricin and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), plays an important role in the boundary lubrication of articular cartilage and is regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Here, we evaluate the role of cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during TGF-β1 stimulation of SZP/lubricin/PRG4 in superficial zone articular chondrocytes. We utilized primary monolayer superficial zone articular chondrocyte cultures and treated them with various concentrations of TGF-β1, in the presence or absence of heparan sulfate (HS), heparin, and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The cell surface GAGs were removed by pretreatment with either heparinase I or chondroitinase-ABC before TGF-β1 stimulation. Accumulation of SZP/lubricin/PRG4 in the culture medium in response to stimulation with TGF-β1 and various exogenous GAGs was demonstrated by immunoblotting and quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We show that TGF-β1 and exogenous HS enhanced SZP accumulation of superficial zone chondrocytes in the presence of surface GAGs. At the dose of 1 ng/mL of TGF-β1, the presence of exogenous heparin inhibited SZP accumulation whereas the presence of exogenous CS stimulated SZP accumulation in the culture medium. Enzymatic depletion of GAGs on the surface of superficial zone chondrocytes enhanced the ability of TGF-β1 to stimulate SZP accumulation in the presence of both exogenous heparin and CS. Collectively, these results suggest that GAGs at the surface of superficial zone articular chondrocytes influence the response to TGF-β1 and exogenous GAGs to stimulate SZP accumulation. Cell surface GAGs modulate superficial zone chondrocytes' response to TGF-β1 and exogenous HS.

  5. Excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape establish neuronal polarity by forming a tangentially oriented axon in the intermediate zone.

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    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Yamauchi, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The formation of axon-dendrite polarity is crucial for neuron to make the proper information flow within the brain. Although the processes of neuronal polarity formation have been extensively studied using neurons in dissociated culture, the corresponding developmental processes in vivo are still unclear. Here, we illuminate the initial steps of morphological polarization of excitatory cortical neurons in situ, by sparsely labeling their neuroepithelial progenitors using in utero electroporation and then examining their neuronal progeny in brain sections and in slice cultures. Morphological analysis showed that an axon-like long tangential process formed in progeny cells in the intermediate zone (IZ). Time-lapse imaging analysis using slice culture revealed that progeny cells with multipolar shape, after alternately extending and retracting their short processes for several hours, suddenly elongated a long process tangentially. These cells then transformed into a bipolar shape, extending a pia-directed leading process, and migrated radially leaving the tangential process behind, which gave rise to an "L-shaped" axon. Our findings suggest that neuronal polarity in these cells is established de novo from a nonpolarized stage in vivo and indicate that excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape in the IZ initiate axon outgrowth before radial migration into the cortical plate.

  6. Effects of immobilization on thickness of superficial zone of articular cartilage of patella in rats

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    Khadija Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Each segment of superficial zone behaves differentially on immobilization and remobilization. Perhaps a much longer duration of remobilization is required to reverse changes of immobilization in articular cartilage and plays a significant role in knee joint movements.

  7. Roles of the Fibrous Superficial Zone in the Mechanical Behavior of TMJ Condylar Cartilage.

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    Ruggiero, Leonardo; Zimmerman, Brandon K; Park, Miri; Han, Lin; Wang, Liyun; Burris, David L; Lu, X Lucas

    2015-11-01

    In temporomandibular joints (TMJs), the cartilage on the condylar head displays a unique ultrastructure with a dense layer of type I collagen in the superficial zone, different from hyaline cartilage in other joints. This study aims to elucidate the roles of this fibrous zone in the mechanical behaviors, particularly lubrication, of TMJ under physiological loading regimes. Mechanical tests on porcine condylar cartilage demonstrated that the superficial and middle-deep zones exhibit tension-compression nonlinearity. The tensile and compressive moduli of the superficial zone are 30.73 ± 12.97 and 0.028 ± 0.016 MPa, respectively, while those for the middle-deep zone are 2.43 ± 1.75 and 0.14 ± 0.09 MPa. A nonlinear finite element model of condylar cartilage was built to simulate sliding of a spherical probe over the articular surface. The presence of the superficial zone significantly promoted interstitial fluid pressurization (IFP) inside the loaded cartilage and reduced the friction force on the surface, compared to the case without the superficial zone. Finite element simulations showed that IFP depends on sliding speed but not normal load, which matches the experimental results. This study revealed the presence of the fibrous zone can significantly reduce the deformation of condylar cartilage under compression and the friction force on its surface during sliding.

  8. Mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from synovium and infrapatellar fat pad as a source for superficial zone cartilage tissue engineering: analysis of superficial zone protein/lubricin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yang; Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Reddi, A Hari

    2010-01-01

    Superficial zone protein (SZP) is a boundary lubricant of articular cartilage in joints. As SZP at the surface of articular cartilage plays an important role in the normal function of synovial joints, the localization of SZP-secreting cells at the surface of tissue-engineered cartilage is prerequisite. The aim of this study was to identify suitable progenitor cell sources for tissue engineering of superficial zone cartilage. We investigated whether mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) from synovium and infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have the potential for secretion of SZP after chondrogenic differentiation in an aggregate pellet culture system. SZP was immunolocalized in pellets from synovium-MPCs and IFP-MPCs. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of SZP demonstrated that chondrogenically differentiated synovium-MPC and IFP-MPC pellets secreted SZP into media. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed significant upregulation of SZP mRNA in synovium-MPC and IFP-MPC pellets after chondrogenic differentiation. The synovium-MPCs demonstrated the higher colony-forming, proliferative, and chondrogenic potential, and exhibited greater SZP secretion after chondrogenic induction compared with IFP-MPCs. In conclusion, both synovium and IFP are promising cell sources for tissue engineering of superficial zone cartilage.

  9. Microcosmic analysis of ductile shearing zones of coal seams of brittle deformation domain in superficial lithosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU; Yiwen; WANG; Guiliang; JIANG; Bo; HOU; Quanlin

    2004-01-01

    The ductile shearing zones of coal seams in a brittle deformation domain in superficial lithosphere are put forward based on the study on bedding shearing and ductile rheology of coal seams. The macrocosmic and microcosmic characteristics include wrinkle fold, mymonitized zones and ductile planar structure of coal seams, etc., while the microcosmic characteristics may also include different optic-axis fabrics and the anisotropy of vitrinite reflectance as well as the change of chemical structure and organic geochemistry components. The forming mechanism is analyzed and the strain environment of ductile shearing zones of coal seams discussed. The result indicates that, in the superficial brittle deformation domain, the coal seams are easy to be deformed, resulting in not only brittle deformation but also ductile shearing deformation under the action of force. Because of simple shearing stress, the interlayer gliding or ductile rheology may take place between coal seams and wall rocks. Therefore, many ductile shearing zones come into being in superficial lithosphere (<5 km). The research on ductile shearing zone of brittle deformation domain in superficial lithosphere is significant not only theoretically for the study of ductile shearing and ductile rheology of the lithosphere but also practically for the structural movement of coal seams, the formation and accumulation of coal-bed methane, and the prevention and harness of gas burst in coal mine.

  10. Vulnerability of the Superficial Zone of Immature Articular Cartilage to Compressive Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolauffs, R.; Muehleman, C; Li, J; Kurz, B; Kuettner, K; Frank, E; Grodzinsky, A

    2010-01-01

    The zonal composition and functioning of adult articular cartilage causes depth-dependent responses to compressive injury. In immature cartilage, shear and compressive moduli as well as collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content also vary with depth. However, there is little understanding of the depth-dependent damage caused by injury. Since injury to immature knee joints most often causes articular cartilage lesions, this study was undertaken to characterize the zonal dependence of biomechanical, biochemical, and matrix-associated changes caused by compressive injury. Disks from the superficial and deeper zones of bovine calves were biomechanically characterized. Injury to the disks was achieved by applying a final strain of 50% compression at 100%/second, followed by biomechanical recharacterization. Tissue compaction upon injury as well as sGAG density, sGAG loss, and biosynthesis were measured. Collagen fiber orientation and matrix damage were assessed using histology, diffraction-enhanced x-ray imaging, and texture analysis. Injured superficial zone disks showed surface disruption, tissue compaction by 20.3 {+-} 4.3% (mean {+-} SEM), and immediate biomechanical impairment that was revealed by a mean {+-} SEM decrease in dynamic stiffness to 7.1 {+-} 3.3% of the value before injury and equilibrium moduli that were below the level of detection. Tissue areas that appeared intact on histology showed clear textural alterations. Injured deeper zone disks showed collagen crimping but remained undamaged and biomechanically intact. Superficial zone disks did not lose sGAG immediately after injury, but lost 17.8 {+-} 1.4% of sGAG after 48 hours; deeper zone disks lost only 2.8 {+-} 0.3% of sGAG content. Biomechanical impairment was associated primarily with structural damage. The soft superficial zone of immature cartilage is vulnerable to compressive injury, causing superficial matrix disruption, extensive compaction, and textural alteration, which results

  11. Subsurface nitrate reduction under wetlands takes place in narrow superficial zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos Ribas, Osmar; Calderer, M.; Marti, Vicens

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the depth distribution of the Nitrate Reduction Potential (NRP) on a natural and a re-established wetland. The obtained NRP provides a valuable data of the driving factors affecting denitrification, the Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium (DNRA) process......-first order rate constant (k) from where NRPs were obtained. NR took place in a narrow superficial zone showing a dropping natural logarithmic trend along depth. The main driving factor of denitrification, besides depth, was OM. Although, DOC and LOI could not express by themselves and absolute correlation...... with NRP, high amounts of DOC ensured enough quantity and quality of labile OM for NR. Besides, high concentration of LOI but a scarce abundance of DOC failed to drive NR. DNRA was only important in superficial samples with high contents of OM. Lastly, the high NRP of the re-established wetland confirms...

  12. Analysis of the unilateral contact problem for biphasic cartilage layers with an elliptic contact zone and accounting for the tangential displacements

    CERN Document Server

    Koroleva, A A; Mishuris, G S

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional unilateral contact problem for articular cartilage layers attached to subchondral bones shaped as elliptic paraboloids is considered in the framework of the biphasic cartilage model. The main novelty of the study is in accounting not only for the normal (vertical), but also for tangential vertical (horisontal) displacements of the contacting surfaces. Exact general relationships have been established between the contact approach and some integral characteristics of the contact pressure, including the contact force. Asymptotic representations for the contact pressure integral characteristics are obtained in terms of the contact approach and some integral characteristics of the contact zone. The main result is represented by the first-order approximation problem.

  13. Regulation of lubricin/superficial zone protein by Wnt signalling in bovine synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Atsuyuki; Iwakura, Takashi; Hari Reddi, A

    2016-02-01

    Lubricin, homologous to superficial zone protein (SZP), functions as a boundary lubricant in articular cartilage and plays an essential role in the maintenance of joint function and homeostasis. Wnt signalling plays a key role in joint development, including synovial joint formation, and several Wnt proteins are expressed in the synovium and articular cartilage in arthritis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Wnt signalling on SZP accumulation in synoviocytes. Isolated synoviocytes from bovine knee joints were cultured with Wnt proteins (Wnt-3a and Wnt-5a) and antagonists or agonists of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway or Wnt-Ca(2+) pathway in serum-free chemically defined medium. SZP accumulation in the culture medium was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Wnt-3a suppressed SZP accumulation via a Wnt-β-catenin-dependent pathway. In contrast, Wnt-5a stimulated SZP accumulation via a β-catenin independent pathway. The present investigation provides novel insights into the role of the Wnt signalling pathways in SZP accumulation in synoviocytes and their roles in the homeostasis of normal joints.

  14. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, W.; FUJIE, H; Moriguchi, Y.; Nansai, R.; Shimomura, K.; DA Hart; Yoshikawa, H; Nakamura, N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC) derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-...

  15. Hypotonic challenge modulates cell volumes differently in the superficial zone of intact articular cartilage and cartilage explant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Siru M; Lammi, Mikko J; Saarakkala, Simo; Koistinen, Arto; Korhonen, Rami K

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sample preparation on the biomechanical behaviour of chondrocytes. We compared the volumetric and dimensional changes of chondrocytes in the superficial zone (SZ) of intact articular cartilage and cartilage explant before and after a hypotonic challenge. Calcein-AM labelled SZ chondrocytes were imaged with confocal laser scanning microscopy through intact cartilage surfaces and through cut surfaces of cartilage explants. In order to clarify the effect of tissue composition on cell volume changes, Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy was used for estimating the proteoglycan and collagen contents of the samples. In the isotonic medium (300 mOsm), there was a significant difference (p integrity of the mechanical environment of chondrocytes.

  16. Meningeal defects alter the tangential migration of cortical interneurons in Foxc1hith/hith mice

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    Zarbalis Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tangential migration presents the primary mode of migration of cortical interneurons translocating into the cerebral cortex from subpallial domains. This migration takes place in multiple streams with the most superficial one located in the cortical marginal zone. While a number of forebrain-expressed molecules regulating this process have emerged, it remains unclear to what extent structures outside the brain, like the forebrain meninges, are involved. Results We studied a unique Foxc1 hypomorph mouse model (Foxc1hith/hith with meningeal defects and impaired tangential migration of cortical interneurons. We identified a territorial correlation between meningeal defects and disruption of interneuron migration along the adjacent marginal zone in these animals, suggesting that impaired meningeal integrity might be the primary cause for the observed migration defects. Moreover, we postulate that the meningeal factor regulating tangential migration that is affected in homozygote mutants is the chemokine Cxcl12. In addition, by using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we provide evidence that the Cxcl12 gene is a direct transcriptional target of Foxc1 in the meninges. Further, we observe migration defects of a lesser degree in Cajal-Retzius cells migrating within the cortical marginal zone, indicating a less important role for Cxcl12 in their migration. Finally, the developmental migration defects observed in Foxc1hith/hith mutants do not lead to obvious differences in interneuron distribution in the adult if compared to control animals. Conclusions Our results suggest a critical role for the forebrain meninges to promote during development the tangential migration of cortical interneurons along the cortical marginal zone and Cxcl12 as the factor responsible for this property.

  17. [Flow field test on the tangential section of polypropylene tubular membrane module annular gap in rotating linear tangential flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengduan; Chen, Wenmei; Li, Jianming; Jiang, Guangming

    2002-07-01

    A new type of polypropylene tubular membrane apparatus of rotating cross flow was designed to study experimentally the flow field characteristics of the tangential section of the membrane annular gap. The authors designed rotary linear tangential flow tubular membrane separator and its test system for the first time. Through the system, the flow field of rotary linear tangential flow with the advanced Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was tested for the first time. A lot of streamlines and vorticity maps of the tangential section of separator in different operation conditions were obtained. The velocity distribution characteristics were analyzed quantitatively: 1. At non-vortex area, no matter how the operation parameters change, the velocity near to rotary tangential flow entrance was higher than the velocity far from entrance at the same radial coordinates. At vortex area, generally the flow velocity of inner vortex was lower than the outer vortex. At the vortex center, the velocity was lowest, the tangential velocity were equal to zero generally. At the vortex center zone, the tangential velocity was less than the axial velocity. 2. Under test operations, the tangential velocity and axial velocity of vortices borders are 1-2 times of average axial velocity of membrane module annular gap. The maximum tangential velocity and axial velocity of ellipse vortices were 2-6 times of average axial velocity of membrane module annular gap. 3. The vortices that are formed on the tangential section, there existed mass transfer between inner and outer parts of fluid. Much fluid of outer vortices got into the inner ones, which was able to prevent membrane tube from particles blocking up very soon.

  18. Study of the collagen structure in the superficial zone and physiological state of articular cartilage using a 3D confocal imaging technique

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    Zheng Ming H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The collagen structure in the superficial zone of articular cartilage is critical to the tissue's durability. Early osteoarthritis is often characterized with fissures on the articular surface. This is closely related to the disruption of the collagen network. However, the traditional histology can not offer visualization of the collagen structure in articular cartilage because it uses conventional optical microscopy that does not have insufficient imaging resolution to resolve collagen from proteoglycans in hyaline articular cartilage. This study examines the 3D collagen network of articular cartilage scored from 0 to 2 in the scoring system of International Cartilage Repair Society, and aims to develop a 3D histology for assessing early osteoarthritis. Methods Articular cartilage was visually classified into five physiological groups: normal cartilage, aged cartilage, cartilage with artificial and natural surface disruption, and fibrillated. The 3D collagen matrix of the cartilage was acquired using a 3D imaging technique developed previously. Traditional histology was followed to grade the physiological status of the cartilage in the scoring system of International Cartilage Repair Society. Results Normal articular cartilage contains interwoven collagen bundles near the articular surface, approximately within the lamina splendens. However, its collagen fibres in the superficial zone orient predominantly in a direction spatially oblique to the articular surface. With age and disruption of the articular surface, the interwoven collagen bundles are gradually disappeared, and obliquely oriented collagen fibres change to align predominantly in a direction spatially perpendicular to the articular surface. Disruption of the articular surface is well related to the disappearance of the interwoven collagen bundles. Conclusion A 3D histology has been developed to supplement the traditional histology and study the subtle changes in

  19. Both superficial and deep zone articular chondrocyte subpopulations exhibit the Crabtree effect but have different basal oxygen consumption rates.

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    Heywood, Hannah K; Knight, Martin M; Lee, David A

    2010-06-01

    In the absence of in vivo measurements, the oxygen concentration within articular cartilage is calculated from the balance between cellular oxygen consumption and mass transfer. Current estimates of the oxygen tension within articular cartilage are based on oxygen consumption data from full-depth tissue samples. However, superficial and deep cell subpopulations of articular cartilage express intrinsic metabolic differences. We test the hypothesis that the subpopulations differ with respect to their intrinsic oxygen consumption rate. Chondrocytes from the full cartilage thickness demonstrate enhanced oxygen consumption when deprived of glucose, consistent with the Crabtree phenomena. Chondrocyte subpopulations differ in the prevailing availability of oxygen and glucose, which decrease with distance from the cartilage-synovial fluid interface. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the oxygen consumption of each subpopulation is modulated by nutrient availability, by examining the expression of the Crabtree effect. The deep cells had a greater oxygen consumption than the superficial cells (V(max) of 6.6 compared to 3.2 fmol/cell/h), consistent with our observations of mitochondrial volume (mean values 52.0 vs. 36.4 microm(3)/cell). Both populations expressed the Crabtree phenomena, with oxygen consumption increasing approximately 2.5-fold in response to glycolytic inhibition by glucose deprivation or 2-deoxyglucose. Over 90% of this increase was oligomycin-sensitive and thus accounted for by oxidative phosphorylation. The data contributes towards our understanding of chondrocyte energy metabolism and provides information valuable for the accurate calculation of the oxygen concentration that the cells experience in vivo. The work has further application to the optimisation of bioreactor design and engineered tissues.

  20. Superficial zone protein (lubricin) in the different tissue compartments of the knee joint: modulation by transforming growth factor beta 1 and interleukin-1 beta.

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    Lee, Sang Yang; Niikura, Takahiro; Reddi, A Hari

    2008-11-01

    Superficial-zone protein (SZP), also known as lubricin, is a key mediator of boundary lubrication and plays an important role in the functional integrity of the diarthrodial joint. The aim of this investigation was to examine the role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) on the expression of SZP in various compartments of the bovine knee joint: the superficial zone of articular cartilage, synovium, meniscus, and anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. The effects of TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta on SZP expression were examined in explants and cells from the different tissue compartments. TGF-beta1 up-regulated the expression of SZP in cultured explants, but IL-1beta down-regulated it. Quantitative analysis of secreted proteins in the medium of the cells demonstrated significant stimulation by TGF-beta1 and inhibition by IL1-beta of the accumulation of SZP protein in all four tissues. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that TGF-beta1 significantly up-regulated SZP expression and that IL-1beta down-regulated it. These results revealed the modulation of SZP expression in various compartments of the knee joint by TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta. In addition, SZP was found to be immunolocalized at the surface layer of cells in histological sections of all four tissue compartments. Collectively, results of the current study on regulation of SZP expression by TGF-beta and IL-1 help provide new insights, into tissue engineering strategies to repair and regenerate the different tissue compartments in the articular joint with optimal lubrication.

  1. The distribution of superficial zone protein (SZP)/lubricin/PRG4 and boundary mode frictional properties of the bovine diarthrodial joint.

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    Peng, Gordon; McNary, Sean M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

    2015-09-18

    The diarthrodial, knee joint is a remarkably efficient bearing system; articulating cartilage surfaces provide nearly frictionless performance with minimal wear. The low friction properties of the cartilage surfaces are due in part to the boundary lubricant, superficial zone protein (SZP); also known as lubricin or proteoglycan 4 (PRG4). In previous work, SZP localization and cartilage friction were examined across the femoral condyles. Studies in the literature have also individually investigated the other tissues that comprise the human knee and four-legged animal stifle joint, such as the meniscus or patella. However, comparisons between individual studies are limited due to the variable testing conditions employed. Friction is a system property that is dependent on the opposing articulating surface, entraining speed, and loading. A cross-comparison of the frictional properties and SZP localization across the knee/stifle joint tissues utilizing a common testing configuration is therefore needed. The objective of this investigation was to determine the friction coefficient and SZP localization of the tissues comprising the three compartments of the bovine stifle joint: patella, patellofemoral groove, femoral condyles, meniscus, tibial plateau, and anterior cruciate ligament. The boundary mode coefficient of friction was greater in tissues of the patellofemoral compartment than the lateral and medial tibiofemoral compartments. SZP immunolocalization followed this trend with reduced depth of staining and intensity in the patella and patellofemoral groove compared to the femoral condyles and tibial plateau. These results illustrate the important role of SZP in reducing friction in the tissues and compartments of the knee/stifle joint.

  2. Retinal Changes Induced by Epiretinal Tangential Forces

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    Mario R. Romano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of forces are active in vitreoretinal traction diseases: tangential and anterior-posterior forces. However, tangential forces are less characterized and classified in literature compared to the anterior-posterior ones. Tangential epiretinal forces are mainly due to anomalous posterior vitreous detachment (PVD, vitreoschisis, vitreopapillary adhesion (VPA, and epiretinal membranes (ERMs. Anomalous PVD plays a key role in the formation of the tangential vectorial forces on the retinal surface as consequence of gel liquefaction (synchysis without sufficient and fast vitreous dehiscence at the vitreoretinal interface. The anomalous and persistent adherence of the posterior hyaloid to the retina can lead to vitreomacular/vitreopapillary adhesion or to a formation of avascular fibrocellular tissue (ERM resulting from the proliferation and transdifferentiation of hyalocytes resident in the cortical vitreous remnants after vitreoschisis. The right interpretation of the forces involved in the epiretinal tangential tractions helps in a better definition of diagnosis, progression, prognosis, and surgical outcomes of vitreomacular interfaces.

  3. Tangential flow filtration of hemoglobin.

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    Palmer, Andre F; Sun, Guoyong; Harris, David R

    2009-01-01

    Bovine and human hemoglobin (bHb and hHb, respectively) was purified from bovine and human red blood cells via tangential flow filtration (TFF) in four successive stages. TFF is a fast and simple method to purify Hb from RBCs using filtration through hollow fiber (HF) membranes. Most of the Hb was retained in stage III (100 kDa HF membrane) and displayed methemoglobin levels less than 1%, yielding final concentrations of 318 and 300 mg/mL for bHb and hHb, respectively. Purified Hb exhibited much lower endotoxin levels than their respective RBCs. The purity of Hb was initially assessed via SDS-PAGE, and showed tiny impurity bands for the stage III retentate. The oxygen affinity (P(50)) and cooperativity coefficient (n) were regressed from the measured oxygen-RBC/Hb equilibrium curves of RBCs and purified Hb. These results suggest that TFF yielded oxygen affinities of bHb and hHb that are comparable to values in the literature. LC-MS was used to measure the molecular weight of the alpha (alpha) and beta (beta) globin chains of purified Hb. No impurity peaks were present in the HPLC chromatograms of purified Hb. The mass of the molecular ions corresponding to the alpha and beta globin chains agreed well with the calculated theoretical mass of the alpha- and beta- globin chains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HPLC-grade Hb can be generated via TFF. In general, this method can be more broadly applied to purify Hb from any source of RBCs. This work is significant, since it outlines a simple method for generating Hb for synthesis and/or formulation of Hb-based oxygen carriers.

  4. Induction of chondrogenesis and expression of superficial zone protein (SZP)/lubricin by mesenchymal progenitors in the infrapatellar fat pad of the knee joint treated with TGF-beta1 and BMP-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yang; Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Reddi, A Hari

    2008-11-01

    Superficial zone protein (SZP) is a key mediator of boundary lubrication of articular cartilage in joints. In this investigation, we made the unexpected discovery that SZP was expressed in infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) from bovine knee. Quantitative analysis of secreted proteins in the medium of the IFP stromal cells demonstrated a significant stimulation by TGF-beta1 and BMP-7. Real-time PCR analysis revealed the SZP expression was up-regulated by TGF-beta1 and BMP-7. Chondrogenically differentiated IFP progenitor cells were stimulated by TGF-beta1 and BMP-7 to synthesize and secrete SZP. SZP mRNA was significantly up-regulated by chondrogenic induction for 21 days. These findings indicate that the stimulation of SZP expression by TGF-beta and BMP-7 may lead to functional improvement of damaged intraarticular tissues and that IFP progenitor cells may be a potential useful source for inducing superficial zone of articular cartilage by tissue engineering for regeneration of damaged articular cartilage due to osteoarthritis.

  5. Duality, Tangential Interpolation, and Toeplitz Corona Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Raghupathi, Mrinal

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we extend a method of Arveson and McCullough to prove a tangential interpolation theorem for subalgebras of $H^\\infty$. This tangential interpolation result implies a Toelitz corona theorem. In particular, it is shown that the set of matrix positivity conditions is indexed by cyclic subspaces, which is analogous to the results obtained for the ball and the polydisk algebra by Trent-Wick and Douglas-Sarkar.

  6. A Cold Model Aerodynamical Test of Air-Staged Combustion in a Tangential Firing Utility Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui-juan; HUI Shi-en; ZHOU Qu-lan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the flow field in the 300MW tangential firing utility boiler that used the Low NOx Concentric Firing System (LNCFS). Using the method of cold isothermal simulation ensures the geometric and boundary condition similarity. At the same time the condition of self-modeling is met. The experimental results show that the mixture of primary air and secondary air becomes slower, the average turbulence magnitude of the main combustion zone becomes less and the relative diameter of the tangential firing enlarges when the secondary air deflection angle increases. When the velocity pressure ratio of the secondary air to the primary air (p2/p1) enlarges, the mixture of the secondary air and the primary air becomes stronger, the average turbulence magnitude of the main combustion zone increases, and the relative diameter of the tangential firing becomes larger. Because the over fire air (OFA) laid out near the wall has a powerful penetration, the relative diameter of the tangential firing on the section of the OFA is very little, but the average turbulence magnitude is great. When the velocity pressure ratio of the OFA to the primary air pOFA/p1 increases, the relative diameter of the tangential firing on the section of the OFA grows little, the average turbulence magnitude becomes larger and the penetration of the OFA becomes more powerful.

  7. Elastic deformation due to tangential capillary forces

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Siddhartha; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacco H

    2011-01-01

    A sessile liquid drop can deform the substrate on which it rests if the solid is sufficiently "soft". In this paper we compute the detailed spatial structure of the capillary forces exerted by the drop on the solid substrate using a model based on Density Functional Theory. We show that, in addition to the normal forces, the drop exerts a previously unaccounted tangential force. The resultant effect on the solid is a pulling force near the contact line directed towards the interior of the drop, i.e. not along the interface. The resulting elastic deformations of the solid are worked out and illustrate the importance of the tangential forces.

  8. Ascl1 promotes tangential migration and confines migratory routes by induction of Ephb2 in the telencephalon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Hsuan; Tsai, Jin-Wu; Chen, Jia-Long; Yang, Wan-Shan; Chang, Pei-Ching; Cheng, Pei-Lin; Turner, David L.; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Yu, Jenn-Yah

    2017-01-01

    During development, cortical interneurons generated from the ventral telencephalon migrate tangentially into the dorsal telencephalon. Although Achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 1 (Ascl1) plays important roles in the developing telencephalon, whether Ascl1 regulates tangential migration remains unclear. Here, we found that Ascl1 promoted tangential migration along the ventricular zone/subventricular zone (VZ/SVZ) and intermediate zone (IZ) of the dorsal telencephalon. Distal-less homeobox 2 (Dlx2) acted downstream of Ascl1 in promoting tangential migration along the VZ/SVZ but not IZ. We further identified Eph receptor B2 (Ephb2) as a direct target of Ascl1. Knockdown of EphB2 disrupted the separation of the VZ/SVZ and IZ migratory routes. Ephrin-A5, a ligand of EphB2, was sufficient to repel both Ascl1-expressing cells in vitro and tangentially migrating cortical interneurons in vivo. Together, our results demonstrate that Ascl1 induces expression of Dlx2 and Ephb2 to maintain distinct tangential migratory routes in the dorsal telencephalon. PMID:28276447

  9. Exact nonlinear analytic Vlasov-Maxwell tangential equilibria with arbitrary density and temperature profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Mottez, F

    2003-01-01

    The tangential layers are characterized by a bulk plasma velocity and a magnetic field that are perpendicular to the gradient direction. They have been extensively described in the frame of the Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) theory. But the MHD theory does not look inside the transition region if the transition has a size of a few ion gyroradii. A series of kinetic tangential equilibria, valid for a collisionless plasma is presented. These equilibria are exact analytical solutions of the Maxwell-Vlasov equations. The particle distribution functions are sums of an infinite number of elementary functions parametrized by a vector potential. Examples of equilibria relevant to space plasmas are shown. A model for the deep and sharp density depletions observed in the auroral zone of the Earth is proposed. Tangential equilibria are also relevant for the study of planetary environments and of remote astrophysical plasmas.

  10. Pilot-scale development of a low-NOx coal-fired tangential system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J. T.; Brown, R. A.; Chu, E. K.; Wightman, J. B.; Pam, R. L.; Swenson, E. L.; Merrick, E. B.; Busch, C. F.

    1981-08-01

    A 293 kWt (1 million Btu/hr) pilot scale facility is used to develop a low NOx pulverized coal fired tangential system. A burner concept is developed which achieves low NOx by directing the fuel and a fraction of the secondary combustion air into the center of the furnace, with the remaining secondary combustion air directed horizontally and parallel to the furnance walls. Such separation of secondary combustion air creates a fuel rich zone in the center of the furnace where NOx production is minimized. This combustion modification technique lowers NOx 64%, relative to conventional tangential firing, by injecting 85% of the secondary air along the furnace walls. Under these conditions, NO emissions are 180 ppm corrected to 0% 02. Also at these conditions, CO, UHC, and unburned carbon emissions are less than 40 ppm, 3 ppm, and 2.4%, respectively, comparable to conventional tangentially fired pilot scale results.

  11. The pressure tensor in tangential equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mottez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The tangential equilibria are characterized by a bulk plasma velocity and a magnetic field that are perpendicular to the gradient direction. Such equilibria can be spatially periodic (like waves, or they can separate two regions with asymptotic uniform conditions (like MHD tangential discontinuities. It is possible to compute the velocity moments of the particle distribution function. Even in very simple cases, the pressure tensor is not isotropic and not gyrotropic. The differences between a scalar pressure and the pressure tensor derived in the frame of the Maxwell-Vlasov theory are significant when the gradient scales are of the order of the Larmor radius; they concern mainly the ion pressure tensor.

  12. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis using tangentially connected capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Eskil

    2007-06-22

    A novel type of fused silica capillary system is described where channels with circular cross-sections are tangentially in contact with each other and connected through a small opening at the contact area. Since the channels are not crossing each other in the same plane, the capillaries can easily be filled with different solutions, i.e. different solutions will be in contact with each other at the contact point. The system has been used to perform different types of two-dimensional separations and the complete system is fully automated where a high voltage switch is used to control the location of the high voltage in the system. Using two model compounds it is demonstrated that a type of two-dimensional separation can be performed using capillary zone electrophoresis at two different pH values. It is also shown that a compound with acid/base properties can be concentrated using a dynamic pH junction mechanism when transferred from the first separation to the second separation. In addition, the system has been used to perform a comprehensive two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis separation of tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin using capillary zone electrophoresis followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

  13. Active Contour with A Tangential Component

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junyan

    2012-01-01

    Conventional edge-based active contours often require the normal component of an edge indicator function on the optimal contours to approximate zero, while the tangential component can still be significant. In real images, the full gradients of the edge indicator function along the object boundaries are often small. Hence, the curve evolution of edge-based active contours can terminate early before converging to the object boundaries with a careless contour initialization. We propose a novel Geodesic Snakes (GeoSnakes) active contour that requires the full gradients of the edge indicator to vanish at the optimal solution. Besides, the conventional curve evolution approach for minimizing active contour energy cannot fully solve the Euler-Lagrange (EL) equation of our GeoSnakes active contour, causing a Pseudo Stationary Phenomenon (PSP). To address the PSP problem, we propose an auxiliary curve evolution equation, named the equilibrium flow (EF) equation. Based on the EF and the conventional curve evolution, w...

  14. Superficies de segundo orden

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Salazar, Luis Álvaro

    1987-01-01

    Este trabajo se propone poner al alcance de estudiantes de primeros semestres de carreras de aplicación de la matemática, un algoritmo proporcionado por el álgebra lineal, para tratar con mas generalidad, agilidad y libertad unos objetos de la geometría analítica de no fácil manipulación por otros métodos y que se conocen como superficies de segundo orden o superficies cuádricas. En este orden de ideas, el autor considera importante que con este tratamiento se incluya este tema en una asignat...

  15. Streamside management zone (SMZ efficiency in herbicide retention from simulated surface flow Eficiência de zonas ripárias (SMZ na retenção de herbicidas presentes em escoamento superficial simulado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Matos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Plot-scale overland flow experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of streamside management zones (SMZs in retaining herbicides in runoff generated from silvicultural activities. Herbicide retention was evaluated for five different slopes (2, 5, 10, 15, and 20%, two cover conditions (undisturbed O horizon and raked surface, and two periods under contrasting soil moisture conditions (summer dry and winter wet season and correlated to O horizon and site conditions. Picloram (highly soluble in water and atrazine (moderately sorbed into soil particles at concentrations in the range of 55 and 35 µg L-1 and kaolin clay (approximately 5 g L-1 were mixed with 13.000 liters of water and dispersed over the top of 5 x 10 m forested plots. Surface flow was collected 2, 4, 6, and 10 m below the disperser to evaluate the changes in concentration as it moved through the O horizon and surface soil horizon-mixing zone. Results showed that, on average, a 10 m long forested SMZ removed around 25% of the initial concentration of atrazine and was generally ineffective in reducing the more soluble picloram. Retention of picloram was only 6% of the applied quantity. Percentages of mass reduction by infiltration were 36% for atrazine and 20% for picloram. Stronger relationships existed between O horizon depth and atrazine retention than in any other measured variable, suggesting that better solid-solution contact associated with flow through deeper O horizons is more important than either velocity or soil moisture as a determinant of sorption.Experimento de escoamento superficial, em escala piloto, foi conduzido para se avaliar a eficiência de zonas ripárias (SMZs na retenção de herbicidas presentes no escoamento superficial gerado em atividades silviculturais. A retenção do herbicida foi avaliada em terrenos com cinco diferentes declividades (2, 5, 10, 15 e 20%, duas condições de cobertura do solo (com e sem o horizonte O e dois períodos de

  16. Properties of tangential and radial angles of muons in EAS

    OpenAIRE

    Zabierowski, J.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.

    2002-01-01

    Tangential and radial angles of muons in EAS, a useful concept in investigation of the muon production height, can be used also for the investigation of the muon momenta. A parameter zeta, being a combination of tangential and radial angles, is introduced and its possible applications in investigation of muons in showers are presented.

  17. Flow in the Inlet Region in Tangential Inlet Cyclones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, W.; Boot, P.J.A.J.; Hoffmann, A.C; Dries, H.W.A.; Kater, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the flow pattern in a tangential inlet cyclone is studied by laser Doppler anemometry, with emphasis on the inlet region. The particular focus is on axial asymmetry in the flow, which was studied by determining radial profiles of the axial and tangential gas velocity components at four

  18. Tangential Motions and Spectroscopy within NGC 6720, the Ring Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    O'Dell, C R; Sabbadin, F

    2009-01-01

    We have combined recent Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images in the [O III] 5007 and [N II] 6583 lines with similar images made 9.557 years earlier to determine the motion of the Ring Nebula within the plane of the sky. Scaled ratio images argue for homologous expansion, that is, larger velocities scale with increasing distance from the central star. The rather noisy pattern of motion of individual features argues for the same conclusion and that the silhouetted knots move at the same rate as the surrounding gas. These tangential velocities are combined with information from a recent high resolution radial velocity study to determine a dynamic distance, which is in basic agreement with the distance determined from the parallax of the central star. We have also obtained very high signal to noise ratio moderate resolution spectra (9.4 Angstrom) along the major and minor axes of the nebula and from this determined the electron temperatures and density in the multiple ionization zones present. These results confir...

  19. GABA regulates the multidirectional tangential migration of GABAergic interneurons in living neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Inada

    Full Text Available Cortical GABAergic interneurons originate from ganglionic eminences and tangentially migrate into the cortical plate at early developmental stages. To elucidate the characteristics of this migration of GABAergic interneurons in living animals, we established an experimental design specialized for in vivo time-lapse imaging of the neocortex of neonate mice with two-photon laser-scanning microscopy. In vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VGAT-Venus transgenic mice from birth (P0 through P3, we observed multidirectional tangential migration of genetically-defined GABAergic interneurons in the neocortical marginal zone. The properties of this migration, such as the motility rate (distance/hr, the direction moved, and the proportion of migrating neurons to stationary neurons, did not change through P0 to P3, although the density of GABAergic neurons at the marginal zone decreased with age. Thus, the characteristics of the tangential motility of individual GABAergic neurons remained constant in development. Pharmacological block of GABA(A receptors and of the Na⁺-K⁺-Cl⁻ cotransporters, and chelating intracellular Ca²⁺, all significantly reduced the motility rate in vivo. The motility rate and GABA content within the cortex of neonatal VGAT-Venus transgenic mice were significantly greater than those of GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, suggesting that extracellular GABA concentration could facilitate the multidirectional tangential migration. Indeed, diazepam applied to GAD67-GFP mice increased the motility rate substantially. In an in vitro neocortical slice preparation, we confirmed that GABA induced a NKCC sensitive depolarization of GABAergic interneurons in VGAT-Venus mice at P0-P3. Thus, activation of GABA(AR by ambient GABA depolarizes GABAergic interneurons, leading to an acceleration of their multidirectional motility in vivo.

  20. Flashback Analysis in Tangential Swirl Burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valera-Medina A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Premixed lean combustion is widely used in Combustion Processes due to the benefits of good flame stability and blowoff limits coupled with low NOx emissions. However, the use of novel fuels and complex flows have increased the concern about flashback, especially for the use of syngas and highly hydrogen enriched blends. Thus, this paper describes a combined practical and numerical approach to study the phenomenon in order to reduce the effect of flashback in a pilot scale 100 kW tangential swirl burner. Natural gas is used to establish the baseline results and effects of different parameters changes. The flashback phenomenon is studied with the use of high speed photography. The use of a central fuel injector demonstrates substantial benefits in terms of flashback resistance, eliminating coherent structures that may appear in the flow channels. The critical boundary velocity gradient is used for characterization, both via the original Lewis and von Elbe formula and via analysis using CFD and investigation of boundary layer conditions in the flame front.

  1. Recovery modeling of tangential flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Suma; Gefroh, Eva; Kaltenbrunner, Oliver

    2012-12-01

    The demand for increased formulation concentrations for protein therapeutics puts a significant strain on already existing tangential flow filtration (TFF) systems that were constructed with lower protein concentration targets as part of their design criteria. TFF is commonly used to buffer exchange and concentrate the product to the appropriate drug substance concentration. Analyzing the ability of an existing TFF system to process under conditions outside its original design specifications can be challenging. In this analysis, we present a systematic approach to assess the operational limits of a TFF process with consideration of system performance parameters for changing process targets. In two new engineering diagrams, the recovery efficiency diagram and the operating space plot, all relevant operational constraints and parameters are related to allow rapid process fit evaluation. The engineering assessment of TFF systems presented in this article allows a rational review of system limitations during process fit evaluations of existing TFF systems. It also provides a rational basis for targeted system upgrades and setting system design specifications for the design of new systems if existing systems are found inadequate. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  3. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  4. In vivo dosimetry during tangential breast treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heukelom, S.; Lanson, J.H.; Tienhoven, G. van; Mijnheer, B.J. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) dose distribution as calculated in clinical practice for tangential breast treatment was verified through in vivo dosimetry. Clinical practice at Netherlands Cancer Institute implies use of 8MV X-ray beams, 2-D treatment planning system, collimator rotation and a limited set of patient data for dose calculations. By positioning diodes at the central beam axes as well as in the periphery of the breast the magnitude of dose values at the isocentre and in points situated in high-dose regions behind the lung could be assessed. The position of diodes was verified by means of an on-line portal imaging device. Reproducibility of these in vivo dose measurements was better than 2% (1SD). This study shows that on the average dose delivery at the isocentre is 2% less at the points behind the lung, 5.7% higher with respect to the calculated dose values. Detailed analysis of these in vivo dosimetry results, based on dose measurements performed with a breast shaped phantom, yielded the magnitudes of errors in predicted dose due to several limitations in dose calculation algorithms and dose calculation procedure. These limitations are each introducing an error of several percent but are compensating each other for the dose calculation at the isocentre. It is concluded that dose distribution in patient for this treatment technique and dose calculation procedure can be predicted with a 2-D treatment planning system in an acceptable way. A more accurate prediction of dose distribution can be performed but requires an estimation of the lack of scatter due to missing tissue, the change in the dose distribution due to oblique incident beams and incorporation of the actual output of the treatment machine in the assessment of the number of monitor units. (author). 28 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs.

  5. Composición de zooplancton superficial en zonas lisas y rugosas en la bahía de Coquimbo (noviembre 2001 Surface zooplankton composition in slick and rough zones in Coquimbo Bay (November 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Mattos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la abundancia de zooplancton superficial, temperatura superficial del mar e intensidad del viento entre zonas lisas y rugosas en el sector sur de la bahía de Coquimbo, entre el 7 y 9 de noviembre de 2001. La presencia de superficies lisas y rugosas estuvo influenciada por la intensidad del viento y desaparece cuando supera 6 m s-1 en forma sostenida. La temperatura en los dos primeros días de muestreo fue diferente entre los dos tipos de superficie. El último día la temperatura fue mayor, sin diferencias entre ambos tipos de superficies y con mayor profundidad de la capa de mezcla, debido al aumento de la intensidad del viento. En los dos primeros días, la mayoría de los grupos zooplanctónicos tuvieron abundancias mayores en las superficies lisas, observándose diferencias significativas entre zonas lisas y rugosas en las larvas cypris de cirripedios y en el eufáusido Nyctiphanes simplex. Se estableció que los zooplancteres capturados, tienden a agregarse en superficies lisas o rugosas, dependiendo de sus características adaptativas y de su comportamiento.The surface zooplankton abundances, sea surface temperature and wind speed in slick and rough surface areas were compared south of Coquimbo Bay on November 7, 8 and 9, 2001. The presence of rough and slick surfaces on the bay was influenced by the wind conditions during sampling hours, demonstrating that increasing the speed steadily over 6 m s-1 slick and rough areas disappeared, giving a ripple appearance to sea surface. On the first two days of study, thermal structure of slicks areas was different from the rough ones. On the last day, temperature was higher with no differences between both surfaces types, and greater depth of the mixed layer, due to increasing wind speed. The organisms captured were holoplanktonic crustaceans, meroplankton benthopelagic peracarids, fish larvae and eggs, gelatinous zooplankton and gastropod and bivalve mollusks. On the first two days of

  6. Tangential stress analysis of myocardial wall by finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Qiu; Jiang Cao; Wang Xiaoyan; Chen Shengyong; Guan Fang

    2011-01-01

    A novel method is presented to build the triangular surface model and calculate the tangential stress and strain of myocardial wall ,which can be further used to reflect the left ventricle twisting-a sensitive index to assess the systolic and diastolic function of heart. Firstly, a point distribution model is used to obtain the feature points of the ventricular surface in medical images. Secondly, the surface model is constructed by triangular mesh, and then the subdivision strategy is introduced to refine the model. Thirdly, plane projection and finite element method ( FEM ) are applied to calculate the tangential stress and strain. Finally, the distribution of tangential modulus of elasticity is discussed. The stimulation results show that the proposed method can be used to compute the tangential stress and strain of myocardial wall effectively and the computing result is consistent with the results mentioned in the literatures.

  7. Spinning swimming of Volvox by tangential helical wave

    CERN Document Server

    Felderhof, B U

    2016-01-01

    The swimming of a sphere by means of tangential helical waves running along its surface is studied on the basis of the Stokes equations. Two types of tangential waves are found. The first of these is associated with a pressure disturbance and leads to a higher rate of net rotation than the second one for the same power. It is suggested that the helical waves are relevant for the rotational swimming of Volvox.

  8. Superficies de placer

    OpenAIRE

    Delli Gatti, Romina

    2012-01-01

    La presente tesis cuenta con 28 pinturas en distintos formatos y tama- ños a través de los cuales la artista investiga diferentes objetos de su entorno cotidiano que le resultan agradables y pueden llegar a transformar anímicamente. De esta manera se van construyendo superficies ideales, relacionadas principalmente con lo cotidiano y lo intimo, lo orgánico, lo industrial, el diseño textil y lo abstracto. Es un intento por generar o prolongar una sensación visual de agrado y placer a tra...

  9. Tangential finger forces use mechanical advantage during static grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Gregory P; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2012-02-01

    When grasping and manipulating objects, the central controller utilizes the mechanical advantage of the normal forces of the fingers for torque production. Whether the same is valid for tangential forces is unknown. The main purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of finger tangential forces and the use of mechanical advantage as a control mechanism when dealing with objects of nonuniform finger positioning. A complementary goal was to explore the interaction of mechanical advantage (moment arm) and the role a finger has as a torque agonist/antagonist with respect to external torques (±0.4 N m). Five 6-df force/torque transducers measured finger forces while subjects held a prism handle (6 cm width × 9 cm height) with and without a single finger displaced 2 cm (handle width). The effect of increasing the tangential moment arm was significant (p forces (in >70% of trials) and hence creating greater moments. Thus, the data provides evidence that the grasping system as a rule utilizes mechanical advantage for generating tangential forces. The increase in tangential force was independent of whether the finger was acting as a torque agonist or antagonist, revealing their effects to be additive.

  10. Neural development of the neuregulin receptor ErbB4 in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus: preferential expression by interneurons tangentially migrating from the ganglionic eminences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hau-Jie; Wang, Hsiao-Fang; Lai, Cary; Liu, Fu-Chin

    2003-03-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinases represent an important class of signal transduction molecules that have been shown to play critical roles in neural development. We report in the present study that the neuregulin receptor ErbB4 is preferentially expressed by interneurons that are migrating tangentially from the ventral to the dorsal rat telencephalon. ErbB4 immunoreactivity was detected in the medial ganglionic eminence as early as embryonic day (E) 13 at the inception of tangential migration. Prominent ErbB4-positive migratory streams consisting of cells double-labeled with ErbB4 and Dlx, a marker of tangentially migrating cells, were found to advance along the lower intermediate zone and the marginal zone from the ventrolateral to the dorsomedial cortex at E16-E18. After E20, the ErbB4-positive stream in the lower intermediate zone shifted towards the germinal zone and further extended via the cortex into the hippocampal primordium. ErbB4 was not expressed by Tbr1-positive glutamatergic projection neurons during development. ErbB4 was preferentially expressed by the majority of parvalbumin-positive interneurons and subsets of other GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus in adulthood. The early onset and preferential expression of ErbB4 in tangentially migrating interneurons suggests that neuregulin/ErbB4 signaling may regulate the development and function of telencephalic interneurons.

  11. Determination of tangential and normal components of oral forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevam Barbosa de Las Casas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral forces applied to human teeth during biting and mastication are normally described in the literature only in terms of their axial components. The purpose of this study was to fully determine the spatial characteristics of the oral resultant force - its normal and tangential components - for a given individual. A load cell was especially manufactured to measure oral force and was temporarily implanted as a prosthetic device in the dental arch of a volunteer, replacing his missing upper first molar. The mastication and occlusion tests were carried out in such a way the cell should withstand the loads applied to the molar, and its state of strain was recorded by strain gauges attached to it. Based on the results of these tests and using balance equations, normal and tangential components of the resultant oral force were determined. For direct occlusion, without interposition any obstacle between cusps, a peak normal force of 135 N was recorded simultaneously to a tangential force of 44 N. For mastication of biscuits, a peak normal force of 133 N and a tangential force of 39 N were obtained.

  12. An alternative to FASTSIM for tangential solution of the wheel-rail contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichani, Matin Sh.; Enblom, Roger; Berg, Mats

    2016-06-01

    In most rail vehicle dynamics simulation packages, tangential solution of the wheel-rail contact is gained by means of Kalker's FASTSIM algorithm. While 5-25% error is expected for creep force estimation, the errors of shear stress distribution, needed for wheel-rail damage analysis, may rise above 30% due to the parabolic traction bound. Therefore, a novel algorithm named FaStrip is proposed as an alternative to FASTSIM. It is based on the strip theory which extends the two-dimensional rolling contact solution to three-dimensional contacts. To form FaStrip, the original strip theory is amended to obtain accurate estimations for any contact ellipse size and it is combined by a numerical algorithm to handle spin. The comparison between the two algorithms shows that using FaStrip improves the accuracy of the estimated shear stress distribution and the creep force estimation in all studied cases. In combined lateral creepage and spin cases, for instance, the error in force estimation reduces from 18% to less than 2%. The estimation of the slip velocities in the slip zone, needed for wear analysis, is also studied. Since FaStrip is as fast as FASTSIM, it can be an alternative for tangential solution of the wheel-rail contact in simulation packages.

  13. Correlation between logging records and superficial series of the Continental Aptiense-Albiense of the extreme SW of the Basco-Cantabrian basin and their application in the identification of lignitiferous zones. Correlacion entre registros de sondeos y series de superficie del Aptiense-Albiense continental del extremo SW de la Cuenca Vascocantabrica y su aplicacion a la identificacion de zonas lignitiferas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, I.; Robles, S.; Pujalte, V. (Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Dept. Estratigrafia, Geodinamica y Paleontologia)

    1991-11-01

    The materials from Miocene age which appeared in this area are attributed to the so-called 'post-manto' materials. Those materials form a calcareous series with more detritical parts generated in the zone between the continent and the shallow platform. Sub-environments are very well represented in a sequence which includes four tecto-sedimentary unities. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  14. On the influence of the tangential solar-motion component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Slobodan D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the tangential component of the solar motion (towards l = 90o, b = 0o corrected for the value of the asymmetric drift, on the galactocentric orbits of selected nearby stars is studied. Different models of the Galaxy potential are used. It is noticed, in general, that the increase of this corrected velocity component is followed by changes of the orbital elements characterising the motion in the galactic plane (the component perpendicular to the galactic plane remains practically unaffected; the orbital eccentricity increases or decreases depending on whether the galactocentric tangential velocity component of a given star exceeds or not the value of the circular velocity involved by the used model.

  15. Tangential injection to a supersonic flow on a blunted nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvakhov, P. V.; Egorov, I. V.; Ezhov, I. V.; Ezhov, I. V.; Novikov, I. V.; Vasilevskiy, E. B.

    2017-06-01

    The flow pattern and the heat §ux to a body surface at a tangential gas injecting have been investigated. The cooling air was injected to a §ow through the tangential axisymmetric slot on the spherically blunted cylinder. The experiments were conducted at M∞ = 6, Re∞,Rw = 0.76 · 106, angle of attack α = 0°-30°, and the slot width hk/Rw = 0-0.021. The mass rate of the injecting gas was G∗ = gj/(πρ∞ u2∞w) = 0- 0.16. It has been shown that maximum of the heat §ux toward the sphere surface can be sufficiently decreased. Numerical investigations have been carried out using the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for axisymmetric two-dimensional (2D) viscous compressible unsteady §ows at α = 0.

  16. Meninges control tangential migration of hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells via CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Víctor; Marín, Oscar

    2006-10-01

    Cajal-Retzius cells are critical in the development of the cerebral cortex, but little is known about the mechanisms controlling their development. Three focal sources of Cajal-Retzius cells have been identified in mice-the cortical hem, the ventral pallium and the septum-from where they migrate tangentially to populate the cortical surface. Using a variety of tissue culture assays and in vivo manipulations, we demonstrate that the tangential migration of cortical hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells is controlled by the meninges. We show that the meningeal membranes are a necessary and sufficient substrate for the tangential migration of Cajal-Retzius cells. We also show that the chemokine CXCL12 secreted by the meninges enhances the dispersion of Cajal-Retzius cells along the cortical surface, while retaining them within the marginal zone in a CXCR4-dependent manner. Thus, the meningeal membranes are fundamental in the development of Cajal-Retzius cells and, hence, in the normal development of the cerebral cortex.

  17. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  18. Bi-tangential hybrid IMRT for sparing the shoulder in whole breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farace, P.; Deidda, M.A.; Iamundo de Curtis, I.; Deiana, E.; Farigu, R.; Lay, G.; Porru, S. [Regional Oncological Hospital, Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radio-Oncology

    2013-11-15

    Background and purpose: A bi-tangential technique is proposed to reduce undesired doses to the shoulder produced by standard tangential irradiation. Patients and methods: A total of 6 patients affected by shoulder pain and reduced functional capacity after whole-breast irradiation were retrospectively analysed. The standard tangential plan used for treatment was compared with (1) a single bi-tangential plan where, to spare the shoulder, the lateral open tangent was split into two half-beams at isocentre, with the superior portion rotated by 10-20 medially with respect to the standard lateral beam; (2) a double bi-tangential plan, where both the tangential open beams were split. The planning target volume (PTV) coverage and the dose to the portion of muscles and axilla included in the standard tangential beams were compared. Results: PTV95 % of standard plan (91.9 {+-} 3.8) was not significantly different from single bi-tangential plan (91.8 {+-} 3.4); a small but significant (p < 0.01) decrease was observed with the double bi-tangential plan (90.1 {+-} 3.7). A marked dose reduction to the muscle was produced by the single bi-tangential plan around 30-40 Gy. The application of the double bi-tangential technique further reduced the volume receiving around 20 Gy, but did not markedly affect the higher doses. The dose to the axilla was reduced both in the single and the double bi-tangential plans. Conclusion: The single bi-tangential technique would have been able to reduce the dose to shoulder and axilla, without compromising target coverage. This simple technique is valuable for irradiation after axillary lymph node dissection or in patients without dissection due to negative or low-volume sentinel lymph node disease. (orig.)

  19. Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis of non premixed reactive flows

    KAUST Repository

    Valorani, Mauro

    2016-10-16

    We discuss how the Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis, originally developed and tested for spatially homogeneous systems (batch reactors), is extended to spatially non homogeneous systems. To illustrate the effectiveness of the TSR diagnostics, we study the ignition transient in a non premixed, reaction–diffusion model in the mixture fraction space, whose dependent variables are temperature and mixture composition. The reactive mixture considered is syngas/air. A detailed H2/CO mechanism with 12 species and 33 chemical reactions is employed. We will discuss two cases, one involving only kinetics as a model of front propagation purely driven by spontaneous ignition, the other as a model of deflagration wave involving kinetics/diffusion coupling. We explore different aspects of the system dynamics such as the relative role of diffusion and kinetics, the evolution of kinetic eigenvalues, and of the tangential stretching rates computed by accounting for the combined action of diffusion and kinetics as well for kinetics only. We propose criteria based on the TSR concept which allow to identify the most ignitable conditions and to discriminate between spontaneous ignition and deflagration front.

  20. Analysis of Tangential Camera Views of Tokamak Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, W. H.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Groth, M.

