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Sample records for superficial spreading carcinoma

  1. Lack of Methylene Blue Staining in Superficial Epithelia as a Possible Marker for Superficial Lateral Spread of Bile Duct Cancer

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    I. Maetani

    1996-01-01

    epithelia. The cancerous epithelia stained significantly less often than either the normal (p = 0.000005 or the metaplastic (p = 0.001 epithelia. Evaluation of methylene blue staining during PTCS revealed that this stain was absorbed by the cholangial epithelia, not superficially stuck to it. The difference in methylene blue staining properties between the cancerous and normal epithelia could be helpful to clarify the boundary of superficial lateral spread of bile duct cancer.

  2. Multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas (basalomatosis) following cobalt irradiation

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    Wollenberg, A.; Przybilla, B. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik; Peter, R.U. [Federal Armed Forces Medical Academy, Munich (Germany). Inst. of Radiobiology

    1995-10-01

    Basalomatosis is an uncommon skin condition characterized by the occurrence of multiple basal cell carcinomas. Many cases reported in the literature have been attributed to arsenic treatment in psoriasis patients. We report a patient with basalomatosis caused by cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) irradiation. A 55-year-old farmer developed 43 basal cell carcinomas 20 years after treatment of an immuno-blastoma with {sup 60}Co irradiation. All the tumours were located within the radiation fields. Other possible causes of basalomatosis, such as arsenic intoxication and basal cell naevus syndrome, were excluded. The patient`s multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas probably represent a late adverse effect of the {sup 60}Co irradiation. (Author).

  3. Trigeminal perineural spread of renal cell carcinoma

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    Hornik, Alejandro; Rosenblum, Jordan; Biller, Jose [Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Chicago (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A 55-year-old man had a five-day history of 'pins and needles' sensation on the left chin. Examination showed decreased pinprick sensation on the territory of the left mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium showed enhancement involving the left mandibular branch. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed a left kidney mass diagnosed as renal carcinoma following nephrectomy. The 'numb-chin' syndrome heralds or accompanies systemic malignancies. Trigeminal perineural spread has been well-documented in head and neck neoplasms, however, to our knowledge, it has not been reported in renal neoplasms. (author)

  4. Patient Perception of Imiquimod Treatment for Actinic Keratosis and Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma in 202 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalboer-Spuij, Rick; Holterhues, Cynthia; van Hattem, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise A.; Gaastra, Menno T. W.; Kuijpers, Danielle I. M.; Hollestein, Loes M.; Nijsten, Tamar E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To document the impact on patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of treatment with imiquimod cream in patients with actinic keratosis (AK) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC). Methods: This open-label, multicenter study included AK and sBCC patients

  5. Patient Perception of Imiquimod Treatment for Actinic Keratosis and Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma in 202 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalboer-Spuij, Rick; Holterhues, Cynthia; van Hattem, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise A.; Gaastra, Menno T. W.; Kuijpers, Danielle I. M.; Hollestein, Loes M.; Nijsten, Tamar E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To document the impact on patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of treatment with imiquimod cream in patients with actinic keratosis (AK) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC). Methods: This open-label, multicenter study included AK and sBCC patients e

  6. Holmium laser fulguration of superficial urothelial carcinoma of the pendulous urethra

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    Michael A Liss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urothelial carcinoma may occur anywhere in the urinary tract including the pendulous urethra. To prevent urethral stricture after resection and monopolor fulguration we describe the use of the holmium laser to fulgurate recurrent pTa UC from the urethra. The surgical approach was staged and provided excellent long term results for management of superficial UC.

  7. Outcome of superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a clinicopathological study

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    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the clinicopathological features and outcome of patients with pathologically proven superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. METHODS: A total of 234 consecutive cases of esophageal carcinoma in a 15-year period were reviewed. RESULTS: Superficial esophageal cancer was found in five patients (2.1%. They were four men and one woman and the mean age was 52.5 years. Smoking and alcohol were the main risk factors. Achalasia due to Chagas disease occurred in one patient and a second primary tumor developed in the larynx in another patient. Four patients underwent esophagectomy and one patient received chemoradiotherapy. The histopathologic diagnosis was of squamous cell carcinoma in all cases. Intramucosal tumor (Tis was identified in three cases and superficially invasive carcinoma in two cases. Four patients are free of disease with survival times of two, four, six and nine years. The patient who developed laryngeal cancer died six years after esophagectomy. CONCLUSION: Long-term survival in patients with esophageal cancer is related to early diagnosis. Therefore, a less aggressive surgical approach, such as endoscopic resection, may be a good option for these patients, if depth of tumor invasion can be accurately predicted by the new imaging tools.

  8. Coexistence of esophageal superficial carcinoma and multiple leiomyomas: A case report

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    Takeshi Iwaya; Go Wakabayashi; Chihaya Maesawa; Noriyuki Uesugi; Toshimoto Kimura; Kenichiro Ikeda; Yusuke Kimura; Shingo Mitomo; Kaoru Ishida; Nobuhiro Sato

    2006-01-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the esophagus. They usually occur as a single lesion or as two or three nodules. Only two cases of esophageal multiple leiomyomas comprising more than 10 nodules have been reported previously. Moreover, there have been few reports of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma overlying submucosal tumors. We describe a 71-yearold man who was diagnosed as having a superficial esophageal cancer coexisting with two or three leiomyoma nodules. During surgery, 10 or more nodules that had not been evident preoperatively were palpable in the submucosal and muscular layers throughout the esophagus. As intramural metastasis of the esophageal cancer was suspected, we considered additional lymphadenectomy, but had to rule out this option because of the patient's severe anoxemia. Microscopic examination revealed that all the nodules were leiomyomas (20 lesions, up to 3 cm in diameter), and that invasion of the carcinoma cells was limited to the submucosal layer overlying a relatively large leiomyoma.This is the first report of superficial esophageal cancer coexisting with numerous solitary leiomyomas. Multiple minute leiomyomas are often misdiagnosed as intramural metastasis, and a leiomyoma at the base of a carcinoma lesion can also be misdiagnosed as tumor invasion.The present case shows that accurate diagnosis is required for the management of patients with coexisting superficial esophageal cancer and multiple leiomyomas.

  9. Diagnostic utility of narrow-band imaging endoscopy for pharyngeal superficial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noboru Yoshimura; Kenichi Goda; Hisao Tajiri; Yukinaga Yoshida; Takakuni Kato; Yoichi Seino; Masahiro Ikegami; Mitsuyoshi Urashima

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the endoscopic features of pha-ryngeal superficial carcinoma and evaluate the utility of narrow-band imaging (NBI) for this disease.METHODS: In the present prospective study, 335 patients underwent conventional white light (CWL) en-doscopy and non-magnified/magnified NBI endoscopy, followed by an endoscopic biopsy, for 445 superficial lesions in the oropharynx and hypopharynx. The macroscopic appearance of superficial lesions was categorized as either elevated (< 5 mm in height), flat, or depressed (not ulcerous). Superficial carcinoma (SC) was defined as a superficial lesion showing high-grade dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma on histology. The color, delineation, and macroscopic appearances of the lesions were evaluated by CWL endoscopy. The ratio of the brownish area/intervascular brownish epithelium (IBE), as well as microvascular proliferation, dilation, and irregularities, was determined by non-magnified/ magnified NBI endoscopy. An experienced pathologist who was unaware of the endoscopic findings made the histological diagnoses. By comparing endoscopic findings with histology, we determined the endoscopic features of SC and evaluated the diagnostic utility of NBI.RESULTS: The 445 lesions were divided histologically into two groups: a non-SC group, including non-neo-plasia and low-grade dysplasia cases, and an SC group. Of the 445 lesions examined, 333 were classified as non-SC and 112 were classified as SC. There were no significant differences in age, gender, or the location of the lesions between the patients in the two groups. The mean diameter of the SC lesions was significantly greater than that of non-SC lesions (11.0 7.6 mm vs 4.6 3.6 mm, respectively, P < 0.001). Comparisons of CWL endoscopy findings for SC and non-SC lesions by univariate analysis revealed that the incidence of redness (72% vs 41%, respectively, P< 0.001) and a flat or depressed type of lesion (58% vs 44%, respectively, P = 0.013) was significantly higher in

  10. Superficial Type of Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas: Detailed Comparative Study of Its Dermoscopic and Histopathological Findings

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    Akiko Hirofuji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated in detail the dermoscopic and histopathological findings in a case of a superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs. These multiple lesions (occurring in the chest, neck, and back showed three different findings, respectively. Dermoscopy of the erythematous and brown-colored patch on the anterior chest showed spoke wheel areas, and the histopathological cross-section revealed vertical spoke wheel structures. In the black- and brown-colored patch at the neck, the dermatoscopy showed a maple leaf-like structure, which was in accordance with the strengthening of the histological lateral connection of the lesion. The brown-colored patch of the lateral back histologically showed irregularly enlarged spoke wheel-like areas with peripheral increased melanin pigments, which correlated with the dark black color of dermoscopic maple leaf-like areas. The vertical spoke wheel areas by dermatoscopy revealed a horizontal spoke wheel structure by histopathology.

  11. Blue Laser Imaging-Bright Improves Endoscopic Recognition of Superficial Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Akira Tomie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic recognition of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC using four different methods (Olympus white light imaging (O-WLI, Fujifilm white light imaging (F-WLI, narrow band imaging (NBI, and blue laser imaging- (BLI- bright. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 25 superficial ESCCs that had been examined using the four different methods. Subjective evaluation was provided by three endoscopists as a ranking score (RS of each image based on the ease of detection of the cancerous area. For the objective evaluation we calculated the color difference scores (CDS between the cancerous and noncancerous areas with each of the four methods. Results. There was no difference between the mean RS of O-WLI and F-WLI. The mean RS of NBI was significantly higher than that of O-WLI and that of BLI-bright was significantly higher than that of F-WLI. Moreover, the mean RS of BLI-bright was significantly higher than that of NBI. Furthermore, in the objective evaluation, the mean CDS of BLI-bright was significantly higher than that of O-WLI, F-WLI, and NBI. Conclusion. The recognition of superficial ESCC using BLI-bright was more efficacious than the other methods tested both subjectively and objectively.

  12. Blue Laser Imaging-Bright Improves Endoscopic Recognition of Superficial Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Tomie, Akira; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kitae, Hiroaki; Majima, Atsushi; Horii, Yusuke; Kitaichi, Tomoko; Onozawa, Yuriko; Suzuki, Kentaro; Kimura-Tsuchiya, Reiko; Okayama, Tetsuya; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Katada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic recognition of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) using four different methods (Olympus white light imaging (O-WLI), Fujifilm white light imaging (F-WLI), narrow band imaging (NBI), and blue laser imaging- (BLI-) bright). Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 25 superficial ESCCs that had been examined using the four different methods. Subjective evaluation was provided by three endoscopists as a ranking score (RS) of each image based on the ease of detection of the cancerous area. For the objective evaluation we calculated the color difference scores (CDS) between the cancerous and noncancerous areas with each of the four methods. Results. There was no difference between the mean RS of O-WLI and F-WLI. The mean RS of NBI was significantly higher than that of O-WLI and that of BLI-bright was significantly higher than that of F-WLI. Moreover, the mean RS of BLI-bright was significantly higher than that of NBI. Furthermore, in the objective evaluation, the mean CDS of BLI-bright was significantly higher than that of O-WLI, F-WLI, and NBI. Conclusion. The recognition of superficial ESCC using BLI-bright was more efficacious than the other methods tested both subjectively and objectively. PMID:27738428

  13. Confocal Microscopy–Guided Laser Ablation for Superficial and Early Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma

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    Chen, Chih-Shan Jason; Sierra, Heidy; Cordova, Miguel; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Importance Laser ablation is a rapid and minimally invasive approach for the treatment of superficial skin cancers, but efficacy and reliability vary owing to lack of histologic margin control. High-resolution reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may offer a means for examining margins directly on the patient. Observations We report successful elimination of superficial and early nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in 2 cases-, using RCM imaging to guide Er-:YAG laser ablation. Three-dimensional (3-D) mapping is feasible with RCM-, to delineate the lateral border and thickness of the tumor. Thus, the surgeon may deliver laser fluence and passes with localized control—ie, by varying the ablation parameters in sub-lesional areas with specificity that is governed by the 3-D topography of the BCC. We further demonstrate intra-operative detection of residual BCC after initial laser ablation and complete removal of remaining tumor by additional passes. Both RCM imaging and histologic sections confirm the final clearance of BCC. Conclusions and Relevance Confocal microscopy may enhance the efficacy and reliability of laser tumor ablation. This report represents a new translational application for RCM imaging, which, when combined with an ablative laser, may one day provide an efficient and cost-effective treatment for BCC. PMID:24827701

  14. Comparison of Narrowband Imaging with Autofluorescence Imaging for Endoscopic Visualization of Superficial Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lesions of the Esophagus

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    Haruhisa Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare narrowband imaging (NBI and autofluorescence imaging (AFI endoscopic visualization for identifying superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Methods. Twenty-four patients with superficial esophageal carcinomas diagnosed at previous hospitals were enrolled in this study. Lesions were initially detected using white-light endoscopy and then observed with both NBI and AFI. Endoscopic images documented each method, and three endoscopists experienced in esophageal imaging retrospectively reviewed respective images of histologically confirmed esophageal SCCs. Images were assessed for quality in identifying superficial SCCs and rated as excellent, fair, or poor by the three reviewers with interobserver agreement calculated using kappa (κ statistics. Results. Thirty-one lesions histologically confirmed as superficial esophageal SCCs were detected in 24 patients. NBI images of 27 lesions (87% were rated as excellent, three as fair, and one as poor compared to AFI images of 19 lesions (61% rated as excellent, 10 as fair and two as poor (P<0.05. Moderate interobserver agreement (κ=0.42, 95% CI 0.24–0.60 resulted in NBI while fair agreement (κ=0.35, 95% CI 0.18–0.51 was achieved using AFI. Conclusion. NBI may be more effective than AFI for visualization of esophageal SCC.

  15. Reflectance confocal microscopy and dermoscopy for in vivo, non-invasive skin imaging of superficial basal cell carcinoma

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    GHITA, MIHAELA A.; CARUNTU, CONSTANTIN; ROSCA, ADRIAN E.; KALESHI, HARILLAQ; CARUNTU, ANA; MORARU, LILIANA; DOCEA, ANCA OANA; ZURAC, SABINA; BODA, DANIEL; NEAGU, MONICA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) is the second most frequent histological type of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), usually requiring a skin biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. It usually appears on the upper trunk and shoulders as erythematous and squamous lesions. Although it has a slow growth and seldom metastasizes, early diagnosis and management are of crucial importance in preventing local invasion and subsequent disfigurement. Dermoscopy is nowadays an indispensable tool for the dermatologist when evaluating skin tumors. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a novel imaging technique that allows the non-invasive, in vivo quasi-microscopic morphological and dynamic assessment of superficial skin tumors. Moreover, it offers the advantage of performing infinite repeatable determinations to monitor disease progression and non-surgical treatment for sBCC. Herein, we present three lesions of sBCC evaluated using in vivo and non-invasive imaging techniques, emphasizing the usefulness of combining RCM with dermoscopy for increasing the diagnostic accuracy of sBCC. PMID:27123056

  16. Radiological detection of extracapsular spread in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cervical metastases

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    Url, C., E-mail: christoph.url@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck (Austria); Schartinger, V.H.; Riechelmann, H.; Glückert, R. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck (Austria); Maier, H. [Department of Pathology, Medical University Innsbruck (Austria); Trumpp, M.; Widmann, G. [Department of Radiology, Medical University Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-10-01

    Background: Extracapsular spread of cervical lymph nodes deteriorates the prognosis of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Postoperative radiochemotherapy is superior to postoperative radiotherapy alone in patients with histologically proven extracapsular spread. If extracapsular spread can be detected preoperatively, patients may favor primary radiochemotherapy instead of primary surgery plus postoperative radiochemotherapy. Methods: Computed tomography (CT) scans of nodal positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients treated between 2008 and 2010 with comprehensive neck dissection as part of first line surgical treatment were retrospectively scanned for extracapsular spread by two blinded radiologists. If a positive lymph node was identified by the pathologist, CT scans were assessed for extracapsular spread retrospectively. CT criteria for Extracapsular spread were apparent fat and soft tissue infiltration or infiltration of sternocleidomastoid muscle, internal jugular vein or carotid artery. Radiologic judgment was compared with histological evidence of extracapsular spread and specificity and sensitivity of CT detection was calculated. Results: Forty-nine patients with histologically proven positive lymph nodes (pN+) were included. Extracapsular spread was histologically proven in 17 cases; the number of all affected lymph nodes was not listed. Radiologist 1 found extracapsular spread in CT scans of 15/49 patients and radiologist 2 in 16/49 patients (Cohen's kappa = 0.86; p < 0.01). Sensitivity of radiologic extracapsular spread detection was 73% (95% confidential index (CI): 44.0–89.7%) and specificity 91% (75.0–98.0%). Conclusion: Extracapsular spread depicted on computed tomography using strict criteria has high specificity.

  17. Primary temporal region squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed by a superficial temporal artery biopsy

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    Andersen, S A W; Kiss, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Superficial temporal artery biopsy is a frequent procedure performed in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. METHODS AND RESULTS: An otherwise healthy 69-year-old man presented with 2months complaint of right temporal region pain. Giant cell arteritis was suspected and a temporal ar...

  18. Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma : a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial

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    Arits, Aimee H. M. M.; Mosterd, Klara; Essers, Brigitte A. B.; Spoorenberg, Eefje; Sommer, Anja; De Rooij, Michette J. M.; van Pelt, Han P. A.; Quaedvlieg, Patricia J. F.; Krekels, Gertruud A. M.; van Neer, Pierre A. F. A.; Rijzewijk, Joris J.; van Geest, Adrienne J.; Steijlen, Peter M.; Nelemans, Patty J.; Kelleners-Smeets, Nicole W. J.

    Background Superficial basal-cell carcinoma is most commonly treated with topical non-surgical treatments, such as photodynamic therapy or topical creams. Photodynamic therapy is considered the preferable treatment, although this has not been previously tested in a randomised control trial. We

  19. Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma : a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial

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    Arits, Aimee H. M. M.; Mosterd, Klara; Essers, Brigitte A. B.; Spoorenberg, Eefje; Sommer, Anja; De Rooij, Michette J. M.; van Pelt, Han P. A.; Quaedvlieg, Patricia J. F.; Krekels, Gertruud A. M.; van Neer, Pierre A. F. A.; Rijzewijk, Joris J.; van Geest, Adrienne J.; Steijlen, Peter M.; Nelemans, Patty J.; Kelleners-Smeets, Nicole W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Superficial basal-cell carcinoma is most commonly treated with topical non-surgical treatments, such as photodynamic therapy or topical creams. Photodynamic therapy is considered the preferable treatment, although this has not been previously tested in a randomised control trial. We asses

  20. Is photodynamic therapy an appropriate treatment of feline superficial squamous cell carcinomas? Two case studies in small animal practice

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    Vinck, Elke; Cagnie, B.; Vinck, H.; Cambier, D.

    2003-12-01

    Oncological research and cancer treatment are more common in human medicine than in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless the latest decennium chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery also figure largely in the cancer treatment of pets. For this matter, the present study tried to explore the applicability of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) as a proper and advantageous alternative for those treatments. PDT using topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) cream was applied on superficial squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) at the nasal planum of two cats. Five hours after the cream was applied, the photosensitizing agent was removed and the sensitized area was irradiated with a red Light Emitting Diode (LED) contrivance with a wavelength of 660 nm. LED irradiation was administrated during 20 minutes, at a power output of 80 mW, with an energy density outcome of 38 J/cm2. The day after ths irradiation, the tumor area became erythematous and somewhat oedematous. After two days a scab occurred. Long-term post treatment observation showed complete removal of the malign cells related with regain of normal skin structure after three weeks. Follow-up period of one year for the first case and of two months for the second case revealed no recurrence. These promising results indicate that PDT is a possible alternative method to treat superficial skin tumors. Especially when taking into account that chemotherapy and radiotherapy are time-consuming treatments and that surgery (complete removal of the nasal planum) is not an esthetical solution.

  1. Electronic brachytherapy for superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma: a report of two prospective pilot trials using different doses

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    Rosa Ballester-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is a very common cancer in the Caucasian population. Treatment aims to eradicate the tumor with the lowest possible functional and aesthetic impact. Electronic brachytherapy (EBT is a treatment technique currently emerging. This study aims to show the outcomes of two consecutive prospective pilot clinical trials using different radiation doses of EBT with Esteya® EB system for the treatment of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma. Material and methods : Two prospective, single-center, non-randomized, pilot studies were conducted. Twenty patients were treated in each study with different doses. The first group (1 was treated with 36.6 Gy in 6 fractions of 6.1 Gy, and the second group (2 with 42 Gy in 6 fractions of 7 Gy. Cure rate, acute toxicity, and late toxicity related to cosmesis were analyzed in the two treatment groups. Results: In group 1, a complete response in 90% of cases was observed at the first year of follow-up, whereas in group 2, the complete response was 95%. The differences with reference to acute toxicity and the cosmetic results between the two treatment groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions : Our initial experience with Esteya® EB system to treat superficial and nodular BCC shows that a dose of 36.6 Gy and 42 Gy delivered in 6 fraction of 7 Gy achieves a 90% and 95% clinical cure rate at 1 year, respectively. Both groups had a tolerable toxicity and a very good cosmesis. The role of EBT in the treatment of BCC is still to be defined. It will probably become an established option for selected patients in the near future.

  2. Expression of laminin-5 and integrins in actinic cheilitis and superficially invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the lip.

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    Peixoto da-Silva, Janaína; Lourenço, Silvia; Nico, Marcello; Silva, Filomena H; Martins, Marília Trierveiler; Costa-Neves, Adriana

    2012-10-15

    The progression of carcinogenesis entails the detachment of cells, invasion and migration of neoplastic cells. Alterations in epithelial adhesion and basement membrane proteins might mediate the early stages of carcinogenesis. This study investigated the expression of adhesion molecules and the basement membrane protein laminin-5 in actinic cheilitis (AC) and incipient squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip to understand early photocarcinogenesis. Ln-5γ2 chain as well as α3, β1 subunits of α3β1 heterodimer and β4 subunit of integrin α6β4 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 16 cases of AC and 16 cases of superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SISCC). Most AC cases showed reduced expression of β1, β4 and α3 integrins, and SISCCs lacked β1, β4 and α3 integrins in the invasive front. AC cases were negative for the Ln-5γ2 chain. Five cases of SISCC (31%) showed heterogeneous Ln-5γ2 chain expression in the invasive front of the tumor. Integrin β1, β4 and α3 expression is lost during the early stages of lip carcinogenesis. Expression of Ln-5γ2 in the invasive front in cases and its correlation with tumor progression suggest that it mediates the acquisition of the migrating and invading epithelial cell phenotype.

  3. Assessment of perineural infiltration and spread of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A clinicohistopathologic study

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    N A Agni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : As the tumor spreads through the pathway of least resistance, the present study was carried out to evaluate the presence of perineural infiltration and spread of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC along the perineural spaces in gingivobuccal sulcus tumors infiltrating into the mandible. AIMS and objectives : (1 To investigate the incidence of perineural invasion of OSCC along the inferior alveolar nerve and (2 to investigate the neurovascular bundle as a potential route of spread of OSCC. Materials and Methods : Twenty-six patients with histopathologically proven OSCC of the gingivobuccal sulcus with radiographic infiltration of the mandible were included. The surgical specimens were decalcified and serially sectioned. Each section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and was screened for the presence of perineural invasion and spread. Results : Twenty-five specimens showed perineural infiltration but none of the cases showed perineural spread along the inferior alveolar canal. Also, not all cases showed any neurologic deficit. Follow-up of these cases showed early recurrence (6-8 months in the study group. Conclusion : Perineural infiltration is present in OSCC but perineural spread along the inferior alveolar canal is absent. It is a bad prognostic indicator.

  4. Superficial basal cell carcinoma treated with 70% trichloroacetic acid applied topically: a case study

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    Chiriac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Moldovan, Cosmin; Podoleanu, Cristian; Coros, Marius Florin; Stolnicu, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of skin cancer, affecting millions of people worldwide. The treatment concept for BCCs is the surgical one, but it is costly, as such, searching for alternative medical therapeutics is justified. Aim To highlight the efficacy of high concentration (70%) trichloroacetic acid (TCA) as a choice therapy for low-risk BCC. Method and patient Authors present, for the first time, the use of a high concentration TCA applied once a week for 2 consecutive weeks with a toothpick, on a patient with BCC on the right preauricular area. Results On examination 4 weeks later, the lesion was not clinically and dermatoscopically evidenced. Conclusion High concentration TCA could be an effective and safe, non-invasive choice of therapy for low-risk BCC, easy to perform, not expensive, with good cosmetic results, especially for patients who are not likely to undergo invasive or expensive treatments. PMID:28260938

  5. Antrodia camphorata extract induces replicative senescence in superficial TCC, and inhibits the absolute migration capability in invasive bladder carcinoma cells.

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    Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Su, Ching-Hua; Hsieh-Li, Hsiu Mei

    2007-01-01

    The Antrodia camphorata crude extract (ACCE), an extract obtained from a precious traditional Chinese folkloric herbal medicine Zhan-Ku (a camphor tree mushroom) since the 18th century, has showed rather significant inhibitory effects on the growth and proliferation of the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) cell lines RT4, TSGH-8301, and T24. On treatment with ACCE at 100 microg/mL, the p53-independent overexpression of p21 with simultaneous down alteration of pRb was observed in RT4, which was thus speculative of proceeding through a mechanism of replicative senescence. On the contrary treatment with ACCE, at 50 microg/mL, resulting in simultaneous down-regulations of Cdc2 and Cyclin B1, with suppression of the absolute migrating capability of the two cell lines TSGH-8301 and T24, and eventually the cell deaths. We conclude that ACCE can be rather effective and beneficial in suppression of both the superficial cancer cell line RT4 and the metastatic cell lines (TSGH-8301 and T24) through different mechanisms.

  6. Symmetrical ethmoidal metastases from ductal carcinoma of the breast, suggesting transcribrosal spread.

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    Monserez, D; Vlaminck, S; Kuhweide, R; Casselman, J

    2001-01-01

    Symmetrical ethmoidal metastases from ductal carcinoma of the breast, suggesting transcribrosal spread. While half of breast cancers develop metastases, the appearance of metastatic disease in paranasal sinuses from this origin is very rare. Eighteen other cases were found in the literature, dating from 1939 till now. A case of metastatic breastcancer presenting as a subacute therapy-resistant pansinusitis is described. The perfect symmetry was misleading. Bilateral ethmoidal biopsies were compatible with metastases from a ductal adenocarcinoma. Further investigation revealed meningeal carcinomatosis in the supra-orbital region and locoregional recurrence in the mastectomy scar and axilla. Comparing these 19 cases in chronological order, it was noticed that symptoms at time of diagnosis shift from those of space occupying lesions to those suggestive for sinusitis. This shift could be explained by earlier diagnosis. High index of suspicion is the key to diagnosis. Earlier diagnosis does not result in longer survival since in most cases patients have already widespread disease and die within one year. Most authors mention the role of the vertebral venous plexus in hematogeneous spreading of tumor cells. Another pathway of hematogenous spread is via (occult) lung metastases. This case prompts the hypothesis of transcribrosal spread from meningeal involvement.

  7. Intraoperative optical assessment of photodynamic therapy response of superficial oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Daniel J.; Rigual, Nestor; Arshad, Hassan; Tracy, Erin C.; Cooper, Michelle T.; Shafirstein, Gal; Wilding, Gregory; Merzianu, Mihai; Baumann, Heinz; Henderson, Barbara W.; Sunar, Ulas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) measurements could assess clinical response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, the correlation between parameters measured with DOS and the crosslinking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a molecular marker for PDT-induced photoreaction, was investigated. Thirteen patients with early stage HNSCC received the photosensitizer 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinylpyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) and DOS measurements were performed before and after PDT in the operating room (OR). In addition, biopsies were acquired after PDT to assess the STAT3 crosslinking. Parameters measured with DOS, including blood volume fraction, blood oxygen saturation (StO2), HPPH concentration (cHPPH), HPPH fluorescence, and blood flow index (BFI), were compared to the pathologic response and the STAT3 crosslinking. The best individual predictor of pathological response was a change in cHPPH (sensitivity=60%, specificity=100%), while discrimination analysis using a two-parameter classifier (change in cHPPH and change in StO2) classified pathological response with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. BFI showed the best correlation with the crosslinking of STAT3. These results indicate that DOS-derived parameters can assess the clinical response in the OR, allowing for earlier reintervention if needed.

  8. The SINS trial: A randomised controlled trial of excisional surgery versus imiquimod 5% cream for nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Sarah J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basal cell carcinoma is the commonest human cancer. Despite increasing incidence it remains poorly researched. While not life threatening it can cause significant cosmetic disfigurement. Imiquimod, a cream which enhances the body's immune response, may help deal with the number of cases that occur in low-risk sites, especially when good cosmetic results and home use without surgery are needed. This study aims 1. To compare excisional surgery with imiquimod cream for nodular or superficial basal cell carcinoma in low risk sites, with respect to 3 year clinical clearance, cost-effectiveness and cosmetic results. 2. To ascertain if certain phenotypic features and gene polymorphisms predict tumour responsiveness to treatment. Methods/Design Five hundred participants with low risk nodular or superficial basal cell carcinoma will be recruited from hospitals to this multi-centre, randomised, parallel group, controlled phase III trial. Treatment in the imiquimod group is for 6 weeks for superficial basal cell carcinoma and 12 weeks for nodular basal cell carcinoma. Both treatment groups are followed up in clinic for 3 years. Primary outcome variable: the proportion of participants with clinical evidence of success (no recurrence at 3 years. The primary outcome will be compared between the two treatment groups. Secondary outcomes include: i clinical success at 1, 2 and 5 years, ii time to first recurrence, iii cosmetic appearance of lesion site after treatment, iv level of pain, and v cost-effectiveness. Safety and tolerability data will also be reported. Discussion This study protocol describes a pragmatic randomised controlled trial which it is hoped will address the above uncertainties. Three-year results will be available towards the end of 2010. Trial registration Meta-register: NCT00066872, Eudract No. 2004-004506-24, ISRCTN48755084.

  9. Gall bladder carcinoma: Aggressive malignancy with protean loco-regional and distant spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Amit Nandan Dhar; Jain, Shivi; Dixit, Ruhi

    2015-03-16

    The most common malignancy of biliary tract is gallbladder cancer (GBC) which is the third most common cancer in gastrointestinal tract. It is a lethal disease for most patients in spite of growing awareness and improved diagnostic techniques. GBC has a very poor prognosis and the 5 year survival rate is loco-regional rather than distant. It spreads by lymphatic, vascular, neural, intraperitoneal, and intraductal routes. Sonography is usually the most common imaging test to evaluate symptoms of biliary tract disease including suspected GC. With recent advances in imaging modalities like multi-detector computed tomography (CT) scanners, magnetic resonance imaging-positron emission tomography/CT diagnosis of gallbladder cancer has improved. Studies have also targeted molecular and genetic pathways. Treatment options have included extended and radical surgeries and adjuvant chemotherapy. This review article deals in detail with important aspects of carcinoma gallbladder and its manifestations and challenges. Role of various imaging modalities in characterization and accurate staging has been discussed. The loco-regional spread of this aggressive malignancy is dealt explicitly.

  10. Successful Treatment of Two Cases of Squamous Cell Carcinoma on the Ear with Intra-Arterial Administration of Peplomycin through a Superficial Temporal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Haga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the second most common non-melanoma skin cancer and tends to develop in sun-exposed cosmetic areas, including the ear. In this report, we describe two cases of SCC on the ear successfully treated with intra-arterial administration of peplomycin through a superficial temporal artery. In addition to this selective chemotherapy, we administered oral tegafur, which achieved complete remission of the tumor. These findings suggest that intra-arterial administration of peplomycin with tegafur is one of the optimal therapies for the treatment of SCC developing on the ear.

  11. Imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas: study of 10 cases Tratamento tópico do carcinoma basocelular superficial e nodular pelo imiquimod creme a 5%: observação de 10 casos

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    Cyro Festa Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Topical treatment with 5% imiquimod cream has been demonstrated to be effective in patients with basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, efficacy and tolerability of this treatment was analyzed in 10 patients with 13 different types of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas. METHODS: Imiquimod cream was applied daily for a mean period of 23 days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: All patients responded favorably to the drug with healing of the lesions. No recurrence was observed during two to three months of follow up.FUNDAMENTOS: O uso tópico do imiquimod 5% em creme para o tratamento de carcinomas basocelulares tem-se mostrado eficaz. OBJETIVOS: Com base nesse fato o autor analisa a efetividade e tolerabilidade desse método em 10 doentes com 13 carcinomas basocelulares dos tipos superficial e nodular. MÉTODOS: As aplicações foram diárias, e o número médio de dias de tratamento foi 23. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Todos os doentes responderam à medicação com desaparecimento das lesões e são seguidos a cada dois ou três meses, até o momento sem recidiva do quadro.

  12. Comparison of PTCH1, COX-2, p53, and Ki-67 protein expression in basal cell carcinomas of nodular and superficial subtypes arising on the head and trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Mohammad; Waterhouse, Mary; Whiteman, David C; Johns, Richard; Rosendahl, Cliff; Hackett, Timothy; Pollak, Thomas; Kimlin, Michael G; Hacker, Elke; Neale, Rachel E

    2016-10-01

    There is some evidence that basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) arising on different anatomic sites and developing to different histological subtypes differ in their pathophysiology. The expression of a number of proteins, including PTCH1, COX-2, p53, and Ki-67, is frequently altered in BCC development. This study sought to determine whether protein expression differs between BCCs at different anatomic sites and of different histological subtypes. Expression of PTCH1, COX-2, p53, and Ki-67 proteins was compared between: (i) BCCs arising on the head (n = 55) and trunk (n = 53), and (ii) nodular (n = 52) and superficial (n = 43) BCCs. The intensity of immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining (low, moderate, strong, very strong) for PTCH1 and COX-2 proteins was measured and the proportions of p53- and Ki-67-positive cells quantified. The proportion of cells expressing Ki-67 was higher in tumor tissue than in non-malignant epidermis, whereas the opposite was found for PTCH1. The IHC staining intensity for PTCH1 was substantially greater in truncal BCCs than in BCCs on the head (odds ratio [OR] 3.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63-8.96). The intensity of staining for PTCH1 was greater for superficial than for nodular BCCs (OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.53-8.97), and superficial BCCs showed a higher proportion of Ki-67-positive cells (OR 5.57, 95% CI 1.66-18.67). These differences suggest that the pathophysiology of BCC differs between lesions on the head and trunk and between nodular and superficial subtypes, perhaps indicating differences in their etiology. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast showing partial reversed cell polarity are associated with lymphatic tumor spread and may represent part of a spectrum of invasive micropapillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acs, Geza; Esposito, Nicole N; Rakosy, Zsuzsa; Laronga, Christine; Zhang, Paul J

    2010-11-01

    Invasive micropapillary carcinomas (IMPC) of the breast are aggressive tumors frequently associated with lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis even when micropapillary (MP) differentiation is very focal within the tumors. We have noticed that some breast carcinomas showing lymphatic spread but lacking histologic features of IMPC have occasional tumor cell clusters reminiscent of those of IMPC without the characteristic prominent retraction artifact. To study the clinicopathologic significance of such features, we prospectively selected 1323 invasive ductal carcinomas and determined the presence and extent of MP differentiation and retraction artifact in the tumors. One representative tumor block per case was used for immunostaining for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Partial reverse cell polarity (PRCP) was defined as prominent linear EMA reactivity on at least part of the periphery of tumor cell clusters usually associated with decreased cytoplasmic staining. The clinicopathologic features of carcinomas with PRCP were compared with IMPC and invasive ductal (no special type) carcinomas without this feature. Of the 1323 cases, 96 (7.3%) and 92 (7.0%) showed MP features and the presence of PRCP, respectively. We found that the presence of both PRCP and MP features were strongly associated with decreased cytoplasmic EMA immunoreactivity and the presence of lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis, even if such features were present only very focally. Our results suggest that breast carcinomas with PRCP may have the same implication as MP differentiation and these tumors may represent part of a spectrum of IMPC. Complete or partial reversal of cell polarity may play a significant role in lymphatic tumor spread.

  14. HEMATOGENOUS SPREADING OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA CELLS: POSSIBLE PREDICTOR OF RECURRENCE OR METASTASIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yangfu; HU Jingqun; YANG Xiaojie; LI Shende; YANG Zhihua

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the status of hematogenous spreading of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before or after surgical treatment or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and to elucidate the significance of peripheral blood Alphafetoprotein (AFP) mRNA expression in predicting recurrence or metastasis of HCC. Methods: Peripheral venous bloods were collected from 60 patients with HCC,20 of whom had received TACE before blood samples were collected, and from 30 subjects as control (10 cases with benign liver disorders, 20 healthy donors). AFP cDNA was amplified from 5 ml whole blood by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). Results: Of the 60 patients with HCC, 32 cases (53.3%) had positive AFP mRNA in their peripheral blood. In 33 patients with intra-and/or extrahepatic metastasis, 27 (81.1%) were positive for AFP mRNA. In patients who didn't yet have metastasis when samples were collected, 11 (29.7%) gave positive AFP mRNA, 6of whom developed tumor recurrence or metastasis after the samples were collected. The presence of AFP mRNA correlated with the stage of HCC and the presence of intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic metastasis, but did not correlate with tumor size and serum AFP level. There was no significant difference in AFP mRNA expression before and after surgical treatment or TACE.Conclusion: Detection of AFP mRNA by PCR provides a sensitive and specific assay of hematogenous dissemination of HCC. TACE can not prevent metastasis of HCC. Systemic chemotherapy or immunotherapy is needed to prevent occult or overt metastasis.

  15. Superficial keratectomy and topical mitomycin C as therapy for a corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, K; Matsuda, H; Tanaka, A

    2008-04-01

    A 10-year-old female West Highland white terrier was presented with refractory hyperplastic keratitis of the left cornea of one month's duration. At this time, a vascularised and rough lesion 5 mm in diameter was observed on the left cornea. No other abnormality was recognised on the affected eye. The corneal neoplasm was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. For two months after the surgery, 0.04 percent mitomycin C (MMC) eye drops were applied as adjuvant chemotherapy. Primary corneal squamous cell carcinoma with no history of keratoconjunctivitis sicca is rare in dogs. In the present report, surgical removal of the neoplasm was combined with the topical administration of the anticancer drug mitomycin C and a good prognosis was obtained. The result indicates that the combination treatment used in this case may be an appropriate therapeutic choice for corneal squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

  16. EVALUATION OF LYMPHATIC SPREAD, VISCERAL METASTASIS AND TUMORAL LOCAL INVASION IN ESOPHAGEAL CARCINOMAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustumi, Francisco; Kimura, Cintia Mayumi Sakurai; Takeda, Flavio Roberto; Sallum, Rubens Antônio Aissar; Ribeiro-Junior, Ulysses; Cecconello, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Knowing esophageal tumors behavior in relationship to lymph node involvement, distant metastases and local tumor invasion is of paramount importance for the best esophageal tumors management. To describe lymph node involvement, distant metastases, and local tumor invasion in esophageal carcinoma, according to tumor topography and histology. A total of 444 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 105 adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into four groups: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the three esophageal segments: cervical, middle, and distal. They were compared based on their CT scans at the time of the diagnosis. Nodal metastasis showed great relationship with of primary tumor site. Lymph nodes of hepatogastric, perigastric and peripancreatic ligaments were mainly affected in distal tumors. Periaortic, interaortocaval and portocaval nodes were more commonly found in distal squamous carcinoma; subcarinal, paratracheal and subaortic nodes in middle; neck chains were more affected in cervical squamous carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma had a higher frequency of peritoneal involvement (11.8%) and liver (24.5%) than squamous cell carcinoma. Considering the local tumor invasion, the more cranial neoplasia, more common squamous invasion of airways, reaching 64.7% in the incidence of cervical tumors. Middle esophageal tumors invade more often aorta (27.6%) and distal esophageal tumors, the pericardium and the right atrium (10.4%). Esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in different topographies present peculiarities in lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and local tumor invasion. These differences must be taken into account in esophageal cancer patients' care. Conhecer o comportamento das neoplasias esofágicas em relação à disseminação linfonodal, distribuição de metástases e invasão local do tumor, pode auxiliar o manejo dos pacientes. Descrever o envolvimento linfonodal, disseminação metast

  17. Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland with Metastatic Spread to the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Geiger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic disease to the pancreas is rare among solid tumors and has not been well described for salivary cancers. We report a patient who developed an isolated metastatic lesion in the pancreas from acinic cell carcinoma of the salivary gland, presenting as acute pancreatitis.