    2014-10-01

    Commercial digital video cameras are increasingly being employed as sensor and digitizer for fusion plasma diagnostics. Here we describe some of our recent work to significantly improve tomographic analysis of tangential viewing camera data in toroidal geometry. Fiducial images obtained during vents are used to produce direct linear transformation matrices for each diagnostic camera and determine an accurate camera position and viewport. A tokamak solid model for rendering is used between vents to check camera alignment or when hardware fiducial images are unavailable. The rendering provides camera pixel distance of integration, vessel impact position, and angle of incidence. Reflection characterization is also performed using this solid model. After determining the camera geometry parameters, a response matrix is calculated for toroidally symmetric solution grids. We apply standard sparse linear solvers to the back projection problem for filtered visible light cameras. Forward projections are utilized for theory code validation and visualization. Poloidal IR profiles are extracted from tangential viewing IR camera data using surface parameters determined from solid model rendering. We present examples of each of these applications. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Superficie

    OpenAIRE

    Corna, Pablo María

    2015-01-01

    En la época posclásica del derecho romano se buscó, por parte del Estado y ciudadanos, utilizar ciertos terrenos que formaban parte de su patrimonio para arrendarlos por largo término —y a veces a perpetuidad— a personas que tenían el derecho de edificar o plantar mediante el pago de un precio llamado pensio o solárium. En el siglo II de nuestra era ya era utilizado para asentar tribus romanizadas en la frontera del imperio como para el cultivo de vid y los olivos que demoran varios...

  2. Superficie

    OpenAIRE

    Corna, Pablo María

    2015-01-01

    En la época posclásica del derecho romano se buscó, por parte del Estado y ciudadanos, utilizar ciertos terrenos que formaban parte de su patrimonio para arrendarlos por largo término —y a veces a perpetuidad— a personas que tenían el derecho de edificar o plantar mediante el pago de un precio llamado pensio o solárium. En el siglo II de nuestra era ya era utilizado para asentar tribus romanizadas en la frontera del imperio como para el cultivo de vid y los olivos que demoran varios años e...

  3. PIV measurements of the turbulence integral length scale on cold combustion flow field of tangential firing boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-fei; Xie, Jing-xing; Gong, Zhi-jun; Li, Bao-wei [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). Inner Mongolia Key Lab. for Utilization of Bayan Obo Multi-Metallic Resources: Elected State Key Lab.

    2013-07-01

    The process of the pulverized coal combustion in tangential firing boiler has prominent significance on improving boiler operation efficiency and reducing NO{sub X} emission. This paper aims at researching complex turbulent vortex coherent structure formed by the four corners jets in the burner zone, a cold experimental model of tangential firing boiler has been built. And by employing spatial correlation analysis method and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique, the law of Vortex scale distribution on the three typical horizontal layers of the model based on the turbulent Integral Length Scale (ILS) has been researched. According to the correlation analysis of ILS and the temporal average velocity, it can be seen that the turbulent vortex scale distribution in the burner zone of the model is affected by both jet velocity and the position of wind layers, and is not linear with the variation of jet velocity. The vortex scale distribution of the upper primary air is significantly different from the others. Therefore, studying the ILS of turbulent vortex integral scale is instructive to high efficiency cleaning combustion of pulverized coal in theory.

  4. Self-similar spherical metrics with tangential pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Gair, J R

    2002-01-01

    A family of spherically symmetric spacetimes is discussed, which have anisotropic pressure and possess a homothetic Killing vector. The spacetimes are composed of dust with a tangential pressure provided by angular momentum of the dust particles. The solution is given implicitly by an elliptic integral and depends on four arbitrary functions. These represent the initial configurations of angular momentum, mass, energy and position of the shells. The solution is derived by imposing self-similarity in the coordinates R, the shell label, and tau, the proper time experienced by the dust. Conditions for evolution without shell crossing and a description of singularity formation are given and types of solution discussed. General properties of the solutions are illustrated by reference to a particular case, which represents a universe that exists for an infinite time, but in which every shell expands and recollapses in a finite time.

  5. The Versajet water dissector: a new tool for tangential excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B; Hunter, Sue; Heimbach, David M; Engrav, Loren H; Honari, Shari; Gallery, Ellen; Kiriluk, Diane-Marie; Gibran, Nicole S

    2005-01-01

    Goulian and Watson knives work well for tangential burn excision on large flat areas. They do not work well in small areas and in areas with a three-dimensional structure. The Versajet Hydrosurgery System (Smith and Nephew, Key Largo, FL) is a new waterjet-powered surgical tool designed for wound excision. The small size of the cutting nozzle and the ability to easily maneuver the water dissector into small spaces makes it a potentially useful tool for excision of burns of the eyelids, digits and web spaces. The Versajet Hydrosurgery System contains a power console that propels saline through a handheld cutting device. This stream of pressurized saline functions as a knife. We have used the Versajet for burn excision in 44 patients. Although there is a learning curve for both surgeons using and operating room staff setting up the device, the Versajet provides a relatively facile method for excision of challenging aesthetic and functional areas.

  6. The three-dimensional distributions of tangential velocity and total- temperature in vortex tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderstrøm-Lang, C.U.

    1971-01-01

    physical requirements and which at the same time lead to realistic tangential velocity gradients. The total-temperature distribution in both the axial and radial directions is calculated from such secondary flow functions and corresponding tangential velocity results on the basis of an approximate...

  7. Late sequelae of superficial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, I.C.; Young, J.E.

    1984-10-01

    Superficial irradiation results in well recognized late sequelae including not only sclerosis and atrophy of skin and subcutaneous tissue, but also the development of benign and malignant tumors of skin and adjacent structures. The long latency between irradiation and its late effects allowed the early uncontrolled use of radiation treatment for benign conditions. The subsequent recognition of the causal relationship between tumors and previous irradiation has restricted its use to more appropriate purposes, although it is possible that it is still overused in some areas of dermatologic practice. Clinicians need to be aware of the time interval between irradiation and the development of its late sequelae, and the incidence of these sequelae. Appropriate irradiation exposure history should be a part of the evaluation of every patient.

  8. The tangential velocity excess of the Milky Way satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautun, Marius; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2017-06-01

    We estimate the systemic orbital kinematics of the Milky Way classical satellites and compare them with predictions from the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model derived from a semi-analytical galaxy formation model applied to high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations. We find that the Galactic satellite system is atypical of ΛCDM systems. The subset of 10 Galactic satellites with proper motion measurements has a velocity anisotropy, β = -2.2 ± 0.4, which lies in the 2.9 per cent tail of the ΛCDM distribution. Individually, the Milky Way satellites have radial velocities that are lower than expected for their proper motions, with 9 out of the 10 having at most 20 per cent of their orbital kinetic energy invested in radial motion. Such extreme values are expected in only 1.5 per cent of ΛCDM satellites systems. In the standard cosmological model, this tangential motion excess is unrelated to the existence of a Galactic 'disc of satellites'. We present theoretical predictions for larger satellite samples that may become available as more proper motion measurements are obtained.

  9. The tangential velocity of M31: CLUES from constrained simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Sorce, Jenny G; Gottloeber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo; Courtois, Helene; Tully, R Brent

    2016-01-01

    Determining the precise value of the tangential component of the velocity of M31 is a non trivial astrophysical issue, that relies on complicated modeling. This has recently lead to con- flicting estimates, obtained by several groups that used different methodologies and assump- tions. This letter addresses the issue by computing a Bayesian posterior distribution function of this quantity, in order to measure the compatibility of those estimates with LambdaCDM. This is achieved using an ensemble of local group (LG) look-alikes collected from a set of Con- strained Simulations (CSs) of the local Universe, and a standard unconstrained LambdaCDM. The latter allows us to build a control sample of LG-like pairs and to single out the influence of the environment in our results. We find that neither estimate is at odds with LambdaCDM; how- ever, whereas CSs favour higher values of vtan , the reverse is true for estimates based on LG samples gathered from unconstrained simulations, overlooking the environmental eleme...

  10. Tangential acceleration feedback control of friction induced vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Jyayasi; Chatterjee, S.

    2016-09-01

    Tangential control action is studied on a phenomenological mass-on-belt model exhibiting friction-induced self-excited vibration attributed to the low-velocity drooping characteristics of friction which is also known as Stribeck effect. The friction phenomenon is modelled by the exponential model. Linear stability analysis is carried out near the equilibrium point and local stability boundary is delineated in the plane of control parameters. The system is observed to undergo a Hopf bifurcation as the eigenvalues determined from the linear stability analysis are found to cross the imaginary axis transversally from RHS s-plane to LHS s-plane or vice-versa as one varies the control parameters, namely non-dimensional belt velocity and the control gain. A nonlinear stability analysis by the method of Averaging reveals the subcritical nature of the Hopf bifurcation. Thus, a global stability boundary is constructed so that any choice of control parameters from the globally stable region leads to a stable equilibrium. Numerical simulations in a MATLAB SIMULINK model and bifurcation diagrams obtained in AUTO validate these analytically obtained results. Pole crossover design is implemented to optimize the filter parameters with an independent choice of belt velocity and control gain. The efficacy of this optimization (based on numerical results) in the delicate low velocity region is also enclosed.

  11. Sessile multidroplets and salt droplets under high tangential electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxin; He, Feng; Liu, Xiang; Si, Lina; Guo, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interaction behaviors between sessile droplets under imposed high voltages is very important in many practical situations, e.g., microfluidic devices and the degradation/aging problems of outdoor high-power applications. In the present work, the droplet coalescence, the discharge activity and the surface thermal distribution response between sessile multidroplets and chloride salt droplets under high tangential electric fields have been investigated with infrared thermography, high-speed photography and pulse current measurement. Obvious polarity effects on the discharge path direction and the temperature change in the droplets in the initial stage after discharge initiation were observed due to the anodic dissolution of metal ions from the electrode. In the case of sessile aligned multidroplets, the discharge path direction could affect the location of initial droplet coalescence. The smaller unmerged droplet would be drained into the merged large droplet as a result from the pressure difference inside the droplets rather than the asymmetric temperature change due to discharge. The discharge inception voltages and the temperature variations for two salt droplets closely correlated with the ionization degree of the salt, as well as the interfacial electrochemical reactions near the electrodes. Mechanisms of these observed phenomena were discussed. PMID:27121926

  12. A three-dimensional model of Tangential YORP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubov, O.; Scheeres, D. J. [Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder 429 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Krugly, Yu. N., E-mail: golubov@astron.kharkov.ua [Institute of Astronomy, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 35 Sumska Str., Kharkiv, 61022 (Ukraine)

    2014-10-10

    Tangential YORP, or TYORP, has recently been demonstrated to be an important factor in the evolution of an asteroid's rotation state. It is complementary to normal YORP, or NYORP, which used to be considered previously. While NYORP is produced by non-symmetry in the large-scale geometry of an asteroid, TYORP is due to heat conductivity in stones on the surface of the asteroid. To date, TYORP has been studied only in a simplified one-dimensional model, substituting stones with high long walls. This article for the first time considers TYORP in a realistic three-dimensional model, also including shadowing and self-illumination effects via ray tracing. TYORP is simulated for spherical stones lying on regolith. The model includes only five free parameters and the dependence of the TYORP on each of them is studied. The TYORP torque appears to be smaller than previous estimates from the one-dimensional model, but is still comparable to the NYORP torques. These results can be used to estimate TYORP of different asteroids and also as a basis for more sophisticated models of TYORP.

  13. Purification of hemoglobin by tangential flow filtration with diafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Jacob; Harris, David R; Sun, Guoyong; Palmer, Andre F

    2009-01-01

    A recent study by Palmer, Sun, and Harris (Biotechnol. Prog., 25:189-199, 2009) demonstrated that tangential flow filtration (TFF) can be used to produce HPLC-grade bovine and human hemoglobin (Hb). In this current study, we assessed the quality of bovine Hb (bHb) purified by introducing a 10 L batch-mode diafiltration step to the previously mentioned TFF Hb purification process. The bHb was purified from bovine red blood cells (RBCs) by filtering clarified RBC lysate through 50 nm (stage I) and 500 kDa (stage II) hollow fiber (HF) membranes. The filtrate was then passed through a 100 kDa (stage III) HF membrane with or without an additional 10 L diafiltration step to potentially remove additional small molecular weight impurities. Protein assays, SDS-PAGE, and LC-MS of the purified bHb (stage III retentate) reveal that addition of a diafiltration step has no effect on bHb purity or yield; however, it does increase the methemoglobin level and oxygen affinity of purified bHb. Therefore, we conclude that no additional benefit is gained from diafiltration at stage III and a three stage TFF process is sufficient to produce HPLC-grade bHb.

  14. Locomotion by tangential deformation in a polymeric fluid

    CERN Document Server

    ZHu, Lailai; Lauga, Eric; Brandt, Luca; 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.011901

    2012-01-01

    In several biologically relevant situations, cell locomotion occurs in polymeric fluids with Weissenberg {number} larger than one. Here we present results of three-dimensional numerical simulations for the steady locomotion of a self-propelled body in a model polymeric (Giesekus) fluid at low Reynolds number. Locomotion is driven by steady tangential deformation at the surface of the body (so-called squirming motion). In the case of a spherical squirmer, we show that the swimming velocity is systematically less than that in a Newtonian fluid, with a minimum occurring for Weissenberg numbers of order one. The rate of work done by the swimmer always goes up compared to that occurring in the Newtonian solvent alone, but is always lower than the power necessary to swim in a Newtonian fluid with the same viscosity. The swimming efficiency, defined as the ratio between the rate of work necessary to pull the body at the swimming speed in the same fluid and the rate of work done by swimming, is found to always be inc...

  15. Superficial siderosis in the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pythinen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Paeaekkoe, E. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ilkko, E. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1995-02-01

    We describe a rare entity, superficial siderosis of the central nervous system, due to multiple small episodes of subarachnoid haemorrhage from any source. Non-specific neurological findings are associated with deposition of iron-containing pigments in the leptomeninges and superficial layers of the cortex. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates characteristic low signal in the meninges. (orig.)

  16. Investigations of transonic buffet control on civil aircraft wing with the use of tangential jet blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, K. A.; Petrov, A. V.; Potapchick, A. V.; Soudakov, V. G.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical and experimental investigations of transonic buffet control by tangential jet blowing are presented. To suppress the shock-induced boundary layer separation and the buffet at transonic speeds, compressed air jet is blown through a small slot nozzle tangentially to the upper surface of the supercritical airfoil. Numerical simulations were carried out on the basis of the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. Experimental studies of the tangential jet blowing were performed in the transonic wind tunnel T-112 of TsAGI. Results show that the jet moves the shock downstream, increases lift, suppresses flow separation under shock foot and delays buffet onset.

  17. Cochlear implantation in superficial siderosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chong-Sun; Song, Jae-Jun; Park, Min-Hyun; Kim, Young Ho; Koo, Ja-Won

    2006-08-01

    Superficial siderosis (SS) of the central nervous system has been thought to be a rare condition that generates progressive hearing loss, ataxia, pyramidal signs, and dementia. The main cause of hearing loss by SS is thought to be neuronal. Because there is no histopathologic report of the human temporal bone in SS, there is a debate about the possibility of cochlear involvement. We present a 25-year-old man who was investigated for bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular failure after head trauma. On brain MRI, SS of the central nervous system was detected. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) showed no response on both sides. However, integrity of the eighth nerve was proved by the electrical ABR test on the right side and the patient benefited significantly from cochlear implantation. The sensorineural hearing loss in SS seems to be related to cochlear damage as well as neuronal damage. So, cochlear implantation would be a hearing rehabilitation modality for the sensorineural hearing loss caused by SS.

  18. Silicon superficial texturing bypulsed laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce, L.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Texturing of silicon surfaces with pulsed laser is made. The method is based on the formation of laser- induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS. The process is temporary characterized through the dynamic reflectance, thus determining the formation threshold of the structure. Relation between the different textures and the spectral reflectance of the samples before and after the treatment is also characterized. The mean value of spectral reflectance decreases up to a 6 %.

    Se realiza el texturado de superficies de silicio con un láser pulsado mediante la formación de una estructura periódica inducida por láser (LIPSS. Se caracteriza el proceso mediante reflectancia dinámica, determinándose el umbral de formación de la estructura. Se caracteriza el nivel de texturado midiendo la reflectancia espectral de las muestras antes y después del tratamiento. El valor medio de la reflectancia espectral disminuye hasta el 6 %.

  19. Tangentially migrating neurons assemble a primary cilium that promotes their reorientation to the cortical plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Viou, Lucie; Launay, Pierre-Serge; Luccardini, Camilla; Espeso Gil, Sergio; Kiyasova, Vera; Irinopoulou, Théano; Alvarez, Chantal; Rio, Jean-Paul; Boudier, Thomas; Lechaire, Jean-Pierre; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Spassky, Nathalie; Métin, Christine

    2012-12-20

    In migrating neurons, the centrosome nucleates and anchors a polarized network of microtubules that directs organelle movements. We report here that the mother centriole of neurons migrating tangentially from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) assembles a short primary cilium and exposes this cilium to the cell surface by docking to the plasma membrane in the leading process. Primary cilia are built by intraflagellar transport (IFT), which is also required for Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction in vertebrates. We show that Shh pathway perturbations influenced the leading process morphology and dynamics of MGE cells. Whereas Shh favored the exit of MGE cells away from their tangential migratory paths in the developing cortex, cyclopamine or invalidation of IFT genes maintained MGE cells in the tangential paths. Our findings show that signals transmitted through the primary cilium promote the escape of future GABAergic interneurons from their tangential routes to colonize the cortical plate.

  20. Estimation of the Radial Distribution of the Tangential Velocity in a Vortex Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira OGAWA; Tsuyoshi IKARI; Hiroyuki MURAKAMI; Kouhei SATHO

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of maximum tangential velocity becomes a very important factor for the estimation of performances of the vortex chamber. In this paper, a proposed flow model of how to estimate the maximum tangential velocity in the special form of the vortex chamber is described in detail. The pressure drop basing upon the rapid expansion by flowing from the inlet pipe into the cyclone body is estimated as half of the dynamic pressure in the inlet pipe.

  1. Comparative study of the radial and tangential shearer cutting picks from an energetic point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marian, I.; Elczner, G.; Kovacs, I.; Koronka, F.

    1984-11-01

    After having calculated and established the deformation energies of radial and tangential shearer cutting picks by laboratory test, it is concluded that in the conditions specific for the lignite operations in Romania the tangential type of picks, among many other advantages, ensure important energy savings. The tests were aimed at improving the parameters and construction of the shearer cutting picks and at increasing their cutting efficiency. 4 references.

  2. TANGENTIAL DISPLACEMENT INFLUENCE ON THE CRITICAL NORMAL FORCE OF ADHESIVE CONTACT BREAKAGE IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakov A. Lyashenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The dependencies of the critical components of normal and tangential forces corresponding to the contact breakage between a parabolic indenter and an elastic half-space have been determined taking into account adhesive interaction. In order to describe the adhesive contact, the method of dimensionality reduction (MDR and the modified rule of Heß taking into account tangential displacements have been used. The influence of the surface energy depending on the indenter separation angle has been studied.

  3. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia after tangential beam irradiation to the breast. Discrimination from radiation pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambu, Atsushi; Ozawa, Katsura; Kanazawa, Masaki; Miyata, Kazuyuki [Kofu Municipal Hospital (Japan); Araki, Tsutomu; Ohki, Zennosuke [Yamanashi Medical Coll., Tamaho (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    We report a case of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) secondary to tangential beam irradiation to the breast, which occurred seven months after the completion of radiotherapy. Although radiation pneumonitis is an alternative consideration, BOOP could be differentiated from it by its relatively late onset and extensive distribution, which did not respect the radiation field. This disease should always be kept in mind in patients with a history of tangential beam irradiation to the breast. (author)

  4. Extended semi-analytical model for the prediction of flow and concentration fields in a tangentially-fired furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfiani Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tangentially-fired furnaces (TFF are one of the modified types of furnaces which have become more attractive in the field of industrial firing systems in recent years. Multi-zone thermodynamic models can be used to study the effect of different parameters on the operation of TFF readily and economically. Flow and mixing sub-model is a necessity in multi-zone models. In the present work, the semi-analytical model previously established by the authors for the prediction of the behavior of coaxial turbulent gaseous jets is extended to be used in a single-chamber TFF with square horizontal cross-sections and to form the flow and mixing sub-model of the future multi-zone model for the simulation of this TFF. A computer program is developed to implement the new extended model. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations are carried out to validate the results of the new model. In order to verify the CFD solution procedure, a turbulent round jet injected into cross flow is simulated. The calculated jet trajectory and velocity profile are compared with other experimental and numerical data and good agreement is observed. Results show that the present model can provide very fast and reasonable predictions of the flow and concentration fields in the TFF of interest.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  6. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new...

  7. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new...

  8. Efficacy of axial and tangential corneal topography maps in detecting subclinical keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummanapalli, Shyam Sunder; Potluri, Haresh; Vaddavalli, Pravin Krishna; Sangwan, Virender S

    2015-10-01

    To investigate and compare the efficacy of axial and tangential corneal topography maps obtained using the Orbscan IIz scanning-slit device to distinguish differences in eyes with subclinical keratoconus from normal eyes. LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Axial and tangential maps of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces were obtained in eyes of patients with subclinical keratoconus (normal fellow eye of an eye with clinically diagnosed keratoconus). The following measurements were obtained from each map and compared between the 2 groups: location of the corneal apex in millimeters relative to the corneal vertex, dioptric power at the corneal apex and corneal vertex, corneal irregularity indices at 3.0 mm and 5.0 mm, anterior-posterior apex ratio, and inferior-superior dioptric asymmetry value. Maps were obtained in 71 eyes (71 patients) with subclinical keratoconus and 76 normal eyes (76 patients). The tangential posterior apex curvature was significantly steeper than the axial posterior apex curvature in both groups (P keratoconus eyes from normal eyes. The anterior-posterior apex ratio on the tangential map and 5.0 mm irregularity index of the posterior corneal surface were highly sensitive and specific for early detection of subclinical keratoconus. Tangential corneal topography maps should be considered in preoperative subclinical keratoconus screening. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of magnetic drift tangential to magnetic surfaces on neoclassical transport in non-axisymmetric plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Seikichi; Kanno, Ryutaro; Sugama, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    In evaluating neoclassical transport by radially-local simulations, the magnetic drift tangential to a flux surface is usually ignored in order to keep the phase-space volume conservation. In this paper, effect of the tangential magnetic drift on the local neoclassical transport are investigated. To retain the effect of the tangential magnetic drift in the local treatment of neoclassical transport, a new local formulation for the drift kinetic simulation is developed. The compressibility of the phase-space volume caused by the tangential magnetic drift is regarded as a source term for the drift kinetic equation, which is solved by using a two-weight $\\delta f$ Monte Carlo method for non-Hamiltonian system [G. Hu and J. A. Krommes, Phys. Plasmas $\\rm \\textbf{1}$, 863 (1994)]. It is demonstrated that the effect of the drift is negligible for the neoclassical transport in tokamaks. In non-axisymmetric systems, however, the tangential magnetic drift substantially changes the dependence of the neoclassical transpo...

  10. Tangential migration of glutamatergic neurons and cortical patterning during development: Lessons from Cajal-Retzius cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Melissa; Pierani, Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    Tangential migration is a mode of cell movement, which in the developing cerebral cortex, is defined by displacement parallel to the ventricular surface and orthogonal to the radial glial fibers. This mode of long-range migration is a strategy by which distinct neuronal classes generated from spatially and molecularly distinct origins can integrate to form appropriate neural circuits within the cortical plate. While it was previously believed that only GABAergic cortical interneurons migrate tangentially from their origins in the subpallial ganglionic eminences to integrate in the cortical plate, it is now known that transient populations of glutamatergic neurons also adopt this mode of migration. These include Cajal-Retzius cells (CRs), subplate neurons (SPs), and cortical plate transient neurons (CPTs), which have crucial roles in orchestrating the radial and tangential development of the embryonic cerebral cortex in a noncell-autonomous manner. While CRs have been extensively studied, it is only in the last decade that the molecular mechanisms governing their tangential migration have begun to be elucidated. To date, the mechanisms of SPs and CPTs tangential migration remain unknown. We therefore review the known signaling pathways, which regulate parameters of CRs migration including their motility, contact-redistribution and adhesion to the pial surface, and discuss this in the context of how CR migration may regulate their signaling activity in a spatial and temporal manner. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 847-881, 2016.

  11. Superficial Temporal Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Syed Muneeb; Imran, Muhammad; Qazi, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the superficial temporal artery are an uncommon vascular lesion of the external carotid system and most often the result of blunt head trauma. The frequency of pseudoaneurysms of the superficial temporal artery developing after craniotomy is exceedingly low and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of pseudoaneurysm of this type in a 45-year-old male who underwent craniotomy for excision of meningioma. One month postoperatively, the craniotomy flap exhibited an enormous diffuse pulsate swelling. The suspected diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm arising from superficial temporal artery was confirmed on angiography. Surgical excision was done and no recurrences of the tumor or aneurysm were noted on subsequent follow up. PMID:26501064

  12. A comparison of en face and tangential wide-area excimer surface ablation in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, R J; Fouraker, B D; Schanzlin, D J

    1990-06-01

    We used an argon fluoride excimer laser (193 nm) to perform anterior corneal surface ablation in New Zealand white rabbits (25 eyes) using both en face and tangential methods. We followed up the animals for 90 days using slit-lamp photography and pachymetry at predetermined intervals. We also examined selected tissues with scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Immediate and subsequent examinations revealed significant differences in clarity between the two groups. When viewed through slit-lamp microscopy, the rabbits undergoing the en face method exhibited hazy corneas and irregular surfaces, whereas the corneas that underwent tangential keratectomy demonstrated less haze and fewer surface irregularities. Through histologic study and electron microscopy, we corroborated this finding. At 30 days, there was a statistically significant difference in clarity between en face--treated corneas and those treated tangentially.

  13. Design of tangential viewing phase contrast imaging for turbulence measurements in JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K., E-mail: ktanaka@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Coda, S. [EPFL–SPC, Lausanne (Switzerland); Yoshida, M.; Sasao, H.; Kawano, Y.; Imazawa, R.; Kubo, H.; Kamada, Y. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    A tangential viewing phase contrast imaging system is being designed for the JT-60SA tokamak to investigate microturbulence. In order to obtain localized information on the turbulence, a spatial-filtering technique is applied, based on magnetic shearing. The tangential viewing geometry enhances the radial localization. The probing laser beam is injected tangentially and traverses the entire plasma region including both low and high field sides. The spatial resolution for an Internal Transport Barrier discharge is estimated at 30%–70% of the minor radius at k = 5 cm{sup −1}, which is the typical expected wave number of ion scale turbulence such as ion temperature gradient/trapped electron mode.

  14. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24474103

  15. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets.

  16. Superficial Granulomatous Pyoderma Gangrenosum of the Penis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala S. Gopi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Classic type of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG is an uncommon ulceronecrotic cutaneous disease of uncertain aetiology characterised by broad zones of confluent ulceration with violaceous undermined margins. Some 50% of cases are associated with systemic diseases. The superficial granulomatous variant of pyoderma gangrenosum (SGPG of the external genitalia is extremely rare Patients with this condition develop single or multiple ulcerated skin lesions often with sinus tract formation. The majority of these lesions were found on the trunk and limbs. SGPG is less likely to be associated with underlying disease processes than classic PG. We present a 58 year-old with recalcitrant penile ulceration demonstrated to be SGPG on biopsy. Although rare and poorly recognised, the histological features are sufficiently typical to allow the correct diagnosis to be established.

  17. Skin-pass rolling II - Studies of roughness transfer under combined normal and tangential loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kijima, Hideo; Bay, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The influence of tool roughness on roughness transfer in skin-pass or temper rolling of steel strip is investigated, focusing on loading under combined normal and tangential displacement of tool relative to the workpiece. The calculated roughness transfer by an elasto-plastic finite element (FE...... measurements in this paper. The experiment shows a significant influence on roughness transfer of tangential displacement of workpiece in the sticking and the sliding region. The FE calculations modelling the sticking and sliding region reveal the mechanisms of plastic deformation and roughness transfer....

  18. Computational Modeling of Tangentially Fired Boiler (I) Models, Flow Field and Temperature Profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this work, an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach has been employed to investigate numerically the flow characteristics, heat transfer and combustion in a tangentially fired furnace. The RNG (Re-normalization group) k-e model and a new method for cell face velocity interpolation based on a non-staggered grid system are employed. To avoid pseudo-diffusion that is significant in modeling tangentially fired furnaces, attempts are made at improving the differential volume scheme. Some new developments on turbulent diffusion of particles are also taken into account. Thus, computational accuracy is improved substantially.

  19. Tangential and Vertical Compact Torus Injection Experiments on the STOR-M Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Chijin; Liu D.; S. Livingstone; A. K. Singh; E. Zhang; A. Hirose

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the setup and results of compact torus (CT) injection experiments on the STOR-M tokamak. Tangential CT injection into STOR-M induced H-mode-like phenomena including doubling the electron density, reduction in the Ha radiation level, suppression of the floating potential fluctuations, suppression of the m = 2 Mirnov oscillations, and increase in the global energy confinement time. Experimental setup, bench-test results, and some preliminary injection data for vertical CT injection experiments on STOR-M will be shown. In addition, numerical simulations of the CT trajectories in tokamak discharges for both tangential and vertical injection geometries will be discussed.

  20. Experimental study of lattice dynamics in individual semiconducting double-walled carbon nanotubes: Tangential G modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshov, D. I.; Tran, H. N.; Slabodyan, Yu. S.; Osadchii, A. V.; Roshal', S. B.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2017-02-01

    The tangential G modes in individual semiconducting double-walled nanotubes have been examined via Raman spectroscopy over a wide laser excitation wavelength range. Individual suspended nanotubes have been synthesized via chemical vapor deposition. The ( n, m) chirality indices are determined via electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The pronounced shift in the tangential modes compared to the analogous modes of single-walled nanotubes has been observed in Raman spectra of double-walled nanotubes. The shift value is shown to depend on the interlayer distance and on the van der Waals interaction between the layers in a double-walled tube.

  1. Tests of the frozen-flux and tangentially geostrophic assumptions using magnetic satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chulliat, A.; Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, T.

    the very large number of flows explaining the observed secular variation under the frozen-flux assumption alone. More recently, it has been shown that the combined frozen-flux and tangentially geostrophic assumptions translate into constraints on the secular variation whose mathematics are now well...... understood. Using these constraints, we test the combined frozen-flux and tangentially geostrophic assumptions against recent, high-precision magnetic data provided by the and CHAMP satellites. The methodology involves building constrained field models using least-squares methods. Two types of models...

  2. Superficial Urothelial Cancer in the Prostatic Urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Kirkali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is a multifocal disease of the urinary tract that can also involve the prostatic urethra (PU. The exact incidence of superficial involvement of the PU in patients with bladder TCC is not well known. Bladder TCC may involve the prostate in 12—40% of the patients and the degree of involvement can include urethral mucosa, ducts, acini, and stroma of the gland, which has been shown to affect the outcome. Risk factors for superficial urothelial cancer in the PU are high-grade, multifocal bladder TCC and presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS in the bladder. While visible tumors are easy to detect and resect, controversy still exists regarding the optimal technique to identify prostatic involvement by TCC. Prostatic urethral sampling by a transurethral resection biopsy or a cold-cup biopsy, particularly in the high-risk group of bladder cancer patients, has been recommended for detecting prostatic urethral involvement. Management of superficial prostatic involvement by TCC is also unclear. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the value of conservative treatment options with intravesical agents when there is superficial involvement of the PU. Particularly, intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (BCG seems to be an effective treatment alternative in the management of superficial involvement of the PU by TCC. Close follow-up by cystoscopy and PU biopsy at 3-month intervals, particularly in intermediate and high-risk patients who respond to intravesical therapy and in whom cystectomy is appropriate, is recommended in order to detect persistent tumor, recurrences, or progression.

  3. Superficial urothelial cancer in the prostatic urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkali, Ziya; Canda, A Erdem

    2006-02-28

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a multifocal disease of the urinary tract that can also involve the prostatic urethra (PU). The exact incidence of superficial involvement of the PU in patients with bladder TCC is not well known. Bladder TCC may involve the prostate in 12-40% of the patients and the degree of involvement can include urethral mucosa, ducts, acini, and stroma of the gland, which has been shown to affect the outcome. Risk factors for superficial urothelial cancer in the PU are high-grade, multifocal bladder TCC and presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in the bladder. While visible tumors are easy to detect and resect, controversy still exists regarding the optimal technique to identify prostatic involvement by TCC. Prostatic urethral sampling by a transurethral resection biopsy or a cold-cup biopsy, particularly in the high-risk group of bladder cancer patients, has been recommended for detecting prostatic urethral involvement. Management of superficial prostatic involvement by TCC is also unclear. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the value of conservative treatment options with intravesical agents when there is superficial involvement of the PU. Particularly, intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (BCG) seems to be an effective treatment alternative in the management of superficial involvement of the PU by TCC. Close follow-up by cystoscopy and PU biopsy at 3-month intervals, particularly in intermediate and high-risk patients who respond to intravesical therapy and in whom cystectomy is appropriate, is recommended in order to detect persistent tumor, recurrences, or progression.

  4. Use of Superficial Temporal Fascia Flap for Treatment of Postradiation Trismus: An Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rohit; Roy, Indranil Deb; Deshmukh, Tushar S; Bhandari, Amit

    2015-10-01

    Post radiation trismus severely reduces the quality of life. Radiation causes fibrosis of muscles of mastication resulting in severe restriction of mouth opening. Treatment options are limited as most of the local flaps are in the radiation zone. The present case is the first case in existing literature where, following the release of fibrosis secondary to radiation, superficial temporal fascia (STF) was used to cover the defect with excellent results and no recurrence after a year of follow up.

  5. Tangential Flow Filtration of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles: A "Green" Laboratory Experiment for Chemistry and Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Kevin M.; Baker, Joshua D.; Edwards, Michelle L.; Kanel, Sushil R.; O'Malley, Matthew; Pavel Sizemore, Ioana E.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous nanoparticle (NP) fabrication methodologies employ "bottom-up" syntheses, which may result in heterogeneous mixtures of NPs or may require toxic capping agents to reduce NP polydispersity. Tangential flow filtration (TFF) is an alternative "green" technique for the purification, concentration, and size-selection of…

  6. Persistent and tangential center problem and abelian integrals in dimension zero

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, Amelia Álvarez; Mardesić, Pavao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the persistent and tangential center problems in dimension zero. These problems are motivated by the study of planar vector fields. The question there is when a center persists after deformation, or when it persists up to first order. The zero-dimensional tangential center problem is the problem of identical vanishing of Abelian integrals on zero-dimensional cycles. Looking at the behavior of cycles at infinity, we introduce the notions of balanced, unbalanced and totally unbalanced cycles. We solve the zero-dimensional polynomial tangential center problem for totally unbalanced cycles. Pakovich and Muzychuk solved the polynomial moment problem and showed that the solution is a sum of composition terms. One can say that a weak composition conjecture holds in this case. We show that the polynomial moment problem can be seen as a special case of the tangential center problem on a totally unbalanced cycle. We also study the center problem on some balanced cycles. We provide examples where ...

  7. Tangential Flow Filtration of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles: A "Green" Laboratory Experiment for Chemistry and Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Kevin M.; Baker, Joshua D.; Edwards, Michelle L.; Kanel, Sushil R.; O'Malley, Matthew; Pavel Sizemore, Ioana E.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous nanoparticle (NP) fabrication methodologies employ "bottom-up" syntheses, which may result in heterogeneous mixtures of NPs or may require toxic capping agents to reduce NP polydispersity. Tangential flow filtration (TFF) is an alternative "green" technique for the purification, concentration, and size-selection of…

  8. Tests of the frozen-flux and tangentially geostrophic assumptions using magnetic satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chulliat, A.; Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, T.

    In 1984, Jean-Louis Le Mouël published a paper suggesting that the flow at the top of the Earth’s core is tangentially geostrophic, i.e., the Lorentz force is much smaller than the Coriolis force in this particular region of the core. This new assumption wassubsequently used to discriminate among...

  9. Defective neuroepithelial cell cohesion affects tangential branchiomotor neuron migration in the zebrafish neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Petra; Maître, Jean-Léon; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2011-11-01

    Facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) in zebrafish and mouse embryonic hindbrain undergo a characteristic tangential migration from rhombomere (r) 4, where they are born, to r6/7. Cohesion among neuroepithelial cells (NCs) has been suggested to function in FBMN migration by inhibiting FBMNs positioned in the basal neuroepithelium such that they move apically between NCs towards the midline of the neuroepithelium instead of tangentially along the basal side of the neuroepithelium towards r6/7. However, direct experimental evaluation of this hypothesis is still lacking. Here, we have used a combination of biophysical cell adhesion measurements and high-resolution time-lapse microscopy to determine the role of NC cohesion in FBMN migration. We show that reducing NC cohesion by interfering with Cadherin 2 (Cdh2) activity results in FBMNs positioned at the basal side of the neuroepithelium moving apically towards the neural tube midline instead of tangentially towards r6/7. In embryos with strongly reduced NC cohesion, ectopic apical FBMN movement frequently results in fusion of the bilateral FBMN clusters over the apical midline of the neural tube. By contrast, reducing cohesion among FBMNs by interfering with Contactin 2 (Cntn2) expression in these cells has little effect on apical FBMN movement, but reduces the fusion of the bilateral FBMN clusters in embryos with strongly diminished NC cohesion. These data provide direct experimental evidence that NC cohesion functions in tangential FBMN migration by restricting their apical movement.

  10. Airfoil drag elimination and stall suppression via piezoelectric dynamic tangential synthetic jet actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, R.; Corpening, J.; Reasonover, C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for drag elimination and stall suppression via tangential synthetic jet actuators. This boundary layer control (BLC) method is shown to perform as well as continuous and normal synthetic jet BLC methods but without fouling difficulties, system-level complexity or ex

  11. Coalescence of deep and superficial epileptic foci into larger discharge units in adult rat neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Ruggero; Andrade, Rodrigo; Loeb, Jeffrey A

    2015-04-30

    Epilepsy is a disease of neuronal hyper-synchrony that can involve both neocortical and hippocampal brain regions. While much is known about the network properties of the hippocampus little is known of how epileptic neocortical hyper-synchrony develops. We aimed at characterizing the properties of epileptic discharges of a neocortical epileptic focus. We established a multi-electrode-array method to record the spatial patterns of epileptiform potentials in acute adult rat brain slices evoked by 4-Aminopyridine in the absence of magnesium. Locations of discharges mapped to two anatomical regions over the somatosensory cortex and over the lateral convexity separated by a gap at a location matching the dysgranular zone. Focal epileptiform discharges were recorded in superficial and deep neocortical layers but over superficial layers, they exhibited larger surface areas. They were often independent even when closely spaced to one another but they became progressively coupled resulting in larger zones of coherent discharge. The gradual coupling of multiple, independent, closely spaced, spatially restricted, focal discharges between deep and superficial neocortical layers represents a possible mechanism of the development of an epileptogenic zone.

  12. COALESCENCE OF DEEP AND SUPERFICIAL EPILEPTIC FOCI INTO LARGER DISCHARGE UNITS IN ADULT RAT NEOCORTEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    SERAFINI, RUGGERO; ANDRADE, RODRIGO; LOEB, JEFFREY A.

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a disease of neuronal hyper-synchrony that can involve both neocortical and hippocampal brain regions. While much is known about the network properties of the hippocampus little is known of how epileptic neocortical hyper-synchrony develops. We aimed at characterizing the properties of epileptic discharges of a neocortical epileptic focus. We established a multi-electrode-array method to record the spatial patterns of epileptiform potentials in acute adult rat brain slices evoked by 4-Aminopyridine in the absence of magnesium. Locations of discharges mapped to two anatomical regions over the somatosensory cortex and over the lateral convexity separated by a gap at a location matching the dysgranular zone. Focal epileptiform discharges were recorded in superficial and deep neocortical layers but over superficial layers, they exhibited larger surface areas. They were often independent even when closely spaced to one another but they became progressively coupled resulting in larger zones of coherent discharge. The gradual coupling of multiple, independent, closely spaced, spatially restricted, focal discharges between deep and superficial neocortical layers represents a possible mechanism of the development of an epileptogenic zone. PMID:25701714

  13. Influence of the Hard-Faced Layer Welded on Tangential-Rotary Pick Operational Part on to Its Wear Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauze, Krzysztof; Skowronek, Tadeusz; Mucha, Kamil

    2016-12-01

    Problems related with abrasive wear of tangential-rotary picks during cutting process and its limitations, have been discussed in the present study. Essential for the parameters of cutting process geometrical, kinematic and material parameters of tangential-rotary picks and types of their wear, have been discussed. Testing procedure in aspect of the wear of tangential-rotary picks and their durability estimation, has been described. Manners of the abrasion of pick body and pick edge of the tangential-rotary picks, have been determined. Particular attention was paid to procedure of hard facing of the pick operational part and its influence onto mining process. Results of examination of tangential-rotary picks with hard facing layer on operational part near insert made of abrasion sintered carbide are also cited.

  14. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-09-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  15. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF MARGINAL SUPERFICIAL PERIODONTIUM AT MENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Premises: Sexual hormones may affect the general health condition of women, as early as puberty, continuing during pregnancy and also after menopause. Variations of the hormonal levels may cause different – either local or general – pathological modifications. Sexual hormones may also affect periodontal status, favourizing gingival inflammations and reducing periodontal resistance to the action of the bacterial plaque. Scope: Establishment of the correlations between the debut or the manifestation of menopause and the modifications produced in the superficial periodontium. Materials and method: Clinical and paraclinical investigations were performed on female patients with ages between 45 and 66 years, involving macroscopic, microscopic and radiological recording of the aspect of the superificial periodontium (gingiva. Results: Analysis of the histological sections evidenced atrophic and involutive modifications in the marginal superficial periodontium of female patients at menopause. Conclusions: Sexual hormones intervene in the histological equilibrium of the marginal superficial periodontium, influencing the periodontal health status, which explains the correlation between the subjective symptomatology specific to menopause and the histopatological aspect at epithelial level.

  16. Tangential View and Intraoperative Three-Dimensional Fluoroscopy for the Detection of Screw-Misplacements in Volar Plating of Distal Radius Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rausch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Volar locking plate fixation has become the gold standard in the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures. Juxta-articular screws should be placed as close as possible to the subchondral zone, in an optimized length to buttress the articular surface and address the contralateral cortical bone. On the other hand, intra-articular screw misplacements will promote osteoarthritis, while the penetration of the contralateral bone surface may result in tendon irritations and ruptures. The intraoperative control of fracture reduction and implant positioning is limited in the common postero-anterior and true lateral two-dimensional (2D-fluoroscopic views. Therefore, additional 2D-fluoroscopic views in different projections and intraoperative three-dimensional (3D fluoroscopy were recently reported. Nevertheless, their utility has issued controversies. Objectives The following questions should be answered in this study; 1 Are the additional tangential view and the intraoperative 3D fluoroscopy useful in the clinical routine to detect persistent fracture dislocations and screw misplacements, to prevent revision surgery? 2 Which is the most dangerous plate hole for screw misplacement? Patients and Methods A total of 48 patients (36 females and 13 males with 49 unstable distal radius fractures (22 x 23 A; 2 x 23 B, and 25 x 23 C were treated with a 2.4 mm variable angle LCP Two-Column volar distal radius plate (Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland during a 10-month period. After final fixation, according to the manufactures' technique guide and control of implant placement in the two common perpendicular 2D-fluoroscopic images (postero-anterior and true lateral, an additional tangential view and intraoperative 3D fluoroscopic scan were performed to control the anatomic fracture reduction and screw placements. Intraoperative revision rates due to screw misplacements (intra-articular or overlength were evaluated. Additionally, the number of

  17. Lower body lift with superficial fascial system suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, T

    1993-11-01

    Multiple body contour deformities of the trunk and thighs are commonly treated in separate stages to limit postoperative complications and disability. Recent advances in the surgical design of the medial thigh lift and the lateral thigh/buttock lift along with an understanding of the functional anatomy of the superficial fascial system have significantly improved results and decreased complications of trunk/thigh lifts. The enhanced safety of current trunk/thigh lifts has allowed new combinations to treat multiple body contour deformities in a single stage. Laxity of the entire lower trunk and thigh regions can be treated in one stage in selected patients. The lower body lift combines the transverse flank/thigh/buttock lift and the fascial anchoring medial thigh lift in one operation. In addition to the expected tightening of the flank, buttocks, and total thighs, this procedure results in a surprising degree of epigastric and hypogastric tightening of mild to moderate abdominal laxity without direct surgical undermining or umbilical transposition. Ten patients having the lower body lift alone or in combination with liposuction and other body contouring procedures were followed for 6 to 24 months. The primary indication for surgery is moderate to severe soft-tissue laxity of the lower trunk and thighs with minimal or mild residual fat deposits. Skin contour irregularities due to skin laxity (cellulite of laxity) or to postliposuction adhesions are frequently present and may be severe. Patients with significant fat deposits may be treated initially with liposuction 3 to 4 months earlier to become candidates for this procedure. Key technical elements of this procedure include (1) both supine and lateral decubitus positioning with the hip flexed and abducted to allow overcorrection, (2) appropriate direct surgical undermining through superficial fascial system zones of adherence in the superior thigh while avoiding the lymphatics of the femoral triangle, (3) more

  18. The impact of airwave on tangential and normal components of electric field in seabed logging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Amir; Soleimani, Hassan; Yahya, Noorhana; Nyamasvisva, Tadiwa Elisha; Rauf, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Seabed Logging (SBL), is a recently used application of Controlled Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) method based on study on resistivity of layers beneath seafloor, to delineate marine hydrocarbon reservoir. In this method, an ultra-low frequency electromagnetic (EM) wave is emitted by an electric straight dipole which moves parallel to the seabed. Following Maxwell's equations, reflected and refracted waves from different layers are recorded by receiver line which is laying on the sea floor to define the contrast between amplitude and phase of responding waves of bearing oil reservoir and surrounding host rocks. The main concern of the current work is to study behavior of airwave, which is propagated wave in the seawater area, guided by sea surface and refracted back to the receiver line, and its impact on tangential and normal components of received electric field amplitude. Will be reported that the most significant part of tangential component is airwave, while it does not affect normal component of received electric field, remarkably.

  19. Should inhomogeneity corrections be applied during treatment planning of tangential breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijnheer, B.J.; Heukelom, S.; Lanson, J.H. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Battum, L.J. van; Bree, N.A.M. van (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands) Dr. Daniel Den Hoed Cancer Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Department of Clinical Physics); Tienhoven, G. van (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis)

    1991-12-01

    Due to the inclusion of lung tissue in the treatment volume, some parts of the breast will get a higher dose during tangential breast irradiation because of the lower lung density. Data on the accuracy of dose calculation algorithms, investigated by phantom measurements, determinations of the geometry and density of the actual lung in the patient and results of in vivo dose measurements, are presented. From this information it can be concluded that a lung correction varying between about 3 and 7% is needed but its magnitude is slightly overpredicted in a number of commercial treatment planning systems. Because this increase in dose is already in a high dose region, it is recommended that inhomogeneity corrections should be applied during tangential breast irradiation. (author). 20 refs.; 4 tabs.

  20. THE TOPOGRAPHIC PARAMETER SENSITIVITY TO VORTICITY PROPAGATION AND TYPHOON TANGENTIAL VELOCITY CHANGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-hua

    2005-01-01

    A high resolution shallow-water model is designed to study the roles which the topographical parameter and latitudinal basic flow play in the propagation of vortex Rossby waves and typhoon tangential velocity changes. With no latitudinal flow, the horizontal scale effects of island terrain on the vortex Rossby waves propagation show that the disturbance vorticity follows a clockwise island-circulating path more significantly, the local maximum wind speed amplitude reduces more sharply, the maximum mean azimuthally tangential wind spins down more substantially, when the topographic horizontal scale augments. With the latitudinal basic flow, the evolution of local wind and mean velocity are affected by the distance changes between TC and the terrain and the time length of topographic action: the local wind amplitude intensifies and the mean velocity diminishes while the distance is shortening; the opposite is true while TC is away from the terrain gradually.

  1. Uncertainties in estimating heart doses from 2D-tangential breast cancer radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugaard Lorenzen, Ebbe; Brink, Carsten; Taylor, Carolyn W.;

    2016-01-01

    heart dose estimated from individual CT-scans varied from 8Gy, and maximum dose from 5 to 50Gy for all three regimens, so that estimates based only on regimen had substantial uncertainty. When maximum heart distance was taken into account, the uncertainty was reduced and was comparable......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We evaluated the accuracy of three methods of estimating radiation dose to the heart from two-dimensional tangential radiotherapy for breast cancer, as used in Denmark during 1982-2002. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three tangential radiotherapy regimens were reconstructed using CT...... to the uncertainty of estimates based on individual CT-scans. For right-sided breast cancer patients, mean heart dose based on individual CT-scans was always

  2. A MIXED MODE FRACTURE CRITERION BASED ON THE MAXIMUM TANGENTIAL STRESS IN BRITTLE INCLUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Changjiang; Li Zhonghua; Sun Jun

    2005-01-01

    A closed-form solution for predicting the tangential stress of an inclusion located in mixed mode Ⅰ and Ⅱ crack tip field was developed based on the Eshelby equivalent inclusion theory. Then a mixed mode fracture criterion, including the fracture direction and the critical load, was established based on the maximum tangential stress in the inclusion for brittle inclusioninduced fracture materials. The proposed fracture criterion is a function of the inclusion fracture stress, its size and volume fraction, as well as the elastic constants of the inclusion and the matrix material. The present criterion will reduce to the conventional one as the inclusion having the same elastic behavior as the matrix material. The proposed solutions are in good agreement with detailed finite element analysis and measurement.

  3. Coupled tangential-axial resonant modes of piezoelectric hollow cylinders and their application in ultrasonic motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyshnevskyy, Oleksiy; Kovalev, Sergej; Mehner, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a tangential-axial eigen-mode of a piezoelectric hollow cylinder. A new type of piezoelectric ultrasonic motor using this oscillation mode has been developed. The motor is a traveling-wave-type motor. The stator of such a motor consists of a solid piezoelectric hollow cylinder, which, excited in the tangential-axial resonant mode by a three-phase electrical signal, will exhibit elliptical displacement and transfer rotation to the rotor. The behavior of the stator has been simulated with finite element method (FEM) software. The simulation results have been checked with single-point contact measurements on the surface of the ultrasonic motors. The paper closes with the introduction of new ultrasonic motors based on this oscillation mode.

  4. Tangential Velocity Profile for Axial Flow Through Two Concentric Rotating Cylinders with Radial Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girishwar Nath

    1970-10-01

    Full Text Available A closed form solution of the Navier-Stokes equations has been obtained in the case of steady axisymmetric flow of an incompressible electrically conducting viscous fluid between two concentric rotating cylinders composed of an insulating material under the influence of radial magnetic field. It has been found that the velocity components are less than those of the classical hydrodynamic case. In the presence of the magnetic field, the tangential velocity becomes fully developed in a smaller axial distance than in the absence of the magnetic field. For small Reynolds number, the fully developed tangential velocity is achieved in a small axial distance, but it requires greater axial distance for large Reynolds number.

  5. Vorticity Measurements Using a 6-Sensor Hot-Wire Probe in a Tangentially-Fired Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伯述; 刁永发; 许晋源; 陈昌和

    2003-01-01

    Vorticity, which represents the rotation of a fluid element, is an important characteristic of turbulence. Various methods have been used to measure vorticity. A hot-wire/hot-film anemometer (HWA) was used here to measure the vorticity in turbulent flows. The velocity components and their partial derivatives were simultaneously measured with a new 6-sensor hot-wire (HW) probe assuming ideal yaw and pitch factors with Jorgensen's expression and Taylor's hypothesis to analyze the data. The accurate 6-sensor hot-wire probe results for the velocity field were used to determine the velocity gradients and, therefore, the vorticity vector field. The data was measured in an isothermal model of a tangentially fired furnace. The experimental results in the tangentially fired furnace agree with numerical results.

  6. Research on Stability Prediction of the Crankshaft CNC Tangential Point Tracing Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoda Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the key part of internal combustion engines, crankshaft with high efficiency and accuracy processing has always been the target of the engine manufacturer’s pursuit. Grinding is used to obtain the ultimate dimensional accuracy and surface finish in the crankshaft machining. Grinding of the main journals and the pin journals can be accomplished in a single clamping operation by CNC Tangential Point Tracing grinding technology. However, the chatter in the grinding process is harmful to the precision and surface quality. In this paper, stability lobe diagram is developed to predict the grinding chatter. First the dynamic model of Tangential Point Tracing grinding system is established. Then the limit formula of the critical grinding depth is calculated and the stability lobe diagram of the grinding system is presented. Finally, the validation experiments are carried out on the crankshaft grinding machine and the results are consistent with the calculation.

  7. The exact solution of the Riemann problem in relativistic MHD with tangential magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, R; Pons, J A; Ibáñez, J M; Miralles, J A; Romero, Roberto; Marti, Jose M.; Pons, Jose A.; Ibanez, Jose M.; Miralles, Juan A.

    2005-01-01

    We have extended the procedure to find the exact solution of the Riemann problem in relativistic hydrodynamics to a particular case of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in which the magnetic field of the initial states is tangential to the discontinuity and orthogonal to the flow velocity. The wave pattern produced after the break up of the initial discontinuity is analogous to the non--magnetic case and we show that the problem can be understood as a purely relativistic hydrodynamical problem with a modified equation of state. The new degree of freedom introduced by the non-zero component of the magnetic field results in interesting effects consisting in the change of the wave patterns for given initial thermodynamical states, in a similar way to the effects arising from the introduction of tangential velocities. Secondly, when the magnetic field dominates the thermodynamical pressure and energy, the wave speeds approach the speed of light leading to fast shocks and fast and arbitrarily thin rarefaction wave...

  8. Asymmetry of Radial and Symmetry of Tangential Neuronal Migration Pathways in Developing Human Fetal Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuta; Song, Jae W; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-01-01

    The radial and tangential neural migration pathways are two major neuronal migration streams in humans that are critical during corticogenesis. Corticogenesis is a complex process of neuronal proliferation that is followed by neuronal migration and the formation of axonal connections. Existing histological assessments of these two neuronal migration pathways have limitations inherent to microscopic studies and are confined to small anatomic regions of interest (ROIs). Thus, little evidence is available about their three-dimensional (3-D) fiber pathways and development throughout the entire brain. In this study, we imaged and analyzed radial and tangential migration pathways in the whole human brain using high-angular resolution diffusion MR imaging (HARDI) tractography. We imaged ten fixed, postmortem fetal (17 gestational weeks (GW), 18 GW, 19 GW, three 20 GW, three 21 GW and 22 GW) and eight in vivo newborn (two 30 GW, 34 GW, 35 GW and four 40 GW) brains with no neurological/pathological conditions. We statistically compared the volume of the left and right radial and tangential migration pathways, and the volume of the radial migration pathways of the anterior and posterior regions of the brain. In specimens 22 GW or younger, the volume of radial migration pathways of the left hemisphere was significantly larger than that of the right hemisphere. The volume of posterior radial migration pathways was also larger when compared to the anterior pathways in specimens 22 GW or younger. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the radial migration pathways of brains older than 22 GW. Moreover, our study did not identify any significant differences in volumetric laterality in the tangential migration pathways. These results suggest that these two neuronal migration pathways develop and regress differently, and radial neuronal migration varies regionally based on hemispheric and anterior-posterior laterality, potentially explaining regional differences in

  9. Penetration Effect for Tangential Direction of the Anisotropy Axis in Anisotropic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Vytovtov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Anisotropic plane-parallel structure (both homogeneous and stratified with the direction of the anisotropy axis along the interfaces under tangential propagation of the incident wave is considered. The possibility of wave transmission through a plate (the penetration effect was analytically shown for the given particular case. Expressions for the wave-vector in anisotropic medium, field components, Poynting vector components were written and analyzed. It is shown that the structure has nonreciprocal properties.

  10. Tangential Velocity of the Dark Matter in the Bullet Cluster from Precise Lensed Image Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Sandor M.; Broadhurst, Tom; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Rephaeli, Yoel; Shimon, Meir

    2013-09-01

    We show that the fast-moving component of the "Bullet Cluster" (1E0657-56) can induce potentially resolvable redshift differences between multiply lensed images of background galaxies. This moving cluster effect, due to the tangential peculiar velocity of the lens, can be expressed as the scalar product of the lensing deflection angle with the tangential velocity of the mass components; the effect is maximal for clusters colliding in the plane of the sky with velocities boosted by their mutual gravity. The Bullet Cluster is likely to be the best candidate for the first measurement of this effect due to the large collision velocity and because the lensing deflection and the cluster fields can be calculated in advance. We derive the deflection field using multiply lensed background galaxies detected with the Hubble Space Telescope. The velocity field is modeled using self-consistent N-body/hydrodynamical simulations constrained by the observed X-ray and gravitational lensing features of this system. We predict that the triply lensed images of systems "G" and "H" straddling the critical curve of the bullet component will show the largest frequency shifts up to ~0.5 km s-1. These shifts are within the range of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array for molecular emission, and are near the resolution limit of the new generation high-throughput optical-IR spectrographs. The detection of this effect measures the tangential motion of the subclusters directly, thereby clarifying the tension with ΛCDM, which is inferred from the gas motion less directly. This method may be extended to smaller redshift differences using the Lyα forest toward QSOs lensed by more typical clusters of galaxies. More generally, the tangential component of the peculiar velocities of clusters derived by our method complements the radial component determined by the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, providing a full three-dimensional description of velocities.

  11. Tangential symbols: using visual symbolization to teach pharmacological principles of drug addiction to international audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, A J

    1993-12-01

    Visual art was used to teach the biopsychiatric model of addiction to audiences in the Caribbean, Europe and Mideast. Art slides were tangentially linked to slides of pharmacological data. Stylistically dense art was processed by the intuitive right brain while spare notational pharmacological data was processed by the intellectual (rationalistic) left brain. Simultaneous presentation of these data enhanced attention and retention. This teaching paradigm was based on the nonliterate methods developed by Medieval architects and refined by Italian Renaissance philosopher, Marsilio Ficino.

  12. Influence of radial and tangential anisotropy components in single wall magnetic nanotubes. A Monte Carlo approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Giraldo, J. D.; Morales-Rojas, S.; Hurtado-Marín, V. A.; Restrepo-Parra, E.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic behaviour of nanotubes with square cell has been studied by the Monte Carlo Method, under the Metropolis algorithm and Heisenberg model. The Hamiltonian used includes nearest neighbour exchange interaction and radial and tangential direction for uniaxial anisotropy. Periodic boundary conditions were implemented at the sample's edges. Simulations were carried out varying the nanotube's diameter by changing the number of magnetic moments per ring and anisotropy values. Two transition temperatures were identified corresponding to states where moments were aligned as either ferromagnetic type or anisotropy direction. At low temperatures and low anisotropy values, the system exhibited a ferromagnetic alignment; as the anisotropy was increased, and continued in the low temperature range, spins were aligned in the anisotropy (radial or tangential) direction. As the temperature was increased, spins were reoriented in the ferromagnetic direction, generating a radial (tangential) anisotropy to ferromagnetic transition temperature. When the temperature continued increasing, the system transited toward the paramagnetic phase, appearing a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition phase temperature. In several cases studied here, between these two transition temperatures (anisotropy to ferromagnetic and ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition phases), the magnetization of the system exhibited instabilities. These instabilities are caused because of the influence of the anisotropy values and the diameter of the nanotubes on the magnetic domains formation. As a consequence, there exist anisotropy values and diameters where metastable states were formed.

  13. Study on rail corrugation of a metro tangential track with Cologne-egg type fasteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X. L.; Chen, G. X.; Yang, H. G.; Zhang, Q.; Ouyang, H.; Zhu, M. H.

    2016-03-01

    In Chinese metro lines, rail corrugation on both tangential and tight curved tracks with Cologne-egg type fasteners is very severe. Based on the viewpoint of friction-induced vibration causing rail corrugation, the rail corrugation on a tangential track with Cologne-egg type fasteners is studied in this paper. A vibration model of an elastic multiple-wheelset-track system with Cologne-egg type fasteners is established. Both the complex eigenvalue analysis and the transient dynamic analysis are performed to study the stability and the dynamic performance of the wheelset-track system. The simulation results show that a low rail support stiffness value is responsible for rail corrugation on the tangential track. When the Cologne-egg fasteners characterised by a lower stiffness value are replaced with the DTVI2 fasteners characterised by a higher stiffness value, rail corrugation disappears. However, rail corrugation on tight curved tracks cannot be suppressed using the same replacement. The above conclusions are consistent with the corrugation occurrences in actual metro tracks.

  14. Towards Noncommutative Topological Quantum Field Theory: Tangential Hodge-Witten cohomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zois, I. P.

    2014-03-01

    Some years ago we initiated a program to define Noncommutative Topological Quantum Field Theory (see [1]). The motivation came both from physics and mathematics: On the one hand, as far as physics is concerned, following the well-known holography principle of 't Hooft (which in turn appears essentially as a generalisation of the Hawking formula for black hole entropy), quantum gravity should be a topological quantum field theory. On the other hand as far as mathematics is concerned, the motivation came from the idea to replace the moduli space of flat connections with the Gabai moduli space of codim-1 taut foliations for 3 dim manifolds. In most cases the later is finite and much better behaved and one might use it to define some version of Donaldson-Floer homology which, hopefully, would be easier to compute. The use of foliations brings noncommutative geometry techniques immediately into the game. The basic tools are two: Cyclic cohomology of the corresponding foliation C*-algebra and the so called "tangential cohomology" of the foliation. A necessary step towards this goal is to develop some sort of Hodge theory both for cyclic (and Hochschild) cohomology and for tangential cohomology. Here we present a method to develop a Hodge theory for tangential cohomology of foliations by mimicing Witten's approach to ordinary Morse theory by perturbations of the Laplacian.

  15. Tangential Biopsy Thickness versus Lesion Depth in Longitudinal Melanonychia: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Di Chiacchio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal melanonychia can be caused by melanocyte activation (hypermelanosis or proliferation (lentigo, nevus or melanoma. Histopathologic examination is mandatory for suspicious cases of melanomas. Tangential biopsy of the matrix is an elegant technique avoiding nail plate dystrophy, but it was unknown whether the depth of the sample obtained by this method is adequate for histopathologic diagnosis. Twenty-two patients with longitudinal melanonychia striata were submitted to tangential matrix biopsies described by Haneke. The tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the specimens were measured at 3 distinct points according to the total thickness: largest (A, intermediate (B and narrowest (C then divided into 4 groups according to the histopathologic diagnosis (G1: hypermelanosis; G2: lentigos; G3: nevus; G4: melanoma. The lesions were measured using the same method. The mean specimen/lesion thickness measure values for each group was: G1: 0,59/0,10 mm, G2: 0,67/0,08 mm, G3: 0,52/0,05 mm, G4: 0,58/0,10 mm. The general average thickness for all the specimens/lesions was 0,59/0,08 mm. We concluded that the tangential excision, for longitudinal melanonychia, provides an adequate material for histopathological diagnosis.

  16. Estructura electrónica de superficies: estados de superficie y estados resonantes del calcio

    OpenAIRE

    H. Herrera; César Mora

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo presentamos un estudio detallado de la estructura electrónica de bandas de superficies orientadas (001) y (110) de cristales cúbicos centrados en la cara del Ca. Para nuestro estudio utilizamos la aproximación de enlace fuerte y el método de acoplamiento de la función de Green de superficie. Primero, construimos hamiltonianos de enlace fuerte en el formalismo de Slater Koster (SK). Utilizamos una base ortogonal de nueve orbitales atómicos (spd) por átomo en la celda unitaria....

  17. A unique variation of superficial palmar arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji PJ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a unique variation in the arterial pattern of superficial palmar arch in which it was completed by one of the large terminal branches of radial artery. The origin of the arteria radialis indicis was also peculiar that it was arising from the communicating branch of the radial artery and further reinforced by the first dorsal metacarpal artery that joined it after reaching the volar aspect. Pertinent anatomical knowledge regarding the variations of the palmar arch is significant for the purposes of microvascular repairs and re-implantations.

  18. Superficial microcirculation flow measurement using polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiwei; Morgan, S. P.; Xiao, Yunshi

    2008-12-01

    Depth discrimination of polarized light is used in investigating laser Doppler measurement of the superficial microcirculation in tissue. Using polarization Monte Carlo simulation, temporal point spread function and power spectral distribution of backscattered polarization remaining light firstly are used to prove polarized light to be valid in measuring moving blood cell perfusion and mean flow velocity. Then simulation of layered medium model demonstrate that relationships between blood flow perfusion and mean frequency shift are linear to medium flowing velocity, and the Doppler shift information in polarization remaining light mainly comes from lower layer medium up to about 14 times of mean free path (MFP) of medium investigated and can be considered that Doppler effects come only from lower layer of the medium. Simulations in three-layer tissue model show that moving blood cell perfusion and mean blood cell moving velocity calculated from polarization remaining are much more sensitive to lower layer flow velocity variation, and more irrelevant to deeper layer flow rate fluctuations, that further confirms Doppler measurement from polarization remaining light to be effective for superficial microcirculation in tissue. Factors affecting Laser Doppler measurement like medium absorption, percentage of moving particles in blood detector size are discussed.

  19. Antecedent avian immunity limits tangential transmission of West Nile virus to humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Kwan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus maintained and amplified among birds and tangentially transmitted to humans and horses which may develop terminal neuroinvasive disease. Outbreaks typically have a three-year pattern of silent introduction, rapid amplification and subsidence, followed by intermittent recrudescence. Our hypothesis that amplification to outbreak levels is contingent upon antecedent seroprevalence within maintenance host populations was tested by tracking WNV transmission in Los Angeles, California from 2003 through 2011. METHODS: Prevalence of antibodies against WNV was monitored weekly in House Finches and House Sparrows. Tangential or spillover transmission was measured by seroconversions in sentinel chickens and by the number of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND cases reported to the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health. RESULTS: Elevated seroprevalence in these avian populations was associated with the subsidence of outbreaks and in the antecedent dampening of amplification during succeeding years. Dilution of seroprevalence by recruitment resulted in the progressive loss of herd immunity following the 2004 outbreak, leading to recrudescence during 2008 and 2011. WNV appeared to be a significant cause of death in these avian species, because the survivorship of antibody positive birds significantly exceeded that of antibody negative birds. Cross-correlation analysis showed that seroprevalence was negatively correlated prior to the onset of human cases and then positively correlated, peaking at 4-6 weeks after the onset of tangential transmission. Antecedent seroprevalence during winter (Jan - Mar was negatively correlated with the number of WNND cases during the succeeding summer (Jul-Sep. CONCLUSIONS: Herd immunity levels within after hatching year avian maintenance host populations <10% during the antecedent late winter and spring period were followed on three occasions by

  20. Mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement and slow decay of swirl in tubes using tangential injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F.; Dhir, V. K.

    1995-04-01

    The turbulent flowfield in a tube heated uniformly from the wall has been experimentally studied when fluid is injected tangentially. The experiments were conducted by injecting air through injectors placed on the periphery of a 88.9-mm inside diameter and 2.5-m long acrylic tube. Six injectors of 22.23-mm inside diameter were used and tangential to total momentum flux ratio of 2.67 was obtained in the experiments. Temperature profiles were measured with a resistance thermometer probe. Profiles for mean velocities in the axial and tangential directions, as well as the Reynolds stresses were obtained using a single rotated straight hot wire and a single rotated slanted hot wire anemometer. No significant difference in mean velocities and Reynolds stresses were found between the adiabatic experiments and diabatic ones. Two major mechanisms for enhancement of heat transfer are identified: (1) high maximum axial velocity near the wall produces higher heat flux from the wall; and (2) high turbulence level in the middle region of the tube improves mixing and, thus, rate of heat transfer. Furthermore, it is observed that both the kinetic energy of the mean flow and the turbulence level decrease as swirl decays. However, during the decay process, the high turbulence-energy-production from Reynolds stresses is necessary to transfer the kinetic energy of the mean flow to the turbulence energy. This high turbulence-production, in turn, slows down the rate of decrease of the turbulence level. As a result, the swirl and the heat transfer enhancement are preserved for a long distance.

  1. Virtual lymph node analysis to evaluate axillary lymph node coverage provided by tangential breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Shin Hyung; Kim, Jae Chul; Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, In Kyu [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    To investigate the coverage of axillary lymph node with tangential breast irradiation fields by using virtual lymph node (LN) analysis. Forty-eight women who were treated with whole breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery were analyzed. The axillary and breast volumes were delineated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) contouring atlas. To generate virtual LN contours, preoperative fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scans with identifiable LN were fused with the CT scans, and the virtual LN contour were delineated on the CT. The median level I and II axillary volume coverage percentages at the VD95% line were 33.5% (range, 5.3% to 90.4%) and 0.6% (range, 0.0% to 14.6%), respectively. Thirty-one LNs in 18 patients were delineated (26 in level I and 5 in level II). In the level I axilla, 84.6% of virtual LNs were encompassed by the 95% isodose line. In the level II axilla, by contrast, none of the virtual LNs were encompassed by the 95% isodose volumes. There was a substantial discrepancy between the RTOG contouring atlas-based axillary volume analysis and the virtual LN analysis, especially for the level I axillary coverage. The axillary volume coverage was associated with the body mass index (BMI) and breast volume. The tangential breast irradiation did not deliver adequate therapeutic doses to the axillary region, particularly those in the level II axilla. Patients with small breast volumes or lower BMI showed reduced axillary coverage from the tangential breast fields. For axillary LN irradiation, individualized anatomy-based radiation fields for patients would be necessary.

  2. Radial and tangential migration of telencephalic somatostatin neurons originated from the mouse diagonal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Luis; Morales-Delgado, N; Merchán, P; Castro-Robles, B; Martínez-de-la-Torre, M; Díaz, C; Ferran, J L

    2016-07-01

    The telencephalic subpallium is the source of various GABAergic interneuron cohorts that invade the pallium via tangential migration. Based on genoarchitectonic studies, the subpallium has been subdivided into four major domains: striatum, pallidum, diagonal area and preoptic area (Puelles et al. 2013; Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas), and a larger set of molecularly distinct progenitor areas (Flames et al. 2007). Fate mapping, genetic lineage-tracing studies, and other approaches have suggested that each subpallial subdivision produces specific sorts of inhibitory interneurons, distinguished by differential peptidic content, which are distributed tangentially to pallial and subpallial target territories (e.g., olfactory bulb, isocortex, hippocampus, pallial and subpallial amygdala, striatum, pallidum, septum). In this report, we map descriptively the early differentiation and apparent migratory dispersion of mouse subpallial somatostatin-expressing (Sst) cells from E10.5 onward, comparing their topography with the expression patterns of the genes Dlx5, Gbx2, Lhx7-8, Nkx2.1, Nkx5.1 (Hmx3), and Shh, which variously label parts of the subpallium. Whereas some experimental results suggest that Sst cells are pallidal, our data reveal that many, if not most, telencephalic Sst cells derive from de diagonal area (Dg). Sst-positive cells initially only present at the embryonic Dg selectively populate radially the medial part of the bed nucleus striae terminalis (from paraseptal to amygdaloid regions) and part of the central amygdala; they also invade tangentially the striatum, while eschewing the globus pallidum and the preoptic area, and integrate within most cortical and nuclear pallial areas between E10.5 and E16.5.

  3. Metabolomic change precedes apple superficial scald symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Hertog, Maarten L A T M

    2009-09-23

    Untargeted metabolic profiling was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with 'Granny Smith' apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least-squares discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, and storage duration. Models revealed metabolomic differentiation between untreated controls and fruit treated with DPA or 1-MCP within 1 week following storage initiation. Metabolic divergence between controls and DPA-treated fruit after 4 weeks of storage preceded scald symptom development by 2 months. alpha-Farnesene oxidation products with known associations to scald, including conjugated trienols, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, were associated with presymptomatic as well as scalded control fruit. Likewise, a large group of putative triterpenoids with mass spectral features similar to those of ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol were associated with control fruit and scald. Results demonstrate that extensive metabolomic changes associated with scald precede actual symptom development.

  4. Condiciones de la superficie deslizamiento con falla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Sierra B.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se modelan seis (6 taludes can diferentes ángulos de inclinación y peso unitario de 1.8 ton/m3, módulo de Young de 500 ton/m2 y relación de Poisson de 0.45. En cada uno de estos taludes se calculan los esfuerzos a través del talud y se determinan los puntos que están sometidos a mayores esfuerzos cortantes, correspondiendo estos a los estados de esfuerzos mas críticos, La ubicación de estos puntos es por donde comenzará y terminará la superficie de falla. Se obtiene un gráfico de diseño que permite obtener la pendiente máxima que debe tener un talud para que no se presente falla local en ningún punto.

  5. Radial and tangential gravity rates from GRACE in areas of glacial isostatic adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Kurtenbach, Enrico; Kusche, Jürgen; Vermeersen, Bert

    2011-11-01

    In areas dominated by Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA), the free-air gravity anomaly rate can be converted to uplift rate to good approximation by using a simple spectral relation. We provide quantitative comparisons between gravity rates derived from monthly gravity field solutions (GFZ Potsdam, CSR Texas, IGG Bonn) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission with uplift rates measured by GPS in these areas. The band-limited gravity data from the GRACE satellite mission can be brought to very good agreement with the point data from GPS by using scaling factors derived from a GIA model (the root-mean-square of differences is 0.55 mm yr-1 for a maximum uplift rate signal of 10 mm yr-1). The root-mean-square of the differences between GRACE derived uplift rates and GPS derived uplift rates decreases with increasing GRACE time period to a level below the uncertainty that is expected from GRACE observations, GPS measurements and the conversion from gravity rate to uplift rate. With the current length of time-series (more than 8 yr) applying filters and a hydrology correction to the GRACE data does not reduce the root-mean-square of differences significantly. The smallest root-mean-square was obtained with the GFZ solution in Fennoscandia and with the CSR solution in North America. With radial gravity rates in excellent agreement with GPS uplift rates, more information on the GIA process can be extracted from GRACE gravity field solutions in the form of tangential gravity rates, which are equivalent to a rate of change in the deflection of the vertical scaled by the magnitude of gravity rate vector. Tangential gravity rates derived from GRACE point towards the centre of the previously glaciated area, and are largest in a location close to the centre of the former ice sheet. Forward modelling showed that present day tangential gravity rates have maximum sensitivity between the centre and edge of the former ice sheet, while radial gravity

  6. [The concentration of viruses in water using the tangential flow ultrafiltration. Recovery effectiveness in experimental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliardi, L; Cesari, C; Zoni, R; Sansebastiano, G E

    2004-01-01

    Poliovirus 1 concentration tests were carried out in artificially contaminated water by tangential flow ultrafiltration with Polisulfone filters 100000 MWCO. The tests were performed in 1 and in 20 liters of waters. The filters were conditioned and eluted respectively with Beef extract 3% and with glicina 1% at pH 7 and pH 9. The recovery mean using Beef extract resulted properly good, about the 83% and comparable to percentages we obtained in previous works with filters in cellulose nitrate and Virosorb filters. The viral recovery was low using the glicina for conditioning and eluting the filters.

  7. Tangential and sagittal curvature from the normals computed by the null screen method in corneal topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Molina, Amilcar; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2011-08-01

    A new method for computing the tangential and sagittal curvatures from the normals to a cornea is proposed. The normals are obtained through a Null Screen method from the coordinates of the drops shaped spots at the null screen, the coordinates on a reference approximating surface and the centroids on the image plane. This method assumes that the cornea has rotational symmetry and our derivations will be carried out in the meridional plane that contains the symmetry axis. Experimental results are shown for a calibration spherical surface, using cylindrical null screens with radial point arrays.

  8. Large Object Irradiation Facility In The Tangential Channel Of The JSI TRIGA Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Radulovic, Vladimir; Kaiba, Tanja; Kavsek, Darko; Cindro, Vladimir; Mikuz, Marko; Snoj, Luka

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and installation of a new irradiation device in the Tangential Channel of the JSI TRIGA reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The purpose of the device is to enable on-line irradiation testing of electronic components considerably larger in size (of lateral dimensions of at least 12 cm) than currently possible in the irradiation channels located in the reactor core, in a relatively high neutron flux (exceeding 10^12 n cm^-2 s^-1) and to provide adequate neutron and gamma radiation shielding.

  9. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated; Caracterizacion volumetrica y superficial de carbon activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Gerencia de Ciencias Basicas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  10. Traumatic aneurysm of superficial temporal artery. CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.; Tyagi, G.; Sahai, A.; Baijal, S.S. (G.B. Pant Hospital and M.A. Medical Coll., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Neurosurgery G.B. Pant Hospital and M.A. Medical Coll., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-12-01

    A case of traumatic pseudo-aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery documented on Computed tomography (CT) and angiography is described in a 55-year-old female, who was treated by surgical excision. Computed tomographic appearance of this lesion is illustrated. This represents, to our knowledge, the first CT demonstration of traumatic aneurysm of superficial temporal artery within a large subgaleal haematoma. (orig.).

  11. Risk factors associated with acquiring superficial fungal infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    school children in South Western Nigeria: a comparative study. Olaide Oke Olutoyin1, Olaniyi ... Keywords: Risk factors, school children, skin, superficial fungal infections. ..... study with poor hygiene, malnutrition, overcrowding and poor general social ... cial determinants of health that influence the presence of superficial ...

  12. Accuracy in tangential breast treatment set-up; A portal imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tienhoven, G. van; Lanson, J.H.; Crabeels, D.; Heukelom, S.; Mijnheer, B.J. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    To test accuracy and reproducibility of tangential breast treatment set-up used in The Netherlands Cancer Institute, a portal imaging study was performed in 12 patients treated for early stage breast cancer. With an on-line electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images were obtained of each patient in several fractions and compared with simulator films and with each other. In 5 patients multiple images (on the average 7) per fraction were obtained to evaluate set-up variations due to respiratory movement. The central lung distance (CLD) and other set-up parameters varied within 1 fraction about 1mm (1SD). The average variation of these parameters between various fractions was about 2 mm (1SD). The differences between simulator and treatment set-up over all patients and all fractions was on the average 2-3mm for the central beam edge to skin distance and CLD. It can be concluded that the tangential breast treatment set-up is very stable and reproducible and that respiration does not have a significant influence on treatment volume. EPID appears to be an adequate tool for studies of treatment set-up accuracy like this. (author). 35 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs.

  13. Wheel-slip Control Method for Seeking Maximum Value of Tangential Force between Wheel and Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keiichiro; Yasuoka, Ikuo; Yamazaki, Osamu; Toda, Shinichi; Nakazawa, Yosuke

    A method for reducing motor torque in proportion to wheel slip is applied to an inverter-driven electric locomotive. The motor torque at wheel-slip speed is less than the torque at the maximum tangential force or the adhesion force. A novel anti-slip control method for seeking the maximum value of the tangential force between the wheel and rail is proposed in this paper. The characteristics of the proposed method are analyzed theoretically to design the torque reduction ratio and the rate of change of the pattern between the wheel-slip speed and motor current. In addition, experimental tests are also carried out to verify that the use of the proposed method increases the traction force of an electric locomotive driven by induction motors and inverters. The experimental test results obtained by using the proposed control method are compared with the experimental results obtained by using a conventional control method. The averaged operational current when using the proposed control method is 10% more than that when using the conventional control method.

  14. Quasistatic Seismic Damage Indicators for RC Structures from Dissipating Energies in Tangential Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried B. Krätzig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies recent research on structural damage description to earthquake-resistant design concepts. Based on the primary design aim of life safety, this work adopts the necessity of additional protection aims for property, installation, and equipment. This requires the definition of damage indicators, which are able to quantify the arising structural damage. As in present design, it applies nonlinear quasistatic (pushover concepts due to code provisions as simplified dynamic design tools. Substituting so nonlinear time-history analyses, seismic low-cycle fatigue of RC structures is approximated in similar manner. The treatment will be embedded into a finite element environment, and the tangential stiffness matrix KT in tangential subspaces then is identified as the most general entry for structural damage information. Its spectra of eigenvalues λi or natural frequencies ωi of the structure serve to derive damage indicators Di, applicable to quasistatic evaluation of seismic damage. Because det KT=0 denotes structural failure, such damage indicators range from virgin situation Di=0 to failure Di=1 and thus correspond with Fema proposals on performance-based seismic design. Finally, the developed concept is checked by reanalyses of two experimentally investigated RC frames.

  15. Understanding and modeling alternating tangential flow filtration for perfusion cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William; Scully, Jennifer; Zhang, Di; Feng, Gang; Lavengood, Mathew; Condon, Jason; Knighton, John; Bhatia, Ravinder

    2014-01-01

    Alternating tangential flow (ATF) filtration has been used with success in the Biopharmaceutical industry as a lower shear technology for cell retention with perfusion cultures. The ATF system is different than tangential flow filtration; however, in that reverse flow is used once per cycle as a means to minimize fouling. Few studies have been reported in the literature that evaluates ATF and how key system variables affect the rate at which ATF filters foul. In this study, an experimental setup was devised that allowed for determination of the time it took for fouling to occur for given mammalian (PER.C6) cell culture cell densities and viabilities as permeate flow rate and antifoam concentration was varied. The experimental results indicate, in accordance with D'Arcy's law, that the average resistance to permeate flow (across a cycle of operation) increases as biological material deposits on the membrane. Scanning electron microscope images of the post-run filtration surface indicated that both cells and antifoam micelles deposit on the membrane. A unique mathematical model, based on the assumption that fouling was due to pore blockage from the cells and micelles in combination, was devised that allowed for estimation of sticking factors for the cells and the micelles on the membrane. This model was then used to accurately predict the increase in transmembane pressure during constant flux operation for an ATF cartridge used for perfusion cell culture.

  16. Sub-tangentially loaded and damped Beck's columns on two-parameter elastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Seok; Kim, Nam-Il; Kim, Moon-Young

    2007-10-01

    The dynamic stability of the damped Beck's column on two-parameter elastic foundation is investigated by using Hermitian beam elements. For this purpose, based on the extended Hamilton's principle, the dimensionless finite element (FE) formulation using the Hermitian interpolation function is presented. First, the mass matrix, the external and internal damping matrices, the elastic and the geometric stiffness matrices, Winkler and Pasternak foundation matrices, and the load correction stiffness matrix due to the sub-tangential follower force are obtained. Then, evaluation procedure for the flutter and divergence loads of the non-conservative system and the time history analysis using the Newmark- β method are shortly described. Finally, the influences of various parameters on the dynamic stability of non-conservative systems are newly addressed: (1) variation of the second flutter load due to sub-tangentiality, (2) influences of the external and the internal damping on flutter loads by analysis of complex natural frequencies, (3) the effect of the growth rate of motion in a finite time interval using time history analysis, and (4) fluctuation of divergence and flutter loads due to Winkler and Pasternak foundations.

  17. Dosimetric Comparison of 3D Tangential Radiotherapy of Post-Lumpectomy Breast at Two Different Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Anbiaee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiation therapy following breast conserving surgery is one of the most common procedures performed in any radiation oncology department. A tangential parallel-opposed pair is almost always the technique of choice for this purpose. This technique is often performed based on 3D treatment planning. The aim of this study was to compare 3D treatment planning for two different energies (Cobalt 60 versus 6 MV photon beams in tangential irradiation of breast conserving radiotherapy. In this comparison, homogeneity of isodoses within the breast volume and dose received by lungs were considered. Materials and Methods: In this study, twenty patients with breast cancer treated with conservative surgery were included. A CT scan was performed on selected patients. Three-dimensional treatment planning with 6 MV photon beams was carried out for patients on the  Eclipse 3D treatment planning system (TPS. The volumes receiving lower than 95% (Vol105 (hot areas of the reference dose, and the volume of lung receiving ≥30Gy (Vol≥30Gy were derived from dose volume histograms (DVHs. Dose homogeneity index was calculated as: DHI = 100 – (Vol>105 + Vol

  18. The progress in development of edge tangential Thomson scattering system on HL-2A tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Huang, Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Feng, Z.; Hou, Z. P.; Fu, B. Z.

    2016-11-01

    The edge tangential Thomson scattering system (ETTSS) was developed for the first time on a HL-2A tokamak. A Nd:YAG laser with a 1064 nm wavelength, 4 J energy, and 30 Hz repetition rate is employed on the ETTSS. The laser beam injects the plasma in the tangential direction on the mid-plane of the machine, and the angles between the laser injection direction and the scattered light collection direction are in the range from 157.5° to 162.8°. The scattered light collection optics with 0.21-0.47 magnification is utilized to collect the scattered light of measurement range from R = 1900 mm to 2100 mm (the normalized radius is from r/a = 0.625 to 1.125). Spatial resolution of the preliminary design could be up to Δr/a = 0.016. The measurement requirements could be achieved: 10 eV < Te < 1.5 keV, and 0.5 × 1019 m-3 < ne < 3 × 1019 m-3 with errors less than 15% and 10%, respectively.

  19. Occurrence of BOOP outside radiation field after tangential radiation therapy for breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamanishi, Tohru; Gohma, Iwao; Oida, Kazukiyo [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    We report three cases of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) that occurred outside the radiation field after radiation therapy using tangential fields for breast carcinoma. All patients complained of a cough between 14 and 20 weeks after completion of radiation therapy. Fever also developed in two of the three. Chest radiography and computed tomography demonstrated peripheral alveolar opacities outside the radiation field on the same side as the radiation therapy. Laboratory data showed an increased level of C-reactive protein and an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed an elevated total cell count with a very high percentage of lymphocytes. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed a histologic pattern consistent with BOOP. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in rapid clinical improvement and complete resolution of the radiographic abnormalities. This pulmonary disorder appears to be induced by radiation, especially when a tangential field is employed for breast carcinoma, though the etiology has not been fully investigated. It is important to be aware of this type of pulmonary complication in patients given radiotherapy for breast carcinoma. (author)

  20. Study on the laser irradiation effects on carbon fiber reinforced resin composite subjected to tangential gas flow loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minsun; Jiang, Houman; Jiao, Luguang; Li, Junshen; Liu, Zejin

    2013-05-01

    The irradiation effects of 976nm continuous-wave laser on carbon fiber reinforced E-51 resin composite is studied experimentally, with a 0.4Ma tangential airflow or 0.4Ma tangential nitrogen gas flow on the target surface. In order to simulate the thermal response of fiber reinforced resin composite materials subjected to combined laser and tangential gas flow loading, a three-dimensional thermal response model of resin composite materials is developed. In the model, the thermal decomposition of resin is described by a multi-step model. The motion of the decomposition gas is assumed to be one-dimensional, for the case that the laser spot is significantly larger than the thickness of the sample. According the above assumption, the flow of the decomposition gas is considered in the three-dimensional model without introducing any mechanical quantities. The influences of the tangential gas flow, the outflow of the thermal decomposition gas and the ablation-including phase change ablation or oxidative ablation-of the surface material on the laser irradiation effects are included in the surface boundary conditions. The three-dimensional thermal response model is calculated numerically by use of the modified smooth particle hydrodynamics (MSPH) method which is coded with FORTRAN. The model is tested by experimentally measuring the temperature profiles during carbon fiber reinforced E-51 resin composite subjected to combined laser and tangential gas flow. The predicted temperature profiles are in good agreement with experimental temperatures obtained using thermocouples.

  1. Effects of Tangential Edge Constraints on the Postbuckling Behavior of Flat and Curved Panels Subjected to Thermal and Mechanical Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W.; Librescu, L.; Nemeth, M. P.; Starnes, J. H. , Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A parametric study of the effects of tangential edge constraints on the postbuckling response of flat and shallow curved panels subjected to thermal and mechanical loads is presented. The mechanical loads investigated are uniform compressive edge loads and transverse lateral pressure. The temperature fields considered are associated with spatially nonuniform heating over the panels, and a linear through-the-thickness temperature gradient. The structural model is based on a higher-order transverse-shear-deformation theory of shallow shells that incorporates the effects of geometric nonlinearities, initial geometric imperfections, and tangential edge motion constraints. Results are presented for three-layer sandwich panels made from transversely isotropic materials. Simply supported panels are considered in which the tangential motion of the unloaded edges is either unrestrained, partially restrained, or fully restrained. These results focus on the effects of the tangential edge restraint on the postbuckling response. The results of this study indicate that tangentially restraining the edges of a curved panel can make the panel insensitive to initial geometric imperfections in some cases.

  2. Pulsed Laser Profiling of Grinding Wheels at Normal and Quasi-Tangential Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Fortunato, Alessandro; Zanini, Filippo; Carmignato, Simone

    2016-09-01

    A new methodology for normal and quasi-tangential pulsed laser profiling of grinding wheels is proposed, with laser path planning calculated according to a pre-specified angle of incidence and radial laser progression or predicted single-pass incision depth. Though tangential laser profiling has previously been investigated, few works have addressed the issue of negligible laser absorption under these conditions other than to apply a focal offset that effectively reduces the angle of incidence below 90∘. In the present work, the angle of incidence is specified explicitly, with normal and quasi-tangential profiling experiments performed on rotating bronze-bonded diamond and porous aluminum oxide grinding wheels with a 1064 nm nanosecond pulsed fiber laser source with 20 W average power. Triangular incisions are cut into each sample, following which analyses are performed with an optical profiler operating in confocal mode and x-ray computed tomography to determine the material removal rate and profile accuracy under all tested conditions. The angle of laser incidence is found to be of particular relevance to profiling operations, with more than one order of magnitude difference in material removal rates observed between 70∘ and 80∘ incidence, with improved profile accuracy in the latter case. Specifically, material removal rates of 0.12-0.14 mm 3/ s, 0.075-0.1 mm 3/ s and 0.002 mm 3/ s are achieved at normal, 70∘ and 80∘ laser incidence, respectively, for bronze-bonded diamond, and 0.1 mm 3/ s is achieved at 70∘ incidence for porous aluminum oxide. For both materials, profile accuracy of 50-70 μm is achieved under optimum conditions. The presented results highlight the necessity for precise specification and control of the angle of incidence during laser profiling operations. They furthermore confirm that laser profiling of grinding wheels is a viable alternative to electrical discharge machining for bronze-bonded diamond grinding wheels and a potential

  3. UNILATERAL INCOMPLETE SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of hand is revealed by its rich vascularity contributed by superficial and deep palmar arches (SPA and DPA.Superficial palmar arch is located superficial to flexor tendons, and deep palmar arch deep to lumbrical muscles. Variations are found more often in SPA than DPA, later being more or less constant. During routine undergraduate dissection, we observed, unilateral incomplete SPA being formed by superficial palmar branches of ulnar and radial artery in the right hand of a male cadaver. These two arteries remained independent without anastomosis forming incomplete arch (SPA.The superficial branch of ulnar artery entered hand superficial to flexor retinaculum and supplied middle, ring and little finger by three branches. The superficial branch of radial artery via its two branches supplied index finger and thumb. Classical SPA formation was seen on left side. The presence of an incomplete SPA as in this case is a potential danger in RA harvesting for CABG.Variations in SPA play a pivotal role in microvascular surgical procedures of hand, RAinterventions and arterial graft applications.

  4. Prevalence of superficial siderosis following singular, acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummel, N.; Bochmann, K. [Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Bernau, C. [Leibniz-Rechenzentrum, Munich (Germany); Thon, N. [Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Linn, J. [Technical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Superficial siderosis is presumably a consequence of recurrent bleeding into the subarachnoid space. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of superficial siderosis after singular, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the long term. We retrospectively identified all patients who presented with a singular, acute, aneurysmal SAH at our institution between 2010 and 2013 and in whom a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2*-weighted imaging was available at least 4 months after the acute bleeding event. MRI scans were judged concerning the presence and distribution of superficial siderosis. Influence of clinical data, Fisher grade, localization, and cause of SAH as well as the impact of neurosurgical interventions on the occurrence of superficial siderosis was tested. Seventy-two patients with a total of 117 MRIs were included. Mean delay between SAH and the last available MRI was 47.4 months (range 4-129). SAH was Fisher grade 1 in 2 cases, 2 in 4 cases, 3 in 10 cases, and 4 in 56 cases. Superficial siderosis was detected in 39 patients (54.2 %). In all patients with more than one MRI scan, localization and distribution of superficial siderosis did not change over time. Older age (p = 0.02) and higher degree of SAH (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with the development of superficial siderosis. Superficial siderosis develops in approximately half of patients after singular, aneurysmal SAH and might be more common in patients with an older age and a greater amount of blood. However, additional factors must play a role in whether a patient is prone to develop superficial siderosis or not. (orig.)

  5. Immediate tangential excision accelerates wound closure but does not reduce scarring of mid-dermal porcine burns

    OpenAIRE

    Macri, L.K..; Singer, A J; McClain, S.A.; Crawford, L; Prasad, A.; Kohn, J; Clark, R.A.F.

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence supports the use of excision to remove eschar from deep dermal and full-thickness burns. However, the role of excision of mid-dermal burns remains unclear. This study aimed to develop a porcine model that could produce reproducible middermal thermal burns that undergo tangential excision; and investigate the effects of immediate tangential excision (30 minutes postburn) on healing and scarring. An aluminum bar preheated in hot water (70°C) was applied for 20 or 30 s to produc...

  6. Numerical Analysis of a New Pressure Sensor for Measuring Normal and Tangential Stresses in the Roll Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presz, Wojtek P.; Wanheim, Tarras

    2003-01-01

    The paper is in polish. Orig. title: "Analiza numeryczna nowego czujnika do pomiaru nacisków i naprê¿eñ stycznych w procesie walcowania" A new strain gauge sensor for measuring normal and tangential stresses in the contact arc of a rolling process has been designed and constructed. The complicated...... been per-formed to prove that a newly developed analytical method applied on the strain-gage signals enables the extraction of the normal and tangential load distribution in the arc of contact. For this purpose special software has been designed. The results of the numerical experiments have veri...

  7. Comportamiento hidráulico de los sistemas de riego por goteo superficial y sub superficial

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Para su evaluación el sistema de riego fue montado con un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, con cuatro tratamientos, uno con el sistema de riego por goteo superficial y tres con sistemas de riego por goteo sub superficiales con emisores soterrados a 15, 30 y 45 centímetros de profundidad. Se realizaron evaluaciones de laboratorio y de campo de los principales parámetros hidráulicos del sistema, al inicio de la primera campaña de riego y al final de la tercera, obteniéndose en el...

  8. Study of the superficial ozone concentrations in the atmosphere of Comunidad de Madrid using passive samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Galán Madruga

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The ozone is a secondary atmospheric pollutant which is generated for photochemical reactions of volatil organic compounds (VOC’s and nitrogen oxides (NOx. In Spain the ozone is a big problem as a consequence of the solar radiation to reach high levels. Exposure over a period of time to elevated ozone concentrations can cause damage in the public health and alterations in the vegetation.The aim of this study is to carry out the development and validation of a measurement method to let asses the superficial ozone levels in the Comunidad de Madrid, by identifing the zones more significants, where to measure with UV photometric monitors (automatics methods this pollutant and where the health and the vegetation can be affected. To such effect, passive samplers are used, which have glass fiber filters coated with a solution of sodium nitrite, potassium carbonate, glycerol and water. The nitrite ion in the presence of ozone is oxidized to nitrato ion, which it is extrated with ultrapure water and analyzed for ion chromatography, by seen proportional to the concentration existing in the sampling point.The results of validation from field tests indicate a excellent correlation between the passive and the automatic method.The higher superficial ozone concentrations are placed in rural zones, distanced of emission focus of primary pollutants (nitrogen oxides and volatil organic compounds... principally in direction soutwest and northwest of the Comunidad of Madrid.

  9. Superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma: report of four cases and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-feng; WU Yu-yu; WANG Jian

    2010-01-01

    @@ In 2001, Laskin et al~1 firstly described a series of 14 seemly distinctive mesenchymal tumors that occurred exclusively in the superficial lamina propria of the vagina and cervix of middle to old-aged women. They proposed the term "superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma (SCVM)" to highlight the unique features of this tumor: the superficial subepithelial location and myofibroblastic differentiation of the tumor cells. SCVM appears less well recognized with only three additional reports have been documented in the English literatures.~(2-4) In this study, we described four new cases of SCVM to further characterize the clinical and pathological features of this rare entity.

  10. Superficial Fibromatosis Mimicking Glomus Tumor of the Second Toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyang Jeong; Chae, Soo Uk; Kim, Gang Deuk; Kim, Yeung Jin; Choi, Deok Hwa; Park, Jae In

    2015-09-01

    Various types of tumor can occur in the subungual space, including glomus tumors, subungual exostosis, hemangioma, epidermal cysts, and malignant tumors. While fibromatosis can occur at various sites throughout the body, it is very rarely seen in the toe. Here, we are the first to report a case of superficial fibromatosis mimicking a glomus tumor in the subungual space of the second toe. The presentation of this condition shows the possibility of encountering uncommon superficial fibromatosis in the distal phalanx of the toe, and suggests that superficial fibromatosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a glomus tumor in the toe.

  11. Revisión sobre modelado de superficies complejas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Osorio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una revisión de las técnicas más empleadas para la obtención de modelos computacionales de superficies complejas. Estas representaciones están siendo utilizadas en diversas áreas de la industria mediante procedimientos de ingeniería reversa. Las tres principales categorías son las superficies funcionales (implícitas, paramétricas y las superficies complejas simplicial (mallas triangulares. Se realiza un paralelo entre estos métodos y se exponen las ventajas y las desventajas de cada una de estas representaciones.

  12. Preliminary design of a tangentially viewing imaging bolometer for NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B. J., E-mail: peterson@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Mukai, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advance Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sano, R. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Reinke, M. L.; Canik, J. M.; Lore, J. D.; Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Jaworski, M. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Eden, G. G. van [FOM Institute DIFFER, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    The infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) measures plasma radiated power images using a thin metal foil. Two different designs with a tangential view of NSTX-U are made assuming a 640 × 480 (1280 × 1024) pixel, 30 (105) fps, 50 (20) mK, IR camera imaging the 9 cm × 9 cm × 2 μm Pt foil. The foil is divided into 40 × 40 (64 × 64) IRVB channels. This gives a spatial resolution of 3.4 (2.2) cm on the machine mid-plane. The noise equivalent power density of the IRVB is given as 113 (46) μW/cm{sup 2} for a time resolution of 33 (20) ms. Synthetic images derived from Scrape Off Layer Plasma Simulation data using the IRVB geometry show peak signal levels ranging from ∼0.8 to ∼80 (∼0.36 to ∼26) mW/cm{sup 2}.

  13. A finite difference method for predicting supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows with tangential slot injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, E. W.; Lewis, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    An implicit finite difference method has been applied to tangential slot injection into supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows. In addition, the effects induced by the interaction between the boundary layer displacement thickness and the external pressure field are considered. In the present method, three different eddy viscosity models have been used to specify the turbulent momentum exchange. One model depends on the species concentration profile and the species conservation equation has been included in the system of governing partial differential equations. Results are compared with experimental data at stream Mach numbers of 2.4 and 6.0 and with results of another finite difference method. Good agreement was generally obtained for the reduction of wall skin friction with slot injection and with experimental Mach number and pitot pressure profiles. Calculations with the effects of pressure interaction included showed these effects to be smaller than effects of changing eddy viscosity models.

  14. Design of a tangential Phase Contrast Imaging diagnostic for the TCV tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Stefano; Marinoni, Alessandro; Chavan, Rene; Magnin, Jean Claude; Pochon, Guy

    2008-11-01

    A PCI diagnostic has been designed, built and installed in the TCV tokamak, employing a 7-cm wide CO2 laser beam in a near-toroidal launch direction. The system can resolve wavelengths in the range 0.1 to 7 cm, sampling 32 chords at 12.5 Msamples/sec, thus appraising microinstabilities ranging from ion to electron spatial scale lengths. Being an imaging technique it does not face difficulties in investigating highly inhomogeneous regions, such as transport barriers. The tangential configuration, combined with appropriate spatial filtering techniques, provides an excellent spatial resolution, of the order of 1% of the minor radius. The spatial filtering also allows the selection of different spatial regions (e.g. deep core or edge). Wavelengths and correlation properties can be recovered from the spatial mapping. First data will be presented along with preliminary interpretation and comparisons with linear gyrokinetic simulations.

  15. Integrated axial and tangential serpentine cooling circuit in a turbine airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J; Dalton, John P

    2015-05-05

    A continuous serpentine cooling circuit forming a progression of radial passages (44, 45, 46, 47A, 48A) between pressure and suction side walls (52, 54) in a MID region of a turbine airfoil (24). The circuit progresses first axially, then tangentially, ending in a last radial passage (48A) adjacent to the suction side (54) and not adjacent to the pressure side (52). The passages of the axial progression (44, 45, 46) may be adjacent to both the pressure and suction side walls of the airfoil. The next to last radial passage (47A) may be adjacent to the pressure side wall and not adjacent to the suction side wall. The last two radial passages (47A, 48A) may be longer along the pressure and suction side walls respectively than they are in a width direction, providing increased direct cooling surface area on the interiors of these hot walls.

  16. Simultaneous Optical Measurements of Axial and Tangential Steady-State Blade Deflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkov, Anatole P.; Dhadwal, Harbans S.

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the majority of fiber-optic blade instrumentation is being designed and manufactured by aircraft-engine companies for their own use. The most commonly employed probe for optical blade deflection measurements is the spot probe. One of its characteristics is that the incident spot on a blade is not fixed relative to the blade, but changes depending on the blade deformation associated with centrifugal and aerodynamic loading. While there are geometrically more complicated optical probe designs in use by different engine companies, this paper offers an alternate solution derived from a probe-mount design feature that allows one to change the probe axial position until the incident spot contacts either a leading or a trailing edge. By tracing the axial position of either blade edge one is essentially extending the deflection measurement to two dimensions, axial and tangential. The blade deflection measurements were obtained during a wind tunnel test of a fan prototype.

  17. Antibody conjugate radioimmunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Perkins

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The administration of antibody conjugates for cancer therapy is now proving to be of clinical value. We are currently undertaking a programme of clinical studies using the monoclonal antibody C595 (IgG3 which reacts with the MUC1 glycoprotein antigen that is aberrantly expressed in a high proportion of bladder tumours. Radioimmunoconjugates of the C595 antibody have been produced with high radiolabelling efficiency and immunoreactivity using Tc-99m and In-111 for diagnostic imaging, and disease staging and the cytotoxic radionuclides Cu-67 and Re-188 for therapy of superficial bladder cancer. A Phase I/II therapeutic trail involving the intravesical administration of antibody directly into the bladder has now begun.A administração de anticorpos conjugados para o tratamento do câncer está agora provando ser de valor clínico. Nós estamos atualmente realizando um programa de estudos clínicos usando o anticorpo monoclonal C595 (IgG3 que reage com a glicoproteína MUC1 que está aberrantemente expressa numa alta proporção de tumores de bexiga. Tem sido produzidos radioimunoconjugados do anticorpo C595, com alta eficiência de radiomarcação e a imunoreatividade, usando-se o Tc-99m e In-111, para o diagnóstico por imagem e estagiamento de doenças. Tem sido produzidos, também, radionuclídeos citotóxicos (Cu-67 e Re-188 para o tratamento de cânceres superficiais de bexiga. A fase terapêutica I/II já se iniciou, envolvendo a administração intravesical do anticorpo diretamente na bexiga.

  18. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-02-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author).

  19. Three-dimensional dose distribution of tangential breast treatment; A national dosimetry intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bree, N.A.M. van; Battum, L.J. van (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands) Dr. Daniel Den Hoed Cancer Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Department of Clinical Physics); Huizenga, H.; Mijnheer, B.J. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    From Aug.'90-Feb.'91, dosimetry intercomparison of breast treatment was performed at all 21 radiotherapy centres in The Netherlands. The absorbed dose was measured in three planes in a breast phantom during tangential breast irradiation, according to a prescribed technique. The beam energy could be chosen by the radiotherapy centre as normally applied for this type of 'patient', and varied between {sup 60}Co and 8MV X-rays. The dose measured by the visiting team in 22 points inside the phantom was compared with the dose calculated by the institution using their local treatment planning system. In the institutions mean ratio (mean value of ratios of the absolute calculated dose and measured absolute dose in the 22 points) varied between 0.92-1.08 with an over-all mean ratio of 1.04. There was no significant difference in this ratio between the 3 planes in a particular institution. In the isocentre mean ratio of calculated and measured dose was 1.021 with a SD of 0.028 i.e. the algorithms in the 6 different commercial treatment planning systems calculate the dose generally somewhat too high. In order to explain results, a measurement of the output under reference conditions was performed at each treatment unit. Mean ratio of the dose stated by the institution and the dose measured by the visiting team was 1.011 with a 0.015-SD with a maximum deviation of 0.040. This small deviation explains therefore only part of variation in the ratio of calculated and measured dose for tangential breast irradiation. In several centres large deviations between actual beam data and beam data implemented in the planning system were found, which was the main reason for observed discrepancies. (author). 15 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs.

  20. Far infrared tangential interferometry/polarimetry on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Domier, C.W.; Geck, W.R.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr. [Department of Applied Science, University of California at Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of the core B{sub T}(r,t) value is essential in the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX), since the effects of paramagnetism and diamagnetism in the NSTX are expected to be considerably greater than that in higher aspect ratio tokamaks. Therefore, without independent B{sub T}(r,t) measurement, plasma parameters dependent upon B{sub T} such as the {ital q} profile and local {beta} value cannot be evaluated. Tangential interferometer/polarimeter systems (eight channels) [H. Park, L. Guttadora, C. Domier, W. R. Geck, and N. C. Luhman, Jr., First and Second NSTX Research Forums, Princeton, NJ, 1997 (unpublished)] for the NSTX will provide temporally and radially resolved toroidal field profile [B{sub T}(r,t)] and two-dimensional electron density profile [n{sub e}(r,t)] data. The outcome of the proposed system is extremely important to the study of confinement, heating, and stability of the NSTX plasmas. The research task is largely based on utilizing existing hardware from the TFTR multichannel infrared interferometer system [D. K. Mansfield, H. K. Park, L. C. Johnson, H. Anderson, S. Foote, B. Clifton, and C. H. Ma, Appl. Opt. {bold 26}, 4469 (1987) and H. K. Park, D. K. Mansfield, and C. L. Johnson, Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostic, Los Angeles, CA, 28{endash}30 Oct. 1987 (unpublished), pp. 96{endash}104] which will be reconfigured into a tangential system for NSTX, and to develop the additional hardware required to complete the system. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Predictions of mixed mode interface crack growth using a cohesive zone model for ductile fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2004-01-01

    Special interface elements that account for ductile failure by the nucleation and growth of voids to coalescence are used to analyse crack growth. In these elements the stress component tangential to the interface is accounted for, as determined by the requirement of compatibility with the surrou......Special interface elements that account for ductile failure by the nucleation and growth of voids to coalescence are used to analyse crack growth. In these elements the stress component tangential to the interface is accounted for, as determined by the requirement of compatibility...... with the surrounding material in the tangential direction. Thus, the present interface description incorporates the important effect of stress triaxiality on damage evolution, which is not part of the usual cohesive zone models. The interface elements have been used previously for mode I loading conditions...... Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Superficial Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Sean; Minni, John; Herold, David

    2015-12-01

    Superficial radiation therapy has become more widely available to dermatologists. With the advent of more portable machines, it has become more convenient for dermatology practices to employ in an office-based setting. The goal of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the role of superficial radiation therapy in dermatology practice and to review the current literature surrounding its use in the treatment of both basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

  3. Functional Compartmentalization of the Human Superficial Masseter Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán-Venegas, Rodrigo A.; Biotti Picand, Jorge L.; Francisco J Berral de la Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM) muscle's motor units using high-density surface e...

  4. A pattern formed by preferential orientation of tangential fibres in layer I of the rabbit's cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhauer, K; Laube, A

    1977-12-01

    1. The tangential organization of layer I has been studied in frozen sections impregnated according to a modified Liesegang method and in Bodian impregnated paraffin sections cut tangentially to the dorsal surface of the rabbit's cerebral cortex. 2. It is shown that sublamina tangentialis of layer I contains a system of parallel nerve fibres forming a distinct pattern in the tangential plane. 3. This pattern has been reconstructed for a large region of the dorsal surface of the cerebral cortex including the striate areas as well as the peristriate, parietal and precentral agranular regions and parts of the retrosplenial area. 4. In most parts of the region investigated, the tangential fibres of layer I are oriented in an antero-medial to postero-lateral direction, forming an angle of about 50 degrees with the sagittal plane. 5. Deviations from this pattern are found in the furrows formed by the lateral sulcus and the frontal impression and also in the caudal part of the retrosplenial area. In these regions, which are characterized by comparatively steep changes of the cortical relief, the fibres course in a more sagittal direction.

  5. Imaging of the most frequent superficial soft-tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, Melanie; Taieb, Sophie; Ceugnart, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Penel, Nicolas [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Oncology, Lille (France); Mortier, Laurent [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Dermatology, Hopital Claude Huriez, Lille (France); Vanseymortier, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Surgery, Lille (France); Robin, Y.M. [Centre Oscar Lambret, Departement of Pathology, Lille (France); Gosset, Pierre [Groupement Hospitalier de l' Institut Catholique-Faculte Libre de Medecine de Lille, Department of Pathology, Hopital Saint-Philibert, Lomme (France); Cotten, Anne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Centre Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-03-15

    Superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors located within the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous layers. Most superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors; yet, the risk of local recurrence is high, and initial wide surgery is the main prognostic factor. Some of these superficial sarcomas may grow, following an infiltrative pattern, and their real extent may be underestimated clinically. Imaging techniques are useful to determine precisely the real margins of the tumor, especially in cases of clinically doubtful or recurrent or large superficial lesions. Imaging tools enable one to determine the relationship with the superficial fascia separating the subcutaneous layer from the underlying muscle. In our institution ultrasonographic examination is followed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging when the size of the lesion exceeds 3-5 cm. Imaging assessment is performed prior to biopsy, enabling optimal surgical management. Imaging features of the main superficial sarcomas are detailed in the following article, according to their major locations: those arising in the epidermis and/or dermis, which are most often diagnosed by dermatologists, and the subcutaneous sarcomas. (orig.)

  6. Drenaje suplementario del sistema venoso superficial en colgajos pediculados Supplementary drainage of superficial venous system in pedicled flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los colgajos pediculados pueden sufrir edema y congestión debido a que su drenaje a trevés del sistema venoso superfical es imposible y el flujo hacia el sistema profundo a nivel del pedículo es precario. Esta situación suele evolucionar hacia la necrosis parcial o la pérdida total del colgajo en pocas horas. La apertura del sistema venoso superficial permite el drenaje adecuado de los tejidos transferidos y evita estas complicaciones. Este artículo analiza el papel de las anastomosis microquirúrgicas en el sistema venoso superficial de los colgajos pediculados. Esta técnica permite comunicar el sistema venoso superfical de los tejidos transferidos con el sistema venoso superficial del territorio que rodea al defecto. Presentamos los resultados obtenidos con esta técnica en colgajos de perforante en hélice, colgajos miocutáneos, colgajos neurocutáneos y colgajos fasciograsos volteados.The pedicled flaps can suffer edema and congestion due to the impossibility of drainage toward the superficial venous system and the precarious flow via the deep system at the level of the pedicle. The evolution of this situation is usually partial necrosis or total loss of the flap in a few hours. The opening of the venous superficial system achieves an appropriate drainage of the transfered tissues and avoids these complications. In this article we analyze the role of the microsurgical anastomosis at the level of the superficial venous system of pedicled flaps. This technique allows to communicate the superficial venous system of the transfered tissues with the superficial venous system of the territory around the defect. We report the results with this method in propeller perforator flaps, miocutaneous flaps, neurocutaneous flaps and adipofascial turn over flaps.

  7. Lack of Methylene Blue Staining in Superficial Epithelia as a Possible Marker for Superficial Lateral Spread of Bile Duct Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Maetani

    1996-01-01

    epithelia. The cancerous epithelia stained significantly less often than either the normal (p = 0.000005 or the metaplastic (p = 0.001 epithelia. Evaluation of methylene blue staining during PTCS revealed that this stain was absorbed by the cholangial epithelia, not superficially stuck to it. The difference in methylene blue staining properties between the cancerous and normal epithelia could be helpful to clarify the boundary of superficial lateral spread of bile duct cancer.

  8. Amniotic membrane transplant with superficial keratectomy in superficial corneal degenerations: Efficacy in a rural population of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Aparna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the applicability and efficacy of superficial keratectomy with transplantation of preserved amniotic membrane in superficial corneal degenerations in a rural population of Northern India in terms of visual improvement and surface regularization. Settings: Peripheral referral center in rural north India. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective non-comparative interventional case series where 24 eyes of 20 farmers from peripheral rural areas (M:F = 19:1 with visually significant superficial degenerative disorders (15 eyes with climatic droplet keratopathy one of which was associated with Salzmann nodular degeneration and nine eyes with band-shaped keratopathy were subjected to amniotic membrane transplantation (single or multiple layer combined with superficial keratectomy. Subjective and objective outcomes after surgery were evaluated and analyzed and statistical significance of the outcomes in various disorders was evaluated. Results: Eighty-eight per cent (21 eyes had symptomatic relief from distressing preoperative symptoms while postoperative visual improvement by two or more lines was achieved in 23 eyes (96% over a mean follow-up period of 26.8 ± 10.2 months. The surface irregularity present preoperatively was relieved in 23 cases while postoperative decline of vision with visually significant scarring was seen in one case (4%, which was labeled as failure. Conclusions: Amniotic membrane transplant with superficial keratectomy helped achieve subjective comfort, visual rehabilitation and clinical regularization of the corneal surface in superficial corneal degenerations during the mean followup of 26.8 ± 10.2 months in rural setups.