  18. Three-Year Follow-Up Results of Photodynamic Therapy vs. Imiquimod vs. Fluorouracil for Treatment of Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Single-Blind, Noninferiority, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozeboom, Marieke H; Arits, Aimee H M M; Mosterd, Klara; Sommer, Anja; Essers, Brigitte A B; de Rooij, Michette J M; Quaedvlieg, Patricia J F; Steijlen, Peter M; Nelemans, Patty J; Kelleners-Smeets, Nicole W J

    2016-08-01

    A randomized controlled trial including 601 patients previously showed that the effectiveness of imiquimod and fluorouracil cream were not inferior to methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) in patients with superficial basal cell carcinoma after 1 year of follow-up. We now present the 3-year follow-up results. The probability of tumor-free survival at 3 years post-treatment was 58.0% for MAL-PDT (95% confidence interval [CI] = 47.8-66.9), 79.7% for imiquimod (95% CI = 71.6-85.7), and 68.2% for fluorouracil (95% CI = 58.1-76.3). The hazard ratio for treatment failure comparing imiquimod with MAL-PDT was 0.50 (95% CI = 0.33-0.76, P = 0.001). Comparison of fluorouracil with MAL-PDT and fluorouracil with imiquimod showed hazard ratios of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.51-1.05, P = 0.092) and 0.68 (95% CI = 0.44-1.06, P = 0.091), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed a higher probability of treatment success for imiquimod versus MAL-PDT in all subgroups with the exception of elderly patients with superficial basal cell carcinoma on the lower extremities. In this subgroup, the risk difference in tumor-free survival was 57.6% in favor of MAL-PDT. In conclusion, according to results at 3 years post-treatment, imiquimod is superior and fluorouracil not inferior to MAL-PDT in treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma.

  19. Impact of surgery and epirubicin intravesical chemotherapy on peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets in patients with superficial urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Lang; MA Lin-lin; ZHANG Yu-hai; TIAN Ye; QU Chen-xue; WANG Yang

    2012-01-01

    Background Superficial urothelial carcinoma (SUC) of the bladder is a common urinary tract tumor in China.There is a high recurrence rate of this tumor even after surgery and intravesical instillation.Previous reports have described a suppression of the immune system in cancer patients.Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the induction of an effective antitumor immune response.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of surgery and epirubicin intravesical chemotherapy (IC) on peripheral blood DCs in subsets of patients with bladder SUC.@@Methods A total of 66 SUC patients and 38 healthy controls were enrolled in this study.All the patients had undergone transurethral resection (TUR) of their cancer and adjunctive IC after tumor removal.The patients were divided into a non-recurrence group (n=40) and a recurrence group (n=26) based on the presence or absence of tumor recurrence.Blood samples were taken preoperatively (PreOP),on postoperative days (POD) 1 and 7,and at postoperative month (POM) 3.Flow cytometric analysis was used for the determination and quantitation of the surface markers CD80 and CD86 in circulating DC subsets.@@Results The preoperative percentages of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and expression of CD80 and CD86 were impaired in SUC patients compared to healthy controls (P <0.05).The percentages of mDCs and these surface markers decreased significantly on POD 1 and increased on POD 7,remaining higher than the preoperative values in POM 3 (P <0.05).The percentages of mDCs,and CD80 and CD86 in the non-recurrence group on PreOP,POD 7,and POM 3 were higher than those in recurrence group.@@Conclusions Surgical removal of SUC and adjunctive IC were associated with improved circulating mDC counts and function.Persistent depression of mDC counts and function after treatment in recurrence patients indicated lower antitumor immunity that may lead to tumor recurrence.

  20. SERPINE1 and SMA expression at the invasive front predict extracapsular spread and survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanda, J; Triantafyllou, A; Liloglou, T; Kalirai, H; Lloyd, B; Hanlon, R; Shaw, R J; Sibson, D R; Risk, J M

    2014-11-25

    Extracapsular spread (ECS) in cervical lymph nodes is the single-most prognostic clinical variable in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but diagnosis is possible only after histopathological examination. A promising biomarker in the primary tumour, alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA) has been shown to be highly prognostic, however, validated biomarkers to predict ECS prior to primary treatment are not yet available. In 102 OSCC cases, conventional imaging was compared with pTNM staging. SERPINE1, identified from expression microarray of primary tumours as a potential biomarker for ECS, was validated through mRNA expression, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a tissue microarray from the same cohort. Similarly, expression of SMA was also compared with its association with ECS and survival. Expression was analysed separately in the tumour centre and advancing front; and prognostic capability determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Immunohistochemistry indicated that both SERPINE1 and SMA expression at the tumour-advancing front were significantly associated with ECS (PSMA+/SERPINE1+ expression in combination was highly significantly associated with poor survival (PSMA were superior to MRI for the detection of ECS (sensitivity: SERPINE1: 95%; SMA: 82%; combination: 81%). A combination of SMA and SERPINE1 IHC offer potential as prognostic biomarkers in OSCC. Our findings suggest that biomarkers at the invasive front are likely to be necessary in prediction of ECS or in therapeutic stratification.

  1. Perineural spread of adenoid cystic carcinoma in the oral and maxillofacial regions: evaluation with contrast-enhanced CT and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, H; Chindasombatjaroen, J; Kakimoto, N; Kishino, M; Murakami, S; Furukawa, S

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) and contrast-enhanced MRI (CEMRI) in the detection of perineural spread (PNS) of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) in the oral and maxillofacial regions. Methods This study consisted of 13 ACCs from 13 patients, all of which were histopathologically diagnosed. Both CECT and CEMRI were performed in all patients before the treatment. The images of each patient were retrospectively evaluated for the detection of PNS. The definitions of PNS included abnormal density/signal intensity, contrast enhancement or widening of the pterygopalatine fossa, palatine foramen, incisive canal, mandibular foramen and mandibular canal, and enlargement or excessive contrast enhancement of a nerve. Results 11 out of 13 cases were proven to exhibit PNS histopathologically. 8 of the 11 cases for which PNS was histopathologically proven exhibited PNS on MR images. Six of the eight cases for which PNS was exhibited on MR images also exhibited PNS on CT images. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the detection of PNS were 55%, 100% and 62% on CT images and 73%, 100% and 77% on MR images, respectively. Although the accuracy of PNS on MR images was slightly superior to that on CT images, there were no statistically significant differences between the detection of PNS on CT images and on MR images. Conclusions CT and MR images are equally useful for the detection of PNS of ACC in the oral and maxillofacial regions. PMID:22301639

  2. Global Expression-Based Classification of Lymph Node Metastasis and Extracapsular Spread of Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Zhou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Regional lymph node metastasis is a critical event in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC progression. The identification of biomarkers associated with the metastatic process would provide critical prognostic information to facilitate clinical decision making for improved management of OTSCC patients. Global expressional profiles were obtained for 25 primary OTSCCs, where 11 cases showed lymph node metastasis (pN+ histologically and 14 cases were nonmetastatic (pN-. Seven of pN+ cases also exhibited extracapsular spread (ECS of metastatic nodes. Multiple expression indices were used to generate signature gene sets for pN+/- and ECS+/- cases. Selected genes from signature gene sets were validated using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The classification powers of these genes were then evaluated using a logistic model, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, leave-oneout cross-validation. qRT-PCR validation data showed that differences at RNA levels are either statistically significant (P<.05 or suggestive (P< .1 for six of eight genes tested (BMP2, CTTN, EEF1A1, GTSE1, MMP9, EGFR for pN+/- cases, for five of eight genes tested (BMP2, CTTN, EEF1A1, MMP9, EGFR for ECS+/- cases. Logistic models with specific combinations of genes (CTTN+MMP9+EGFR for pN and CTTN+EEFIA1+MMP9 for ECS achieved perfect specificity and sensitivity. Leave-one-out cross-validation showed overall accuracy rates of 85% for both pN and ECS prediction models. Our results demonstrated that the pN and the ECS of OTSCCs can be predicted by gene expression analyses of primary tumors.

  3. Nursing of patients with superficial bladder carcinoma treated with mitomycin C hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy%丝裂霉素C热灌注化疗治疗表浅性膀胱癌患者的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟肖红; 郭龙斌; 王斌; 巴明臣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore ihe key points of nursing patients with superficial bladder carcinoma treated with milomyein C (MMC) hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy. Methods 63 patients with superficial bladder carcinoma in the study having undergone transurelhral tumor resection, were treated with milomycin C hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy. They were managed with perioperative nursing strategies. Results During the operation, the vital signs of all patients were stable. 11 patients had mild lower atxlominal skin flushing and mild burning sensation. 26 of them contracted with odynuria, urgency and frequent micturition, which were mitigated for symptomatic treatment. 6-37 months follow-up showed normal quality of life in them. Conclusion MMC hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy for the prevention of postoperative recurrence of superficial bladder cancer has a good clinical efficacy. The perioperative nursing should be strengthened to lower Ihe incidences of adverse reactions and reduce the pain and discomfort so that the patients can be cooperative in treatment for the purpose of ensuring curative continuity.%目的 总结丝裂霉索C热灌注化疗治疗表浅性膀胱癌患者的护理要点.方法 对63例表浅性膀胱癌患者经尿道肿瘤电切术后,应用丝裂霉索C进行热灌注化疗,并实施相应的护理.结果 患者热灌注化疗过程中生命体征平稳,化疗过程11例患者出出现下腹部皮肤潮红和轻度灼热感,26例患者术后出现尿痛、尿急、尿频,经对症处理后症状缓解.随访6 ~ 37个月,患者均生活良好,膀胱镜检查无局部及膀胱腔内其他部位肿瘤复发,临床疗效满意.结论 丝裂霉素C膀胱热灌注治疗对预防经尿道膀胱癌切除术后肿瘤复发具有较好的临床疗效.护理方面加强患者膀胱热灌注化疗过程护理,降低不良反应的发生,从而降低患者的痛苦和不适.

  4. Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaraa Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein. Conclusion This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.

  5. Verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus: a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma for which a preoperative diagnosis can be a difficult one to make.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Quyen; Jaganmohan, Sathya; Kelly, Brandi; Hobley, James

    2011-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus is an extremely rare entity. It is associated with severe epithelial hyperplasia and parakeratosis of the epithelial layers. Superficial biopsies are usually falsely negative for malignant cells, as the biopsied mucosa usually demonstrates the hyperplastic epithelium. The tumor spread is through submucosal and paraesophageal infiltration. Endoscopically, verrucous carcinoma appears as a wartlike, exophytic lesion, hence the name verrucous. The diagnosis can be difficult to make, even after repeated endoscopic biopsies. We report a rare case of verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus in a 45-year-old man whose final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed only after an Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy was performed.

  6. BCG and the treatment of superficial bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J T; Kadmon, D

    1991-12-01

    In this report, we review the evolution of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy as a legitimate form of treatment in superficial, nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer. In the US, an estimated 45,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed each year and the annual death rate approaches 11,000. Approximately 70 percent of these cancers are superficial at the time of initial presentation. The treatment of superficial bladder cancer has three objectives: (1) eradication of existing disease, (2) prophylaxis against tumor recurrence, and (3) prevention of tumor progression (either muscular invasion, metastatic spread, or both). Cystectomy generally is reserved for muscle-invasive disease. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor is the preferred initial therapy. Intravesical instillations of various chemotherapeutic agents following transurethral resection have been extensively investigated. Some of the common agents used include thiotepa, mitomycin, and doxorubicin. Despite such treatment efforts, however, over 40 percent of patients with superficial bladder cancer experience a recurrence of their tumor within three years. Approximately half of these recurrences either present as less-well-differentiated tumors or have already penetrated into the bladder musculature, metastasized, or both. Since Morales et al. first introduced intravesical BCG vaccine for prophylaxis as well as for treatment of superficial bladder tumors in 1976, support has grown rapidly for its use as an alternative to chemotherapy. When used with prophylactic intent following transurethral resection, recurrence rates are lower than those achieved with other agents. In addition, BCG is emerging as the consensus drug of choice for treating carcinoma in situ of the bladder. The mechanisms by which BCG exerts its antitumor activity remain largely unknown. BCG is thought to stimulate a localized, nonspecific inflammatory response that leads to subsequent shedding of tumor cells. A large body

  7. The gene expression profile of inflammatory, hypoxic and metabolic genes predicts the metastatic spread of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatot, Florian; Gouérant, Sophie; Mareschal, Sylvain; Cornic, Marie; Berghian, Anca; Choussy, Olivier; El Ouakif, Faissal; François, Arnaud; Bénard, Magalie; Ruminy, Philippe; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Jardin, Fabrice

    2014-03-01

    To assess the prognostic value of the expression profile of the main genes implicated in hypoxia, glucose and lactate metabolism, inflammation, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix interactions for the metastatic spread of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Using a high-throughput qRT-PCR, we performed an unsupervised clustering analysis based on the expression of 42 genes for 61 patients. Usual prognostic factors and clustering analysis results were related to metastasis free survival. With a median follow-up of 48months, 19 patients died from a metastatic evolution of their head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and one from a local recurrence. The unsupervised clustering analysis distinguished two groups of genes that were related to metastatic evolution. A capsular rupture (p=0.005) and the "cluster CXCL12 low" (p=0.002) were found to be independent prognostic factors for metastasis free survival. Using a Linear Predictive Score methodology, we established a 9-gene model (VHL, PTGER4, HK1, SLC16A4, DLL4, CXCL12, CXCR4, PTGER3 and CA9) that was capable of classifying the samples into the 2 clusters with 90% accuracy. In this cohort, our clustering analysis underlined the independent prognostic value of the expression of a panel of genes involved in hypoxia and tumor environment. It allowed us to define a 9-gene model which can be applied routinely to classify newly diagnosed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. If confirmed by an independent prospective study, this approach may help future clinical management of these aggressive tumors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Most multifocal papillary thyroid carcinomas acquire genetic and morphotype diversity through subclonal evolution following the intra-glandular spread of the initial neoplastic clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, L; Delahunt, B; McIver, B; Eberhardt, N L; Grebe, S K G

    2008-06-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently multifocal (mPTC), with synchronous tumour foci often showing varied morphology. The genetic mechanisms underlying the development of multiple and histologically diverse tumour foci remain uncertain. Different tumour foci might develop either through intrathyroidal dissemination of a single malignant clone, with morphotype differentiation occurring as a result of subclonal progression, or they may stem from independent transformational events involving multiple progenitor clones. To determine the clonal derivation of multiple tumour foci and to map their clonal relationships and genetic progression in mPTC, we evaluated genome-wide allelic imbalances (AI) and BRAF V600E mutation status in 55 synchronous tumour foci from 18 mPTC patients. For apparently monoclonal tumours, we calculated the probabilities of monoclonal derivation and used phylogenetic analysis to model clonal evolution. Genome-wide allelotyping and BRAF mutation analysis showed genetic alterations consistent with monoclonal origin in 83% of cases, mostly with evidence of subclonal evolution. BRAF V600E mutations were early events during clonal evolution of most, but not all cases. MPTC with morphologically diverse tumour foci also arose through monoclonal derivation in 75% of cases, demonstrating that morphotype-determining genetic changes can be acquired during clonal diversification, subsequent to the spread of the original malignant progenitor clone. In 17% of patients, discordant AI or BRAF V600E profiles implied that mPTCs can occasionally develop from distinct transformation events. This study suggests that mPTC originates usually from neoplastic transformation and subsequent intrathyroidal spread of a single malignant progenitor clone. Clonal progression and morphotype differentiation occur through progressive acquisition of genetic alterations subsequent to the initial intra-glandular spread. In monoclonal BRAF V600E-positive mPTCs, BRAF V600E

  9. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA IN AN UNUSUAL SITE - VULVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumangala G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common malignancy of the skin, but BCC of the vulva is a rare entity. BCC of vulva accounts for less than 5% of all vulvar neoplasms and less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma has a low propensity for metastatic spread but has a high chance of local recurrence after simple excision. We report a 50- year-old woman presenting with pruritus vulva. Physical examination revealed a 2.5 x 1.5 cm hyperpigmented plaque on the left labium majus. The histopathology was consistent with superficially invasive basal cell carcinoma. The patient underwent radical local excision including the clitoris and remained disease free at postsurgical follow-up after eight months.

  10. Superficial Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Sean; Minni, John; Herold, David

    2015-12-01

    Superficial radiation therapy has become more widely available to dermatologists. With the advent of more portable machines, it has become more convenient for dermatology practices to employ in an office-based setting. The goal of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the role of superficial radiation therapy in dermatology practice and to review the current literature surrounding its use in the treatment of both basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

  11. MicroRNA-151 and its hosting gene FAK (focal adhesion kinase) regulate tumor cell migration and spreading of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedde, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Recurrent chromosomal aberrations are often observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but little is known about the functional non-coding sequences, particularly microRNAs (miRNAs), at the chromosomal breakpoints in HCC. Here we show that 22 miRNAs are often amplified or deleted in HCC. MicroRNA-151 (miR-151), a frequently amplified miRNA on 8q24.3, is correlated with intrahepatic metastasis of HCC. We further show that miR-151, which is often expressed together with its host gene FAK, encoding focal adhesion kinase, significantly increases HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo, mainly through miR-151-5p, but not through miR-151-3p. Moreover, miR-151 exerts this function by directly targeting RhoGDIA, a putative metastasis suppressor in HCC, thus leading to the activation of Rac1, Cdc42 and Rho GTPases. In addition, miR-151 can function synergistically with FAK to enhance HCC cell motility and spreading. Thus, our findings indicate that chromosome gain of miR-151 is a crucial stimulus for tumour invasion and metastasis of HCC.

  12. Selective versus comprehensive neck dissection in the treatment of patients with a pathologically node-positive neck with or without microscopic extracapsular spread in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z; Gao, Y; Niu, L X; Peng, X; Guo, C B

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prognosis and complications between selective neck dissection (SND) and comprehensive neck dissection (CND) for patients with a pathologically node-positive neck in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and the floor of the mouth. This was a retrospective cohort study. There was no significant difference between the SND group and the CND group in 3-year neck control rate (86.2% vs. 85.9%, P=0.797) or disease-specific survival (DSS) rate (64.6% vs. 61.9%, P=0.646). Further analyses of the respective 3-year DSS rates in the SND and CND subgroups were as follows: pN1 without extracapsular spread (ECS), 67.7% vs. 72.2%, P=0.851; pN2b without ECS, 64.7% vs. 68.8%, P=0.797; and pN+ with ECS, 57.1% vs. 60.0%, P=0.939. Of note, there were significantly fewer complications in the SND group compared with the CND group (7.3% vs. 20.0%, P=0.032). Multivariate analysis showed that the modality of neck treatment, pN+ status, and microscopic ECS did not serve as independent prognostic factors. SND plus adjuvant radiotherapy is a management strategy of high efficiency and minor morbidity for selected oral cancer patients with a pN+ neck with or without microscopic ECS.

  13. Superficial Urothelial Cancer in the Prostatic Urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Kirkali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is a multifocal disease of the urinary tract that can also involve the prostatic urethra (PU. The exact incidence of superficial involvement of the PU in patients with bladder TCC is not well known. Bladder TCC may involve the prostate in 12—40% of the patients and the degree of involvement can include urethral mucosa, ducts, acini, and stroma of the gland, which has been shown to affect the outcome. Risk factors for superficial urothelial cancer in the PU are high-grade, multifocal bladder TCC and presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS in the bladder. While visible tumors are easy to detect and resect, controversy still exists regarding the optimal technique to identify prostatic involvement by TCC. Prostatic urethral sampling by a transurethral resection biopsy or a cold-cup biopsy, particularly in the high-risk group of bladder cancer patients, has been recommended for detecting prostatic urethral involvement. Management of superficial prostatic involvement by TCC is also unclear. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the value of conservative treatment options with intravesical agents when there is superficial involvement of the PU. Particularly, intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (BCG seems to be an effective treatment alternative in the management of superficial involvement of the PU by TCC. Close follow-up by cystoscopy and PU biopsy at 3-month intervals, particularly in intermediate and high-risk patients who respond to intravesical therapy and in whom cystectomy is appropriate, is recommended in order to detect persistent tumor, recurrences, or progression.

  14. Superficial urothelial cancer in the prostatic urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkali, Ziya; Canda, A Erdem

    2006-02-28

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a multifocal disease of the urinary tract that can also involve the prostatic urethra (PU). The exact incidence of superficial involvement of the PU in patients with bladder TCC is not well known. Bladder TCC may involve the prostate in 12-40% of the patients and the degree of involvement can include urethral mucosa, ducts, acini, and stroma of the gland, which has been shown to affect the outcome. Risk factors for superficial urothelial cancer in the PU are high-grade, multifocal bladder TCC and presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in the bladder. While visible tumors are easy to detect and resect, controversy still exists regarding the optimal technique to identify prostatic involvement by TCC. Prostatic urethral sampling by a transurethral resection biopsy or a cold-cup biopsy, particularly in the high-risk group of bladder cancer patients, has been recommended for detecting prostatic urethral involvement. Management of superficial prostatic involvement by TCC is also unclear. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the value of conservative treatment options with intravesical agents when there is superficial involvement of the PU. Particularly, intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (BCG) seems to be an effective treatment alternative in the management of superficial involvement of the PU by TCC. Close follow-up by cystoscopy and PU biopsy at 3-month intervals, particularly in intermediate and high-risk patients who respond to intravesical therapy and in whom cystectomy is appropriate, is recommended in order to detect persistent tumor, recurrences, or progression.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: disseminação de resistência antimicrobiana em efluente hospitalar e água superficial Pseudomonas aeruginosa: spread of antimicrobial resistance in hospital effluent and surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Bopp Fuentefria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar amostras de efluente do Hospital São Vicente de Paulo com amostras de água do Rio Passo Fundo, quanto ao perfil de susceptibilidade de isolados de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, para inferir sobre a presença de isolados de origem hospitalar em amostras de água superficial. A significância estatística entre os perfis de susceptibilidade das amostras foi testada por análise de variância e a comparação das amostras foi feita por contrastes de interesse. Foram identificados 198 isolados de Pseudomonas aeruginosa a partir das amostras analisadas. O fenótipo de multirresistência não foi observado nas amostras do Rio Passo Fundo, embora alguns isolados resistentes a carbapenêmicos tenham sido identificados, indicando a presença de contaminação com bactérias provenientes de um ambiente sob forte pressão seletiva. Diferenças significativas entre as amostras de água e efluente hospitalar foram observadas a partir da análise de variância por contrastes de interesse.The aim of this study was to compare sewage samples from Hospital São Vicente de Paulo with water samples from the Passo Fundo river, with regard to the susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, in order to make inferences about the presence of strains of hospital origin in surface water samples. The statistical significance between the susceptibility profiles of the samples was tested using analysis of variance, and the samples were compared by means of contrasts of interest. One hundred and ninety-eight isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were recovered from the samples analyzed. No phenotype for multiresistance was found in the samples from the Passo Fundo river, although some carbapenem-resistant isolates were identified, thereby indicating the presence of contamination with bacteria derived from an environment under strong selection pressure. Significant differences between the water and hospital effluent samples were

  16. Superficies de segundo orden

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Salazar, Luis Álvaro

    1987-01-01

    Este trabajo se propone poner al alcance de estudiantes de primeros semestres de carreras de aplicación de la matemática, un algoritmo proporcionado por el álgebra lineal, para tratar con mas generalidad, agilidad y libertad unos objetos de la geometría analítica de no fácil manipulación por otros métodos y que se conocen como superficies de segundo orden o superficies cuádricas. En este orden de ideas, el autor considera importante que con este tratamiento se incluya este tema en una asignat...

  17. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  18. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

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    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  19. Ancient migration routes of Austronesian-speaking populations in oceanic Southeast Asia and Melanesia might mimic the spread of nasopharyngeal carcinoma%Ancient migration routes of Austronesian-speaking populations in oceanic Southeast Asiaeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean Trejaut; Chien-Liang Lee; Ju-Chen Yen; Jun-Hun Loo; Marie Lin

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and non-recombining Y chromosome (NRY) are inherited uni-parentally from mother to daughter or from father to son respectively. Their polymorphism has initially been studied throughout populations of the world to demonstrate the "Out of Africa" hypothesis. Here, to correlate the distribution of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in different populations of insular Asia, we analyze the mtDNA information (lineages) obtained from genotyping of the hyper variable region (HVS Ⅰ & Ⅱ) among 1400 individuals from island Southeast Asia (ISEA), Taiwan and Fujian and supplemented with the analysis of relevant coding region polymorphisms. Uneages that best represented a clade (a branch of the genetic tree) in the phylogeny were further analyzed using complete genomic mtDNA sequencing. Finally, these complete mtDNA sequences were used to construct a most parsimonious tree which now constitutes the most up-to-date mtDNA dataset available on ISEA and Taiwan. This analysis has exposed new insights of the evolutionary history of insular Asia and has strong implications in assessing possible correlations with linguistic, archaeology, demography and the NPC distribution in populations within these regions. To obtain a more objective and balanced genetic point of view, slowly evolving biallelic Y single nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNP) was also analyzed. As in the first step above, the technique was first applied to determine affinities (macro analysis) between populations of insular Asia. Secondly, sixteen Y short tandem repeats (Y-STR) were used as they allow deeper insight (micro analysis) into the relationship between individuals of a same region. Together, mtDNA and NRY allowed a better definition of the relational, demographic, cultural and genetic components that constitute the make up of the present day peoples of ISEA. Outstanding findings were obtained on the routes of migration that occurred along with the spread of NPC during the settlement of

  20. Superficies de placer

    OpenAIRE

    Delli Gatti, Romina

    2012-01-01

    La presente tesis cuenta con 28 pinturas en distintos formatos y tama- ños a través de los cuales la artista investiga diferentes objetos de su entorno cotidiano que le resultan agradables y pueden llegar a transformar anímicamente. De esta manera se van construyendo superficies ideales, relacionadas principalmente con lo cotidiano y lo intimo, lo orgánico, lo industrial, el diseño textil y lo abstracto. Es un intento por generar o prolongar una sensación visual de agrado y placer a tra...

  1. Paradigma da disseminação local do carcinoma epidermóide da base de língua Paradigm of local spreading in squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue

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    Francisco S. Amorim Filho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão de disseminação local através da delimitação clínica da extensão da lesão primária assim como os subsítios invadidos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram analisados os prontuários de 290 pacientes com carcinoma epidermóide de base de língua no Departamento de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo - Brasil, de 1977 a 2000, sendo estadiados pelo TNM da UICC, e os resultados analisados pelo teste do Quiquadrado para tabelas Z x N (Cochran para estudo da associação dos sítios e dimensão da neoplasia em relação à invasão da linha média. RESULTADOS: Com predomínio dos homens (8:1 e da 6ª década de vida (41,0%, 83,8% eram etilistas e tabagistas e em 4,7% os hábitos estavam ausentes. Quanto aos sintomas, odinofagia (37,6%, linfonodo (21,7% e a média de tempo entre o 1º sintoma e o diagnóstico de 6 meses (62,0%. Quanto ao estadiamento, tivemos T1-T2 (18,3%, T3 (32,4%, T4(50,7%. Quanto à disseminação local, em direção à valécula (25,3%, epiglote (18,7%, glote (2,7%, anteriormente para o v lingual em (22,4% e póstero lateralmente para a prega faringloepiglótica (6,6% e seio piriforme (2,2%. Quanto a ultrapassagem da linha média, isso ocorreu em 66,2% dos casos, sendo 42,2% (T2, 54,2% (T3 e 82,9% (T4. CONCLUSÃO: o carcinoma epidermóide no estádio T4 ultrapassa a linha média da base da língua em 82,9%.AIM: To analyse the local spreading pattern through clinical delimitation of primary lesion extension as well as subsites involvement. STUDY DESIGN: Chart review. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Files of 290 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the base of the tongue from Department of Head Neck and Surgery and Otorhinolaryngology of Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo, Brazil from 1977 to 2000, were analysed. They were staged through TNM from UICC, and then through thoygh K square text with Z x

  2. Combined reflectance confocal microscopy-optical coherence tomography for delineation of basal cell carcinoma margins: an ex vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimia, Nicusor; Peterson, Gary; Chang, Ernest W.; Maguluri, Gopi; Fox, William; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) approach, integrated within a single optical layout, for diagnosis of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and delineation of margins. While RCM imaging detects BCC presence (diagnoses) and its lateral spreading (margins) with measured resolution of ˜1 μm, OCT imaging delineates BCC depth spreading (margins) with resolution of ˜7 μm. When delineating margins in 20 specimens of superficial and nodular BCCs, depth could be reliably determined down to ˜600 μm, and agreement with histology was within about ±50 μm.

  3. Feline paraneoplastic alopecia associated with metastasising intestinal carcinoma

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    Lisa-Maria Grandt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old male neutered British Shorthair cat was presented with a 6 month history of lethargy, weight loss and alopecia. Clinical examination revealed widespread alopecia of the ventral abdomen and hindlimbs. The skin in these areas was smooth and shiny and hairs could be easily epilated. Spontaneous pruritus was observed. Cytological examination of superficial impression smears showed a severe Malassezia species dermatitis and pyoderma. Ectoparasites could not be detected and no sign of dermatophytosis was visible in trichograms and Wood’s lamp analysis. Abdominal ultrasound found a focally thickened wall of the large intestine and multiple nodules in the liver. Fine-needle aspirates from lymph nodes, liver and altered colonic wall were consistent with an undifferentiated malignant neoplasia. The cat was euthanased at the owners’ request, owing to potential neoplasia with metastatic spread. At necropsy a metastasising carcinoma of the colonic wall was found, as well as a paraneoplastic alopecia. Relevance and novel information Feline paraneoplastic alopecia has been reported in association with pancreatic carcinoma, bile duct carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as with neuroendocrine pancreatic carcinoma and hepatosplenic plasma cell tumour. This is the first reported case of feline paraneoplastic alopecia associated with a colon carcinoma.

  4. Endoscopic and biopsy diagnoses of superficial, nonampullary, duodenal adenocarcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushima, Naomi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Keiko; Kawata, Noboru; Tanaka, Masaki; Takizawa, Kohei; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the accuracy of endoscopic or biopsy diagnoses of superficial nonampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (NADETs). METHODS: Clinicopathological data were reviewed for 84 superficial NADETs from 74 patients who underwent surgery or endoscopic resection between September 2002 and August 2014 at a single prefectural cancer center. Superficial NADETs were defined as lesions confined to the mucosa or submucosa. Demographic and clinicopathological data were retrieved from charts, endoscopic and pathologic reports. Endoscopic reports included endoscopic diagnosis, location, gross type, diameter, color, and presence or absence of biopsy. Endoscopic diagnoses were made by an endoscopist in charge of the examination before biopsy specimens were obtained. Endoscopic images were obtained using routine, front-view, high-resolution video endoscopy, and chromoendoscopy with indigocarmine was performed for all lesions. Endoscopic images were reviewed by at least two endoscopists to assess endoscopic findings indicative of carcinoma. Preoperative diagnoses based on endoscopy and biopsy findings were compared with histological diagnoses of resected specimens. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were assessed for endoscopic diagnosis and biopsy diagnosis. RESULTS: The majority (81%) of the lesions were located in the second portion of the duodenum. The median lesion diameter was 14.5 mm according to final histology. Surgery was performed for 49 lesions from 39 patients, and 35 lesions from 35 patients were endoscopically resected. Final histology confirmed 65 carcinomas, 15 adenomas, and 3 hyperplasias. A final diagnosis of duodenal carcinoma was made for 91% (52/57) of the lesions diagnosed as carcinoma by endoscopy and 93% (42/45) of the lesions diagnosed as carcinoma by biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of endoscopic diagnoses were 80%, 72%, and 78%, respectively, whereas those of biopsy diagnoses were 72%, 80%, and 74%, respectively

  5. Endoscopic removal or ablation of oesophageal and gastric superficial tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, P H; Aouattah, T; Piessevaux, H

    2006-01-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection was developed in Eastern countries as a curative treatment for superficial carcinomas in the stomach and oesophagus. Experience in Western countries is more recent and limited due to less frequent diagnosis of early gastric cancers compared to the Japanese and Korean populations and to more frequent use of ablation techniques such as argon plasma coagulation and photodynamic therapy in pre-neoplastic lesions and superficial tumours. This review summarizes the respective indications, advantages, disadvantages, limitations and complications of the different ablative and resection techniques in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Several methods are described such as electrocoagulation, argon plasma coagulation, photodynamic therapy, lift and cut resection, cap assisted aspiration and band ligation mucosectomy, and endoscopic submucosal dissection. Local results in more than 170 patients managed with endoscopic resection of oesophageal high grade dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma and gastric or Barrett's epithelium high grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma furthermore demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic resection practiced in experienced centres.

  6. Superficial microcirculation flow measurement using polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiwei; Morgan, S. P.; Xiao, Yunshi

    2008-12-01

    Depth discrimination of polarized light is used in investigating laser Doppler measurement of the superficial microcirculation in tissue. Using polarization Monte Carlo simulation, temporal point spread function and power spectral distribution of backscattered polarization remaining light firstly are used to prove polarized light to be valid in measuring moving blood cell perfusion and mean flow velocity. Then simulation of layered medium model demonstrate that relationships between blood flow perfusion and mean frequency shift are linear to medium flowing velocity, and the Doppler shift information in polarization remaining light mainly comes from lower layer medium up to about 14 times of mean free path (MFP) of medium investigated and can be considered that Doppler effects come only from lower layer of the medium. Simulations in three-layer tissue model show that moving blood cell perfusion and mean blood cell moving velocity calculated from polarization remaining are much more sensitive to lower layer flow velocity variation, and more irrelevant to deeper layer flow rate fluctuations, that further confirms Doppler measurement from polarization remaining light to be effective for superficial microcirculation in tissue. Factors affecting Laser Doppler measurement like medium absorption, percentage of moving particles in blood detector size are discussed.

  7. Observation of the curative effect immediate technique of the catheterization of the superficial temporal artery for retrograde intra-artery chemotherapy on postoperative chemotherapy administration in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas%即刻行颞浅动脉逆行置管化疗技术对口腔鳞癌患者术后化疗的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪鑫; 赵洪伟; 冯驰; 季平; 邱丽华; 李勇; 高翔; 刘平; 王涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:对口腔鳞癌患者采用不同化疗给药途径并观察奈达铂(nedaplatin,NDP)和5‐氟尿嘧啶(5‐fluorouracil,5‐Fu)的疗效和不良反应。方法将64例口腔鳞癌患者分为术后普通静脉化疗组(IV组,32例)和术中即刻行颞浅动脉逆行置管化疗组(IA组,32例),两组化疗方案都为DNP和5‐Fu,其中IA组剂量为IV组的1/3,观察疗效和不良反应。结果IA组疗效优于IV组(P<0.05),同时IA组在骨髓抑制、胃肠道反应及口腔黏膜炎等化疗后并发症较IV组轻,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论术中IA疗效明显,不良反应轻且安全,适合临床推广。%Objective Treat patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas with different chemotherapy administration route ,and observe the effects and adverse reaction of Nedaplatin (NDP) and 5‐Fluorouracil (5‐Fu) .Methods Sixty four patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas were randomly divided into two groups which included intravenous chemotherapy group (IV)(with 32 ca‐ses) and intra‐artery infusion via the superficial temporal artery group (IA)(with 32 cases) .Each group was treated with NDP and 5‐Fu .The dose of the IA group was one third of that of the IV group .Efficacy and side effect had been observed .Results Efficacy of the IA group was better than that of the IV group (P<0 .05) .Complications including bone marrow suppression ,gastrointestinal reactions and oral mucositis of the IA group was lighter than that of the IV group ,which was significantly different (P<0 .05) . Conclusion The retrograde intra‐arterial chemotherapy via the superficial temporal artery during the surgery is safe ,effective and useful ,and it is worth of further clinical application .

  8. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  9. Different survival of Barcelona clinic liver cancer stage C hepatocellular carcinoma patients by the extent of portal vein invasion and the type of extrahepatic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Dong Hyun; Cho, Ju-Yeon; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein invasion (PVI) and extrahepatic spread (ES) are two tumor-related factors that define advanced stage in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system (BCLC stage C), and the recommended first line therapy in this stage is sorafenib. However, the extent of PVI and the type of ES may affect patient prognosis as well as treatment outcome. This study analyzed survival of BCLC stage C HCC patients in order to see whether sub-classification of BCLC stage C is necessary. A total of 582 treatment naïve, BCLC stage C HCC patients [age: 54.3 ± 10.8 years, males = 494 (84.9%), hepatitis B virus (458, 78.7%)], defined by PVI and/or ES, were analyzed. Extent of PVI was divided into none, type I-segmental/sectoral branches, type II-left and/or right portal vein, and type III-main portal vein trunk. Type of ES was divided into nodal and distant metastasis. The extent of PVI and type of ES were independent factors for survival. When patients were sub-classified according to the extent of PVI and type of ES, the median survival was significantly different [11.7 months, 5.7 months, 4.9 months and 2.3 months for C1 (PVI-O/I without distant ES), C2 (PVI-II/III without distant ES), C3 (PVI-0/I with distant ES), and C4 (PVI-II/III with distant ES), respectively, P = 0.01]. Patients' survival was different according to the treatment modality in each sub-stage. Sub-classification of BCLC stage C according to the extent of PVI and type of ES resulted in a better prediction of survival. Also, different outcome was observed by treatment modalities in each sub-stage. Sub-classification of BCLC stage C is required to minimize heterogeneity within the same tumor stage, that will help better predict survival and to select optimal treatment strategies.

  10. Different survival of Barcelona clinic liver cancer stage C hepatocellular carcinoma patients by the extent of portal vein invasion and the type of extrahepatic spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Sinn

    Full Text Available Portal vein invasion (PVI and extrahepatic spread (ES are two tumor-related factors that define advanced stage in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC staging system (BCLC stage C, and the recommended first line therapy in this stage is sorafenib. However, the extent of PVI and the type of ES may affect patient prognosis as well as treatment outcome. This study analyzed survival of BCLC stage C HCC patients in order to see whether sub-classification of BCLC stage C is necessary. A total of 582 treatment naïve, BCLC stage C HCC patients [age: 54.3 ± 10.8 years, males = 494 (84.9%, hepatitis B virus (458, 78.7%], defined by PVI and/or ES, were analyzed. Extent of PVI was divided into none, type I-segmental/sectoral branches, type II-left and/or right portal vein, and type III-main portal vein trunk. Type of ES was divided into nodal and distant metastasis. The extent of PVI and type of ES were independent factors for survival. When patients were sub-classified according to the extent of PVI and type of ES, the median survival was significantly different [11.7 months, 5.7 months, 4.9 months and 2.3 months for C1 (PVI-O/I without distant ES, C2 (PVI-II/III without distant ES, C3 (PVI-0/I with distant ES, and C4 (PVI-II/III with distant ES, respectively, P = 0.01]. Patients' survival was different according to the treatment modality in each sub-stage. Sub-classification of BCLC stage C according to the extent of PVI and type of ES resulted in a better prediction of survival. Also, different outcome was observed by treatment modalities in each sub-stage. Sub-classification of BCLC stage C is required to minimize heterogeneity within the same tumor stage, that will help better predict survival and to select optimal treatment strategies.

  11. Superficie

    OpenAIRE

    Corna, Pablo María

    2015-01-01

    En la época posclásica del derecho romano se buscó, por parte del Estado y ciudadanos, utilizar ciertos terrenos que formaban parte de su patrimonio para arrendarlos por largo término —y a veces a perpetuidad— a personas que tenían el derecho de edificar o plantar mediante el pago de un precio llamado pensio o solárium. En el siglo II de nuestra era ya era utilizado para asentar tribus romanizadas en la frontera del imperio como para el cultivo de vid y los olivos que demoran varios...

  12. Superficie

    OpenAIRE

    Corna, Pablo María

    2015-01-01

    En la época posclásica del derecho romano se buscó, por parte del Estado y ciudadanos, utilizar ciertos terrenos que formaban parte de su patrimonio para arrendarlos por largo término —y a veces a perpetuidad— a personas que tenían el derecho de edificar o plantar mediante el pago de un precio llamado pensio o solárium. En el siglo II de nuestra era ya era utilizado para asentar tribus romanizadas en la frontera del imperio como para el cultivo de vid y los olivos que demoran varios años e...

  13. Glans-preserving surgery for superficial penile cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengchao; Song, Ninghong; Yin, Changjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jie; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Cheng, Gong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the safety and feasibility of glans-preserving surgery for superficial penile squamous cell carcinoma. Young patients with penile primary tumors exhibiting favorable histologic features were best suited for organ-sparing procedures, enabling them to avoid sexual disturbances. The study included 12 patients, 38-53 years of age (median age 46 years), with superficial lesions involving the glans penis, coronary sulcus, or shaft skin. After clinical staging and grading, those patients were offered a glans-preserving procedure to preserve the normal appearance and functional integrity of the glans penis. Of the 12 patients referred, the tumors were TaG1 in 4 patients, TaG2 in 3, TisG1 in 1, TisG2 in 1, T1G1 in 2, and T1G2 in 1. All patients returned to normal sexual activity 1 month postoperatively. Sexual function and sexual satisfaction were well maintained after surgery. The cosmetic results were considered satisfying/very satisfying by 83% (10 of 12 patients). Follow-up data were available on 12 patients at a mean follow-up of 62.5 months. Only 1 patient had recurrence 6 months after surgery, which was managed by a second glans-preserving surgery without recurrence. With careful patient selection and vigilant follow-up, anatomically suitable superficial penile cancer can be offered this glans-preserving surgery, while preserving function of the penis wherever possible.

  14. Superficial urinary bladder tumors treatment results: A 10-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Jablan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most common urinary bladder tumors are superficial tumors. Due to their tension to relapse and progress towards deeper layers after surgical therapy, an adequate therapy significantly contributed to the improvement of the results of urinary bladder tumors treatment. Staging and gradus of the tumor, presence of the carcinoma in situ (CIS or relapses significantly influenced the choice of the therapy. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of the intravesicelly applied BCG (Bacille Colmette - Guerin vaccine or chemiotherapy in the prevention of the relapses and further progression of superficial urinary bladder tumors. Methods. All of the diagnosed superficial tumors of bladder were removed by transurethral resection (TUR. After receiving the patohistological finding they were subjected to adjuvant therapy, immune BCG vaccine or chemiotherapy (epirubicin, doxorubicin, mitomycin-C. The third group did not accept adjuvant therapy, but had regularly scheduled cystoscopic controls. The appearance of relapses, progression of stage and grades of the tumor, as well as possible unwanted effects of adjuvant therapy were registered. Results. The applied immunotherapy (BCG influenced decreased tumor relapses (7% and statistically important difference between patients who had taken adjuvant chemotherapy (relapses 18.4% and those without this therapy was acknowledged. Grades of tumor did not show statistically significant difference on tumor relapse. A significantly longer period of time in the appearance of tumor relapse after BCG (29.33 months, had significant importance comparing to chemio (9.44 months or non-taken adjuvant therapy (9.84 months. Very small number of unwanted effects suggested an obligatory undertaking adjuvant therapy after TUR of superficial tumors. Conclusion. A significant decrease of relapses as well as avoidance of further progression of urinary bladder tumors, has introduced adjuvant therapy in

  15. Pathology of epithelial tumors & carcinoma in situ of bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofi, F K; Sesterhenn, I A

    1984-01-01

    We have reviewed the World Health Organization International Histological Classification of Tumors of Urinary Bladder. The classification recognizes papilloma as a distinct entity, which, although histologically benign, has a definite increased risk of progression to carcinoma. The classification further characterizes carcinomas of bladder in terms of certain features which have considerable influence on treatment, recurrence and prognosis. These are: the patterns of growth, the histology of the tumor, the grade, the pathological stage, the mode and location of spread, and the status of the remaining mucosa. We have called attention to the need for proper recognition of nonpapillary, noninvasive superficial mucosal lesions which have hitherto been dismissed as atypia and dysplasia. We have demonstrated that these lesions present a high risk for development of invasive carcinoma and recommended that the term "intraepithelial neoplasia" be employed and graded one to three to eliminate the use of terms atypia, dysplasia and CIS. We have emphasized the need for development of technics to demonstrate invasive and metastatic potential of epithelial tumors of bladder.

  16. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-02-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author).

  17. Late metastases of ovarian carcinoma. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M; Browde, S; Rabin, S; Murray, J; Nissenbaum, M

    1984-02-01

    In cases of ovarian carcinoma distant metastases are rarely discovered before local spread has become evident. This article reports an unusual case in which renal metastases appeared 9 years after the initial diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. A discussion of the histological features of the tumour and the spread of ovarian carcinoma is included.

  18. Late sequelae of superficial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, I.C.; Young, J.E.

    1984-10-01

    Superficial irradiation results in well recognized late sequelae including not only sclerosis and atrophy of skin and subcutaneous tissue, but also the development of benign and malignant tumors of skin and adjacent structures. The long latency between irradiation and its late effects allowed the early uncontrolled use of radiation treatment for benign conditions. The subsequent recognition of the causal relationship between tumors and previous irradiation has restricted its use to more appropriate purposes, although it is possible that it is still overused in some areas of dermatologic practice. Clinicians need to be aware of the time interval between irradiation and the development of its late sequelae, and the incidence of these sequelae. Appropriate irradiation exposure history should be a part of the evaluation of every patient.

  19. Superficial siderosis in the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pythinen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Paeaekkoe, E. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ilkko, E. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1995-02-01

    We describe a rare entity, superficial siderosis of the central nervous system, due to multiple small episodes of subarachnoid haemorrhage from any source. Non-specific neurological findings are associated with deposition of iron-containing pigments in the leptomeninges and superficial layers of the cortex. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates characteristic low signal in the meninges. (orig.)

  20. The accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of superficial bladder tumors in patients presenting with hematuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Papadoliopoulos, Ioannis; Dahanis, Stefanos; Zafiropoulos, Grigoris; Polizois, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been proposed as the initial test for detection of bladder carcinomas in patients presenting with hematuria, but the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of superficial bladder carcinoma has not been assessed. We prospectively evaluated 173 patients presenting to the outpatient department with painless hematuria by transabdominal ultrasound and cystoscopy. The tolerability of cystoscopy was also assessed. Of 148 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 39 with bladder carcinoma were identified by cystoscopy as having bladder carcinoma, while 34 were identified by ultrasonography. For ultrasonography, the sensitivity (87.1%), specificity (98.1%), positive predictive value (94.4%) and negative predictive value (95.4%) were good but not as good as cystoscopy. While the tolerability of cystoscopy is relatively low, it is still superior to ultrasonography in the evaluation of the bladder as a possible source of hematuria. PMID:19318748

  1. Cochlear implantation in superficial siderosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chong-Sun; Song, Jae-Jun; Park, Min-Hyun; Kim, Young Ho; Koo, Ja-Won

    2006-08-01

    Superficial siderosis (SS) of the central nervous system has been thought to be a rare condition that generates progressive hearing loss, ataxia, pyramidal signs, and dementia. The main cause of hearing loss by SS is thought to be neuronal. Because there is no histopathologic report of the human temporal bone in SS, there is a debate about the possibility of cochlear involvement. We present a 25-year-old man who was investigated for bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular failure after head trauma. On brain MRI, SS of the central nervous system was detected. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) showed no response on both sides. However, integrity of the eighth nerve was proved by the electrical ABR test on the right side and the patient benefited significantly from cochlear implantation. The sensorineural hearing loss in SS seems to be related to cochlear damage as well as neuronal damage. So, cochlear implantation would be a hearing rehabilitation modality for the sensorineural hearing loss caused by SS.

  2. Silicon superficial texturing bypulsed laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce, L.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Texturing of silicon surfaces with pulsed laser is made. The method is based on the formation of laser- induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS. The process is temporary characterized through the dynamic reflectance, thus determining the formation threshold of the structure. Relation between the different textures and the spectral reflectance of the samples before and after the treatment is also characterized. The mean value of spectral reflectance decreases up to a 6 %.

    Se realiza el texturado de superficies de silicio con un láser pulsado mediante la formación de una estructura periódica inducida por láser (LIPSS. Se caracteriza el proceso mediante reflectancia dinámica, determinándose el umbral de formación de la estructura. Se caracteriza el nivel de texturado midiendo la reflectancia espectral de las muestras antes y después del tratamiento. El valor medio de la reflectancia espectral disminuye hasta el 6 %.

  3. 口腔鳞状细胞癌在颈部淋巴结包膜外侵犯方向的初步探讨%Preliminary study of cervical lymph node extracapsular spread direction of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任振虎; 吴汉江

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the direction of cervical node extracapsular spread(ECS)of oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC). Methods:57 cases of OSCC were treated by combined radical operation.The relationship between ECS and T stage,tumor thick-ness,differentiation degree of OSCC,lymph node size and the ECS direction in each lymph node level were statistically analysed. Results:ECS was found in 30 of the 57 cases,and in 78 of the 174 metastasis positive lymph nodes.29 ECS nodes in levelⅠ,the frequency of the shallow side was 26,the deep side 13(P=0.000 3).But the difference in other levels was not statistically signifi-cant(P>0.05).It was not statistically significant between the incidence of ECS and T stage;it was statistically significant between the incidence of ECS and tumor thickness(P<0.05),tumor differentiation degree(P<0.05)and the lymph node size(P<0.01). Conclusion:ECS of OSCC on the shallow side is more than that in the deep side of lymph nodes in levelⅠ.ECS is positively corre-lated with the tumor thickness of OSCC,metastasied lymph node size;negatively related to the differentiation degree of OSCC.%目的:探讨口腔鳞状细胞癌在颈部淋巴结的包膜外侵犯(ECS)在各淋巴结分区的浸润方向的差异性。方法:纳入术后病理证实颈部淋巴结转移阳性患者57例。对淋巴结ECS方向的差异性及ECS与病灶T分级、浸润厚度、分化程度,淋巴结大小等之间的关系进行相关分析。结果:57例患者中,30例发生ECS,发生ECS的淋巴结共78个(转移阳性淋巴结共174个),ECS在淋巴结浅面的发生频次为66,深面为51。其中Ⅰ区发生ECS者29个淋巴结,浅面ECS频次为26,深面为13(P<0.05)。其他各区ECS的浸润方向差异无显著性。ECS发生率与原发灶T分期无明显相关性(P>0.05);与原发灶浸润厚度(P<0.05)、肿瘤分化程度(P<0.05)及淋巴结直径(P<0.01)相关。结论:口腔鳞癌颈

  4. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  5. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new...

  6. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new...

  7. Superficial Temporal Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Syed Muneeb; Imran, Muhammad; Qazi, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the superficial temporal artery are an uncommon vascular lesion of the external carotid system and most often the result of blunt head trauma. The frequency of pseudoaneurysms of the superficial temporal artery developing after craniotomy is exceedingly low and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of pseudoaneurysm of this type in a 45-year-old male who underwent craniotomy for excision of meningioma. One month postoperatively, the craniotomy flap exhibited an enormous diffuse pulsate swelling. The suspected diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm arising from superficial temporal artery was confirmed on angiography. Surgical excision was done and no recurrences of the tumor or aneurysm were noted on subsequent follow up. PMID:26501064

  8. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24474103

  9. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets.

  10. Primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab S. Shaikh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinomas are extremely rare tumors presenting with extensive locoregional spread at the time of diagnosis. Patients succumb to metastases within a couple of months. As a result, very few cases are reported in the literature until now. We present a case of a 62-year old female with non-functional sarcomatoid carcinoma of the right adrenal gland. There was no radiological evidence of locoregional metastases. Patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Follow up after 3 months showed para-aortic lymphadenopathy and similar left adrenal mass on computed tomography. Patient refused further treatment and succumbed to the disease. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  11. Information in CDS Spreads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Norden (Lars)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate how public and private information drives corporate CDS spreads before rating announcements. We find that CDS spreads of firms with higher news intensity move significantly earlier and stronger before rating announcements, which can be explained with public information fro

  12. The spreading of disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Kees; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda

    2008-12-12

    Imagine that the neighborhood you are living in is covered with graffiti, litter, and unreturned shopping carts. Would this reality cause you to litter more, trespass, or even steal? A thesis known as the broken windows theory suggests that signs of disorderly and petty criminal behavior trigger more disorderly and petty criminal behavior, thus causing the behavior to spread. This may cause neighborhoods to decay and the quality of life of its inhabitants to deteriorate. For a city government, this may be a vital policy issue. But does disorder really spread in neighborhoods? So far there has not been strong empirical support, and it is not clear what constitutes disorder and what may make it spread. We generated hypotheses about the spread of disorder and tested them in six field experiments. We found that, when people observe that others violated a certain social norm or legitimate rule, they are more likely to violate other norms or rules, which causes disorder to spread.

  13. Higher Order Spreading Models

    CERN Document Server

    Argyros, S A; Tyros, K

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the higher order spreading models associated to a Banach space $X$. Their definition is based on $\\ff$-sequences $(x_s)_{s\\in\\ff}$ with $\\ff$ a regular thin family and the plegma families. We show that the higher order spreading models of a Banach space $X$ form an increasing transfinite hierarchy $(\\mathcal{SM}_\\xi(X))_{\\xi<\\omega_1}$. Each $\\mathcal{SM}_\\xi (X)$ contains all spreading models generated by $\\ff$-sequences $(x_s)_{s\\in\\ff}$ with order of $\\ff$ equal to $\\xi$. We also provide a study of the fundamental properties of the hierarchy.

  14. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-09-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  15. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF MARGINAL SUPERFICIAL PERIODONTIUM AT MENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Premises: Sexual hormones may affect the general health condition of women, as early as puberty, continuing during pregnancy and also after menopause. Variations of the hormonal levels may cause different – either local or general – pathological modifications. Sexual hormones may also affect periodontal status, favourizing gingival inflammations and reducing periodontal resistance to the action of the bacterial plaque. Scope: Establishment of the correlations between the debut or the manifestation of menopause and the modifications produced in the superficial periodontium. Materials and method: Clinical and paraclinical investigations were performed on female patients with ages between 45 and 66 years, involving macroscopic, microscopic and radiological recording of the aspect of the superificial periodontium (gingiva. Results: Analysis of the histological sections evidenced atrophic and involutive modifications in the marginal superficial periodontium of female patients at menopause. Conclusions: Sexual hormones intervene in the histological equilibrium of the marginal superficial periodontium, influencing the periodontal health status, which explains the correlation between the subjective symptomatology specific to menopause and the histopatological aspect at epithelial level.

  16. [The colorectal carcinoma risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Andrzej; Wawrzyn-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria

    2005-12-01

    Colorectal carcinoma constitutes the second, as for the rate, death cause due to a malignant disease both in the western countries and in Poland. Despite deep knowledge concerning morphogenesis and spread of colorectal carcinoma as well as vast achievements in surgery, chemo- and radiotherapy, the percentage of 5-year-survivals still reaches 40%. According to most authors there are 4 risk factor categories: epidemiological, intestinal, dietetic, and mixed. It is well-known that colorectal carcinoma, like neoplasms localized in other organs and systems, is a disease, in which genetic mutations of somatic cells are the molecular base/source of the disease. The inner innervation of the colon seems to play an important role in carcinoma pathogenesis and spread. At present, 80% of colorectal carcinomas are diagnosed in the advanced stage, with infiltration exceeding the intestinal wall or spreading to neighboring organs, which gives full clinical symptoms. The prognosis as to survival and disease progression is usually poor. Therefore, the ways of early diagnosis, monitoring, and the knowledge of etiological factors are so important in medical practice.

  17. Estructura electrónica de superficies: estados de superficie y estados resonantes del calcio

    OpenAIRE

    H. Herrera; César Mora

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo presentamos un estudio detallado de la estructura electrónica de bandas de superficies orientadas (001) y (110) de cristales cúbicos centrados en la cara del Ca. Para nuestro estudio utilizamos la aproximación de enlace fuerte y el método de acoplamiento de la función de Green de superficie. Primero, construimos hamiltonianos de enlace fuerte en el formalismo de Slater Koster (SK). Utilizamos una base ortogonal de nueve orbitales atómicos (spd) por átomo en la celda unitaria....

  18. Spread codes and spread decoding in network coding

    OpenAIRE

    Manganiello, F; Gorla, E.; Rosenthal, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the class of spread codes for the use in random network coding. Spread codes are based on the construction of spreads in finite projective geometry. The major contribution of the paper is an efficient decoding algorithm of spread codes up to half the minimum distance.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Mucosal Biopsy versus Endoscopic Mucosal Resection in Barrett's Esophagus and Related Superficial Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsadek, Hany M; Radwan, Mamdouh M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Endoscopic surveillance for early detection of dysplastic or neoplastic changes in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) depends usually on biopsy. The diagnostic and therapeutic role of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in BE is rapidly growing. Objective. The aim of this study was to check the accuracy of biopsy for precise histopathologic diagnosis of dysplasia and neoplasia, compared to EMR in patients having BE and related superficial esophageal lesions. Methods. A total of 48 patients with previously diagnosed BE (36 men, 12 women, mean age 49.75 ± 13.3 years) underwent routine surveillance endoscopic examination. Biopsies were taken from superficial lesions, if present, and otherwise from BE segments. Then, EMR was performed within three weeks. Results. Biopsy based histopathologic diagnoses were nondysplastic BE (NDBE), 22 cases; low-grade dysplasia (LGD), 14 cases; high-grade dysplasia (HGD), 8 cases; intramucosal carcinoma (IMC), two cases; and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC), two cases. EMR based diagnosis differed from biopsy based diagnosis (either upgrading or downgrading) in 20 cases (41.67%), (Kappa = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.170-0.69). Conclusions. Biopsy is not a satisfactory method for accurate diagnosis of dysplastic or neoplastic changes in BE patients with or without suspicious superficial lesions. EMR should therefore be the preferred diagnostic method in such patients.

  20. A unique variation of superficial palmar arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji PJ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a unique variation in the arterial pattern of superficial palmar arch in which it was completed by one of the large terminal branches of radial artery. The origin of the arteria radialis indicis was also peculiar that it was arising from the communicating branch of the radial artery and further reinforced by the first dorsal metacarpal artery that joined it after reaching the volar aspect. Pertinent anatomical knowledge regarding the variations of the palmar arch is significant for the purposes of microvascular repairs and re-implantations.

  1. Increased serum midkine concentration as a possible tumor marker in patients with superficial esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Okazumi, Shin-ichi; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Muramatsu, Takashi; Ikematsu, Shinya; Sakuma, Sadatoshi; Ochiai, Takenori

    2003-01-01

    Midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor, is expressed in numerous cancer tissues and is reportedly elevated in patients with various neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of serum midkine concentration (S-MK) in patients with superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Pretreatment S-MK was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 135 healthy controls, 16 patients with benign esophageal disease, and 60 patients with primary superficial esophageal squamous cell cancer (SESCC). All patients with SESCC underwent curative resection. The disease was staged according to TNM/UICC guidelines. Serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag), and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) were also evaluated in the same populations. S-MK in patients with SESCC (388+/-411 pg/ml) was significantly higher than in benign esophageal disease or healthy controls (183+/-73 and 154+/-76 pg/ml, respectively). Using the mean + 2 standard deviations of healthy control S-MK (300 pg/ml) as the cut-off level, 50% of patients with esophageal SESCC were deemed positive. This S-MK positivity rate for detecting SESCC was significantly higher than for other tumor markers. Thus, S-MK may be useful as a tumor marker to detect SESCC.

  2. ENDOMETRIOSIS WITH LYMPHATIC SPREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmadha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic endometriosis is a common gynaecologic problem. But the histogenesis of endometriosis was not so clear. Various theories have been proposed by Pathologist in the past. Here we present a case of endometriosis of fallopian tube by lymphatic spread which has been proved histopathologically

  3. Spreading of miscible liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Daniel J.; Haward, Simon J.; Shen, Amy Q.; Fuller, Gerald G.

    2016-05-01

    Miscible liquids commonly contact one another in natural and technological situations, often in the proximity of a solid substrate. In the scenario where a drop of one liquid finds itself on a solid surface and immersed within a second, miscible liquid, it will spread spontaneously across the surface. We show experimental findings of the spreading of sessile drops in miscible environments that have distinctly different shape evolution and power-law dynamics from sessile drops that spread in immiscible environments, which have been reported previously. We develop a characteristic time to scale radial data of the spreading sessile drops based on a drainage flow due to gravity. This time scale is effective for a homologous subset of the liquids studied. However, it has limitations when applied to significantly chemically different, yet miscible, liquid pairings; we postulate that the surface energies between each liquid and the solid surface becomes important for this other subset of the liquids studied. Initial experiments performed with pendant drops in miscible environments support the drainage flow observed in the sessile drop systems.

  4. Virus spread in networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieghem, P. van; Omic, J.; Kooij, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the network characteristics on the virus spread is analyzed in a new-the N-intertwined Markov chain-model, whose only approximation lies in the application of mean field theory. The mean field approximation is quantified in detail. The N-intertwined model has been compared with the

  5. Autopsy findings in 14 patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Alcides; Reuter, Victor; Lezcano, Cecilia; Velazquez, Elsa; Codas, Ricardo; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe pathologic features found at autopsy of 14 patients with penile cancer. Nine patients died from disseminated disease; 5 of them presented local/regional recurrences. Five patients died from other causes, 2 of them postoperatively. Local recurrence sites were corpus cavernosum, Buck's fascia and urethra, regional skin, and prostate. Metastatic sites were lymph nodes (9 cases), liver (7 cases), lungs (6 cases), heart (5 cases), adrenals, bone and skin (3 cases each), thyroid and brain (2 cases each), and pancreas, spleen, and pleura (1 case each). Patients with heart metastasis had arrhythmias. Patients who died and who did not die from penile cancer had different profiles: low-grade superficial tumors with usual and warty subtypes versus high-grade deeply invasive basaloid or hybrid verrucous/sarcomatoid carcinomas. A natural history model for penile cancer routes of spread is proposed: local intrapeneal, regional and systemic nodes, regional skin, liver, lungs, heart, and other multiple sites.

  6. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Changwang; Cox, Ingemar J; Chain, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by \\textit{local spreading}, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and \\textit{global spreading}, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemics, and examine the optimum balance between spreading mechanisms in terms of achieving the maximum outbreak size. In a metapopulation, made up of many weakly connected subpopulations, we show that one can calculate an optimal tradeoff between local and global spreading which will maximise the extent of the epidemic. As an example we analyse the 2008 outbreak of the Internet worm Conficker, which uses hybrid spreading to propagate through the internet. Our results suggests that the worm would have been eve...

  7. Combinatorics of spreads and parallelisms

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Partitions of Vector Spaces Quasi-Subgeometry Partitions Finite Focal-SpreadsGeneralizing André SpreadsThe Going Up Construction for Focal-SpreadsSubgeometry Partitions Subgeometry and Quasi-Subgeometry Partitions Subgeometries from Focal-SpreadsExtended André SubgeometriesKantor's Flag-Transitive DesignsMaximal Additive Partial SpreadsSubplane Covered Nets and Baer Groups Partial Desarguesian t-Parallelisms Direct Products of Affine PlanesJha-Johnson SL(2,

  8. Microwave array applicator for radiometry-controlled superficial hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Jacobsen, Svein; Neuman, Daniel

    2001-06-01

    Hyperthermia therapy has been shown clinically effective for a variety of skin diseases but current heating equipment is inadequate for most patients. This effort describes the design and performance of a flexible microstrip array applicator intended for heating large regions of tissue over contoured anatomy while at the same time monitoring temperature of the underlying tissue by non-invasive radiometric sensing of blackbody radiation from the heated volume. For this dual purpose applicator, an array of broadband Archimedean spiral receive antennas is integrated into an array of Dual Concentric Conductor heating apertures. Applicator heating uniformity is assessed with electric field scans in homogenous muscle phantoms and with measured temperature distributions in clinical treatments of chestwall recurrence of breast carcinoma. The data demonstrate precisely controlled heating out to the perimeter of large (40 x 13 cm2) multiaperture conformal array applicators. Capabilities of the radiometry system are assessed by correlation of brightness temperatures measured in phantom loads of known temperature distribution as seen through an intervening 5 mm thick water bolus at constant 40°C. The radiometer demonstrates excellent sensitivity and an accuracy of +0.1-0.45°C for temperature measurements up to 5 cm deep in phantom when using a one dimensional weighting function analysis and up to 6 independent 500 MHz bandwidths within the 1-4 GHz range. The data clearly indicate that both heating and radiometric thermometry are possible using the same thin and flexible printed circuit board microstrip array applicator. Once development is complete, this dual mode conformal array applicator with multiplexed radiometric display system should provide significantly improved uniformity and ease of heating large area superficial tissue disease.

  9. Quasirandom Rumor Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Doerr, Benjamin; Sauerwald, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We propose and analyse a quasirandom analogue of the classical push model for disseminating information in networks ("randomized rumor spreading"). In the classical model, in each round each informed vertex chooses a neighbor at random and informs it, if it was not before. It is known that this simple protocol succeeds in spreading a rumor from one vertex to all others within O(log n) rounds on complete graphs, hypercubes, random regular graphs, Erdos-Renyi random graph and Ramanujan graphs with high probability. In the quasirandom model, we assume that each vertex has a (cyclic) list of its neighbors. Once informed, it starts at a random position of the list, but from then on informs its neighbors in the order of the list. Surprisingly, irrespective of the orders of the lists, the above mentioned bounds still hold. In some cases even better bounds than for the classical model can be shown.

  10. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking.

  11. Parotid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; de Stricker, Karin;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to investigate the expression of kit protein (KIT) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in parotid carcinomas in order to correlate the expression to histology and prognosis. Further we want to perform mutation analysis of KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 73 patients with parotid gland carcinomas were used for the study. The sections were stained with both KIT and EGFR polyclonal antibodies. Twelve KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas were examined for c-kit mutation in codon 816....... RESULTS: Of all carcinomas 25% were KIT-positive and 79% were EGFR-positive. Ninety-two percentage of the adenoid cystic carcinomas were KIT-positive. None of the adenoid cystic carcinomas had mutations in codon 816 of the c-kit gene. CONCLUSION: Neither KIT- nor EGFR-expression seem to harbour...

  12. Metabolomic change precedes apple superficial scald symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Hertog, Maarten L A T M

    2009-09-23

    Untargeted metabolic profiling was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with 'Granny Smith' apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least-squares discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, and storage duration. Models revealed metabolomic differentiation between untreated controls and fruit treated with DPA or 1-MCP within 1 week following storage initiation. Metabolic divergence between controls and DPA-treated fruit after 4 weeks of storage preceded scald symptom development by 2 months. alpha-Farnesene oxidation products with known associations to scald, including conjugated trienols, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, were associated with presymptomatic as well as scalded control fruit. Likewise, a large group of putative triterpenoids with mass spectral features similar to those of ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol were associated with control fruit and scald. Results demonstrate that extensive metabolomic changes associated with scald precede actual symptom development.

  13. Condiciones de la superficie deslizamiento con falla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Sierra B.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se modelan seis (6 taludes can diferentes ángulos de inclinación y peso unitario de 1.8 ton/m3, módulo de Young de 500 ton/m2 y relación de Poisson de 0.45. En cada uno de estos taludes se calculan los esfuerzos a través del talud y se determinan los puntos que están sometidos a mayores esfuerzos cortantes, correspondiendo estos a los estados de esfuerzos mas críticos, La ubicación de estos puntos es por donde comenzará y terminará la superficie de falla. Se obtiene un gráfico de diseño que permite obtener la pendiente máxima que debe tener un talud para que no se presente falla local en ningún punto.

  14. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated; Caracterizacion volumetrica y superficial de carbon activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Gerencia de Ciencias Basicas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  15. Testicular Metastases From Prostate Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrina Erlianti Rahardjo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis of prostate carcinoma to the testis is seldom reported. The tumour may spread from the prostatic urethra by retrograde venous extension, arterial embolism or through direct invasion into the lymphatics and lumen of the vas deferens. Clinical manifestations of secondary testicular tumours from the prostate are most often unsuspected clinically and are instead detected incidentally during orchidectomy. Less frequently, a palpable mass is detected, which may be confused with a primary testicular neoplasm. We report a case of a 66-year-old patient with adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and a left testicular tumour that was diagnosed as metastases from prostate carcinoma after radical orchidectomy.

  16. Orbital metastases from neuroendocrine carcinoma, masquerading as graves orbitopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sira, Mano; Clauss, Ralf P; Maclean, Chris; Rose, Geoffrey E

    2010-04-01

    We describe a patient with metastases from neuroendocrine carcinoma masquerading as Graves ophthalmopathy. This rare tumour possibly has a propensity for orbital spread, and we postulate a mechanism evoking the 'seed and soil' hypothesis.

  17. Traumatic aneurysm of superficial temporal artery. CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.; Tyagi, G.; Sahai, A.; Baijal, S.S. (G.B. Pant Hospital and M.A. Medical Coll., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Neurosurgery G.B. Pant Hospital and M.A. Medical Coll., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-12-01

    A case of traumatic pseudo-aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery documented on Computed tomography (CT) and angiography is described in a 55-year-old female, who was treated by surgical excision. Computed tomographic appearance of this lesion is illustrated. This represents, to our knowledge, the first CT demonstration of traumatic aneurysm of superficial temporal artery within a large subgaleal haematoma. (orig.).

  18. Risk factors associated with acquiring superficial fungal infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    school children in South Western Nigeria: a comparative study. Olaide Oke Olutoyin1, Olaniyi ... Keywords: Risk factors, school children, skin, superficial fungal infections. ..... study with poor hygiene, malnutrition, overcrowding and poor general social ... cial determinants of health that influence the presence of superficial ...

  19. Estimation of wave directional spreading

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deo, M.C.; Gondane, D.S.; SanilKumar, V.

    One of the useful measures of waves directional spreading at a given location is the directional spreading parameter. This paper presents a new approach to arrive at its characteristic value using the computational technique of Artificial Neural...

  20. Spindle Cell Carcinoma of the Mandibular Gingiva - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Sangeeta R; Gaonkar, Pratyusha P; Bhandare, Prachi R; Tripathi, Nidhi; Sridharan, Gokul

    2016-02-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a malignancy of epithelial origin often mimicking its mesenchymal counterpart thus posing a diagnostic challenge. It is a rare biphasic malignant tumour mostly encountered in the upper aerodigestive tract. The chief differential diagnoses of spindle cell carcinoma are true superficial sarcomas and they especially need to be differentiated from fibrosarcoma. This presentation reports a spindle cell carcinoma of the gingiva and highlights the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis. It also emphasizes the importance of accurate and thorough diagnosis of malignant spindle cell lesions to determine the appropriate therapeutic modality.

  1. Malar Bone Metastasis Revealing a Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsen Slim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common form of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. It is generally confined to the neck with or without spread to regional lymph nodes. Metastatic thyroid carcinomas are uncommon and mainly include lung and bone. Metastases involving oral and maxillofacial region are extremely rare. We described a case of malar metastasis revealing a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, presenting with pain and swelling of the left cheek in a 67-years-old female patient with an unspecified histological left lobo-isthmectomy medical history. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of a malar metastasis from a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  2. A Case of High-grade Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder in a Pediatric Patient With Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Liza; Danialan, Richard; Kim, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma is a rare entity in children, especially in the first decade of life. The majority of these tumors are of low grade and noninvasive. We report an interesting case of a high-grade superficial transitional cell carcinoma in a 3-year-old girl with Turner syndrome.

  3. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  4. Xenotransplanted human prostate carcinoma (DU145) cells develop into carcinomas and cribriform carcinomas: ultrastructural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M; Neal, Deborah R; Summers, Jack L; Taper, Henryk S

    2012-10-01

    Androgen-independent, human prostate carcinoma cells (DU145) develop into solid, carcinomatous xenotransplants on the diaphragm of nu/nu mice. Tumors encompass at least two poorly differentiated cell types: a rapidly dividing, eosinophilic cell comprises the main cell population and a few, but large basophilic cells able to invade the peritoneal stroma, the muscular tissue, lymph vessels. Poor cell contacts, intracytoplasmic lumina, and signet cells are noted. Lysosomal activities are reflected by entoses and programmed cell deaths forming cribriform carcinomas. In large tumors, degraded cells may align with others to facilitate formation of blood supply routes. Malignant cells would spread via ascites and through lymphatics.

  5. Metastatic patterns of bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, W S; Mehio, A R

    1984-01-01

    The authors reviewed 227 new bladder cancers from two main hospitals in Beirut Lebanon. They analyzed the morphologic features of these tumours, insisting particularly on the number, the size, the site, the grade, the stage, the mode of spread and the vascular permeation. The latter four factors appear to be directly related to the metastatic spread of these tumours. The metastatic patterns are summarized, regional lymph node metastases being the main problem because of therapeutic implications (radical surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy). The problems of generalized carcinoma, unusual lymph node metastases and solitary distant metastases are also considered.

  6. Fundamentals of spread spectrum modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ziemer, Rodger E

    2007-01-01

    This lecture covers the fundamentals of spread spectrum modulation, which can be defined as any modulation technique that requires a transmission bandwidth much greater than the modulating signal bandwidth, independently of the bandwidth of the modulating signal. After reviewing basic digital modulation techniques, the principal forms of spread spectrum modulation are described. One of the most important components of a spread spectrum system is the spreading code, and several types and their characteristics are described. The most essential operation required at the receiver in a spread spect

  7. Rifts in spreading wax layers

    CERN Document Server

    Ragnarsson, R; Santangelo, C D; Bodenschatz, E; Ragnarsson, Rolf; Ford, J Lewis; Santangelo, Christian D; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    1995-01-01

    We report experimental results on the rift formation between two freezing wax plates. The plates were pulled apart with constant velocity, while floating on the melt, in a way akin to the tectonic plates of the earth's crust. At slow spreading rates, a rift, initially perpendicular to the spreading direction, was found to be stable, while above a critical spreading rate a "spiky" rift with fracture zones almost parallel to the spreading direction developed. At yet higher spreading rates a second transition from the spiky rift to a zig-zag pattern occurred. In this regime the rift can be characterized by a single angle which was found to be dependent on the spreading rate. We show that the oblique spreading angles agree with a simple geometrical model. The coarsening of the zig-zag pattern over time and the three-dimensional structure of the solidified crust are also discussed.

  8. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis.

  9. Sebaceous Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill Medical; 2008. p. 240-9. Nelson BR, Hamlet KR, Gillard M et al. “Sebaceous carcinoma.” J ... Acad Dermatol . 2003 48:401-8. Nelson BR, Hamlet KR, Gillard M et al . “Sebaceous carcinoma.” J ...

  10. UNILATERAL INCOMPLETE SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of hand is revealed by its rich vascularity contributed by superficial and deep palmar arches (SPA and DPA.Superficial palmar arch is located superficial to flexor tendons, and deep palmar arch deep to lumbrical muscles. Variations are found more often in SPA than DPA, later being more or less constant. During routine undergraduate dissection, we observed, unilateral incomplete SPA being formed by superficial palmar branches of ulnar and radial artery in the right hand of a male cadaver. These two arteries remained independent without anastomosis forming incomplete arch (SPA.The superficial branch of ulnar artery entered hand superficial to flexor retinaculum and supplied middle, ring and little finger by three branches. The superficial branch of radial artery via its two branches supplied index finger and thumb. Classical SPA formation was seen on left side. The presence of an incomplete SPA as in this case is a potential danger in RA harvesting for CABG.Variations in SPA play a pivotal role in microvascular surgical procedures of hand, RAinterventions and arterial graft applications.

  11. [Carcinoma of the hypophysis with acromegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusková, J; Chlumská, A; Vilikusová, E; Marek, J; Sprincl, L

    1984-08-01

    A 38-year old man deceased after being operated on recurring pituitary adenoma removed 13 years ago. Autopsy showed a massive spread of tumour on dura and in subarachnoid space. Growth hormone producing cells were found prevailing in the primary tumour as well as in secondaries by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence which concurred with acromegaly. Many cells produced prolactin. The tumour spreading discontinually in subdural and subarachnoid space was taken for a carcinoma.

  12. An effective ultrasonic strain measurement-based shear modulus reconstruction technique for superficial tissues - demonstration on in vitro pork ribs and in vivo human breast tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Chikayoshi; Nakayama, Kiyoshi; Kubota, Mitsuhiro

    2000-06-01

    An effective shear modulus reconstruction technique is described which uses ultrasonic strain measurements for diagnosis of superficial tissues, i.e. our previously developed ultrasonic strain measurement and shear modulus reconstruction methods are combined and enhanced. The technique realizes very low computational load, yet yields fairly high quantitativeness, high stability and spatial resolution, and large dynamic range. The suitability of the method is demonstrated on in vitro pork ribs and in vivo human breast tissues (fibroadenoma and scirrhous carcinoma).

  13. Prevalence of superficial siderosis following singular, acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummel, N.; Bochmann, K. [Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Bernau, C. [Leibniz-Rechenzentrum, Munich (Germany); Thon, N. [Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Linn, J. [Technical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Superficial siderosis is presumably a consequence of recurrent bleeding into the subarachnoid space. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of superficial siderosis after singular, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the long term. We retrospectively identified all patients who presented with a singular, acute, aneurysmal SAH at our institution between 2010 and 2013 and in whom a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2*-weighted imaging was available at least 4 months after the acute bleeding event. MRI scans were judged concerning the presence and distribution of superficial siderosis. Influence of clinical data, Fisher grade, localization, and cause of SAH as well as the impact of neurosurgical interventions on the occurrence of superficial siderosis was tested. Seventy-two patients with a total of 117 MRIs were included. Mean delay between SAH and the last available MRI was 47.4 months (range 4-129). SAH was Fisher grade 1 in 2 cases, 2 in 4 cases, 3 in 10 cases, and 4 in 56 cases. Superficial siderosis was detected in 39 patients (54.2 %). In all patients with more than one MRI scan, localization and distribution of superficial siderosis did not change over time. Older age (p = 0.02) and higher degree of SAH (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with the development of superficial siderosis. Superficial siderosis develops in approximately half of patients after singular, aneurysmal SAH and might be more common in patients with an older age and a greater amount of blood. However, additional factors must play a role in whether a patient is prone to develop superficial siderosis or not. (orig.)

  14. Cutaneous metastasis from carcinoma of tonsil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasmajumdar S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematogenous spread from carcinoma of tonsil is an uncommon event and skin is an extremely rare site of metastasis. We encountered a 40-year-old male patient who initially presented with carcinoma of the tonsil with T3N2cMO disease and treated by curative radiotherapy. After about 2 years, he developed a skin lesion in the periorbital region which on cytological examination turned out to be metastasis from tonsillar carcinoma. The present paper describes this rare case report along with a brief review of the literature.

  15. Comportamiento hidráulico de los sistemas de riego por goteo superficial y sub superficial

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Para su evaluación el sistema de riego fue montado con un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, con cuatro tratamientos, uno con el sistema de riego por goteo superficial y tres con sistemas de riego por goteo sub superficiales con emisores soterrados a 15, 30 y 45 centímetros de profundidad. Se realizaron evaluaciones de laboratorio y de campo de los principales parámetros hidráulicos del sistema, al inicio de la primera campaña de riego y al final de la tercera, obteniéndose en el...

  16. Use of bacille Calmette-Guérin in superficial bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J; Persad, R; Gillatt, D

    2002-01-01

    Intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used by urologists for several years after its first reported use as a cancer therapy in the 1930s. Morales in 1976 described the usage of BCG as a once weekly intravesical instillation for six weeks; this is a treatment regimen that still exists today. Its success as a treatment depends on it being used appropriately. It is employed: (1) to treat carcinoma in situ or occasionally residual papillary tumours; (2) to reduce the number and frequency of recurrent high grade superficial tumours; and (3) to prevent disease progression (although this remains a controversial point, on which there is no consensus view). Unfortunately, the more widespread use of BCG is often limited due its high side effect profile. Present research is directed towards reducing its side effect profile, improving its efficacy, and understanding its exact mechanism of action, which is not fully understood. PMID:12185215

  17. The analysis of ultrasonographic findings of breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    We retrospectively analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of 34 cases of breast carcinoma that were confirmed by histopathologic examinations. Most of breast carcinoma have been described with lobulated hypoechoic solid masses, and frequent attenuation of the sound beam on ultrasonogram. In the present study, breast carcinoma showed lobulated or spiculated margin in 91%, in homogenous internal echogenicity in 88%, hypoechogenicity in 79%, smallT/AP ratio (T/AP<1.4) in 88%, disruption of superficial layer in 74%, posterior sonic attenuation in 38%, and echogenic rim in 76%. Although these ultrasonographic findings were rather characteristic for the breast carcinoma, they had been described to be found also in benign lesion in the previous studies. Therefore, we conclude that the ultrasonographic diagnosis of breast carcinoma should be made in connection with the careful physical examination and other imaging techniques

  18. Superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma: report of four cases and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-feng; WU Yu-yu; WANG Jian

    2010-01-01

    @@ In 2001, Laskin et al~1 firstly described a series of 14 seemly distinctive mesenchymal tumors that occurred exclusively in the superficial lamina propria of the vagina and cervix of middle to old-aged women. They proposed the term "superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma (SCVM)" to highlight the unique features of this tumor: the superficial subepithelial location and myofibroblastic differentiation of the tumor cells. SCVM appears less well recognized with only three additional reports have been documented in the English literatures.~(2-4) In this study, we described four new cases of SCVM to further characterize the clinical and pathological features of this rare entity.

  19. Superficial Fibromatosis Mimicking Glomus Tumor of the Second Toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyang Jeong; Chae, Soo Uk; Kim, Gang Deuk; Kim, Yeung Jin; Choi, Deok Hwa; Park, Jae In

    2015-09-01

    Various types of tumor can occur in the subungual space, including glomus tumors, subungual exostosis, hemangioma, epidermal cysts, and malignant tumors. While fibromatosis can occur at various sites throughout the body, it is very rarely seen in the toe. Here, we are the first to report a case of superficial fibromatosis mimicking a glomus tumor in the subungual space of the second toe. The presentation of this condition shows the possibility of encountering uncommon superficial fibromatosis in the distal phalanx of the toe, and suggests that superficial fibromatosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a glomus tumor in the toe.