  9. Disorganization of cortical microtubules stimulates tangential expansion and reduces the uniformity of cellulose microfibril alignment among cells in the root of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Tobias I; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Judy-March, Jan E; Marga, Françoise

    2004-08-01

    To test the role of cortical microtubules in aligning cellulose microfibrils and controlling anisotropic expansion, we exposed Arabidopsis thaliana roots to moderate levels of the microtubule inhibitor, oryzalin. After 2 d of treatment, roots grow at approximately steady state. At that time, the spatial profiles of relative expansion rate in length and diameter were quantified, and roots were cryofixed, freeze-substituted, embedded in plastic, and sectioned. The angular distribution of microtubules as a function of distance from the tip was quantified from antitubulin immunofluorescence images. In alternate sections, the overall amount of alignment among microfibrils and their mean orientation as a function of position was quantified with polarized-light microscopy. The spatial profiles of relative expansion show that the drug affects relative elongation and tangential expansion rates independently. The microtubule distributions averaged to transverse in the growth zone for all treatments, but on oryzalin the distributions became broad, indicating poorly organized arrays. At a subcellular scale, cellulose microfibrils in oryzalin-treated roots were as well aligned as in controls; however, the mean alignment direction, while consistently transverse in the controls, was increasingly variable with oryzalin concentration, meaning that microfibril orientation in one location tended to differ from that of a neighboring location. This conclusion was confirmed by direct observations of microfibrils with field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, these results suggest that cortical microtubules ensure microfibrils are aligned consistently across the organ, thereby endowing the organ with a uniform mechanical structure.

  10. Disorganization of Cortical Microtubules Stimulates Tangential Expansion and Reduces the Uniformity of Cellulose Microfibril Alignment among Cells in the Root of Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Tobias I.; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Judy-March, Jan E.; Marga, Françoise

    2004-01-01

    To test the role of cortical microtubules in aligning cellulose microfibrils and controlling anisotropic expansion, we exposed Arabidopsis thaliana roots to moderate levels of the microtubule inhibitor, oryzalin. After 2 d of treatment, roots grow at approximately steady state. At that time, the spatial profiles of relative expansion rate in length and diameter were quantified, and roots were cryofixed, freeze-substituted, embedded in plastic, and sectioned. The angular distribution of microtubules as a function of distance from the tip was quantified from antitubulin immunofluorescence images. In alternate sections, the overall amount of alignment among microfibrils and their mean orientation as a function of position was quantified with polarized-light microscopy. The spatial profiles of relative expansion show that the drug affects relative elongation and tangential expansion rates independently. The microtubule distributions averaged to transverse in the growth zone for all treatments, but on oryzalin the distributions became broad, indicating poorly organized arrays. At a subcellular scale, cellulose microfibrils in oryzalin-treated roots were as well aligned as in controls; however, the mean alignment direction, while consistently transverse in the controls, was increasingly variable with oryzalin concentration, meaning that microfibril orientation in one location tended to differ from that of a neighboring location. This conclusion was confirmed by direct observations of microfibrils with field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, these results suggest that cortical microtubules ensure microfibrils are aligned consistently across the organ, thereby endowing the organ with a uniform mechanical structure. PMID:15299138

  11. Biochemical composition of the superficial layer of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, R; Grubelnik, A; Roos, S; Dora, C; Born, W; Troxler, H

    2007-09-15

    To gain more information on the mechanism of lubrication in articular joints, the superficial layer of bovine articular cartilage was mechanically removed in a sheet of ice that formed on freezing the cartilage. Freeze-dried samples contained low concentrations of chondroitin sulphate and protein. Analysis of the protein by SDS PAGE showed that the composition of the sample was comparable to that of synovial fluid (SF). Attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy of the dried residue indicated that the sample contained mostly hyaluronan. Moreover, ATR-IR spectroscopy of the upper layer of the superficial layer, adsorbed onto silicon, showed the presence of phospholipids. A gel could be formed by mixing hyaluronan and phosphatidylcholine in water with mechanical properties similar to those of the superficial layer on cartilage. Much like the superficial layer of natural cartilage, the surface of this gel became hydrophobic on drying out. Thus, it is proposed that the superficial layer forms from hyaluronan and phospholipids, which associate by hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl chains of the phospholipids and the hydrophobic faces of the disaccharide units in hyaluronan. This layer is permeable to material from the SF and the cartilage, as shown by the presence of SF proteins and chondroitin sulphate. As the cartilage dries out after removal from the joint, the phospholipids migrate towards the surface of the superficial layer to reduce the surface tension. It is also proposed that the highly efficient lubrication in articular joints can, at least in part, be attributed to the ability of the superficial layer to adsorb and hold water on the cartilage surface, thus creating a highly viscous boundary protection.

  12. Atypia and Surface Structure of Superficial Neoplasms of the Colon Less Than 10 mm in Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Yasuda

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological specimens of 30 distinct adenomas and 30 distinct carcinomas were studied by image analysis to quantify nuclear size and shape. These data were used to derive a discriminant equation, which permitted the lesions to be classified into two groups based on nuclear atypia. Next, 50 superficial type tumors of the colon (34 IIa lesions, 9 IIc + IIa lesions, and 7 IIc lesions <10 mm in longest diameter were similarly analyzed. These lesions were classified into a high atypia index group (HAI group, 14 lesions and a low atypia index group (LAI group, 36 lesions by the above discriminatory equation. Differences between these two groups in surface structure, marginal zone properties, and macroscopic type, assessed using a dissecting microscope, were studied. A hyperplastic shape of the tubular orifice was seen at the marginal zone in 10 lesions (27.7% in the LAI group and 11 lesions (78.5% in the HAI group. This difference was significant. Surface structure and macroscopic type were not correlated with the degree of atypia. The tubular density in lesions showing a hyperplastic pitted pattern at their border was 77.40, significantly higher than that for lesions without such a pattern (73.12. The contribution of various variables to surface structure, marginal zone properties, and macroscopic type was studied by discriminant analysis. A high correlation was found between marginal zone properties and tubular density. Since lesions with high nuclear atypia tend to have high tubular density, marginal zone properties were secondarily correlated with the level of nuclear atypia. Observation of the marginal zone properties of lesions was thus suggested to be helpful in the diagnosis of lesions with severe atypia.

  13. Superficial dose evaluation of four dose calculation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhen; Qiu, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhiping; Lei, Mingjun; Liu, Gui; Zhang, Zijian; Hu, Yongmei

    2017-08-01

    Accurate superficial dose calculation is of major importance because of the skin toxicity in radiotherapy, especially within the initial 2 mm depth being considered more clinically relevant. The aim of this study is to evaluate superficial dose calculation accuracy of four commonly used algorithms in commercially available treatment planning systems (TPS) by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and film measurements. The superficial dose in a simple geometrical phantom with size of 30 cm×30 cm×30 cm was calculated by PBC (Pencil Beam Convolution), AAA (Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm), AXB (Acuros XB) in Eclipse system and CCC (Collapsed Cone Convolution) in Raystation system under the conditions of source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm and field size (FS) of 10×10 cm2. EGSnrc (BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc) program was performed to simulate the central axis dose distribution of Varian Trilogy accelerator, combined with measurements of superficial dose distribution by an extrapolation method of multilayer radiochromic films, to estimate the dose calculation accuracy of four algorithms in the superficial region which was recommended in detail by the ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement) and the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). In superficial region, good agreement was achieved between MC simulation and film extrapolation method, with the mean differences less than 1%, 2% and 5% for 0°, 30° and 60°, respectively. The relative skin dose errors were 0.84%, 1.88% and 3.90%; the mean dose discrepancies (0°, 30° and 60°) between each of four algorithms and MC simulation were (2.41±1.55%, 3.11±2.40%, and 1.53±1.05%), (3.09±3.00%, 3.10±3.01%, and 3.77±3.59%), (3.16±1.50%, 8.70±2.84%, and 18.20±4.10%) and (14.45±4.66%, 10.74±4.54%, and 3.34±3.26%) for AXB, CCC, AAA and PBC respectively. Monte Carlo simulation verified the feasibility of the superficial dose measurements by multilayer Gafchromic films. And the rank

  14. Spectroscopic study of humic acids fractionated by means of tangential ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francioso, O.; Sánchez-Cortés, S.; Casarini, D.; Garcia-Ramos, J. V.; Ciavatta, C.; Gessa, C.

    2002-05-01

    Different chemical and spectroscopic techniques—diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been applied to investigate a peat humic acid (HA) separated by tangential ultrafiltration into different nominal molecular weight (NMW) fractions. Each fraction analyzed showed a characteristic DRIFT and NMR pattern. High nominal molecular weight fractions were mainly characterized by long chains of methyl and methylene groups and poorly substituted aromatic rings, while in low nominal molecular weight fractions (L-NMW), phenolic and oxygen-containing groups were predominant. A comparative study on fractions before and after treatment with 0.5 M HCl was carried out. Purified fractions showed either an increase in the carboxylate and phenolic OH groups or an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio of their NMR spectra. The SERS study of NMW fractions allowed significative information on structure and conformation of these fractions. In particular, L-NMW fractions showed a great structural modification, when different alkaline extractants or treatment with HCl were used. Humic-like substances obtained by catechol and gallic acid polymerization on metal surface were investigated using SERS. The SERS spectra of these polymers were compared and discussed with those of NMW HA fractions.

  15. Wide-angle ITER-prototype tangential infrared and visible viewing system for DIII-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasnier, C J; Allen, S L; Ellis, R E; Fenstermacher, M E; McLean, A G; Meyer, W H; Morris, K; Seppala, L G; Crabtree, K; Van Zeeland, M A

    2014-11-01

    An imaging system with a wide-angle tangential view of the full poloidal cross-section of the tokamak in simultaneous infrared and visible light has been installed on DIII-D. The optical train includes three polished stainless steel mirrors in vacuum, which view the tokamak through an aperture in the first mirror, similar to the design concept proposed for ITER. A dichroic beam splitter outside the vacuum separates visible and infrared (IR) light. Spatial calibration is accomplished by warping a CAD-rendered image to align with landmarks in a data image. The IR camera provides scrape-off layer heat flux profile deposition features in diverted and inner-wall-limited plasmas, such as heat flux reduction in pumped radiative divertor shots. Demonstration of the system to date includes observation of fast-ion losses to the outer wall during neutral beam injection, and shows reduced peak wall heat loading with disruption mitigation by injection of a massive gas puff.

  16. An Approximate Cone Beam Reconstruction Algorithm for Gantry-Tilted CT Using Tangential Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available FDK algorithm is a well-known 3D (three-dimensional approximate algorithm for CT (computed tomography image reconstruction and is also known to suffer from considerable artifacts when the scanning cone angle is large. Recently, it has been improved by performing the ramp filtering along the tangential direction of the X-ray source helix for dealing with the large cone angle problem. In this paper, we present an FDK-type approximate reconstruction algorithm for gantry-tilted CT imaging. The proposed method improves the image reconstruction by filtering the projection data along a proper direction which is determined by CT parameters and gantry-tilted angle. As a result, the proposed algorithm for gantry-tilted CT reconstruction can provide more scanning flexibilities in clinical CT scanning and is efficient in computation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated with turbell clock phantom and thorax phantom and compared with FDK algorithm and a popular 2D (two-dimensional approximate algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better image quality for gantry-tilted CT image reconstruction.

  17. Cavitation control on a 2D hydrofoil through a continuous tangential injection of liquid: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshevskiy, M. V.; Zapryagaev, I. I.; Pervunin, K. S.; Markovich, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    In the paper, the possibility of active control of a cavitating flow over a 2D hydrofoil that replicates a scaled-down model of high-pressure hydroturbine guide vane (GV) was tested. The flow manipulation was implemented by a continuous tangential liquid injection at different flow rates through a spanwise slot in the foil surface. In experiments, the hydrofoil was placed in the test channel at the attack angle of 9°. Different cavitation conditions were reached by varying the cavitation number and injection velocity. In order to study time dynamics and spatial patterns of partial cavities, high-speed imaging was employed. A PIV method was used to measure the mean and fluctuating velocity fields over the hydrofoil. Hydroacoustic measurements were carried out by means of a pressure transducer to identify spectral characteristics of the cavitating flow. It was found that the present control technique is able to modify the partial cavity pattern (or even totally suppress cavitation) in case of stable sheet cavitation and change the amplitude of pressure pulsations at unsteady regimes. The injection technique makes it also possible to significantly influence the spatial distributions of the mean velocity and its turbulent fluctuations over the GV section for non-cavitating flow and sheet cavitation.

  18. Dielectric properties tangential to the interface in model insoluble monolayers: theoretical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shushkov, Philip G; Tzvetanov, Stanislav A; Ivanova, Anela N; Tadjer, Alia V

    2008-05-06

    Studies of insoluble monolayers built of phospholipids and various long-chained fatty acids or their glycerin esters are the major source for what is currently known about the relationship between monolayer composition and physicochemical properties. The surface pressure, dipole moment, dielectric permittivity, polarizability, refractivity, and other electrical and optical features are governed by the surfactant structural specificity and solvent organization at the microscopic level. To provide insight into the atomistic details of the interfacial structure, model monolayers at the air/water interface of two distinctly different in composition and isotherm profile surfactants are investigated by means of molecular dynamics all-atom simulations. Analysis of the computational results allows the estimation of empirically unattainable quantities such as tangential (di)electric properties, their decomposition to surfactant and water contributions, and their relationship with the changes in interfacial molecular organization at different surface concentrations. The employed theoretical approach provides a comprehensive description of interfacial phenomena at the molecular level where the traditional phenomenological investigations are ineffective.

  19. Tangential Velocity of the Dark Matter in the Bullet Cluster from Precise Lensed Image Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Molnar, Sandor M; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Rephaeli, Yoel; Shimon, Meir

    2013-01-01

    We show that the fast moving component of the "bullet cluster" (1E0657-56) can induce potentially resolvable redshift differences between multiply-lensed images of background galaxies. The moving cluster effect can be expressed as the scalar product of the lensing deflection angle with the tangential velocity of the mass components, and it is maximal for clusters colliding in the plane of the sky with velocities boosted by their mutual gravity. The bullet cluster is likely to be the best candidate for the first measurement of this effect due to the large collision velocity and because the lensing deflection and the cluster fields can be calculated in advance. We derive the deflection field using multiply-lensed background galaxies detected with the Hubble Space Telescope. The velocity field is modeled using self-consistent N-body/hydrodynamical simulations constrained by the observed X-ray and gravitational lensing features of this system. We predict that the triply-lensed images of systems "G" and "H" stradd...

  20. Optimization and scale-up of a fluid bed tangential spray rotogranulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, J; Dumont, H; Bertrand, F; Legros, R

    2007-04-20

    The production of pellets in the pharmaceutical industry generally involves multi-step processing: (1) mixing, (2) wet granulation, (3) spheronization and (4) drying. While extrusion-spheronization processes have been popular because of their simplicity, fluid-bed rotogranulation (FBRG) is now being considered as an alternative, since it offers the advantages of combining the different steps into one processing unit, thus reducing processing time and material handling. This work aimed at the development of a FBRG process for the production of pellets in a 4.5-l Glatt GCPG1 tangential spray rotoprocessor and its optimization using factorial design. The factors considered were: (1) rotor disc velocity, (2) gap air pressure, (3) air flow rate, (4) binder spray rate and (5) atomization pressure. The pellets were characterized for their physical properties by measuring size distribution, roundness and flow properties. The results indicated that: pellet mean particle size is negatively affected by air flow rate and rotor plate speed, while binder spray rate has a positive effect on size; pellet flow properties are enhanced by operating with increased air flow rate and worsened with increased binder spray rate. Multiple regression analysis enabled the identification of an optimal operating window for production of acceptable pellets. Scale-up of these operating conditions was tested in a 30-l Glatt GPCG15 FBRG.

  1. Two-stage numerical simulation for temperature profile in furnace of tangentially fired pulverized coal boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Nai-jun; XU Qiong-hui; ZHOU Ping

    2005-01-01

    Considering the fact that the temperature distribution in furnace of a tangential fired pulverized coal boiler is difficult to be measured and monitored, two-stage numerical simulation method was put forward. First, multi-field coupling simulation in typical work conditions was carried out off-line with the software CFX-4.3, and then the expression of temperature profile varying with operating parameter was obtained. According to real-time operating parameters, the temperature at arbitrary point of the furnace can be calculated by using this expression. Thus the temperature profile can be shown on-line and monitoring for combustion state in the furnace is realized. The simul-ation model was checked by the parameters measured in an operating boiler, DG130-9.8/540. The maximum of relative error is less than 12% and the absolute error is less than 120 ℃, which shows that the proposed two-stage simulation method is reliable and able to satisfy the requirement of industrial application.

  2. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L [PPPL; Bell, R E [PPPL; Faust, I [MIT; Tritz, K [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21209, USA; Diallo, A [PPPL; Gerhardt, S P [PPPL; Kozub, T A [PPPL; LeBlanc, B P [PPPL; Stratton, B C [PPPL

    2014-07-01

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  3. A Tangential Wind Profile for Simulating Strong Tropical Cyclones with MM5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shanhong; YANG Bo; WU Zengmao

    2005-01-01

    A new tangential wind profile for simulating strong tropical cyclones is put forward and planted into the NCARAFWA tropical cyclone bogussing scheme in MM5. The scheme for the new profile can make full use of the information from routine typhoon reports, including not only the maximum wind, but also the additional information of the wind speeds of 25.7 and 15.4 ms -1 and their corresponding radii, which are usually provided for strong cyclones. Thus, the new profile can be used to describe the outer structure of cyclones more accurately than by using the earlier scheme of MM5 in which only the maximum wind speed is considered. Numerical experimental forecasts of two strong tropical cyclones are performed to examine the new profile. Results show that by using the new profile the prediction of both cyclones' intensity can be obviously improved, but the effects on the track prediction of the two cyclones are different. It seems that the new profile might be more suitable for strong cyclones with shifted tracks. However, the conclusion is drawn from only two typhoon cases, so more cases are needed to evaluate the new profile.

  4. Long-term evolution of superficial optic disc drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Hamann, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    with hereditary ODD were included. RESULTS: Mean age at initial and follow-up examination was, respectively, 16.8 and 73.3 years. The median follow-up time was 56 years. A minimal or non-existing change in superficial ODD anatomy (size and number) was seen in 10 of 12 eyes. There was a tendency towards more......PURPOSE: Optic disc drusen (ODD) is hyaline deposits in the optic nerve head seen in 1-2% of the population. Long-term evolution of ODD anatomy and visual field defects in ODD patients is a key factor for learning more about pathophysiology and prognosis of the condition. With a median follow......-up period of 56 years, this is the first study that evaluates superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in patients with ODD over a life span. METHODS: Observational case series investigating progression of superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in ODD patients. Eight patients...

  5. Física de superficies: métodos experimentales

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Hace unos 30 años se empezó con el estudio de superficies sólidas y hoy son muchos los investigadores que en el mundo entero se dedican al estudio de las propiedades físicas y químicas de superficies e interfaces.La motivación radica en que en las interacciones entre los diversos sistemas que componen nuestro universo se hallan involucradas sus superficies, razón suficiente para captar la importancia de su estudio para la vida humana y su repercusión tecnológica y económica. A ella habría que...

  6. Case report: cochlear implantation in a patient with superficial siderosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle; Piplica, Doris; Zhang, Ming

    2014-12-01

    This is a retrospective case review study. Current understanding of cochlear implantation in patients with superficial siderosis is limited, with roughly 15 reported cases worldwide. The purpose of this study is to report an additional case of cochlear implantation in a patient with superficial siderosis and to contribute to the current literature available on outcomes of implantation in these individuals. One cochlear implant user with superficial siderosis in a tertiary referral center. Therapeutic and rehabilitative. Open set speech perception word scores increased from 0% preimplantation with bilateral hearing aids to 8% postimplantation in the bimodal condition (cochlear implant in the left ear and hearing aid in the right ear). Phoneme scores increased from 16% preimplantation to 36% postimplantation. The patient also demonstrated improvement from 38% preimplantation to 83% postimplantation on a closed set word test. Performance on open set recorded sentences did not improve; however, open set sentences administered live voice revealed an increase in performance from 4% preimplantation to 25% postimplantation in the auditory only condition and from 59% to 86% in the auditory-visual condition. For this patient with superficial siderosis, only marginal improvements in test scores at 11 months postimplantation were seen. Minimally, the use of a cochlear implant did prevent further deterioration of auditory performance. Therefore, patients with superficial siderosis who choose to proceed with cochlear implantation may still report perceived benefit from the maintenance of speech perception abilities even in the presence of minimal improvement. Rapid deterioration in hearing thresholds and speech discrimination before implantation may be an indicator of an actively progressing case of superficial siderosis, which may suggest possible limited benefit from cochlear implantation.

  7. [Efficacies of treating large area third-degree burns by tangential excision and skin grafting for subcutaneous tissue wounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guodong; Jia, Jun; Ma, Yindong; Shi, Wen; Wang, Fang; Li, Peilong; Gao, Cong; Zuo, Haibin; Fan, Chunjie; Yang, Tao; Wu, Qiuhe; Shao, Yang

    2014-12-02

    To explore the efficacies of treating patients with large area third-degree burns by tangential excision and skin grafting for subcutaneous tissue wounds. From January 2002 to December 2013, the medical records were retrospectively reviewed for 31 consecutive adult patients with a third-degree burn area exceeding 70% and undergoing tangential excision and skin grafting on subcutaneous tissue wound (TESGSTW) for the first time within 7 days postburn at Burn Center, Affiliated Jinan Central Hospital, Shandong University. For 31 patients, wounds with relative integrity eschar underwent TESGSTW by stages. Tourniquet was not used in some extremities. The relevant clinical data including patient condition on admission, causes of death, blood loss of tangential excision wound, surgical procedures and efficacies in cured group were analyzed. Average age, burn total area and third-degree burn area of 31 patients were (32.4 ± 12.8) years, (89.0 ± 6.2)% and (80.4 ± 7.6)% respectively. There were inhalation injury (n = 25, 80.6%) and early-stage shock before hospitalization (n = 22, 71.0%). Among 18 cured ones (58.1%), 2 patients had a third-degree burn area ≥ 90%. And 13 patients (41.9%) died and 10 of them died at 4 to 19 days postburn. Burn area was a risk factor of burn mortality. Sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) were major mortality causes. Four patients died from early-stage sepsis. Within 14 days postburn, average blood loss volume per 1% tangential excision area in non-tourniquet group was slightly higher than that in the tourniquet group, but the difference was insignificant. For 18 cured patients, TESGSTW were performed 41 times. For 14 patients (77.8%), TESGSTW was performed twice. The average time of the first tangential excision was (4.1 ± 0.6) days postburn, the time interval between the first two tangential excisions was (6.4 ± 2.0) days, the first tangential excision area (33.8 ± 7.6)% and accumulated tangential excision area (58

  8. UV radiation sensors with unitary and binary superficial barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorogan, Valerian; Vieru, Tatiana; Kosyak, V.; Damaskin, I.; Chirita, F.

    1998-07-01

    UV radiation sensors with unitary and binary superficial barrier, made on the basis of GaP - SnO2 and GaAs - AlGaAs - SnO2 heterostructures, are presented in the paper. Technological and constructive factors, which permit to realize a high conversion efficiency and to exclude the influence of visible spectrum upon the photoanswer, are analyzed. It was established that the presence of an isotypical superficial potential barrier permits to suppress the photoanswer component formed by absorption of visible and infrared radiation in semiconductor structure bulk.

  9. PHOTODYNAMIC DIAGNOSIS AND FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY IN SUPERFICIAL BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Rusakov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive fluorescence technique has been developed to study the urinary bladder mucosa in patients with superficial bladder cancer (BC, by using alasense, white light cystoscopy, fluorescence cytoscopy, and local fluorescence spectroscopy in vivo. Quantification of urothelium fluorescence in the red emission foci of 5-ALA-induced protophorphyrin, with the local autofluorescence intensity being borne in mind, has been shown to increase the specificity of photodynamic diagnosis of superficial BC from 70 to 85% (p ≤ 0.05 and the total accuracy of the technique from 80 to 86%.  

  10. Contralateral breast doses depending on treatment set-up positions for left-sided breast tangential irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Chan Seong; Park, Su Yeon; Kim, Jong Sik; Choi, Byeong Gi; Chung, Yoon Sun; Park, Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate Contralateral Breast Doses with Supine and Prone Positions for tangential Irradiation techniques for left-sided breast Cancer We performed measurements for contralateral doses using Human Phantom at each other three plans (conventional technique, Field-in-Field, IMRT, with prescription of 50 Gy/25fx). For the measurement of contralateral doses we used Glass dosimeters on the 4 points of Human Phantom surface (0 mm, 10 mm, 30 mm, 50 mm). For the position check at every measurements, we had taken portal images using EPID and denoted the incident points on the human phantom for checking the constancy of incident points. The contralateral doses in supine position showed a little higher doses than those in prone position. In the planning study, contralateral doses in the prone position increased mean doses of 1.2% to 1.8% at each positions while those in the supine positions showed mean dose decreases of 0.8% to 0.9%. The measurements using glass dosimeters resulted in dose increases (mean: 2.7%, maximum: 4% of the prescribed dose) in the prone position. In addition, the delivery techniques of Field-in-field and IMRT showed mean doses of 3% higher than conventional technique. We evaluated contralateral breast doses depending on different positions of supine and prone for tangential irradiations. For the phantom simulation of set-up variation effects on contralateral dose evaluation, although we used humanoid phantom for planning and measurements comparisons, it would be more or less worse set-up constancy in a real patient. Therefore, more careful selection of determination of patient set-up for the breast tangential irradiation, especially in the left-sided breast, should be considered for unwanted dose increases to left lung and heart. In conclusion, intensive patient monitoring and improved patient set-up verification efforts should be necessary for the application of prone position for tangential irradiation of left-sided breast cancer.

  11. CFD investigation on the flow and combustion in a 300 MWe tangentially fired pulverized-coal furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldi, Nawel; Chouari, Yoldoss; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The characteristics of the flow, combustion and temperature in a 300 MWe tangentially fired pulverized-coal furnace are numerically studied using computational fluid dynamics. The mathematical model is based on a Eulerian description for the continuum phase and a Lagrangian description for coal particles. The combustion reaction scheme was modeled using eddy dissipation concept. The application of a proper turbulence model is mandatory to generate accurate predictions of flow and heat transfer during combustion. The current work presents a comparative study to identify the suitable turbulence model for tangentially fired furnace problem. Three turbulence models including the standard k-ɛ model, the RNG k-ɛ model and the Reynolds Stress model, RSM are examined. The predictions are compared with the published experimental data of Zheng et al. (Proc Combust Inst 29: 811-818, 2002). The RNG k-ɛ model proves to be the most suitable turbulence model, offering a satisfactory prediction of the velocity, temperature and species fields. The detailed results presented in this paper may enhance the understanding of complex flow patterns and combustion processes in tangentially fired pulverized-coal furnaces.

  12. Conceptual design of the tangentially viewing combined interferometer-polarimeter for ITER density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zeeland, M A; Boivin, R L; Brower, D L; Carlstrom, T N; Chavez, J A; Ding, W X; Feder, R; Johnson, D; Lin, L; O'Neill, R C; Watts, C

    2013-04-01

    One of the systems planned for the measurement of electron density in ITER is a multi-channel tangentially viewing combined interferometer-polarimeter (TIP). This work discusses the current status of the design, including a preliminary optical table layout, calibration options, error sources, and performance projections based on a CO2/CO laser system. In the current design, two-color interferometry is carried out at 10.59 μm and 5.42 μm and a separate polarimetry measurement of the plasma induced Faraday effect, utilizing the rotating wave technique, is made at 10.59 μm. The inclusion of polarimetry provides an independent measure of the electron density and can also be used to correct the conventional two-color interferometer for fringe skips at all densities, up to and beyond the Greenwald limit. The system features five chords with independent first mirrors to reduce risks associated with deposition, erosion, etc., and a common first wall hole to minimize penetration sizes. Simulations of performance for a projected ITER baseline discharge show the diagnostic will function as well as, or better than, comparable existing systems for feedback density control. Calculations also show that finite temperature effects will be significant in ITER even for moderate temperature plasmas and can lead to a significant underestimate of electron density. A secondary role TIP will fulfill is that of a density fluctuation diagnostic; using a toroidal Alfvén eigenmode as an example, simulations show TIP will be extremely robust in this capacity and potentially able to resolve coherent mode fluctuations with perturbed densities as low as δn∕n ≈ 10(-5).

  13. Coverage of axillary lymph nodes with high tangential fields in breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alço, G; Iğdem, S I; Ercan, T; Dinçer, M; Sentürk, R; Atilla, S; Oral Zengin, F; Okkan, S

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the coverage of axillary nodal volumes with high tangent fields (HTF) in breast radiotherapy and to determine the utility of customised blocking. The treatment plans of 30 consecutive patients with early breast cancer were evaluated. The prescription dose was 50 Gy to the whole breast. Axillary level I-II lymph node volumes were delineated and the cranial border of the tangential fields was set just below the humeral head to create HTF. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were used to calculate the doses received by axillary nodal volumes. In a second planning set, HTF were modified with multileaf collimators (MLC-HTF) to obtain an adequate dose coverage of axillary nodes. The mean doses of the axillary nodes, the ipsilateral lung and heart were compared between the two plans (HTF vs MLC-HTF) using a paired sample t-test. The doses received by 95% of the breast volumes were not significantly different for the two plans. The doses received by 95% of the level I and II axillary volumes were 16.79 Gy and 11.59 Gy, respectively, for HTF, increasing to 47.2 Gy and 45.03 Gy, respectively, for MLC-HTF. Mean lung doses and per cent volume of the ipsilateral lung receiving 20 Gy (V20) were also increased from 6.47 Gy and 10.47%, respectively, for HTF, to 9.56 Gy and 16.77%, respectively, for MLC-HTF. Our results suggest that HTF do not adequately cover the level I and II axillary lymph node regions. Modification of HTF with MLC is necessary to obtain an adequate coverage of axillary levels without compromising healthy tissue in the majority of the patients.

  14. Golgi analysis of tangential neurons in the lobula plate of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Rajashekhar; V R Shamprasad

    2004-03-01

    The lobula plate (LP), which is the third order optic neuropil of flies, houses wide-field neurons which are exquisitely sensitive to motion. Among Diptera, motion-sensitive neurons of larger flies have been studied at the anatomical and physiological levels. However, the neurons of Drosophila lobula plate are relatively less explored. As Drosophila permits a genetic analysis of neural functions, we have analysed the organization of lobula plate of Drosophila melanogaster. Neurons belonging to eight anatomical classes have been observed in the present study. Three neurons of the horizontal system (HS) have been visualized. The HS north (HSN) neuron, occupying the dorsal lobula plate is stunted in its geometry compared to that of larger flies. Associated with the HS neurons, thinner horizontal elements known as h-cells have also been visualized in the present study. Five of the six known neurons of the vertical system (VS) have been visualized. Three additional neurons in the proximal LP comparable in anatomy to VS system have been stained. We have termed them as additional VS (AVS)-like neurons. Three thinner tangential cells that are comparable to VS neurons, which are elements of twin vertical system (tvs); and two cells with wide dendritic fields comparable to CH neurons of Diptera have been also observed. Neurons comparable to VS cells but with ‘tufted’ dendrites have been stained. The HSN and VS1-VS2 neurons are dorsally stunted. This is possibly due to the shape of the compound eye of Drosophila which is reduced in the fronto-dorsal region as compared to larger flies.

  15. LONGITUDINAL RESIDUAL AND TANGENTIAL STRAIN (LRS and LRT IN SIX Eucalyptus spp. CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The species of Eucalyptus genus present high levels of growth stress. These stresses are mechanical efforts generated during the tree growth to help maintaining the balance of the cup, in response to environmental (light, wind and inclination of the land and silvicultural agents (pruning, thinning and planting density. The growth stresses are responsible for the cracks of tops, in logs and boards, and for the warp after the breaking down. This research evaluated the level of growth stress, measured by the longitudinal residual and tangential strain (DRL and DRT, around the circumference of the trunks of alive trees of six clones of Eucalyptus spp., at the age of 10.5 years, and verified the effect of the planting parcel. The clones belong to VMM-AGRO, and they are coming from a clonal test area implanted in the Bom Sucesso farm, located in Vazante-MG. For evaluating the experiment, the model adopted was the completely randomized one disposed in factorial outline with two factors (clone and portion in three repetitions. The results indicated that the average LRS was 0.093 mm and that the average LRT was 0.025 mm. It was verified that, for LRS, the clone effects and planting parcel were significant, while the interaction effect was not significant. For LRT the parcel and interaction effect were significant, while clone effect was not significant. Clones 44, 58 and 47 presented the smallest levels and better distributions of LRS, while, the clones 27, 44 and 58 presented the highest LRS levels. The clones 44 and 58 presented the best distribution and the smallest level of growth stress and may be considered potentially apt for producing sawn wood or solid wood.

  16. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens.

  17. Tromboflebite superficial: epidemiologia, fisiopatologia, diagnóstico e tratamento Superficial thrombophlebitis: epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcone Lima Sobreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A tromboflebite superficial de membros inferiores é doença de ocorrência comum, estando associada a diversas condições clínicas e cirúrgicas. Historicamente considerada doença benigna, devido à sua localização superficial e ao fácil diagnóstico, o tratamento foi conservador durante muito tempo, na maioria dos casos. Entretanto, relatos recentes de freqüências altas de complicações tromboembólicas associadas - 22 a 37% para trombose venosa profunda e até 33% para embolia pulmonar - alertaram para a necessidade de abordagens diagnósticas e terapêuticas mais amplas, visando diagnosticar e tratar essas possíveis complicações. A possibilidade da coexistência dessas e de outras desordens sistêmicas (colagenoses, neoplasias, trombofilias interfere na avaliação e influencia a conduta terapêutica, que pode ser clínica, cirúrgica ou combinada. No entanto, devido à falta de ensaios clínicos controlados e às incertezas quanto a sua história natural, o diagnóstico e o tratamento da tromboflebite superficial continuam indefinidos. Neste trabalho, foi feita uma revisão da literatura analisando-se a epidemiologia, fisiopatologia e estado atual do diagnóstico e tratamento da tromboflebite superficial.Superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs is a commonly occurring disease, and it is associated with various clinical and surgical conditions. Historically considered to be a benign disease due to its superficial location and easy diagnosis, its treatment was, for a long time, conservative in most cases. Nevertheless, recent reports of high frequency and associated thromboembolic complications, which vary from 22 to 37% for deep venous thrombosis and up to 33% for pulmonary embolism, have indicated the need for broader diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in order to diagnose and treat such possible complications. The possibility of coexistence of these and other systemic disorders (collagenosis, neoplasia, thrombophilia

  18. Interpolación y ajuste de superficies en componentes mecánicos digitalizados empleando superficies B-Spline

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Este documento de tesis tiene el propósito de describir una metodología para obtener nubes de puntos que representen a superficies (o parches de geometría compleja) de piezas mecánicas que pueden ser replicadas en la industria. Estos puntos se obtuvieron utilizando el método de interpolación superficial B-Spline que deben cumplir un margen de error conocido y controlado de acuerdo a las tolerancias de fabricación utilizados en estos procesos de fabricación. En primer lugar e...

  19. The concept of the average stress in the fracture process zone for the search of the crack path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.G. Matvienko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the average stress has been employed to propose the maximum average tangential stress (MATS criterion for predicting the direction of fracture angle. This criterion states that a crack grows when the maximum average tangential stress in the fracture process zone ahead of the crack tip reaches its critical value and the crack growth direction coincides with the direction of the maximum average tangential stress along a constant radius around the crack tip. The tangential stress is described by the singular and nonsingular (T-stress terms in the Williams series solution. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed MATS criterion, this criterion is directly applied to experiments reported in the literature for the mixed mode I/II crack growth behavior of Guiting limestone. The predicted directions of fracture angle are consistent with the experimental data. The concept of the average stress has been also employed to predict the surface crack path under rolling-sliding contact loading. The proposed model considers the size and orientation of the initial crack, normal and tangential loading due to rolling–sliding contact as well as the influence of fluid trapped inside the crack by a hydraulic pressure mechanism. The MATS criterion is directly applied to equivalent contact model for surface crack growth on a gear tooth flank.

  20. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in superficial CNS siderosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Lindelof, M.; Haziri, Donika

    2015-01-01

    that neurodegeneration due to haemosiderin-associated iron toxicity becomes irreversible with time. CONCLUSION: Surgical therapy in superficial CNS siderosis is rarely achieved. We suggest that prospective, large-scale multicentre studies are needed to search for non-surgical therapies that reverse (or prevent) ongoing...... neurotoxicity due to accumulating iron toxicity. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  1. Anterior urethral recurrence of superficial bladder cancer: its clinical significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saika T

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal the clinical features of anterior urethral recurrence in patients with superficial bladder cancer, and to determine the appropriate treatment. Three hundred and three patients with superficial bladder cancer, who were newly diagnosed and initially treated conservatively in our hospital between 1965 and 1990, were followed for at least 5 years and their clinical outcomes were analyzed. Clinical factors, including anterior urethral recurrence, were evaluated statistically regarding tumor progression. Eight patients (2.6% had anterior urethral recurrence following superficial bladder cancer. Twenty-four patients (7.9% had tumor progression and 149 (49.2% had tumor recurrence. In a multivariate analysis using a logistic model, anterior urethral recurrence was the most important factor, followed by histological grade. Four of 5 patients who were treated for anterior urethral recurrent tumors by transurethral resection showed progression and died of the cancer within one year. Two of the remaining three patients who underwent radical cysto-urethrectomy at the time of anterior urethral recurrence survived. Anterior urethral recurrence following superficial bladder cancer is a predictor for rapid subsequent malignant progression. Once there is anterior urethral recurrence, radical intensive therapy, including radical cysto-urethrectomy, should be carried out immediately.

  2. Superficies bioactivas en implantología: una nueva perspectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cutando

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, tras años de investigación en implantología, en los cuales se han realizado muchos trabajos, en donde se han estudiado diferentes tipos de superficies de implantes, lisas y rugosas, en un intento de mejorar, tanto en el tiempo como en la calidad , la osteointegración, se ha concluido que los implantes de superficie rugosa con un intervalo de rugosidad entre 1,0-2,0 nm, son los que parecen dar una mejor respuesta ósea y mejores resultados clínicos, pero desde un punto de vista exclusivamente mecánico. Hoy en día las investigaciones se centran en el desarrollo de superficies denominadas bioactivas, las cuales son capaces de interaccionar con el hueso que rodea al implante, como ocurre cuando el implante es revestido con carbonato cálcico o bien con flúor. Pero sabemos que dentro del metabolismo óseo, juegan importantes papeles, moléculas, como son la melatonina y la hormona del crecimiento entre otras, las cuales deben de ser tenidas en cuenta a la hora de hablar de osteointegración. Se realiza una breve descripción de la fisiología de ambas moléculas y se valora su aplicación al concepto de superficie bioactiva en implantología.

  3. Superficial Needling Therapy for Tennis Elbow in 40 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Heng-bi; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    Superficial needling therapy was employed to treat 40 cases of tennis elbow. For the cases of qi and blood stagnation, cupping therapy was added. Thirty-eight cases were cured after one treatment and 2 cases were cured after two treatments.

  4. Frey′s Syndrome as a Sequela of Superficial Parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Kumar Bali

    2006-01-01

    The disorder is characterized by unilateral sweating and flushing of facial skin in the area of parotid gland occurring during meals. We present a case of a patient who developed symptoms of Frey Syndrome 4 months after undergoing superficial parotidectomy on left side.

  5. Atypical Presentation of Fibrolipomatous Hamartoma of Superficial Peroneal Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinsa, Baljinder Singh; Lidder, Surjit; Abbasian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Fibrolipomatous hamartoma is a rare presentation in the foot. An accurate diagnosis is key, with magnetic resonance imaging findings considered definitive. The management is dependent on the symptoms. We present an atypical presentation of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the superficial peroneal nerve and discuss the current published data.

  6. Superficial dermatomycoses: a prospective clinico-mycological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatomycoses are more prevalent in India due to favourable climatic conditions, poverty, poor hygiene and overcrowding. Sparse published data are available regarding superficial dermatomycoses from India. Methods: In this prospective study, demographic characteristics, clinical spectrum and risk factors for the development were studied in 198 patients with superficial dermatomycoses. Results: Their mean age was 34.1 ± 15.3 years; there were 108 (54.5% males. Majority of the patients (50.5% belonged to upper-lower socio-economic status (Class IV as per modified Kuppuswamy’s classification. Most of the patients (69.7% had presented with dermatophytoses. Among superficial dermatomy-coses, tinea corporis was the most common (29.3% clinical type. Potassium hydroxide mount was positive in 77.7% and culture was positive in 30.8%. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common species isolated (64%. Multivariable analysis using logistic regression revealed older age (> 50 years to be an independent predictor for the development of tinea corporis (p<0.001. Conclusions: Our observations suggest that superficial dermatomycoses are an important cause of morbidity and should be carefully searched for especially in the elderly so that effective curative treatment can be instituted.

  7. Tattoo removal by superficial dermabrasion. Five-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaugh, W A

    1975-04-01

    A 5-year clinical experience using superficial dermabrasion to remove tattoos is presented. This procedure can be done quickly in the office with low patient risk. Good pigment removal is obtained with little or no scar formation. Cases are presented which are typical of the 250 tattoos removed in the last 5 years.

  8. A Modified EPA Method 1623 that Uses Tangential Flow Hollow-Fiber Ultrafiltration and Heat Dissociation Steps to Detect Waterborne Cryptosporidum and Giardia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol describes the use of a tangential flow hollow-fiber ultrafiltration sample concentration system and a heat dissociation as alternative steps for the detection of waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia species using EPA Method 1623.

  9. Injector Element which Maintains a Constant Mean Spray Angle and Optimum Pressure Drop During Throttling by Varying the Geometry of Tangential Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P. (Inventor); Myers, William Neill (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method for determining the optimum inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector includes obtaining a throttleable level phase value, volume flow rate, chamber pressure, liquid propellant density, inlet injector pressure, desired target spray angle and desired target optimum delta pressure value between an inlet and a chamber for a plurality of engine stages. The tangential inlet area for each throttleable stage is calculated. The correlation between the tangential inlet areas and delta pressure values is used to calculate the spring displacement and variable inlet geometry. An injector designed using the method includes a plurality of geometrically calculated tangential inlets in an injection tube; an injection tube cap with a plurality of inlet slots slidably engages the injection tube. A pressure differential across the injector element causes the cap to slide along the injection tube and variably align the inlet slots with the tangential inlets.

  10. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  11. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Robert Phillips

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington’s disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington’s disease processes. MethodsStructural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington’s disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject’s Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. ResultsThere was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001 in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington’s disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001. Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number and disease burden (p < 0.001.ConclusionsThis study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington’s disease. Since the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease.

  12. SU-E-T-373: Evaluation and Reduction of Contralateral Skin /subcutaneous Dose for Tangential Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butson, M; Carroll, S; Whitaker, M; Odgers, D; Martin, D; Hinds, S; Kader, J; Ho, K; Amos, S; Toohey, J [Chris O’Brien LifeHouse, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Tangential breast irradiation is a standard treatment technique for breast cancer therapy. One aspect of dose delivery includes dose delivered to the skin caused by electron contamination. This effect is especially important for highly oblique beams used on the medical tangent where the electron contamination deposits dose on the contralateral breast side. This work aims to investigate and predict as well as define a method to reduce this dose during tangential breast radiotherapy. Methods: Analysis and calculation of breast skin and subcutaneous dose is performed using a Varian Eclipse planning system, AAA algorithm for 6MV x-ray treatments. Measurements were made using EBT3 Gafchromic film to verify the accuracy of planning data. Various materials were tested to assess their ability to remove electron contamination on the contralateral breast. Results: Results showed that the Varian Eclipse AAA algorithm could accurately estimate contralateral breast dose in the build-up region at depths of 2mm or deeper. Surface dose was underestimated by the AAA algorithm. Doses up to 12% of applied dose were seen on the contralateral breast surface and up to 9 % at 2mm depth. Due to the nature of this radiation, being mainly low energy electron contamination, a bolus material could be used to reduce this dose to less than 3%. This is accomplished by 10 mm of superflab bolus or by 1 mm of lead. Conclusion: Contralateral breast skin and subcutaneous dose is present for tangential breast treatment and has been measured to be up to 12% of applied dose from the medial tangent beam. This dose is deposited at shallow depths and is accurately calculated by the Eclipse AAA algorithm at depths of 2mm or greater. Bolus material placed over the contralateral can be used to effectively reduce this skin dose.

  13. A combined chemo-mechanical approach for aesthetic management of superficial enamel defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardu, S.; Benbachir, N.; Stavridakis, M.; Dietschi, D.L.; Krejci, I.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing small superficial defects in light to medium fluorosis. Method and materials The proposed technique is based on a selective abrasion of the superficial enamel and a recreation of the superficial macro and micro morpholog

  14. A combined chemo-mechanical approach for aesthetic management of superficial enamel defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardu, S.; Benbachir, N.; Stavridakis, M.; Dietschi, D.L.; Krejci, I.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing small superficial defects in light to medium fluorosis. Method and materials The proposed technique is based on a selective abrasion of the superficial enamel and a recreation of the superficial macro and micro morpholog

  15. Rugosidad y textura de superficies: experimentos y simulaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson L. Vargas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aplican algunos elementos de la geometría fractal al estudio y caracterización de la rugosidad superficial. Los materiales bajo estudio consisten en agregados naturales, de amplia aplicación en la industria de la construcción. Se aplican tanto técnicas experimentales basadas en análisis de imágenes como modelos teóricos. En particular se explora el potencial de la lacunaridad –un método de análisis derivado de la geometría fractal, para describir patrones y dispersión espacial. Los resultados ilustran su aplicación en la caracterización de rugosidad superficial. Se discuten igualmente, limitaciones y ventajas de esta aproximación.

  16. Effects of superficial gas velocity on process dynamics in bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, T. T.; Kumar, B.

    2014-06-01

    Present work analyzes the flow hydrodynamics and mass transfer mechanisms in double Rushton and CD-6 impeller on wide range (0.0075-0.25 m/s) of superficial gas velocity ( v g) in a gas-liquid phase bioreactor by employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The volume averaged velocity magnitude and dissipation rate are found higher with increasing superficial gas velocity. Higher relative power draw ( P g/ P 0) is predicted in CD-6 than the Rushton impeller but no significant difference in volume averaged mass transfer coefficient ( k L a) observed between these two types of impeller. The ratio of power draw with mass transfer coefficient has been found higher in CD-6 impeller (25-50 %) than the Rushton impeller.

  17. Variation in the Branching Pattern of the Superficial Palmar Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalatha S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe a rare variation in the superficial palmar arch (SPA encountered during routine cadaveric dissection. SPA was formed by the superficial branches of ulnar and radial arteries which provided a proper digital branch to the ulnar side of the little finger and three common palmar digital branches to the medial four digits. Additionally a first common digital artery was seen to emerge from the radial side of SPA which further divided into the arteria princeps pollicis and arteria radialis indicis. We also found a small communicating branch between the arteria princeps pollicis and the radial artery in the anatomical snuff box. Such arterial variations in the palm due to alteration in the developmental sequence remains a crucial issue in the reconstructive hand surgeries, especially while dealing with the innovative microsurgical procedures, where these varied patterns act as pivotal points around which successful results of various advanced surgical procedures revolve.

  18. Movimiento superficial del glaciar rocoso de las Argualas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjosé, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available At present the Argualas rock glacier is active and it flows to a surface axial mean velocity of 22,3 cm/year. The flow velocities have been determinated by surveying techniques made between 1991 and 1994. This technic complements the geomorphological observations and deepens in the knov/ledge of the glacier surface dynamics.

    El glaciar rocoso de las Argualas es activo en la actualidad y fluye a una velocidad media axial en superficie de 22.3 cm/año. El flujo se ha determinado median te las técnicas de auscultación topográfica realizadas entre los años 1991 y 1994. Esta técnica ha permitido complementar el análisis geomorfológico, profundizado en el estudio de la dinámica superficial del glaciar.

  19. Endoscopic removal or ablation of oesophageal and gastric superficial tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, P H; Aouattah, T; Piessevaux, H

    2006-01-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection was developed in Eastern countries as a curative treatment for superficial carcinomas in the stomach and oesophagus. Experience in Western countries is more recent and limited due to less frequent diagnosis of early gastric cancers compared to the Japanese and Korean populations and to more frequent use of ablation techniques such as argon plasma coagulation and photodynamic therapy in pre-neoplastic lesions and superficial tumours. This review summarizes the respective indications, advantages, disadvantages, limitations and complications of the different ablative and resection techniques in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Several methods are described such as electrocoagulation, argon plasma coagulation, photodynamic therapy, lift and cut resection, cap assisted aspiration and band ligation mucosectomy, and endoscopic submucosal dissection. Local results in more than 170 patients managed with endoscopic resection of oesophageal high grade dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma and gastric or Barrett's epithelium high grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma furthermore demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic resection practiced in experienced centres.

  20. Causative agents of superficial mycoses in Istanbul, Turkey: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, Fatma; Er, Emine; Samasti, Mustafa

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the percentage of agents, which can give rise to superficial fungal infections in Istanbul, Turkey. Between 2000 and 2007, the clinical samples collected from 8,200 patients attending the outpatient Dermatology Clinic at Mihrimahsultan Medical Center were examined by direct microscopy and culture. Pathogen fungi were detected in 5,722 of the patients. Of the isolates were 4,218 (74%) dermatophytes, 1,196 (21%) Candida sp., 170 (3%) Malassezia furfur, and 138 (2%) Trichosporon sp. Among the dermatophytes, Trichophyton sp. was the most common isolate followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (243) and Microsporum sp. Among the Candida species, C. albicans (549) was also frequently found. Onychomycosis was the most prevalent type of infection, followed by tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, and tinea capitis. In conclusion, our study showed that the most common isolated agents from superficial infections were T. rubrum being Candida sp. the second most prevalent.

  1. The Influence of S_2 Microfibril Angle on Longitudinal and Tangential Shrinkage in China-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to investigate the variation of microfibril angle (Mfa), tracheid morphology and shrinkage within China-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation tree. The second objective was to discuss the relationship between Mfa and tracheid morphology, and the influence of Mfa on longitudinal and tangential shrinkage. The results showed that the mean value of Mfa decreased from the 2nd (30.8°) to 26th growth ring (7.7°); the radial variation of latewood tracheid length ranged f...

  2. Hankel vector moment sequences and the non-tangential regularity at infinity of two variable Pick functions

    CERN Document Server

    Agler, Jim

    2011-01-01

    A Pick function of $d$ variables is a holomorphic map from $\\Pi^d$ to $\\Pi$, where $\\Pi$ is the upper halfplane. Some Pick functions of one variable have an asymptotic expansion at infinity, a power series $\\sum_{n=1}^\\infty \\rho_n z^{-n}$ with real numbers $\\rho_n$ that gives an asymptotic expansion on non-tangential approach regions to infinity. H. Hamburger in 1921 characterized which sequences $\\{\\rho_n\\} $ can occur. We give an extension of Hamburger's results to Pick functions of two variables.

  3. Measurement of the angle of superficial tension by images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez M., Javier; Alonso R., Sergio

    2006-02-01

    When a liquid is deposited on a surface, this one form a certain angle with respect to the surface, where depending on its value, it will conclude that so hard it is his adhesion with the surface. By means of the analysis of images we looked for to measure this angle of superficial tension. In order to make this measurement, we propose a technique by means of projective transformations and one method of regression to estimation parameters to conic fitting.

  4. Cervical Spinal Meningeal Melanocytoma Presenting as Intracranial Superficial Siderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Srirama Jayamma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningeal melanocytoma is a rare pigmented tumor of the leptomeningeal melanocytes. This rare entity results in diagnostic difficulty in imaging unless clinical and histopathology correlation is performed. In this case report, we describe a case of meningeal melanocytoma of the cervical region presenting with superficial siderosis. Extensive neuroradiological examination is necessary to locate the source of the bleeding in such patients. Usually, the patient will be cured by the complete surgical excision of the lesion.

  5. Superficial urinary bladder tumors treatment results: A 10-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Jablan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most common urinary bladder tumors are superficial tumors. Due to their tension to relapse and progress towards deeper layers after surgical therapy, an adequate therapy significantly contributed to the improvement of the results of urinary bladder tumors treatment. Staging and gradus of the tumor, presence of the carcinoma in situ (CIS or relapses significantly influenced the choice of the therapy. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of the intravesicelly applied BCG (Bacille Colmette - Guerin vaccine or chemiotherapy in the prevention of the relapses and further progression of superficial urinary bladder tumors. Methods. All of the diagnosed superficial tumors of bladder were removed by transurethral resection (TUR. After receiving the patohistological finding they were subjected to adjuvant therapy, immune BCG vaccine or chemiotherapy (epirubicin, doxorubicin, mitomycin-C. The third group did not accept adjuvant therapy, but had regularly scheduled cystoscopic controls. The appearance of relapses, progression of stage and grades of the tumor, as well as possible unwanted effects of adjuvant therapy were registered. Results. The applied immunotherapy (BCG influenced decreased tumor relapses (7% and statistically important difference between patients who had taken adjuvant chemotherapy (relapses 18.4% and those without this therapy was acknowledged. Grades of tumor did not show statistically significant difference on tumor relapse. A significantly longer period of time in the appearance of tumor relapse after BCG (29.33 months, had significant importance comparing to chemio (9.44 months or non-taken adjuvant therapy (9.84 months. Very small number of unwanted effects suggested an obligatory undertaking adjuvant therapy after TUR of superficial tumors. Conclusion. A significant decrease of relapses as well as avoidance of further progression of urinary bladder tumors, has introduced adjuvant therapy in

  6. Transient superficial peroneal nerve palsy after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Majed Alrowaili

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage a...

  7. Differences in excitability between median and superficial radial sensory axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Yumi; Kanai, Kazuaki; Misawa, Sonoko; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Isose, Sagiri; Nasu, Saiko; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Ohmori, Shigeki; Noto, Yu-ichi; Kugio, Yumiko; Shimizu, Toshio; Matsubara, Shiro; Lin, Cindy S Y; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in excitability properties of human median and superficial radial sensory axons (e.g., axons innervating the glabrous and hairy skin in the hand). Previous studies have shown that excitability properties differ between motor and sensory axons, and even among sensory axons between median and sural sensory axons. In 21 healthy subjects, threshold tracking was used to examine excitability indices such as strength-duration time constant, threshold electrotonus, supernormality, and threshold change at the 0.2 ms inter-stimulus interval in latent addition. In addition, threshold changes induced by ischemia for 10 min were compared between median and superficial radial sensory axons. Compared with radial sensory axons, median axons showed shorter strength-duration time constant, greater threshold changes in threshold electrotonus (fanning-out), greater supernormality, and smaller threshold changes in latent addition. Threshold changes in both during and after ischemia were greater for median axons. These findings suggest that membrane potential in human median sensory axons is more negative than in superficial radial axons, possibly due to greater activity of electrogenic Na(+)/K(+) pump. These results may reflect adaptation to impulses load carried by median axons that would be far greater with a higher frequency. Biophysical properties are not identical in different human sensory axons, and therefore their responses to disease may differ. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glans-preserving surgery for superficial penile cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengchao; Song, Ninghong; Yin, Changjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jie; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Cheng, Gong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the safety and feasibility of glans-preserving surgery for superficial penile squamous cell carcinoma. Young patients with penile primary tumors exhibiting favorable histologic features were best suited for organ-sparing procedures, enabling them to avoid sexual disturbances. The study included 12 patients, 38-53 years of age (median age 46 years), with superficial lesions involving the glans penis, coronary sulcus, or shaft skin. After clinical staging and grading, those patients were offered a glans-preserving procedure to preserve the normal appearance and functional integrity of the glans penis. Of the 12 patients referred, the tumors were TaG1 in 4 patients, TaG2 in 3, TisG1 in 1, TisG2 in 1, T1G1 in 2, and T1G2 in 1. All patients returned to normal sexual activity 1 month postoperatively. Sexual function and sexual satisfaction were well maintained after surgery. The cosmetic results were considered satisfying/very satisfying by 83% (10 of 12 patients). Follow-up data were available on 12 patients at a mean follow-up of 62.5 months. Only 1 patient had recurrence 6 months after surgery, which was managed by a second glans-preserving surgery without recurrence. With careful patient selection and vigilant follow-up, anatomically suitable superficial penile cancer can be offered this glans-preserving surgery, while preserving function of the penis wherever possible.