  20. Revisión sobre modelado de superficies complejas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Osorio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una revisión de las técnicas más empleadas para la obtención de modelos computacionales de superficies complejas. Estas representaciones están siendo utilizadas en diversas áreas de la industria mediante procedimientos de ingeniería reversa. Las tres principales categorías son las superficies funcionales (implícitas, paramétricas y las superficies complejas simplicial (mallas triangulares. Se realiza un paralelo entre estos métodos y se exponen las ventajas y las desventajas de cada una de estas representaciones.

  1. [Vaginal metastasis of renal carcinoma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, P; Marx, F J

    1977-11-01

    Four cases of vaginal metastases of renal carcinoma are reported. This is an incidence of 1.3% in 313 operated patients (from 1/1/70 to 12/31/76). A surgical treatment of primary renal carcinoma and vaginal metastasis seems to be reasonable in there cases. Since in accordance with the literature metastatic involvement of vagina and vulva seems not to be a very rare finding, the diagnostic in renal carcinoma should imply a gynecologic examination. Although in carcinoma of the left kidney metastatic spreading into the external female genitalia most probably occurs by a retrograde venous pathway (left ovarian vein), the way of dissemination in carcinoma of the right side is unclear.

  2. Multicystic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder with gland-like lumina and with signet-ring cells. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hes Ondrej

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the case of 80-year-old male with superficial papillary urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with striking multicystic architecture with a combination of features of urothelial carcinoma with gland-like lumina, with signet-ring cell differentiation and microcystic pattern. However, the tumor shared the morphologic features of several variants of urothelial carcinoma, the most important differential diagnosis covered so-called florid Brunneriosis, cystitis cystica, and primary adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder.

  3. Antibody conjugate radioimmunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Perkins

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The administration of antibody conjugates for cancer therapy is now proving to be of clinical value. We are currently undertaking a programme of clinical studies using the monoclonal antibody C595 (IgG3 which reacts with the MUC1 glycoprotein antigen that is aberrantly expressed in a high proportion of bladder tumours. Radioimmunoconjugates of the C595 antibody have been produced with high radiolabelling efficiency and immunoreactivity using Tc-99m and In-111 for diagnostic imaging, and disease staging and the cytotoxic radionuclides Cu-67 and Re-188 for therapy of superficial bladder cancer. A Phase I/II therapeutic trail involving the intravesical administration of antibody directly into the bladder has now begun.A administração de anticorpos conjugados para o tratamento do câncer está agora provando ser de valor clínico. Nós estamos atualmente realizando um programa de estudos clínicos usando o anticorpo monoclonal C595 (IgG3 que reage com a glicoproteína MUC1 que está aberrantemente expressa numa alta proporção de tumores de bexiga. Tem sido produzidos radioimunoconjugados do anticorpo C595, com alta eficiência de radiomarcação e a imunoreatividade, usando-se o Tc-99m e In-111, para o diagnóstico por imagem e estagiamento de doenças. Tem sido produzidos, também, radionuclídeos citotóxicos (Cu-67 e Re-188 para o tratamento de cânceres superficiais de bexiga. A fase terapêutica I/II já se iniciou, envolvendo a administração intravesical do anticorpo diretamente na bexiga.

  4. Clinico-pathological signiifcance of extra-nodal spread in special types of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ecmel Isik Kaygusuz; Handan Cetiner; Hulya Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the signiifcance of extra-nodal spread in special histological sub-types of breast cancer and the relationship of such spread with prognostic parameters. Methods: A total of 303 breast cancer cases were classiifed according to tumor type, and each tumor group was subdivided according to age, tumor diameter, lymph node metastasis, extra-nodal spread, vein invasion in the adjacent soft tissue, distant metastasis, and immunohistochemical characteristics [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) existence, p53, c-erbB-2, and proliferative rate (Ki-67)]. hTe 122 cases with extra-nodal spread were clinically followed up. Results: An extra-nodal spread was observed in 40% (122 cases) of the 303 breast cancer cases. hTe spread most frequently presented in micro papillary carcinoma histological sub-type (40 cases, 75%), but least frequently presents in mucinous carcinoma (2 cases, 8%). Patients with extra-nodal spread had a high average number of metastatic lymph nodes (8.3) and a high distant metastasis rate (38 cases, 31%) compared with patients without extra-nodal spread. Conclusion: hTe existence of extra-nodal spread in the examined breast cancer sub-types has predictive value in forecasting the number of metastatic lymph nodes and the disease prognosis.

  5. Heterogeneity in risk-behaviour matters; Modelling the spread of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus among injecting drug users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.S. de

    2014-01-01

    By sharing injecting equipment, blood borne infections are spread among Injecting Drug Users (IDU). One infection that affects many IDU is the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), which can cause liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. The virus that causes AIDS, HIV, is also spread by this route. In this thesis,

  6. A laterally-spreading tumor in a colonic interposition treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideaki; Bando; Hiroaki; Ikematsu; Kuang-I; Fu; Yasuhiro; Oono; Takashi; Kojima; Keiko; Minashi; Tomonori; Yano; Takahisa; Matsuda; Yutaka; Saito; Kazuhiro; Kaneko; Atsushi; Ohtsu

    2010-01-01

    Herein we describe an early colonic carcinoma which developed in a colonic interposition 14 years after surgery for esophageal cancer, which was successfully treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). An 80-year-old man underwent colonic interposition between the upper esophagus and stomach after surgery for an early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in 1994. He received a surveillance endoscopy, and a laterally-spreading tumor of granular type, approximately 20 mm in size, was identified in the co...

  7. Functional Compartmentalization of the Human Superficial Masseter Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán-Venegas, Rodrigo A.; Biotti Picand, Jorge L.; Francisco J Berral de la Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM) muscle's motor units using high-density surface e...

  8. Imaging of the most frequent superficial soft-tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, Melanie; Taieb, Sophie; Ceugnart, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Penel, Nicolas [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Oncology, Lille (France); Mortier, Laurent [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Dermatology, Hopital Claude Huriez, Lille (France); Vanseymortier, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Surgery, Lille (France); Robin, Y.M. [Centre Oscar Lambret, Departement of Pathology, Lille (France); Gosset, Pierre [Groupement Hospitalier de l' Institut Catholique-Faculte Libre de Medecine de Lille, Department of Pathology, Hopital Saint-Philibert, Lomme (France); Cotten, Anne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Centre Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-03-15

    Superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors located within the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous layers. Most superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors; yet, the risk of local recurrence is high, and initial wide surgery is the main prognostic factor. Some of these superficial sarcomas may grow, following an infiltrative pattern, and their real extent may be underestimated clinically. Imaging techniques are useful to determine precisely the real margins of the tumor, especially in cases of clinically doubtful or recurrent or large superficial lesions. Imaging tools enable one to determine the relationship with the superficial fascia separating the subcutaneous layer from the underlying muscle. In our institution ultrasonographic examination is followed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging when the size of the lesion exceeds 3-5 cm. Imaging assessment is performed prior to biopsy, enabling optimal surgical management. Imaging features of the main superficial sarcomas are detailed in the following article, according to their major locations: those arising in the epidermis and/or dermis, which are most often diagnosed by dermatologists, and the subcutaneous sarcomas. (orig.)

  9. Clinical, microscopic and microbial characterization of exfoliative superficial pyoderma-associated epidermal collarettes in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banovic, Frane; Linder, Keith; Olivry, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    The microscopic and microbial features of the spreading epidermal collarettes of canine exfoliative superficial pyodermas are poorly characterized. To characterize the clinical, cytological, microbial and histopathological features of epidermal collarettes in five dogs. Cytology from the margins of collarettes identified neutrophils, extracellular and intracellular cocci within neutrophils but no acantholytic keratinocytes. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses identified all bacterial isolates from the centre and margin of five epidermal collarettes as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. PCRs of collarette-associated Staphylococcus strains did not amplify genes encoding for the known exfoliative toxins expA and expB, whereas the predicted siet and speta amplification products were detected in all isolates. Microscopically, epidermal collarettes consisted of interfollicular, epidermal spongiotic pustules. Advancing edges of lesions consisted of peripheral intracorneal clefts in the deep stratum disjunctum above an intact stratum compactum; they contained lytic neutrophil debris, bacterial cocci and fluid, but no acantholytic keratinocytes. This intracorneal location of bacteria was confirmed using Gram stains and fluorescent in situ hybridization with eubacterial- and Staphylococcus-specific probes. The indirect immunofluorescence staining patterns of desmoglein-1, desmocollin-1, claudin-1, E-cadherin and corneodesmosin were discontinuous and patchy in areas of spongiotic pustules, whereas only that of corneodesmosin was weaker and patchy in advancing collarette edges. Epidermal collarettes represent unique clinical and histological lesions of exfoliative superficial pyodermas that are distinct from those of impetigo and superficial bacterial folliculitis. The characterization of possible causative staphylococcal exfoliatin proteases and the role of corneodesmosin in collarette pathogenesis deserve further investigation. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Trans-synaptic spread of tau pathology in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available Tauopathy in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease starts in the entorhinal cortex (EC and spreads anatomically in a defined pattern. To test whether pathology initiating in the EC spreads through the brain along synaptically connected circuits, we have generated a transgenic mouse model that differentially expresses pathological human tau in the EC and we have examined the distribution of tau pathology at different timepoints. In relatively young mice (10-11 months old, human tau was present in some cell bodies, but it was mostly observed in axons within the superficial layers of the medial and lateral EC, and at the terminal zones of the perforant pathway. In old mice (>22 months old, intense human tau immunoreactivity was readily detected not only in neurons in the superficial layers of the EC, but also in the subiculum, a substantial number of hippocampal pyramidal neurons especially in CA1, and in dentate gyrus granule cells. Scattered immunoreactive neurons were also seen in the deeper layers of the EC and in perirhinal and secondary somatosensory cortex. Immunoreactivity with the conformation-specific tau antibody MC1 correlated with the accumulation of argyrophilic material seen in old, but not young mice. In old mice, axonal human tau immunoreactivity, especially at the endzones of the perforant pathway, was greatly reduced. Relocalization of tau from axons to somatodendritic compartments and propagation of tauopathy to regions outside of the EC correlated with mature tangle formation in neurons in the EC as revealed by thioflavin-S staining. Our data demonstrate propagation of pathology from the EC and support a trans-synaptic mechanism of spread along anatomically connected networks, between connected and vulnerable neurons. In general, the mouse recapitulates the tauopathy that defines the early stages of AD and provides a model for testing mechanisms and functional outcomes associated with disease progression.

  11. Drenaje suplementario del sistema venoso superficial en colgajos pediculados Supplementary drainage of superficial venous system in pedicled flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los colgajos pediculados pueden sufrir edema y congestión debido a que su drenaje a trevés del sistema venoso superfical es imposible y el flujo hacia el sistema profundo a nivel del pedículo es precario. Esta situación suele evolucionar hacia la necrosis parcial o la pérdida total del colgajo en pocas horas. La apertura del sistema venoso superficial permite el drenaje adecuado de los tejidos transferidos y evita estas complicaciones. Este artículo analiza el papel de las anastomosis microquirúrgicas en el sistema venoso superficial de los colgajos pediculados. Esta técnica permite comunicar el sistema venoso superfical de los tejidos transferidos con el sistema venoso superficial del territorio que rodea al defecto. Presentamos los resultados obtenidos con esta técnica en colgajos de perforante en hélice, colgajos miocutáneos, colgajos neurocutáneos y colgajos fasciograsos volteados.The pedicled flaps can suffer edema and congestion due to the impossibility of drainage toward the superficial venous system and the precarious flow via the deep system at the level of the pedicle. The evolution of this situation is usually partial necrosis or total loss of the flap in a few hours. The opening of the venous superficial system achieves an appropriate drainage of the transfered tissues and avoids these complications. In this article we analyze the role of the microsurgical anastomosis at the level of the superficial venous system of pedicled flaps. This technique allows to communicate the superficial venous system of the transfered tissues with the superficial venous system of the territory around the defect. We report the results with this method in propeller perforator flaps, miocutaneous flaps, neurocutaneous flaps and adipofascial turn over flaps.

  12. Heat transfer and fire spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal E. Anderson

    1969-01-01

    Experimental testing of a mathematical model showed that radiant heat transfer accounted for no more than 40% of total heat flux required to maintain rate of spread. A reasonable prediction of spread was possible by assuming a horizontal convective heat transfer coefficient when certain fuel and flame characteristics were known. Fuel particle size had a linear relation...

  13. Amniotic membrane transplant with superficial keratectomy in superficial corneal degenerations: Efficacy in a rural population of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Aparna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the applicability and efficacy of superficial keratectomy with transplantation of preserved amniotic membrane in superficial corneal degenerations in a rural population of Northern India in terms of visual improvement and surface regularization. Settings: Peripheral referral center in rural north India. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective non-comparative interventional case series where 24 eyes of 20 farmers from peripheral rural areas (M:F = 19:1 with visually significant superficial degenerative disorders (15 eyes with climatic droplet keratopathy one of which was associated with Salzmann nodular degeneration and nine eyes with band-shaped keratopathy were subjected to amniotic membrane transplantation (single or multiple layer combined with superficial keratectomy. Subjective and objective outcomes after surgery were evaluated and analyzed and statistical significance of the outcomes in various disorders was evaluated. Results: Eighty-eight per cent (21 eyes had symptomatic relief from distressing preoperative symptoms while postoperative visual improvement by two or more lines was achieved in 23 eyes (96% over a mean follow-up period of 26.8 ± 10.2 months. The surface irregularity present preoperatively was relieved in 23 cases while postoperative decline of vision with visually significant scarring was seen in one case (4%, which was labeled as failure. Conclusions: Amniotic membrane transplant with superficial keratectomy helped achieve subjective comfort, visual rehabilitation and clinical regularization of the corneal surface in superficial corneal degenerations during the mean followup of 26.8 ± 10.2 months in rural setups.

  14. Drop spreading with random viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We examine theoretically the spreading of a viscous liquid drop over a thin film of uniform thickness, assuming the liquid's viscosity is regulated by the concentration of a solute that is carried passively by the spreading flow. The solute is assumed to be initially heterogeneous, having a spatial distribution with prescribed statistical features. To examine how this variability influences the drop's motion, we investigate spreading in a planar geometry using lubrication theory, combining numerical simulations with asymptotic analysis. We assume diffusion is sufficient to suppress solute concentration gradients across but not along the film. The solute field beneath the bulk of the drop is stretched by the spreading flow, such that the initial solute concentration immediately behind the drop's effective contact lines has a long-lived influence on the spreading rate. Over long periods, solute swept up from the precursor film accumulates in a short region behind the contact line, allowing patches of elevated v...

  15. Sinking, wedging, spreading - viscous spreading on a layer of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergemann, Nico; Juel, Anne; Heil, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    We study the axisymmetric spreading of a sessile drop on a pre-existing layer of the same fluid in a regime where the drop is sufficiently large so that the spreading is driven by gravity while capillary and inertial effects are negligible. Experiments performed with 5 ml drops and layer thicknesses in the range 0.1 mm drop evolves as R tn , where the spreading exponent n increases with the layer thickness h. Numerical simulations, based on the axisymmetric free-surface Navier-Stokes equations, reveal three distinct spreading regimes depending on the layer thickness. For thick layers the drop sinks into the layer, accompanied by significant flow in the layer. By contrast, for thin layers the layer ahead of the propagating front is at rest and the spreading behaviour resembles that of a gravity-driven drop spreading on a dry substrate. In the intermediate regime the spreading is characterised by an advancing wedge, which is sustained by fluid flow from the drop into the layer.

  16. Biochemical composition of the superficial layer of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, R; Grubelnik, A; Roos, S; Dora, C; Born, W; Troxler, H

    2007-09-15

    To gain more information on the mechanism of lubrication in articular joints, the superficial layer of bovine articular cartilage was mechanically removed in a sheet of ice that formed on freezing the cartilage. Freeze-dried samples contained low concentrations of chondroitin sulphate and protein. Analysis of the protein by SDS PAGE showed that the composition of the sample was comparable to that of synovial fluid (SF). Attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy of the dried residue indicated that the sample contained mostly hyaluronan. Moreover, ATR-IR spectroscopy of the upper layer of the superficial layer, adsorbed onto silicon, showed the presence of phospholipids. A gel could be formed by mixing hyaluronan and phosphatidylcholine in water with mechanical properties similar to those of the superficial layer on cartilage. Much like the superficial layer of natural cartilage, the surface of this gel became hydrophobic on drying out. Thus, it is proposed that the superficial layer forms from hyaluronan and phospholipids, which associate by hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl chains of the phospholipids and the hydrophobic faces of the disaccharide units in hyaluronan. This layer is permeable to material from the SF and the cartilage, as shown by the presence of SF proteins and chondroitin sulphate. As the cartilage dries out after removal from the joint, the phospholipids migrate towards the surface of the superficial layer to reduce the surface tension. It is also proposed that the highly efficient lubrication in articular joints can, at least in part, be attributed to the ability of the superficial layer to adsorb and hold water on the cartilage surface, thus creating a highly viscous boundary protection.

  17. Pan-urothelial verrucous carcinoma unrelated to schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Marcos Rodrigo Saravia; Ruiz, Mario Roberto Morales; Florian, Roberto Elfidio Orozco; De Leon, Werner; Jose, Luis San

    2009-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with a well known histological appearance and clinical behaviour. We present a case of verrucous carcinoma extensively affecting the urothelium of the right renal pelvis, right ureter and urinary bladder over a 3-year period. This pan-urothelial involvement of a verrucous carcinoma has not been previously reported. The potential for regional spread with subsequent urinary tract obstruction by this tumour calls for aggressive local surgical treatment as the main modality of therapy. PMID:21686630

  18. Angled Cool-Tip Electrode for Radiofrequency Ablation of Small Superficial Subcapsular Tumors in the Liver: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Il [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Jung [Department of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 14647 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Shin Jae [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 13496 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Min Woo; Shin, Won Sun; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Gyoung Min; Kim, Man Deuk; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Sub [Department of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kwang-Hyub [Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of angled cool-tip electrode for radiofrequency ablation of small superficial subcapsular liver tumors abutting abdominal wall, in order to traverse normal liver parenchyma, and thereby, obtain favorable configuration of ablation margin. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 15 small superficial subcapsular liver tumors abutting abdominal wall in 15 patients, treated with radiofrequency ablation from March 2013 to June 2015 using a cool-tip electrode manually modified to create 25–35° angle at the junction between exposed and insulated segments. The tumors were hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 13) and metastases (n = 2: cholangiocellular carcinoma and rectosigmoid cancer), with maximum diameter of 10–26 mm (mean, 15.68 ± 5.29 mm). Under ultrasonographic guidance, the electrode tip was advanced to the depth of the tumors' epicenter about 1 cm from the margin. The tip was re-directed to penetrate the tumor for radiofrequency ablation. Minimal ablation margin was measured at immediate post-treatment CT. Radiological images and medical records were evaluated for success rate, length of minimal ablation margin and complications. Technical success rate of obtaining complete necrosis of the tumors was 100%, with no procedure-related complication. Minimal ablation margin ranged from 3–12 mm (mean, 7.07 ± 2.23 mm). CT/MRI follow-up at 21–1022 days (mean, 519.47 ± 304.51 days) revealed no local recurrence, but distant recurrence in 9 patients. Using an angled cool-tip electrode for radiofrequency ablation of small superficial subcapsular tumors abutting abdominal wall may be a feasible technique for obtaining adequate ablation margin and lower complication rate.

  19. Angled cool-tip electrode for radiofrequency ablation of small superficial subcapsular tumors in the liver: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Il; Shin, Min Woo; Shin, Won Seon [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of angled cool-tip electrode for radiofrequency ablation of small superficial subcapsular liver tumors abutting abdominal wall, in order to traverse normal liver parenchyma, and thereby, obtain favorable configuration of ablation margin. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 15 small superficial subcapsular liver tumors abutting abdominal wall in 15 patients, treated with radiofrequency ablation from March 2013 to June 2015 using a cool-tip electrode manually modified to create 25–35° angle at the junction between exposed and insulated segments. The tumors were hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 13) and metastases (n = 2: cholangiocellular carcinoma and rectosigmoid cancer), with maximum diameter of 10–26 mm (mean, 15.68 ± 5.29 mm). Under ultrasonographic guidance, the electrode tip was advanced to the depth of the tumors' epicenter about 1 cm from the margin. The tip was re-directed to penetrate the tumor for radiofrequency ablation. Minimal ablation margin was measured at immediate post-treatment CT. Radiological images and medical records were evaluated for success rate, length of minimal ablation margin and complications. Technical success rate of obtaining complete necrosis of the tumors was 100%, with no procedure-related complication. Minimal ablation margin ranged from 3–12 mm (mean, 7.07 ± 2.23 mm). CT/MRI follow-up at 21–1022 days (mean, 519.47 ± 304.51 days) revealed no local recurrence, but distant recurrence in 9 patients. Using an angled cool-tip electrode for radiofrequency ablation of small superficial subcapsular tumors abutting abdominal wall may be a feasible technique for obtaining adequate ablation margin and lower complication rate.

  20. Spreading convulsions, spreading depolarization and epileptogenesis in human cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jens P; Major, Sebastian; Pannek, Heinz-Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Spreading depolarization of cells in cerebral grey matter is characterized by massive ion translocation, neuronal swelling and large changes in direct current-coupled voltage recording. The near-complete sustained depolarization above the inactivation threshold for action potential generating...

  1. Superficial dose evaluation of four dose calculation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhen; Qiu, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhiping; Lei, Mingjun; Liu, Gui; Zhang, Zijian; Hu, Yongmei

    2017-08-01

    Accurate superficial dose calculation is of major importance because of the skin toxicity in radiotherapy, especially within the initial 2 mm depth being considered more clinically relevant. The aim of this study is to evaluate superficial dose calculation accuracy of four commonly used algorithms in commercially available treatment planning systems (TPS) by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and film measurements. The superficial dose in a simple geometrical phantom with size of 30 cm×30 cm×30 cm was calculated by PBC (Pencil Beam Convolution), AAA (Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm), AXB (Acuros XB) in Eclipse system and CCC (Collapsed Cone Convolution) in Raystation system under the conditions of source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm and field size (FS) of 10×10 cm2. EGSnrc (BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc) program was performed to simulate the central axis dose distribution of Varian Trilogy accelerator, combined with measurements of superficial dose distribution by an extrapolation method of multilayer radiochromic films, to estimate the dose calculation accuracy of four algorithms in the superficial region which was recommended in detail by the ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement) and the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). In superficial region, good agreement was achieved between MC simulation and film extrapolation method, with the mean differences less than 1%, 2% and 5% for 0°, 30° and 60°, respectively. The relative skin dose errors were 0.84%, 1.88% and 3.90%; the mean dose discrepancies (0°, 30° and 60°) between each of four algorithms and MC simulation were (2.41±1.55%, 3.11±2.40%, and 1.53±1.05%), (3.09±3.00%, 3.10±3.01%, and 3.77±3.59%), (3.16±1.50%, 8.70±2.84%, and 18.20±4.10%) and (14.45±4.66%, 10.74±4.54%, and 3.34±3.26%) for AXB, CCC, AAA and PBC respectively. Monte Carlo simulation verified the feasibility of the superficial dose measurements by multilayer Gafchromic films. And the rank

  2. Successful imiquimod treatment of multiple basal cell carcinomas after radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Mirjam; Urosevic, Mirjana; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Dummer, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of a 55-year-old male patient who developed five basal cell carcinomas 23 years after radiation therapy of Hodgkin's disease. In 1980 he received radiation therapy twice. Due to relapses, he was treated with aggressive polychemotherapy and underwent autologous stem cell transplantation, which then led to complete remission. Until now he is in complete remission. However, multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas have developed on irradiation fields that have been successfully treated by imiquimod.

  3. Spreading the Bible in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to records of the Bible Society in China, more than 300 million copies of the Bible in Chinese have been published and distributed since 1823. The spread of the Bible in China has gone through five stages.

  4. Spread effects - methodology; Spredningseffekter - metodegrunnlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Diffusion of technology, environmental effects and rebound effects are the principal effects from the funding of renewable energy and energy economising. It is difficult to estimate the impact of the spread effects both prior to the measures are implemented and after the measures are carried out. Statistical methods can be used to estimate the spread effects, but they are insecure and always need to be complemented with qualitative and subjective evaluations. It is more adequate to evaluate potential spread effects from market and market data surveillance for a selection of technologies and parties. Based on this information qualitative indicators for spread effects can be constructed and used both ex ante and ex post (ml)

  5. Roles of Ties in Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhou, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Background: Controlling global epidemics in the real world and accelerating information propagation in the artificial world are of great significance, which have activated an upsurge in the studies on networked spreading dynamics. Lots of efforts have been made to understand the impacts of macroscopic statistics (e.g., degree distribution and average distance) and mesoscopic structures (e.g., communities and rich clubs) on spreading processes while the microscopic elements are less concerned. In particular, roles of ties are not yet clear to the academic community. Methodology/Principle Findings: Every edges is stamped by its strength that is defined solely based on the local topology. According to a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model, the steady-state infected density and spreading speed are respectively optimized by adjusting the relationship between edge's strength and spreading ability. Experiments on six real networks show that the infected density is increased when strong ties are favored i...

  6. Breast metastasis from carcinoma of gall bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaz Ahmad Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of gall bladder has early lymphatic and haematogenous spread. Most common extra abdominal site of metastasis is the lung. Metastasis to breast from carcinoma of breast is very rare. Our case describes an interesting case of carcinoma of gall bladder metastising to breast. A 50-year-old female presented to our outpatient department with a small nodule on upper outer quadrant of left breast. Patient had a history of cholecystectomy done for symptomatic gall stones 2 years back. Histopathological examination of the gall bladder specimen showed adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder with invasion to lamina propria. No additional treatment was offered to the patient. The breast nodule was excised and sent for histopathological examination. Histopathological examination revealed metastising adenocarcinoma. Patient was subjected to palliative chemotherapy (Gamcitabine and carboplatin. However, patient died of hepatic encephalopathy after 5 months. Our case reports an unusual site of metastasis from carcinoma of gall bladder which is very rare.

  7. Long-term evolution of superficial optic disc drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Hamann, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    with hereditary ODD were included. RESULTS: Mean age at initial and follow-up examination was, respectively, 16.8 and 73.3 years. The median follow-up time was 56 years. A minimal or non-existing change in superficial ODD anatomy (size and number) was seen in 10 of 12 eyes. There was a tendency towards more......PURPOSE: Optic disc drusen (ODD) is hyaline deposits in the optic nerve head seen in 1-2% of the population. Long-term evolution of ODD anatomy and visual field defects in ODD patients is a key factor for learning more about pathophysiology and prognosis of the condition. With a median follow......-up period of 56 years, this is the first study that evaluates superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in patients with ODD over a life span. METHODS: Observational case series investigating progression of superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in ODD patients. Eight patients...

  8. Física de superficies: métodos experimentales

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Hace unos 30 años se empezó con el estudio de superficies sólidas y hoy son muchos los investigadores que en el mundo entero se dedican al estudio de las propiedades físicas y químicas de superficies e interfaces.La motivación radica en que en las interacciones entre los diversos sistemas que componen nuestro universo se hallan involucradas sus superficies, razón suficiente para captar la importancia de su estudio para la vida humana y su repercusión tecnológica y económica. A ella habría que...

  9. Epidemic spreading in complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHOU; Zong-hua LIU

    2008-01-01

    The study of epidemic spreading in complex networks is currently a hot topic and a large body of results have been achieved.In this paper,we briefly review our contributions to this field,which includes the underlying mechanism of rumor propagation,the epidemic spreading in community networks,the influence of varying topology,and the influence of mobility of agents.Also,some future directions are pointed out.

  10. Ameloblastic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen B Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma of jaws are common and locally destructive tumors originating from odontogenic apparatus. They constitute approximately 1% of all jaw tumors with 80% occurring in the mandible. Ameloblastoma exhibiting a frank malignancy is a rare entity and occurs in less than 1% of all ameloblastomas. Among the two jaws, ameloblastic carcinoma involving maxilla is extremely rare with only few cases reported so far in the literature. Here we report two cases of ameloblastic carcinoma one involving the maxilla and the other involving mandible, with an aggressive clinical course leading to extensive local destruction of the affected jaws.

  11. Case report: cochlear implantation in a patient with superficial siderosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle; Piplica, Doris; Zhang, Ming

    2014-12-01

    This is a retrospective case review study. Current understanding of cochlear implantation in patients with superficial siderosis is limited, with roughly 15 reported cases worldwide. The purpose of this study is to report an additional case of cochlear implantation in a patient with superficial siderosis and to contribute to the current literature available on outcomes of implantation in these individuals. One cochlear implant user with superficial siderosis in a tertiary referral center. Therapeutic and rehabilitative. Open set speech perception word scores increased from 0% preimplantation with bilateral hearing aids to 8% postimplantation in the bimodal condition (cochlear implant in the left ear and hearing aid in the right ear). Phoneme scores increased from 16% preimplantation to 36% postimplantation. The patient also demonstrated improvement from 38% preimplantation to 83% postimplantation on a closed set word test. Performance on open set recorded sentences did not improve; however, open set sentences administered live voice revealed an increase in performance from 4% preimplantation to 25% postimplantation in the auditory only condition and from 59% to 86% in the auditory-visual condition. For this patient with superficial siderosis, only marginal improvements in test scores at 11 months postimplantation were seen. Minimally, the use of a cochlear implant did prevent further deterioration of auditory performance. Therefore, patients with superficial siderosis who choose to proceed with cochlear implantation may still report perceived benefit from the maintenance of speech perception abilities even in the presence of minimal improvement. Rapid deterioration in hearing thresholds and speech discrimination before implantation may be an indicator of an actively progressing case of superficial siderosis, which may suggest possible limited benefit from cochlear implantation.

  12. UV radiation sensors with unitary and binary superficial barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorogan, Valerian; Vieru, Tatiana; Kosyak, V.; Damaskin, I.; Chirita, F.

    1998-07-01

    UV radiation sensors with unitary and binary superficial barrier, made on the basis of GaP - SnO2 and GaAs - AlGaAs - SnO2 heterostructures, are presented in the paper. Technological and constructive factors, which permit to realize a high conversion efficiency and to exclude the influence of visible spectrum upon the photoanswer, are analyzed. It was established that the presence of an isotypical superficial potential barrier permits to suppress the photoanswer component formed by absorption of visible and infrared radiation in semiconductor structure bulk.

  13. PHOTODYNAMIC DIAGNOSIS AND FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY IN SUPERFICIAL BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Rusakov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive fluorescence technique has been developed to study the urinary bladder mucosa in patients with superficial bladder cancer (BC, by using alasense, white light cystoscopy, fluorescence cytoscopy, and local fluorescence spectroscopy in vivo. Quantification of urothelium fluorescence in the red emission foci of 5-ALA-induced protophorphyrin, with the local autofluorescence intensity being borne in mind, has been shown to increase the specificity of photodynamic diagnosis of superficial BC from 70 to 85% (p ≤ 0.05 and the total accuracy of the technique from 80 to 86%.  

  14. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for an atypical small verrucous carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takahiro; Kato, Masayuki; Itagaki, Munenori; Hamatani, Sigeharu; Kawahara, Yosuke; Ito, Shuji; Aizawa, Yoshio; Matsuda, Koji; Sumiyama, Kazuki

    2016-03-25

    Esophageal verrucous carcinoma is a rare variant of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In most cases, verrucous carcinoma presents as an exophytic, slow-growing mass with an extensive superficial growth pattern. Symptoms often include an insidious onset of dysphagia resulting in weight loss. In a patient presenting with super early-stage verrucous carcinoma, we were able to eliminate the aberration using endoscopic submucosal dissection. An asymptomatic 68-year-old Asian man was found to have an abnormality in his esophagus. The abnormality was discovered, by chance, in a barium study for a health checkup. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 1-centimeter polypoid lesion covered with squamous epithelium. Biopsies showed squamous high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. An endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed and the histopathological findings showed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with hyperkeratosis with a church spire configuration. These features are consistent with the growth pattern of verrucous carcinoma. Verrucous carcinoma can manifest as a small mass with nonclinical symptoms and endoscopic submucosal dissection is useful as a curative treatment. We must consider that verrucous carcinoma can manifest as appearance of a polyp that is not papillary or warty-like with and without extensive superficial growth appearance.

  15. UROTHELIAL CARCINOMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    normal levels (_<_ 4 IUIL) corresponded with non recurrence of tumor and the persistence of ... Table 1: Tumor Grade and Stage in 120 Patients with Human Urothelial Carcinoma. pTa pT1 T2 ..... gonadotropin~like substance secreted by lung.

  16. Carcinoma vulvar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamit Peñas Zayas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma de la vulva tiene una incidencia de aproximadamente un 3-5% dentro de todas las enfermedades ginecológicas malignas. El 90% de los tumores malignos de la vulva está constituido por carcinoma epidermoide, el resto son adenocarcinomas, carcinomas de células basales y melanomas. Se realiza la presentación de un caso de una paciente femenina de 25 años de edad con antecedentes  de Diabetes Mellitus tipo II y trombopatia, que ingresa en el servicio de ginecología con un cuadro cutáneo polimorfo, localizado en labios mayores y menores, dado por lesiones eritematoerosivas y vegetante, sospechándose clínicamente el diagnóstico  de un carcinoma epidermoide, corroborándose el mismo histológicamente al realizarse biopsia de piel. Se indicó tratamiento con quimioterapia. Por la edad de la paciente y ser menos frecuente en mucosa que en la piel,  motivo la presentación del caso.

  17. Parathyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Krøll, L; Ladefoged, C;

    1986-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a slow growing tumor, and the patients most often die from complications to the hypercalcemia. Therefore, any attempt should be made to remove local recurrence and metastasis surgically, as medical treatment is disappointing. A case treated with extensive vascular surgery...

  18. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Bernadette

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a tumor arising from the epithelial cells that cover the surface and line the nasopharynx. The annual incidence of NPC in the UK is 0.3 per million at age 0–14 years, and 1 to 2 per million at age 15–19 years. Incidence is higher in the Chinese and Tunisian populations. Although rare, NPC accounts for about one third of childhood nasopharyngeal neoplasms. Three subtypes of NPC are recognized in the World Health Organization (WHO classification: 1 squamous cell carcinoma, typically found in the older adult population; 2 non-keratinizing carcinoma; 3 undifferentiated carcinoma. The tumor can extend within or out of the nasopharynx to the other lateral wall and/or posterosuperiorly to the base of the skull or the palate, nasal cavity or oropharynx. It then typically metastases to cervical lymph nodes. Cervical lymphadenopathy is the initial presentation in many patients, and the diagnosis of NPC is often made by lymph node biopsy. Symptoms related to the primary tumor include trismus, pain, otitis media, nasal regurgitation due to paresis of the soft palate, hearing loss and cranial nerve palsies. Larger growths may produce nasal obstruction or bleeding and a "nasal twang". Etiological factors include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, genetic susceptibility and consumption of food with possible carcinogens – volatile nitrosamines. The recommended treatment schedule consists of three courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, irradiation, and adjuvant interferon (IFN-beta therapy.

  19. Immunolocalization of osteopontin in dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas arising from oral epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thara Aravind

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The expression of OPN in full thickness of epithelium in severe dysplasias, carcinoma in situ, and in the superficial epithelium of OSCC suggest the possibility of considering OPN expression in full epithelial thickness in dysplasias as an indicator for malignant transformation.

  20. Tromboflebite superficial: epidemiologia, fisiopatologia, diagnóstico e tratamento Superficial thrombophlebitis: epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcone Lima Sobreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A tromboflebite superficial de membros inferiores é doença de ocorrência comum, estando associada a diversas condições clínicas e cirúrgicas. Historicamente considerada doença benigna, devido à sua localização superficial e ao fácil diagnóstico, o tratamento foi conservador durante muito tempo, na maioria dos casos. Entretanto, relatos recentes de freqüências altas de complicações tromboembólicas associadas - 22 a 37% para trombose venosa profunda e até 33% para embolia pulmonar - alertaram para a necessidade de abordagens diagnósticas e terapêuticas mais amplas, visando diagnosticar e tratar essas possíveis complicações. A possibilidade da coexistência dessas e de outras desordens sistêmicas (colagenoses, neoplasias, trombofilias interfere na avaliação e influencia a conduta terapêutica, que pode ser clínica, cirúrgica ou combinada. No entanto, devido à falta de ensaios clínicos controlados e às incertezas quanto a sua história natural, o diagnóstico e o tratamento da tromboflebite superficial continuam indefinidos. Neste trabalho, foi feita uma revisão da literatura analisando-se a epidemiologia, fisiopatologia e estado atual do diagnóstico e tratamento da tromboflebite superficial.Superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs is a commonly occurring disease, and it is associated with various clinical and surgical conditions. Historically considered to be a benign disease due to its superficial location and easy diagnosis, its treatment was, for a long time, conservative in most cases. Nevertheless, recent reports of high frequency and associated thromboembolic complications, which vary from 22 to 37% for deep venous thrombosis and up to 33% for pulmonary embolism, have indicated the need for broader diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in order to diagnose and treat such possible complications. The possibility of coexistence of these and other systemic disorders (collagenosis, neoplasia, thrombophilia

  1. Interpolación y ajuste de superficies en componentes mecánicos digitalizados empleando superficies B-Spline

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Este documento de tesis tiene el propósito de describir una metodología para obtener nubes de puntos que representen a superficies (o parches de geometría compleja) de piezas mecánicas que pueden ser replicadas en la industria. Estos puntos se obtuvieron utilizando el método de interpolación superficial B-Spline que deben cumplir un margen de error conocido y controlado de acuerdo a las tolerancias de fabricación utilizados en estos procesos de fabricación. En primer lugar e...

  2. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in superficial CNS siderosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Lindelof, M.; Haziri, Donika

    2015-01-01

    that neurodegeneration due to haemosiderin-associated iron toxicity becomes irreversible with time. CONCLUSION: Surgical therapy in superficial CNS siderosis is rarely achieved. We suggest that prospective, large-scale multicentre studies are needed to search for non-surgical therapies that reverse (or prevent) ongoing...... neurotoxicity due to accumulating iron toxicity. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  3. Anterior urethral recurrence of superficial bladder cancer: its clinical significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saika T

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal the clinical features of anterior urethral recurrence in patients with superficial bladder cancer, and to determine the appropriate treatment. Three hundred and three patients with superficial bladder cancer, who were newly diagnosed and initially treated conservatively in our hospital between 1965 and 1990, were followed for at least 5 years and their clinical outcomes were analyzed. Clinical factors, including anterior urethral recurrence, were evaluated statistically regarding tumor progression. Eight patients (2.6% had anterior urethral recurrence following superficial bladder cancer. Twenty-four patients (7.9% had tumor progression and 149 (49.2% had tumor recurrence. In a multivariate analysis using a logistic model, anterior urethral recurrence was the most important factor, followed by histological grade. Four of 5 patients who were treated for anterior urethral recurrent tumors by transurethral resection showed progression and died of the cancer within one year. Two of the remaining three patients who underwent radical cysto-urethrectomy at the time of anterior urethral recurrence survived. Anterior urethral recurrence following superficial bladder cancer is a predictor for rapid subsequent malignant progression. Once there is anterior urethral recurrence, radical intensive therapy, including radical cysto-urethrectomy, should be carried out immediately.

  4. Superficies bioactivas en implantología: una nueva perspectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cutando

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, tras años de investigación en implantología, en los cuales se han realizado muchos trabajos, en donde se han estudiado diferentes tipos de superficies de implantes, lisas y rugosas, en un intento de mejorar, tanto en el tiempo como en la calidad , la osteointegración, se ha concluido que los implantes de superficie rugosa con un intervalo de rugosidad entre 1,0-2,0 nm, son los que parecen dar una mejor respuesta ósea y mejores resultados clínicos, pero desde un punto de vista exclusivamente mecánico. Hoy en día las investigaciones se centran en el desarrollo de superficies denominadas bioactivas, las cuales son capaces de interaccionar con el hueso que rodea al implante, como ocurre cuando el implante es revestido con carbonato cálcico o bien con flúor. Pero sabemos que dentro del metabolismo óseo, juegan importantes papeles, moléculas, como son la melatonina y la hormona del crecimiento entre otras, las cuales deben de ser tenidas en cuenta a la hora de hablar de osteointegración. Se realiza una breve descripción de la fisiología de ambas moléculas y se valora su aplicación al concepto de superficie bioactiva en implantología.

  5. Superficial Needling Therapy for Tennis Elbow in 40 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Heng-bi; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    Superficial needling therapy was employed to treat 40 cases of tennis elbow. For the cases of qi and blood stagnation, cupping therapy was added. Thirty-eight cases were cured after one treatment and 2 cases were cured after two treatments.

  6. Frey′s Syndrome as a Sequela of Superficial Parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Kumar Bali

    2006-01-01

    The disorder is characterized by unilateral sweating and flushing of facial skin in the area of parotid gland occurring during meals. We present a case of a patient who developed symptoms of Frey Syndrome 4 months after undergoing superficial parotidectomy on left side.