  9. A Study of Superficial Mycosis in South Gujarat Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Patel, Summaiya Mulla, Disha Patel, Gaurishankar Shrimali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the seroprevalence of clinical pattern of dermatophytosis and non – dermatophytic fungi (superficial mycosis with most common fungal pathogen in the South Gujarat region of the India. Methods: A clinical and mycological study of superficial mycosis was conducted on 198 cases (127 male and 71 female. Direct microscopy by KOH mount and culture was undertaken to isolate the fungal pathogen in each case. Results: 123 out of 198 cases (62.12% were positive by direct microscopy in which 58 (29.29% were positive by culture. The commonest age group involved was 21 – 30 years. Tinea corporis was the most common clinical presentation and Trichopyton rubrum was the most common fungal pathogen isolated. Non dermatophytic fungus like pityriasis versicolor and yeast like candida species were isolated in 17(22.67% cased and 8 (10.67% cases respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that along with dermatophytes, nondermatophytic fungi are also emerging as important causes of superficial mycosis.

  10. Caracterización físico-química de la superficie de 9 implantes dentales con 3 distintos tratamientos de superficie

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rius, Daniel; García Sabán, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Existen diversos tratamientos de superficie aplicados a los implantes dentales. El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar las características físico-químicas de la superficie de implantes dentales de titanio sometidos a diversos tratamientos de superficie. 9 implantes dentales procedentes del mismo lote de fabricación fueron separados en 3 grupos y sometidos a 3 tipos de tratamiento de superficie diferentes: mecanizado, grabado ácido y un ataque químico denominado Avan...

  11. BCG and the treatment of superficial bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J T; Kadmon, D

    1991-12-01

    In this report, we review the evolution of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy as a legitimate form of treatment in superficial, nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer. In the US, an estimated 45,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed each year and the annual death rate approaches 11,000. Approximately 70 percent of these cancers are superficial at the time of initial presentation. The treatment of superficial bladder cancer has three objectives: (1) eradication of existing disease, (2) prophylaxis against tumor recurrence, and (3) prevention of tumor progression (either muscular invasion, metastatic spread, or both). Cystectomy generally is reserved for muscle-invasive disease. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor is the preferred initial therapy. Intravesical instillations of various chemotherapeutic agents following transurethral resection have been extensively investigated. Some of the common agents used include thiotepa, mitomycin, and doxorubicin. Despite such treatment efforts, however, over 40 percent of patients with superficial bladder cancer experience a recurrence of their tumor within three years. Approximately half of these recurrences either present as less-well-differentiated tumors or have already penetrated into the bladder musculature, metastasized, or both. Since Morales et al. first introduced intravesical BCG vaccine for prophylaxis as well as for treatment of superficial bladder tumors in 1976, support has grown rapidly for its use as an alternative to chemotherapy. When used with prophylactic intent following transurethral resection, recurrence rates are lower than those achieved with other agents. In addition, BCG is emerging as the consensus drug of choice for treating carcinoma in situ of the bladder. The mechanisms by which BCG exerts its antitumor activity remain largely unknown. BCG is thought to stimulate a localized, nonspecific inflammatory response that leads to subsequent shedding of tumor cells. A large body

  12. Superficial perineal leiomyosarcoma in an adolescent female and a review of the literature including vulvar leiomyosarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, A; Backman Nøhr, S

    1992-01-01

    differentiated and showed immunoreactivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin and desmin. A review of the literature on superficial leiomyosarcomas indicates that superficial perineal leiomyosarcomas may be more aggressive than superficial leiomyosarcomas in general. As the presented tumour occurred in a female......Superficial perineal leiomyosarcomas are rare, with only three previously reported examples. We encountered a superficial (deep subcutaneous) perineal leiomyosarcoma in a 17-year-old female. At follow-up two years after a wide excision, there were no signs of recurrence. The tumour was well...

  13. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zaloga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEONLA-BSA, which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEONLA-BSA particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v. Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEONLA-BSA changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment.

  14. Multispectral and Photoplethysmography Optical Imaging Techniques Identify Important Tissue Characteristics in an Animal Model of Tangential Burn Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E; Li, Weizhi; Rodriguez-Vaqueiro, Yolanda; Squiers, John J; Mo, Weirong; Lu, Yang; Plant, Kevin D; Sellke, Eric; King, Darlene R; Fan, Wensheng; Martinez-Lorenzo, Jose A; DiMaio, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    Burn excision, a difficult technique owing to the training required to identify the extent and depth of injury, will benefit from a tool that can cue the surgeon as to where and how much to resect. We explored two rapid and noninvasive optical imaging techniques in their ability to identify burn tissue from the viable wound bed using an animal model of tangential burn excision. Photoplethysmography (PPG) imaging and multispectral imaging (MSI) were used to image the initial, intermediate, and final stages of burn excision of a deep partial-thickness burn. PPG imaging maps blood flow in the skin's microcirculation, and MSI collects the tissue reflectance spectrum in visible and infrared wavelengths of light to classify tissue based on a reference library. A porcine deep partial-thickness burn model was generated and serial tangential excision accomplished with an electric dermatome set to 1.0 mm depth. Excised eschar was stained with hematoxylin and eosin to determine the extent of burn remaining at each excision depth. We confirmed that the PPG imaging device showed significantly less blood flow where burn tissue was present, and the MSI method could delineate burn tissue in the wound bed from the viable wound bed. These results were confirmed independently by a histological analysis. We found these devices can identify the proper depth of excision, and their images could cue a surgeon as to the preparedness of the wound bed for grafting. These image outputs are expected to facilitate clinical judgment in the operating room.

  15. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloga, Jan; Stapf, Marcus; Nowak, Johannes; Pöttler, Marina; Friedrich, Ralf P; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-08-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEON(LA-BSA), which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEON(LA-BSA) particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v). Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEON(LA-BSA) changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment.

  16. Purification of monoclonal antibodies from clarified cell culture fluid using Protein A capture continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Amit K; Tran, Travis; Napadensky, Boris; Teella, Achyuta; Brookhart, Gary; Ropp, Philip A; Zhang, Ada W; Tustian, Andrew D; Zydney, Andrew L; Shinkazh, Oleg

    2015-11-10

    Recent studies using simple model systems have demonstrated that continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography (CCTC) has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of conventional Protein A chromatography using packed columns. The objective of this work was to optimize and implement a CCTC system for monoclonal antibody purification from clarified Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture fluid using a commercial Protein A resin. Several improvements were introduced to the previous CCTC system including the use of retentate pumps to maintain stable resin concentrations in the flowing slurry, the elimination of a slurry holding tank to improve productivity, and the introduction of an "after binder" to the binding step to increase antibody recovery. A kinetic binding model was developed to estimate the required residence times in the multi-stage binding step to optimize yield and productivity. Data were obtained by purifying two commercial antibodies from two different manufactures, one with low titer (∼ 0.67 g/L) and one with high titer (∼ 6.9 g/L), demonstrating the versatility of the CCTC system. Host cell protein removal, antibody yields and purities were similar to those obtained with conventional column chromatography; however, the CCTC system showed much higher productivity. These results clearly demonstrate the capabilities of continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography for the commercial purification of monoclonal antibody products.

  17. The Field Radiated by a Ring Quasi-Array of an Infinite Number of Tangential or Radial Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H. L.

    1953-01-01

    A homogeneous ring array of axial dipoles will radiate a vertically polarized field that concentrates to an increasing degree around the horizontal plane with increasing increment of the current phase per revolution. There is reason to believe that by using a corresponding antenna system with tan......A homogeneous ring array of axial dipoles will radiate a vertically polarized field that concentrates to an increasing degree around the horizontal plane with increasing increment of the current phase per revolution. There is reason to believe that by using a corresponding antenna system...... with tangential or radial dipoles, a field may be obtained that has a similar useful structure as the above-mentioned ring array, but which in contrast to the latter is essentially horizontally polarized. In this paper a systematic investigation has been made of the field from such an antenna system...... with tangential or radial dipoles. Recently it was stated in the literature that it is impossible to treat the general case where the increase of the current phase per revolution is arbitrarily large by using ordinary functions. The results obtained in this paper disprove this statement. A similar investigation...

  18. An engineering time-domain model for curve squeal: Tangential point-contact model and Green's functions approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenzerovic, I.; Kropp, W.; Pieringer, A.

    2016-08-01

    Curve squeal is a strong tonal sound that may arise when a railway vehicle negotiates a tight curve. In contrast to frequency-domain models, time-domain models are able to capture the nonlinear and transient nature of curve squeal. However, these models are computationally expensive due to requirements for fine spatial and time discretization. In this paper, a computationally efficient engineering model for curve squeal in the time-domain is proposed. It is based on a steady-state point-contact model for the tangential wheel/rail contact and a Green's functions approach for wheel and rail dynamics. The squeal model also includes a simple model of sound radiation from the railway wheel from the literature. A validation of the tangential point-contact model against Kalker's transient variational contact model reveals that the point-contact model performs well within the squeal model up to at least 5 kHz. The proposed squeal model is applied to investigate the influence of lateral creepage, friction and wheel/rail contact position on squeal occurrence and amplitude. The study indicates a significant influence of the wheel/rail contact position on squeal frequencies and amplitudes. Friction and lateral creepage show an influence on squeal occurrence and amplitudes, but this is only secondary to the influence of the contact position.

  19. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anterior Corneal Change in Asphericity Calculated by the Tangential Radius of Curvature after LASIK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jinglu; Cai, Jianqiu; Zhu, Leru

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the change in the anterior corneal asphericity (ΔQ) comprehensively calculated using the tangential radius (rt) after LASIK. Forty-two right eyes were evaluated using the Orbscan II corneal topographer. The pre- and postoperative Q-values of the flat principal semimeridians calculated by the sagittal radius were compared to those by the tangential radius. The Q-value of each semimeridian in the horizontal region was calculated by rt. Fourier fitting was used to model the 360-semimeridional variation of Q-values and to fit the Q-values in the vertical region before and after surgery. There were significant differences in Q-values between the two methods before (P < 0.001) and after surgery (P = 0.003). A significant increase in postoperative Q-value was detected compared to preoperative Q-value (P < 0.001) calculated by rt. The 360-semimeridional variation of the Q-values was well fitted with a third- and fourth-degree Fourier function before and after surgery. The ΔQ-value distribution presented double valley variation, with the amount of ΔQ being lowest in the near-vertical regions and highest in the near-horizontal regions. Calculating the Q-value with rt combined with Fourier fitting, we evaluated 360 ΔQ-values' variation of semimeridians of the entire anterior corneal surface and then displayed true and complete anterior corneal shape after LASIK.

  20. Ephrin-B1 controls the columnar distribution of cortical pyramidal neurons by restricting their tangential migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimidschstein, Jordane; Passante, Lara; Dufour, Audrey; van den Ameele, Jelle; Tiberi, Luca; Hrechdakian, Tatyana; Adams, Ralf; Klein, Rüdiger; Lie, Dieter Chichung; Jossin, Yves; Vanderhaeghen, Pierre

    2013-09-18

    Neurons of the cerebral cortex are organized in layers and columns. Unlike laminar patterning, the mechanisms underlying columnar organization remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that ephrin-B1 plays a key role in this process through the control of nonradial steps of migration of pyramidal neurons. In vivo gain of function of ephrin-B1 resulted in a reduction of tangential motility of pyramidal neurons, leading to abnormal neuronal clustering. Conversely, following genetic disruption of ephrin-B1, cortical neurons displayed a wider lateral dispersion, resulting in enlarged ontogenic columns. Dynamic analyses revealed that ephrin-B1 controls the lateral spread of pyramidal neurons by limiting neurite extension and tangential migration during the multipolar phase. Furthermore, we identified P-Rex1, a guanine-exchange factor for Rac3, as a downstream ephrin-B1 effector required to control migration during the multipolar phase. Our results demonstrate that ephrin-B1 inhibits nonradial migration of pyramidal neurons, thereby controlling the pattern of cortical columns.

  1. Ingeniería de superficies y su impacto medioambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agüero, A.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface engineering addresses the modification of the microstructure and/or composition of the surface of components by mechanical, physical or chemical methods that may imply adding a material in order to change the surface properties of said component. One of its most important consequences is the significant increase of the useful life of a variety of components in a large number of industrial applications. Moreover, it contributes to energy savings by increasing efficiencies as it allows higher combustion temperatures, by allowing the use of lighter components and by significant friction reduction. In this paper, surface engineering is introduced, as well as its different modalities, examples of industrial applications and positive and negative environmental impacts.

    La ingeniería de superficies consiste en la modificación de la microestructura y/o la composición superficial de un componente mediante métodos mecánicos, físicos o químicos, que pueden implicar el aporte de otro material para cambiar las propiedades superficiales del mencionado componente. Una de sus consecuencias más importantes es que permite alargar significativamente, la vida útil de todo tipo de componentes empleados en un gran número de aplicaciones industriales. Por otra parte, contribuye al ahorro energético por permitir el aumento de las temperaturas de combustión consiguiendo una mayor eficiencia, por contribuir a la reducción de peso y por colaborar de forma significativa a disminuir la fricción entre componentes. En el presente trabajo se introduce la ingeniería de superficies, sus diferentes modalidades, algunos ejemplos de sus aplicaciones industriales y las interacciones, positivas y negativas, con el medio ambiente.

  2. Endoscopic mucosectomy: an alternative treatment for superficial esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, R

    2000-01-01

    Recent trends in the management of superficial esophageal cancer consist of improved detection, pretherapeutic staging and reliable criteria for curative endoscopic therapy. The endoscopic treatment is legitimate when the cancer is at an early stage, intra-epithelial or microinvasive (m1 or m2) and N0. Submucosal cancer should not be treated with a curative intent by endotherapy. Concerning squamous cell cancer, the oriental and occidental pathologists include high-grade dysplasia in the same group as intramucosal cancer. The distinction is however maintained for adenocarcinoma in the Barrett's esophagus. Indications of endoscopic rather than surgical treatment rely on: (1) the small size of the tumor (not more than 2 cm in diameter); (2) the endoscopic morphology in the type 0 of the Japanese classification with the flat subtypes IIa and IIb rather than type IIc--there is high risk of submucosal invasion for the polypoid (type I) or ulcerated superficial cancer (type III); and (3) the endoscopic ultrasound staging, with confirmed integrity of the hyperechoic submucosal layer. The high-frequency (20 MHz) miniprobe is preferred to the standard (7.5 MHz) instrument. The elective procedure for tumor eradication is endoscopic mucosectomy. The technique is associated with a 6.8% risk of severe complications (hemorrhage or perforation) and a recurrence rate of 3%-7%. The 5-year survival rate is similar to that of surgery (over 80%). In the small group of patients with superficial esophageal cancer (less than 10% of the disease) endoscopic treatment may now be proposed in about 30% of cases, surgery is preferred for submucosal cancer and for neoplasia with a large surface. Areas of high-grade dysplasia in the Barrett's esophagus offer a new and increasing sector of indications. The concurrent endoscopic procedure of destruction--photodynamic therapy--is preferred for the destruction of lesions with poorly delineated limits.

  3. Functional compartmentalization of the human superficial masseter muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A Guzmán-Venegas

    Full Text Available Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM muscle's motor units using high-density surface electromyography (EMGs at different bite force levels. Twenty healthy natural dentate participants (men: 4; women: 16; age 20±2 years; mass: 60±12 kg, height: 163±7 cm were selected from 316 volunteers and included in this study. Using a gnathodynamometer, bites from 20 to 100% maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF were randomly requested. Using a two-dimensional grid (four columns, six electrodes located on the dominant SM, EMGs in the anterior, middle-anterior, middle-posterior and posterior portions were simultaneously recorded. In bite ranges from 20 to 60% MVBF, the EMG activity was higher in the anterior than in the posterior portion (p-value = 0.001.The center of mass of the EMG activity was displaced towards the posterior part when bite force increased (p-value = 0.001. The topographic distribution of EMGs was more homogeneous at high levels of MVBF (p-value = 0.001. The results of this study show that the superficial masseter is organized into three functional compartments: an anterior, a middle and a posterior compartment. However, this compartmentalization is only seen at low levels of bite force (20-60% MVBF.

  4. Functional compartmentalization of the human superficial masseter muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Venegas, Rodrigo A; Biotti Picand, Jorge L; de la Rosa, Francisco J Berral

    2015-01-01

    Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM) muscle's motor units using high-density surface electromyography (EMGs) at different bite force levels. Twenty healthy natural dentate participants (men: 4; women: 16; age 20±2 years; mass: 60±12 kg, height: 163±7 cm) were selected from 316 volunteers and included in this study. Using a gnathodynamometer, bites from 20 to 100% maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF) were randomly requested. Using a two-dimensional grid (four columns, six electrodes) located on the dominant SM, EMGs in the anterior, middle-anterior, middle-posterior and posterior portions were simultaneously recorded. In bite ranges from 20 to 60% MVBF, the EMG activity was higher in the anterior than in the posterior portion (p-value = 0.001).The center of mass of the EMG activity was displaced towards the posterior part when bite force increased (p-value = 0.001). The topographic distribution of EMGs was more homogeneous at high levels of MVBF (p-value = 0.001). The results of this study show that the superficial masseter is organized into three functional compartments: an anterior, a middle and a posterior compartment. However, this compartmentalization is only seen at low levels of bite force (20-60% MVBF).

  5. An improved MRI guided ultrasound system for superficial tumor hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengyuan; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Zhiqiang; Chen, Sheng; Wu, Hao

    2017-03-01

    Among many methods in tumor treatment, ultrasound hyperthermia is characterized by non-invasiveness, and it has been proven very effective for clinical treatment. But the problem of monitoring temperature limits its development. MRI-based temperature mapping techniques are safe compared with invasive methods and have been applied to detect temperature changes for a variety of applications. Among these techniques, the proton resonance frequency (PRF) method is relatively advanced. With a temperature measuring experiment and experiment conducted on tumors inside rabbit legs, the effectiveness of PRF method has been proved. This paper is to introduce an MRI guided ultrasound superficial tumor hyperthermia instrument based on PRF method.

  6. Composicion y deformacion de curvas, superficies y volumenes de bezier

    OpenAIRE

    Canchoa Quispe, Alessandri

    1998-01-01

    El presente trabajo enfoca el problema de la composición y deformación de cla¬vas, superficies y volúmenes de Bézier. Los algoritmos para encontrar los puntos de control de la composición (F=Fog) de simplejos o formas de producto tensorial de Bézier g:Rn -> RwyF:RN->Rd a partir de los puntos de control de g y F tienen aplicaciones práctica en el CAGD (Computer Aided Geometric Design). Estos algoritmos inicialmente fue presentado por DeRose [DeRo 88]: el algoritmo producto para la deformación ...

  7. Aneurysm of the superficial palmar arch: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Emmanuel P; Lee, Ellen Y

    2008-01-01

    Aneurysms of the hand are uncommon lesions. The most common location is the ulnar artery. We present a case of a young female who consulted us for a hand mass with a history of trauma to the hand. Pre-operative arteriogram showed a superficial palmar arch aneurysm. The mass was excised and the arch was reconstructed using a reversed Y-shaped vein graft. Fourteen months after surgery, there was no recurrence of the aneurysm and the patient only reported occasional cold intolerance.

  8. Endoscopic and biopsy diagnoses of superficial, nonampullary, duodenal adenocarcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushima, Naomi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Keiko; Kawata, Noboru; Tanaka, Masaki; Takizawa, Kohei; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the accuracy of endoscopic or biopsy diagnoses of superficial nonampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (NADETs). METHODS: Clinicopathological data were reviewed for 84 superficial NADETs from 74 patients who underwent surgery or endoscopic resection between September 2002 and August 2014 at a single prefectural cancer center. Superficial NADETs were defined as lesions confined to the mucosa or submucosa. Demographic and clinicopathological data were retrieved from charts, endoscopic and pathologic reports. Endoscopic reports included endoscopic diagnosis, location, gross type, diameter, color, and presence or absence of biopsy. Endoscopic diagnoses were made by an endoscopist in charge of the examination before biopsy specimens were obtained. Endoscopic images were obtained using routine, front-view, high-resolution video endoscopy, and chromoendoscopy with indigocarmine was performed for all lesions. Endoscopic images were reviewed by at least two endoscopists to assess endoscopic findings indicative of carcinoma. Preoperative diagnoses based on endoscopy and biopsy findings were compared with histological diagnoses of resected specimens. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were assessed for endoscopic diagnosis and biopsy diagnosis. RESULTS: The majority (81%) of the lesions were located in the second portion of the duodenum. The median lesion diameter was 14.5 mm according to final histology. Surgery was performed for 49 lesions from 39 patients, and 35 lesions from 35 patients were endoscopically resected. Final histology confirmed 65 carcinomas, 15 adenomas, and 3 hyperplasias. A final diagnosis of duodenal carcinoma was made for 91% (52/57) of the lesions diagnosed as carcinoma by endoscopy and 93% (42/45) of the lesions diagnosed as carcinoma by biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of endoscopic diagnoses were 80%, 72%, and 78%, respectively, whereas those of biopsy diagnoses were 72%, 80%, and 74%, respectively

  9. Corrections to traditional methods of verifying tangential-breast 3D monitor-unit calculations: use of an equivalent triangle to estimate effective fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Karl L; Kirsner, Steven M; Erice, Rolly C

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative method for correctly estimating the effective field size of tangential-breast fields. The method uses an "equivalent triangle" to verify intact breast tangential field monitor-unit settings calculated by a 3D planning system to within 2%. The effects on verification calculations of loss of full scatter due to beam oblique incidence, proximity to field boundaries, and reduced scattering volumes are handled properly. The methodology is validated by comparing calculations performed by the 3D planning system with the respective verification estimates. The accuracy of this technique is established for dose calculations both with and without heterogeneity corrections.

  10. The superficial ulnar artery: development and clinical significance Artéria ulnar superficial: desenvolvimento e relevância clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasulu Reddy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal arteries of the upper limb show a wide range of variation that is of considerable interest to orthopedic surgeons, plastic surgeons, radiologists and anatomists. We present here a case of superficial ulnar artery found during the routine dissection of right upper limb of a 50-year-old male cadaver. The superficial ulnar artery originated from the brachial artery, crossed the median nerve anteriorly and ran lateral to this nerve and the brachial artery. The superficial ulnar artery in the arm gave rise to a narrow muscular branch to the biceps brachii. At the elbow level the artery ran superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis where it was crossed by the median cubital vein. It then ran downward and medially superficial to the forearm flexor muscles, and then downward to enter the hand. At the palm, it formed the superficial and deep palmar arches together with the branches of the radial artery. The presence of a superficial ulnar artery is clinically important when raising forearm flaps in reconstructive surgery. The embryology and clinical significance of the variation are discussed.As principais artérias do membro superior apresentam uma ampla variação, que é relativamente importante a cirurgiões ortopédicos e plásticos, radiologistas e anatomistas.Apresentamosumcaso de artéria ulnar superficial encontrada durante dissecção de rotina de membro superior direito de um cadáver masculino de 50 anos de idade.Aartéria ulnar superficial originava-se da artéria braquial, cruzava o nervo mediano anteriormente e percorria lateralmente esse nervo e a artéria braquial. A artéria ulnar superficial no braço deu origem a um ramo muscular estreito do músculo bíceps braquial. Ao nível do cotovelo, a artéria percorria superficialmente a aponeurose bicipital, onde era cruzada pela veia cubital mediana. Percorria, então, em sentido descendente e medialmente superficial aos músculos flexores do antebraço, e então descendia para

  11. Drenaje suplementario del sistema venoso superficial en colgajos pediculados Supplementary drainage of superficial venous system in pedicled flaps

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández García,A.; C. Fernández Pascual; R.A. Moreno Villalba; Ll. Gerrero Navarro

    2012-01-01

    Los colgajos pediculados pueden sufrir edema y congestión debido a que su drenaje a trevés del sistema venoso superfical es imposible y el flujo hacia el sistema profundo a nivel del pedículo es precario. Esta situación suele evolucionar hacia la necrosis parcial o la pérdida total del colgajo en pocas horas. La apertura del sistema venoso superficial permite el drenaje adecuado de los tejidos transferidos y evita estas complicaciones. Este artículo analiza el papel de las anastomosis microqu...

  12. Characteristics of sheath-driven tangential flow produced by a low-current DC surface glow discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jichul; Shajid Rahman, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    An experimental investigation of low-speed flow actuation at near-atmospheric pressure is presented. The flow actuation is achieved via low-current ( \\lesssim 1.0 mA) continuous or pulsed DC surface glow discharge plasma. The plasma actuator, consisting of two sharp-edged nickel electrodes, produces a tangential flow in a direction from anode to cathode, and is visualized using high-speed schlieren photography. The induced flow velocity estimated via the schlieren images reaches up to 5 m/s in test cases. The actuation capability increases with pressure and electrode gap distances, and the induced flow velocity increases logarithmically with the discharge power. Pulsed DC exhibits slightly improved actuation capability with better directionality. An analytic estimation of induced flow velocity obtained based on ion momentum in the cathode sheath and gas dynamics in one-dimensional flow yields values similar to those measured.

  13. Modern Hypofractionation Schedules for Tangential Whole Breast Irradiation Decrease the Fraction Size-corrected Dose to the Heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Vogelius, Ivan R; Bentzen, Søren M

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Hypofractionation of postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer has been evaluated in a number of large randomised clinical trials, but concerns remain over the late cardiac toxicity. In this study, we examined the predictions of the linear quadratic model on the estimated fraction size......-corrected dose to the heart for four evidence-based hypofractionation regimens. Materials and methods: Dose plans for 60 left-sided breast cancer patients were analysed. All patients were planned with tangential fields for whole breast irradiation. Dose distributions were corrected to the equivalent dose in 2 Gy...... fractions (EQD(2)) using the linear quadratic model for five different fractionation schedules (50 Gy/25 fractions and four hypofractionation regimens) and for a range of alpha/beta. values (0-5 Gy). The mean EQD(2) to the heart (D-mean(EQD2)) and the volume receiving 40 Gy (V-40(Gy)EQD2), both...

  14. Clinical Evaluation of Superficial Fungal Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragıp Ertaş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This retrospective study was referred to evaluate 51 cases of superficial mycoses, referred to our Pediatric Dermatology outpatient clinic in one year. Methods: We reviewed following data for all patients: age, gender, accompanied diseases, clinical types, localization and treatment. Superficial mycotic infections were diagnosed on the basis of clinical picture, direct microscopy and some of them were confirmed by fungal cultures. Results: Our patients comprised 33 boys (64.7% and 18 girls (35.3%, with an average age of 6.2 years (range 4 months to 17 years. Eighteen patients (35.3% had dermatophytes on the scalp. Clinical forms, in the order of frequency, were: tinea capitis profunda in 10 patients (19.6%, tinea capitis superficialis in 8 patients (15.8%, tinea unguium in 8 patients (15.8%. Tinea capitis (35.3% was the most frequent form of dermatomycosis. The most common symptom was the pruritus. Thirty (58% patients were treated with local antimycotics and 21 (42% patients were treated with systemic terbinafine or itraconazole. Conclusion: In this study it was found that, tinea capitis was the most frequent form of dermatomycosis and onychomycosis in children are not uncommon as it is mentioned. The data also suggest that topical antifungal agents may be effective and well-tolerated in the treatment of onychomycosis and tinea capitis in children.

  15. Superficially located enlarged lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.

  16. Suction based mechanical characterization of superficial facial soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickenmeier, J; Jabareen, M; Mazza, E

    2015-12-16

    The present study is aimed at a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical response of superficial facial tissues. Suction based experiments provide the location, time, and history dependent behavior of skin and SMAS (superficial musculoaponeurotic system) by means of Cutometer and Aspiration measurements. The suction method is particularly suitable for in vivo, multi-axial testing of soft biological tissue including a high repeatability in subsequent tests. The campaign comprises three measurement sites in the face, i.e. jaw, parotid, and forehead, using two different loading profiles (instantaneous loading and a linearly increasing and decreasing loading curve), multiple loading magnitudes, and cyclic loading cases to quantify history dependent behavior. In an inverse finite element analysis based on anatomically detailed models an optimized set of material parameters for the implementation of an elastic-viscoplastic material model was determined, yielding an initial shear modulus of 2.32kPa for skin and 0.05kPa for SMAS, respectively. Apex displacements at maximum instantaneous and linear loading showed significant location specificity with variations of up to 18% with respect to the facial average response while observing variations in repeated measurements in the same location of less than 12%. In summary, the proposed parameter sets for skin and SMAS are shown to provide remarkable agreement between the experimentally observed and numerically predicted tissue response under all loading conditions considered in the present study, including cyclic tests.

  17. A study of uniaxial tension on the superficial dermal microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, R L; Bader, D L; Ryan, T J

    1984-05-01

    A spring-loaded apparatus was designed to apply uniaxial tension to forearm skin in 17 human subjects--10 normals, 6 psoriatics, and 1 patient with scleroderma. Simultaneously, the effects of stretching on the upper dermal vasculature were observed stereomicroscopically. Progressive changes (collapse) in the superficial microvasculature--vertical capillary loops and horizontal subpapillary plexus--with increasing tension were photographed. Force and strains were recorded at the points of disappearance of virtually all vessels. An average force of 11.9 newtons (N), accompanied by a mean strain of 10.3%, resulted in occlusion of all vessels. A much higher force (18.5 N) was necessary to occlude blood flow in the 1 patient with scleroderma. In summary, we have described a new technique for the study of mechanical forces on the blood supply of the epidermis. The data have shown that uniaxial tension has important effects on the superficial dermal microvasculature, resulting in impedance and obliteration of blood flow at relatively low magnitudes.

  18. Aneurysms of the superficial venous system: classification and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G. Bush

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Superficial venous aneurysms are rarely described and they may remain indolent or become the source for pulmonary emboli. A system of classification and treatment protocol according to size and location is proposed. Three hundred thirty patients were evaluated for symptomatic venous disease (C2-C6 over a 2-year period. A proposed designation for venous aneurysm is described. Patients fulfilling this criterion are described in reference to site of involvement, histologic findings, and method of treatment. Five percent of patients met the criteria for venous aneurysm. Nine aneurysms of the greater saphenous vein were identified. Three aneurysms were proximal to the subterminal valve and the rest were distal. Six aneurysms of the anterior accessory greater saphenous vein (AAGSV were identified. Three aneurysms of the AAGSV spontaneously thrombosed. Two patients presented with aneurysms of the small saphenous vein. Histology revealed thickened intima, smooth muscle and adventitia. Aneurysm designation relates to diameter of normal and contiguous vein. All superficial venous aneurysms in close proximity to the junction of the femoral or popliteal vein should be ligated. Classification of venous aneurysms should include the AAGSV, which may present with spontaneous thrombosis.

  19. An advanced regime of the anomalous acousto-optical interaction with tangential phase matching in crystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Arellanes, Adan O.

    2016-09-01

    Regime of effective non-collinear acousto-optical interaction with tangential phase matching had been identified and previously observed only in two limiting cases: in tellurium dioxide (TeO2) at low acoustic frequencies ( 60 MHz) and in rutile (TiO2) at ultra-high frequencies ( 5 GHz). Both these limits are motivated by optical properties of the chosen materials. Low frequencies in TeO2 admit designing a wide-aperture acousto-optical cell, but limit the frequency bandwidth. While an acousto-optical cell made of TiO2 has very small aperture and exhibits low spectral resolution due to the effect of linear acoustic attenuation. Instead of those limits, we propose an advanced regime of the anomalous acousto-optical interaction with tangential phase matching, which allows us varying the frequency range and optimizing all the performances (for instance, the spectral resolution) of a wide-aperture acousto-optical cell made of the chosen crystal, as the case requires. Recently, we had suggested and successfully tested experimentally the revealed additional degree of freedom, i.e. the action of the tilt angle within the refractive indices ellipsoids to manipulate by the performances of crystalline acousto-optical cells. Now, we consider an opportunity of refining this additional degree of freedom within those ellipsoids of crystalline acousto-optical cell through some declination of the acoustic beam. For our investigations, the lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and rutile (TiO2) crystals of about 5 cm length, operating with the slow-shear acoustic mode along the acoustic axes had been selected. The needed theoretical analysis, numerical estimations, and 3D-vector diagrams have been developed to reveal potential benefits of the proposed technique.

  20. Superficie regladas y desarrollables a lo largo de curvas Bézier.

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño Arboleda, Mauricio Alejando

    2010-01-01

    Se estudian superficies regladas y se abordan sus elementos básicos como la línea de estricción y el parámetro de distribución. Se estudian algoritmos para el diseño de superficies desarrollables, a saber el algoritmo de Aumann y el algoritmo proyectivo de Pottmann, en este ´ ultimo las superficies desarrollables racionales de Bezier se interpretan como curvas en el espacio proyectivo dual (P3).Se estudia de manera exhaustiva el problema de diseño de superficies desarrollables de grado polino...

  1. Superficial aponeurosis of human gastrocnemius is elongated during contraction: implications for modeling muscle-tendon unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Tadashi; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2002-02-01

    Two questions were addressed in this study: (1) how much strain of the superficial aponeurosis of the human medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) was obtained during voluntary isometric contractions in vivo, (2) whether there existed inhomogeneity of the strain along the superficial aponeurosis. Seven male subjects, whose knees were extended and ankles were flexed at right angle, performed isometric plantar flexion while elongation of superficial aponeurosis of MG was determined from the movements of the intersections made by the superficial aponeurosis and fascicles using ultrasonography. The strain of the superficial aponeurosis at the maximum voluntary contraction, estimated from the elongation and length data, was 5.6+/-1.2%. There was no significant difference in strain between the proximal and distal parts of the superficial aponeurosis. Based on the present result and that of our previous study for the same subjects (J. Appl. Physiol 90 (2001) 1671), a model was formulated for a contracting uni-pennate muscle-tendon unit. This model, which could be applied to isometric contractions at other angles and therefore of wide use, showed that similar strain between superficial and deep aponeuroses of MG contributed to homogeneous fascicle length change within MG during contractions. These findings would contribute to clarifying the functions of the superficial aponeurosis and the effects of the superficial aponeurosis elongation on the whole muscle behavior.

  2. A rare variant of the superficial ulnar artery, and its clinical implications: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senanayake Kithsiri J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The superficial ulnar artery is a rare variation of the upper limb arterial system that arises from the brachial or axillary artery and runs superficial to the muscles arising from the medial epicondyle 123. The incidence is about 0.7 to 7% 145. In our routine dissections we found a superficial ulnar artery, which crossed the cubital fossa superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis making it highly vulnerable to intra-arterial injection. This is a rare variation that every medical and nursing staff member should know about.

  3. What factors control the superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoit; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-04-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style; lava domes result from intermittent, slow extrusion of viscous lava. Most dome-forming eruptions produce highly microcrystallized and highly- to almost totally-degassed magmas which have a low explosive potential. During lava dome growth, recurrent collapses of unstable parts are the main destructive process of the lava dome, generating concentrated pyroclastic density currents (C-PDC) channelized in valleys. These C-PDC have a high, but localized, damage potential that largely depends on the collapsed volume. Sometimes, a dilute ash cloud surge develops at the top of the concentrated flow with an increased destructive effect because it may overflow ridges and affect larger areas. In some cases, large lava dome collapses can induce a depressurization of the magma within the conduit, leading to vulcanian explosions. By contrast, violent, laterally directed, explosions may occur at the base of a growing lava dome: this activity generates dilute and turbulent, highly-destructive, pyroclastic density currents (D-PDC), with a high velocity and propagation poorly dependent on the topography. Numerous studies on lava dome behaviors exist, but the triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood. Here, seven dome-forming eruptions are investigated: in the Lesser Antilles arc: Montagne Pelée, Martinique (1902-1905, 1929-1932 and 650 y. BP eruptions), Soufrière Hills, Montserrat; in Guatemala, Santiaguito (1929 eruption); in La Chaîne des Puys, France (Puy de Dome and Puy Chopine eruptions). We propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by these key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite

  4. The effect of the tangential angle of the guide vanes on the flow structure and characteristics of an axial-flow turbine stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshin, K. L.; Fomin, V. S.; Avrutov, E. A.; Kirillov, V. I.

    1985-07-01

    It is demonstrated that the direct axisymmetric problem can be efficiently used for calculating three-dimensional flow and characteristics of turbine stages, both regular and those having a low thrust ratio gradient. It is further shown that the performance characteristics of turbine stages can be improved through the use of tangentially tilted guide vanes.

  5. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...

  6. Superficial groundwater contamination by artificial radionuclides by the nuclear site of Saluggia (Vercelli, Italy): radiological monitoring activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzio, Laura

    2009-12-01

    During the last 15 y, by the Saluggia (Vercelli, Italy) nuclear site, episodes of contamination of the superficial groundwater happened due to artificial radionuclides. The local network of radiological monitoring around the nuclear site, managed by Arpa Piemonte from the late 1980s, highlighted the presence of (60)Co, (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (3)H during this period. The object of this paper was to give particular evidence not to analytical aspects, but to the methodical approach used to solve the problems that arose. In fact, the intrinsic hydro-geological vulnerability of the zone, the typology and conditions of the plants (all very old) and the presence of the 'Acquedotto del Monferrato' tap water well field, one of the most important in Piemonte, at approximately 2 km downstream of the site, made the situation very difficult to approach.

  7. Transient Superficial Peroneal Nerve Palsy After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrowaili, Majed

    2016-04-26

    A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage and knee brace was removed and a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was ruled out. After eight hours, post-operatively, the patient started receiving physiotherapy. He complained of numbness and tingling in the same area. After 24 h, post-operatively, the patient started to regain dorsiflexion and eversion gradually. Two days after the surgery, the patient exhibited complete recovery of neurological status.

  8. Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Perforator Flap for Dorsalis Pedis Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Kensuke; Yamashita, Shuji

    2017-04-01

    Reconstruction of dorsalis pedis with soft tissue is challenging because it needs to preserve thin structure to ensure that the patient will be able to wear shoes. Here, we report the use of a thin superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap in dorsalis pedis reconstruction. A 67-year-old man presented with a third-degree burn, which exposed his extensor tendons. A thin SCIP flap from the left inguinal region measuring 15 × 4 cm was transferred to the dorsalis pedis region. Postoperatively, no major cosmetic or functional problems were observed. Because the invasiveness of the donor site is nearly same between SCIP flap and skin graft from inguinal region, SCIP flap is better solution in point of textural qualities for dorsalis pedis reconstruction.

  9. MRI evaluation of superficial soft tissue lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabra, A.A. (Russel H. Morgan Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Taylor, G.A. (Russel H. Morgan Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1993-10-01

    The role of MRI in the evaluation of superficial soft tissue lesions in children has not been well established. We present our experience with MRI in the evaluation of nineteen children with a variety of cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions. We find MRI to have a definite role in the evaluation of these lesions particularly when determining extent or depth of involvement would affect medical or surgical management. MRI has a less well defined role in tissue determination. Spin echo T1 and T2 weighted images were sufficient for evaluation in most cases. Fat suppression images added additional information in fatty tumors. The MRI appearance of juvenile hyaline fibromatosis and lipoblastomatosis has not been previously described and is included in this study. (orig.)

  10. Multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas (basalomatosis) following cobalt irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, A.; Przybilla, B. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik; Peter, R.U. [Federal Armed Forces Medical Academy, Munich (Germany). Inst. of Radiobiology

    1995-10-01

    Basalomatosis is an uncommon skin condition characterized by the occurrence of multiple basal cell carcinomas. Many cases reported in the literature have been attributed to arsenic treatment in psoriasis patients. We report a patient with basalomatosis caused by cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) irradiation. A 55-year-old farmer developed 43 basal cell carcinomas 20 years after treatment of an immuno-blastoma with {sup 60}Co irradiation. All the tumours were located within the radiation fields. Other possible causes of basalomatosis, such as arsenic intoxication and basal cell naevus syndrome, were excluded. The patient`s multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas probably represent a late adverse effect of the {sup 60}Co irradiation. (Author).

  11. Superficial stellate cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre F. Apostolides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN integrates auditory and multisensory signals at the earliest levels of auditory processing. Proposed roles for this region include sound localization in the vertical plane, head orientation to sounds of interest, and suppression of sensitivity to expected sounds. Auditory and non-auditory information streams to the DCN are refined by a remarkably complex array of inhibitory and excitatory interneurons, and the role of each cell type is gaining increasing attention. One inhibitory neuron that has been poorly appreciated to date is the superficial stellate cell. Here we review previous studies and describe new results that reveal the surprisingly rich interactions that this tiny interneuron has with its neighbors, interactions which enable it to respond to both multisensory and auditory afferents.

  12. Tratamento superficial dos agregados reciclados de RCD com hidrofugantes.

    OpenAIRE

    Winnie Franco Santos

    2016-01-01

    A proposta busca reduzir a absorção de água dos agregados reciclados de Resíduos de Construção e Demolição (RCD), através do tratamento de sua superfície com hidrofugante, de maneira que estes não aumentem o consumo de água tampouco reduzam a resistência mecânica. Os agregados reciclados de RCD foram caracterizados quanto à granulometria, morfologia, porosidade, ângulo de contato aparente, absorção de água, análise de imagem e rugosidade superficial. Em seguida, os mesmos foram tratados super...

  13. Transient superficial peroneal nerve palsy after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Alrowaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage and knee brace was removed and a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was ruled out. After eight hours, post-operatively, the patient started receiving physiotherapy. He complained of numbness and tingling in the same area. After 24 h, post-operatively, the patient started to regain dorsiflexion and eversion gradually. Two days after the surgery, the patient exhibited complete recovery of neurological status.

  14. Biosensores: Un Acercamiento a La Resonancia del Plasmon Superficial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardo Ramírez Frómeta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los biosensores, o los sensores basados sobre materiales biológicos, son utilizados en la actualidad en una amplia variedad de disciplinas, incluyendo la industria alimenticia, la medicina, y la ciencia ambiental. Está llegando a ser cada vez más importante para los investigadores y los científicos en éstos y otros campos tener una comprensión de los diversos tipos de biosensores que puedan ser utilizados, los principios detrás de ellos, así como sus ventajas y limitaciones. El énfasis especial se ha dedicado a los biosensores de resonancia del plasmon superficial (SPR. El biosensor óptico basado en la técnica SPR ha ganado atención debido a su velocidad de detección, alta especificidad, alta sensibilidad y posibilidad de análisis en tiempo real. El dispositivo SPR detecta cambios mínimos en el índice de refracción de la superficie de detección y de su vecindad inmediata. Esta detección altamente sensible se basa en una excitación colectiva de los electrones (los plasmons superficiales en una película metálica sobre un substrato (Ej. cristal, conduciendo a la absorción total de la luz en un ángulo particular de incidencia el cual es dependiente de los índices de refracción de cualquiera de los lados de la película metálica.

  15. Trifurcation of superficial brachial artery: a rare case with its clinico-embryological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, N; Anshu, A; Dada, R

    2014-01-01

    Literatures on vasculature of upper limbs are crammed with reports of distinctly deviant version of normally prevalent vessels having modified origins, altered branching and odd courses. A unique anatomical variation in vascular pattern was observed during routine dissection of right upper limb in gross anatomy laboratory, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. The brachial artery was placed superficial to median nerve in the arm and therefore it was called superficial brachial artery. In the cubital fossa, 2.8 cm distal to intercondylar line of elbow joint, this superficial brachial artery terminated by trifurcation into radial, common interosseous and ulnar branches. Strikingly the ulnar branch, after its origin ran superficially over the median nerve and epitrochlear superficial flexor group of muscles of forearm in succession for the initial third of its course in the forearm, consequently it was addressed as superficial ulnar artery. The existence of superficial brachial artery in place of normal brachial artery, its termination by trifurcation into radial, common interosseous and superficial ulnar arteries with remarkably different courses, leads to confusing disposition of structures in the arm, cubital fossa and in the forearm and collectively makes this myriad of anatomical variations even rarer. The clinico-embryological revelations for combination of these unconventional observations, apprises and guides the specialized medical personnel attempting blind and invasive procedures in brachium and ante-brachium. This case report depicts the anatomical perspective and clinical implications on confronting a rare variant vasculature architecture pattern of upper limb.

  16. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment.

  17. The influence of cutting speed and feed rate in surface integrity of aisi 1045//Influencia de la velocidad de corte y la velocidad de avance en la integridad superficial del acero aisi 1045

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jacas-Cabrera

    2015-09-01

    microstructure was feasible to observe the tertiary deformation zone due to the machining process. The hardness measured by nano-indentation showed that the thickness of this hardened zone can reach up to 50 µm.Key words: superficial integrity, surface roughness, nano-indentation, surface deformation.

  18. Estudio del estado físico-mecánico de superficies tratadas por deformación plástica superficial. // Study of the mechanical and physical behavior of surfaces treated by superficial plastic deformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Boada Carrazana

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo aborda lo referente al estado del arte de la modelación y el comportamiento de las superficies tratadapor deformación plástica superficial (DPS. Se hace una breve descripción de la modelación elástica y plástica, de la teoríade la plasticidad y de las dislocaciones y se dan algunos resultados sobre la modelación del rodilado usando las técnicasde simulación y modelación, como el método de los elementos finitos, a partir del cual se obtienen los modelosmatemáticos para calcular las tensiones y deformaciones máximas.Palabras claves: deformación plástica superficial, rodilado, bruñido por rodillo, elementos finitos,modelación.____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.This paper deals with the state of the art of modelation and the behaviour of surfaces treated by superficial plasticdeformation. It is given a brief description of the elastic and plastic modelation, theory of plasticity and dislocations, andshowed some results about modelation of roller burnishing using simulation techniques like finite elements method toobtain the mathematics models in order to calculate the maximum stresses and strains.Key words: Superficial plastic deformation, roller burnishing, finite elements method, modelation.

  19. Evaluation of Tangential Flow Filtration for the Concentration and Separation of Bacteria and Viruses in Contrasting Marine Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lanlan; Yang, Yunlan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Tangential flow filtration (TFF), which has been widely adopted to concentrate a diverse array of microbes from water, is a promising method of microbial separation or removal. However, it is essential to select an optimal membrane suitable for the specific filtration application. This study evaluated two different scales of TFF systems for concentrating and separating microbes (including bacteria and viruses) from contrasting marine waters. Among bacteria-size membranes, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher bacterial recovery, but lower viral permeation efficiencies than polyethersulfone (PES) membranes, regardless of environments and scales of TFF. Estuary samples showed significantly higher percentages of bacterial retention than nearshore and ocean samples. For virus-size membranes, a higher viral recovery and lower sorption was observed for regenerated cellulose membrane than PES membranes in the small-scale TFF. Similar viral recoveries were observed between PES membranes in the large-scale TFF, with higher viral concentrations being observed in estuary samples than in nearshore samples. Deep ocean samples showed the lowest recovery of viruses, which was consistent with observations of bacterial recovery. Synthetically, PVDF may be more suitable for the concentration of bacterial cells, while PES would be a better choice for the collection of viruses. When compared with the PES membrane, regenerated cellulose is better for viral concentration, while PES is recommended to obtain bacteria- and virus-free seawater.

  20. Tangential vs. defined radiotherapy in early breast cancer treatment without axillary lymph node dissection. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, Mirko [Zentrum fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen (Germany); Universitaet Kiel, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Karl-Lennert-Krebscentrum, Kiel (Germany); Temme, Nils; Foerster, Manuela; Reible, Michael [Zentrum fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen (Germany); Hermann, Robert Michael [Zentrum fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen (Germany); Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Hannover (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated low regional recurrence rates in early-stage breast cancer omitting axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients who have positive nodes in sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND). This finding has triggered an active discussion about the effect of radiotherapy within this approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze the dose distribution in the axilla in standard tangential radiotherapy (SRT) for breast cancer and the effects on normal tissue exposure when anatomic level I-III axillary lymph node areas are included in the tangential radiotherapy field configuration. We prospectively analyzed the dosimetric treatment plans from 51 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. We compared and analyzed the SRT and the defined radiotherapy (DRT) methods for each patient. The clinical target volume (CTV) of SRT included the breast tissue without specific contouring of lymph node areas, whereas the CTV of DRT included the level I-III lymph node areas. We evaluated the dose given in SRT covering the axillary lymph node areas of level I-III as contoured in DRT. The mean V{sub D95} {sub %} of the entire level I-III lymph node area in SRT was 50.28 % (range, 37.31-63.24 %), V{sub D45} {sub Gy} was 70.1 % (54.8-85.4 %), and V{sub D40} {sub Gy} was 83.5 % (72.3-94.8 %). A significant difference was observed between lung dose and heart toxicity in SRT vs. DRT. The V{sub 20} {sub Gy} and V{sub 30} {sub Gy} of the right and the left lung in DRT were significantly higher in DRT than in SRT (p < 0.001). The mean heart dose in SRT was significantly lower (3.93 vs. 4.72 Gy, p = 0.005). We demonstrated a relevant dose exposure of the axilla in SRT that should substantially reduce local recurrences. Furthermore, we demonstrated a significant increase in lung and heart exposure when including the axillary lymph nodes regions in the tangential radiotherapy field set-up. (orig.) [German] Aktuelle Studien zeigen

  1. In vivo dosimetry for tangential breast irradiation; Role of the equipment in the accuracy of dose delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leunens, G.; Verstraete, J.; Van Dam, J.; Dutreix, A.; Van der Schueren, E. (University Hospital St. Rafael, Leuven (Belgium). Department of Radiotherapy)

    1991-12-01

    Entrance dose measurements (920) have been performed on both tangential treatment fields for 105 breast cancer patients. About half of the (52) were treated on a modern unit (Mevatron, Siemens), supplied with an automatic verification system, the other half (53) were treated on an old therapy unit (cobalt-60). A team of three radiographers worked on the modern unit, while only one radiographer was responsible for treatment set-up on the old unit. A small systematic error (+14%) has been detected on the old unit; a small discrepancy existed in the region of the maximum dose between the measured and the published percentage depth-dose values, the latter being used for dose calculation. A striking difference has been observed for the rate of large deviations (of 5% and more from the mean dose): 2.3% (10/430) for the modern unit vs. 15 (75/490) for the old one. This shows clearly that the precision in dose delivery is strongly dependent on the characteristics and staffing of the therapy unit, the modern unit being supplied with a check-and-confirm system and with beam accessory devices in fixed position in the beam and a team of radiographers responsible for the set-up. (author). 12 refs.; 1 tab.

  2. Aero-acoustics in a tangential blower: validation of the CFD flow distribution using advanced PIV techniques

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    Jean-Yves Noël

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction is of increasing importance in the community. Consequently, the development of aero-acoustics is gaining special focus within industry. Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA, the coupling of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and Computational Acoustics (CA, is being used in the design and assessment of a range of products from HVAC ducts to domestic appliances. The process for carrying out an Aero-Acoustic simulation begins with the solution of the transient flow dynamics in order to compute accurately the pressure fluctuations at a number of points in the computational domain. These fluctuations are passed to the acoustic code to propagate the acoustic waves through the system and determine its acoustic signature. To minimize errors in the acoustic propagation analysis it is thus essential that accurate predictions of the noise sources be obtained. This paper concentrates on the CFD part of the aero-acoustic simulation. The case considered has been taken from the European project DESTINY:3 and comprises a tangential blower located inside a complex duct system. Air is drawn into the fan through two inlets and exits through a single duct. The computational methodology and flow field predictions are presented and compared to experimental PIV data. The numerical predictions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, reproducing the asymmetries in the flow field.

  3. Numerical investigation on the flow, combustion, and NOX emission characteristics in a 660 MWe tangential firing ultra-supercritical boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to study the pulverized-coal combustion process in a tangentially fired ultra-supercritical boiler. The realizable k-ε model for gas coupled with discrete phase model for coal particles, P-1 radiation model for radiation, two-competing-rates model for devolatilization, and kinetics/diffusion-limited model for combustion process are considered. The characteristics of the flow field, particle motion, temperature distribution, species components, and NOx emissions were numerically investigated. The good agreement of the measurements and predictions implies that the applied simulation models are appropriate for modeling commercial-scale coal boilers. It is found that an ideal turbulent flow and particle trajectory can be observed in this unconventional pulverized-coal furnace. With the application of over-fire air and additional air, lean-oxygen combustion takes place near the burner sets region and higher temperature at furnace exit is acquired for better heat transfer. Within the limits of secondary air, more steady combustion process is achieved as well as the reduction of NOx. Furthermore, the influences of the secondary air, over-fire air, and additional air on the NOx emissions are obtained. The numerical results reveal that NOx formation attenuates with the decrease in the secondary air ratio (γ2nd and the ratio of the additional air to the over-fire air (γAA/γOFA was within the limits.

  4. Large-scale purification of pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA using tangential flow filtration and multi-step chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Yu, XiangHui; Yin, Yuhe; Liu, Xintao; Wu, Yongge; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xizhen; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei

    2013-09-01

    The demand for pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA in vaccine applications and gene therapy has been increasing in recent years. In the present study, a process consisting of alkaline lysis, tangential flow filtration, purification by anion exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and size exclusion chromatography was developed. The final product met the requirements for pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA. The chromosomal DNA content was <1 μg/mg plasmid DNA, and RNA was not detectable by agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the protein content was <2 μg/mg plasmid DNA, and the endotoxin content was <10 EU/mg plasmid DNA. The process was scaled up to yield 800 mg of pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA from approximately 2 kg of bacterial cell paste. The overall yield of the final plasmid DNA reached 48%. Therefore, we have established a rapid and efficient production process for pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical investigation of full scale coal combustion model of tangentially fired boiler with the effect of mill ducting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achim, Daniela [Monash University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Naser, J.; Morsi, Y.S. [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Hawthorn, VIC (Australia); Pascoe, S. [Yallourn Energy, Moe, VIC (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper a full scale combustion model incorporating upstream mill ducting of a large tangentially fired boiler with flue gas recirculation was examined numerically. Lagrangian particle tracking was used to determine the coal particle paths and the Eddy Dissipation Model for the analysis of the gas phase combustion. Moreover volatiles and gaseous char products, given off by the coal particles were modelled by Arrhenius single phase reactions and a transport equation was solved for each material given off by the particles. Thermal, prompt, fuel and reburn NO{sub x} models with presumed probability density functions were used to model NO{sub x} production and the discrete transfer radiation model was used to model radiation heat transfer. Generally, the findings indicated reasonable agreement with observed qualitative and quantitative data of incident heat flux on the walls. The model developed here could be used for a range of applications in furnace design and optimisation of gas emissions of coal fired boiler plants. (orig.)

  6. Impact of hypofractionation and tangential beam IMRT on the acute skin reaction in adjuvant breast cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudat, Volker; Nour, Alaa; Ghaida, Salam Abou; Alaradi, Aziz

    2016-07-30

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of multiple prognostic factors on the acute skin reaction in adjuvant breast cancer radiotherapy, in particular the impact of hypofractionation (HF) compared to conventional fractionation (CF) and tangential beam (TB) IMRT compared to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Two-hundred and sixty-six breast cancer patients with postoperative radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were treated with HF (15 fractions of 2.67 Gy; n = 121) or CF (28 fractions of 1.8 Gy or 25 fractions of 2.0 Gy; n = 145) and TB-IMRT (n = 151) or 3DCRT (n = 115). The acute skin reactions were prospectively assessed using the CTCAE v4 grading scale. Ordinal regression analysis was used to assess the impact of possible prognostic factors on the maximal acute skin reaction. Grade 2 skin reactions were observed in 19 % of the patients treated with CF compared to 2 % treated with HF. On univariate analysis, the fractionation regimen, the PTV (breast versus chest wall), the volume of the PTV and the body mass index were significant prognostic factors for the maximum acute skin reaction. On multivariate analysis, the fractionation regimen (p skin reaction compared to CF.

  7. Characterizing black carbon in rain and ice cores using coupled tangential flow filtration and transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ellis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic ice cores have been used to study the history of black carbon (BC, but little is known with regards to the physical and chemical characteristics of these particles in the remote atmosphere. Characterization remains limited by ultra-trace concentrations in ice core samples and the lack of adequate methods to isolate the particles unaltered from the melt water. To investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of these particles, we have developed a tangential flow filtration (TFF method combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Tests using ultrapure water and polystyrene latex particle standards resulted in excellent blanks and significant particle recovery. This approach has been applied to melt water from Antarctic ice cores as well as tropical rain from Darwin, Australia with successful results: TEM analysis revealed a variety of BC particle morphologies, insoluble coatings, and the attachment of BC to mineral dust particles. The TFF-based concentration of these particles has proven to give excellent results for TEM studies of BC particles in Antarctic ice cores and can be used for future studies of insoluble aerosols in rainwater and ice core samples.

  8. The anatomy of the superficial external pudendal artery: a quantitative study Anatomia da artéria pudenda superficial externa: estudo quantitativo

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    Osvaldir Lanzoni La Falce

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the superficial external pudendal artery in cases of lower limb obstructive arteriopathies has been established, and a perfect knowledge of its anatomy is desirable for the creation of successful flaps involving it. However, little information is available on the morphometry of this artery. PURPOSE: In this study, we conducted a quantitative investigation of the superficial external pudendal artery as the basis for skin grafts. METHOD: Twenty-five right and left sides of the inguinal region of male cadavers were dissected. After retracting the skin at the inguinal region, the femoral vessels and the sapheno-femoral junction were exposed. The following aspects were then analyzed: 1 the presence of the superficial external pudendal artery, 2 the place of origin of the superficial external pudendal artery and the common trunk, 3 the duplication of the superficial external pudendal artery, 4 the distance from the superficial external pudendal artery or the common trunk to the inguinal ligament, and 5 the diameter of the superficial external pudendal artery. RESULTS: The results were the following: 1 superficial external pudendal arteries were found in 46 of 50 sides (92%; 2 they originated from the femoral artery in 45 cases and from the deep femoral artery in only 1 case; 3 the arteries were found duplicated in 21 cases (46%, as a common trunk in 11 cases (24%, and as a single artery in 14 cases (30%; 4 the distance from the superficial external pudendal artery to the inguinal ligament ranged from 0.8 cm to 8.5 cm; from the common trunk, it ranged from 3.5 cm to 6.7 cm; 5 the diameter of the superficial external pudendal artery ranged from 1.2 mm to 3.8 mm; and 6 the diameter of the common trunk ranged from 1.35 mm to 5.15 mm. CONCLUSION: The results show that the superficial external pudendal artery generally originates from the femoral artery. It was found as a common trunk, duplicated, or as a single artery. There was a great

  9. High-lateral-tension abdominoplasty with superficial fascial system suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, T

    1995-09-01

    Modern abdominoplasty techniques were developed in the 1960s. The advent of liposuction has reduced the need for classic abdominoplasty and allowed more aesthetic sculpting of the entire trunk. However, the combination of significant truncal liposuction and classic abdominoplasty is not recommended due to the increased risk of complications. Although the surgical principles of classic abdominoplasty certainly have stood the test of time, they are based on two theoretical assumptions that may be proved to be inaccurate. The first assumption is that wide direct undermining to costal margins is essential for abdominal flap advancement. In fact, discontinuous undermining allows effective loosening of the abdominal flap while preserving vascular perforators. The second inaccurate assumption is that with aging and weight fluctuations (including pregnancy), abdominal skin relaxation occurs primarily in the vertical direction from the xiphoid to the pubis. This is true in the lower abdomen, but in most patients a strong superficial fascial system adherence to the linea alba in the epigastrium limits vertical descent. Epigastric laxity frequently results from a progressive horizontal loosening due to relaxation of the tissue along the lateral trunk. Experience with the lower-body lift procedure has shown that significant lateral truncal skin resection results in epigastric tightening. In these patients, the ideal abdominoplasty pattern would resect as much or more laterally than centrally, leading to more natural abdominal contours. Fifty patients who underwent high-lateral-tension abdominoplasty with and without significant truncal liposuction and other aesthetic procedures were followed for 4 to 16 months. The primary indication for surgery was moderate to severe laxity of abdominal skin and muscle with or without truncal fat deposits. Complication rates were equal to or less than those of historical controls and did not increase with significant adjunctive liposuction

  10. Saphenous Vein Sparing Superficial Inguinal Dissection in Lower Extremity Melanoma

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    Muhammed Beşir Öztürk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The classic inguinal lymph node dissection is the main step for the regional control of the lower extremity melanoma, but this surgical procedure is associated with significant postoperative morbidity. The permanent lymphedema is the most devastating long-term complication leading to a significant decrease in the patient’s quality of life. In this study we present our experience with modified, saphenous vein sparing, inguinal lymph node dissections for patients with melanoma of the lower extremity. Methods. Twenty one patients (10 women, 11 men who underwent saphenous vein sparing superficial inguinal lymph node dissection for the melanoma of lower extremity were included in this study. The effects of saphenous vein sparing on postoperative complications were evaluated. Results. We have observed the decreased rate of long-term lymphedema in patients undergoing inguinal lymphadenectomy for the lower extremity melanoma. Conclusion. The inguinal lymphadenectomy with saphenous vein preservation in lower extremity melanoma patients seems to be an oncologically safe procedure and it may offer reduced long-term morbidity.

  11. Internet: Más Allá de la superficie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Andrés Tovar Cardozo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone un enfoque técnico de la Internet que da a conocer algunas características de su estructura, la cual muestra dos sectores distintos en donde se puede encontrar la información, es decir, esta se encuentra distribuida en niveles o capas de manera parcial o restringida, integrada o desagregada, todo ello dependiendo de lo que el usuario requiera realmente. La forma correcta para acceder a la información requerida está en saber a dónde ir a buscarla, la web profunda es información no visible para el usuario común que no tiene la habilidad de búsqueda, por lo cual se hace necesario verificar el tipo, la calidad y veracidad de la información a obtener antes de proceder a usar la información encontrada con los buscadores tradicionales. Acceder a Internet sin saber que existe una falsa cortina utilizada por la mayoría de los buscadores convencionales, es limitar las capacidades de navegar en un océano de información valiosa, en ello radica la importancia de conocer la web desde lo superficial (Surface Web a lo profundo (Deep Web.

  12. Inmersiones condicionadas de grafos en superficies y seudosuperficies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedriani Martel, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se procede a recapitular resultados conocidos sobre el problema de caracterizar los grafos que admiten inmersiones en superficies y en seudosuperficies con todos los vértices en la misma cara y se da una caracterización original de los grafos con dicha propiedad en seudosuperficies que surgen de manera natural y que han sido tratadas en la literatura especializada. Se comienza desarrollando algunos conceptos necesarios para la exposición de los problemas que se tratan, pero se suponen conocidos otros básicos de la Teoría de Grafos. Los resultados relacionados llevan de forma consecuente al planteamiento de otros problemas cuyas resoluciones originales también se incluyen. En cuanto a los objetivos finales que se pretenden lograr con esta comunicación, se basan, sobre todo, en aprovechar los resultados obtenidos por la Teoría de Grafos para resolver problemas pertenecientes a otras áreas, como la Economía. Se termina exponiendo un motivo topológico por el que estos estudios sobre las inmersiones y las inmersiones peri-S se hallan próximas a la Economía.

  13. MOLECULAR GENETIC MARKERS AS PREDICTORS OF SUPERFICIAL BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Babayan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A system of clinical and morphological criteria is currently used to determine the pattern of superficial bladder cancer (SBC. However, this system does not completely reflect the clinical potential of SBC and needs additional markers. The purpose of this study was to search for and evaluate molecular genetic disorders as additional markers of the course of SBC. The diagnostic panel included the deletion of the loci 3р14, 9р21, 9q34, 17р13 (ТР53, mutations of exon 7 of the FGFR3 gene, and hypermethylation of the promoter regions of the RASSF1, RARB, p16, p14, CDH1 genes. The study was made on 108 matched samples (tumor/peripheral blood obtained from patients with SBC. The deletions of the loci 3р14, 9р21 and anomalous methylation of the RARb and p16 genes are markers of the worse course of SBC while FGFR3 gene mutation is a marker of better prognosis. In the context of estimation of the relapsing potential of a primary tumor, the 9p21 locus deletion is a marker associated with recurrence within the first year after malignancy resection. The group of molecular genetic markers determined by the authors for poor prognosis in combination with classical clinical and morphological criteria will specify the pattern of the course of the disease and its prognosis.

  14. Superficial topography of wound: a determinant of underlying biological events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh; Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Kloth, Luther C

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional configuration of wounds varies considerably according to the etiology. Wounding of skin is proceeded by release of dermal pretension. Subsequent disruption of physical equilibrium with resulting development of force vectors alters the primary shape of wound to maintain a new dynamic physical equilibrium. This leads to the development of stress-relaxation and stress-concentration areas throughout the wound milieu. Mechanical strain produces piezoelectric current which is maximal in stress-relaxation regions due to lower tissue stiffness and higher mobility. Early surge in the tissue level of TGF-beta would be exaggerated through synergistic interaction with piezoelectric current in stress-relaxation areas. Subsequently, fibroblasts migrate to these areas due to galvanotaxis. The gradual dissipation of tissue tension, due to irreversible loss of viscous strain, reduces the synergistic action of TGF-beta and piezoelectricity. However, a similar pattern of activity of TGF-beta due to the polarized migration of fibroblasts, which are the main source of TGF-beta during secondary surge, may be continued. It seems that a biological-mechanical continuum exists for wounds so that even the superficial topography of wounds may affect the underlying biological activity and final healing outcome during healing of dermal wounds.

  15. Pentacam-based phototherapeutic keratectomy outcome in superficial corneal opacities

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    Rashad MA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK as an alternative treatment to keratoplasty using the Pentacam to assess depth of dense opacities.Methodology: PTK was performed in eleven eyes of ten patients with superficial corneal opacities after assessment by Scheimpflug images of the Pentacam for central corneal thickness (CCT and opacity level and depth.Results: The best-corrected spectacle visual acuity (BCSVA significantly improved. The preoperative mean logMAR was 0.85 (0.14 decimal equivalent, 6/42 Snellen's equivalent, and the final postoperative mean logMAR was 0.58 (0.26 decimal equivalent, 6/23 Snellen's equivalent. The mean preoperative CCT was 465.64 ± 71.94 µm. The mean programmed ablation depth was 142.09 ± 47.58 µm. The programmed ablation depth was correlated to mean logMAR early (1 month and not correlated later (6 months. None of the eyes lost lines of BCSVA or developed serious complications, such as keratectasia, delayed epithelialization, or corneal melting.Conclusion: Corneal scars extending beyond the anterior one-fifth of the cornea can be treated safely and effectively by PTK due to the smoothing effect, with reduction of the cylinder rather than complete opacity removal. This can decrease the need for keratoplasty.Keywords: phototherapeutic keratectomy, PTK, corneal opacities, Pentacam

  16. Superficial and orthovoltage x-ray beam dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorsak, E B; Gosselin, M; Evans, M D

    1998-07-01

    Output of superficial and orthovoltage x-ray units may be measured with cylindrical or end-window parallel-plate ionization chambers. The air-kerma calibration factors for these chambers are usually determined free in air, and the x-ray machine output is stated as the air-kerma rate free in air, which, when multiplied with the appropriate backscatter factor, gives the air-kerma rate on the surface of a phantom or patient. For end-window chambers, especially when they are used for measurements of small fields or low x-ray energies, the air-kerma calibration factors may also be determined with the chamber embedded in a tissue-equivalent phantom. This results in field size dependent air-kerma in-air calibration factors but obviates the requirement for knowledge of back-scatter factors when determining the air-kerma rate on the surface of a phantom. Since there still is considerable uncertainty in tabulated backscatter factors as a function of field size and x-ray beam energy, the output measurement technique which determines the air-kerma rate on phantom surface with a phantom-embedded end-window ionization chamber offers a clear advantage over the in-air calibration method.

  17. Superficial siderosis is a warning sign for future intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Jennifer; Wollenweber, Frank A; Lummel, Nina; Bochmann, Katja; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Bruckmann, Hartmut; Dichgans, Martin; Opherk, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Supratentorial superficial siderosis (SS) is a frequent imaging marker of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). It is most probably caused by focal subarachnoid hemorrhages (fSAHs). Based on single-case observations, it has been proposed that such fSAHs might be a predisposing factor for future intracranial hemorrhage. Here we tested the hypothesis if a SS as a residue of fSAHs must be regarded as a warning sign for future intracranial hemorrhage. Fifty-one consecutive patients with SS and no apparent cause other than possible or probable CAA were identified through a database search and followed-up for a median interval of 35.3 months (range 6-120 months). Main outcome measures were rate and location of new intracranial hemorrhages. Twenty-four patients (47.1 %) had experienced any new intracranial hemorrhage, 18 patients (35.3 %) had an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and in 13 of them (25.5 %), the hemorrhage was located at the site of pre-existing siderosis. Six patients (11.7 %) had developed a new subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), four of them at the site of siderosis. Patients with SS are at substantial risk for subsequent intracranial hemorrhage. SS can be considered a warning sign of future ICH or SAH, which frequently occur adjacent to pre-existing SS. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  18. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in children with superficial lymphadenopathy

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    F. De Corti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pediatric population Fine-Needle Aspiration Citology (FNAC is slowly gaining acceptance in clinical management of Superficial Lymphadenopathy (SL. Our experience adds some data about the usefulness of this technique in diagnosing the cause of a SL and therefore guiding further treatment. Patients and Methods: 238 FNAC were performed in 217 patients with SL, observed at our Institution from 2002 to 2006. The neck was the most frequent localization. The results were available within few hours. In cases of granulomatous findings, the samples were processed for microbiological and PCR test, in order to identify Mycobacteria. Results: 174 were reactive lesions, 38 granulomatous lymphadenopathies, 24 malignant lesions, 2 specimens inadequate for diagnosis. Among the 174 reactive SL, 22 required an incisional biopsy after 1 month follow-up. Among the granulomatous lymphadenopathies, 13 children with Cat-Scratch Disease recovered, 25 with Mycobacteria infection underwent surgical excision. For 24 malignant lesions, the diagnosis was confirmed by further biopsy. Two false negative and no false positive were detected (sensitivity 92%, specificity 100%. No complications were encountered. Conclusions: In our experience FNAC, performed by experienced cytopathologist, has revealed to be a fast, safe, non invasive and inexpensive method to achieve diagnosis in persistent SL. The use of FNAC gave us the possibility to select patients for further investigation and/or surgical treatment. Incisional biopsy remains necessary to confirm the diagnosis in case of malignancy or doubtful lesions.

  19. Immunological studies in chronic atrophic gastritis and chronic (superficial) gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, W P; Rigby, R J; Trenchev, P; Matz, L R

    1978-01-01

    Detection of autoantibodies, HLA typing and immunofluorescence studies on gastric biopsies were carried out in subjects with histologically proven chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and chronic superficial gastritis (CG). All were seronegative for parietal cell antibody and did not have pernicious anemia. Except for positive antismooth muscle and antimitochrondrial antibodies in one patient with CAG, autoantibodies (antinuclear, smooth muscle, mitochrondrial, parietal cell) were absent in patients with CAG and CG. Immunofluorescence studies showed that Ig-G and IgA were presented in the lamina propria of all cases with CAG or CG and of subjects with normal gastric histology. Ig-M was seen less often, in about half the cases. Complement C3 was an uncommon finding, being positive in only one case with CAG and one case with CG and in none of the cases with normal gastric histology. Fibrinogen was more commonly seen in patients with CG (5/5 cases) than in those with CAG (3/11 cases). Fibrinogen was found in one case with normal gastric histology. The most consistent fluorescence was obtained with antiparietal cell antiserum. All subjects with CAG showed negative or weak staining only. In contrast, subjects with CG and normal gastric histology had strong specific fluorescence. An increased frequency of HLA-A1 plus HLA-B8 was found in subjects with CAG (20.7% in controls; 40% in CAG).

  20. Ultrasonic quantitation of superficial degradation of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Töyräs, Juha; Hirvonen, Jani; Laasanen, Mikko S; Lappalainen, Reijo; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2004-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) has been suggested as a means for the quantitative detection of early osteoarthrotic changes in articular cartilage. In this study, the ability of quantitative US 2-D imaging (20 MHz) to reveal superficial changes in bovine articular cartilage after mechanical or enzymatic degradation was investigated in vitro. Mechanical degradation was induced by grinding samples against an emery paper with the grain size of 250 microm, 106 microm, 45 microm or 23 microm. For enzymatic degradation, samples were digested with collagenase, trypsin or chondroitinase ABC. Variations of the US reflection coefficient induced by the degradation were investigated. Furthermore, two novel parameters, the US roughness index (URI) and the spatial variation of the US reflection coefficient (SVR), were established to quantitate the integrity of the cartilage surface. Statistically significant decreases (p < 0.05) in US reflection coefficient were observed after mechanical degradations or enzymatic digestion with collagenase. Increases (p < 0.05) in URI were also revealed after these treatments. We conclude that quantitative US imaging may be used to detect collagen disruption and increased roughness in the articular surface. These structural damages are typical of early osteoarthrosis.

  1. Temperatura superficial de materiais utilizados para cobertura individual de bezerreiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M. C. Barnabé

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, com este trabalho avaliar, por meio de imagens térmicas, a temperatura superficial das coberturas de abrigos individuais para bezerras na fase de aleitamento. O período experimental foi de janeiro a março de 2012, com duração de 56 dias, conduzido com 24 abrigos individuais para bezerras Girolando. Os tratamentos consistiram em três tipos de cobertura: palha de palmeira, telha de polímero reciclado e telha de cimento amianto. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado efetuando-se a comparação entre as médias pelo teste de Tukey (P < 0,05. Os resultados mostraram diferença significativa entre os tratamentos estudados e as telhas recicladas apresentaram menores valores de temperatura média na superfície superior, em todos os horários analisados sendo o valor máximo encontrado da ordem de 36,9 ºC e o mínimo de 14,4 ºC. Os abrigos cobertos por palha e com telhas recicladas mostraram melhor desempenho térmico em relação à cobertura de fibrocimento, provavelmente indicando melhor condição de conforto térmico aos animais alojados.

  2. Autoregulation of superficial nephron function in the alloperfused dog kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, J; Horácek, V

    1979-10-01

    Isolated dog kidneys were each pump-perfused by another dog during 4 experimental periods at perfusion pressures (PP) of 21, 17, 13, and 8 kPa, resp. (i.e. 160, 130, 94, and 60 mm Hg). At the 3 highest PP values, the total kidney renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were perfectly autoregulated while at the lowest value both values were significantly lowered. No significant difference was observed between the single nephron GFR (SNGFR) of periods 1 and 2; in period 3 (PP = 13 kPa) a lower value was observed (P less than 0.05). Free flow pressure in proximal convolution (FFP), stop-flow pressure (SFP), and peritubular capillary pressure (PCP) were not different in period 2 than in period 1, but were significantly lower in period 3 (P = 0.02--0.05). Effective filtration pressure (EFP) was the highest in period 1, decreasing significantly with decreasing PP. Filtration pressure equilibrium was observed in period 4 at PP 8 kPa. Total blood flow resistance (RT) fell with decreasing PP, the drop being due to a steep decline in afferent resistance (RA). Efferent resistance (RE) increased as PP decreased. Ultrafiltration coefficient (Kf) rose with declining PP both within and outside the autoregulatory range. The results indicate that the lower limit of autoregulation is higher in superficial nephrons than in the whole kidney.

  3. The superficial peroneal nerve at the foot. Organisation, surgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas, F; Bonnel, F; Kouloumdjian, P

    1996-01-01

    The authors report the results of the dissection of the superficial peroneal nerves of 30 adult cadavers, from its emergence through the deep sural fascia up to its terminal branches. Its emergence was located, on average, 11 cm from the lower end of the lateral malleolus (min: 9 cm, max: 11.5 cm). The division of the nerve into the medial dorsal cutaneous n. and the intermediate dorsal cutaneous n. was found in 29 cases after its emergence from the sural fascia and before its passage on the proximal edge of the extensor retinaculum. The distance between the medial dorsal cutaneous n. and the medial malleolus was more than 2 cm. This nerve divided into three branches at a level varying from 5 to 20 cm in relation to the first interdigital space (average 9 cm). The intermediate dorsal cutaneous n. was found in 27 cases. It divided into two branches at a variable distance from the fourth interdigital space (4 to 6 cm). According to Kosinski's classification, we found 24 cases of type I (80%), three cases of type II (10%) and three cases of type IV (10%). The authors stress the numerous topographic variations and the multiple anatomical types.

  4. Recurrence of superficial vein thrombosis in patients with varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karathanos, Christos; Spanos, Konstantinos; Saleptsis, Vassileios; Tsezou, Aspasia; Kyriakou, Despina; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2016-08-01

    To investigate which factors other than history of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) are associated with recurrent spontaneous SVT episodes in patients with varicose veins (VVs). Patients with a history of spontaneous SVT and VVs were followed up for a mean period of 55 months. Demographics, comorbidities, and thrombophilia screening test were analyzed. Patients were grouped according to the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology classification. A multiple logistic regression analysis with the forward likelihood ratio method was undertaken. Thirteen patients out of 97 had a recurrence SVT episode during the follow-up period. All those patients were identified to have a thrombophilia defect. Protein C and S, antithrombin, and plasminogen deficiencies were more frequently present in patients without recurrence. Gene mutations were present in 38% in the nonrecurrence group and 77% in the recurrence group. After logistic regression analysis, patients with dislipidemia and mutation in prothrombin G20210A (FII) had an increased risk for recurrence by 5.4-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively. No deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurred. Dislipidemia and gene mutations of F II are associated with SVT recurrence in patients with VVs. A selection of patients may benefit from anticoagulation in the short term and from VVs intervention in the long term. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Experimental Study on Mine Spoils During Superficial Geochemical Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一先; 白正华

    2002-01-01

    Based on the mineral and chemical compositions of spoils taken from the Shilu Cu-Mo deposit and Hetai gold deposit ,the leaching and batch experiments were made on spoils taken from these two deposits using the leaching column designed by the authors.The experimental results showed that it is not always true that the imine drainage is acidic.Its acidity depends on acid-buffering capacity of gangue,host rock and its alteration mineral assemblage.The composi-tion of the drainage water is related with the interaction between superficial or underground water and solid materials in the spoils,including minerals,hydroxides and amorphous substances.The leaching extent of the element is related with its occurrence form in the deposit.The prefer-ential flow results in leaching-out of heavy metals in large amounts.So it is important to prevent the generating of preferential flow in the system.The results will provide very important grounds for the comprehensive management of land and ecological rehabilitation of the mine site.

  6. Experimental Study on Mine Spoils During Superficial Geochemistry Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一先; 白正华

    2002-01-01

    Based on the mineral and chemical compositions of spoils taken from the Shilu Cu-Mo deposit and Hetai gold deposit, the leaching and batch experiments were made on spoils taken from these two deposits using the leaching column designed by the authors. The experimental results showed that it is not always true that the mine drainage is acidic. Its acidity depends on acid-buffering capacity of gangue, host rock and its alteration mineral assemblage. The composition of the drainage water is related with the interaction between superficial or underground water and solid materials in the spoils, including minerals, hydroxides and amorphous substances. The leaching extent of the element is related with its occurrence form in the deposit. The preferential flow results in leaching-out of heavy metals in large amounts. So it is important to prevent the generating of preferential flow in the system. The results will provide very important grounds for the comprehensive management of land and ecological rehabilitation of the mine site.

  7. Triterpenes for Well-Balanced Scar Formation in Superficial Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kindler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Triterpenes are demonstrably effective for accelerating re-epithelialisation of wounds and known to improve scar formation for superficial lesions. Among the variety of triterpenes, betuline is of particular medical interest. Topical betuline gel (TBG received drug approval in 2016 from the European Commission as the first topical therapeutic agent with the proven clinical benefit of accelerating wound healing. Two self-conducted randomized intra-individual comparison clinical studies with a total of 220 patients involved in TBG treatment of skin graft surgical wounds have been screened for data concerning the aesthetic aspect of wound healing. Three months after surgery wound treatment with TBG resulted in about 30% of cases with more discreet scars, and standard of care in about 10%. Patients themselves appreciate the results of TBG after 3 months even more (about 50% compared to standard of care (about 10%. One year after surgery, the superiority of TBG counts for about 25% in comparison with about 10%, and from the patients’ point of view, for 25% compared to 4% under standard of care. In the majority of wound treatment cases, there is no difference visible between TBG treatment and standard of care after 1 year of scar formation. However, in comparison, TBG still offers a better chance for discreet scars and therefore happens to be superior in good care of wounds.

  8. GENETIC RISK MARKERS FOR SUPERFICIAL AND INVASIVE BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pavlov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To reveal possible associations of the polymorphic variants of the cytochrome P450 and enzymes glutathione-S-transferase genes with the risk for bladder cancer (BC, the authors analyzed the frequency of genotypes and alleles at the polymorphic loci of the CYP1A1 (A2454G, GSTM1 (del, and GSTP1 (A313G genes in 208 patients diagnosed as having BC (104 patients with invasive BC and 104 with superficial BC and in 367 patients without identified oncopathology. The *1A*2C (OR = 3.42 and *2C*2С (OR = 6.98 genotypes, *2C (OR = 3.73 allele of the CYP1A1 gene and the GG (OR = 2.53 genotype of the GSTP1 gene were ascertained to be genetic markers for a risk for BC. The presence of the *2C (OR = 1.69 allele of the CYP1A1 gene, the G (OR = 2.40 allele and the AG genotype (OR = 2.40 of the GSTP1 gene was associated with the invasive forms of BC. There were no substantial differences in the distribution of the frequency of genotypes of the GSTM1 gene between the samples of patients and healthy individuals.

  9. Histological and biochemical study of the superficial abdominal fascia and its implication in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Aithal, Srinivas Kodavoor; Kotian, Sushma R.; Thittamaranahalli, Honnegowda; Bangera, Hemalatha; Prasad, Keerthana; Souza, Anne D.

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of liposculpturing and fascial flaps in reconstructive surgery has renewed interest in the superficial fascia of abdomen. Its histological and biochemical composition may play a vital role in maintaining strength and elasticity of the fascia. Hence, study of abdominal fascia for the elastic, collagen, and hydroxyproline contents is desirable to understand asymmetrical bulges and skin folds and in improving surgical treatment of obesity. Samples of superficial fascia were collected from of upper and lower abdomen from 21 fresh cadavers (15 males and 6 females). Samples were stained using Verhoeff–Van Gieson stain. Digital images of superficial fascia were analyzed using TissueQuant software. The samples were also subjected to hydroxyproline estimation. The superficial fascia was formed by loosely packed collagen fibers mixed with abundant elastic fibers and adipose tissue. Elastic contents and collagen contents of superficial fascia were significantly more in the upper abdomen than that in the lower abdomen in males. Hydroxyproline content of superficial fascia of upper abdomen was significantly more than that of lower abdomen in both males and females. The elastic, collagen and hydroxyproline contents of superficial fascia of upper abdomen were higher compared to the lower abdomen. This may be a reason for asymmetric bulging over abdomen and more sagging fold of skin in the lower abdomen than in the upper abdomen. This study may therefore be helpful in finding new ways to manage obesity and other body contour deformities. PMID:27722011

  10. The specificationof nano-structure superficial layers in some of the pathogen bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilla Jalalpoor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The superficial layer is a part of the cellular envelop that is seen in bacteria and archaea. This superficial layer is a single layer structure composed of subordinate proteins or glycoproteins. The superficial layer is the outer most cellular structure that is in the exchange and reaction around environment with bacteria. This structure has very diversity in bacteria different types.Materials and Method: The related articles to superficial layer were extracted of these articles: Pubmed, Elsevier Science, and Yahoo, from 1995 to 2010 years. For this purpose keywords were searched including superficial layer, pathogenesis, pathogen bacteria,Results: There is consensus in the case of the superficial layer and about the existence of this superficial structure lead to increased pathogenesis in bacteria, in all of the research articles.Conclusion: S-layers in pathogen bacteria with bacteria protection against bacteriophages and phagocytosis, resistance against low pH, adhesion, stabilisation of the membrane and providing adhesion sites for exoproteins caused pathogenesis, infection resistant and antibiotic resistant in host.The result of this study shows the prevalence of considerable S-layer in pathogen bacteria and this matter identified the bacteria generator importance of this structure in the laboratory

  11. Investigation of the flow, combustion, heat-transfer and emissions from a 609MW utility tangentially fired pulverized-coal boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Caillat, Sébastien; Harion, Jean-Luc.;

    2002-01-01

    A numerical approach is given to investigate the performance of a 609 MW tangentially fired pulverized-coal boiler, with emphasis on formation mechanism of gas flow deviation and uneven wall temperature in crossover pass and on NOx emission. To achieve this purpose and obtain a reliable solution...... are reliable. These conclusions can be used to guide the design and operation of boilers of similar types....

  12. Study of the superficial ozone concentrations in the atmosphere of Comunidad de Madrid using passive samplers Estudio de las concentraciones de ozono superficial en la atmósfera de la Comunidad de Madrid usando muestreadores pasivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Díaz Ramiro

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The ozone is a secondary atmospheric pollutant which is generated for photochemical reactions of volatil organic compounds (VOC’s and nitrogen oxides (NOx. In Spain the ozone is a big problem as a consequence of the solar radiation to reach high levels. Exposure over a period of time to elevated ozone concentrations can cause damage in the public health and alterations in the vegetation.The aim of this study is to carry out the development and validation of a measurement method to let asses the superficial ozone levels in the Comunidad de Madrid, by identifing the zones more significants, where to measure with UV photometric monitors (automatics methods this pollutant and where the health and the vegetation can be affected. To such effect, passive samplers are used, which have glass fiber filters coated with a solution of sodium nitrite, potassium carbonate, glycerol and water. The nitrite ion in the presence of ozone is oxidized to nitrato ion, which it is extrated with ultrapure water and analyzed for ion chromatography, by seen proportional to the concentration existing in the sampling point.The results of validation from field tests indicate a excellent correlation between the passive and the automatic method.The higher superficial ozone concentrations are placed in rural zones, distanced of emission focus of primary pollutants (nitrogen oxides and volatil organic compounds... principally in direction soutwest and northwest of the Comunidad of Madrid.El ozono es un contaminante atmosférico secundario formado por reacciones fotoquímicas de compuestos orgánicos volátiles (COV y óxidos de nitrógeno (NOx. En España, el ozono es un gran problema como consecuencia de los altos niveles alcanzados por la radiación solar. Exposiciones periódicas a concentraciones elevadas de ozono, pueden causar daños en la salud pública y alteraciones en la vegetación.El objetivo del presente estudio es desarrollar y validar un método de medida que

  13. Quantitative assessment of irradiated lung volume and lung mass in breast cancer patients treated with tangential fields in combination with deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, Karin Sigrid [Univ. Clinic of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria); Zurl, Brigitte; Stranzl, Heidi; Winkler, Peter

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Comparison of the amount of irradiated lung tissue volume and mass in patients with breast cancer treated with an optimized tangential-field technique with and without a deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique and its impact on the normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP). Material and Methods: Computed tomography datasets of 60 patients in normal breathing (NB) and subsequently in DIBH were compared. With a Real-Time Position Management Respiratory Gating System (RPM), anteroposterior movement of the chest wall was monitored and a lower and upper threshold were defined. Ipsilateral lung and a restricted tangential region of the lung were delineated and the mean and maximum doses calculated. Irradiated lung tissue mass was computed based on density values. NTCP for lung was calculated using a modified Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. Results: Mean dose to the ipsilateral lung in DIBH versus NB was significantly reduced by 15%. Mean lung mass calculation in the restricted area receiving {<=} 20 Gy (M{sub 20}) was reduced by 17% in DIBH but associated with an increase in volume. NTCP showed an improvement in DIBH of 20%. The correlation of individual breathing amplitude with NTCP proved to be independent. Conclusion: The delineation of a restricted area provides the lung mass calculation in patients treated with tangential fields. DIBH reduces ipsilateral lung dose by inflation so that less tissue remains in the irradiated region and its efficiency is supported by a decrease of NTCP. (orig.)

  14. Postmastectomy radiotherapy of the chest wall. Comparison of electron-rotation technique and common tangential photon fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehr, T.; Classen, J.; Huth, M.; Durst, I.; Bamberg, M.; Budach, W. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Christ, G. [Dept. of Medical Physics, Univ. of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    either with the electron-rotation technique (LRC 92%) or with the photon-based technique (LRC 89%; p = 0.9). A subgroup analysis of tumors resected with ''close margins'' showed a higher LRF rate of 25% after electron-beam-rotation irradiation (n = 180) compared to an LRF of 13% with tangential opposed 6-MV photon fields (n = 107; p < 0.05). Large primary tumors of {>=} 5 cm developed LRF in 29% of patients treated with electron-beam-rotation irradiation and in 17% of patients with photon-based irradiation (p = 0.1). Conclusion: in locally advanced breast cancer, the LRC after postmastectomy irradiation with both techniques is comparable with published data from randomized studies. The tangential opposed photon field technique seems to be beneficial after marginal resection (histopathologic ''close margins'') of the primary tumor. (orig.)

  15. Unexpected diagnosis of superficial neurofibroma in a lesion with imaging features of a vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Patrick; Reid, Janet; Morrison, Stuart [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Vidimos, Allison [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Dermatology, Cleveland, OH (United States); DiFiore, John [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Plexiform neurofibroma is a pathognomonic, often disabling feature of neurofibromatosis type I. Although the target-like appearance of deep plexiform neurofibroma on T2-weighted MRI has been well-described, a second superficial form of plexiform neurofibroma has differing imaging features. We report a 15-year-old boy who presented with multiple cutaneous lesions exhibiting clinical and imaging characteristics of a venolymphatic malformation. These lesions were histologically proved to represent superficial plexiform neurofibromas. We wish to emphasize the unique MR findings of superficial plexiform neurofibromas; these findings are different from the imaging characteristics of the deep form and can be confused with a low-flow vascular malformation. (orig.)

  16. Clinicopathological, ultrasonographic, and histopathological findings of superficial necrolytic dermatitis with hepatopathy in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Susan E; Christiansen, Wendy; Byrne, Kevin P

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the antemortem diagnosis and antemortem and postmortem findings of superficial necrolytic dermatitis with hepatopathy (i.e., hepatocutaneous syndrome) in a cat. A 5-year-old Maine coon was evaluated because of a history of pruritic alopecia and liver enzyme elevations. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a reticular pattern to the hepatic parenchyma. Histopathological findings of the liver were nodular regeneration with bands of vacuolated hepatocytes and bile duct hyperplasia, characteristic of the hepatopathy frequently associated with superficial necrolytic dermatitis. Skin histopathology revealed multifocal parakeratosis, midepidermal spongiosis, and basal cell hyperplasia consistent with superficial necrolytic dermatitis.

  17. Evaluación de la calidad superficial del hormigón autocompactante

    OpenAIRE

    López, Anahí; Tobes, Juan Manuel; Giaccio, Graciela Marta; Zerbino, Raúl

    2008-01-01

    En la actualidad los requerimientos estéticos han dado lugar a mayores exigencias sobre la calidad superficial en hormigón visto. El uso de hormigón autocompactante (HAC) aparece como una alternativa para lograr elementos con mejor terminación superficial. El CIB Report N° 24 presenta un método para clasificar la calidad superficial del hormigón donde se incluyen como parámetros la uniformidad de color, la presencia de burbujas, manchas, marcas y otros tipos de defectos. En este trabajo se pr...

  18. Evaluation of Contralateral Breast Surface Dose in FIF (Field In Field) Tangential Irradiation Technique for Patients Undergone Breast Conservative Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Moon; Bang, Dong Wan; Bae, Yong Ki; Lee, Jeong Woo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Hyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate contra-lateral breast (CLB) surface dose in Field-in-Field (FIF) technique for breast conserving surgery patients. For evaluation of surface dose in FIF technique, we have compared with other techniques, which were open fields (Open), metal wedge (MW), and enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) techniques under same geometrical condition and prescribed dose. The three dimensional treatment planning system was used for dose optimization. For the verification of dose calculation, measurements using MOSFET detectors with Anderson Rando phantom were performed. The measured points for four different techniques were at the depth of 0 cm (epidermis) and 0.5 cm bolus (dermis), and spacing toward 2 cm, 4 cm, 6 cm, 8 cm, 10 cm apart from the edge of tangential medial beam. The dose calculations were done in 0.25 cm grid resolution by modified Batho method for inhomogeneity correction. In the planning results, the surface doses were differentiated in the range of 19.6-36.9, 33.2-138.2 for MW, 1.0-7.9, 1.6-37.4 for EDW, and for FIF at the depth of epidermis and dermis as compared to Open respectively. In the measurements, the surface doses were differentiated in the range of 11.1-71, 22.9-161 for MW, 4.1-15.5, 8.2-37.9 for EDW, and 4.9% for FIF at the depth of epidermis and dermis as compared to Open respectively. The surface doses were considered as underestimating in the planning calculation as compared to the measurement with MOSFET detectors. Was concluded as the lowest one among the techniques, even if it was compared with Open method. Our conclusion could be stated that the FIF technique could make the optimum dose distribution in Breast target, while effectively reduce the probability of secondary carcinogenesis due to undesirable scattered radiation to contra-lateral breast.

  19. The effect of tissue anisotropy on the radial and tangential components of the electric field in transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Mohamed K; Han, Seung Moo; Kim, Tae-Seong

    2015-10-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is considered to be a promising technique for noninvasive brain stimulation and brain disease therapy. Recent studies have investigated the distribution of the electric field (EF) magnitude over gyri and sulci and the effect of tissue homogeneity with isotropic electrical conductivities. However, it is well known that the skull and white matter (WM) are highly anisotropic electrically, requiring investigations of their anisotropic effects on the magnitude and the directional components of the induced EF due to the high dependency between neuromodulation and the EF direction. In this study, we investigated the effects of the skull and WM anisotropy on the radial and tangential components of the EF via gyri-specific high-resolution finite element head models. For tDCS, three configurations were investigated: the conventional rectangular pad electrode, a 4(cathodes) +1(anode) ring configuration, and a bilateral configuration. The results showed that the skull anisotropy has a crucial influence on the distribution of the radial EF component. The affected cortical regions by the radial EF were reduced about 22 % when considering the skull anisotropy in comparison with the regions with the skull isotropy. On the other hand, the WM anisotropy strongly alters the EF directionality, especially within the sulci. The electric current tends to flow radially to the cortical surface with the WM anisotropy. This effect increases the affected cortical areas by the radial EF component within the sulcal regions. Our results suggest that one must examine the distribution of the EF components in tDCS, not just the magnitude of the EF alone.

  20. Coverage of Axillary Lymph Nodes with Tangential Breast Irradiation in Korea: A Multi-Institutional Comparison Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To evaluate the dose distribution and coverage of axilla using only tangential field for whole breast radiotherapy (RT at three institutions in Korea. Methods. We used computed tomography (CT images of nine consecutive 1-2 sentinel lymph node-positive patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and whole breast RT without axillary lymph node (ALN dissection for clinical T1-2N0 breast cancer. The CT data were transferred to three radiation oncologists in 3 institutions and each radiation oncologist created treatment plans for all nine patients; a total of 27 treatment plans were analyzed. Results. The mean doses delivered to levels I and II were 31.9 Gy (9.9–47.9 Gy and 22.3 Gy (3.4–47.7 Gy. Ninety-five percent of levels I and II received a mean dose of 11.8 Gy (0.4–43.0 Gy and 3.0 Gy (0.3–40.0 Gy. The percent volumes of levels I and II covered by 95% of the prescribed dose were only 29.0% (0.2–74.1% and 11.5% (0.0–70.1%. The dose distribution and coverage of axilla were significantly different between three institutions (p=0.001. Conclusion. There were discrepancies in ALN coverage between three institutions. A standardization of whole breast RT technique through further research with a nationwide scale is needed.

  1. Applied anatomy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, A J; See, M S; Ellis, H

    2008-01-01

    The superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) is highly vulnerable to trauma and iatrogenic injury. This study aimed to map the course of the SBRN in the context of surgical approaches and identify a safe area of incision for de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Twenty-five forearms were dissected. The SBRN emerged from under brachioradialis by a mean of 8.31 cm proximal to the radial styloid (RS), and remained radial to the dorsal tubercle of the radius by a mean of 1.49 cm. The nerve divided into a median of four branches. The first branch arose a mean of 4.92 cm proximal to the RS, traveling 0.49 cm radial to the first compartment of the extensor retinaculum, while the main nerve remained ulnar to it by 0.64 cm. All specimens had branches underlying the traditional transverse incision for de Quervain's release. A 2.5-cm longitudinal incision proximal from the RS avoided the SBRN in 17/25 cases (68%). In 20/25 specimens (80%), the SBRN underlay the cephalic vein. In 18/25 (72%), the radial artery was closely associated with a sensory nerve branch near the level of the RS (SBRN 12/25, lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm (LCNF) 6/25.) A longitudinal incision in de Quervain's surgery may be preferable. Cannulation of the cephalic vein in the distal third of the forearm is best avoided. The close association between the radial artery and first branch of the SBRN or the LCNF may explain the pain often experienced during arterial puncture. Particular care should be taken during radial artery harvest to avoid nerve injury.

  2. Analyses of superficial and depth doses in intraoral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Santos de Oliveira, C.; Morais, R.P. de; Nascimento Souza, D. do [Universidade Federal de Sergipe - CCET - Dept. de Fisica, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In this work dosimetric analysis using thermoluminescence technique to study the beams characteristics of x-rays employed in dental radiology has been carried out. The obtained results with CaSO{sub 4}:Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were compared to the doses obtained with parallel-plates ionization chamber. Dosimetric evaluations were also done using radiographic films of large dimensions. The x-rays equipments analyzed were installed in the radiological services of Odontology Department of Sergipe Federal University (U.F.S.). Depending on the anatomical region to be examined the proper exposure time was select, for a fix voltage of 70 kV. The results with TLD and ionization chamber have been determined to female and male individuals. The intraoral regions analysed were the peri apical of the incisors, molar and pre-molar teeth and the occlusive region. These regions were simulated using acrylic plates absorbers installed on the film packet holder. The evaluation of the depth doses in the intraoral tissue was obtained using different acrylic plate thickness. The air kerma values have been evaluated with the ionization chamber located in the dental cone exit of the x-rays equipments. The integrated areas of the thermoluminescent glow curves showed coherent values when compared to the ones obtained with the ionization chamber and both methods presented a linear dependence with the exposition time. The analyses with films have allowed the evaluation of the beam scattering in the simulator apparatus. The studies had proven that the analysis of superficial dose and in depth used in dental radiology can be carried with thermoluminescent dosimeters. (authors)

  3. Superficial white matter: effects of age, sex, and hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R; Clark, Kristi A; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18-74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies.

  4. Microwave array applicator for radiometry-controlled superficial hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Jacobsen, Svein; Neuman, Daniel

    2001-06-01

    Hyperthermia therapy has been shown clinically effective for a variety of skin diseases but current heating equipment is inadequate for most patients. This effort describes the design and performance of a flexible microstrip array applicator intended for heating large regions of tissue over contoured anatomy while at the same time monitoring temperature of the underlying tissue by non-invasive radiometric sensing of blackbody radiation from the heated volume. For this dual purpose applicator, an array of broadband Archimedean spiral receive antennas is integrated into an array of Dual Concentric Conductor heating apertures. Applicator heating uniformity is assessed with electric field scans in homogenous muscle phantoms and with measured temperature distributions in clinical treatments of chestwall recurrence of breast carcinoma. The data demonstrate precisely controlled heating out to the perimeter of large (40 x 13 cm2) multiaperture conformal array applicators. Capabilities of the radiometry system are assessed by correlation of brightness temperatures measured in phantom loads of known temperature distribution as seen through an intervening 5 mm thick water bolus at constant 40°C. The radiometer demonstrates excellent sensitivity and an accuracy of +0.1-0.45°C for temperature measurements up to 5 cm deep in phantom when using a one dimensional weighting function analysis and up to 6 independent 500 MHz bandwidths within the 1-4 GHz range. The data clearly indicate that both heating and radiometric thermometry are possible using the same thin and flexible printed circuit board microstrip array applicator. Once development is complete, this dual mode conformal array applicator with multiplexed radiometric display system should provide significantly improved uniformity and ease of heating large area superficial tissue disease.

  5. ESTUDIO ANATÓMICO DE LA RAMA SUPERFICIAL DEL NERVIO RADIAL. IMPLICACIONES QUIRÚRGICAS Superficial branch of radial nerve: an anatomical study and its surgical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Vergara-Amador; José Luis Nieto

    2010-01-01

    Antecedentes. Conocer la anatomía de la rama superficial del nervio radial, es indispensable para la adecuada práctica de cirugías que involucran la mano y la muñeca. Objetivo. Determinar las relaciones del nervio radial y sus ramas con el tubérculo de Lister, la apófisis estiloides del radio y la distribución en el dorso de la mano. Material y métodos. Se disecaron 25 piezas de cadáveres frescos. Se identificó la rama superficial del nervio radial y se midió la distancia entre la salida del ...

  6. Valoración de la superficie del dializador en la hemodiafiltración on-line. Elección objetiva de la superficie del dializador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maduell

    2015-05-01

    Conclusión: El incremento del 40% y el 80% de la superficie conlleva un aumento del volumen convectivo de un 6 y un 16% respectivamente, aunque se evidenció una reducción en su máximo rendimiento, mostrando mínimas diferencias tanto en el volumen convectivo como en la capacidad depurativa cuando el CUF era superior a 45 ml/h/mmHg. Es recomendable optimizar el rendimiento de los dializadores a la mínima superficie posible adecuando la prescripción de tratamiento.

  7. Efectos del entrenamiento en superficies inestables sobre el equilibrio y funcionalidad en adultos mayores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan C. López S; Elkin F. Arango V

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: determinar los efectos de un programa de ocho semanas de entrenamiento en superficies inestables con y sin trabajo de fuerza, sobre el equilibrio y la capacidad funcional en adultos mayores de 60...

  8. DETERMINATION OF SUPERFICIAL ABSORBED DOSE FROM EXTERNAL EXPOSURE OF WEAKLY PENETRATING RADIATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽姝

    1994-01-01

    The methods of determining the superficial absorbed dose distributions in a water phantom by means of the experiments and available theories have been reported.The distributions of beta dose were measured by an extrapolation ionization chamber at definite depthes corresponding to some superficial organs and tissues such as the radiosensitive layer of the skin,cornea,sclera,anterior chamber and lens of eyeball.The ratios among superficial absorbed dose D(0.07) and average absorbed doses at the depthes 1,2,3,4,5 and 6mm are also obtained with Cross's methods.They can be used for confining the deterministic effects of some superficial tissues and organs such as the skin and the components of eyeball for weakly penetrating radiations.

  9. Biomass torrefaction characteristics in inert and oxidative atmospheres at various superficial velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lu, Ke-Miao; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Tsai, Chi-Ming; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Ta-Chang

    2013-10-01

    The reaction characteristics of four biomass materials (i.e. oil palm fiber, coconut fiber, eucalyptus, and Cryptomeria japonica) with non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction at various superficial velocities are investigated where nitrogen and air are used as carrier gases. Three torrefaction temperatures of 250, 300, and 350 °C are considered. At a given temperature, the solid yield of biomass is not affected by N2 superficial velocity, revealing that the thermal degradation is controlled by heat and mass transfer in biomass. Increasing air superficial velocity decreases the solid yield, especially in oil palm fiber and coconut fiber, implying that the torrefaction reaction of biomass is dominated by surface oxidation. There exists an upper limit of air superficial velocity in the decrement of solid yield, suggesting that beyond this limit the thermal degradation of biomass is no longer governed by surface oxidation, but rather is controlled by internal mass transport.

  10. Branch facial nerve trauma after superficial temporal artery biopsy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rison Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Giant cell arteritis is an emergency requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Superficial temporal artery biopsy is the gold diagnostic standard. Complications are few and infrequent; however, facial nerve injury has been reported, leaving an untoward cosmetic outcome. This case report is to the best of our knowledge only the fourth one presented in the available literature so far regarding facial nerve injury from superficial temporal artery biopsy. Case presentation A 73-year-old Caucasian woman presented for neurological evaluation regarding eyebrow and facial asymmetry after a superficial temporal artery biopsy for presumptive giant cell arteritis-induced cephalalgia. Conclusion Damage to branches of the facial nerve may occur after superficial temporal artery biopsy, resulting in eyebrow droop. Although an uncommon and sparsely reported complication, all clinicians of various specialties involved in the care of these patients should be aware of this given the gravity of giant cell arteritis and the widespread use of temporal artery biopsy.

  11. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system due to chronic hemorrhage from a giant invasive prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Jacob; Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Fraifeld, Shifra; Moscovici, Samuel; Rosenthal, Guy; Shoshan, Yigal; Itshayek, Eyal

    2013-07-01

    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare disorder caused by deposition of hemosiderin in neuronal tissue in the subpial layer of the CNS due to slow subarachnoid or intraventricular hemorrhage. The most common neurologic manifestations include progressive gait ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and corticospinal tract signs. We present a case of superficial siderosis in a 43-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department with sudden onset bilateral visual deterioration and a loss of consciousness. A hemorrhagic giant prolactinoma was diagnosed based on brain CT scan, T1-weighted MRI, and an endocrine blood examination. Susceptibility-weighted non-contrast MRI showed pathognomonic signs of superficial siderosis in the form of a hypointensity rim surrounding the brainstem, cerebellar fissures, and cranial nerves VII and VIII. This report demonstrates that superficial siderosis can be caused by pituitary apoplexy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [The tangential segregation of simple and complex cells in the visual cortex and their connections. The universal neocortex modulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebkasov, S A

    1998-01-01

    Guinea-pig studies testify that in rodents (like in higher mammals) the primary afferents from the thalamus and inferior cortical afferents converge on discrete columns about 200 mcm in size with zones of secondary convergence between them. The cortical columns seem to be primary basic and universal cortical modules, since they have similar dimensions and uniform organization in different mammals. The columns concentrate simple cells (with complex ones among them) and afferent inhibitory neurons; these models are involved in the first stage of cortical integration. Local connections of the primary modules differ from those of the secondary intermediary zones, which are poor narrow in rodents. The intermediary zones progressively develop in phylogeny, and in higher mammals they excel the primary modules in dimensions.

  13. 圆管内轴向旋转流切向速度湍流强度%Turbulence intensity of real tangential velocity in circular pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡香丽; 李培; 杨智勇; 黄蕾; 魏耀东

    2014-01-01

    The real tangential velocity of swirling flow in a circular pipe with diameter 300 mm and length 2000 mm was measured by using hot wire anemometry (HWA), and analysis emphasized on turbulence intensity of the tangential velocity with the effect of oscillation of swirling flow. The real tangential velocity contained high frequency turbulent fluctuation velocity and low frequency fluctuation velocity. The real tangential velocity fluctuated obviously in the center region of the circular pipe, but fluctuated little near the wall of the circular pipe. By analyzing probability density of the real tangential velocity of swirling flow, fluctuation of the real tangential velocity changed greatly along the radial direction. This fluctuation was not only affected by turbulent fluctuation, but also by oscillation of swirling flow. Oscillation of swirling flow resulted in the phenomenon that turbulence intensity of the tangential velocity in the center region was higher than that near the wall.%采用热线风速仪(hot wire anemometry,HWA)测量了ϕ300 mm×2000 mm圆管内轴向旋转流瞬时切向速度随时间的变化,重点分析了切向速度湍流强度的分布特点和旋转流摆动对切向速度湍流强度的影响。测量结果表明,瞬时切向速度由高频的湍流脉动速度和低频的波动速度叠加构成。由于受旋转流旋转中心偏离圆管几何中心造成的旋转流摆动的影响,在圆管中心区域瞬时切向速度随时间的波动速度变化较大,边壁区域瞬时切向速度随时间的波动速度变化较小。通过对瞬时切向速度数据进行概率密度分析可知,切向湍流强度不仅受气流脉动的影响,还受旋转流中心摆动的影响,是由自身气流脉动产生的湍流强度和旋转流摆动产生的湍流强度两部分叠加构成。旋转流摆动导致了中心区域的湍流强度远大于边壁面区域的湍流强度。

  14. Caracterización de la integridad de las superficies maquinadas a altas velocidades en el acero 40XHMA//Characterization of surface integrity of machined surfaces at high cutting speed in 40XHMA steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jacas-Cabrera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo el estudio de la integridad superficial de la superficie maquinada a altas velocidades de corte en el acero 40XHMA. Los experimentos fueron realizados en un proceso de torneado utilizando regímenes de corte correspondientes a un proceso de acabado. Una vez maquinadaslas probetas, se le realizaron ensayos de rugosidad superficial, tensiones residuales, microdureza Vickers y análisis de la deformación superficial. Como resultado se demostró que la variación de valores de la velocidad de corte no tuvo un efecto significativo en los valores de rugosidad superficial, observándoseuna ligera tendencia a la disminución de la misma, a medida que la velocidad de corte aumenta. En las muestras analizadas no se observaron zonas de deformación plástica superficial, pero sin embargo, se observó un incremento de la microdureza Vickers en la superficie maquinada, así como una disminuciónde las tensiones residuales al aumentar las velocidades de corte.Palabras claves: integridad superficial, maquinado a altas velocidades de corte, acero 40XHMA, acero 4340._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis work aims at the study of surface integrity on machined surfaces at high cutting speeds of the 40XHMA steel. The experiments were performed in a turning process with cutting schemes corresponding to polishing: Once machined, the specimens were subjected to different types of analysis: surface roughness, residual stresses, micro Vickers hardness and analysis of surface deformation .As a result it was shown that the variation of cutting speed had no significant effect on surface roughness values, showing a slight tendency to decrease it. In the tested samples zones of surface plastic-deformation were not observed. Nonetheless the micro Vickers hardness showed an increment in the machined surface anda decrease in residual stress with increasing cutting speeds was observed as well

  15. Clinical inquiries. How does tissue adhesive compare with suturing for superficial lacerations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukerman, Douglas F; Sebastianelli, Wayne J; Nashelsky, Joan

    2005-04-01

    Tissue adhesives are effective and yield results comparable to those with conventional suturing of superficial, linear, and low-tension lacerations. The cosmetic outcome is similar; wound complications, such as infection and dehiscence, may be lower with tissue adhesives. Wound closure of superficial lacerations by tissue adhesives is quicker and less painful compared with conventional suturing (strength of recommendation: A, systematic reviews of randomized trials).

  16. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Rafiei, MD; Tariq S. Hakky, MD; Daniel Martinez, MD; Justin Parker, MD; Rafael Carrion, MD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Conditions mimicking penile fracture are extremely rare and have been seldom described. Aim: To describe a patient with false penile fracture who presented with superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis managed with ligation. Methods: A 33‐year‐old male presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis after intercourse. A penile ultrasound demonstrated a thrombosed superficial dorsal vein but also questionable fracture of the tunica albuginea. As the thrombus was expanding, h...

  17. Immunoelectron microscopy study of superficial skin nerves in drug-induced acute urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; CRIADO, Roberta Fachini Jardim; TAKAKURA, CLEUSA F.H.; Pagliari, Carla; SOTTO, Mirian Nacagami; Cidia VASCONCELLOS

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the ultrastructure of the superficial skin nerves in urticaria. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe findings in superficial skin nerves in cases of drug-induced acute urticaria. METHODS: Seven patients with drug-induced acute urticaria were included in the study. Skin biopsies were obtained from the urticarial lesion and from the apparently normal skin. The 14 fragments collected were processed for immunogold electron microscopy using ...

  18. A STUDY ON SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH AND IT’S VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Rao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of the frequency of anatomical variations of arterial pattern of hand is crucial for safe and successful hand surgical approach, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The superficial pal mar arch is a major blood supply to the hand. Various ano malous patterns in the superficial arch of hand are reported. The superficial pal mar arch is formed predominantly by ulnar artery with a contribution from superficial branch of radial artery. OBSERVATIONS: Superficial palmar arch is dissected within the p alm and observed from its origin to termination. Variations in its origin, branches were observed. A classic superficial palmar arch was found in 10% [5/50]. O ut of dissected specimens complete arch found in 67% and incomplete arch was 33%. Incomplete arch is formed by ulnar artery alone. It supply four and half fingers and give five branches. Majority of arches is supplied by three and half fingers and gives four branches. DISCUSSION: Many attempts have been made to classify these variations. A complex cla ssification of superficial pal mar arch by Coleman & Anson [1961]. S ince then, many other classification have been suggested by different authors [Karlsson & N iechajev, 1982; al - Turk & Metcalf, 1984; Doscher et al. 1985; Ruengsakulrachh et al. 2001;] provi des simplest understanding of distribution of the arches. Although the classical pattern of the arch occurs in frequently, anatomical presence of a complete superficial palmar arch varies from 84% to 66% [Coleman & Anson]. This incidence was lower in the c urrent study and might be a reflection of sample size [52 hands]. The median artery was found in 10% of the hands, similar frequency to that reported by McCormack et al. [1953].