  7. Atypical Presentation of Fibrolipomatous Hamartoma of Superficial Peroneal Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinsa, Baljinder Singh; Lidder, Surjit; Abbasian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Fibrolipomatous hamartoma is a rare presentation in the foot. An accurate diagnosis is key, with magnetic resonance imaging findings considered definitive. The management is dependent on the symptoms. We present an atypical presentation of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the superficial peroneal nerve and discuss the current published data.

  8. Superficial dermatomycoses: a prospective clinico-mycological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatomycoses are more prevalent in India due to favourable climatic conditions, poverty, poor hygiene and overcrowding. Sparse published data are available regarding superficial dermatomycoses from India. Methods: In this prospective study, demographic characteristics, clinical spectrum and risk factors for the development were studied in 198 patients with superficial dermatomycoses. Results: Their mean age was 34.1 ± 15.3 years; there were 108 (54.5% males. Majority of the patients (50.5% belonged to upper-lower socio-economic status (Class IV as per modified Kuppuswamy’s classification. Most of the patients (69.7% had presented with dermatophytoses. Among superficial dermatomy-coses, tinea corporis was the most common (29.3% clinical type. Potassium hydroxide mount was positive in 77.7% and culture was positive in 30.8%. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common species isolated (64%. Multivariable analysis using logistic regression revealed older age (> 50 years to be an independent predictor for the development of tinea corporis (p<0.001. Conclusions: Our observations suggest that superficial dermatomycoses are an important cause of morbidity and should be carefully searched for especially in the elderly so that effective curative treatment can be instituted.

  9. Tattoo removal by superficial dermabrasion. Five-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaugh, W A

    1975-04-01

    A 5-year clinical experience using superficial dermabrasion to remove tattoos is presented. This procedure can be done quickly in the office with low patient risk. Good pigment removal is obtained with little or no scar formation. Cases are presented which are typical of the 250 tattoos removed in the last 5 years.

  10. A case of a superficial spreading melanoma in situ diagnosed via digital dermoscopic monitoring with high dynamic range conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshitsugu; Tanaka, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented with a 3 mm, pigmented macule at her first visit to our clinic. The macule, which showed complete symmetry and a typical network, was tentatively diagnosed as a Clark nevus; a 6-month follow-up was recommended, and the patient returned 7 months later. At the second visit, the lesion had enlarged to a diameter of 5 mm, and dermoscopy revealed that it had maintained its typical pigment network. At this point, evidence-based monitoring would have led to excision but the decision was made to continue monitoring. Owing to poor compliance, the patient went another 2 years without follow-up. When we assess small lesions, such as this, the usefulness of dermoscopy is apparent. Additionally, we examined the benefits and drawbacks of high dynamic range (HDR) conversion of the dermoscopy images and their helpfulness for inspecting small lesions. Although the delicate structures present in the lesion can be recognized by a dermoscopy expert and HDR image conversion has a capacity to highlight important structures, there is also a risk that HDR image conversion may mask some of the structural changes. However, a comparison of the original dermoscopy images with the HDR-converted images provides newly trained dermoscopists the opportunity to recognize new findings and to distinguish the differences in the findings between both the types of images. Therefore, such comparisons might be useful for obtaining an accurate diagnosis by using dermoscopy and HDR image conversion. PMID:25396087

  11. Spreading dynamics in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pei, Sen

    2013-01-01

    Searching for influential spreaders in complex networks is an issue of great significance for applications across various domains, ranging from the epidemic control, innovation diffusion, viral marketing, social movement to idea propagation. In this paper, we first display some of the most important theoretical models that describe spreading processes, and then discuss the problem of locating both the individual and multiple influential spreaders respectively. Recent approaches in these two topics are presented. For the identification of privileged single spreaders, we summarize several widely used centralities, such as degree, betweenness centrality, PageRank, k-shell, etc. We investigate the empirical diffusion data in a large scale online social community -- LiveJournal. With this extensive dataset, we find that various measures can convey very distinct information of nodes. Of all the users in LiveJournal social network, only a small fraction of them involve in spreading. For the spreading processes in Li...

  12. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  13. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Robert Phillips

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington’s disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington’s disease processes. MethodsStructural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington’s disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject’s Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. ResultsThere was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001 in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington’s disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001. Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number and disease burden (p < 0.001.ConclusionsThis study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington’s disease. Since the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease.

  14. 9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319.762 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,” “Tongue...

  15. Enhanced oxidative stress and the glycolytic switch in superficial urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Lai

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: UC of the UB manifested that the glycolytic phenotype would reflect the Warburg effect. We suggest that the molecular mechanism in the regulation of glycolytic switch in UC of the UB might provide a specific biomarker for the future development of cancer diagnosis.

  16. Gastric carcinoma: when is palliative gastrectomy justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Scheidbach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is frequently diagnosed with an advanced stage of non-curable tumor growth characterized by infiltration of the gastric serosa, peritoneal tumor spread and/or metastases within lymph nodes and liver. Currently, there is a controversy on the value of palliative resection with regard to the safety and benefit to the patient outcome. Based on the available literature, this overview summarizes the various aspects and interprets the limited data on the palliative resection of gastric carcinoma. It turns out that the available study results may indicate potential for an improved quality of life and a prolongation of survival if an acceptable morbidity and mortality are present.

  17. [Superficial mycoses in patients from Anzoátegui state, Venezuela, period 2002-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Espinoza, Druvic; Teresa Maniscalchi, María; Villarroel, Oskarina; Bónoli, Stefano B; Wahab, Fadi; García, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Superficial fungal diseases that affect the skin and its appendages are frequently seen in basic triage and in dermatology services. These diseases are distributed in Venezuela with an incidence of 92.9%. The aim of this study was to determine the genera and species that cause dermatomycoses in residents of Anzoátegui state, Venezuela, during the period 2002-2012. A total of 4257 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycoses were studied, with ages from 7 months to 79 years. The overall prevalence was 30.9%. The most frequent were dermatophytosis (44.7%). M. canis produced 148 cases of tinea capitis. Three dermatophytic agents represented 95% of all cases, with a significant predominance of T. mentagrophytes with 50%. Candidosis occurred in 28.4%. C. albicans, and the C. parapsilosis complex, were responsible for 80% of the cases. The other species identified were C. tropicalis (n = 41, 11.0%), C. glabrata (n = 10, 2.7%), C. guilliermondii (n = 6, 1.6%), C. krusei (n = 4, 1.1%). Pityriasis versicolor occurred in 22.4% of the cases studied, and less frequently were present onychomycosis produced by a non dermatophytic mold: Fusarium oxysporum (n = 34, 65.4%), Aspergillus terreus (n=16, 30.8%) and Scytalidium dimidiatum (n=2; 3.8%). Rare cases of Trichosporon onychomycosis (0.5%) and one case of black tinea were also found. Health education in the population is recommended to promote measures to prevent transmission of these fungi and prevent the spread of this silent public health problem.

  18. Evidence for colorectal sarcomatoid carcinoma arising from tubulovillous adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Sarcomatoid carcinomas of the colorectum are rare tu- mors that display both malignant epithelial and stromal components. Clinically, they are aggressive tumors with early metastasis. Due to their infrequent occurrence, the pathogenesis is poorly understood. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with a rectal mass and intermittent hematochezia. Superficial biopsies during colonoscopy revealed a tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia. Endoscopic ultra- sonography confirmed an invasive nature of the mass, and deeper biopsies revealed the presence of neoplasm with mixed histological components. The surgically- excised specimen demonstrated the presence of poorly differentiated spindle cells underneath the tubulovillous adenoma and an intermediate stage of invasive acleno- carcinoma. Based on the histological appearance and imrnunohistochemical studies, a diagnosis of sarcoma- toid carcinoma was made. Only nine cases of sarcoma- told carcinomas of the colorectum have been reported to date. As a result, the terminology and pathogenesis of sarcomatoid carcinoma remain speculative. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of co- existence of sarcomatoid carcinoma and invasive ad-enocarcinoma with tubulovillous adenoma; all stagesrepres ented within the same tumor. This observation supports the "monoclonal theory" of pathogenesis with an adenoma-sarcoma progression with or without an intermediate stage of carcinoma.

  19. Carcinoma verrugoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Quesada Jiménez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 76 años, vecino de Turrialba, agricultor, que consultó por una lesión de 3 años de evolución, localizada en la palma de la mano derecha a nivel palmar y compromiso de los dedos de la misma mano, caracterizada como una neoformación exofítica verrugosa de 5 por 11 cm. aproximadamente, con material caseoso entre sus crestas. La lesión ha estado creciendo de forma acelerada en los últimos 3 meses, causándole dolor y que le imposibilita ellaborar. Se le realizaron exámenes y se descartaron varias causas infecciosas, y concluyendo luego de varias biopsias con el diagnóstico de un carcinoma verrugoso. El paciente fue tratado mediante una amputación parcial de la mano. Este tumor es una variante del carcinoma epidermoide y presentamos su clasificación, patogénesis, histopatología, manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes y diagnóstico diferencial.A 76 year old farmer from Turrialba (Cartago, presented with a 3 year old lesion of his right pal and proximal fingers. It was exophitic, wart like, and it measured 5x11 cm, draining caseous material from its crests. The lesion had grows quickly for the last 3 months and it became tender to the point of making impossible for him to work. A series of tests were done to rule out other possible infections causes, after several biopsies the diagnosis of verrocous carcinoma was made. The patient underwent a partial amputation of his hand. This tumor is considered a from of squamous cell carcinoma, we present here its classification, pathogenesis, histopathology, clinical manifestations and diferential diagnosis.

  20. Carcinoma cuniculatum at various anatomical sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotwal Mrunamayi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma cuniculatum, a low grade squamous carcinoma of plantar skin was first described in 1954. Even after 50 years, biopsy errors are common with delay in diagnosis. Clinico-morphologica1 features in 12 patients of carcinoma cuniculatum, in a period of three and a half years are studied. The aim is to draw attention to the sites of occurrence of this tumor other than the sole and to have better understanding of the diagnostic difficulties. The sites of occurrence of these tumors according to frequency were foot followed by flank, leg, face and palm. The tumors presented with ulcerated, fungating masses with fine papillary architecture. Microscopic examination of the tumors revealed bulbous acanthosis, parakeratosis and a well defined lower border, circumscribed by chronic inflammatory cells. No lymph node metastasis were recorded in any of the cases. Wide local excision with at least five mm free surgical margin was the treatment of choice. A transmetatarsal and above wrist amputation was required in two patients. Carcinoma cuniculatum should always be suspected in a nonhealing ulcer or verrucous growth of long standing duration. Superficial and small biopsies are unsatisfactory. Benign appearance on histopathology of this tumor needs to be interpreted in proper clinical settings.

  1. Olive oil in food spreads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    .... The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los...

  2. Worldwide spreading of economic crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Garas, Antonios; Rozenblat, Celine; Tomassini, Marco; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    We model the spreading of a crisis by constructing a global economic network and applying the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model with a variable probability of infection. The probability of infection depends on the strength of economic relations between the pair of countries, and the strength of the target country. It is expected that a crisis which originates in a large country, such as the USA, has the potential to spread globally, like the recent crisis. Surprisingly we show that also countries with much lower GDP, such as Belgium, are able to initiate a global crisis. Using the {\\it k}-shell decomposition method to quantify the spreading power (of a node), we obtain a measure of ``centrality'' as a spreader of each country in the economic network. We thus rank the different countries according to the shell they belong to, and find the 12 most central countries. These countries are the most likely to spread a crisis globally. Of these 12 only six are large economies, while the other six ar...

  3. Spreading dynamics in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Sen; Makse, Hernán A.

    2013-12-01

    Searching for influential spreaders in complex networks is an issue of great significance for applications across various domains, ranging from epidemic control, innovation diffusion, viral marketing, and social movement to idea propagation. In this paper, we first display some of the most important theoretical models that describe spreading processes, and then discuss the problem of locating both the individual and multiple influential spreaders respectively. Recent approaches in these two topics are presented. For the identification of privileged single spreaders, we summarize several widely used centralities, such as degree, betweenness centrality, PageRank, k-shell, etc. We investigate the empirical diffusion data in a large scale online social community—LiveJournal. With this extensive dataset, we find that various measures can convey very distinct information of nodes. Of all the users in the LiveJournal social network, only a small fraction of them are involved in spreading. For the spreading processes in LiveJournal, while degree can locate nodes participating in information diffusion with higher probability, k-shell is more effective in finding nodes with a large influence. Our results should provide useful information for designing efficient spreading strategies in reality.

  4. A combined chemo-mechanical approach for aesthetic management of superficial enamel defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardu, S.; Benbachir, N.; Stavridakis, M.; Dietschi, D.L.; Krejci, I.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing small superficial defects in light to medium fluorosis. Method and materials The proposed technique is based on a selective abrasion of the superficial enamel and a recreation of the superficial macro and micro morpholog

  5. A combined chemo-mechanical approach for aesthetic management of superficial enamel defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardu, S.; Benbachir, N.; Stavridakis, M.; Dietschi, D.L.; Krejci, I.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing small superficial defects in light to medium fluorosis. Method and materials The proposed technique is based on a selective abrasion of the superficial enamel and a recreation of the superficial macro and micro morpholog

  6. Rugosidad y textura de superficies: experimentos y simulaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson L. Vargas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aplican algunos elementos de la geometría fractal al estudio y caracterización de la rugosidad superficial. Los materiales bajo estudio consisten en agregados naturales, de amplia aplicación en la industria de la construcción. Se aplican tanto técnicas experimentales basadas en análisis de imágenes como modelos teóricos. En particular se explora el potencial de la lacunaridad –un método de análisis derivado de la geometría fractal, para describir patrones y dispersión espacial. Los resultados ilustran su aplicación en la caracterización de rugosidad superficial. Se discuten igualmente, limitaciones y ventajas de esta aproximación.

  7. Effects of superficial gas velocity on process dynamics in bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, T. T.; Kumar, B.

    2014-06-01

    Present work analyzes the flow hydrodynamics and mass transfer mechanisms in double Rushton and CD-6 impeller on wide range (0.0075-0.25 m/s) of superficial gas velocity ( v g) in a gas-liquid phase bioreactor by employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The volume averaged velocity magnitude and dissipation rate are found higher with increasing superficial gas velocity. Higher relative power draw ( P g/ P 0) is predicted in CD-6 than the Rushton impeller but no significant difference in volume averaged mass transfer coefficient ( k L a) observed between these two types of impeller. The ratio of power draw with mass transfer coefficient has been found higher in CD-6 impeller (25-50 %) than the Rushton impeller.

  8. Variation in the Branching Pattern of the Superficial Palmar Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalatha S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe a rare variation in the superficial palmar arch (SPA encountered during routine cadaveric dissection. SPA was formed by the superficial branches of ulnar and radial arteries which provided a proper digital branch to the ulnar side of the little finger and three common palmar digital branches to the medial four digits. Additionally a first common digital artery was seen to emerge from the radial side of SPA which further divided into the arteria princeps pollicis and arteria radialis indicis. We also found a small communicating branch between the arteria princeps pollicis and the radial artery in the anatomical snuff box. Such arterial variations in the palm due to alteration in the developmental sequence remains a crucial issue in the reconstructive hand surgeries, especially while dealing with the innovative microsurgical procedures, where these varied patterns act as pivotal points around which successful results of various advanced surgical procedures revolve.

  9. Movimiento superficial del glaciar rocoso de las Argualas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjosé, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available At present the Argualas rock glacier is active and it flows to a surface axial mean velocity of 22,3 cm/year. The flow velocities have been determinated by surveying techniques made between 1991 and 1994. This technic complements the geomorphological observations and deepens in the knov/ledge of the glacier surface dynamics.

    El glaciar rocoso de las Argualas es activo en la actualidad y fluye a una velocidad media axial en superficie de 22.3 cm/año. El flujo se ha determinado median te las técnicas de auscultación topográfica realizadas entre los años 1991 y 1994. Esta técnica ha permitido complementar el análisis geomorfológico, profundizado en el estudio de la dinámica superficial del glaciar.

  10. Causative agents of superficial mycoses in Istanbul, Turkey: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, Fatma; Er, Emine; Samasti, Mustafa

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the percentage of agents, which can give rise to superficial fungal infections in Istanbul, Turkey. Between 2000 and 2007, the clinical samples collected from 8,200 patients attending the outpatient Dermatology Clinic at Mihrimahsultan Medical Center were examined by direct microscopy and culture. Pathogen fungi were detected in 5,722 of the patients. Of the isolates were 4,218 (74%) dermatophytes, 1,196 (21%) Candida sp., 170 (3%) Malassezia furfur, and 138 (2%) Trichosporon sp. Among the dermatophytes, Trichophyton sp. was the most common isolate followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (243) and Microsporum sp. Among the Candida species, C. albicans (549) was also frequently found. Onychomycosis was the most prevalent type of infection, followed by tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, and tinea capitis. In conclusion, our study showed that the most common isolated agents from superficial infections were T. rubrum being Candida sp. the second most prevalent.

  11. Carcinoma verrugoso en paciente joven Verrucous carcinoma in young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LN Rosa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma verrucoso es una variación de bajo grado de malignidad del carcinoma de células escamosas oral, y la mayoría surge en la mucosa oral de individuos que mascan tabaco de forma crónica (6, 8, 10. Estas lesiones encontradas predominantemente en hombres, con más de 55 años de edad (edad promedio de 65 a 70 anos y las regiones de mayor frecuencia en mucosa bucal incluyen vestíbulo mandibular, mucosa yugal y palato duro (6, 8. La lesión aparece como una placa espesa, difusa, bien demarcada e indolora, con proyecciones superficiales papilares o verruciformes. Microscópicamente, se observa la presencia de crestas interpapilares anchas y alargadas y producción abundante de ceratina (2. La metástasis es un evento raro en los carcinomas verrucosos (6, 8, 9. El tratamiento de elección es la excisión quirúrgica, asociada o no a la radioterapia. Los autores relatan un caso clínico de una paciente de 13 años de edad con lesión comprometiendo todo lo vermellion del labio inferior. El tratamiento inicial propuesto fue la radioterapia asociado a la quimioterapia, decido a la edad de la paciente, localización y extensión de la lesión. Después de una dosis total de 70Gy, hubo la regresión total de la lesión. Siendo así, el tratamiento del carcinoma verrucoso asociando a la radioterapia y quimioterapia se mostró adecuado en este caso.The verrucous carcinoma is a low grade variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and it mostly appears in the oral mucosa of individuals who chew tobacco chronically 6, 8, 10. The lesions are mainly found in men over 55 years old (average age 65 to 70 years and the most common regions in the oral mucosa include the mandibular vestibule, jugal mucosa and hard palate 6, 8. The lesion appears as a well-defined painless diffuse thick plaque with superficial papillary or verruciform projections. Under the microscope the presence of wide elongated interpapilIary ridges and copious keratin production are

  12. Measurement of the angle of superficial tension by images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez M., Javier; Alonso R., Sergio

    2006-02-01

    When a liquid is deposited on a surface, this one form a certain angle with respect to the surface, where depending on its value, it will conclude that so hard it is his adhesion with the surface. By means of the analysis of images we looked for to measure this angle of superficial tension. In order to make this measurement, we propose a technique by means of projective transformations and one method of regression to estimation parameters to conic fitting.

  13. Cervical Spinal Meningeal Melanocytoma Presenting as Intracranial Superficial Siderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Srirama Jayamma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningeal melanocytoma is a rare pigmented tumor of the leptomeningeal melanocytes. This rare entity results in diagnostic difficulty in imaging unless clinical and histopathology correlation is performed. In this case report, we describe a case of meningeal melanocytoma of the cervical region presenting with superficial siderosis. Extensive neuroradiological examination is necessary to locate the source of the bleeding in such patients. Usually, the patient will be cured by the complete surgical excision of the lesion.

  14. Transient superficial peroneal nerve palsy after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Majed Alrowaili

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage a...

  15. Photodynamic therapy: development of a treatment and dosimetry system adapted to superficial tumors of the bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignon, Dominique; Jaboin, Y.; Wolf, D.; Meunier-Reynes, Anne; Guillemin, Francois H.

    1993-06-01

    Superficial tumors of the bladder or in situ carcinoma could be interesting indications of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), since a total mutilating cystectomy could be avoided. The plurifocality of the lesions requires a treatment of the whole mucose; the quantity of light energy must be homogenous and sufficient to induce a therapeutic effect, still non toxic for normal tissues. We therefore developed a system of treatment and intravesical dosimetry control so that the operator can have precise information on the light repartition in the bladder in real time to enable him to optimize the positioning of the irradiation source. This intravesical device consists of twelve light sensors with optical fiber distributed symmetrically against the walls of the bladder; the emitting source is constituted of a scattering isotropic sphere. The signals emitted by the sensors are converted into tension. The acquisition part of the system values consists of two parts : an analogic part, the values are multiplexed on a same oscilloscope track to see in real time their evolution according to the position of the emitting source. The other part is constituted by the numeric acquisition of values for further analysis. We developed, from a mathematical modelisation of the bladder, a centering program of the diffusor that indicates its position in the bladder, as well as a cartography program where the bladder is re-built by interpolation with the different lighting levels.

  16. Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.; Gromov, P.;

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses a wide range of histopathological types including: invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and apocrine carcinoma among others. Pure apocrine carcinomas represent about 0.5%...

  17. Differences in excitability between median and superficial radial sensory axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Yumi; Kanai, Kazuaki; Misawa, Sonoko; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Isose, Sagiri; Nasu, Saiko; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Ohmori, Shigeki; Noto, Yu-ichi; Kugio, Yumiko; Shimizu, Toshio; Matsubara, Shiro; Lin, Cindy S Y; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in excitability properties of human median and superficial radial sensory axons (e.g., axons innervating the glabrous and hairy skin in the hand). Previous studies have shown that excitability properties differ between motor and sensory axons, and even among sensory axons between median and sural sensory axons. In 21 healthy subjects, threshold tracking was used to examine excitability indices such as strength-duration time constant, threshold electrotonus, supernormality, and threshold change at the 0.2 ms inter-stimulus interval in latent addition. In addition, threshold changes induced by ischemia for 10 min were compared between median and superficial radial sensory axons. Compared with radial sensory axons, median axons showed shorter strength-duration time constant, greater threshold changes in threshold electrotonus (fanning-out), greater supernormality, and smaller threshold changes in latent addition. Threshold changes in both during and after ischemia were greater for median axons. These findings suggest that membrane potential in human median sensory axons is more negative than in superficial radial axons, possibly due to greater activity of electrogenic Na(+)/K(+) pump. These results may reflect adaptation to impulses load carried by median axons that would be far greater with a higher frequency. Biophysical properties are not identical in different human sensory axons, and therefore their responses to disease may differ. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Study of Superficial Mycosis in South Gujarat Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Patel, Summaiya Mulla, Disha Patel, Gaurishankar Shrimali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the seroprevalence of clinical pattern of dermatophytosis and non – dermatophytic fungi (superficial mycosis with most common fungal pathogen in the South Gujarat region of the India. Methods: A clinical and mycological study of superficial mycosis was conducted on 198 cases (127 male and 71 female. Direct microscopy by KOH mount and culture was undertaken to isolate the fungal pathogen in each case. Results: 123 out of 198 cases (62.12% were positive by direct microscopy in which 58 (29.29% were positive by culture. The commonest age group involved was 21 – 30 years. Tinea corporis was the most common clinical presentation and Trichopyton rubrum was the most common fungal pathogen isolated. Non dermatophytic fungus like pityriasis versicolor and yeast like candida species were isolated in 17(22.67% cased and 8 (10.67% cases respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that along with dermatophytes, nondermatophytic fungi are also emerging as important causes of superficial mycosis.

  19. Caracterización físico-química de la superficie de 9 implantes dentales con 3 distintos tratamientos de superficie

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rius, Daniel; García Sabán, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Existen diversos tratamientos de superficie aplicados a los implantes dentales. El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar las características físico-químicas de la superficie de implantes dentales de titanio sometidos a diversos tratamientos de superficie. 9 implantes dentales procedentes del mismo lote de fabricación fueron separados en 3 grupos y sometidos a 3 tipos de tratamiento de superficie diferentes: mecanizado, grabado ácido y un ataque químico denominado Avan...

  20. Spreading lengths of Hermite polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Moreno, P; Manzano, D; Yáñez, R; 10.1016/j.cam.2009.09.043

    2009-01-01

    The Renyi, Shannon and Fisher spreading lengths of the classical or hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials, which are quantifiers of their distribution all over the orthogonality interval, are defined and investigated. These information-theoretic measures of the associated Rakhmanov probability density, which are direct measures of the polynomial spreading in the sense of having the same units as the variable, share interesting properties: invariance under translations and reflections, linear scaling and vanishing in the limit that the variable tends towards a given definite value. The expressions of the Renyi and Fisher lengths for the Hermite polynomials are computed in terms of the polynomial degree. The combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials, which are shown to characterize the finite power of an arbitrary polynomial, play a relevant role for the computation of these information-theoretic lengths. Indeed these polynomials allow us to design an error-free computing approach for the entropic moments (w...

  1. Epidemic spreading by objective traveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming; Liu, Zonghua; Li, Baowen

    2009-07-01

    A fundamental feature of agent traveling in social networks is that traveling is usually not a random walk but with a specific destination and goes through the shortest path from starting to destination. A serious consequence of the objective traveling is that it may result in a fast epidemic spreading, such as SARS etc. In this letter we present a reaction-traveling model to study how the objective traveling influences the epidemic spreading. We consider a random scale-free meta-population network with sub-population at each node. Through a SIS model we theoretically prove that near the threshold of epidemic outbreak, the objective traveling can significantly enhance the final infected population and the infected fraction at a node is proportional to its betweenness for the traveling agents and approximately proportional to its degree for the non-traveling agents. Numerical simulations have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  2. Equatorial Spread F Fossil Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Satyanarayana , P., and Ossakow, S. L.: The morphology of a multi-bubble system in the ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 5528–5536, 1983. de La Beaujardiere...Haerendel, G.: Theory of equatorial spread F , preprint, Max Planck Inst. Extraterr. Phys., Munich, Germany, 1974. Haerendel, G., Eccles, J. V ., and...weather issues, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 58, 1527–1574, 1996. Sekar, R., Chakrabarty, D., Sarkhel, S., Patra, A. K., Devasia, C. V ., and Kelley, M. C

  3. Technique of green mulch spreading

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Winfried; Väisänen, Jaana; Pihala, Marjo

    2001-01-01

    Finland’s policy of subsidising the conversion to organic production precipitated the rapid growth of organic farming in the 1990’s. As a consequence, many stockless farms encountered the problems of nitrogen deficit, poor grain quality, and weed control. Since the spreading of green mulch on cash crops is very common especially in tropical agriculture, organic fertilisers like green mulch may be an alternative that would compensate for the prohibition on the use of mineral N-fertilisers. How...

  4. Quality Improvement of Cheese Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-25

    Annatto (2% bixin) 3.5 mL Use as needed to conform color Vitamin A 0.14 0.003 Not less than 800 retinol units Added to comply with product...for samples with citrates (CIT) and altered levels of phosphates (LP) (Table 7). Although the citrates and phosphates have similar ionic components...Effect of vitamins The guidelines for cheese spread fortification include the addition of retinol (vitamin A), thiamine (vitamin B1), pyridoxine

  5. Physically Protected Spread Spectrum Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    for the FH system in those days was because of implementation issues, such as a frequency -ringing problem , which occurred whenever a frequency was...PS-TR-2016-0046 HAS BEEN REVIEWED AND IS APPROVED FOR PUBLICATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASSIGNED DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT. KHANH PHAM PAUL D. LEVAN...keying (MPSK) and M-ary quadrature amplitude-shift keying (MQAM) for a slow frequency hopping (FH) spread spectrum (SS) system because, recently

  6. Drop Spreading with Random Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    Airway mucus acts as a barrier to protect the lung. However as a biological material, its physical properties are known imperfectly and can be spatially heterogeneous. In this study we assess the impact of these uncertainties on the rate of spreading of a drop (representing an inhaled aerosol) over a mucus film. We model the film as Newtonian, having a viscosity that depends linearly on the concentration of a passive solute (a crude proxy for mucin proteins). Given an initial random solute (and hence viscosity) distribution, described as a Gaussian random field with a given correlation structure, we seek to quantify the uncertainties in outcomes as the drop spreads. Using lubrication theory, we describe the spreading of the drop in terms of a system of coupled nonlinear PDEs governing the evolution of film height and the vertically-averaged solute concentration. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to predict the variability in the drop centre location and width (1D) or area (2D). We show how simulation results are well described (at much lower computational cost) by a low-order model using a weak disorder expansion. Our results show for example how variability in the drop location is a non-monotonic function of the solute correlation length increases. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  7. Epidemic Spread in Human Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sahneh, Faryad Darabi

    2011-01-01

    One of the popular dynamics on complex networks is the epidemic spreading. An epidemic model describes how infections spread throughout a network. Among the compartmental models used to describe epidemics, the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model has been widely used. In the SIS model, each node can be susceptible, become infected with a given infection rate, and become again susceptible with a given curing rate. In this paper, we add a new compartment to the classic SIS model to account for human response to epidemic spread. Each individual can be infected, susceptible, or alert. Susceptible individuals can become alert with an alerting rate if infected individuals exist in their neighborhood. An individual in the alert state is less probable to become infected than an individual in the susceptible state; due to a newly adopted cautious behavior. The problem is formulated as a continuous-time Markov process on a general static graph and then modeled into a set of ordinary differential equations using...

  8. Spread of entanglement and causality

    CERN Document Server

    Casini, Horacio; Mezei, Márk

    2015-01-01

    We investigate causality constraints on the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in relativistic theories. We first provide a general proof that the so-called tsunami velocity is bounded by the speed of light. We then generalize the free particle streaming model of arXiv:cond-mat/0503393 to general dimensions and to an arbitrary entanglement pattern of the initial state. In more than two spacetime dimensions the spread of entanglement in these models is highly sensitive to the initial entanglement pattern, but we are able to prove an upper bound on the normalized rate of growth of entanglement entropy, and hence the tsunami velocity. The bound is smaller than what one gets for quenches in holographic theories, which highlights the importance of interactions in the spread of entanglement in many-body systems. We propose an interacting model which we believe provides an upper bound on the spread of entanglement for interacting relativistic theories. In two spacetime dimensions with multi...

  9. Spread of entanglement and causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, Horacio; Liu, Hong; Mezei, Márk

    2016-07-01

    We investigate causality constraints on the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in relativistic theories. We first provide a general proof that the so-called tsunami velocity is bounded by the speed of light. We then generalize the free particle streaming model of [1] to general dimensions and to an arbitrary entanglement pattern of the initial state. In more than two spacetime dimensions the spread of entanglement in these models is highly sensitive to the initial entanglement pattern, but we are able to prove an upper bound on the normalized rate of growth of entanglement entropy, and hence the tsunami velocity. The bound is smaller than what one gets for quenches in holographic theories, which highlights the importance of interactions in the spread of entanglement in many-body systems. We propose an interacting model which we believe provides an upper bound on the spread of entanglement for interacting relativistic theories. In two spacetime dimensions with multiple intervals, this model and its variations are able to reproduce intricate results exhibited by holographic theories for a significant part of the parameter space. For higher dimensions, the model bounds the tsunami velocity at the speed of light. Finally, we construct a geometric model for entanglement propagation based on a tensor network construction for global quenches.

  10. Carcinoma of the cervix with massive eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, D G

    1988-04-01

    Massive local eosinophilia of 100 or more eosinophils per high power field was found in 3.2% cases of invasive carcinoma of the cervix. The prevalence, length of history before presentation to surgery and histological features were similar in patients from Great Britain and Malawi, but in both populations the mean age at diagnosis was lower than in patients with cervical carcinomas without tissue eosinophilia. In some of the tumours, the malignant cells were very difficult to find because of the eosinophil infiltrate, and misinterpretation as an inflammatory lesion was possible. In the absence of circulating eosinophilia, cervical carcinomas with massive eosinophilia were found to have a better prognosis than tumours without. Five patients had circulating eosinophilia as well as local tumour eosinophil infiltration, and each of them had extensive tumour spread.

  11. Genomic aberrations of BRCA1-mutated fallopian tube carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Sally M; Ryland, Georgina L; Moss, Phillip; Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G

    2014-06-01

    Intraepithelial carcinomas of the fallopian tube are putative precursors to high-grade serous carcinomas of the ovary and peritoneum. Molecular characterization of these early precursors is limited but could be the key to identifying tumor biomarkers for early detection. This study presents a genome-wide copy number analysis of occult fallopian tube carcinomas identified through risk-reducing prophylactic oophorectomy from three women with germline BRCA1 mutations, demonstrating that extensive genomic aberrations are already established at this early stage. We found no indication of a difference in the level of genomic aberration observed in fallopian tube carcinomas compared with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. These findings suggest that spread to the peritoneal cavity may require no or very little further tumor evolution, which raises the question of what is the real window of opportunity to detect high-grade serous peritoneal carcinoma arising from the fallopian tube before it spreads. Nonetheless, the similarity of the genomic aberrations to those observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas suggests that genetic biomarkers identified in late-stage disease may be relevant for early detection.

  12. Superficial perineal leiomyosarcoma in an adolescent female and a review of the literature including vulvar leiomyosarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, A; Backman Nøhr, S

    1992-01-01

    differentiated and showed immunoreactivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin and desmin. A review of the literature on superficial leiomyosarcomas indicates that superficial perineal leiomyosarcomas may be more aggressive than superficial leiomyosarcomas in general. As the presented tumour occurred in a female......Superficial perineal leiomyosarcomas are rare, with only three previously reported examples. We encountered a superficial (deep subcutaneous) perineal leiomyosarcoma in a 17-year-old female. At follow-up two years after a wide excision, there were no signs of recurrence. The tumour was well...

  13. Clinical suspicion and parathyroid carcinoma management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luiz de Menezes Montenegro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Adequate management of parathyroid carcinoma apparently relates to the surgeon’s ability to identify it at the first operation. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the role of clinical suspicion in the management of parathyroid carcinoma. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis of parathyroid carcinoma patients treated in Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 143 patients who underwent surgery from 1995 to 2000, due to hyperparathyroidism. These cases were reviewed to ascertain whether preoperative and intraoperative suspicion of parathyroid carcinoma were helpful during the operation, and which factors demonstrated the suspicion of cancer best. RESULTS: Among 66 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism there were four cases of parathyroid carcinoma (6.1%, and one case was found in secondary hyperparathyroidism (1.3%. Palpable nodules were found in five patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, four of them with parathyroid carcinoma. Preoperative levels of calcium in primary hyperparathyroidism with cancer patients varied from 12.0 mg/dl to 18.2 mg/dl. Two patients had gross macroscopic spread of the tumor to adjacent structures. Except for one patient, with extensive disease, tumors were resected en bloc. In secondary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid carcinoma was found in a fifth mediastinal gland. One atypical adenoma was observed. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of calcium, palpable tumors and adherence to close structures are more common in parathyroid carcinoma. These clinical signs may be helpful for decision-making during parathyroid surgery.

  14. Expression of stromelysin 3 in basal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, B; Noacco, G; Peltre, B; Grosshans, E

    2001-01-01

    Stromelysin 3 is a member of the metalloproteinase family, which is expressed in various remodelling processes. The prognosis of breast cancers and squamous cell carcinomas is correlated to the level of expression of this protein. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the expression of stromelysin 3 in the major types of basal cell carcinomas. We selected cases of primary tumours that were fully excised, without previous biopsy: 40 Pinkus tumors, 40 superficial, 40 nodular, 38 morpheiform basal cell carcinomas and 10 cases showing deep subcutaneous or muscular invasion. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using monoclonal anti-ST3 antibodies (MC Rio, IGBMC Strasbourg), and evaluated on a semi-quantitative scale from 0 to 3. Positively stained cells were restricted to the periphery of the epithelial cells, which, by contrast, never expressed stromelysin 3. The global rate of expression was 27% in Pinkus tumors, 65% in superficial, 72.5% in nodular, 87% in morpheiform and 100% in deeply invasive carcinomas. The rates of tumours showing the highest number of positively stained cells (class 2 or 3) were respectively 7.5%, 20%, 45%, 63% and 100%. This systematic study of stromelysin3 expression in basal cell carcinomas confirms that it is a marker of poor prognosis, because the rate of positive tumours was much higher in aggressive carcinomas. Moreover, the majority of tumours showing an intense expression (i.e. the highest number of positively stained cells in their stroma) were of the morpheiform and deeply invasive types, which are of poor prognosis. Altogether, the studies performed on cutaneous tumours are consistent with the theory of stromelysin 3 playing an active role in tumour progression.

  15. Carcinoma verrugoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Quesada Jiménez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 76 años, vecino de Turrialba, agricultor, que consultó por una lesión de 3 años de evolución, localizada en la palma de la mano derecha a nivel palmar y compromiso de los dedos de la misma mano, caracterizada como una neoformación exofítica verrugosa de 5 por 11 cm. aproximadamente, con material caseoso entre sus crestas. La lesión ha estado creciendo de forma acelerada en los últimos 3 meses, causándole dolor y que le imposibilita ellaborar. Se le realizaron exámenes y se descartaron varias causas infecciosas, y concluyendo luego de varias biopsias con el diagnóstico de un carcinoma verrugoso. El paciente fue tratado mediante una amputación parcial de la mano. Este tumor es una variante del carcinoma epidermoide y presentamos su clasificación, patogénesis, histopatología, manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes y diagnóstico diferencial.

  16. Reverse preferential spread in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoizumi, Hiroshi; Tani, Seiichi; Miyoshi, Naoto; Okamoto, Yoshio

    2012-08-01

    Large-degree nodes may have a larger influence on the network, but they can be bottlenecks for spreading information since spreading attempts tend to concentrate on these nodes and become redundant. We discuss that the reverse preferential spread (distributing information inversely proportional to the degree of the receiving node) has an advantage over other spread mechanisms. In large uncorrelated networks, we show that the mean number of nodes that receive information under the reverse preferential spread is an upper bound among any other weight-based spread mechanisms, and this upper bound is indeed a logistic growth independent of the degree distribution.

  17. Endometrial carcinoma metastatic to the clitoris: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakor, Fereshteh; Hajizadeh Falah, Hadi; Khajeh Jahromi, Sina

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial cancer generally carries a good prognosis. Endometrial carcinoma more frequently metastasizes to the pelvic and para-aortic nodes. Visceral metastases usually occur in the vagina and ovaries. Distant metastases involve lungs and occur as a terminal event. This case report describes vulvalar metastasis of endometrial cancer to the clitoris. Metastatic tumors of the vulva are rare. Moreover, in the presence of metastatic endometrial carcinoma to the vulva, it is necessary to verify if other visceral metastases are present. Endometrial cancer can extend through direct dermatogens and lymphatic spread. We report a clitoral metastasis of an endometrial carcinoma and discuss whether the possible mechanism is vascular spreading or direct seeding.

  18. Geodynamic environments of ultra-slow spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhan, Andrey; Dubinin, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    Ultra-slow spreading is clearly distinguished as an outstanding type of crustal accretion by recent studies. Spreading ridges with ultra-slow velocities of extension are studied rather well. But ultra-slow spreading is characteristic feature of not only spreading ridges, it can be observed also on convergent and transform plate boundaries. Ultra-slow spreading is observed now or could have been observed in the past in the following geodynamic environments on divergent plate boundaries: 1. On spreading ridges with ultra-slow spreading, both modern (f.e. Gakkel, South-West Indian, Aden spreading center) and ceased (Labrador spreading center, Aegir ridge); 2. During transition from continental rifting to early stages of oceanic spreading (all spreading ridges during incipient stages of their formation); 3. During incipient stages of formation of spreading ridges on oceanic crust as a result of ridge jumps and reorganization of plate boundaries (f.e. Mathematicians rise and East Pacific rise); 4. During propagation of spreading ridge into the continental crust under influence of hotspot (Aden spreading center and Afar triple junction), under presence of strike-slip faults preceding propagation (possibly, rift zone of California Bay). Ultra-slow spreading is observed now or could have been observed in the past in the following geodynamic environments on transform plate boundaries: 1. In transit zones between two "typical" spreading ridges (f.e. Knipovich ridge); 2. In semi strike-slip/extension zones on the oceanic crust (f.e. American-Antarctic ridge); 3. In the zones of local extension in regional strike-slip areas in pull-apart basins along transform boundaries (Cayman trough, pull-apart basins of the southern border of Scotia plate). Ultra-slow spreading is observed now or could have been observed in the past in the following geodynamic environments on convergent plate boundaries: 1. During back-arc rifting on the stage of transition into back-arc spreading (central

  19. Endoscopic mucosal resection in colorectal lesion: a safe and effective procedure even in lesions larger than 2 cm and in carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Endoscopic mucosal resection is a minimally invasive technique used in the treatment of colorectal neoplasms, including early carcinomas of different size and morphology. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate procedure safety, efficacy, outcomes, and recurrence rate in endoscopic mucosal resection of colorectal lesions. METHODS: A total of 172 lesions in 156 patients were analyzed between May 2003 and May 2009. All lesions showed pit pattern suggestive of neoplasia (Kudo types III-V at high-magnification chromocolonoscopy with indigo carmine. The lesions were evaluated for macroscopic classification, size, location, and histopathology. Lesions 20 mm or smaller were resected en bloc and lesions larger than 20 mm were removed using the piecemeal technique. Complications and recurrence were analyzed. Patients were followed up for 18 months. RESULTS: There were 83 (48.2% superficial lesions, 57 (33.1% depressed lesions, 44 (25.6% laterally spreading tumors, and 45 (26.2% protruding lesions. Mean lesion size was 11.5 mm ± 9.6 mm (2 mm-60 mm. Patients' mean age was 61.6 ± 12.5 years (34-93 years. Regarding lesion site, 24 (14.0% lesions were located in the rectum, 68 (39.5% in the left colon, and 80 (46.5% in the right colon (transverse, ascending, and cecum. There were 167 (97.1% neoplasms: 142 (82.5% adenomatous lesions, 24 (14.0% intramucosal carcinomas, and 1 (0.6% invasive carcinoma. En bloc resection was performed in 158 (91.9% cases and piecemeal resection in 14 (8.1%. Bleeding occurred in 5 (2.9% cases. Recurrence was observed in 4.1% (5/122 of cases and was associated with lesions larger than 20 mm (P<0.01, piecemeal resection (P<0.01, advanced neoplasm (P = 0.01, and carcinoma compared to adenoma (P = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic mucosal resection of colorectal lesions is a safe and effective procedure, with low complication and local recurrence rates. Recurrence is associated with lesions larger than 20 mm and carcinomas.

  20. Rapid and sensitive detection of carbapenemase activity in Acinetobacter baumannii using superficially porous liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huei-Ru; Hu, Anren; Lai, Meng-Jiun; Chiang, Chih-Wei; Liao, Chao-Chuan; Chang, Kai-Chih

    2016-12-01

    The emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii poses a challenge for optimizing antibiotic therapies and preventing outbreaks. Traditional phenotypic assays such as the modified Hodge test (MHT) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of the carbapenemase genes are time-consuming and complicated. Therefore, new approaches for the efficient detection of carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii are urgently required. In this study, we used the superficially porous liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay to measure carbapenem hydrolysis in a solution spiked with test strains of A. baumannii. The rate of carbapenem hydrolysis during incubation was expressed as the ratio of the carbapenem peak area of the test A. baumannii strains to the noncarbapenemase-producing A. baumannii ATCC 17978. This method can accurately measure the carbapenem hydrolysis rate and, therefore, can effectively identify carbapenemase-producing strains within 75 minutes. A total of 112 A. baumannii strains were used in this study, including 103 clinical isolates with 68 carbapenem-resistant strains and 35 carbapenem-susceptible strains, seven ATCC strains and two selected mutants. The results of the superficially porous LC-MS/MS assay showed higher detection sensitivity compared to the results of the MHT. Our results demonstrate the ability of the former method to routinely detect carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Plume spread and atmospheric stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The horizontal spread of a plume in atmospheric dispersion can be described by the standard deviation of horizontal direction. The widely used Pasquill-Gifford classes of atmospheric stability have assigned typical values of the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction and of the lapse rate. A measured lapse rate can thus be used to estimate the standard deviation of wind direction. It is examined by means of a large dataset of fast wind measurements how good these estimates are. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  2. Liquid Spreading under Nanoscale Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checco, Antonio

    2009-03-01

    Dynamic atomic force microscopy in the noncontact regime is used to study the morphology of a nonvolatile liquid (squalane) as it spreads along wettable nanostripes embedded in a nonwettable surface. Results show that the liquid profile depends on the amount of lateral confinement imposed by the nanostripes, and it is truncated at the microscopic contact line in good qualitative agreement with classical mesoscale hydrodynamics. However, the width of the contact line is found to be significantly larger than expected theoretically. This behavior may originate from small chemical inhomogeneity of the patterned stripes as well as from thermal fluctuations of the contact line.

  3. Spreading widths of doorway states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pace, A., E-mail: depace@to.infn.i [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Molinari, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica dell' Universita di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Weidenmueller, H.A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-01-01

    As a function of energy E, the average doorway strength function S(E)-bar of a doorway state is commonly assumed to be Lorentzian in shape and characterized by two parameters, the peak energy E{sub 0} and the spreading width {Gamma}{sup {down_arrow}}. The simple picture is modified when the density of background states that couple to the doorway state changes significantly in an energy interval of size {Gamma}{sup {down_arrow}}. For that case we derive an approximate analytical expression for S(E)-bar. We test our result successfully against numerical simulations. Our result may have important implications for shell-model calculations.

  4. Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161473.html Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide Scientists recommend keeping ... birds can spread bird flu worldwide and monitoring migration routes could provide early warning of outbreaks, researchers ...

  5. Lexical Ambiguity: Making a Case against Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Rogness, Neal T.; Fisher, Diane G.

    2012-01-01

    We argue for decreasing the use of the word "spread" when describing the statistical idea of dispersion or variability in introductory statistics courses. In addition, we argue for increasing the use of the word "variability" as a replacement for "spread."

  6. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  7. Ingeniería de superficies y su impacto medioambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agüero, A.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface engineering addresses the modification of the microstructure and/or composition of the surface of components by mechanical, physical or chemical methods that may imply adding a material in order to change the surface properties of said component. One of its most important consequences is the significant increase of the useful life of a variety of components in a large number of industrial applications. Moreover, it contributes to energy savings by increasing efficiencies as it allows higher combustion temperatures, by allowing the use of lighter components and by significant friction reduction. In this paper, surface engineering is introduced, as well as its different modalities, examples of industrial applications and positive and negative environmental impacts.

    La ingeniería de superficies consiste en la modificación de la microestructura y/o la composición superficial de un componente mediante métodos mecánicos, físicos o químicos, que pueden implicar el aporte de otro material para cambiar las propiedades superficiales del mencionado componente. Una de sus consecuencias más importantes es que permite alargar significativamente, la vida útil de todo tipo de componentes empleados en un gran número de aplicaciones industriales. Por otra parte, contribuye al ahorro energético por permitir el aumento de las temperaturas de combustión consiguiendo una mayor eficiencia, por contribuir a la reducción de peso y por colaborar de forma significativa a disminuir la fricción entre componentes. En el presente trabajo se introduce la ingeniería de superficies, sus diferentes modalidades, algunos ejemplos de sus aplicaciones industriales y las interacciones, positivas y negativas, con el medio ambiente.

  8. Endoscopic mucosectomy: an alternative treatment for superficial esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, R

    2000-01-01

    Recent trends in the management of superficial esophageal cancer consist of improved detection, pretherapeutic staging and reliable criteria for curative endoscopic therapy. The endoscopic treatment is legitimate when the cancer is at an early stage, intra-epithelial or microinvasive (m1 or m2) and N0. Submucosal cancer should not be treated with a curative intent by endotherapy. Concerning squamous cell cancer, the oriental and occidental pathologists include high-grade dysplasia in the same group as intramucosal cancer. The distinction is however maintained for adenocarcinoma in the Barrett's esophagus. Indications of endoscopic rather than surgical treatment rely on: (1) the small size of the tumor (not more than 2 cm in diameter); (2) the endoscopic morphology in the type 0 of the Japanese classification with the flat subtypes IIa and IIb rather than type IIc--there is high risk of submucosal invasion for the polypoid (type I) or ulcerated superficial cancer (type III); and (3) the endoscopic ultrasound staging, with confirmed integrity of the hyperechoic submucosal layer. The high-frequency (20 MHz) miniprobe is preferred to the standard (7.5 MHz) instrument. The elective procedure for tumor eradication is endoscopic mucosectomy. The technique is associated with a 6.8% risk of severe complications (hemorrhage or perforation) and a recurrence rate of 3%-7%. The 5-year survival rate is similar to that of surgery (over 80%). In the small group of patients with superficial esophageal cancer (less than 10% of the disease) endoscopic treatment may now be proposed in about 30% of cases, surgery is preferred for submucosal cancer and for neoplasia with a large surface. Areas of high-grade dysplasia in the Barrett's esophagus offer a new and increasing sector of indications. The concurrent endoscopic procedure of destruction--photodynamic therapy--is preferred for the destruction of lesions with poorly delineated limits.

  9. Functional compartmentalization of the human superficial masseter muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A Guzmán-Venegas

    Full Text Available Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM muscle's motor units using high-density surface electromyography (EMGs at different bite force levels. Twenty healthy natural dentate participants (men: 4; women: 16; age 20±2 years; mass: 60±12 kg, height: 163±7 cm were selected from 316 volunteers and included in this study. Using a gnathodynamometer, bites from 20 to 100% maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF were randomly requested. Using a two-dimensional grid (four columns, six electrodes located on the dominant SM, EMGs in the anterior, middle-anterior, middle-posterior and posterior portions were simultaneously recorded. In bite ranges from 20 to 60% MVBF, the EMG activity was higher in the anterior than in the posterior portion (p-value = 0.001.The center of mass of the EMG activity was displaced towards the posterior part when bite force increased (p-value = 0.001. The topographic distribution of EMGs was more homogeneous at high levels of MVBF (p-value = 0.001. The results of this study show that the superficial masseter is organized into three functional compartments: an anterior, a middle and a posterior compartment. However, this compartmentalization is only seen at low levels of bite force (20-60% MVBF.

  10. Functional compartmentalization of the human superficial masseter muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Venegas, Rodrigo A; Biotti Picand, Jorge L; de la Rosa, Francisco J Berral

    2015-01-01

    Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM) muscle's motor units using high-density surface electromyography (EMGs) at different bite force levels. Twenty healthy natural dentate participants (men: 4; women: 16; age 20±2 years; mass: 60±12 kg, height: 163±7 cm) were selected from 316 volunteers and included in this study. Using a gnathodynamometer, bites from 20 to 100% maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF) were randomly requested. Using a two-dimensional grid (four columns, six electrodes) located on the dominant SM, EMGs in the anterior, middle-anterior, middle-posterior and posterior portions were simultaneously recorded. In bite ranges from 20 to 60% MVBF, the EMG activity was higher in the anterior than in the posterior portion (p-value = 0.001).The center of mass of the EMG activity was displaced towards the posterior part when bite force increased (p-value = 0.001). The topographic distribution of EMGs was more homogeneous at high levels of MVBF (p-value = 0.001). The results of this study show that the superficial masseter is organized into three functional compartments: an anterior, a middle and a posterior compartment. However, this compartmentalization is only seen at low levels of bite force (20-60% MVBF).

  11. An improved MRI guided ultrasound system for superficial tumor hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengyuan; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Zhiqiang; Chen, Sheng; Wu, Hao

    2017-03-01

    Among many methods in tumor treatment, ultrasound hyperthermia is characterized by non-invasiveness, and it has been proven very effective for clinical treatment. But the problem of monitoring temperature limits its development. MRI-based temperature mapping techniques are safe compared with invasive methods and have been applied to detect temperature changes for a variety of applications. Among these techniques, the proton resonance frequency (PRF) method is relatively advanced. With a temperature measuring experiment and experiment conducted on tumors inside rabbit legs, the effectiveness of PRF method has been proved. This paper is to introduce an MRI guided ultrasound superficial tumor hyperthermia instrument based on PRF method.

  12. Composicion y deformacion de curvas, superficies y volumenes de bezier

    OpenAIRE

    Canchoa Quispe, Alessandri

    1998-01-01

    El presente trabajo enfoca el problema de la composición y deformación de cla¬vas, superficies y volúmenes de Bézier. Los algoritmos para encontrar los puntos de control de la composición (F=Fog) de simplejos o formas de producto tensorial de Bézier g:Rn -> RwyF:RN->Rd a partir de los puntos de control de g y F tienen aplicaciones práctica en el CAGD (Computer Aided Geometric Design). Estos algoritmos inicialmente fue presentado por DeRose [DeRo 88]: el algoritmo producto para la deformación ...

  13. Aneurysm of the superficial palmar arch: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Emmanuel P; Lee, Ellen Y

    2008-01-01

    Aneurysms of the hand are uncommon lesions. The most common location is the ulnar artery. We present a case of a young female who consulted us for a hand mass with a history of trauma to the hand. Pre-operative arteriogram showed a superficial palmar arch aneurysm. The mass was excised and the arch was reconstructed using a reversed Y-shaped vein graft. Fourteen months after surgery, there was no recurrence of the aneurysm and the patient only reported occasional cold intolerance.

  14. The spreading of misinformation online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vicario, Michela; Bessi, Alessandro; Zollo, Fabiana; Petroni, Fabio; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Stanley, H Eugene; Quattrociocchi, Walter

    2016-01-19

    The wide availability of user-provided content in online social media facilitates the aggregation of people around common interests, worldviews, and narratives. However, the World Wide Web (WWW) also allows for the rapid dissemination of unsubstantiated rumors and conspiracy theories that often elicit rapid, large, but naive social responses such as the recent case of Jade Helm 15--where a simple military exercise turned out to be perceived as the beginning of a new civil war in the United States. In this work, we address the determinants governing misinformation spreading through a thorough quantitative analysis. In particular, we focus on how Facebook users consume information related to two distinct narratives: scientific and conspiracy news. We find that, although consumers of scientific and conspiracy stories present similar consumption patterns with respect to content, cascade dynamics differ. Selective exposure to content is the primary driver of content diffusion and generates the formation of homogeneous clusters, i.e., "echo chambers." Indeed, homogeneity appears to be the primary driver for the diffusion of contents and each echo chamber has its own cascade dynamics. Finally, we introduce a data-driven percolation model mimicking rumor spreading and we show that homogeneity and polarization are the main determinants for predicting cascades' size.

  15. Computed tomography of pharyngo-laryngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuerbach, S.; Lotta, U.; Schmeisser, K.J.

    1982-05-01

    CT scans of 36 carcinomas of the laryngo-pharyngeal region were analysed retrospectively and the results compared with the endoscopic and operative findings. For the final tumour staging in 18 cases of carcinoma of the larynx equivalent results were obtained in 12 cases; CT scans offered a better evaluation in two cases and insufficient dates in four. Destruction of cartilagineous structures, submucosal tumour infiltration and the pre-epiglottic space are better shown on CT scans. Faulty evaluation of tumour presence of extent are due to superficial tumour growth or to motion artefacts. For the final staging of 18 carcinomas of the pharynx results of CT and clinical findings were comparable in nine cases. CT was less precise in five and superior to endoscopy in four. Evaluation of neoplastic infiltration of the parapharyngeal soft-tissue and of the skull base was the main advantage of CT scanning. Low grade tumours of the oro- and hypopharynx were not visible on CT and tumours of the base of the tongue were insufficiently displayed.

  16. International collaborative validation of intraneural invasion as a prognostic marker in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Moran; Binenbaum, Yoav; Trejo-Leider, Leonor;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, pattern of spread, and prognostic correlation of nerve invasion in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). METHODS: Using 3 different pathological categories of perineural invasion, intraneural invasion, and perineural...

  17. The superficial ulnar artery: development and clinical significance Artéria ulnar superficial: desenvolvimento e relevância clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasulu Reddy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal arteries of the upper limb show a wide range of variation that is of considerable interest to orthopedic surgeons, plastic surgeons, radiologists and anatomists. We present here a case of superficial ulnar artery found during the routine dissection of right upper limb of a 50-year-old male cadaver. The superficial ulnar artery originated from the brachial artery, crossed the median nerve anteriorly and ran lateral to this nerve and the brachial artery. The superficial ulnar artery in the arm gave rise to a narrow muscular branch to the biceps brachii. At the elbow level the artery ran superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis where it was crossed by the median cubital vein. It then ran downward and medially superficial to the forearm flexor muscles, and then downward to enter the hand. At the palm, it formed the superficial and deep palmar arches together with the branches of the radial artery. The presence of a superficial ulnar artery is clinically important when raising forearm flaps in reconstructive surgery. The embryology and clinical significance of the variation are discussed.As principais artérias do membro superior apresentam uma ampla variação, que é relativamente importante a cirurgiões ortopédicos e plásticos, radiologistas e anatomistas.Apresentamosumcaso de artéria ulnar superficial encontrada durante dissecção de rotina de membro superior direito de um cadáver masculino de 50 anos de idade.Aartéria ulnar superficial originava-se da artéria braquial, cruzava o nervo mediano anteriormente e percorria lateralmente esse nervo e a artéria braquial. A artéria ulnar superficial no braço deu origem a um ramo muscular estreito do músculo bíceps braquial. Ao nível do cotovelo, a artéria percorria superficialmente a aponeurose bicipital, onde era cruzada pela veia cubital mediana. Percorria, então, em sentido descendente e medialmente superficial aos músculos flexores do antebraço, e então descendia para

  18. Drenaje suplementario del sistema venoso superficial en colgajos pediculados Supplementary drainage of superficial venous system in pedicled flaps

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández García,A.; C. Fernández Pascual; R.A. Moreno Villalba; Ll. Gerrero Navarro

    2012-01-01

    Los colgajos pediculados pueden sufrir edema y congestión debido a que su drenaje a trevés del sistema venoso superfical es imposible y el flujo hacia el sistema profundo a nivel del pedículo es precario. Esta situación suele evolucionar hacia la necrosis parcial o la pérdida total del colgajo en pocas horas. La apertura del sistema venoso superficial permite el drenaje adecuado de los tejidos transferidos y evita estas complicaciones. Este artículo analiza el papel de las anastomosis microqu...

  19. Clinical Evaluation of Superficial Fungal Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragıp Ertaş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This retrospective study was referred to evaluate 51 cases of superficial mycoses, referred to our Pediatric Dermatology outpatient clinic in one year. Methods: We reviewed following data for all patients: age, gender, accompanied diseases, clinical types, localization and treatment. Superficial mycotic infections were diagnosed on the basis of clinical picture, direct microscopy and some of them were confirmed by fungal cultures. Results: Our patients comprised 33 boys (64.7% and 18 girls (35.3%, with an average age of 6.2 years (range 4 months to 17 years. Eighteen patients (35.3% had dermatophytes on the scalp. Clinical forms, in the order of frequency, were: tinea capitis profunda in 10 patients (19.6%, tinea capitis superficialis in 8 patients (15.8%, tinea unguium in 8 patients (15.8%. Tinea capitis (35.3% was the most frequent form of dermatomycosis. The most common symptom was the pruritus. Thirty (58% patients were treated with local antimycotics and 21 (42% patients were treated with systemic terbinafine or itraconazole. Conclusion: In this study it was found that, tinea capitis was the most frequent form of dermatomycosis and onychomycosis in children are not uncommon as it is mentioned. The data also suggest that topical antifungal agents may be effective and well-tolerated in the treatment of onychomycosis and tinea capitis in children.

  20. Superficially located enlarged lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.

  1. Suction based mechanical characterization of superficial facial soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickenmeier, J; Jabareen, M; Mazza, E

    2015-12-16

    The present study is aimed at a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical response of superficial facial tissues. Suction based experiments provide the location, time, and history dependent behavior of skin and SMAS (superficial musculoaponeurotic system) by means of Cutometer and Aspiration measurements. The suction method is particularly suitable for in vivo, multi-axial testing of soft biological tissue including a high repeatability in subsequent tests. The campaign comprises three measurement sites in the face, i.e. jaw, parotid, and forehead, using two different loading profiles (instantaneous loading and a linearly increasing and decreasing loading curve), multiple loading magnitudes, and cyclic loading cases to quantify history dependent behavior. In an inverse finite element analysis based on anatomically detailed models an optimized set of material parameters for the implementation of an elastic-viscoplastic material model was determined, yielding an initial shear modulus of 2.32kPa for skin and 0.05kPa for SMAS, respectively. Apex displacements at maximum instantaneous and linear loading showed significant location specificity with variations of up to 18% with respect to the facial average response while observing variations in repeated measurements in the same location of less than 12%. In summary, the proposed parameter sets for skin and SMAS are shown to provide remarkable agreement between the experimentally observed and numerically predicted tissue response under all loading conditions considered in the present study, including cyclic tests.

  2. A study of uniaxial tension on the superficial dermal microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, R L; Bader, D L; Ryan, T J

    1984-05-01

    A spring-loaded apparatus was designed to apply uniaxial tension to forearm skin in 17 human subjects--10 normals, 6 psoriatics, and 1 patient with scleroderma. Simultaneously, the effects of stretching on the upper dermal vasculature were observed stereomicroscopically. Progressive changes (collapse) in the superficial microvasculature--vertical capillary loops and horizontal subpapillary plexus--with increasing tension were photographed. Force and strains were recorded at the points of disappearance of virtually all vessels. An average force of 11.9 newtons (N), accompanied by a mean strain of 10.3%, resulted in occlusion of all vessels. A much higher force (18.5 N) was necessary to occlude blood flow in the 1 patient with scleroderma. In summary, we have described a new technique for the study of mechanical forces on the blood supply of the epidermis. The data have shown that uniaxial tension has important effects on the superficial dermal microvasculature, resulting in impedance and obliteration of blood flow at relatively low magnitudes.

  3. Aneurysms of the superficial venous system: classification and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G. Bush

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Superficial venous aneurysms are rarely described and they may remain indolent or become the source for pulmonary emboli. A system of classification and treatment protocol according to size and location is proposed. Three hundred thirty patients were evaluated for symptomatic venous disease (C2-C6 over a 2-year period. A proposed designation for venous aneurysm is described. Patients fulfilling this criterion are described in reference to site of involvement, histologic findings, and method of treatment. Five percent of patients met the criteria for venous aneurysm. Nine aneurysms of the greater saphenous vein were identified. Three aneurysms were proximal to the subterminal valve and the rest were distal. Six aneurysms of the anterior accessory greater saphenous vein (AAGSV were identified. Three aneurysms of the AAGSV spontaneously thrombosed. Two patients presented with aneurysms of the small saphenous vein. Histology revealed thickened intima, smooth muscle and adventitia. Aneurysm designation relates to diameter of normal and contiguous vein. All superficial venous aneurysms in close proximity to the junction of the femoral or popliteal vein should be ligated. Classification of venous aneurysms should include the AAGSV, which may present with spontaneous thrombosis.

  4. Carcinoma cuniculatum: not a verrucous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, M J; Rhatigan, R M

    2012-12-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum and verrucous carcinoma are both very well differentiated forms of squamous carcinoma and thus difficult to separate histologically from pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia. The diagnosis of each often requires clinical-pathologic correlation. We reviewed the literature on cases reported as carcinoma cuniculatum and compared these to the cases originally reported by Aird et al. In addition, we report an additional case of this entity that we encountered in our practice. In reviewing the literature it is evident that most authors consider carcinoma cuniculatum and verrucous carcinoma to be synonymous even though Aird's original two cases had no verrucous features. The lack of a clear conceptual distinction between these two entities may cause diagnostic confusion. The purpose of this report is to record a case of carcinoma cuniculatum which the authors believe to be similar to those reported by Aird et al., to emphasize the differences between carcinoma cuniculatum and verrucous carcinoma, and to explain how the lack of a clear conceptual distinction between these two tumors can lead to further delay in an already difficult diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Clinicopathologic factors associated with recurrence in parotid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2017-08-25

    Parotid carcinomas have varying histological types and diverse biologic behaviors. Establishing an adequate treatment plan and predicting recurrence is important. To analyze the risk factors associated with recurrence in our 5 year experience with 30 cases of primary parotid carcinoma undergoing surgery at a single institute. From January 2009 to December 2013, 30 patients with surgical treatment of parotid carcinoma were identified based on their medical records. The 30 patients were comprised of 17 males and 13 females. Among 11 patients with T4 tumors, seven patients had recurrence. Among seven patients with cervical nodal metastasis, all patient except one had recurrence. Clinically late stages (stage III and IV) showed more common recurrence than early stage (stage I and II) lesions. Lymphovascular invasion was seen in 5 patients, and all patients had recurrence. Among 11 patients with extracapsular spread, 7 patients had recurrence. In 17 patients with high grade carcinomas, ten patients had recurrence. In 13 patients with low grade carcinomas, no patients experienced recurrence. T- and N-stage, clinical stage, lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular spread, and histopathologic grade correlate significantly with recurrence in parotid carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  7. Rumor spreading in gaming social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yichao; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2011-01-01

    So far, the focus on rumor spreading are mainly on some simple backgrounds, in other words, only taking consideration of the overall topological influences on its dynamical behavior. However, in the prospect of the individuality, personal strategies in the social networks play a more non-trivial role in the real social networks. To fill this gap, we will investigate the rumor spreading in gaming social networks. Our analysis is supported by the results of numerical simulations. We observe that the original rumor is still the most well known edition in case that the content is modified by the defectors. However, the portion decays with the stimulus generally. For the case that defectors keep silence in the spreading process, the scale of spreading decays with stimulus generally, suggesting the rumor can hardly spread in a community of defectors. This highlights the key role that stimulus plays in rumor spreading and the necessity to study information spreading in competitive circumstances.

  8. Pathological Fracture of the Femur by Metastatic Carcinoma Penis-a Rare Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shabbir; Solanki, Fanindra Singh; Sharma, Deepti B; Sharma, Dhananjay

    2016-04-01

    We report herein a clinical case of a patient with femur fracture due to metastasis from penile squamous cell carcinoma. A young man, who was treated for carcinoma penis, presented with pathological fracture of femur and lung metastasis from metastatic carcinoma penis after 18 months. Long bone metastasis from penile cancer is extremely rare, to the best of our knowledge; this is the first report of a patient with penile cancer spread to the femur from primary squamous cell carcinoma of the penis.

  9. UNCOMMON PRESENTATION OF FOLLICULAR THYROID CARCINOMA: WHEN CHRONIC BACK PAIN SHOULD RAISE A FLAG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Milliette; Ramirez, Margarita; Lopez, Liurka; Marcos-Martinez, Maria J; Saavedra, Fanor M; Negron-Rivei, Juan C; Agosto, Marielba; Martinez, Meliza; Gonzalez, Rafael; Allende-Vigo, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma is the second most common type of thyroid cancer, and its incidence has increased dramatically in recent years. Although it typically presents as a thyroid nodule, it can spread to distant sites via hematogenous dissemination. Spinal cord compression complicating thyroid carcinoma is rare with only few cases reported in the literature. This case illustrates a minimally invasive follicular carcinoma that showed such an aggressive behavior, and thus the importance of considering metastatic thyroid carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of chronic back pain, which may possibly progress to spinal cord compression carrying severe morbidity.

  10. Perineural tumor spread - Interconnection between spinal and cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozić, Duško; Njagulj, Vesna; Gaćeša, Jelena Popadić; Semnic, Robert; Prvulović, Nataša

    2012-12-15

    The secondary neoplastic involvement of the cervical plexus in patients with head and neck malignancies is extremely rare. MR examination of the neck revealed the diffuse neoplastic infiltration of the right C2 root, in a 57-year-old patient with several months long pain in the right ear region and a history of the tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Associated perineural tumor spread and consequent distal involvement of great auricular nerve and vagus nerve were evident. Best of our knowledge, this is the first reported involvement of the cervical plexus in patients with head and neck cancers, associated with the clearly documented interconnection between the cervical plexus and cranial nerves via great auricular nerve.

  11. Random Information Spread in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lapus, Raymond; Tittmann, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Let G=(V,E) be an undirected loopless graph with possible parallel edges and s and t be two vertices of G. Assume that vertex s is labelled at the initial time step and that every labelled vertex copies its labelling to neighbouring vertices along edges with one labelled endpoint independently with probability p in one time step. In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the expected s-t first arrival time of the above spread process and the notion of the stochastic shortest s-t path. Moreover, we give a short discussion of analytical results on special graphs including the complete graph and s-t series-parallel graphs. Finally, we propose some lower bounds for the expected s-t first arrival time.

  12. Bank Lending, Housing and Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslam, Aqib; Santoro, Emiliano

    The framework presented in this paper takes its cue from recent financial events and attempts to develop a tractable framework for policy analysis of macro-linkages, in particular a first attempt at the integration of an independent profit-maximising banking sector that lends to and borrows from...... agents in the economy, and through which changes in the monetary policy rate by the central bank are transmitted. The inter-linkages between housing and the role of the banking sector in the transmission of monetary policy is emphasized. Two competing effects are highlighted: (i) a financial accelerator...... channel, due to the presence of collateralized borrowers, and (ii) a banking attenuator effect, which crucially arises from the spread in interest rates caused by the introduction of monopolistically competitive financial intermediaries. We show how the classical amplification mechanism explored in models...

  13. Interpolating point spread function anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Gentile, M; Meylan, G

    2012-01-01

    Planned wide-field weak lensing surveys are expected to reduce the statistical errors on the shear field to unprecedented levels. In contrast, systematic errors like those induced by the convolution with the point spread function (PSF) will not benefit from that scaling effect and will require very accurate modeling and correction. While numerous methods have been devised to carry out the PSF correction itself, modeling of the PSF shape and its spatial variations across the instrument field of view has, so far, attracted much less attention. This step is nevertheless crucial because the PSF is only known at star positions while the correction has to be performed at any position on the sky. A reliable interpolation scheme is therefore mandatory and a popular approach has been to use low-order bivariate polynomials. In the present paper, we evaluate four other classical spatial interpolation methods based on splines (B-splines), inverse distance weighting (IDW), radial basis functions (RBF) and ordinary Kriging...

  14. Bank Lending, Housing and Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslam, Aqib; Santoro, Emiliano

    of private borrowing between collaterally-constrained 'impatient' households and unconstrained 'patient' households, such as those put forward by Kiyotaki and Moore (1997) and Iacoviello (2005), is counteracted by the banking attenuator effect, given an endogenous steady state spread between loan and savings......The framework presented in this paper takes its cue from recent financial events and attempts to develop a tractable framework for policy analysis of macro-linkages, in particular a first attempt at the integration of an independent profit-maximising banking sector that lends to and borrows from...... agents in the economy, and through which changes in the monetary policy rate by the central bank are transmitted. The inter-linkages between housing and the role of the banking sector in the transmission of monetary policy is emphasized. Two competing effects are highlighted: (i) a financial accelerator...

  15. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  16. Stages of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma include pain in the abdomen. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by adrenocortical carcinoma: A lump in the abdomen . Pain the abdomen or back. A feeling of ...

  17. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  18. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.;

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases...... of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising...... malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  19. Sperm associated antigen 9 plays an important role in bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Kanojia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Majority of bladder cancer deaths are caused due to transitional cell carcinoma (TCC which is the most prevalent and chemoresistant malignancy of urinary bladder. Therefore, we analyzed the role of Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9 in bladder TCC. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We examined SPAG9 expression and humoral response in 125 bladder TCC patients. Four bladder cancer cell lines were assessed for SPAG9 expression. In addition, we investigated the effect of SPAG9 ablation on cellular proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion in UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cells by employing gene silencing approach. Our SPAG9 gene and protein expression analysis revealed SPAG9 expression in 81% of bladder TCC tissue specimens. High SPAG9 expression (>60% SPAG9 positive cells was found to be significantly associated with superficial non-muscle invasive stage (P = 0.042 and low grade tumors (P = 0.002 suggesting SPAG9 putative role in early spread and tumorigenesis. Humoral response against SPAG9 was observed in 95% of patients found positive for SPAG9 expression. All four bladder cancer cell lines revealed SPAG9 expression. In addition, SPAG9 gene silencing in UM-UC-3 cells resulted in induction of G0-G1 arrest characterized by up-regulation of p16 and p21 and consequent down-regulation of cyclin E, cyclin D and cyclin B, CDK4 and CDK1. Further, SPAG9 gene silencing also resulted in reduction in cellular growth, and migration and invasion ability of cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data in clinical specimens indicated that SPAG9 is potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder TCC.

  20. Atypia and Surface Structure of Superficial Neoplasms of the Colon Less Than 10 mm in Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Yasuda

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological specimens of 30 distinct adenomas and 30 distinct carcinomas were studied by image analysis to quantify nuclear size and shape. These data were used to derive a discriminant equation, which permitted the lesions to be classified into two groups based on nuclear atypia. Next, 50 superficial type tumors of the colon (34 IIa lesions, 9 IIc + IIa lesions, and 7 IIc lesions <10 mm in longest diameter were similarly analyzed. These lesions were classified into a high atypia index group (HAI group, 14 lesions and a low atypia index group (LAI group, 36 lesions by the above discriminatory equation. Differences between these two groups in surface structure, marginal zone properties, and macroscopic type, assessed using a dissecting microscope, were studied. A hyperplastic shape of the tubular orifice was seen at the marginal zone in 10 lesions (27.7% in the LAI group and 11 lesions (78.5% in the HAI group. This difference was significant. Surface structure and macroscopic type were not correlated with the degree of atypia. The tubular density in lesions showing a hyperplastic pitted pattern at their border was 77.40, significantly higher than that for lesions without such a pattern (73.12. The contribution of various variables to surface structure, marginal zone properties, and macroscopic type was studied by discriminant analysis. A high correlation was found between marginal zone properties and tubular density. Since lesions with high nuclear atypia tend to have high tubular density, marginal zone properties were secondarily correlated with the level of nuclear atypia. Observation of the marginal zone properties of lesions was thus suggested to be helpful in the diagnosis of lesions with severe atypia.

  1. Superficie regladas y desarrollables a lo largo de curvas Bézier.

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño Arboleda, Mauricio Alejando

    2010-01-01

    Se estudian superficies regladas y se abordan sus elementos básicos como la línea de estricción y el parámetro de distribución. Se estudian algoritmos para el diseño de superficies desarrollables, a saber el algoritmo de Aumann y el algoritmo proyectivo de Pottmann, en este ´ ultimo las superficies desarrollables racionales de Bezier se interpretan como curvas en el espacio proyectivo dual (P3).Se estudia de manera exhaustiva el problema de diseño de superficies desarrollables de grado polino...

  2. Superficial aponeurosis of human gastrocnemius is elongated during contraction: implications for modeling muscle-tendon unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Tadashi; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2002-02-01

    Two questions were addressed in this study: (1) how much strain of the superficial aponeurosis of the human medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) was obtained during voluntary isometric contractions in vivo, (2) whether there existed inhomogeneity of the strain along the superficial aponeurosis. Seven male subjects, whose knees were extended and ankles were flexed at right angle, performed isometric plantar flexion while elongation of superficial aponeurosis of MG was determined from the movements of the intersections made by the superficial aponeurosis and fascicles using ultrasonography. The strain of the superficial aponeurosis at the maximum voluntary contraction, estimated from the elongation and length data, was 5.6+/-1.2%. There was no significant difference in strain between the proximal and distal parts of the superficial aponeurosis. Based on the present result and that of our previous study for the same subjects (J. Appl. Physiol 90 (2001) 1671), a model was formulated for a contracting uni-pennate muscle-tendon unit. This model, which could be applied to isometric contractions at other angles and therefore of wide use, showed that similar strain between superficial and deep aponeuroses of MG contributed to homogeneous fascicle length change within MG during contractions. These findings would contribute to clarifying the functions of the superficial aponeurosis and the effects of the superficial aponeurosis elongation on the whole muscle behavior.

  3. A rare variant of the superficial ulnar artery, and its clinical implications: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senanayake Kithsiri J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The superficial ulnar artery is a rare variation of the upper limb arterial system that arises from the brachial or axillary artery and runs superficial to the muscles arising from the medial epicondyle 123. The incidence is about 0.7 to 7% 145. In our routine dissections we found a superficial ulnar artery, which crossed the cubital fossa superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis making it highly vulnerable to intra-arterial injection. This is a rare variation that every medical and nursing staff member should know about.

  4. [A Case of Synchronous Multiple Esophageal Cancers Composed of Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Barrett's Adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Konishi, Hirotaka; Arita, Tomohiro; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Morimura, Ryo; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Ikoma, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Okamoto, Kazuma; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-11-01

    A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for treatment for multiple superficial esophageal cancers. Screening upper gastrointestinal endoscopy examination revealed a superficial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at the middle thoracic esophagus and Barrett's epithelium and a superficial adenocarcinoma at the abdominal esophagus. We performed a subtotal esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction via the retrosternal route. Pathological examination revealed a Barrett's adenocarcinoma at the abdominal esophagus. Esophageal cancer is thought to be a multicentric disease, and we sometimes find multiple esophageal cancers. In Japan, most cases of multiple esophageal cancers are composed of SCCs, and the occurrence of multiple esophageal cancers composed of SCC and Barrett's adenocarcinoma is rare. In contrast, the number of the patients with Barrett's esophagus is increasing, and the number of the patients with Barrett's adenocarcinoma also seems to be on the rise. Therefore, it is important be aware of the possibility of multiple esophageal cancers composed of SCC and Barrett's adenocarcinoma while making diagnoses.

  5. What factors control the superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoit; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-04-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style; lava domes result from intermittent, slow extrusion of viscous lava. Most dome-forming eruptions produce highly microcrystallized and highly- to almost totally-degassed magmas which have a low explosive potential. During lava dome growth, recurrent collapses of unstable parts are the main destructive process of the lava dome, generating concentrated pyroclastic density currents (C-PDC) channelized in valleys. These C-PDC have a high, but localized, damage potential that largely depends on the collapsed volume. Sometimes, a dilute ash cloud surge develops at the top of the concentrated flow with an increased destructive effect because it may overflow ridges and affect larger areas. In some cases, large lava dome collapses can induce a depressurization of the magma within the conduit, leading to vulcanian explosions. By contrast, violent, laterally directed, explosions may occur at the base of a growing lava dome: this activity generates dilute and turbulent, highly-destructive, pyroclastic density currents (D-PDC), with a high velocity and propagation poorly dependent on the topography. Numerous studies on lava dome behaviors exist, but the triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood. Here, seven dome-forming eruptions are investigated: in the Lesser Antilles arc: Montagne Pelée, Martinique (1902-1905, 1929-1932 and 650 y. BP eruptions), Soufrière Hills, Montserrat; in Guatemala, Santiaguito (1929 eruption); in La Chaîne des Puys, France (Puy de Dome and Puy Chopine eruptions). We propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by these key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite

  6. Lower body lift with superficial fascial system suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, T

    1993-11-01

    Multiple body contour deformities of the trunk and thighs are commonly treated in separate stages to limit postoperative complications and disability. Recent advances in the surgical design of the medial thigh lift and the lateral thigh/buttock lift along with an understanding of the functional anatomy of the superficial fascial system have significantly improved results and decreased complications of trunk/thigh lifts. The enhanced safety of current trunk/thigh lifts has allowed new combinations to treat multiple body contour deformities in a single stage. Laxity of the entire lower trunk and thigh regions can be treated in one stage in selected patients. The lower body lift combines the transverse flank/thigh/buttock lift and the fascial anchoring medial thigh lift in one operation. In addition to the expected tightening of the flank, buttocks, and total thighs, this procedure results in a surprising degree of epigastric and hypogastric tightening of mild to moderate abdominal laxity without direct surgical undermining or umbilical transposition. Ten patients having the lower body lift alone or in combination with liposuction and other body contouring procedures were followed for 6 to 24 months. The primary indication for surgery is moderate to severe soft-tissue laxity of the lower trunk and thighs with minimal or mild residual fat deposits. Skin contour irregularities due to skin laxity (cellulite of laxity) or to postliposuction adhesions are frequently present and may be severe. Patients with significant fat deposits may be treated initially with liposuction 3 to 4 months earlier to become candidates for this procedure. Key technical elements of this procedure include (1) both supine and lateral decubitus positioning with the hip flexed and abducted to allow overcorrection, (2) appropriate direct surgical undermining through superficial fascial system zones of adherence in the superior thigh while avoiding the lymphatics of the femoral triangle, (3) more

  7. Spread spectrum time domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul Samuel

    For many years, wiring has been treated as a system that could be installed and expected to work for the life of the aircraft. As aircraft age far beyond their original expected life span, this attitude is rapidly changing. Wiring problems have recently been identified as the cause of several tragic mishaps and hundreds of thousands of lost mission hours. Intermittent wiring faults have been and continue to be difficult to resolve. Test methods that pinpoint faults on the ground can miss intermittent failures. New test methods involving spread spectrum signals are investigated that could be used in flight to locate intermittent failures, including open circuits, short circuits, and arcs. Spread spectrum time domain reflectometry (SSTDR) and sequence time domain reflectometry (STDR) are analyzed in light of the signals commonly present on aircraft wiring. Pseudo noise codes used for the generation of STDR and SSTDR signals are analyzed for application in a STDR/SSTDR test system in the presence of noise. The effects of Mil-Std 1553 and white noise on the STDR and SSTDR signals are discussed analytically, through simulations, and with the use of test hardware. A test system using STDR and SSTDR is designed, built, and used to collect STDR and SSTDR test data. The data collected with the STDR/SSTDR test hardware is analyzed and compared to the theoretical results. Experimental data for open and short circuits collected using SSTDR and a curve fitting algorithm shows a maximum range estimation error of +/-0.2 ft for 75O coaxial cable up to 100ft, and +/-0.6ft for a sample 32.5ft non-controlled impedance aircraft cable. Mil-Std 1553 is specified to operate reliably with a signal-to-noise ratio of 17.5dB, and the SSTDR test system was able to locate an open circuit on a cable also carrying simulated Mil-Std 1553 data where the SSTDR signal was 50dB below the Mil-Std 1553 signal. STDR and SSTDR are shown to be effective in detecting and locating dry and wet arcs on wires.