  19. Anatomic variations of superficial peroneal nerve: clinical implications of a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash; Bhardwaj, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Deepak Kumar; Rajini, T; Jayanthi, V; Singh, Gajendra

    2010-01-01

    Superficial peroneal nerve and its branches are frequently at risk for iatrogenic damage. Although different studies on anatomical variations of superficial peroneal nerve are available in the medical literature, such reports are rare from India. Hence the present study was undertaken on Indian population. A total of 60 specimens of inferior extremities from 30 properly embalmed and formalin fixed cadavers were dissected and examined for the location and course of the superficial peroneal nerve including number, level, course and distributions of branches. The superficial peroneal nerve in 28.3% specimens was located in the anterior compartment of the leg. In 8.3% specimens the superficial peroneal nerve branched before piercing between the peroneus longus and extensor digitorum longus muscle whereas in 11.7% specimens it branched after piercing the aforementioned muscles and before piercing the deep fascia. In 41 out of 60 specimens the sensory division of superficial peroneal nerve branched into the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve and intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve distal to its emergence from the deep fascia and proximal to its relation to the extensor retinaculum. In 20 out of 60 specimens the accessory deep peroneal nerve, an additional branch from the sensory division of superficial peroneal nerve, through its course in the anterior compartment of the leg passed deep to the extensor retinaculum and supplied the ankle and the dorsum of foot. Hopefully the present study will help in minimizing iatrogenic damage to the superficial peroneal nerve and its branches while performing arthroscopy, local anesthetic block, surgical approach to the fibula, open reduction and internal fixation of lateral malleolar fractures, application of external fixators, elevation of a fasciocutaneous or fibular flaps for grafting, surgical decompression of neurovascular structures, or miscellaneous surgery on leg, foot and ankle.

  20. Tension characteristics of the iliotibial tract and role of its superficial layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H; Seedhom, B

    1995-04-01

    Change in tension along the iliotibial tract by sectioning its superficial layer was analyzed using 5 fresh whole cadavers, and the role of the superficial layer was investigated. Tibial attachment of the iliotibial tract (Gerdy's tubercle) was detached and pulled gradually in a distal direction with respect to the femur. Tension along the iliotibial tract by the distal movement of Gerdy's tubercle (stretching the iliotibial tract) was measured first when the whole iliotibial tract was intact, and then when the superficial layer was sectioned at different levels. When the superficial layer was sectioned above the greater trochanter, no significant change in tension was observed from that observed when the whole iliotibial tract was intact. When the superficial layer was sectioned at the middle of the thigh, the tension at Gerdy's tubercle was significantly reduced. It was concluded that not only Kaplan's fibers, those attached to the distal end of the femur and Gerdy's tubercle, but also the superficial layer of the iliotibial tract had an important role in producing tension at Gerdy's tubercle.

  1. Multisensory Response Modulation in the Superficial Layers of the Superior Colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Nidiffer, Aaron; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) is made up of seven distinct layers. Based on overall differences in neuronal morphology, afferent and efferent projection patterns, physiological properties, and presumptive behavioral role, the upper three layers have been classically grouped together as the superficial layers and the remaining four layers collectively make up the deep layers. Although the superficial layers receive their primary inputs from the retina and primary visual cortex, the deep layers receive inputs from extrastriate visual cortical areas and from auditory, somatosensory, and motor-related structures. In contrast, there is no evidence of monosynaptic nonvisual inputs to the superficial layers. However, more recent studies have revealed anatomical connections between the superficial and deep layers, thus providing the substrate for possible communication between these two functional divisions of the SC. In this study, we provide physiological evidence for auditory influences on visual responses in the superficial layers of the SC. Using extracellular recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) and multiunit activity, we demonstrate multisensory effects in the superficial layers of the cat SC such that subthreshold auditory activity (as seen in the LFP) modulates visual responses (reflected in spiking activity) when the two stimuli are presented together. These results have important implications for our understanding of the functional organization of the SC and for the neural basis of multisensory integration in general. PMID:24647954

  2. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  3. Upgrades of poloidal and tangential x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers for temperature and rotation measurements on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fudi; Chen, Jun; Hu, Ruiji; Lyu, Bo; Colledani, Gilles; Fu, Jia; Li, Yingying; Bitter, Manfred; Hill, Kenneth; Lee, Sangon; Ye, Minyou; Shi, Yuejiang; Wan, Baonian

    2016-11-01

    During the past two years, key parts of poloidal and tangential x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers (PXCSs and TXCSs) have been upgraded. For poloidal XCSs, double-crystals of ArXVII and FeXXV were deployed. For fulfilling in situ alignment of a poloidal XCS, the beryllium window must be flexibly removed. By utilizing a design, where the beryllium window was installed in the vacuum chamber of the double-crystal, and between the double-crystal and wall of this chamber, an in situ alignment for the two spectrometers was fulfilled. Also, a new holder for the double-crystal was installed to allow for precise adjustments of azimuth angle and vertical height of the double-crystal. In order to facilitate these adjustments of double-crystal and installation of beryllium window, the chamber of the double-crystal for PXCS was upgraded from a cylinder to a cuboid. The distance between double-crystal and magnetic axis was extended from 8936 mm to 9850 mm in order to improve spatial resolution for PXCS, which is currently in the range from 1.237 mm to 4.80 mm at magnetic axis. Furthermore, a new pixelated detector (PILATUS 900K), which has a large sensitive area of 83.8 × 325.3 mm2 and which is vacuum compatible, is being implemented on the PXCS. This detector is mounted on a rail, so that its position can be changed by 50 mm to effectively record spectra of He-like argon and He-like iron (ArXVII and FeXXV). Similarly, a rail, which allows detector movement by 50 mm, was also installed in TXCS to alternatively record spectra of ArXVII and ArXVIII. Presently, the operation duration of PXCS and TXCS has been upgraded to hundreds of seconds in one shot. Ti- and uϕ-profiles measured by TXCS and charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) were compared and found to be in good agreement.

  4. Flashback analysis in tangential swirl burners; Analisis de reflujo de flama en combustores tangenciales de flujo giratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera-Medina, A. [CIATEQ A.C., Centro de Tecnologia Avanzada, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: agustin.valera@ciateq.mx; Syred, N. Abdulsada, M. [United Kingdom Cardiff University (United Kingdom)]. E-mails: syredn@cf.ac.uk; abdulsadam@cf.ac.uk

    2011-10-15

    Premixed lean combustion is widely used in Combustion Processes due to the benefits of good flame stability and blow off limits coupled with low NO{sub x} emissions. However, the use of novel fuels and complex flows have increased the concern about flashback, especially for the use of syngas and highly hydrogen enriched blends. Thus, this paper describes a combined practical and numerical approach to study the phenomenon in order to reduce the effect of flashback in a pilot scale 100 kW tangential swirl burner. Natural gas is used to establish the baseline results and effects of different parameters changes. The flashback phenomenon is studied with the use of high speed photography. The use of a central fuel injector demonstrates substantial benefits in terms of flashback resistance, eliminating coherent structures that may appear in the flow channels. The critical boundary velocity gradient is used for characterization, both via the original Lewis and von Elbe formula and via analysis using CFD and investigation of boundary layer conditions in the flame front. [Spanish] La combustion ligera premezclada se utiliza ampliamente en los procesos de combustion debido a los beneficios que brinda en terminos de buena estabilidad de flama y limites de extincion, aunado a la baja emision de NO{sub x}. Sin embargo, el uso de nuevos combustibles y de flujos complejos han incrementado la preocupacion por el reflujo de flama, especialmente para el uso de gas sintetico (syngas) y mezclas altamente hidrogenadas. Por ello, en este articulo se describe un metodo practico y numerico para el estudio del fenomeno a modo de reducir los efectos del reflujo de flama en un combustor piloto de tipo tangencial de flujo giratorio de 100 kW. Se usa gas natural para establecer la linea base de resultados y los efectos del cambio de diferentes parametros. El fenomeno de reflujo de flama se estudia por medio de fotografia de rapida adquisicion. El uso de un inyector central de combustible

  5. High cell density cultivations by alternating tangential flow (ATF) perfusion for influenza A virus production using suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, Yvonne; Vogel, Thomas; Buck, Johannes; Behrendt, Ilona; Ramirez, Daniel Vazquez; Schiedner, Gudrun; Jordan, Ingo; Reichl, Udo

    2014-05-19

    High cell densities in animal cell culture can be obtained by continuous perfusion of fresh culture medium across hollow fiber membranes that retain the cells. Careful selection of the membrane type and cut-off allows to control accumulation of target molecules and removal of low molecular weight compounds. In this report, perfusion with the scalable ATF (alternating tangential filtration, Refine Technology) system was evaluated for two suspension cell lines, the avian cell line AGE1.CR and the human cell line CAP. Both were cultivated in chemically defined media optimized for batch cell growth in a 1L stirred tank bioreactor connected to the smallest ATF unit (ATF2) and infected with cell line-adapted human influenza A virus (A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), typical diameter: 80-100 nm). At concentrations of about 25 million cells/mL three different membrane cut-offs (50 kDa, 0.2 μm and 0.5 μm) were tested and compared to batch cultivations performed at 5 million cells/mL. For medium and large cut-offs no cell-density effect could be observed with cell-specific virus yields of 1428-1708 virions/AGE1.CR cell (infected with moi 0.001) and 1883-4086 virions/CAP cell (moi of 0.025) compared to 1292 virions/AGE1.CR cell and 3883 virions/CAP cell in batch cultures. Even at a concentration of 48 million AGE1.CR cells/mL (cut-off: 0.2 μm) a cell-specific yield of 1266 virions/cell was reached. Only for the small cut-off (50 kDa) used with AGE1.CR cells a decrease in cell-specific yield was measured with 518 virions/cell. Surprisingly, the ratio of infectious to total virions seemed to be increased in ATF compared to batch cultures. AGE1.CR cell-derived virus particles were present in the permeate (0.2 and 0.5 μm cut-off), whereas CAP cell-derived virions were not, suggesting possible differences in morphology, aggregation or membrane properties of the virions released by the two cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first study that illustrates the potential of ATF

  6. Development of sustainable groundwater extraction practices for a major superficial aquifer supporting a groundwater dependent ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smettem, K. R.; Froend, R.; Davies, M.; Stock, B.; Martin, M.; Robertson, C.; Eamus, D.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout Australia many groundwater dependent ecosystems have been adversely affected by unsympathetic water abstraction practices. In Western Australia, the largest single supply of drinking water for the city of Perth is a superficial aquifer known as the Gnangara Groundwater Mound, located over an area of approximately 2200 km2 within and to the north of the city on the coastal plain. The groundwater resource supplies 60% of Perth’s pubic drinking water supply and 85% of total water demand for all users. Much of the mound is overlain by phreatophytic Banksia woodland that is susceptible to drought stress and death if the root system is separated from the unconfined aquifer for prolonged periods over the hot, dry Mediterranean summer. Drought stress has been exacerbated by diminished rainfall due to a changing climate regime. The aim of this research is to develop guidelines for sustainable groundwater abstraction (timing and volume) that will maintain the long term integrity of the ecosystem and recover up to 5GL/yr from existing borefields. We seek to investigate whether a change in abstraction regime, from ‘peak demand’ summer pumping to winter pumping allows groundwater levels to recover sufficiently prior to summer, thereby maintaining a healthy vegetation system. Hydrological and plant water status parameters were monitored over two winters at research sites with an initial depth to groundwater of less than 5m. During winter and spring, groundwater abstraction at a reduced capacity resulted in a 0.75m drawdown. Operation of the bores did not adversely impact the water status of phreatophytic Banksia at the study sites relative to control sites. Analysis of plant water source partitioning indicated that plants exposed to the winter drawdown were sustained by unsaturated zone soil moisture storage replenished by winter rainfall. When pumping ceased, the water table rose rapidly and plants utilised more groundwater during late spring and summer as the

  7. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  8. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  9. Shanghai's Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since the early 1980s,development zones began appearing in China.Their Success largely stems from the preferential policies they offer and the safe investment environment they work hard to create.As zones have personalities themselves,it is essential to look beyond the pamphlets and published information and get down to the nittygritty.Shanghai has more State designated Economic and Technology Development Zones than any other city in China.In the following article,we have chosen development zones located around Shanghai and conducted a comparison.

  10. Anterior Approach Total Ankle Arthroplasty: Superficial Peroneal Nerve Branches at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Jeffrey E; DeMill, Shyler L; Hyer, Christopher F; Berlet, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    In ankle arthroplasty, little attention has been given to intraoperative nerve injury and its postoperative sequelae. The aim of the present anatomic study was to determine the relationship of the superficial peroneal nerve to the standard anterior approach for total ankle arthroplasty. The superficial peroneal nerve was dissected in 10 below-the-knee cadaver specimens. The medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches were identified. A needle was placed at the ankle joint. The following measurements were recorded: bifurcation into the medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches, reference needle to the branches of the medial and intermediate superficial peroneal nerve, and the crossing branches of the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve. Two specimens (20%) had a medial dorsal cutaneous branch cross from medially to laterally. Eight specimens (80%) had a crossing branch of the medial dorsal cutaneous branch within 5 cm of the incision. No intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches were within the incision. The results from the present cadaver study suggest that during an anterior ankle approach, aberrant branches of the superficial peroneal nerve could require transection in 20% of patients at the joint level and ≤80% of patients with distal extension >35 mm from the ankle joint. The risk of injury to branches of the superficial peroneal nerve is substantial. The risk of nerve injury can be decreased with meticulous operative technique, smaller incisions, and the avoidance of aggressive retraction.

  11. Effect of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser energies on superficial and deep dentin microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinelatti, Michelle Alexandra; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated the microhardness of superficial and deep dentin irradiated with different erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser energies. Seventy-two molars were bisected and randomly assigned to two groups (superficial dentin or deep dentin) and into six subgroups (160 mJ, 200 mJ, 260 mJ, 300 mJ, 360 mJ, and control). After irradiation, the cavities were longitudinally bisected. Microhardness was measured at six points (20 microm, 40 microm, 60 microm, 80 microm, 100 microm, and 200 microm) under the cavity floor. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's tests (alpha = 0.05). Superficial dentin presented higher microhardness than deep dentin; energy of 160 mJ resulted in the highest microhardness and 360 mJ the lowest one. Values at all points were different, exhibiting increasing microhardness throughout; superficial dentin microhardness was the highest at 20 microm with 160 mJ energy; for deep dentin, microhardness after irradiation at 160 mJ and 200 mJ was similar to that of the control. The lowest energy increased superficial dentin microhardness at the closest extent under the cavity; deep dentin microhardness was not altered by energies of 160 mJ and 200 mJ.

  12. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to study the gross anatomy of future localized fat deposits (LFDs area of abdomen in fetus. Materials and Methods: Four fetus (two male & two female of four month of intrauterine life were dissected. Attachments & layers of superficial fascia and future subcutaneous fat deposit area of upper and lower abdomen were noted. Results: Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multi layered in mid line and number of layers reduced laterally as in adult. The future abdominal LFD (localized fat deposits area in fetus shows brownish-white blubbary tissue without well-defined adult fat lobules. Conclusion: The attachment and gross anatomy of superficial fascia of the fetus was similar to that in adults. The future LFD areas showed brownish white blubbary tissue with ill-defined fat lobules.

  13. Superficial and deep lymph node dissection for stage III cutaneous melanoma: clinical outcome and prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozzillo Nicola

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this retrospective analysis were to evaluate the effect of combined superficial and deep groin dissection on disease-free and melanoma-specific survival, and to identify the most important factors for predicting the involvement of deep nodes according to clinically or microscopically detected nodal metastases. Methods Between January 1996 and December 2005, 133 consecutive patients with groin lymph node metastases underwent superficial and deep dissection at the National Cancer Institute, Naples. Lymph node involvement was clinically evident in 84 patients and detected by sentinel node biopsy in 49 cases. Results The 5-year disease-free survival was significantly better for patients with superficial lymph node metastases than for patients with involvement of both superficial and deep lymph nodes (34.9% vs. 19.0%; P = 0.001. The 5-year melanoma-specific survival was also significantly better for patients with superficial node metastases only (55.6% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.001. Conclusions Metastasis in the deep nodes is the strongest predictor of both disease-free and melanoma-specific survival. Deep groin dissection should be considered for all patients with groin clinical nodal involvement, but might be spared in patients with a positive sentinel node. Prospective studies will clarify the issue further.

  14. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial cancer of the cervical esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Toshiro; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Hoteya, Shu; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Kaise, Mitsuru

    2017-08-01

    Cervical esophageal cancer (CEC) is a less common form of cancer and often locally advanced at the time of diagnosis; thus, survival rates for patients with CEC remain poor. However, no reports exist on results of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for superficial cancer at the cervical esophagus. The aim of this retrospective study was to elucidate the clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes of ESD for superficial CEC.  ESD was performed on 891 lesions (in 662 patients) for superficial esophageal cancer from January 2008 to December 2015. Of these, 45 lesions (45 patients) were enrolled in the case group (CEC), and 405 lesions (375 patients) were enrolled in the control group (superficial cancer in the middle thoracic esophagus). The safety of ESD, including R0 resection rate and adverse events, and the efficacy, such as the local recurrence rate and overall survival rate, were evaluated.  The R0 resection rate was 91.1 % in the case group and 96 % in the control group. The rate of esophageal stricture was significantly higher in the case group (20 %) than in the control group (6.6 %). There was no local recurrence, and the 3-year survival rate was 88.4 % in the case group and 96.7 % in the control group. ESD for superficial cancer in the cervical esophagus was achieved safely, and successful local control was also confirmed. However, the esophageal stricture after ESD was more frequent.

  15. Superficial Mucocele of the Ventral Tongue: Presentation of a Rare Case and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John K; Schwartz, Kevin G; Basile, John R

    2016-06-01

    The superficial mucocele is a rare variant of the common mucocele and noted microscopically by subepithelial pools of mucin. To increase the understanding of oral superficial mucoceles, a database was created from the demographics of case reports and case series from a PubMed search. At least 200 patients with superficial mucoceles have been described in the English-language literature, 82 of whom had biopsy-proven lesions; additional clinical information was available for 39 of these 82 patients. Compiled data suggest superficial mucoceles offered phenotypic distinctions from the common mucocele because they were more apt to occur in middle-aged women, often on the soft palate and buccal mucosa. Affected patients frequently had multiple lesions that were smaller than 3 mm and nearly 50% of patients developed recurrence. This report also describes the first histopathologically confirmed case of a superficial mucocele arising on the ventral tongue in a 22-year-old man. It is speculated that the glossal lesion might have developed from long-term impingement from exposed metal barbs from an orthodontic splint. Persistent lesions or atypical presentations underscore the need for histopathologic examination. Copyright © 2015 The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Superficial corneal foreign body: laboratory and epidemiologic aspects Corpo estranho corneal superficial: aspectos laboratoriais e epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednajar Tavares Macedo Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine by bacterioscopy and culture the microorganisms carried by corneal foreign body and their sensitivity to antibiotics by antibiotic sensitivity test. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out and information was collected on 101 patients who presented with corneal foreign body at the São Paulo Hospital Eye Emergency Service. Prior to any treatment, a sample of the ipsilateral inferior conjunctival fornix and the foreign body were collected and immersed in thioglycolate broth. Samples were sown on solid culture media including blood, chocolate and Sabouraud agar. Bacterioscopic examination using Gram and Giemsa staining and sensitivity test were performed. Positive foreign body culture results were compared to ipsilateral conjunctival fornix culture to exclude possible normal flora growth. RESULTS: Approximately 92% of patients were males with a mean age of 35 years and in 62.4% (95% confidence interval: 52.2 - 71.8% had the right eye was affected. Foreign body positive cultures were achieved in 32.7% (95% confidence interval: 23.7 - 42.7% of the cases. The microorganisms isolated from the foreign body culture were identified as: Streptococcus, alpha-hemolytic (n=4, Staphylococcus aureus (n=4, Staphylococcus, coagulase-negative (n=4, Corynebacterium xerosis (n=3, unidentified Gram-positive bacillus (n=2, Moraxella sp (n=1, Serratia sp (n=1, Acynetobacter sp (n=1. The microbial sensitivity test showed that 95% of the cases were sensitive to chloramphenicol and 90% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, these being antibiotics used in our routine service. CONCLUSION: Superficial corneal foreign body acts as important contaminant vector and the great majority of isolated bacteria were sensitive to the antibiotic prophylaxis used in the treatment.OBJETIVOS: Identificar por meio de cultura e bacterioscopia os microrganismos veiculados por corpo estranho corneal e sua sensibilidade aos antibióticos em teste de antibiograma. M

  17. Inhomogeneous cartilage properties enhance superficial interstitial fluid support and frictional properties, but do not provide a homogeneous state of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Park, Seonghun; Eckstein, Felix; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2003-10-01

    It has been well established that articular cartilage is compositionally and mechanically inhomogenous through its depth. To what extent this structural inhomogeneity is a prerequisite for appropriate cartilage function and integrity is not well understood. The first hypothesis to be tested in this study was that the depth-dependent inhomogeneity of the cartilage acts to maximize the interstitial fluid load support at the articular surface, to provide efficient frictional and wear properties. The second hypothesis was that the inhomogeneity produces a more homogeneous state of elastic stress in the matrix than would be achieved with uniform properties. We have, for the first time, simultaneously determined depth-dependent tensile and compressive properties of human patellofemoral cartilage from unconfined compression stress relaxation tests. The results show that the tensile modulus increases significantly from 4.1 +/- 1.9 MPa in the deep zone to 8.3 +/- 3.7 MPa at the superficial zone, while the compressive modulus decreases from 0.73 +/- 0.26 MPa to 0.28 +/- 0.16 MPa. The experimental measurements were then implemented with the finite-element method to compute the response of an inhomogeneous and homogeneous cartilage layer to loading. The finite-element models demonstrate that structural inhomogeneity acts to increase the interstitial fluid load support at the articular surface. However, the state of stress, strain, or strain energy density in the solid matrix remained inhomogeneous through the depth of the articular layer, whether or not inhomogeneous material properties were employed. We suggest that increased fluid load support at the articular surface enhances the frictional and wear properties of articular cartilage, but that the tissue is not functionally adapted to produce homogeneous stress, strain, or strain energy density distributions. Interstitial fluid pressurization, but not a homogeneous elastic stress distribution, appears thus to be a

  18. ESTUDIO ANATÓMICO DE LA RAMA SUPERFICIAL DEL NERVIO RADIAL. IMPLICACIONES QUIRÚRGICAS Superficial branch of radial nerve: an anatomical study and its surgical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vergara-Amador

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Conocer la anatomía de la rama superficial del nervio radial, es indispensable para la adecuada práctica de cirugías que involucran la mano y la muñeca. Objetivo. Determinar las relaciones del nervio radial y sus ramas con el tubérculo de Lister, la apófisis estiloides del radio y la distribución en el dorso de la mano. Material y métodos. Se disecaron 25 piezas de cadáveres frescos. Se identificó la rama superficial del nervio radial y se midió la distancia entre la salida del nervio y la apófisis estiloides del radio. Se identificaron las ramas del nervio en el antebrazo distal y en la muñeca y se midieron respecto a la apófisis estiloides y al tubérculo de Lister. Resultados. La rama superficial del nervio radial emergió en la región dorsal y radial del tercio distal del antebrazo entre el músculo braquiradialis y el extensor carpis radialis longus, a una distancia de 8,45 cm proximal a la apófisis estiloides. Su primera rama de división discurrió palmar a la apófisis estiloides radial a una distancia promedio de 0,74 cm respecto a la misma. El tronco principal se dividió en varias ramas terminales así: proximal a la apófisis estiloides del radio (28%, a nivel de la misma (12% y distal (60%. El patrón de distribución de las ramas nerviosas en la base de los dedos más frecuente fue el del primero, segundo y el lado radial del tercer dedo (56%. Discusión. Este estudio mostró la gran variabilidad de la rama superficial del nervio radial en el dorso de la mano y la alta probabilidad de daño del mismo durante los procedimientos abiertos, artroscópicos o procedimientos percutáneos en la muñeca.Background. The anatomy of the superficial branch of radial nerve is essential for the proper practice of surgery involving the hand and wrist. Objetive. Determine relationship between the superficial radial nerve and his branches with the radial styloid process level, Lister’s tubercle and the distribution of

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF A SUPERFICIAL TREATMENT USING BIFENTHRIN TO PROTECT RADIATA PINE FRAMING FROM DAMAGE BY SUBTERRANEAN AND DRYWOOD TERMITES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paimin Sukartana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Various experimental testing procedures were undertaken in Indonesia to determine the effectiveness of a patented superficial (envelope treatment using bifenthrin to protect radiata pine framing material from damage by two species of subterranean termites (Macrotermes gilvus and Coptotermes curvignathus and one species of drywood termite (Cryptotermes cynocephalus. Lengths of framing material (Pinus radiata sapwood were commercially treated to the targeted retention of 0.02% m/m of bifenthrin in the outer 2 mm depth penetration zone of the material. The treated and untreated materials were subsequently cut into test specimens and exposed to M. gilvus in the field and a semi-laboratory trial, to C. curvignathus in the laboratory and a semi-laboratory trial and to C. cynocephalus in a laboratory trial. No supplementary treatment was performed on the exposed cut ends of the treated test specimens. The results from the trials clearly demonstrated that the superficial treatment of bifenthrin seemed effective in protecting test specimens of radiata pine framing material from significant damage by Indonesia’s most notorious termite species that often causes serious economic loss to the timbers. Termites were unable to damage any of the bifenthrin-treated surfaces of test specimens. Any obser ved damage by termites, albeit minor, was in all cases confined to the exposed cut ends of test specimens. In contrast, attack by termites on the untreated control test specimens caused damage of the samples ranging from light to heavy.

  20. Structure Optimization of a Grain Impact Piezoelectric Sensor and Its Application for Monitoring Separation Losses on Tangential-Axial Combine Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain separation losses is a key parameter to weigh the performance of combine harvesters, and also a dominant factor for automatically adjusting their major working parameters. The traditional separation losses monitoring method mainly rely on manual efforts, which require a high labor intensity. With recent advancements in sensor technology, electronics and computational processing power, this paper presents an indirect method for monitoring grain separation losses in tangential-axial combine harvesters in real-time. Firstly, we developed a mathematical monitoring model based on detailed comparative data analysis of different feeding quantities. Then, we developed a grain impact piezoelectric sensor utilizing a YT-5 piezoelectric ceramic as the sensing element, and a signal process circuit designed according to differences in voltage amplitude and rise time of collision signals. To improve the sensor performance, theoretical analysis was performed from a structural vibration point of view, and the optimal sensor structural has been selected. Grain collide experiments have shown that the sensor performance was greatly improved. Finally, we installed the sensor on a tangential-longitudinal axial combine harvester, and grain separation losses monitoring experiments were carried out in North China, which results have shown that the monitoring method was feasible, and the biggest measurement relative error was 4.63% when harvesting rice.

  1. Structure optimization of a grain impact piezoelectric sensor and its application for monitoring separation losses on tangential-axial combine harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenwei; Li, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhan; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-14

    Grain separation losses is a key parameter to weigh the performance of combine harvesters, and also a dominant factor for automatically adjusting their major working parameters. The traditional separation losses monitoring method mainly rely on manual efforts, which require a high labor intensity. With recent advancements in sensor technology, electronics and computational processing power, this paper presents an indirect method for monitoring grain separation losses in tangential-axial combine harvesters in real-time. Firstly, we developed a mathematical monitoring model based on detailed comparative data analysis of different feeding quantities. Then, we developed a grain impact piezoelectric sensor utilizing a YT-5 piezoelectric ceramic as the sensing element, and a signal process circuit designed according to differences in voltage amplitude and rise time of collision signals. To improve the sensor performance, theoretical analysis was performed from a structural vibration point of view, and the optimal sensor structural has been selected. Grain collide experiments have shown that the sensor performance was greatly improved. Finally, we installed the sensor on a tangential-longitudinal axial combine harvester, and grain separation losses monitoring experiments were carried out in North China, which results have shown that the monitoring method was feasible, and the biggest measurement relative error was 4.63% when harvesting rice.

  2. Castelli di carta. La piega per la costruzione di superfici articolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Casale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L’antica arte del piegare la carta, l’Origami, sta vivendo un rinnovato interesse che coinvolge molti aspetti della ricerca.  Con il termine origami, si intende lo studio del modo di piegare il foglio di carta per imporgli una specifica forma.  La superficie tassellata per mezzo di specifiche pieghe, si propone come un nuovo soggetto di studio: la superficie piegata articolata. La forma congiunta al movimento, assume un particolare interesse nella contemporanea ricerca geometrica e architettonica. Il panorama contemporaneo, propone opere di architettura “responsiva”, capaci di modificare le proprie caratteristiche per adeguarsi a nuove condizioni. La superficie piegata articolata sembra particolarmente adatta a descrivere questo modo d’intendere l’architettura, reagendo a diverse volontà e di conseguenza modificando la propria conformazione attraverso un attento controllo progettuale della forma.

  3. Neurothekeoma palpebrae in association with multiple superficial angiomyxomas: Tegumental Angiomyxoma- Neurothekeoma syndrome (TAN syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Aik Kah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 10-year-old Indian girl with history of multiple superficial angiomyxoma, presented with three months history of painless right upper lid swelling. There were no visual dysfunctions. Previously, the patient had multiple superficial angiomyxoma (left pinna, left upper cheek, left upper limb, chest, right axilla, hard palate and epidermal cyst (chin. The histopathological specimens were negative to S-100 protein antibody. Systemic review and family history was unremarkable. Excision biopsy and upper lid reconstruction were performed. Intraoperatively the tumor was multilobulated, firm, well encapsulated and did not invade the underlying tarsal plate. Histopathological features of the upperlid tumor were consistent with nerves sheath myxoma (neurothekeoma. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of neurothekeoma in association with multiple superficial angiomyxoma.

  4. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system secondary to spinal ependymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikis, Stylianos; Cohen, José E; Vargas, Andres A; Gomori, J Moshe; Harnof, Sagi; Itshayek, Eyal

    2014-11-01

    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system is a syndrome caused by deposition of hemosiderin in the subpial layers of the central nervous system, occurring as a result of recurrent asymptomatic or symptomatic bleeding into the subarachnoid space. We report a rare case of superficial siderosis in a 33-year-old man who presented with sensorineural hearing loss. The diagnosis of superficial siderosis on MRI brain studies led to further investigations with detection of a spinal ependymoma at L1-L2, compressing the cauda equina. Gross total resection of the tumor arrested the progression of the neurological deterioration. Our report underlies the importance of early diagnosis and surgical management, with imaging examination of the full neuroaxis to identify the source of bleeding, to halt disease progression and improve prognosis.

  5. Establishment of a superficial skin infection model in mice by using Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Norström, Tobias; Petersen, Thomas K; Duvold, Tore; Andersson, Dan I; Hughes, Diarmaid

    2005-08-01

    A new animal model for the purpose of studying superficial infections is presented. In this model an infection is established by disruption of the skin barrier by partial removal of the epidermal layer by tape stripping and subsequent application of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The infection and the infection route are purely topical, in contrast to those used in previously described animal models in mice, such as the skin suture-wound model, where the infection is introduced into the deeper layers of the skin. Thus, the present model is considered more biologically relevant for the study of superficial skin infections in mice and humans. Established topical antibiotic treatments are shown to be effective. The procedures involved in the model are simple, a feature that increases throughput and reproducibility. This new model should be applicable to the evaluation of novel antimicrobial treatments of superficial infections caused by S. aureus and S. pyogenes.

  6. Rethinking the standard trans-cortical approaches in the light of superficial white matter anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-12-01

    A better comprehension of the superficial white matter organization is important in order to minimize potential and avoidable damage to long or intermediate association fibre bundles during every step of a surgical approach. We recently proposed a technique for cadaver specimen preparation, which seems able to identify a more systematic organization of the superficial white matter terminations. Moreover, the use of the physiological intracranial vascular network for the fixation process allowed us to constantly show main vascular landmarks associated with white matter structures. Hence three examples of standard approaches to eloquent areas are herein reanalyzed starting from the first superficial layer. New insights into the possible surgical trajectories and subsequent quantitative damages of both vessels and white matter fibres can help readapt even the most standard and widely accepted approach trough the brain cortex. A more detailed study of these fine anatomical details may become in the near future a fundamental part of the neurosurgical training and the preoperative planning.

  7. Isolated superficial peroneal nerve lesion in pure neural leprosy: case report Acometimento isolado do nervo peroneiro superficial na lepra neurítica pura: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R.G. de Freitas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with leprosy may have only nerve involvement without skin changes. These cases are known as pure neural leprosy and can be seen in 10% of leprosy patients. Most patients have mononeuritic or multiple mononeuritic neuropathy patterns. The isolated lesion of the superficial peroneal nerve is uncommonly seen. We report a patient with involvement of this nerve in which there was no thickening of superficial nerves. The performed nerve biopsy showed inflammatory infiltration, loss of fibers and presence of Mycobacterium leprae. We believe that in prevalent leprosy countries we should take in mind the possibility of isolated pure neural leprosy in some patients without skin lesion. In these cases the diagnosis of leprosy is impossible on clinical grounds and nerve biopsy is mandatory.Em alguns casos de lepra podemos encontrar acometimento de nervos periféricos sem manifestações cutâneas. É a denominada lepra neurítica pura que pode ocorrer em até 10% dos casos desta doença. Na maioria das vezes predominam quadros de mononeuropatia ou mononeuropatia múltipla. O acometimento isolado do nervo peroneiro superficial tem sido pouco relatado. Referimos a uma paciente com acometimento isolado deste nervo sem hipertrofia de troncos nervosos. A biópsia realizada mostrou presença de infiltrado inflamatório, perda moderada de fibras e presença do Mycobacterium leprae. Acreditamos que, em países onde a lepra é endêmica, diante de acometimento isolado de nervos periféricos, deve-se pensar na possibilidade de se tratar da forma neurítica pura desta moléstia, mesmo em pacientes sem alterações dermatológicas. Nestes casos o diagnóstico só será possível com a realização de biópsia de nervo superficial.

  8. Subduction of fracture zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  9. CASTonCAST: Superficies arquitectónicas complejas a partir de componentes prefabricados apilables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluis Enrique

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el sistema CASTonCAST para el diseño y laproducción de superficies arquitectónicas complejas a partir de componentes prefabricados apilables. Este sistema está compuesto por dos partes complementarias: una innovadora técnica de fabricación de componentes prefabricados apilables y un nuevo método geométrico para el diseño de superficies complejas a partir de baldosas sólidas apilables. Este trabajo describe las dos partes del sistema mediante prototipos físicos y estudios geométricos.

  10. Estudio anatómico de la rama superficial del nervio radial, implicaciones quirúrgicas

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara Amador, Enrique; Nieto, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Antecedentes. Conocer la anatomía de la rama superficial del nervio radial, es indispensable para la adecuada práctica de cirugías que involucran la mano y la muñeca. Objetivo. Determinar las relaciones del nervio radial y sus ramas con el tubérculo de Lister, la apófisis estiloides del radio y la distribución en el dorso de la mano. Material y métodos. Se disecaron 25 piezas de cadáveres frescos. Se identificó la rama superficial del nervio radial y se midió la distancia entre la sali...

  11. Superficial Siderosis and Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti S. V. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report highlights an unusual case of sudden sensorineural hearing loss related to superficial siderosis (SS. Our patient had a craniotomy for medulloblastoma 23 years earlier, and this may represent a delayed complication related to this procedure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI remains the key diagnostic investigation to illustrate the imaging features of superficial siderosis and exclude other pathologies. Increased awareness of progressive and sudden hearing complications caused by SS is important in the otolaryngologic community to expedite management and better counsel patients during the consent process.

  12. Bacterias en superficies contactadas durante las tomas radiográficas intraorales

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Guihan; Calderón-Ubaquí, Victor; Sacsaquispe-Contreras, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de bacterias mediante el análisis microbiológico en las superficies contactadas por el operador durante la toma y procesado de radiografías intraorales en diferentes momentos del día en el Servicio de Radiología Oral de la UPCH. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un muestreo en nueve superficies del servicio de radiología oral. Las muestras se tomaron en dos momentos por el mismo investigador; al inicio y al finalizar las actividades en el servicio, se realizó ...

  13. Bacterias en superficies contactadas durante las tomas radiográficas intraorales

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Guihan; Calderón-Ubaquí, Victor; Sacsaquispe-Contreras, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de bacterias mediante el análisis microbiológico en las superficies contactadas por el operador durante la toma y procesado de radiografías intraorales en diferentes momentos del día en el Servicio de Radiología Oral de la UPCH. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un muestreo en nueve superficies del servicio de radiología oral. Las muestras se tomaron en dos momentos por el mismo investigador; al inicio y al finalizar las actividades en el servicio, se realizó ...

  14. Superficial composition in binary solid solutions A(B): Drastic effect of pure element surface tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, A.; Aufray, B.

    1985-10-01

    This paper deals with a comparative study of surface segragation of Pb and Ni respectively from Ag(Pb)(111) and Ag(Ni)(111) solid solutions. A high level of segregation of the solute is observed for both systems characterized by very low solute solubility. However, the superficial composition strongly depends on the relative surface tensions of the pure elements: the solute atoms are strictly on superficial sites when γ solute is smaller than γ solvent; in contrast uppermost layer consists purely of solvent when γ solute is greater than γ solvent. Two schematic distributions in close proximity to the surface are proposed in the last case.

  15. Análisis de estriaciones en superficies dentarias utilizando Khoros

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Claudia Cecilia; Sanz, Cecilia Verónica

    2001-01-01

    Se presenta una aplicación interdisciplinaria realizada entre el grupo de investigación de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNLP y el grupo de investigación del LIDI (Fac. Informática- UNLP), donde se investigan hábitos alimentarios, tipos de dietas, modos de procesamiento de alimentos y/o usos dentarios, en poblaciones extintas. Para ello se analizan imágenes digitales de superficies dentarias, estudiando con SEM (microscopio electrónico de barrido) el patrón de estriaciones de las superfici...

  16. Efectos del entrenamiento en superficies inestables sobre el equilibrio y funcionalidad en adultos mayores

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: determinar los efectos de un programa de ocho semanas de entrenamiento en superficies inestables con y sin trabajo de fuerza, sobre el equilibrio y la capacidad funcional en adultos mayores de 60 años, pertenecientes al programa “Escuelas populares del deporte” del inder Medellín. Metodología: se llevó a cabo un estudio experimental simple, ciego y enmascarado con asignación al azar de 34 sujetos a dos grupos de intervención con y sin trabajo de fuerza sobre superficies inestables; ...

  17. A peculiar fibroma-like lesion of superficial soft tissue: morphologic and immunophenotypic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filotico, M; Damuri, A; Filotico, R

    2014-12-01

    Apeculiar lesion of superficial soft tissue characterised by fibroma-like morphology and an immunohistochemical profile consisting of CK+, VIM+, CD34+, CD31+/-, FLI1+ and INI-1 retained is described. The lesion entered into differential diagnosis with the so-called fibroma-like variant of epithelioid sarcoma, with the entities defined as ES-like/pseudomyogenic haemangioendothelioma and the recently identified entity defined as superficial CD34+ fibroblastic tumour. All of these entities share a common morphological structure, but differ in their immunophenotypic profile.

  18. Examination of the Restoration of Epithelial Barrier Function Following Superficial Keratectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hutcheon, Audrey E. K.; Sippel, Kimberly C.; Zieske, James D.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the rate of restoration of the corneal epithelial barrier following a superficial keratectomy using a functional assay of tight junction integrity. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and a 3-mm superficial keratectomy was performed. The eyes were allowed to heal from 4 hours to 8 weeks and the rate of epithelial wound closure was determined. To examine the restoration of the barrier function, EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin (LC-Biotin) was a...

  19. Superficial siderosis and sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kirsti S V; Sritharan, Niranjan; Forrest, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This case report highlights an unusual case of sudden sensorineural hearing loss related to superficial siderosis (SS). Our patient had a craniotomy for medulloblastoma 23 years earlier, and this may represent a delayed complication related to this procedure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the key diagnostic investigation to illustrate the imaging features of superficial siderosis and exclude other pathologies. Increased awareness of progressive and sudden hearing complications caused by SS is important in the otolaryngologic community to expedite management and better counsel patients during the consent process.

  20. Managment of superficial infantile capillary hemangiomas with topical timolol maleate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Ali Raza; Yusuf, Faraz; Sharma, Rajeev; Rizvi, Syed Wajahat Ali

    2015-01-01

    Capillary hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of eyelids and orbit in children. Recently, a topical beta blocker has been reported as an effective treatment for superficial capillary hemangiomas. We present a case report of two children having large capillary hemangiomas who responded well to topical treatment by 0.5% timolol maleate solution. After 12 months of treatment, the lesion has significantly reduced in size, thickness, and color in both cases. Thus, we conclude that long-term use of topical 0.5% timolol maleate solution is safe and effective in treating superficial capillary hemangiomas.

  1. Fatigue Induced Alteration of the Superficial Strength Properties of 2024 Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.-D. Bouzakis; I. Mirisidis; Sp. G. Pantelakis; A.N. Chamos

    2011-01-01

    aluminum alloy 2024 T3 specimens have been subjected to constant amplitude fatigue loading at R=0.1. During fatigue, an appreciable increase of the surface hardness of the material at the meso-scale can be observed and captured by means of nanoindentations. Surface hardness increases with increasing fatigue stress amplitude and advancing number of applied fatigue cycles. Observed increase of specimen surface hardening degree during fatigue causes an evolution of superficial mechanical strength properties of the alloy. Stress-strain curves associated with the evoluting superficial mechanical properties are derived, employing a developed finite element method (FEM)-supported evaluation procedure of nanoindentation experimental results.

  2. Superficial Ulnar Artery Associated with Anomalous Origin of the Common Interosseous and Ulnar Recurrent Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamidi, Narendra; Nayak, Satheesha B; Jetti, Raghu; Thangarajan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of vascular variations in the upper limb is not uncommon and is well described in the medical literature. However, occurrence of superficial ulnar artery associated with unusual origin of the common interosseous and ulnar recurrent arteries is seldom reported in the literature. In the present case, we report the anomalous origin of common trunk of common interosseous, anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries from the radial artery, in a male cadaver. Further, ulnar artery had presented superficial course. Knowledge of anomalous arterial pattern in the cubital fossa reported here is clinically important during the angiographic procedures and plastic surgeries. PMID:27437201

  3. El ciclo de las rocas. Alteración biológica a nivel superficial

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    En la actualidad, el objetivo de la Didáctica de las Ciencias en Secundaria y Bachillerato es el conseguir que sus alumnos adquieran una competencia científica, para lo cual, ha de acercarles a su entorno. El trabajo que nos ocupa trata del Ciclo de las rocas, centrándose en las alteraciones que sufren las mismas al ascender a la superficie, ya que dicha superficie compone el entorno natural más inmediato del alumnado. Entre las distintas alteraciones que suceden tras ese ascen...

  4. Structural and hydrogeological features of Pleistocene shear zones in the area of Rome (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Faccenna

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The last tectonic episode observed in the Latium Tyrrhenian margin (Central Italy, few km cast of Rome, is represented by a set of middIe-upper Pleistocene N-S shear zones, characterised by complex geometric and kinematic setting. The easternmost of these shear zones displays a strike-slip component of motion and is located at the boundary between the Apennine carbonate chain and the volcanic areas. The distribution of travertine deposits and hydrothermal springs suggests that this fault zone acts as an impermeable barrier for lateral flow derived from superficial karstic circuit, and as a preferential upwelling surface for deep hydrothermal fluids. We propose that high fluid pressure could develop inside these fault zones favouring the reactivation of buried pre-existing crustal discontinuities and the local re-orientation of the stress field, as testified by the geometry and the kinematics of the surface fault pattern.

  5. Anomalous superficial radial nerve: a patient with probable autosomal dominant inheritance of the anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Abraham; Laaksonen, Satu; Falck, Björn

    2002-11-01

    The sensory symptoms due to lesions of the superficial branch of the radial nerve are usually limited to the dorsolateral area of the hand. We describe a 40-year-old woman who presented with numbness of the dorsomedial aspect of the right hand following arthroplasty of the wrist. Clinically, the sensory loss suggested a lesion of the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve. However, nerve conduction studies showed that the sensory loss was due to a lesion of a branch of the superficial branch of the radial nerve. The patient had bilateral, anomalous innervation of the dorsum of the hand-the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve could not be demonstrated with nerve conduction techniques and the superficial branch of the radial nerve innervated most of the dorsum of the hand. Antidromic stimulation of the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve and superficial branch of the radial nerve with paired surface recording of sensory nerve action potentials from the dorsolateral (radial side) and dorsomedial (ulnar side) hand is useful for evaluating this anomaly. Our patient had two children, one of them with a similar anomaly. This suggests an autosomal dominant inheritance of the anomaly.

  6. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the superficial femoral artery by retrograde catheterization via the popliteal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Sager, P; Karle, A;

    1988-01-01

    We report the results of 50 angioplasty procedures via the popliteal artery. A 3-year follow-up including control of blood pressures at ankle and toe levels show results comparable to reports in the literature. This new approach for angioplasty of the superficial femoral artery and eventually...

  7. [Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. causing superficial mycosis. Coro, Falcon state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saúl-García, Yotsabeth; Humbría-García, Leyla; Hernández-Valles, Rosaura

    2015-09-01

    Candida species other than C. albicans are often described as causative agents of superficial mycosis and are more resistant to treatment with azoles. In order to determine the distribution of species and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp., one ambispective study, which analyzed 18 yeast isolates obtained from samples from patients diagnosed with superficial mycosis, was performed. Taxonomic identification was performed by macroscopic visualization of the growth characteristics in chromogenic agar and by conventional methods. The susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole was evaluated by the disc diffusion method. Most of the isolates (88.8%), came from nail samples. C. parapsilosis was the most common species, followed by C. tropicalis, C. albicans and C. krusei, which confirmed the prevalence of non-albicans species as a cause of superficial mycoses. The pattern of susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole was similar: all isolates of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans were susceptible, while 83.3% of C. tropicalis showed sensitivity to both antifungals. C. krusei, fluconazole-resistant species showed intermediate susceptibility io voriconazole. The use of chromogenic agar allowed to detect mixed infections in nail samples, involving Candida spp. and C. tropicalis in one case, the latter with resistance to both fluconazole and voriconazole. The results demonstrate the importance of species identification and susceptibility testing to avoid therapeutic failures in superficial mycoses.

  8. Prognostic value of p53 for high risk superficial bladder cancer with long-term followup.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.M.J.; Balken-Ory, B. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schalken, J.A.; Witjes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The risk of muscle invasive disease in a high risk patient with superficial bladder cancer is up to 50%. Identifying patients at risk for progression remains an unsolved problem. A suggested prognosticator is mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. We determined the value of p53 mutatio

  9. Mr Marty's muddle: a superficial and selective case for euthanasia in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, J

    2006-01-01

    In April 2004 the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe debated a report from its Social, Health and Family Affairs Committee (the Marty Report), which questioned the Council of Europe's opposition to legalising euthanasia. This article exposes the Report's flaws, not least its superficiality and selectivity. PMID:16373521

  10. Can Young Children Distinguish Abstract Expressionist Art from Superficially Similar Works by Preschoolers and Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissel, Jenny; Hawley-Dolan, Angelina; Winner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    While it is sometimes claimed that abstract art requires little skill and is indistinguishable from the scribbles of young children, recent research has shown that even adults with no training in art can distinguish works by abstract expressionists from superficially similar works by children and even elephants, monkeys, and apes (Hawley-Dolan…

  11. Automatic and Deliberate Affective Associations with Sexual Stimuli in Women with Superficial Dyspareunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, M.; de Jong, P.J.; Huijding, J.; Laan, E.; ter Kuile, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Current views suggest that in women with superficial dyspareunia the prospect of penile-vaginal intercourse automatically activates fear-related associations. The automatic activation of negative associations is assumed to interfere with the development of sexual arousal. In turn, this may further a

  12. Education and Intergroup Attitudes: Moral Enlightenment, Superficial Democratic Commitment, or Ideological Refinement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mary R.; Muha, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides evidence challenging the notions that education produces liberation from intergroup negativism or a superficial democratic commitment. Instead, suggests that the well educated are but one step ahead of their peers in developing a defense of their interests resting on qualification, individualism, obfuscation, and symbolic concessions.…

  13. The defence architecture of the superficial cells of the oral mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Asikainen; T.J. Ruotsalainen; J.J.W. Mikkonen; A. Koistinen; C. ten Bruggenkate; A.M. Kullaa

    2012-01-01

    The oral epithelium together with the saliva and its components forms a complex structure which is the first line of defence in the oral cavity. The surface of superficial cells of the oral epithelium contains ridge-like folds, microplicae (MPL), which are typical of the surfaces of areas covered wi

  14. Evaluation of superficial microhardness in dental enamel with different eruptive ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna Geller Palti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the superficial microhardness of enamel in teeth at different posteruptive ages (before eruption in the oral cavity, 2-3 years after eruption, 4-10 years after eruption and more than 10 years after eruption. The study sample was composed of 134 specimens of human enamel. One fragment of each tooth was obtained from the flattest central portion of the crown to produce specimens with 3 x 3 mm. The enamel blocks were minimally flattened out and polished in order to obtain a flat surface parallel to the base, which is fundamental for microhardness testing. Microhardness was measured with a microhardness tester and a Knoop diamond indenter, under a static load of 25 g applied for 5 seconds. Comparison between the superficial microhardness obtained for the different groups was performed by analysis of Student's t test. The results demonstrated that superficial microhardness values have a tendency to increase over the years, with statistically significant difference only between unerupted enamel and that with more than 10 years after eruption. According to the present conditions and methodology, it was concluded that there were differences between the superficial micro-hardness of specimens at different eruptive ages, revealing an increasing mineralization. However, this difference was significant only between unerupted specimens and those with more than 10 years after eruption.

  15. A prodrug approach to the use of coumarins as potential therapeutics for superficial mycoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derry K Mercer

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses are fungal infections of the outer layers of the skin, hair and nails that affect 20-25% of the world's population, with increasing incidence. Treatment of superficial mycoses, predominantly caused by dermatophytes, is by topical and/or oral regimens. New therapeutic options with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. There is renewed interest in natural product-based antimicrobials as alternatives to conventional treatments, including the treatment of superficial mycoses. We investigated the potential of coumarins as dermatophyte-specific antifungal agents and describe for the first time their potential utility as topical antifungals for superficial mycoses using a prodrug approach. Here we demonstrate that an inactive coumarin glycone, esculin, is hydrolysed to the antifungal coumarin aglycone, esculetin by dermatophytes. Esculin is hydrolysed to esculetin β-glucosidases. We demonstrate that β-glucosidases are produced by dermatophytes as well as members of the dermal microbiota, and that this activity is sufficient to hydrolyse esculin to esculetin with concomitant antifungal activity. A β-glucosidase inhibitor (conduritol B epoxide, inhibited antifungal activity by preventing esculin hydrolysis. Esculin demonstrates good aqueous solubility (<6 g/l and could be readily formulated and delivered topically as an inactive prodrug in a water-based gel or cream. This work demonstrates proof-of-principle for a therapeutic application of glycosylated coumarins as inactive prodrugs that could be converted to an active antifungal in situ. It is anticipated that this approach will be applicable to other coumarin glycones.

  16. Superficial fascial system repair: an abdominoplasty technique to reduce local complications after caesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Al-Ajam, Yazan; Tzakas, Elias

    2009-05-01

    Abdominal incision complications are a major source of morbidity after caesarean delivery. Repair of the superficial fascial system may avert local complications after caesarean delivery by minimising tension to the skin and increasing the initial biomechanical strength of wound which has the potential to decrease early wound dehiscence and as a by-product correct suprapubic bulging.

  17. Thrombophlebitis of the penile superficial vein, penile mondor's disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Hwa; Kim, Doo Sang; Shin, Hyung Chul; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Soonchunhyang University, Chunan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Cheol [Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    Mondor's disease is commonly known as thrombophlebitis of the superficial vein in the breast, and this disease occurs rarely in the penis. Despite extensive information about the clinical presentation and course of this disease, imaging findings for this disease are limited. We report gray scale and power Doppler sonographic findings of penile Mondor's disease.

  18. The analogy between dreams and the ancient art of memory is tempting but superficial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Fell, Juergen

    2013-12-01

    Although the analogy between dreams and ancient mnemotechniques is tempting because they share several phenomenological characteristics, this analogy is superficial at a closer look. Unlike mneomotechnically encoded material, rapid eye movement (REM) dreams are inherently difficult to remember, do not usually allow conscious subsequent retrieval of all interconnected elements, and have been found to support subsequent episodic memory in only rare cases.

  19. Recent advances in high-throughput molecular marker identification for superficial and invasive bladder cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Zieger, Karsten; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2007-01-01

    individually contributed to the management of the disease. However, the development of high-throughput techniques for simultaneous assessment of a large number of markers has allowed classification of tumors into clinically relevant molecular subgroups beyond those possible by pathological classification. Here......, we review the recent advances in high-throughput molecular marker identification for superficial and invasive bladder cancers....

  20. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection of Gastric Superficial Lesions: Predictors for Time of Procedure in a Portuguese Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ribeiro-Mourão

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The time of procedure of ESD for gastric superficial lesions is influenced by size of lesion (>20 mm and location (upper third of stomach, which predict a time longer than 90 min. This can be useful for better management of workflow, operation, training of teams and anesthesic procedures.

  1. Removal of dissolved organic carbon in pilot wetlands of subsuperficial and superficial flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Agudelo C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare removal of dissolved organic carbon (d o c obtained with pilot wetlands of subsuperficial flow (p h s s and superficial flow (p h s, with Phragmites australis as treatment alternatives for domestic residual waters of small communities and rural areas. Methodology: an exploratory and experimental study was carried out adding 100,12 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon to synthetic water contaminated with Chlorpyrifos in order to feed the wetlands. A total amount of 20 samples were done, 16 of them in four experiments and the other ones in the intervals with no use of pesticides. Samples were taken on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 in the six wetlands, three of them subsuperficial, and three of them superficial. The main variable answer was dissolved organic carbon, measured in the organic carbon analyzer. Results: a high efficiency in the removal of d o c was obtained with the two types of wetlands: 92,3% with subsuperficial flow and 95,6% with superficial flow. Such a high removal was due to the interaction between plants, gravel and microorganisms. Conclusion: although in both types of wetlands the removal was high and similar, it is recommended to use those of subsuperficial flow because in the superficial ones algae and gelatinous bio-films are developed, which becomes favorable to the development of important epidemiologic vectors in terms of public health.

  2. Efficacy of a surgical scrub including 2% chlorhexidine acetate for canine superficial pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Nobuo; Nagata, Masahiko; Terada, Yuri; Shibata, Sanae; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2010-12-01

    The clinical efficacy of a surgical scrub containing 2% chlorhexidine acetate (2CA; Nolvasan® Surgical Scrub; Fort Dodge Animal Health, USA) was evaluated for the topical management of canine superficial pyoderma. The first study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. The control was a shampoo containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (4CG; Skin Clinic Shampoo; CHD MEDICS, Goyang, Korea). Ten dogs with symmetrical lesions of canine superficial pyoderma were allocated to receive either 2CA or the control shampoo applied to either side of the body twice weekly for 1 week. Both the owners and the investigators subjectively scored skin lesions including pruritus, erythema, crusted papules and scales on a scale of 0-3. The 2CA and 4CG resulted in almost the same degree of improvement of skin lesions, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. The second study was an open trial of 2CA monotherapy in eight dogs with cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group-associated superficial pyoderma. The 2CA monotherapy was applied every 2 days for 2 weeks. Five dogs improved with 2CA monotherapy, one partially improved and two did not. No adverse reactions were seen in either trial. This suggests that a 2CA surgical scrub could be a useful and safe topical adjunct therapy for dogs with superficial pyoderma involving cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group.

  3. Oxidized cellulose dressings for persistent bleeding from a superficial malignant tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagman, Ruth; Walsh, Declan; Day, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Persistent bleeding from superficial malignant tumors, although uncommon, can be a major and distressing problem. Management includes frequent skilled dressing changes, correction of clotting abnormalities, and maintaining blood volume by repeated transfusions. We report a case where application of oxidized regenerated cellulose surgical dressing appeared to contribute to successful hemostasis.

  4. The flexural stiffness of superficial neuromasts in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) lateral line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHenry, Matthew J.; van Netten, Sietse M.

    2007-01-01

    Superficial neuromasts are structures that detect water flow on the surface of the body of fish and amphibians. As a component of the lateral line system, these receptors are distributed along the body, where they sense flow patterns that mediate a wide variety of behaviors. Their ability to detect

  5. Superficial shoulder muscle co-activations during lifting tasks: Influence of lifting height, weight and phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Y; Dal Maso, F; Desmoulins, L; Plamondon, A; Begon, M

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of co-activation of the superficial shoulder muscles during lifting movement. Boxes containing three different loads (6, 12, and 18 kg) were lifted by fourteen subjects from the waist to shoulder or eye level. The 3D kinematics and electromyograms of the three deltoids, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major were recorded. A musculoskeletal model was used to determine direction of the moment arm of these muscles. Finally an index of muscle co-activation named the muscle focus was used to evaluate the effects of lifting height, weight lifted and phase (pulling, lifting and dropping phases) on superficial shoulder muscle coactivation. The muscle focus was lower (more co-contraction) during the dropping phase compared to the two other phases (-13%, pmuscle activations and by a change in the direction of the muscle moment arm as a function of glenohumeral joint position. Consequently, the function of the shoulder superficial muscles varied with respect to the glenohumeral joint position. To increase the superficial muscle coactivation during the dropping phase may be a solution to increase glenohumeral joint stiffness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Patient Perception of Imiquimod Treatment for Actinic Keratosis and Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma in 202 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalboer-Spuij, Rick; Holterhues, Cynthia; van Hattem, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise A.; Gaastra, Menno T. W.; Kuijpers, Danielle I. M.; Hollestein, Loes M.; Nijsten, Tamar E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To document the impact on patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of treatment with imiquimod cream in patients with actinic keratosis (AK) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC). Methods: This open-label, multicenter study included AK and sBCC patients

  7. Patient Perception of Imiquimod Treatment for Actinic Keratosis and Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma in 202 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalboer-Spuij, Rick; Holterhues, Cynthia; van Hattem, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise A.; Gaastra, Menno T. W.; Kuijpers, Danielle I. M.; Hollestein, Loes M.; Nijsten, Tamar E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To document the impact on patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of treatment with imiquimod cream in patients with actinic keratosis (AK) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC). Methods: This open-label, multicenter study included AK and sBCC patients e

  8. Effects of Appraisal of Sexual Stimuli on Sexual Arousal in Women with and Without Superficial Dyspareunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Brauer; M.M. ter Kuile; E. Laan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of appraisal of sexual stimuli on sexual arousal in women with superficial dyspareunia (n = 50) and sexually functional women (n = 25). To elicit different appraisals of an erotic film fragment, participants received an instruction prior to viewing it, with a focus on

  9. Protocolo nacional de monitoreo de la calidad de los en cuerpos naturales de agua superficial

    OpenAIRE

    Autoridad Nacional del Agua. Dirección de Gestión de Calidad de los Recursos Hídricos

    2011-01-01

    Estandariza la metodología para el desarrollo del monitoreo de la calidad de los recursos hídricos en los cuerpos naturales de agua superficial, asimismo pretende convertirse en un instrumento de gestión en el desarrollo del Plan Nacional de Vigilancia de la Calidad de Agua en el Perú.

  10. Química superficial de los materiales de carbón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Maldonado-Hódar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La superficie del carbón no puede ser analizada de forma particularizada, sino como un promedio, dado por un lado la existencia simultánea de funciones distintas y por otro, que las características de dichas funciones dependen a su vez del entorno en que se encuentran.

  11. The flexural stiffness of superficial neuromasts in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) lateral line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHenry, Matthew J.; van Netten, Sietse M.

    2007-01-01

    Superficial neuromasts are structures that detect water flow on the surface of the body of fish and amphibians. As a component of the lateral line system, these receptors are distributed along the body, where they sense flow patterns that mediate a wide variety of behaviors. Their ability to detect

  12. Rapid differentiation of superficial urothelial cells after chitosan-induced desquamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veranic, Peter; Erman, Andreja; Kerec-Kos, Mojca; Bogataj, Marija; Mrhar, Ales; Jezernik, Kristijan

    2009-01-01

    Superficial cell desquamation followed by differentiation of newly exposed superficial cells induces regeneration of the urinary bladder epithelium, urothelium. In the present work, chitosan was evaluated as a new inducer of urothelial cell desquamation, in order to study the regeneration of mouse urothelial cells in vivo. Intravesical application of chitosan dispersion caused complete removal of only the superficial layer of cells within 20 min of treatment. Differentiation of the new superficial layer was followed by the appearance and distribution of three urothelial differentiation markers, tight junction protein ZO1, cytokeratin 20 and the maturation of the apical plasma membrane. The arrangement of ZO1 into continuous lines in individual cells of the intermediate layer was already found after 10 min of chitosan application, when desquamation had just started. The appearance of the apical membrane changed from microvillar to typically scalloped within 20 min of regeneration, while complete arrangement of the cytokeratin 20 network took 60 min. These findings provide a new perspective on the rate of the differentiation process in the urothelium and make chitosan a new and a very controllable tool for studies on urothelial regeneration.

  13. Holmium laser fulguration of superficial urothelial carcinoma of the pendulous urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Liss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urothelial carcinoma may occur anywhere in the urinary tract including the pendulous urethra. To prevent urethral stricture after resection and monopolor fulguration we describe the use of the holmium laser to fulgurate recurrent pTa UC from the urethra. The surgical approach was staged and provided excellent long term results for management of superficial UC.

  14. LigaSure small jaws versus cold knife dissection in superficial parotidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Christoffer Holst; Sørensen, Christian Hjort

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of LigaSure small jaws in superficial parotidectomy for blood loss, operative time and facial nerve function. This was a prospective non-randomized study of 35 patients with a benign parotid tumor. Sixteen patients had LigaSure small jaws paroti...

  15. Primary temporal region squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed by a superficial temporal artery biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S A W; Kiss, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Superficial temporal artery biopsy is a frequent procedure performed in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. METHODS AND RESULTS: An otherwise healthy 69-year-old man presented with 2months complaint of right temporal region pain. Giant cell arteritis was suspected and a temporal ar...

  16. Spatial distributions of hemoglobin signals from superficial layers in the forehead during a verbal-fluency task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Satoru; Hoshi, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals originate in hemoglobin changes in both the superficial layer of the head and the brain. Under the assumption that the changes in the blood flow in the scalp are spatially homogeneous in the region of interest, a variety of methods for reducing the superficial signals has been proposed. To clarify the spatial distributions of the superficial signals, the superficial signals from the forehead during a verbal-fluency task were investigated by using ten source-detector pairs separated by 5 mm, whereas fNIRS signals were also detected from two source-detector pairs separated by 30 mm. The fNIRS signals strongly correlated with the superficial signals at some channels on the forehead. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the temporal cross-correlation coefficients for two channels of both the NIRS signals, and the analysis results demonstrate spatially heterogeneous distributions and network structures of the superficial signals from within the forehead. The results also show that the assumption stated above is invalid for homogeneous superficial signals from any region of interest of 15-mm diameter or larger on the forehead. They also suggest that the spatially heterogeneous distributions may be attributable to vascular networks, including supraorbital, supratrochlear, and superficial temporal vessels.

  17. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  18. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  19. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  20. The gray zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  1. Coastal Zone of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water, Salt and Nutrients Budgets of Two Estuaries in the. Coastal Zone of ... in destabilization of plankton communities, resulting in high ...... The water exchange time (1) was. 315 and 48 days in ..... account. Know your Milieu Series. Limbe,.

  2. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  3. Simulated floating zone method

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Ryo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the simulated floating zone (SFZ) method that is an efficient simulation technique to obtain thermal equilibrium states, especially useful when domain formation prevents the system from reaching a spatially-uniform stable state. In the SFZ method, the system is heated up locally, and the heated region is steadily shifted, similar to the floating zone method for growing a single crystal with less lattice defect and impurity in experiments. We demonstrate that the SFZ method...

  4. Extracción Automática de Edificios a partir de Modelos Digitales de Superficies : el sistema BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se plantea una aproximación al complicado problema de la localización, extracción y representación vectorial de manera semiautomática de edificaciones situadas en zonas urbanas o suburbanas, a partir del análisis de modelos de superficie, lo suficientemente densos como para representar la escena urbana, y de imágenes aéreas orientadas de la zona de estudio. Elmétodo propuesto utiliza como información de partida losmodelos digitales de superficie generados de forma automáticamediante técnicas fotogramétricas o de sistemas LIDAR con una densidad demalla elevada, así como de un modelo previo de forma geométrica de los edificios existentes en la zona. Estos modelos de superficie, serán tratados mediante operaciones de morfología matemática para la diferenciar los puntos que pertenecen al terreno propiamente dicho, de los pertenecientes a objetos situados sobre él, así como por momentos geométricos invariantes para obtener el rectángulo representativo del objeto localizado. Una vez localizados los posibles edificios, así como los rectángulos que representan a cada uno de ellos, se procederá a refinar estos resultados trabajando sobre los fotogramas aéreos correspondientes. Mediante análisis digital de imágenes se realizará una extracción de bordes y con la ayuda de la transformada de Hough se obtendrá el rectángulo principal de la imagen. Este rectángulo junto con la altura delmismo extraída en la fase anterior, formará el prisma de base rectangular que representará al edificio. Todas estas operaciones han sido implementadas en un sistema de desarrollo propio, el sistema BUILDING, cuyos resultados iniciales son presentados en este trabajo para poner de manifiesto las posibilidades y problemas de la metodología propuesta.In this work we present an approximation to the complicated problem of the semiautomatic location, extraction and vector representation of buildings. This approximation is based on

  5. Investigation of the behaviour of a LILW superficial repository under aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it; Stefanini, Lorenzo

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Safety assessment of a LILW superficial repository. • Investigation of the consequences of an aircraft impact with fuel burning. • Experimental material properties. • Numerical simulation of aircraft impact with fuel burning accident by MSC.MARC{sup ©} code. • Demonstration that the overall integrity resulted is guaranteed. - Abstract: Safety and security are the two fundamental aspects to guarantee when designing a LILW superficial repository. Because of its safety concern, we have to prove, and build confidence in, the primary and secondary consequences of the crashing will be acceptable. These goals are obtained generally by means of safety assessment supported by calculations. This study is intended to investigate the performance of a superficial repository subjected to aircraft impact and fuel burning. To the purpose a superficial repository similar to that of El Cabril has been considered. Moreover to be confident the facility is safe and that the consequences of such a type of accident on the environment and humans are negligible, an appropriate safety assessment was carried out. The potential damage that aircraft impact could bring into the repository has been therefore analysed and discussed. To attain the intent load functions, calculated according to the Riera approach, and the maximum temperature reached by fuel during its combustion have been considered. FEM (thermo-mechanical) simulations have been done, by MSC{sup ©} Marc code, assuming damaging phenomena of concrete and material properties variation with the temperature. The obtained results showed that an empty superficial repository with a wall thickness, ranging from 0.7 to 1 m, is not sufficient to avoid penetration. Nevertheless even in presence of a reduced strength and of (cone) cracking and plugging, the overall integrity resulted guaranteed.

  6. Use of superficial peroneal nerve graft for treating peripheral nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ribak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical results from treating chronic peripheral nerve injuries using the superficial peroneal nerve as a graft donor source. METHODS: This was a study on eleven patients with peripheral nerve injuries in the upper limbs that were treated with grafts from the sensitive branch of the superficial peroneal nerve. The mean time interval between the dates of the injury and surgery was 93 days. The ulnar nerve was injured in eight cases and the median nerve in six. There were three cases of injury to both nerves. In the surgery, a longitudinal incision was made on the anterolateral face of the ankle, thus viewing the superficial peroneal nerve, which was located anteriorly to the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Proximally, the deep fascia between the extensor digitorum longus and the peroneal longus muscles was dissected. Next, the motor branch of the short peroneal muscle (one of the branches of the superficial peroneal nerve was identified. The proximal limit of the sensitive branch was found at this point. RESULTS: The average space between the nerve stumps was 3.8 cm. The average length of the grafts was 16.44 cm. The number of segments used was two to four cables. In evaluating the recovery of sensitivity, 27.2% evolved to S2+, 54.5% to S3 and 18.1% to S3+. Regarding motor recovery, 72.7% presented grade 4 and 27.2% grade 3. There was no motor deficit in the donor area. A sensitive deficit in the lateral dorsal region of the ankle and the dorsal region of the foot was observed. None of the patients presented complaints in relation to walking. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the superficial peroneal nerve as a graft source for treating peripheral nerve injuries is safe and provides good clinical results similar to those from other nerve graft sources.

  7. Analytical and numerical calculation of magnetic field distribution in the slotted air-gap of tangential surface permanent-magnet motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boughrara Kamel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analytical and numerical analysis of the flux density distribution in the slotted air gap of permanent magnet motors with surface mounted tangentially magnetized permanent magnets. Two methods for magnetostatic field calculations are developed. The first one is an analytical method in which the effect of stator slots is taken into account by modulating the magnetic field distribution by the complex relative air gap permeance. The second one is a numerical method using 2-D finite element analysis with consideration of Dirichlet and anti-periodicity (periodicity boundary conditions and Lagrange Multipliers for simulation of movement. The results obtained by the analytical method are compared to the results of finite-element analysis.

  8. Tangential-flow ultrafiltration: a versatile methodology for determination of complexation parameters in refractory organic matter from Brazilian water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, L P C; Castro, G R; Rosa, A H; Rocha, J C; Padilha, P M; Silva, H C

    2003-04-01

    In this work the copper(II) complexation parameters of aquatic organic matter, aquatic and soil humic substances from Brazilian were determined using a new versatile approach based on a single-stage tangential-flow ultrafiltration (TF-UF) technique (cut-off 1 kDa) and sensitive atomic spectrometry methods. The results regarding the copper(II) complexation capacity and conditional stability constants obtained for humic materials were compared with those obtained using direct potentiometry with a copper-ion-selective electrode. The analytical procedure based on ultrafiltration is a good alternative to determine the complexation parameters in natural organic material from aquatic and soil systems. This approach presents additional advantages such as better sensibility, applicability for multi-element capability, and its possible to be used under natural conditions when compared with the traditional ion-selective electrode.

  9. Addition of a third field significantly increases dose to the brachial plexus for patients undergoing tangential whole-breast therapy after lumpectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Do, Ly V.; Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States); Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Our goal was to evaluate brachial plexus (BP) dose with and without the use of supraclavicular (SCL) irradiation in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy with whole-breast radiation therapy (RT) after lumpectomy. Using the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines delineation, we contoured the BP for 10 postlumpectomy breast cancer patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy using tangential fields in 1.8-Gy fractions, followed by a conedown to the operative bed using electrons (10 Gy). The prescription dose to the SCL field was 50.4 Gy, delivered to 3-cm depth. The mean BP volume was 14.5 {+-} 1.5 cm{sup 3}. With tangential fields alone, the median mean dose to the BP was 0.57 Gy, the median maximum dose was 1.93 Gy, and the irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 0%. When the third (SCL field) was added, the dose to the BP was significantly increased (P = .01): the median mean dose to the BP was 40.60 Gy, and the median maximum dose was 52.22 Gy. With 3-field RT, the median irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 83.5%, 68.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. The addition of the SCL field significantly increases dose to the BP. The possibility of increasing the risk of BP morbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  10. Addition of a third field significantly increases dose to the brachial plexus for patients undergoing tangential whole-breast therapy after lumpectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S; Do, Ly V; Purdy, James A; Chen, Allen M

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate brachial plexus (BP) dose with and without the use of supraclavicular (SCL) irradiation in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy with whole-breast radiation therapy (RT) after lumpectomy. Using the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines delineation, we contoured the BP for 10 postlumpectomy breast cancer patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy using tangential fields in 1.8-Gy fractions, followed by a conedown to the operative bed using electrons (10 Gy). The prescription dose to the SCL field was 50.4 Gy, delivered to 3-cm depth. The mean BP volume was 14.5 ± 1.5 cm(3). With tangential fields alone, the median mean dose to the BP was 0.57 Gy, the median maximum dose was 1.93 Gy, and the irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 0%. When the third (SCL field) was added, the dose to the BP was significantly increased (P = .01): the median mean dose to the BP was 40.60 Gy, and the median maximum dose was 52.22 Gy. With 3-field RT, the median irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 83.5%, 68.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. The addition of the SCL field significantly increases dose to the BP. The possibility of increasing the risk of BP morbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  11. On the Forced Tangentially-Averaged Radial-Vertical Circulation within Vortices.Part Ⅱ: The Transformation of Tropical Storm Haima (2004)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yu-Kun; LIANG Chang-Xia; LIANG Qiaoqian; LIN Liangxun; YUAN Zhuojian

    2011-01-01

    A real case study for the transformation of Tropical Storm (TS) Haima (2004) into an extratropical cyclone (EC) is carried out numerically since,after landfall,Haima (2004) (as an EC) brought severe weather to a large area (from the south to the north) in China during 13-16 September 2004.With the linear diagnostic model (derived in a previous study) for the tangentially-averaged radial-vertical circulation within vortices moving on the spherical Earth,Haima's (2004) life cycle is reconstructed noticeably well.Therefore,the major contributor could be identified confidently for Haima's (2004) extratropical transition based on the diagnostic model outputs.The quantitative comparison shows that up to a 90% contribution to the innerregion updraft and a 55% contribution to the upper-layer outflow come from latent heating during Haima's (2004) TS stage.Up to a 90% contribution to the inner-region updraft and nearly a 100% contribution to the upper-layer outflow come from the upper-layer eddy angular momentum advection (EAMA) during Haima's (2004) EC stage.Representing the asymmetric structure of the storm,the predominantly positive contribution of the upper-layer EAMA to Haima's (2004) transformation is closely associated with the Sshaped westerlies in the upper layer with two jets.One jet in the cyclonic-curvature area carries cyclonic angular momentum into the storm,and the other jet in the anticyclonic-curvature area carries anticyclonic angular momentum out of the storm.Consequently,the newly-increased cyclonic tangential wind is deflected by the Coriolis force to the right to form the upper-layer outflow accompanied by the central-area rising motion,leading to Haima's (2004) extratropical transition after its landfall.

  12. Solids behavior in dilute zone of a CFB riser under turbulent conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdelghafour Zaabout; Herré Bournot; René Occelli; Abdeslam Draoui

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of the solid phase in the upper zone of a circulating fluidized bed riser was studied using a phase Doppler anemometer,Glass particles of mean diameter 107 μm and superficial gas velocities Ug covering the turbulent and the beginning of the fast fluidization regime were investigated.Three static bed heights were tested.Ascending and descending particles were found co-existing under all operating conditions tested,and at all measurement locations.Superficial gas velocity proved/happened to have a larger effect on descending particles at the wall and on ascending particles in the central region.Transversal particle velocities in both directions (toward the center and toward the wall) behaved relatively equivalently,with only slight difference observed at the wall.However,observation of the number of particles moving in either transversal direction showed a change in bed structure when increasing Ug.Furthermore,a balance was constantly observed between the core zone and the annulus zone where the mutual mass transfer between these two zones occurred continuously.Transition from a slow to a fast particle motion was accompanied by a transition to high levels of velocity fluctuations,and was found corresponding to the appearance of significant solid particle flow rate.

  13. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available , Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1CSIR, Logistics... and Quantitative Methods, CSIR Built Environment 2International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500AA Enschede, The Netherlands Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer...

  14. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections......The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...

  15. Kinesio tape management for superficial radial nerve entrapment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan

    2013-04-01

    This case report describes a 41-year-old female who presented with complaints of pain in the lower lateral one-third of the right radius extending into the first web space. Tinel's sign reproducing the patient's symptoms was elicited 8.2 cm above the radial styloid process. Physical diagnosis for superficial radial nerve entrapment was made based on a positive upper limb neural tension test 2a along with symptom reproduction during resisted isometrics to brachioradialis and wrist extensors. A potential first time successful conservative Kinesio tape (KT) management for entrapment of the superficial radial nerve is described in this report. An immediate improvement in grip strength and functional activities along with a reduction in pain and swelling was noted in this patient after the first treatment session, which was maintained at a 6 month follow-up. A model is proposed describing the mechanism by which KT application could be used to intervene for nerve entrapment interfaces.

  16. SUPERFICIAL ANGIOMYXOMA OF THE NECK WITHOUT ASSOCIATED CARNEY’S COMPLEX: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suiyibangbe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Superficial angiomyxomas are rare benign soft tissue tumour usually solitary and predominantly involving the dermis and subcutis. We report a case of 21 year s old male who presented with a history of swelling on the left upper anterolateral aspect of neck, measuring 3x2cm with irregular surface, non - tender, mobile and firm in consistency, fixed to the skin but not to the underlying structured. No lymph node was palpable. There was no evidence of any of the components of Carney’s complex at the time of presentation. Provisional diagnosis was made as Pleomorphic adenoma by FNAC. Wide local surgical excision was done. Histopathology examination revealed to be super ficial angiomyxoma. Here, we present a case of superficial angiomyxoma with a review to its rarity and difficulty in diagnosing and distinguishing from other soft tissue tumour of the skin.

  17. Superficial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from diffuse neurofibroma in a neurofibromatosis type 1 patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takuya; Kuwashiro, Maki; Misago, Noriyuki; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are regarded as sarcomas that arise from peripheral nerves or that display differentiation along the lines of the various elements of the nerve sheath. These tumors occur in deep soft tissues, but superficial primary MPNST with a cutaneous or subcutaneous origin have rarely been reported. A 70-year-old woman presented with a 3-4-year history of a slowly enlarging soft nodule on the left side of her neck. The histopathological diagnosis of the nodule was low-grade MPNST arising from diffuse neurofibroma. There was increased cellularity, but no necrosis or mitotic activity. These histopathological findings pose difficulties in differential diagnosis from a neurofibroma with atypical histological features. We report a rare case of superficial MPNST arising from diffuse neurofibroma associated with underlying occipital bone dysplasia in a neurofibromatosis type 1 patient.

  18. Challenge and threat motivation: Effects on superficial and elaborative information processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eFonseca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates the motivational states of challenge and threat within a dual processing perspective. Previous research has demonstrated that individuals experience a challenge state when individuals have sufficient resources to cope with the demands of a task (Blascovich et al., 1993. Because the experience of resource availability has been shown to be associated with superficial processing (Garcia-Marques & Mackie, 2007, we tested the hypothesis that challenge is associated with superficial processing in two persuasion experiments. Experiment 1 revealed that inducing attitudes of participants in a challenge state was not sensitive to the quality of arguments presented. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the effect occurs even when task engagement, manipulated by the presence (vs. the absence of a task observer (Blascovich et al., 1993, is high. The implications of these results for the BPS model and the cognitive and motivational literature are discussed.

  19. Fissure sealants: in vitro evaluation of abrasion wear and superficial roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pardi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro wear and superficial roughness of four materials (Delton Dyract Flow, Dentsply; Filtek Flow, Vitremer, 3M ESPE used as fissure sealant in 32 extracted human molars divided in four groups (n = 8 after abrasion with toothbrush/dentifrice. Impressions of each occlusal surface were made to analyze wear and circular specimens were prepared to analyze the roughness. Teeth and specimens were mounted in a toothbrushing machine. The replicas were observed using a SEM to determine the superficial wear. Wear: there were no statistically significant differences either between Delton and Filtek Flow or between Dyract Flow and Vitremer. Roughness: there were no statistical differences between Filtek Flow and Dyract Flow, Dyract Flow and Vitremer, Vitremer and Delton., Considering the clinical practice, if caries activity is present the use of Vitremer is suggested not only for its well known fluoride release, but it presented good roughness results.

  20. Color Doppler US of superficial adenopathies; Il color Doppler nelle adenopatie superficiali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovagnorio, F. [Rome Univ. (Italy). 1. Cattedra di Radiologia

    1999-03-01

    Superficial lymph node are frequently involved in different diseases. Their location makes them suitable for effective assessment with high-resolution US and color Doppler has been recently suggested as a tool for increasing sensitivity in lymph node studies. Thus the author investigated the main vascular patterns detectable in abnormal superficial lymph nodes. [Italian] Numerosa malattie con natura differente coinvolgono i linfonodi superficiali: la localizzazione ne consente l'esplorazione con ecografia con alta risoluzione e lo studio mediante eco color Doppler e' stato proposto negli ultimi anni incontrando notevole sviluppo in tempi recenti. Scopo del lavoro e' illustrare il contributo personale nella definizione dei principali quadri riscontrabili nelle diverse adenopatie superficiali.

  1. [Percutaneous treatment of a superficial femoral artery aneurysm using an intravascular stent-prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, C; Laffy, P Y; Leblanc, G; Riou, J Y; Chaloum, S; Maklouf, M; Le Guen, O

    1999-05-01

    One case of superficial femoral aneurysm treated percutaneously by endovascular stent graft (Passager Boston) is reported. The initial radiographic evaluation included arteriography and color doppler sonography which enable analysis of the flow path, the extent of the wall thrombus, the choice of stended graft size. The procedure of implantation was technically trouble free. The post-procedure 3D CT and arteriography demonstrated occlusion of the aneurysm and resaturation of normal flow path. The six and twelve month check confirmed the stability of the results locally and the integrity of run off vessels. In weakened and specially elderly patient percutaneous treatment of superficial femoral artery aneurysm can be carried out easily. The contribution of 3D CT is essential in follow up to ensure an optimal result and to detect any complication.

  2. The inspiratory maneuver: a simple method to assess the superficial lamina propria during endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulica, Lucian; Behrman, Alison; Roark, Rick

    2005-09-01

    We describe a simple means of assessing the condition of the superficial lamina propria during endoscopy, which we use in our practice as an adjunct to careful stroboscopic examination. An intake of breath against partially adducted vocal folds serves to draw the mucosa inferomedially into the glottis, which reveals areas of diminished mobility, the relationship of mucosal lesions to deeper tissues of the vocal folds, and subtle submucosal lesions. This is possible because of the unique geometry of the glottis that renders the vector forces of airflow different at inspiration and expiration. Because the integrity of the superficial lamina propria is essential to healthy phonation, we have found the inspiratory maneuver useful across a wide variety of mucosal pathologic conditions.

  3. Superficial performance and pore structure of palygorskite treated by hydrochloric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-xin; DAI Wei-wei; Wang Ting; TAO Yong

    2006-01-01

    In order to amend the superficial performance of palygorskite and improve its application, the natural palygorskite(NP) was treated in the dipping and ionic exchanging experiments using 6 mol/L hydrochloric acid treatment. The performance and pore structure of the treated palygorskite(TP) were investigated by means of microscope analyses, FT-IR, XRF, BET-SSA and full hole distribution analytical techniques. The results show that the hydrochloric acid treatment can make the gracile and aggregating compact crystal bundles inside palygorskite clay broken and dispersed, the roughness of microcrystalline surface increases, which not only can dissolve or remove dolomite but vary the superficial performance of palygorskite to some degree. The specific surface area and pore volume increase a lot, while the mean pore size decreases. The pore structure of TP changes remarkably compared with that of NP after 6 mol/L hydrochloric acid treatment, and the relevant physicochemical performance can be improved.

  4. H3+: superficies de energía potencial, estados y transiciones rovibracionales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, M. Paniagua Y. A.

    Hemos calculado varias superficies globales de energía potencial para el estado fundamental y excitados del sistema H3+ en más de ocho mil geometrías diferentes usando una base (9s 3p 1d)/[4s 3p 1d] en cada átomo de Hidrógeno y mediante un método de cálculo de interacción de configuraciones completa (FCI). Hemos ajustado las superficies a formas analíticas del tipo Aguado y Paniagua con un error promedio menor de 50 cm-1 y menor en el pozo de potencial del estado fundamental. Finalmente hemos calculado y analizado los niveles vibracionales para los dos estados electrónicos más bajos, siendo la desviación respecto de los mejores valores publicados, tanto experimentales como teóricos, de unos pocos números de onda.

  5. Guía de cuidados de enfermería en patologías de la superficie ocular

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

     Conocer la anatomía y fisiología de las diferentes estructuras que componen la superficie ocular.  Valorar un ojo rojo e identificar los diferentes tipos de secreciones y otros signos y síntomas acompañantes, para poder hacer un cribado sobre la gravedad del cuadro.  Conocer las afecciones de superficie ocular y anejos más frecuentes donde puede actuar enfermería.  Identificar signos y síntomas de las patologías de superficie ocular.  Saber planificar los cuidados de enferme...

  6. Anatomía de la arteria temporal superficial: importancia quirúrgica: estudio piloto en cadáveres

    OpenAIRE

    J.J. Pradel-Mora; C. Gutiérrez-Gómez; S.M. Arteaga-Martínez; A. Soto-Paulino; M. Perez-Dosal; F.J. López-Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    El conocimiento preciso de los patrones vasculares permite mejorar los resultados de la reconstrucción regional del pabellón auricular y el diseño de colgajos regionales dependientes de la arteria temporal superficial para la reconstrucción facial. En México, no contamos en la actualidad con descripciones anatómicas de las variantes vasculares normales de la arteria temporal superficial. El objetivo de este trabajo es la descripción de las variantes anatómicas de la arteria temporal superfici...

  7. Estudio de las variables que afectan la rugosidad superficial en el torneado de piezas esbeltas bajo retemblado

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El mecanizado de piezas delgadas se encuentra influenciado por un fenómeno denominado retemblado, que afecta la calidad superficial. En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de los factores que influyen sobre la rugosidad superficial en un proceso de torneado de cilindros esbeltos bajo el efecto del fenómeno de retemblado. El propósito del estudio es determinar cuales son las variables del proceso que más influyen sobre la rugosidad superficial. Para ello se utiliza un modelo que permite pred...

  8. Increase in sensitivity of sensor units of environment refraction index change based on superficial plasmon resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushenin Yu. V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of computer modeling of an angular spectrum superficial plasmon resonance in metal films measurements with device PLAZMON-5 with infra-red radiator are analysed. It is shown that use of an infra-red source of radiation allows to improve sensitivity of sensor device in comparison with source of visible light. On an example of dielectric refraction indexes measurement with PLAZMON-5 device experimental check of theoretical calculations has been carried out.

  9. Three-dimensional Superficial Liposculpture of the Hips, Flank, and Thighs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xin Zhang, MD

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: If performed correctly, 3-dimensional superficial liposuction of the trunk, hips, and thighs can yield very satisfying outcomes because of the excellent contour and the enhanced skin retraction provided by the thin cutaneous adipose flap. Three-dimensional liposuction is a reliable method with proven results. A careful application of the technique combined with accurate surgical planning, a thorough preoperative explanation of real expectations, and postoperative care is crucial.

  10. Urethroplasty by superficial membranous fascia for long urethral strictures: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, P E

    1997-01-01

    36 patients has single-stage repair of severe bulbar urethral strictures using a superficial membranous fascia tubed flap. The length of follow-up varied from 9 months to 2 years (mean 15 months). Recurrence occurred in 1 case. Urodynamic studies in 35 cases before and after urethroplasty showed a marked improvement in urinary flow and voiding postoperatively. This procedure is safe, simple, economically preferable and has a no higher risk than other 1- and 2-stage procedures.

  11. Superficial dosimetry imaging of Čerenkov emission in electron beam radiotherapy of phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongxiao; Fox, Colleen J.; Glaser, Adam K.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-08-01

    Čerenkov emission is generated from ionizing radiation in tissue above 264 keV energy. This study presents the first examination of this optical emission as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial dose. Čerenkov emission was imaged from the surface of flat tissue phantoms irradiated with electrons, using a range of field sizes from 6 cm × 6 cm to 20 cm × 20 cm, incident angles from 0° to 50°, and energies from 6 to 18 MeV. The Čerenkov images were compared with the estimated superficial dose in phantoms from direct diode measurements, as well as calculations by Monte Carlo and the treatment planning system. Intensity images showed outstanding linear agreement (R2 = 0.97) with reference data of the known dose for energies from 6 to 18 MeV. When orthogonal delivery was carried out, the in-plane and cross-plane dose distribution comparisons indicated very little difference (±2-4% differences) between the different methods of estimation as compared to Čerenkov light imaging. For an incident angle 50°, the Čerenkov images and Monte Carlo simulation show excellent agreement with the diode data, but the treatment planning system had a larger error (OPT = ±1˜2%, diode = ±2˜3%, TPS = ±6-8% differences) as would be expected. The sampling depth of superficial dosimetry based on Čerenkov radiation has been simulated in a layered skin model, showing the potential of sampling depth tuning by spectral filtering. Taken together, these measurements and simulations indicate that Čerenkov emission imaging might provide a valuable method of superficial dosimetry imaging from incident radiotherapy beams of electrons.

  12. Colloidal silver-based nanogel as nonocclusive dressing for multiple superficial pellet wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmshaktu, Ganesh Singh; Singhal, Aanshu; Pangtey, Tanuja

    2016-01-01

    A good dressing is mandatory to an uncomplicated wound healing, especially when foreign particles contaminate the wound. Various forms of dressing preparations are available for use and differ in chemical composition and efficacy. Silver has been a known agent with good antimicrobial and healing properties and recent times has seen an upsurge in various silver-based dressing supplements. We describe our report of use and efficacy of a silver nanoparticle- based gel dressing in the healing of multiple superficial firearm pellet wounds.

  13. A superficial coating to improve oxidation and decarburization resistance of bearing steel at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Wei, Lianqi; Zhou, Xun; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Ye, Shufeng; Chen, Yunfa

    2012-03-01

    The coating material consisted of aqueous slurry of dolomite, bauxite and silicon carbide mixture. Such a coating material when applied superficially on the steel surface not only enhances oxidation resistance but also helps in inhibiting the decarburization even up to 1250 °C. Metalloscope, XRD and TG-DTA thermal analysis revealed that the formation of a newly densified coating comprised of spinels and the reducing atmosphere formed by the oxidation of SiC improved the resistance of oxidation and decarburization.

  14. Perineural fibrosis of superficial peroneal nerve complicating ankle sprain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acus, R W; Flanagan, J P

    1991-02-01

    The peroneal nerve is susceptible to traction injury during inversion ankle sprains. Previously, these traction lesions have been identified only at the fibular neck and popliteal fossa level. This report illustrates a previously unreported condition of perineural fibrosis of the superficial peroneal nerve at the level of the ankle following an inversion ankle sprain. Perineural fibrosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent pain after ankle sprain.

  15. Intraoral Superficial Angiomyxoma of the Upper Alveolus: Report of a Unique Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiomyxomas are relatively a group of uncommon myxoid mesenchymal tumors characterized by frequent local recurrences and show lack of malignant potential. Basically three types of angiomyxomas are recognized superficial, aggressive, and angiomyofibroblastoma. Though the angiomyxomas are rarely reported in the head and neck region, the paper shows reported cases intraorally in the buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth. Here, the authors report a rare case of angiomyxoma presenting as a growth in the upper posterior alveolar mucosa.

  16. The superficial musculo-aponeurotic system (SMAS) in the parotid and cheek area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitz, V; Peyronie, M

    1976-07-01

    We have investigated the superficial musculo-aponeurotic system (SMAS) in the parotid and cheek areas by anatomical dissections, by radiographs, and by histological sections. The SMAS may be helpful in corrective surgery for facial palsy and during face lifting operations if a retrofascial approach is used. This procedure, safe in the parotid area, can become dangerous in the area anterior to the parotid gland.

  17. New puncture needle (Seldinger technique) for easy antegrade catheterization of the superficial femoral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltzmann, J.; Probst, P.

    1987-02-01

    Mainly for anatomical reasons a guide-wire or a catheter has a tendency to turn into the deep femoral artery during antegrade catheterization of the lower limb. To overcome this problem a curved puncture needle has been designed which allows positioning of the guide-wire in an anterior direction. Antegrade catheterization of the superficial femoral artery was achieved in 25 patients without lengthy manipulations or complications. With this technique the rate of complications at antegrade catheterization will probably be reduced.

  18. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Rafiei, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Early exploration of patients with suspected penile fracture provides excellent results with maintenance of erectile function. Also, in the setting of dorsal vein thrombosis, ligation preserves the integrity of the penile tissues and avoids unnecessary complications from conservative management. Rafiei A, Hakky TS, Martinez D, Parker J, and Carrion R. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation. Sex Med 2014;2:182–185.

  19. Superficial integrity analysis in a super duplex stainless steel after turning

    OpenAIRE

    E.C. Bordinassi; M.F . Stipkovic; G.F. Batalha; S. Delijaicov; LIMA, N.B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper was to study the main effects of the turning in the superficial integrity of theduplex stainless steel ASTM A890-Gr6A.Design/methodology/approach: The focus of the work was the finishing operations and a complete factorialplanning was used, with 2 levels and 5 factors. The tests were conducted on a turning center with carbidetools and the main entrances variables were: tool material class, feed rate, cutting depth, cutting speed andcutting fluid utilization. The...

  20. Superficial Fungal Infections in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Ülgen Altay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Dermatophytes, yeasts and some moulds settle on the skin and mucosal surfaces in immunocompetent individuals as commensals. Patients with diabetes mellitus, HIV-positive patients, organ transplant recipients and the patients with malignancies are predisposed to develop superficial fungal infections. We aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical and mycological features of superficial fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies in this case-control study.Material and Method: Eighty patients with hematologic malignancies (49 men, 31 women and 50 healthy individuals (22 men, 28 women randomly selected at our clinical department as controls were included to this study between 2003 and 2004. The mean age was 52±1.85 years in patients and 41.56±2.04 years in controls. All patients were inspected for superficial fungal infections. Skin scrapings and mucosal swabs were obtained from the toe web, inguinal region, any suspicious lesion and oral mucosa. Nail samples were also collected. All samples were examined by direct microscopy and cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA. The yeasts were established in germ-tube production. Results: Fifty-six (70% of 80 patients with hematologic malignancies had fungal colonization, whereas 21 (42% of 50 controls had. For both groups, oral mucosa was the predominant area that fungus was mostly isolated from. A rising number of non-dermatophyte moulds (26% was observed. Candida albicans was the predominant agent isolated from the culture.Conclusion: The prevalence of superficial fungal infection was higher in patients with hematologic malignancies (being immunosuppressed than in the normal population. Candida albicans was the predominant isolated agent that was found in our study. We observed oral mucosa candidal infection mostly. The rising number of non-dermatophyte moulds is attributed to long-term use of antibiotics, cytotoxic chemotherapies and antifungals.

  1. Immediate Bilateral Breast Reconstruction with Unilateral Deep Superior Epigastric Artery and Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith S. Hansen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Autologous breast reconstruction utilizing a perforator flap is an increasingly popular method for reducing donor site morbidity and implant-related complications. However, aberrant anatomy not readily visible on computed tomography angiography is a rare albeit real risk when undergoing perforator flap reconstruction. We present an operative case of a patient who successfully underwent a bilateral breast reconstruction sourced from a unilateral abdominal flap divided into deep superior epigastric artery and superficial circumflex iliac artery flap segments.

  2. Eradication of superficial fungal infections by conventional and novel approaches: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lalit; Verma, Shivani; Bhardwaj, Ankur; Vaidya, Shubha; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar

    2014-02-01

    During the last two decades, the occurrence of fungal infections either superficial or systemic has been increasing. Moreover, fungal infections become more difficult to treat when they show coupling with immunogenic diseases like AIDS. Superficial fungal infections are associated with skin, nail and eye and are less prominent to systemic infection. However, it may be dangerous if not treated properly. It is usually observed that conventional formulations including cream, powder, gels etc. are used to treat skin fungal infections even for the deep seated fungal infections. However, these formulations show various side-effects on the application site like burning, redness and swelling. Further, due to the immediate release of drug from these formulations they can stimulate the immune system of body generating high impact allergic reactions. Deep seated fungal infections like invasive aspergillosis and invasive candidiasis may be more difficult to treat because the drug released from conventional topical formulation can not reach at the target site due to the low penetration capacity. Similarly, in case of fungal infection of nail and eye, conventional formulations show problem of less bioavailability. Thus, to overcome the drawbacks of conventional therapy a lot of research works have been carried out to develop novel formulations of antifungal drugs to deliver them superficially. Novel formulations explored for the skin delivery of antifungal drugs include liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes, microemulsions, nanoparticles, microspheres and micelles. These formulations show extended or sustained release of drug, minimizing the side effect on application site, enhancing bioavailability and reducing the dosing frequency. Further, these formulations also show penetration into the deep skin to treat invasive fungal infections. Novel formulations explored in treatment of fungal infections of eye are liposomes and nanoparticles and whether for nail fungal infections

  3. Outcome of superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a clinicopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the clinicopathological features and outcome of patients with pathologically proven superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. METHODS: A total of 234 consecutive cases of esophageal carcinoma in a 15-year period were reviewed. RESULTS: Superficial esophageal cancer was found in five patients (2.1%. They were four men and one woman and the mean age was 52.5 years. Smoking and alcohol were the main risk factors. Achalasia due to Chagas disease occurred in one patient and a second primary tumor developed in the larynx in another patient. Four patients underwent esophagectomy and one patient received chemoradiotherapy. The histopathologic diagnosis was of squamous cell carcinoma in all cases. Intramucosal tumor (Tis was identified in three cases and superficially invasive carcinoma in two cases. Four patients are free of disease with survival times of two, four, six and nine years. The patient who developed laryngeal cancer died six years after esophagectomy. CONCLUSION: Long-term survival in patients with esophageal cancer is related to early diagnosis. Therefore, a less aggressive surgical approach, such as endoscopic resection, may be a good option for these patients, if depth of tumor invasion can be accurately predicted by the new imaging tools.

  4. Caracterización superficial en fase gas y líquida de carbones activados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo Gutierréz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el área superficial de carbones activados obtenidos a partir de cascarilla de café y cáscara de coco, mediante isotermas de adsorción de N2 a 77K. Se compararon los resultados con aquellos obtenidos con un método comúnmente utilizado, el índice de azul de metileno, y se encontró una buena correlación entre las dos áreas determinadas por éste método. Se muestra que los dos métodos permiten realizar un análisis complementario de una superficie porosa./ The superficial area of an activated carbon obtained from coffee husk and coconut shell was determined, by means of isotherms of adsorption of N2 to 77K and the results they area compared with the method of index blue of methylene, finding an good correlation between the two areas determined by this method. This research shows that both methods allow making a complementary analysis of a porous surface.

  5. Coexistence of esophageal superficial carcinoma and multiple leiomyomas: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takeshi Iwaya; Go Wakabayashi; Chihaya Maesawa; Noriyuki Uesugi; Toshimoto Kimura; Kenichiro Ikeda; Yusuke Kimura; Shingo Mitomo; Kaoru Ishida; Nobuhiro Sato

    2006-01-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the esophagus. They usually occur as a single lesion or as two or three nodules. Only two cases of esophageal multiple leiomyomas comprising more than 10 nodules have been reported previously. Moreover, there have been few reports of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma overlying submucosal tumors. We describe a 71-yearold man who was diagnosed as having a superficial esophageal cancer coexisting with two or three leiomyoma nodules. During surgery, 10 or more nodules that had not been evident preoperatively were palpable in the submucosal and muscular layers throughout the esophagus. As intramural metastasis of the esophageal cancer was suspected, we considered additional lymphadenectomy, but had to rule out this option because of the patient's severe anoxemia. Microscopic examination revealed that all the nodules were leiomyomas (20 lesions, up to 3 cm in diameter), and that invasion of the carcinoma cells was limited to the submucosal layer overlying a relatively large leiomyoma.This is the first report of superficial esophageal cancer coexisting with numerous solitary leiomyomas. Multiple minute leiomyomas are often misdiagnosed as intramural metastasis, and a leiomyoma at the base of a carcinoma lesion can also be misdiagnosed as tumor invasion.The present case shows that accurate diagnosis is required for the management of patients with coexisting superficial esophageal cancer and multiple leiomyomas.

  6. [Diffuse superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: four case reports and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Marta; de Miguel, Cristina; Pinel, Ana; Ortega, José M; Aladro, Yolanda

    2014-10-16

    Introduccion. La siderosis superficial difusa del sistema nervioso central (SNC) es una rara condicion debida a depositos de hemosiderina en las capas subpiales del cerebro y la medula espinal. La fuente de sangrado cronico o recurrente en el espacio subaracnoideo se detecta solo en un 50% de los casos. Los sintomas mas caracteristicos son ataxia cerebelosa e hipoacusia neurosensorial. Las secuencias eco de gradiente potenciadas en T2 de resonancia magnetica constituyen el metodo diagnostico de eleccion. Casos clinicos. Presentamos cuatro pacientes con siderosis superficial difusa del SNC relacionada con angiopatia amiloide, anticoagulacion oral, schwannoma del VIII par craneal y sin fuente de sangrado conocida en un caso. Dos pacientes desarrollaron ataxia cerebelosa; tres de ellos, episodios recurrentes de alteracion focal neurologica; uno, demencia; y el cuarto es un hallazgo radiologico. No se objetivo progresion clinica durante el seguimiento (2-11 años) en tres de ellos. El paciente con angiopatia amiloide evoluciono a demencia. Conclusiones. Los episodios recurrentes de alteracion focal neurologica son los sintomas mas frecuentes en nuestros casos de siderosis superficial difusa del SNC. La evolucion natural de esta condicion no se conoce bien y puede constituir un hallazgo radiologico.

  7. Total intravenous anesthesia with superficial cervical block or morphine transition in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerani, S; Capuzzo, M; Ieffa, E; Pescolderung, M; Braccini, L; Volta, C A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was compare the Aldrete score at 5 minutes of two groups of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy with intravenous anesthesia, receiving either anesthetic superficial cervical plexus block or intravenous morphine as transition analgesia. After Ethics Committee approval, this randomized, controlled, double-blind, single-center study was performed on patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, who received total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil infusion. After intubation, each patient was randomly assigned to Block (superficial cervical block with levobupivacaine before the surgical incision), or Morphine group (standardized dose of morphine 30 minutes before the end of surgery). In the recovery room, an investigator unaware of the patient randomization recorded time to extubation, Aldrete score, pain, nausea/vomiting, and shiver at T0 (time of extubation), and at 5 (T5), 10 (T10), and 30 minutes (T30) after extubation. Sixty-four patients were studied. Time to extubation was 11 ± 6 min for Block and 20 ± 10 min for Morphine group (P>0.001). Median Aldrete score at T0 was 9 in the Block and 6.5 in the Morphine group (PAldrete score ≥ 8 (P<0.001). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the Block than in Morphine patients at T0 and T5. This study demonstrates shorter time to extubation and better emergence from anesthesia when total intravenous anesthesia is associated with superficial cervical block than with morphine as transition analgesia.

  8. del aceite superficial en aluminio utilizando plasma frío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneas Ramos Nascimento Neto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La creciente preocupación por el desarrollo sustentable unido al aumento de la concienciación relacionada con la preservación del medio ambiente han impulsado investigaciones científicas en diversas áreas que utilizan tecnologías ambientalmente aceptables. Dentro de este contexto la tecnología de aplicación de plasma frío representa una alternativa eficiente, limpia y económica para la remoción de aceites en superficies metálicas. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en medir la remoción del aceite de la superficie del aluminio utilizando el proceso de plasma frío. Para evaluar estos resultados se realizaron medidas de ángulo de contacto y XPS. Este trabajo trata sobre el tipo de modificación que se produce sobre superficies metálicas por la acción de plasmas.

  9. El agrietamiento superficial de las pastas puras de cemento: una interpretación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calleja, J.

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableSe aborda por métodos analíticos y técnicas de difracción de rayos X el problema de determinar las posibles causas del agrietamiento superficial de galletas de pasta pura de cemento. Se encuentran diferencias de composición y constitución entre la zona superficial agrietada de las galletas y el resto de la masa, hallándose concordancia entre determinados constituyentes químicos calculados a base del análisis químico y los resultados de difracción de rayos X. Se interpretan estas diferencias como atribuibles a una exudación de lechada de la pasta, con extracción de álcalis solubles y yeso. Como consecuencia, la exudación provoca una carbonatación, una mayor retracción y posiblemente un fraguado acelerado en la zona superficial en relación con la masa interior de las galletas. Como causa directa de la ·exudación se acepta la hipótesis de una granulometría anormal del cemento, probablemente debida a un exceso de finos o gruesos por una molienda grosera, y producida por una deficiencia de tipo mecánico en el proceso de molturación del clínker.

  10. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Vainionpää

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp. at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  11. Urodeles remove mesoderm from the superficial layer by subduction through a bilateral primitive streak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, David R; Majer, Christina; Keller, Ray

    2002-08-15

    Urodeles begin gastrulation with much of their presumptive mesoderm in the superficial cell layer, all of which must move into the deep layers during development. We studied the morphogenesis of superficial mesoderm in the urodeles Ambystoma maculatum, Ambystoma mexicanum, and Taricha granulosa. In all three species, somitic, lateral, and ventral mesoderm move into the deep layer during gastrulation, ingressing through a "bilateral primitive streak" just inside the blastopore. The mesodermal epithelium appears to slide under the endodermal epithelium by a mechanism we term "subduction." Subduction removes the large expanse of superficial presumptive somitic and lateral-ventral mesoderm that initially separates the sub-blastoporal endoderm from the notochord, leaving the endoderm bounding the still epithelial notochord along the gastrocoel roof. Subduction may be a common feature of urodele gastrulation, differing in this regard from anurans. Subducting cells constrict their apices and become bottle-shaped as they approach the junction of the mesodermal and endodermal epithelia. Subducting bottle cells endocytose apical membrane and withdraw the tight junctional component cingulin from the contracting circumferential tight junctions. Either in conjunction with or immediately after subducting, the mesodermal cells undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The mechanism by which epithelial cells release their apical junctions to become mesenchymal, without disrupting the integrity of the epithelium, remains mysterious, but this system should prove useful in understanding this process in a developmental context.

  12. Highly efficient capillary columns packed with superficially porous particles via sequential column packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadway, James W; Wyndham, Kevin D; Jorgenson, James W

    2015-11-27

    Highly efficient capillary columns packed with superficially porous particles were created for use in ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography. Superficially porous particles around 1.5μm in diameter were packed into fused silica capillary columns with 30, 50, and 75μm internal diameters. To create the columns, several capillary columns were serially packed from the same slurry, with packing progress plots being generated to follow the packing of each column. Characterization of these columns using hydroquinone yielded calculated minimum reduced plate heights as low as 1.24 for the most efficient 30μm internal diameter column, corresponding to over 500,000plates/m. At least one highly efficient column (minimum reduced plate height less than 2) was created for all three of the investigated column inner diameters, with the smallest diameter columns having the highest efficiency. This study proves that highly efficient capillary columns can be created using superficially porous particles and shows the efficiency potential of these particles.

  13. Comparative histopathology of pemphigus foliaceus and superficial folliculitis in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, K A; Shofer, F S; Goldschmidt, M H

    1994-01-01

    A comparative histopathologic study of 50 cases of pemphigus foliaceus and 47 cases of superficial folliculitis in the dog was undertaken to identify those histopathologic features important in differentiating these diseases. All cases were diagnosed by the Surgical Pathology Service of the Laboratory of Pathology of the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, between January 1986 and March 1991. These cases were followed clinically to determine the accuracy of the initial histopathologic diagnosis. Data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test for discrete data and the Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous data. A probability of Siberian Husky, Laborador Retriever, Miniature Schnauzer, Old English Sheepdog, Scottish Terrier, Chinese Shar Pei, Spitz, Shetland Sheep Dog, Weimeraner, and West Highland White Terrier. An increased risk of developing pemphigus foliaceus was noted in the Akita (OR = 37.8), English Springer Spaniel (OR = 20.7), Chow Chow (OR = 12.3), Chinese Shar Pei (OR = 7.9), and Collie (OR = 3.9). Pemphigus foliaceus had a higher average density of acantholytic cells (226 +/- 22.9) than superficial folliculitis (11.8 +/- 4.6), and acantholytic cells were 183 times more likely to be present in pemphigus foliaceus. The presence of rafts of acantholytic cells occurred in pemphigus foliaceus (23/50) more often than superficial folliculitis (1/47). Recornification and reformation of pustules were, respectively, 13.4 and 3.6 times more likely to occur in pemphigus foliaceus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. [Superficial mycoses: comparative study between type 2 diabetic patients and a non-diabetic control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Humbría, Leila; Richard-Yegres, Nicole; Pérez-Blanco, Maigualida; Yegres, Francisco; Mendoza, Mireya; Acosta, Arnaldo; Hernández, Rosaura; Zárraga, Eluz

    2005-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are considered to affect more frequently patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), specially onychomycosis and Tinea pedis. The purpose of this study was to compare the dermatophytoses, candidiasis and Pitiriasis versicolor frequency between 40 patients with DM-2 and 40 healthy persons of either sex, 40 years old or more. Clinical, metabolic, mycologic and inmunologic studies against Candida albicans, were carried out. Both diabetics 75% (30/40) and controls 65% (26/40) presented a high frequency of superficial mycoses (no significant difference p = 0.329). Pitiriasis versicolor was not detected in diabetic patients. They presented Tinea unguium, concomitant with Tinea pedis, with a higher frequency. The predominant dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum 18/23 (78%) in diabetics and 8/16 (50%) in non diabetics. Candida was isolated as commensal from oral mucous: 23/40 (58%) in diabetics and 21/40 (52%) in non diabetics (serotipo A was the more frequent), and from onychomycosis: 11/40 (28%) in diabetics and 12/40 (30%) in non diabetics. The immunological response was the same in both groups: celular 100%, humoral 20%. No statistical correlation among superficial mycoses, blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin values or the time suffering the disease was observed. The high susceptibility to dermatophytes and Candida sp. infection showed to be associated with age and no with the diabetic type 2 condition in those patients.

  15. Tolerance and safety of superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Zafar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure that may have some potentially undesirable side-effects. AIMS: The present study is directed towards safety concerns associated with superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses. METHODS: The study was a non-comparative and a prospective one. Two hundred and sixty-eight patients of either sex, aged between 10 to 60 years, undergoing superficial chemical peeling for various facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, freckles, post-inflammatory scars/pigmentation, actinic keratoses, plane facial warts, etc. were included in the study. Eight weekly peeling sessions were carried out in each patient. Tolerance to the procedure and any undesirable effects noted during these sessions were recorded. RESULTS: Almost all the patients tolerated the procedure well. Mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema were quite common but the incidence of major side-effects was very low and these too, were easily manageable. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side-effects between facial dermatoses (melasma, acne and other pigmentary disorders. CONCLUSION: Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is a well tolerated and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses.

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Mucosal Biopsy versus Endoscopic Mucosal Resection in Barrett's Esophagus and Related Superficial Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsadek, Hany M; Radwan, Mamdouh M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Endoscopic surveillance for early detection of dysplastic or neoplastic changes in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) depends usually on biopsy. The diagnostic and therapeutic role of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in BE is rapidly growing. Objective. The aim of this study was to check the accuracy of biopsy for precise histopathologic diagnosis of dysplasia and neoplasia, compared to EMR in patients having BE and related superficial esophageal lesions. Methods. A total of 48 patients with previously diagnosed BE (36 men, 12 women, mean age 49.75 ± 13.3 years) underwent routine surveillance endoscopic examination. Biopsies were taken from superficial lesions, if present, and otherwise from BE segments. Then, EMR was performed within three weeks. Results. Biopsy based histopathologic diagnoses were nondysplastic BE (NDBE), 22 cases; low-grade dysplasia (LGD), 14 cases; high-grade dysplasia (HGD), 8 cases; intramucosal carcinoma (IMC), two cases; and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC), two cases. EMR based diagnosis differed from biopsy based diagnosis (either upgrading or downgrading) in 20 cases (41.67%), (Kappa = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.170-0.69). Conclusions. Biopsy is not a satisfactory method for accurate diagnosis of dysplastic or neoplastic changes in BE patients with or without suspicious superficial lesions. EMR should therefore be the preferred diagnostic method in such patients.

  17. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  18. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  19. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  20. DNS zones revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooij, van Ward; Pras, Aiko; Delgado Kloos, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Recent research [Pap04b] suggests DNS reliability and performance is not up to the levels it should be due to misconfigurations. This paper checks the configuration of nameserver zones against additional requirements, recommendations and best-practices. It shows that almost one in four domains fails