  8. Mycoplasma infections and different human carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Huang; Ji You Li; Jan Wu; Lin Meng; Cheng Chao Shou

    2001-01-01

    AIM To explore relationships between human carcinomas and mycoplasma infection.METHODS Monoclonal antibody PD4, which specifically recognizes a distinct protein from mycoplasma hyorhinis, was used to detect mycoplasma infection in different paraffinembedded carcinoma tissues with immunohistochemistry. PCR was applied to amplify the mycoplasma DNA from the positive samples for confirming immunohistochemistry.RESULTS Fifty of 90 cases (56%) of gastric carcinoma were positive for mycoplasma hyorhinis. In other gastric diseases, the mycoplasma infection ratio was 28% (18/49) in chronic superficial gastritis, 30% (14/ 46) in gastric ulcer and 37% (18/ 49) in intestinal metaplasia. The difference is significant with gastric cancer (X2=12.06, P<0.05). In colon carcinoma, the mycoplasma infection ratio was 55.1% (32/58), but it was 20.9% (10/49) in adenomarous polyp (X2=13.46, P<0.005).Gastric and colon cancers with high differentiation had a higher mycoplasma infection ratio than those with low differentiation (P< 0.05). Mycoplasma infection in esophageal cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer and glioma was 50.9% (27/53), 52.6% (31/ 59), 39.7%(25/63) and 41% (38/91), respectively. The mycoplasma DNA was successfully amplified with the DNA extracted from the cancer tissues that were positive for mycoplasma infection (detected with antibody PD4).CONCLUSION There was high correlation between mycoplasma infection and different cancers, which suggests the possibility of an association between the two. The mechanism involved in oncogenesis by mycoplasma remains unknown.

  9. Superficial Granulomatous Pyoderma Gangrenosum of the Penis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala S. Gopi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Classic type of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG is an uncommon ulceronecrotic cutaneous disease of uncertain aetiology characterised by broad zones of confluent ulceration with violaceous undermined margins. Some 50% of cases are associated with systemic diseases. The superficial granulomatous variant of pyoderma gangrenosum (SGPG of the external genitalia is extremely rare Patients with this condition develop single or multiple ulcerated skin lesions often with sinus tract formation. The majority of these lesions were found on the trunk and limbs. SGPG is less likely to be associated with underlying disease processes than classic PG. We present a 58 year-old with recalcitrant penile ulceration demonstrated to be SGPG on biopsy. Although rare and poorly recognised, the histological features are sufficiently typical to allow the correct diagnosis to be established.

  10. Transient Superficial Peroneal Nerve Palsy After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrowaili, Majed

    2016-04-26

    A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage and knee brace was removed and a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was ruled out. After eight hours, post-operatively, the patient started receiving physiotherapy. He complained of numbness and tingling in the same area. After 24 h, post-operatively, the patient started to regain dorsiflexion and eversion gradually. Two days after the surgery, the patient exhibited complete recovery of neurological status.

  11. Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Perforator Flap for Dorsalis Pedis Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Kensuke; Yamashita, Shuji

    2017-04-01

    Reconstruction of dorsalis pedis with soft tissue is challenging because it needs to preserve thin structure to ensure that the patient will be able to wear shoes. Here, we report the use of a thin superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap in dorsalis pedis reconstruction. A 67-year-old man presented with a third-degree burn, which exposed his extensor tendons. A thin SCIP flap from the left inguinal region measuring 15 × 4 cm was transferred to the dorsalis pedis region. Postoperatively, no major cosmetic or functional problems were observed. Because the invasiveness of the donor site is nearly same between SCIP flap and skin graft from inguinal region, SCIP flap is better solution in point of textural qualities for dorsalis pedis reconstruction.

  12. MRI evaluation of superficial soft tissue lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabra, A.A. (Russel H. Morgan Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Taylor, G.A. (Russel H. Morgan Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1993-10-01

    The role of MRI in the evaluation of superficial soft tissue lesions in children has not been well established. We present our experience with MRI in the evaluation of nineteen children with a variety of cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions. We find MRI to have a definite role in the evaluation of these lesions particularly when determining extent or depth of involvement would affect medical or surgical management. MRI has a less well defined role in tissue determination. Spin echo T1 and T2 weighted images were sufficient for evaluation in most cases. Fat suppression images added additional information in fatty tumors. The MRI appearance of juvenile hyaline fibromatosis and lipoblastomatosis has not been previously described and is included in this study. (orig.)

  13. Superficial stellate cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre F. Apostolides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN integrates auditory and multisensory signals at the earliest levels of auditory processing. Proposed roles for this region include sound localization in the vertical plane, head orientation to sounds of interest, and suppression of sensitivity to expected sounds. Auditory and non-auditory information streams to the DCN are refined by a remarkably complex array of inhibitory and excitatory interneurons, and the role of each cell type is gaining increasing attention. One inhibitory neuron that has been poorly appreciated to date is the superficial stellate cell. Here we review previous studies and describe new results that reveal the surprisingly rich interactions that this tiny interneuron has with its neighbors, interactions which enable it to respond to both multisensory and auditory afferents.

  14. Tratamento superficial dos agregados reciclados de RCD com hidrofugantes.

    OpenAIRE

    Winnie Franco Santos

    2016-01-01

    A proposta busca reduzir a absorção de água dos agregados reciclados de Resíduos de Construção e Demolição (RCD), através do tratamento de sua superfície com hidrofugante, de maneira que estes não aumentem o consumo de água tampouco reduzam a resistência mecânica. Os agregados reciclados de RCD foram caracterizados quanto à granulometria, morfologia, porosidade, ângulo de contato aparente, absorção de água, análise de imagem e rugosidade superficial. Em seguida, os mesmos foram tratados super...

  15. Transient superficial peroneal nerve palsy after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Alrowaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage and knee brace was removed and a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was ruled out. After eight hours, post-operatively, the patient started receiving physiotherapy. He complained of numbness and tingling in the same area. After 24 h, post-operatively, the patient started to regain dorsiflexion and eversion gradually. Two days after the surgery, the patient exhibited complete recovery of neurological status.

  16. Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Alia Arif; Themstrup, Lotte; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in dermatology in the late 1990s optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to study many skin diseases, in particular non-melanoma skin cancer and it s precursors. Special attention has been paid to superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and a number of smaller...... observational studies have been published. The diagnostic criteria for BCC of these studies are systematically reviewed. A systemic review of English language studies was performed using PubMed, Google Scholar and Royal Danish Library, to search for primary papers on OCT and BCC. The references of retrieved...

  17. Biosensores: Un Acercamiento a La Resonancia del Plasmon Superficial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardo Ramírez Frómeta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los biosensores, o los sensores basados sobre materiales biológicos, son utilizados en la actualidad en una amplia variedad de disciplinas, incluyendo la industria alimenticia, la medicina, y la ciencia ambiental. Está llegando a ser cada vez más importante para los investigadores y los científicos en éstos y otros campos tener una comprensión de los diversos tipos de biosensores que puedan ser utilizados, los principios detrás de ellos, así como sus ventajas y limitaciones. El énfasis especial se ha dedicado a los biosensores de resonancia del plasmon superficial (SPR. El biosensor óptico basado en la técnica SPR ha ganado atención debido a su velocidad de detección, alta especificidad, alta sensibilidad y posibilidad de análisis en tiempo real. El dispositivo SPR detecta cambios mínimos en el índice de refracción de la superficie de detección y de su vecindad inmediata. Esta detección altamente sensible se basa en una excitación colectiva de los electrones (los plasmons superficiales en una película metálica sobre un substrato (Ej. cristal, conduciendo a la absorción total de la luz en un ángulo particular de incidencia el cual es dependiente de los índices de refracción de cualquiera de los lados de la película metálica.

  18. Impacts of suppressing guide on information spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinghong; Ma, Baojun; Wu, Ye

    2015-01-01

    It is quite common that guides are introduced to suppress the information spreading in modern society for different purposes. In this paper, an agent-based model is established to quantitatively analyze the impacts of suppressing guides on information spreading. We find that the spreading threshold depends on the attractiveness of the information and the topology of the social network with no suppressing guides at all. Usually, one would expect that the existence of suppressing guides in the spreading procedure may result in less diffusion of information within the overall network. However, we find that sometimes the opposite is true: the manipulating nodes of suppressing guides may lead to more extensive information spreading when there are audiences with the reversal mind. These results can provide valuable theoretical references to public opinion guidance on various information, e.g., rumor or news spreading.

  19. Impacts of suppressing guide on information spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinghong; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Baojun; Wu, Ye

    2016-02-01

    It is quite common that guides are introduced to suppress the information spreading in modern society for different purposes. In this paper, an agent-based model is established to quantitatively analyze the impacts of suppressing guides on information spreading. We find that the spreading threshold depends on the attractiveness of the information and the topology of the social network with no suppressing guides at all. Usually, one would expect that the existence of suppressing guides in the spreading procedure may result in less diffusion of information within the overall network. However, we find that sometimes the opposite is true: the manipulating nodes of suppressing guides may lead to more extensive information spreading when there are audiences with the reversal mind. These results can provide valuable theoretical references to public opinion guidance on various information, e.g., rumor or news spreading.

  20. A general method for identifying node spreading influence via the adjacent matrix and spreading rate

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, identifying the node spreading influence of complex network is one of the most promising domains. So far, various topology-based centrality measures have been proposed to identify the node spreading influence in a network. However, the node spreading influence is a result of the interplay between the network topology structure and spreading dynamics. In this paper, we build up the systematic method by combining the network structure and spreading dynamics to identify the node spreading influence. By combining the adjacent matrix $A$ and spreading parameter $\\beta$, we theoretical give the node spreading influence with the eigenvector of the largest eigenvalue. Comparing with the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model epidemic results for four real networks, our method could identify the node spreading influence more accurately than the ones generated by the degree, K-shell and eigenvector centrality. This work may provide a systematic method for identifyi...

  1. Metastatic Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder to the Testis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kozak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An 84-year-old gentleman presented with onset of gross hematuria in September 2010. Follow-up investigations revealed T1 superficially invasive, poorly differentiated, papillary urothelial carcinoma. He subsequently had GreenLight laser for BPH and bladder neck contracture on two occasions. He developed a right hydrocele 16 months after initial presentation and during his hydrocelectomy, a rock-hard right epididymis and testicle were discovered. Pathology revealed metastatic urothelial carcinoma replacing nearly the entire testis with lymphovascular invasion.

  2. Recurrence of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma in the Colon Presenting as Hematochezia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzak, Michael; Barakat, Iskandar; Deeb, Liliane

    2016-01-01

    Patients with superficial bladder cancers remain clinically indolent after treatment with even a modicum of urologic intervention. However, with more invasive disease, the majority of patients experience recurrence. The conventional route of metastasis and recurrence in primary urothelial cell carcinoma is through lymphatic system, with regional lymph nodes, lungs, liver, brain, and bone being the most common sites. Isolated intraluminal colonic recurrence in the absence of local invasion is extremely rare. We report a unique case of urothelial cell carcinoma presenting with an isolated colonic mass, which unexpectedly, on immunohistostaining, proved to be primarily of urothelial rather than colonic origin.

  3. Equatorial spread F fossil plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Ossakow

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour of equatorial spread F (ESF fossil plumes, i.e., ESF plumes that have stopped rising, is examined using the NRL SAMI3/ESF three-dimensional simulation code. We find that fossil bubbles, plasma density depletions associated with fossil plumes, can persist as high-altitude equatorial depletions even while being "blown" by zonal winds. Corresponding airglow-proxy images of fossil plumes, plots of electron density versus longitude and latitude at a constant altitude of 288 km, are shown to partially "fill in" in most cases, beginning with the highest altitude field lines within the plume. Specifically, field lines upon which the E field has fallen entirely to zero are affected and only the low altitude (≤600 km portion if each field line fills in. This suggests that it should be possible to observe a bubble at high altitude on a field line for which the corresponding airglow image no longer shows a depletion. In all cases ESF plumes stop rising when the flux-tube-integrated ion mass density inside the upper edge of the bubble is equal to that of the nearby background, further supporting the result of Krall et al. (2010b.

  4. Drops spreading on flexible fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somszor, Katarzyna; Boulogne, François; Sauret, Alban; Dressaire, Emilie; Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous media are encountered in many engineered systems such as textile, paper and insulating materials. In most of these materials, fibers are randomly oriented and form a complex network in which drops of wetting liquid tend to accumulate at the nodes of the network. Here we investigate the role of the fiber flexibility on the spreading of a small volume of liquid on a pair of crossed flexible fibers. A drop of silicone oil is dispensed at the point of contact of the fibers and we characterize the liquid morphologies as we vary the volume of liquid, the angle between the fibers, and the length and bending modulus of the fibers. Drop morphologies previously reported for rigid fibers, i.e. a drop, a column and a mixed morphology, are also observed on flexible fibers with modified domains of existence. Moreover, at small inclination angles of the fibers, a new behavior is observed: the fibers bend and collapse. Depending on the volume, the liquid can adopt a column or a mixed morphology on the collapsed fibers. We rationalize our observations with a model based on energetic considerations. Our study suggests that the fiber flexibility adds a rich variety of behaviors that can be crucial for industrial applications.

  5. Information Spreading in Dynamic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Clementi, Andrea; Trevisan, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We present a general approach to study the flooding time (a measure of how fast information spreads) in dynamic graphs (graphs whose topology changes with time according to a random process). We consider arbitrary converging Markovian dynamic graph process, that is, processes in which the topology of the graph at time $t$ depends only on its topology at time $t-1$ and which have a unique stationary distribution. The most well studied models of dynamic graphs are all Markovian and converging. Under general conditions, we bound the flooding time in terms of the mixing time of the dynamic graph process. We recover, as special cases of our result, bounds on the flooding time for the \\emph{random trip} model and the \\emph{random path} models; previous analysis techniques provided bounds only in restricted settings for such models. Our result also provides the first bound for the \\emph{random waypoint} model (which is tight for certain ranges of parameters) whose analysis had been an important open question.

  6. Dynamical model for virus spread

    CERN Document Server

    Camelo-Neto, G

    1995-01-01

    The steady state properties of the mean density population of infected cells in a viral spread is simulated by a general forest fire like cellular automaton model with two distinct populations of cells ( permissive and resistant ones) and studied in the framework of the mean field approximation. Stochastic dynamical ingredients are introduced in this model to mimic cells regeneration (with probability {\\it p}) and to consider infection processes by other means than contiguity (with probability {\\it f}). Simulations are carried on a L \\times L square lattice considering the eight first neighbors. The mean density population of infected cells (D_i) is measured as function of the regeneration probability {\\it p}, and analyzed for small values of the ratio {\\it f/p } and for distinct degrees of the cell resistance. The results obtained by a mean field like approach recovers the simulations results. The role of the resistant parameter R (R \\geq 2) on the steady state properties is investigated and discussed in com...

  7. What Drives the POLONIA Spread in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Yinqiu Lu

    2012-01-01

    Since the start of the 2008 - 09 financial crisis, the Polish Overnight Index Average (POLONIA) has persistently been below the policy rate, suggesting a limited influence of the NBP’s open market operations on the short-term interbank rate. In this regard, this paper analyzes the behavior of the POLONIA spread and explore several potential factors that could influence the spread. An empirical analysis confirms that the negative POLONIA spread is related to a few factors, which include the ...

  8. Information spreading and development of cultural centers

    CERN Document Server

    Dybiec, Bartlomiej; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The historical interplay between societies are governed by many factors, including in particular spreading of languages, religion and other symbolic traits. Cultural development, in turn, is coupled to emergence and maintenance of information spreading. Strong centralized cultures exist thanks to attention from their members, which faithfulness in turn relies on supply of information. Here, we discuss a culture evolution model on a planar geometry that takes into account aspects of the feedback between information spreading and its maintenance. Features of model are highlighted by comparing it to cultural spreading in ancient and medieval Europe, where it in particular suggests that long lived centers should be located in geographically remote regions.

  9. Credit Spreads Across the Business Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Stenbo

    This paper studies how corporate bond spreads vary with the business cycle. I show that both level and slope of empirical credit spread curves are correlated with the state of the economy, and I link this to variation in idiosyncratic jump risk. I develop a structural credit risk model that accou......This paper studies how corporate bond spreads vary with the business cycle. I show that both level and slope of empirical credit spread curves are correlated with the state of the economy, and I link this to variation in idiosyncratic jump risk. I develop a structural credit risk model...... to firm fundamentals....

  10. Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Maria Isabel Ramos; Vieira, Marcella Amaral Horta Barbosa; Portocarrero, Larissa Karine Leite; Fraga, Rafael Cavanellas; Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is an eccrine carcinoma subtype, and only twelve cases have been reported until now. It is a rare tumor and its histopathological diagnosis is difficult. Almost half of patients are misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by the incisional biopsy. We report the thirteenth case of squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. Female patient, 72 years old, in the last 6 months presenting erythematous, keratotic and ulcerated papules on the nose. The incisional biopsy diagnosed squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. After excision, histopathology revealed positive margins. A wideningmargins surgery and grafting were performed, which again resulted in positive margins. The patient was then referred for radiotherapy. After 25 sessions, the injury reappeared. After another surgery, although the intraoperative biopsy showed free surgical margins, the product of resection revealed persistent lesion. Distinction between squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma is important because of the more aggressive nature of the first, which requires wider margins surgery to avoid recurrence.

  11. Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Maria Isabel Ramos; Vieira, Marcella Amaral Horta Barbosa; Portocarrero, Larissa Karine Leite; Fraga, Rafael Cavanellas; Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is an eccrine carcinoma subtype, and only twelve cases have been reported until now. It is a rare tumor and its histopathological diagnosis is difficult. Almost half of patients are misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by the incisional biopsy. We report the thirteenth case of squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. Female patient, 72 years old, in the last 6 months presenting erythematous, keratotic and ulcerated papules on the nose. The incisional biopsy diagnosed squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. After excision, histopathology revealed positive margins. A wideningmargins surgery and grafting were performed, which again resulted in positive margins. The patient was then referred for radiotherapy. After 25 sessions, the injury reappeared. After another surgery, although the intraoperative biopsy showed free surgical margins, the product of resection revealed persistent lesion. Distinction between squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma is important because of the more aggressive nature of the first, which requires wider margins surgery to avoid recurrence. PMID:28099603

  12. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the stomach: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Zeid; Fend, Falko; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia

    2013-11-04

    A lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LLC), characterized by a carcinoma with stromal heavy lymphocyte infiltration, is one of the histological patterns observed in patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinoma. Although this entity is hard to be recognized in the biopsy specimens, pathologists and clinicians should acknowledge this subset of gastric cancer because it generally has a better prognosis than other forms of EBV-associated gastric carcinomas and conventional gastric carcinomas. This might be due to the fact that the patient's inflammatory response may prevent the spread of tumor through the gastric wall and to the lymph nodes or remote organs.We report a case of EBV-positive, microsatellite stable LLC as a rare morphologic variant of gastric carcinoma. The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1360498724104351.

  13. Carcinoma adenoescamoso do colo uterino mimetizando carcinoma adenóide basal: relato de um caso e revisão da literatura Adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix mimicking adenoid basal carcinoma: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Piazzeta Pinto

    2007-02-01

    tumor that contains a mixture of malignant cells with squamous and glandular differentiation. The literature points to the importance of making this diagnosis when the cellular components are still well differentiated in the sample, otherwise the tumor may be erroneously interpreted as squamous carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. This study describes an unusual presentation of a adenosquamous carcinoma in a 47 year old patient. After conflicting cytological diagnoses and a history of abnormal uterine bleeding caused by cervical endometriosis, the patient was subjected to radical hysterectomy and a final diagnosis was obtained. The tumor was diagnosed as adenosquamous carcinoma. In many aspects, however, it was similar to the adenoid basal carcinoma. Characteristic features of the adenoid basal carcinoma such as the presence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in the surface epithelium, squamous and glandular differentiation in the center of the neoplastic mass, and basaloid cells in deep areas of the tumor were observed. Therefore, the following elements usually absent from adenoid basal carcinoma were present in this case: atypia and mitotic figures in undifferentiated cells, squamous-mucinous intraepithelial lesion (SMILE in the superficial areas. Epidemiological and clinical data, such as patient age (47, race (white and presentation (a cervical mass, concurred to exclude the diagnosis of adenoid basal carcinoma. Other differential diagnoses include pure squamous carcinoma or adenocarcinoma, collision tumor, and endometrial adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation invading the uterine cervix.

  14. Olive oil in food spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is a commonly applied reaction to food industries. The process may imply the movement of double bonds in their positions on the fatty acid carbon chain, producing positional and geometrical isomers ( trans fatty acids. Through hydrogenation, unsaturated oils are converted to margarines and vegetable shortenings. The presence of trans fatty acids in foods is undesirable, as trans fatty acids raise the plasma levels of total and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, while decrease the plasma level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL, among other effects. The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los ácidos grasos insaturados es una reacción que se utiliza con frecuencia en la industria alimentaria. El proceso implica el movimiento de los dobles enlaces en la cadena hidrocarbonada de los ácidos grasos, y la aparición de isómeros posicionales y geométricos (ácidos grasos trans . La ingesta inadecuada de alimentos que pueden contener cantidades significativas de ácidos grasos trans se asocia con el aumento en sangre de colesterol total y LDL, y la disminución de HDL, entre otros efectos. Por lo tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva en la preparación de grasas para untar constituye un importante avance en el desarrollo comercial de nuevos alimentos saludables con una imagen positiva para el consumidor.

  15. Trifurcation of superficial brachial artery: a rare case with its clinico-embryological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, N; Anshu, A; Dada, R

    2014-01-01

    Literatures on vasculature of upper limbs are crammed with reports of distinctly deviant version of normally prevalent vessels having modified origins, altered branching and odd courses. A unique anatomical variation in vascular pattern was observed during routine dissection of right upper limb in gross anatomy laboratory, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. The brachial artery was placed superficial to median nerve in the arm and therefore it was called superficial brachial artery. In the cubital fossa, 2.8 cm distal to intercondylar line of elbow joint, this superficial brachial artery terminated by trifurcation into radial, common interosseous and ulnar branches. Strikingly the ulnar branch, after its origin ran superficially over the median nerve and epitrochlear superficial flexor group of muscles of forearm in succession for the initial third of its course in the forearm, consequently it was addressed as superficial ulnar artery. The existence of superficial brachial artery in place of normal brachial artery, its termination by trifurcation into radial, common interosseous and superficial ulnar arteries with remarkably different courses, leads to confusing disposition of structures in the arm, cubital fossa and in the forearm and collectively makes this myriad of anatomical variations even rarer. The clinico-embryological revelations for combination of these unconventional observations, apprises and guides the specialized medical personnel attempting blind and invasive procedures in brachium and ante-brachium. This case report depicts the anatomical perspective and clinical implications on confronting a rare variant vasculature architecture pattern of upper limb.

  16. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment.

  17. High dose rate brachytherapy using custom made superficial mould applicators and Leipzig applicators for non melanoma localized skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzon, A. Cassio A.; Miziara, Daniela; Lima, Flavia Pedroso de; Miziara, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: advances in technology and the commercial production of Leipzig applicators allowed High Dose Rate after-load brachytherapy (HDR-BT) to address a number of the challenges associated with the delivery of superficial radiation to treat localized non melanoma skin cancer (NMSK). We reviewed our uni-institutional experience on the treatment of NMSK with HDR-BT. Methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients attending the Radiation Oncology Department at AV Carvalho Insitute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. HDR-BT was done using the stepping source HDR 192Ir Microselectron (Nucletron BV). The planning target volume consisted of the macroscopic lesion plus a 5mm to 10mm margin.The depth of treatment was 0.5 cm in smaller (< 2.0 cm) tumors and 10 to 15 mm for lesions bigger than that. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with HDR-BT from June, 2007 to June 2013. The median age and follow up time were 72 (38-90) years old and 36 (range, 7-73) months, respectively. There a predominance of males (61.5%) and of patients referred for adjuvant treatment due positive surgical margins or because they have had only a excision biopsy without safety margins (61.5%). Six (46.2%) patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma and 7 (53.8%) patients presented with basal cell carcinoma. The median tumor size was 20 (range, 5-42) mm. Patients were treated with a median total dose of 40 Gy (range, 20 -60), given in 10 (range, 2-15) fractions, given daily or twice a week. All patients responded very well to treatment and only one patient has failed locally so far, after 38 months of the end of the irradiation. The crude and actuarial 3-year local control rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Moist desquamation, grade 2 RTOG, was observed in 4 (30.8%) patients. Severe late complication, radiation-induced dyspigmentation, occurred in 2 patients and 1 of the patients also showed telangiectasia in the irradiated area. The cosmetic result was considered good in 84% (11/13) patients

  18. Estudio del estado físico-mecánico de superficies tratadas por deformación plástica superficial. // Study of the mechanical and physical behavior of surfaces treated by superficial plastic deformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Boada Carrazana

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo aborda lo referente al estado del arte de la modelación y el comportamiento de las superficies tratadapor deformación plástica superficial (DPS. Se hace una breve descripción de la modelación elástica y plástica, de la teoríade la plasticidad y de las dislocaciones y se dan algunos resultados sobre la modelación del rodilado usando las técnicasde simulación y modelación, como el método de los elementos finitos, a partir del cual se obtienen los modelosmatemáticos para calcular las tensiones y deformaciones máximas.Palabras claves: deformación plástica superficial, rodilado, bruñido por rodillo, elementos finitos,modelación.____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.This paper deals with the state of the art of modelation and the behaviour of surfaces treated by superficial plasticdeformation. It is given a brief description of the elastic and plastic modelation, theory of plasticity and dislocations, andshowed some results about modelation of roller burnishing using simulation techniques like finite elements method toobtain the mathematics models in order to calculate the maximum stresses and strains.Key words: Superficial plastic deformation, roller burnishing, finite elements method, modelation.

  19. Isolated cardiac metastasis from plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peck Joshua R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 57-year-old male with a history of hypertension presented with shortness of breath, intermittent substernal chest pain, subjective fevers, and a 30-pound weight loss. He was found to have a bladder mass four months prior to presentation, for which he underwent cystoscopy and surgical removal. Pathology demonstrated high-grade superficial plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma extending into the submucosa but not the muscularis propria. Given the superficial nature of his bladder cancer, a cystectomy was deferred. He was subsequently lost to follow-up care. On arrival, physical exam was notable for tachycardia, tachypnea, and distant heart sounds. An ECG showed an incomplete right bundle branch block and sinus tachycardia. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography revealed a three-cm pericardial effusion. Transthoracic echocardiography confirmed this finding and revealed a mass in the right ventricle (RV extending into the outflow tract and infiltrating the free wall. The RV was dilated with an estimated RV systolic pressure of 37 mmHg. Pericardiocentesis yielded nearly one liter of serosanguinous fluid with non-diagnostic cytology. Partial median sternotomy with biopsy showed pathologic findings consistent with metastatic urothelial carcinoma, plasmacytoid variant. A PET scan showed increased uptake exclusively in the heart. The oncology team discussed options with the patient including chemotherapy and palliative care. The patient decided to withhold further therapy and went home with hospice care. He died two months later. Discussion Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men in the United States. Most patients (69% with metastatic bladder cancer have multiple organs involved; conversely, our patient had a PET scan indicating his disease was localized to the heart. Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma is a rare subtype of bladder cancer, and is estimated to make up less than three percent of all invasive bladder carcinomas. At

  20. Age, spreading rates, and spreading asymmetry of the world's ocean crust

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The authors present four companion digital models of the age, age uncertainty, spreading rates and spreading asymmetries of the world's ocean basins as geographic...

  1. Modelling unidirectional liquid spreading on slanted microposts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Blow, Matthew L.; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    A lattice Boltzmann algorithm is used to simulate the slow spreading of drops on a surface patterned with slanted micro-posts. Gibb's pinning of the interface on the sides or top of the posts leads to unidirectional spreading over a wide range of contact angles and inclination angles of the posts...

  2. Spreading to localized targets in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Ma, Long; Zeng, An; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2016-12-01

    As an important type of dynamics on complex networks, spreading is widely used to model many real processes such as the epidemic contagion and information propagation. One of the most significant research questions in spreading is to rank the spreading ability of nodes in the network. To this end, substantial effort has been made and a variety of effective methods have been proposed. These methods usually define the spreading ability of a node as the number of finally infected nodes given that the spreading is initialized from the node. However, in many real cases such as advertising and news propagation, the spreading only aims to cover a specific group of nodes. Therefore, it is necessary to study the spreading ability of nodes towards localized targets in complex networks. In this paper, we propose a reversed local path algorithm for this problem. Simulation results show that our method outperforms the existing methods in identifying the influential nodes with respect to these localized targets. Moreover, the influential spreaders identified by our method can effectively avoid infecting the non-target nodes in the spreading process.

  3. The Imaging of Large Nerve Perineural Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mitesh; Sommerville, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    We present a review of the imaging findings of large nerve perineural spread within the skull base. The MRI techniques and reasons for performing different sequences are discussed. A series of imaging examples illustrates the appearance of perineural tumor spread with an emphasis on the zonal staging system.

  4. Fire spread characteristics determined in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Rothermel; Hal E. Anderson

    1966-01-01

    Fuel beds of ponderosa pine needles and white pine needles were burned under controlled environmental conditions to determine the effects of fuel moisture and windspeed upon the rate of fire spread. Empirical formulas are presented to show the effect of these parameters. A discussion of rate of spread and some simple experiments show how fuel may be preheated before...

  5. Spreading Modes on Copper and Steel Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feoktistov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and liquid flow rate on the dynamic contact angle during spreading of distilled nondeaerated water drop on a solid horizontal substrate. Copper and steel substrates with different roughness have been investigated. Three spreading modes were conventionally indicated. It was found that the spreading of drops on substrates made of different materials occurs in similar modes. However, the duration of each mode for substrates made of copper and steel are different. Spreading of a liquid above the asperities of a surface micro relief was observed to be dominant for large volumetric flow rates of drops (0.01 ml/s. Liquid was spreading inside the grooves of a rough substrate at low rates (0.005 ml/s.

  6. Information spreading on dynamic social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chuang

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, information spreading on social networks has triggered an explosive attention in various disciplines. Most of previous related works in this area mainly focus on discussing the effects of spreading probability or immunization strategy on static networks. However, in real systems, the peer-to-peer network structure changes constantly according to frequently social activities of users. In order to capture this dynamical property and study its impact on information spreading, in this Letter, a link rewiring strategy based on the Fermi function is introduced. In the present model, the informed individuals tend to break old links and reconnect to ones with more uninformed neighbors. Simulation results on the susceptible-infected (\\textit{SI}) model with non-redundancy contacts indicate that the information spread more faster and broader with the rewiring strategy. Extensive analyses of the information cascading show that the spreading process of the initial steps plays a very important role, that is to s...

  7. Enhanced droplet spreading due to thermal fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, A M; Freund, J B, E-mail: jbfreund@illinois.ed [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2009-11-18

    The lubrication equation that governs the dynamics of thin liquid films can be augmented to account for stochastic stresses associated with the thermal fluctuations of the fluid. It has been suggested that under certain conditions the spreading rate of a liquid drop on a surface will be increased by these stochastic stresses. Here, an atomistic simulation of a spreading drop is designed to examine such a regime and provide a quantitative assessment of the stochastic lubrication equation for spreading. It is found that the atomistic drop does indeed spread faster than the standard lubrication equations would suggest and that the stochastic lubrication equation of Gruen et al (2006 J. Stat. Phys. 122 1261-91) predicts the spread rate.

  8. Interpolating point spread function anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, M.; Courbin, F.; Meylan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Planned wide-field weak lensing surveys are expected to reduce the statistical errors on the shear field to unprecedented levels. In contrast, systematic errors like those induced by the convolution with the point spread function (PSF) will not benefit from that scaling effect and will require very accurate modeling and correction. While numerous methods have been devised to carry out the PSF correction itself, modeling of the PSF shape and its spatial variations across the instrument field of view has, so far, attracted much less attention. This step is nevertheless crucial because the PSF is only known at star positions while the correction has to be performed at any position on the sky. A reliable interpolation scheme is therefore mandatory and a popular approach has been to use low-order bivariate polynomials. In the present paper, we evaluate four other classical spatial interpolation methods based on splines (B-splines), inverse distance weighting (IDW), radial basis functions (RBF) and ordinary Kriging (OK). These methods are tested on the Star-challenge part of the GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 2010 (GREAT10) simulated data and are compared with the classical polynomial fitting (Polyfit). In all our methods we model the PSF using a single Moffat profile and we interpolate the fitted parameters at a set of required positions. This allowed us to win the Star-challenge of GREAT10, with the B-splines method. However, we also test all our interpolation methods independently of the way the PSF is modeled, by interpolating the GREAT10 star fields themselves (i.e., the PSF parameters are known exactly at star positions). We find in that case RBF to be the clear winner, closely followed by the other local methods, IDW and OK. The global methods, Polyfit and B-splines, are largely behind, especially in fields with (ground-based) turbulent PSFs. In fields with non-turbulent PSFs, all interpolators reach a variance on PSF systematics σ2sys better than the 1

  9. Multicentricidade no carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide Multicentricity in the thyroid differentiated carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Salles Chagas

    2009-02-01

    , complications, histopathological analysis and invasion of the contralateral lobe were analyzed. Patients' ages varied from 17 to 89; the most frequent histopathological pattern was the classical papillary carcinoma (18 cases, followed by follicular carcinoma (6; the follicular variant of the papillary carcinoma (2 and the Hürthle cell carcinoma (1. Twenty-one patients underwent full thyroidectomies, from 15 to 30 days after the first intervention. RESULTS: the contralateral lobe analysis was negative for carcinoma in 16 (76.5% and positive in the other 5 (23.8% patients. The complications observed were temporary dysphonia (3 cases and hypoparathyroidism (2 cases, one permanent. CONCLUSIONS: total thyroidectomy is important in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, because there is a high contralateral spread rate (23.8%. It is a procedure without mortality, which bears few complications.

  10. The anatomy of the superficial external pudendal artery: a quantitative study Anatomia da artéria pudenda superficial externa: estudo quantitativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldir Lanzoni La Falce

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the superficial external pudendal artery in cases of lower limb obstructive arteriopathies has been established, and a perfect knowledge of its anatomy is desirable for the creation of successful flaps involving it. However, little information is available on the morphometry of this artery. PURPOSE: In this study, we conducted a quantitative investigation of the superficial external pudendal artery as the basis for skin grafts. METHOD: Twenty-five right and left sides of the inguinal region of male cadavers were dissected. After retracting the skin at the inguinal region, the femoral vessels and the sapheno-femoral junction were exposed. The following aspects were then analyzed: 1 the presence of the superficial external pudendal artery, 2 the place of origin of the superficial external pudendal artery and the common trunk, 3 the duplication of the superficial external pudendal artery, 4 the distance from the superficial external pudendal artery or the common trunk to the inguinal ligament, and 5 the diameter of the superficial external pudendal artery. RESULTS: The results were the following: 1 superficial external pudendal arteries were found in 46 of 50 sides (92%; 2 they originated from the femoral artery in 45 cases and from the deep femoral artery in only 1 case; 3 the arteries were found duplicated in 21 cases (46%, as a common trunk in 11 cases (24%, and as a single artery in 14 cases (30%; 4 the distance from the superficial external pudendal artery to the inguinal ligament ranged from 0.8 cm to 8.5 cm; from the common trunk, it ranged from 3.5 cm to 6.7 cm; 5 the diameter of the superficial external pudendal artery ranged from 1.2 mm to 3.8 mm; and 6 the diameter of the common trunk ranged from 1.35 mm to 5.15 mm. CONCLUSION: The results show that the superficial external pudendal artery generally originates from the femoral artery. It was found as a common trunk, duplicated, or as a single artery. There was a great

  11. Clinical and histopathological characteristics of basal cell carcinoma in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jian-min; GAO Xiao-man

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical and histopathological characteristics of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have been relatively well studied in Caucasian population.To characterize BCC in Chinese population,we analyzed the association of the histopathological subtypes with gender,age and anatomical location in this study.Methods The clinical and histopathological data of 243 BCC cases diagnosed at three hospitals in Beijing from January 2000 to April 2009 were reviewed retrospectively.Gender,age,location and histopathological subtype were analyzed.Results Among 243 patients enrolled,118 were males and 125 were females.The male/female ratio was 0.94∶1.The mean age was (65.16±12.62) years old.The head and neck were the most common sites of BCC (77.4%).Of the BCCs,53.9% were nodular,18.9% superficial and 18.5% infiltrative-morphoeic.The nodular,infiltrative-morphoeic and micronodular subtypes were predominant located on the head and neck,whereas the trunk was the most common location for the superficial subtype (P <0.05).The age at first presentation for females was lower than that for males (P<0.05).The age at first presentation for the superficial BCCs was younger than the non-superficial subtypes (P <0.05).Women with superficial BCC subtype visited hospital earlier than men (P <0.05).Conclusions Consistent with previous reports in Caucasian patient,our study find that different histopathological subtypes of BCC has distinct clinical features.It is speculated that the mechanisms underlining the pathogenesis of the superficial BCC may be different than those of non-superficial subtypes of BCC.

  12. High-lateral-tension abdominoplasty with superficial fascial system suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, T

    1995-09-01

    Modern abdominoplasty techniques were developed in the 1960s. The advent of liposuction has reduced the need for classic abdominoplasty and allowed more aesthetic sculpting of the entire trunk. However, the combination of significant truncal liposuction and classic abdominoplasty is not recommended due to the increased risk of complications. Although the surgical principles of classic abdominoplasty certainly have stood the test of time, they are based on two theoretical assumptions that may be proved to be inaccurate. The first assumption is that wide direct undermining to costal margins is essential for abdominal flap advancement. In fact, discontinuous undermining allows effective loosening of the abdominal flap while preserving vascular perforators. The second inaccurate assumption is that with aging and weight fluctuations (including pregnancy), abdominal skin relaxation occurs primarily in the vertical direction from the xiphoid to the pubis. This is true in the lower abdomen, but in most patients a strong superficial fascial system adherence to the linea alba in the epigastrium limits vertical descent. Epigastric laxity frequently results from a progressive horizontal loosening due to relaxation of the tissue along the lateral trunk. Experience with the lower-body lift procedure has shown that significant lateral truncal skin resection results in epigastric tightening. In these patients, the ideal abdominoplasty pattern would resect as much or more laterally than centrally, leading to more natural abdominal contours. Fifty patients who underwent high-lateral-tension abdominoplasty with and without significant truncal liposuction and other aesthetic procedures were followed for 4 to 16 months. The primary indication for surgery was moderate to severe laxity of abdominal skin and muscle with or without truncal fat deposits. Complication rates were equal to or less than those of historical controls and did not increase with significant adjunctive liposuction

  13. Coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroidal carcinoma with papillary carcinoma of thyreoglossal duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čizmić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Simultaneous presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroidal carcinoma in thyroidal gland with papillary carcinoma association in thyroglossal duct is quite rare. The questions like where the original site of primary process, is where metastasis is, what the cause of coexisting of these diseasesis present a diagnostic dilemma. Case report. We presented a case of a 53-year old female patient, with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and symptoms of subclinical hypothyreosis and nodal changes in the right lobe of thyroidal gland, according to clinical investigation. Morphological examination of thyroidal gland, ultrasound examination and scintigraphy with technetium (Tc confirmed the existence of nonhomogenic tissue with parenchyma nodular changes in the right lobe of thyroidal gland that weakly bonded Tc. Fine needle biopsy in nodal changes, with cytological analyses showed no evidence of atypical thyreocites. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed on the basis of the increased values of anti-microsomal antibodies, the high levels of thyreogobulin 117 ng/ml and TSH 6.29 μIU/ml. The operation near by the nodular change in the right lobe of thyroidal gland revealed pyramidal lobe spread in the thyroglossal duct. Total thyroidectomia was done with the elimination of thyroglossal duct. Final patohystological findings showed papillary carcinoma in the nodal changes pT2, N0 and in the thyroglossal duct with the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the residual parenchyme of the thyroid gland. After the surgery the whole body scintigraphy with iodine 131 (131I did not reveal accumulation of 131I in the body, while the fixation in the neck was 1%. After that, the patient was treated with thyroxin with suppressionsubstitution doses. Conclusion. Abnormality in embrional development of thyroidal tissue might be the source of thyroidal carcinoma or the way of spreading of metastasis of primary thyroidal carcinoma from thyroid

  14. Synchronous gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2009-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumours that are divided into four subtypes depending on tumour characteristics. Patients with NECs are known to have an increased risk of synchronous and metachronous cancers mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract. A case...... of synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were...... invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. TRIAL...

  15. Stimulation of Superficial Zone Protein/Lubricin/PRG4 by Transforming Growth Factor-β in Superficial Zone Articular Chondrocytes and Modulation by Glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Araceli; Reddi, A Hari

    2015-07-01

    Superficial zone protein (SZP), also known as lubricin and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), plays an important role in the boundary lubrication of articular cartilage and is regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Here, we evaluate the role of cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during TGF-β1 stimulation of SZP/lubricin/PRG4 in superficial zone articular chondrocytes. We utilized primary monolayer superficial zone articular chondrocyte cultures and treated them with various concentrations of TGF-β1, in the presence or absence of heparan sulfate (HS), heparin, and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The cell surface GAGs were removed by pretreatment with either heparinase I or chondroitinase-ABC before TGF-β1 stimulation. Accumulation of SZP/lubricin/PRG4 in the culture medium in response to stimulation with TGF-β1 and various exogenous GAGs was demonstrated by immunoblotting and quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We show that TGF-β1 and exogenous HS enhanced SZP accumulation of superficial zone chondrocytes in the presence of surface GAGs. At the dose of 1 ng/mL of TGF-β1, the presence of exogenous heparin inhibited SZP accumulation whereas the presence of exogenous CS stimulated SZP accumulation in the culture medium. Enzymatic depletion of GAGs on the surface of superficial zone chondrocytes enhanced the ability of TGF-β1 to stimulate SZP accumulation in the presence of both exogenous heparin and CS. Collectively, these results suggest that GAGs at the surface of superficial zone articular chondrocytes influence the response to TGF-β1 and exogenous GAGs to stimulate SZP accumulation. Cell surface GAGs modulate superficial zone chondrocytes' response to TGF-β1 and exogenous HS.

  16. Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Doman, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant problem in developing countries. Cutaneous forms of tuberculosis account for approximately 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of true infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or because of tuberculids. Tuberculids are immunological reactions to haematogenously spread antigenic components of M. tuberculosis. True cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of inoculation or haematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis to the skin. Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of true cutaneous tuberculosis. Other forms of true cutaneous tuberculosis are tuberculous chancre, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, periorificial tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis of the skin. Lupus vulgaris is usually chronic and progressive. It occurs in patients with moderate to high immunity against M. tuberculosis as evidenced by strongly positive tuberculin test. Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.

  17. Simultaneous seismic and geotechnical monitoring for the characterization of superficial deformations of the mudslide in Super-Sauze, French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Marco; Joswig, Manfred; Arnhardt, Christian; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2010-05-01

    To characterize superficial deformations of the mudslide in Super-Sauze, southern French Alps, seismic and geotechnical monitoring techniques have been applied simultaneously during a field campaign in July 2009. Based on the method nanoseismic monitoring (Joswig, 2008), we installed three seismic mini-arrays with an aperture of 25-30m, each one consisting of one three-component central-station and three outer vertical-component stations. We identified two different deformation processes caused by the movement of the mudslide: fracture processes within the slope material and superficial fissure development (Walter & Joswig, 2009). The spatiotemporal occurrence of deformation processes identified by nanoseismic monitoring has been verified with geotechnical monitoring systems. GPS devices as well as a small wireless ad-hoc, multi hop sensor network (WSN) have been installed in the slope area. The network consist of 7 connection points, called nodes, that transfer data from different sensors via radio signal directly or over other nodes (Multi Hop) in real-time to a data collection point (gateway). To determine the varying deformation processes, like toppling, spreading, falling and sliding, 6 nodes were equipped with micro-sensors (each with 3-axis acceleration sensor, 2-axis tilt sensor and barometric pressure sensor). In order to monitor the deformation of a recent fissure, one node was equipped with a position-sensor (draw wire displacement transducer). Laboratory tests for the different sensors showed that tilt movements can be detected with an accuracy of +/- 0,06° and a resolution of >0,1°, accelerations with +/- 0,008g and >0,02g and displacements with +/- 0,1mm and >0,1mm. The analysis of data recorded by barometric pressure sensors is quite difficult due to the high natural pressure fluctuations in mountain areas, anyway, the detection of fluctuations of >0,5m was possible. Except the displacement transducers, the geotechnical sensors didn't detect any

  18. Metachronous colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Svendsen, L B; Mellemgaard, A

    1990-01-01

    During the period 1943-67, 903 Danish patients aged less than 40 years had colorectal carcinoma. The patients were followed up for up to 41 years and during this period 44 of 501 (9 per cent) operated on for cure developed a metachronous colorectal carcinoma. The cumulative risk of a metachronous...... colorectal carcinoma was 30 per cent after up to 41 years of observation. The occurrence of a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was evenly distributed in the observation period. The cumulative survival rate after operation for a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was 41 per cent after 20 years of observation....... We propose a lifelong follow-up programme after resection of colorectal carcinoma for cure in this age group, including annual Hemoccult test and colonoscopy at 3-year intervals....

  19. URACHAL CARCINOMA IN BLADDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丽燕; 吕宁; 何祖根; 林冬梅; 刘秀云

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in the bladder.Methods: Seven cases of urachal carcinoma in the bladder were analyzed retrospectively. Results: All the tumors were found locating in the dome of bladder. Of them, 4 were mucinous adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated papillary enteric adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated squamous carcinoma, and one was neuroendocrine carcinoma. Cystomorphous urachal remnants were found in 4 cases. The main complaint was hematuria and all patients underwent partial excision of bladder and urachus. Conclusion: Mucinous adenocarcinoma is the main histo-pathological type, and cystomorphous urachal remnants are often accompanied with urachal carcinoma in the bladder. The key diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in bladder are site and histopathology. And to examine the specimens carefully to find the urachal remnants is important.

  20. Saphenous Vein Sparing Superficial Inguinal Dissection in Lower Extremity Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Beşir Öztürk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The classic inguinal lymph node dissection is the main step for the regional control of the lower extremity melanoma, but this surgical procedure is associated with significant postoperative morbidity. The permanent lymphedema is the most devastating long-term complication leading to a significant decrease in the patient’s quality of life. In this study we present our experience with modified, saphenous vein sparing, inguinal lymph node dissections for patients with melanoma of the lower extremity. Methods. Twenty one patients (10 women, 11 men who underwent saphenous vein sparing superficial inguinal lymph node dissection for the melanoma of lower extremity were included in this study. The effects of saphenous vein sparing on postoperative complications were evaluated. Results. We have observed the decreased rate of long-term lymphedema in patients undergoing inguinal lymphadenectomy for the lower extremity melanoma. Conclusion. The inguinal lymphadenectomy with saphenous vein preservation in lower extremity melanoma patients seems to be an oncologically safe procedure and it may offer reduced long-term morbidity.

  1. Internet: Más Allá de la superficie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Andrés Tovar Cardozo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone un enfoque técnico de la Internet que da a conocer algunas características de su estructura, la cual muestra dos sectores distintos en donde se puede encontrar la información, es decir, esta se encuentra distribuida en niveles o capas de manera parcial o restringida, integrada o desagregada, todo ello dependiendo de lo que el usuario requiera realmente. La forma correcta para acceder a la información requerida está en saber a dónde ir a buscarla, la web profunda es información no visible para el usuario común que no tiene la habilidad de búsqueda, por lo cual se hace necesario verificar el tipo, la calidad y veracidad de la información a obtener antes de proceder a usar la información encontrada con los buscadores tradicionales. Acceder a Internet sin saber que existe una falsa cortina utilizada por la mayoría de los buscadores convencionales, es limitar las capacidades de navegar en un océano de información valiosa, en ello radica la importancia de conocer la web desde lo superficial (Surface Web a lo profundo (Deep Web.

  2. Inmersiones condicionadas de grafos en superficies y seudosuperficies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedriani Martel, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se procede a recapitular resultados conocidos sobre el problema de caracterizar los grafos que admiten inmersiones en superficies y en seudosuperficies con todos los vértices en la misma cara y se da una caracterización original de los grafos con dicha propiedad en seudosuperficies que surgen de manera natural y que han sido tratadas en la literatura especializada. Se comienza desarrollando algunos conceptos necesarios para la exposición de los problemas que se tratan, pero se suponen conocidos otros básicos de la Teoría de Grafos. Los resultados relacionados llevan de forma consecuente al planteamiento de otros problemas cuyas resoluciones originales también se incluyen. En cuanto a los objetivos finales que se pretenden lograr con esta comunicación, se basan, sobre todo, en aprovechar los resultados obtenidos por la Teoría de Grafos para resolver problemas pertenecientes a otras áreas, como la Economía. Se termina exponiendo un motivo topológico por el que estos estudios sobre las inmersiones y las inmersiones peri-S se hallan próximas a la Economía.

  3. MOLECULAR GENETIC MARKERS AS PREDICTORS OF SUPERFICIAL BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Babayan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A system of clinical and morphological criteria is currently used to determine the pattern of superficial bladder cancer (SBC. However, this system does not completely reflect the clinical potential of SBC and needs additional markers. The purpose of this study was to search for and evaluate molecular genetic disorders as additional markers of the course of SBC. The diagnostic panel included the deletion of the loci 3р14, 9р21, 9q34, 17р13 (ТР53, mutations of exon 7 of the FGFR3 gene, and hypermethylation of the promoter regions of the RASSF1, RARB, p16, p14, CDH1 genes. The study was made on 108 matched samples (tumor/peripheral blood obtained from patients with SBC. The deletions of the loci 3р14, 9р21 and anomalous methylation of the RARb and p16 genes are markers of the worse course of SBC while FGFR3 gene mutation is a marker of better prognosis. In the context of estimation of the relapsing potential of a primary tumor, the 9p21 locus deletion is a marker associated with recurrence within the first year after malignancy resection. The group of molecular genetic markers determined by the authors for poor prognosis in combination with classical clinical and morphological criteria will specify the pattern of the course of the disease and its prognosis.

  4. Superficial topography of wound: a determinant of underlying biological events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh; Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Kloth, Luther C

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional configuration of wounds varies considerably according to the etiology. Wounding of skin is proceeded by release of dermal pretension. Subsequent disruption of physical equilibrium with resulting development of force vectors alters the primary shape of wound to maintain a new dynamic physical equilibrium. This leads to the development of stress-relaxation and stress-concentration areas throughout the wound milieu. Mechanical strain produces piezoelectric current which is maximal in stress-relaxation regions due to lower tissue stiffness and higher mobility. Early surge in the tissue level of TGF-beta would be exaggerated through synergistic interaction with piezoelectric current in stress-relaxation areas. Subsequently, fibroblasts migrate to these areas due to galvanotaxis. The gradual dissipation of tissue tension, due to irreversible loss of viscous strain, reduces the synergistic action of TGF-beta and piezoelectricity. However, a similar pattern of activity of TGF-beta due to the polarized migration of fibroblasts, which are the main source of TGF-beta during secondary surge, may be continued. It seems that a biological-mechanical continuum exists for wounds so that even the superficial topography of wounds may affect the underlying biological activity and final healing outcome during healing of dermal wounds.

  5. Pentacam-based phototherapeutic keratectomy outcome in superficial corneal opacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK as an alternative treatment to keratoplasty using the Pentacam to assess depth of dense opacities.Methodology: PTK was performed in eleven eyes of ten patients with superficial corneal opacities after assessment by Scheimpflug images of the Pentacam for central corneal thickness (CCT and opacity level and depth.Results: The best-corrected spectacle visual acuity (BCSVA significantly improved. The preoperative mean logMAR was 0.85 (0.14 decimal equivalent, 6/42 Snellen's equivalent, and the final postoperative mean logMAR was 0.58 (0.26 decimal equivalent, 6/23 Snellen's equivalent. The mean preoperative CCT was 465.64 ± 71.94 µm. The mean programmed ablation depth was 142.09 ± 47.58 µm. The programmed ablation depth was correlated to mean logMAR early (1 month and not correlated later (6 months. None of the eyes lost lines of BCSVA or developed serious complications, such as keratectasia, delayed epithelialization, or corneal melting.Conclusion: Corneal scars extending beyond the anterior one-fifth of the cornea can be treated safely and effectively by PTK due to the smoothing effect, with reduction of the cylinder rather than complete opacity removal. This can decrease the need for keratoplasty.Keywords: phototherapeutic keratectomy, PTK, corneal opacities, Pentacam

  6. Superficial and orthovoltage x-ray beam dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorsak, E B; Gosselin, M; Evans, M D

    1998-07-01

    Output of superficial and orthovoltage x-ray units may be measured with cylindrical or end-window parallel-plate ionization chambers. The air-kerma calibration factors for these chambers are usually determined free in air, and the x-ray machine output is stated as the air-kerma rate free in air, which, when multiplied with the appropriate backscatter factor, gives the air-kerma rate on the surface of a phantom or patient. For end-window chambers, especially when they are used for measurements of small fields or low x-ray energies, the air-kerma calibration factors may also be determined with the chamber embedded in a tissue-equivalent phantom. This results in field size dependent air-kerma in-air calibration factors but obviates the requirement for knowledge of back-scatter factors when determining the air-kerma rate on the surface of a phantom. Since there still is considerable uncertainty in tabulated backscatter factors as a function of field size and x-ray beam energy, the output measurement technique which determines the air-kerma rate on phantom surface with a phantom-embedded end-window ionization chamber offers a clear advantage over the in-air calibration method.

  7. Superficial siderosis is a warning sign for future intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Jennifer; Wollenweber, Frank A; Lummel, Nina; Bochmann, Katja; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Bruckmann, Hartmut; Dichgans, Martin; Opherk, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Supratentorial superficial siderosis (SS) is a frequent imaging marker of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). It is most probably caused by focal subarachnoid hemorrhages (fSAHs). Based on single-case observations, it has been proposed that such fSAHs might be a predisposing factor for future intracranial hemorrhage. Here we tested the hypothesis if a SS as a residue of fSAHs must be regarded as a warning sign for future intracranial hemorrhage. Fifty-one consecutive patients with SS and no apparent cause other than possible or probable CAA were identified through a database search and followed-up for a median interval of 35.3 months (range 6-120 months). Main outcome measures were rate and location of new intracranial hemorrhages. Twenty-four patients (47.1 %) had experienced any new intracranial hemorrhage, 18 patients (35.3 %) had an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and in 13 of them (25.5 %), the hemorrhage was located at the site of pre-existing siderosis. Six patients (11.7 %) had developed a new subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), four of them at the site of siderosis. Patients with SS are at substantial risk for subsequent intracranial hemorrhage. SS can be considered a warning sign of future ICH or SAH, which frequently occur adjacent to pre-existing SS. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  8. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in children with superficial lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Corti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pediatric population Fine-Needle Aspiration Citology (FNAC is slowly gaining acceptance in clinical management of Superficial Lymphadenopathy (SL. Our experience adds some data about the usefulness of this technique in diagnosing the cause of a SL and therefore guiding further treatment. Patients and Methods: 238 FNAC were performed in 217 patients with SL, observed at our Institution from 2002 to 2006. The neck was the most frequent localization. The results were available within few hours. In cases of granulomatous findings, the samples were processed for microbiological and PCR test, in order to identify Mycobacteria. Results: 174 were reactive lesions, 38 granulomatous lymphadenopathies, 24 malignant lesions, 2 specimens inadequate for diagnosis. Among the 174 reactive SL, 22 required an incisional biopsy after 1 month follow-up. Among the granulomatous lymphadenopathies, 13 children with Cat-Scratch Disease recovered, 25 with Mycobacteria infection underwent surgical excision. For 24 malignant lesions, the diagnosis was confirmed by further biopsy. Two false negative and no false positive were detected (sensitivity 92%, specificity 100%. No complications were encountered. Conclusions: In our experience FNAC, performed by experienced cytopathologist, has revealed to be a fast, safe, non invasive and inexpensive method to achieve diagnosis in persistent SL. The use of FNAC gave us the possibility to select patients for further investigation and/or surgical treatment. Incisional biopsy remains necessary to confirm the diagnosis in case of malignancy or doubtful lesions.

  9. Immunological studies in chronic atrophic gastritis and chronic (superficial) gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, W P; Rigby, R J; Trenchev, P; Matz, L R

    1978-01-01

    Detection of autoantibodies, HLA typing and immunofluorescence studies on gastric biopsies were carried out in subjects with histologically proven chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and chronic superficial gastritis (CG). All were seronegative for parietal cell antibody and did not have pernicious anemia. Except for positive antismooth muscle and antimitochrondrial antibodies in one patient with CAG, autoantibodies (antinuclear, smooth muscle, mitochrondrial, parietal cell) were absent in patients with CAG and CG. Immunofluorescence studies showed that Ig-G and IgA were presented in the lamina propria of all cases with CAG or CG and of subjects with normal gastric histology. Ig-M was seen less often, in about half the cases. Complement C3 was an uncommon finding, being positive in only one case with CAG and one case with CG and in none of the cases with normal gastric histology. Fibrinogen was more commonly seen in patients with CG (5/5 cases) than in those with CAG (3/11 cases). Fibrinogen was found in one case with normal gastric histology. The most consistent fluorescence was obtained with antiparietal cell antiserum. All subjects with CAG showed negative or weak staining only. In contrast, subjects with CG and normal gastric histology had strong specific fluorescence. An increased frequency of HLA-A1 plus HLA-B8 was found in subjects with CAG (20.7% in controls; 40% in CAG).

  10. Ultrasonic quantitation of superficial degradation of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Töyräs, Juha; Hirvonen, Jani; Laasanen, Mikko S; Lappalainen, Reijo; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2004-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) has been suggested as a means for the quantitative detection of early osteoarthrotic changes in articular cartilage. In this study, the ability of quantitative US 2-D imaging (20 MHz) to reveal superficial changes in bovine articular cartilage after mechanical or enzymatic degradation was investigated in vitro. Mechanical degradation was induced by grinding samples against an emery paper with the grain size of 250 microm, 106 microm, 45 microm or 23 microm. For enzymatic degradation, samples were digested with collagenase, trypsin or chondroitinase ABC. Variations of the US reflection coefficient induced by the degradation were investigated. Furthermore, two novel parameters, the US roughness index (URI) and the spatial variation of the US reflection coefficient (SVR), were established to quantitate the integrity of the cartilage surface. Statistically significant decreases (p < 0.05) in US reflection coefficient were observed after mechanical degradations or enzymatic digestion with collagenase. Increases (p < 0.05) in URI were also revealed after these treatments. We conclude that quantitative US imaging may be used to detect collagen disruption and increased roughness in the articular surface. These structural damages are typical of early osteoarthrosis.

  11. Temperatura superficial de materiais utilizados para cobertura individual de bezerreiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M. C. Barnabé

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, com este trabalho avaliar, por meio de imagens térmicas, a temperatura superficial das coberturas de abrigos individuais para bezerras na fase de aleitamento. O período experimental foi de janeiro a março de 2012, com duração de 56 dias, conduzido com 24 abrigos individuais para bezerras Girolando. Os tratamentos consistiram em três tipos de cobertura: palha de palmeira, telha de polímero reciclado e telha de cimento amianto. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado efetuando-se a comparação entre as médias pelo teste de Tukey (P < 0,05. Os resultados mostraram diferença significativa entre os tratamentos estudados e as telhas recicladas apresentaram menores valores de temperatura média na superfície superior, em todos os horários analisados sendo o valor máximo encontrado da ordem de 36,9 ºC e o mínimo de 14,4 ºC. Os abrigos cobertos por palha e com telhas recicladas mostraram melhor desempenho térmico em relação à cobertura de fibrocimento, provavelmente indicando melhor condição de conforto térmico aos animais alojados.

  12. Autoregulation of superficial nephron function in the alloperfused dog kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, J; Horácek, V

    1979-10-01

    Isolated dog kidneys were each pump-perfused by another dog during 4 experimental periods at perfusion pressures (PP) of 21, 17, 13, and 8 kPa, resp. (i.e. 160, 130, 94, and 60 mm Hg). At the 3 highest PP values, the total kidney renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were perfectly autoregulated while at the lowest value both values were significantly lowered. No significant difference was observed between the single nephron GFR (SNGFR) of periods 1 and 2; in period 3 (PP = 13 kPa) a lower value was observed (P less than 0.05). Free flow pressure in proximal convolution (FFP), stop-flow pressure (SFP), and peritubular capillary pressure (PCP) were not different in period 2 than in period 1, but were significantly lower in period 3 (P = 0.02--0.05). Effective filtration pressure (EFP) was the highest in period 1, decreasing significantly with decreasing PP. Filtration pressure equilibrium was observed in period 4 at PP 8 kPa. Total blood flow resistance (RT) fell with decreasing PP, the drop being due to a steep decline in afferent resistance (RA). Efferent resistance (RE) increased as PP decreased. Ultrafiltration coefficient (Kf) rose with declining PP both within and outside the autoregulatory range. The results indicate that the lower limit of autoregulation is higher in superficial nephrons than in the whole kidney.

  13. The superficial peroneal nerve at the foot. Organisation, surgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas, F; Bonnel, F; Kouloumdjian, P

    1996-01-01

    The authors report the results of the dissection of the superficial peroneal nerves of 30 adult cadavers, from its emergence through the deep sural fascia up to its terminal branches. Its emergence was located, on average, 11 cm from the lower end of the lateral malleolus (min: 9 cm, max: 11.5 cm). The division of the nerve into the medial dorsal cutaneous n. and the intermediate dorsal cutaneous n. was found in 29 cases after its emergence from the sural fascia and before its passage on the proximal edge of the extensor retinaculum. The distance between the medial dorsal cutaneous n. and the medial malleolus was more than 2 cm. This nerve divided into three branches at a level varying from 5 to 20 cm in relation to the first interdigital space (average 9 cm). The intermediate dorsal cutaneous n. was found in 27 cases. It divided into two branches at a variable distance from the fourth interdigital space (4 to 6 cm). According to Kosinski's classification, we found 24 cases of type I (80%), three cases of type II (10%) and three cases of type IV (10%). The authors stress the numerous topographic variations and the multiple anatomical types.

  14. Recurrence of superficial vein thrombosis in patients with varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karathanos, Christos; Spanos, Konstantinos; Saleptsis, Vassileios; Tsezou, Aspasia; Kyriakou, Despina; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2016-08-01

    To investigate which factors other than history of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) are associated with recurrent spontaneous SVT episodes in patients with varicose veins (VVs). Patients with a history of spontaneous SVT and VVs were followed up for a mean period of 55 months. Demographics, comorbidities, and thrombophilia screening test were analyzed. Patients were grouped according to the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology classification. A multiple logistic regression analysis with the forward likelihood ratio method was undertaken. Thirteen patients out of 97 had a recurrence SVT episode during the follow-up period. All those patients were identified to have a thrombophilia defect. Protein C and S, antithrombin, and plasminogen deficiencies were more frequently present in patients without recurrence. Gene mutations were present in 38% in the nonrecurrence group and 77% in the recurrence group. After logistic regression analysis, patients with dislipidemia and mutation in prothrombin G20210A (FII) had an increased risk for recurrence by 5.4-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively. No deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurred. Dislipidemia and gene mutations of F II are associated with SVT recurrence in patients with VVs. A selection of patients may benefit from anticoagulation in the short term and from VVs intervention in the long term. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Experimental Study on Mine Spoils During Superficial Geochemical Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一先; 白正华

    2002-01-01

    Based on the mineral and chemical compositions of spoils taken from the Shilu Cu-Mo deposit and Hetai gold deposit ,the leaching and batch experiments were made on spoils taken from these two deposits using the leaching column designed by the authors.The experimental results showed that it is not always true that the imine drainage is acidic.Its acidity depends on acid-buffering capacity of gangue,host rock and its alteration mineral assemblage.The composi-tion of the drainage water is related with the interaction between superficial or underground water and solid materials in the spoils,including minerals,hydroxides and amorphous substances.The leaching extent of the element is related with its occurrence form in the deposit.The prefer-ential flow results in leaching-out of heavy metals in large amounts.So it is important to prevent the generating of preferential flow in the system.The results will provide very important grounds for the comprehensive management of land and ecological rehabilitation of the mine site.

  16. Experimental Study on Mine Spoils During Superficial Geochemistry Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一先; 白正华

    2002-01-01

    Based on the mineral and chemical compositions of spoils taken from the Shilu Cu-Mo deposit and Hetai gold deposit, the leaching and batch experiments were made on spoils taken from these two deposits using the leaching column designed by the authors. The experimental results showed that it is not always true that the mine drainage is acidic. Its acidity depends on acid-buffering capacity of gangue, host rock and its alteration mineral assemblage. The composition of the drainage water is related with the interaction between superficial or underground water and solid materials in the spoils, including minerals, hydroxides and amorphous substances. The leaching extent of the element is related with its occurrence form in the deposit. The preferential flow results in leaching-out of heavy metals in large amounts. So it is important to prevent the generating of preferential flow in the system. The results will provide very important grounds for the comprehensive management of land and ecological rehabilitation of the mine site.

  17. Triterpenes for Well-Balanced Scar Formation in Superficial Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kindler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Triterpenes are demonstrably effective for accelerating re-epithelialisation of wounds and known to improve scar formation for superficial lesions. Among the variety of triterpenes, betuline is of particular medical interest. Topical betuline gel (TBG received drug approval in 2016 from the European Commission as the first topical therapeutic agent with the proven clinical benefit of accelerating wound healing. Two self-conducted randomized intra-individual comparison clinical studies with a total of 220 patients involved in TBG treatment of skin graft surgical wounds have been screened for data concerning the aesthetic aspect of wound healing. Three months after surgery wound treatment with TBG resulted in about 30% of cases with more discreet scars, and standard of care in about 10%. Patients themselves appreciate the results of TBG after 3 months even more (about 50% compared to standard of care (about 10%. One year after surgery, the superiority of TBG counts for about 25% in comparison with about 10%, and from the patients’ point of view, for 25% compared to 4% under standard of care. In the majority of wound treatment cases, there is no difference visible between TBG treatment and standard of care after 1 year of scar formation. However, in comparison, TBG still offers a better chance for discreet scars and therefore happens to be superior in good care of wounds.

  18. GENETIC RISK MARKERS FOR SUPERFICIAL AND INVASIVE BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pavlov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To reveal possible associations of the polymorphic variants of the cytochrome P450 and enzymes glutathione-S-transferase genes with the risk for bladder cancer (BC, the authors analyzed the frequency of genotypes and alleles at the polymorphic loci of the CYP1A1 (A2454G, GSTM1 (del, and GSTP1 (A313G genes in 208 patients diagnosed as having BC (104 patients with invasive BC and 104 with superficial BC and in 367 patients without identified oncopathology. The *1A*2C (OR = 3.42 and *2C*2С (OR = 6.98 genotypes, *2C (OR = 3.73 allele of the CYP1A1 gene and the GG (OR = 2.53 genotype of the GSTP1 gene were ascertained to be genetic markers for a risk for BC. The presence of the *2C (OR = 1.69 allele of the CYP1A1 gene, the G (OR = 2.40 allele and the AG genotype (OR = 2.40 of the GSTP1 gene was associated with the invasive forms of BC. There were no substantial differences in the distribution of the frequency of genotypes of the GSTM1 gene between the samples of patients and healthy individuals.

  19. Pilomatrix carcinoma of the clitoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazic, Barbara; Sramek-Zatler, Simona; Repse-Fokter, Alenka; Pizem, Joze

    2011-12-01

    Pilomatrix carcinoma, a malignant counterpart of pilomatrixoma, is a rare skin neoplasm composed of basaloid and shadow cells that characterize differentiation toward the hair matrix. The authors present a case of pilomatrix carcinoma of the clitoris, a very unusual location not previously reported. Diagnostic criteria and differential diagnoses are discussed. Pilomatrix carcinoma should be differentiated from benign pilomatrixoma and other carcinomas with shadow cells, including basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation and metastases of visceral carcinomas with shadow cells.

  20. Development of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerardekani, Ahmad; Karim, Roselina; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Chin, Nyuk Ling

    2013-03-01

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world. Pistachio spreads were developed using pistachio paste as the main component, icing sugar, soy protein isolate (SPI), and red palm oil (RPO), at different ratios. The highest mean scores of all the sensory attributes were depicted by spreads that were made without addition of SPI. It was found that the work of shear was 0 to 11.0 kg s for an acceptable spread. Sensory spreadability, overall texture, spreadability, and overall acceptability were negatively correlated (R > 0.83) with the work of shear of spreads. The findings indicated that the presence of RPO had a direct effect on the viscoelastic behavior of the pistachio spreads. The a values, which are related to the green color of the pistachio product ranged from 1.7 to 3.9 for spread without addition of RPO, and 4.0 to 5.3 in the presence of RPO. The development of pistachio spread would potentially increase the food uses of pistachio and introduce consumers with a healthier snack food. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits cortical spreading depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Pin; Ay, Ilknur; de Morais, Andreia Lopes; Qin, Tao; Zheng, Yi; Sadeghian, Homa; Oka, Fumiaki; Simon, Bruce; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Ayata, Cenk

    2016-04-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation has recently been reported to improve symptoms of migraine. Cortical spreading depression is the electrophysiological event underlying migraine aura and is a trigger for headache. We tested whether vagus nerve stimulation inhibits cortical spreading depression to explain its antimigraine effect. Unilateral vagus nerve stimulation was delivered either noninvasively through the skin or directly by electrodes placed around the nerve. Systemic physiology was monitored throughout the study. Both noninvasive transcutaneous and invasive direct vagus nerve stimulations significantly suppressed spreading depression susceptibility in the occipital cortex in rats. The electrical stimulation threshold to evoke a spreading depression was elevated by more than 2-fold, the frequency of spreading depressions during continuous topical 1 M KCl was reduced by ∼40%, and propagation speed of spreading depression was reduced by ∼15%. This effect developed within 30 minutes after vagus nerve stimulation and persisted for more than 3 hours. Noninvasive transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation was as efficacious as direct invasive vagus nerve stimulation, and the efficacy did not differ between the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. Our findings provide a potential mechanism by which vagus nerve stimulation may be efficacious in migraine and suggest that susceptibility to spreading depression is a suitable platform to optimize its efficacy.

  2. Histological and biochemical study of the superficial abdominal fascia and its implication in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Aithal, Srinivas Kodavoor; Kotian, Sushma R.; Thittamaranahalli, Honnegowda; Bangera, Hemalatha; Prasad, Keerthana; Souza, Anne D.

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of liposculpturing and fascial flaps in reconstructive surgery has renewed interest in the superficial fascia of abdomen. Its histological and biochemical composition may play a vital role in maintaining strength and elasticity of the fascia. Hence, study of abdominal fascia for the elastic, collagen, and hydroxyproline contents is desirable to understand asymmetrical bulges and skin folds and in improving surgical treatment of obesity. Samples of superficial fascia were collected from of upper and lower abdomen from 21 fresh cadavers (15 males and 6 females). Samples were stained using Verhoeff–Van Gieson stain. Digital images of superficial fascia were analyzed using TissueQuant software. The samples were also subjected to hydroxyproline estimation. The superficial fascia was formed by loosely packed collagen fibers mixed with abundant elastic fibers and adipose tissue. Elastic contents and collagen contents of superficial fascia were significantly more in the upper abdomen than that in the lower abdomen in males. Hydroxyproline content of superficial fascia of upper abdomen was significantly more than that of lower abdomen in both males and females. The elastic, collagen and hydroxyproline contents of superficial fascia of upper abdomen were higher compared to the lower abdomen. This may be a reason for asymmetric bulging over abdomen and more sagging fold of skin in the lower abdomen than in the upper abdomen. This study may therefore be helpful in finding new ways to manage obesity and other body contour deformities. PMID:27722011

  3. The specificationof nano-structure superficial layers in some of the pathogen bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilla Jalalpoor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The superficial layer is a part of the cellular envelop that is seen in bacteria and archaea. This superficial layer is a single layer structure composed of subordinate proteins or glycoproteins. The superficial layer is the outer most cellular structure that is in the exchange and reaction around environment with bacteria. This structure has very diversity in bacteria different types.Materials and Method: The related articles to superficial layer were extracted of these articles: Pubmed, Elsevier Science, and Yahoo, from 1995 to 2010 years. For this purpose keywords were searched including superficial layer, pathogenesis, pathogen bacteria,Results: There is consensus in the case of the superficial layer and about the existence of this superficial structure lead to increased pathogenesis in bacteria, in all of the research articles.Conclusion: S-layers in pathogen bacteria with bacteria protection against bacteriophages and phagocytosis, resistance against low pH, adhesion, stabilisation of the membrane and providing adhesion sites for exoproteins caused pathogenesis, infection resistant and antibiotic resistant in host.The result of this study shows the prevalence of considerable S-layer in pathogen bacteria and this matter identified the bacteria generator importance of this structure in the laboratory

  4. Spread polynomials, rotations and the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Goh, Shuxiang

    2009-01-01

    The spread between two lines in rational trigonometry replaces the concept of angle, allowing the complete specification of many geometrical and dynamical situations which have traditionally been viewed approximately. This paper investigates the case of powers of a rational spread rotation, and in particular, a curious periodicity in the prime power decomposition of the associated values of the spread polynomials, which are the analogs in rational trigonometry of the Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind. Rational trigonometry over finite fields plays a role, together with non-Euclidean geometries.

  5. Pulsations, interpulsations, and sea-floor spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessagno, E. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    It is postulated that worldwide transgressions (pulsations) and regressions (interpulsations) through the course of geologic time are related to the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems and to sea-floor spreading. Two multiple working hypotheses are advanced to explain major transgressions and regressions and the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems. One hypothesis interrelates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to the hypothesis of sub-Mohorovicic serpentinization. The second hypothesis relates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to a hypothesis involving thermal expansion and contraction.

  6. Stochastic dynamic model of SARS spreading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yaolin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon the simulation of the stochastic process of infection, onset and spreading of each SARS patient, a system dynamic model of SRAS spreading is constructed. Data from Vietnam is taken as an example for Monte Carlo test. The preliminary results indicate that the time-dependent infection rate is the most important control factor for SARS spreading. The model can be applied to prediction of the course with fluctuations of the epidemics, if the previous history of the epidemics and the future infection rate under control measures are known.

  7. Unexpected diagnosis of superficial neurofibroma in a lesion with imaging features of a vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Patrick; Reid, Janet; Morrison, Stuart [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Vidimos, Allison [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Dermatology, Cleveland, OH (United States); DiFiore, John [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Plexiform neurofibroma is a pathognomonic, often disabling feature of neurofibromatosis type I. Although the target-like appearance of deep plexiform neurofibroma on T2-weighted MRI has been well-described, a second superficial form of plexiform neurofibroma has differing imaging features. We report a 15-year-old boy who presented with multiple cutaneous lesions exhibiting clinical and imaging characteristics of a venolymphatic malformation. These lesions were histologically proved to represent superficial plexiform neurofibromas. We wish to emphasize the unique MR findings of superficial plexiform neurofibromas; these findings are different from the imaging characteristics of the deep form and can be confused with a low-flow vascular malformation. (orig.)

  8. Clinicopathological, ultrasonographic, and histopathological findings of superficial necrolytic dermatitis with hepatopathy in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Susan E; Christiansen, Wendy; Byrne, Kevin P

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the antemortem diagnosis and antemortem and postmortem findings of superficial necrolytic dermatitis with hepatopathy (i.e., hepatocutaneous syndrome) in a cat. A 5-year-old Maine coon was evaluated because of a history of pruritic alopecia and liver enzyme elevations. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a reticular pattern to the hepatic parenchyma. Histopathological findings of the liver were nodular regeneration with bands of vacuolated hepatocytes and bile duct hyperplasia, characteristic of the hepatopathy frequently associated with superficial necrolytic dermatitis. Skin histopathology revealed multifocal parakeratosis, midepidermal spongiosis, and basal cell hyperplasia consistent with superficial necrolytic dermatitis.

  9. Evaluación de la calidad superficial del hormigón autocompactante

    OpenAIRE

    López, Anahí; Tobes, Juan Manuel; Giaccio, Graciela Marta; Zerbino, Raúl

    2008-01-01

    En la actualidad los requerimientos estéticos han dado lugar a mayores exigencias sobre la calidad superficial en hormigón visto. El uso de hormigón autocompactante (HAC) aparece como una alternativa para lograr elementos con mejor terminación superficial. El CIB Report N° 24 presenta un método para clasificar la calidad superficial del hormigón donde se incluyen como parámetros la uniformidad de color, la presencia de burbujas, manchas, marcas y otros tipos de defectos. En este trabajo se pr...

  10. Systemic BCG-Osis as a Rare Side Effect of Intravesical BCG Treatment for Superficial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lukacs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunotherapy is a commonly used treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Although the treatment is well tolerated in 95% of cases, life-threatening side effects including BCG sepsis can occur. This report describes the case of an 82-year-old man with a background of lung disease. He developed septic shock and type two respiratory failure after receiving the sixth installation of intravesical BCG (TICE strain immunotherapy for recurrent bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma in situ. Despite the early initiation of broad spectrum antibiotics (tazocin and gentamicin, he remained pyrexial. There was a rapid deterioration, and on the second day of his admission, he developed type two respiratory failure secondary to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS prompting transfer to Intensive Care for Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP Ventilation. The blood cultures taken before the induction of antibiotics results were negative. Increasing clinical suspicion of systemic BCG-osis prompted the initiation of antituberculosis therapy (ethambutol, isoniazid rifampicin and steroids. Following six days of BiPAP and anti-tuberculosis therapy in ITU, his condition started to improve. Following a prolonged hospital stay he was discharged on long term ethambutol therapy. BCG-osis is a well-known though rare side effect of intravesical BCG therapy. We would like to highlight the importance of having a low threshold for starting anti-TB treatment.

  11. Urinary fibronectin levels in patients treated with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin for superficial bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danişman, A; Bulut, K; Kukul, E; Ozen, I; Sevük, M

    2000-01-01

    Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to be an effective treatment for superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder, but the precise mechanism of action of BCG remains poorly understood. Fibronectin (FN), an important component of the extracellular matrix, has been found to play a role in BCG therapy. Some studies have shown that the soluble form of FN can compete efficiently with the matrix form of binding to the specific receptors on the bacteria and could consequently diminish the effect of BCG treatment. To evaluate a possible correlation between the urinary levels of FN and the efficacy of BCG therapy, we determined prospectively the urinary FN levels in 38 patients with TCC of the bladder and in 25 control subjects without malignancy matched for age and sex. All TCC patients were treated with transurethral tumor resection plus 6 weekly intravesical BCG instillations. After an average follow-up of 30 months, 8 patients (21.1%) had recurrent tumors, while 30 (78.9%) were free of tumor after intravesical BCG therapy. Urinary levels of FN in cancer patients have been shown to be significantly higher than controls (p 0. 05). It was also found that the mean urinary FN levels were not statistically significant between patients with recurrence and complete remission. The data suggest that BCG-bladder tumor cell binding is not influenced by soluble fibronectin and urinary FN may not be a ideal marker for selecting patients to BCG therapy.

  12. Analysis of Japanese Patients Treated with or without Long-Term Epirubicin Plus Ara-C Intravesical Instillation Therapy for Low-Grade Superficial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Kato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of tumor recurrence following transurethral resection (TUR represents a major problem encountered in the management of bladder cancer. This study examined the efficacy of intravesical chemotherapy in superficial bladder cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 90 Japanese cases with low-grade superficial transitional cell carcinoma (stage T1, grades 1 and 2 who were rendered tumor-free by TURBT (TUR of bladder tumor and who thereafter were treated with or without intravesical chemotherapy. Among them, instillation was terminated in 2 patients due to adverse effects (severe but reversible chemical cystitis. Remaining 88 patients were divided into 2 groups according to therapy: the TURBT-only group (n=46, defined as patients treated with TURBT alone, and the Instillation group (n=42, defined as patients treated with weekly intravesical instillation therapies using epirubicin plus Ara-C. Recurrence-free rate was significantly higher in the Instillation group than in the TURBT-only group (p=0.02, HR = 0.457. The 5-year recurrence-free rate was 58.5% for the Instillation group and 38.6% for the TURBT-only group. Our instillation schedule represents the most intensive regimen among previously reported therapies and resulted in a 54.3% decrease in incidence of tumor recurrence. We believe that the results of this study could provide useful information on management of bladder cancer.

  13. Zika Probably Not Spread Through Saliva: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167531.html Zika Probably Not Spread Through Saliva: Study Research with ... HealthDay News) -- Scientists have some interesting news about Zika: You're unlikely to get the virus from ...

  14. Spreading paths in partially observed social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading path lengths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using a static, structurally realistic social network as a platform for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Alt...

  15. Reactive spreading: Adsorption, ridging and compound formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz, E.; Cannon, R.M.; Tomsia, A.P.

    2000-09-11

    Reactive spreading, in which a chemically active element is added to promote wetting of noble metals on nonmetallic materials, is evaluated. Theories for the energetics and kinetics of the necessary steps involved in spreading are outlined and compared to the steps in compound formation that typically accompany reactive wetting. These include: fluid flow, active metal adsorption, including nonequilibrium effects, and triple line ridging. All of these can be faster than compound nucleation under certain conditions. Analysis and assessment of recently reported experiments on metal/ceramic systems lead to a focus on those conditions under which spreading proceeds ahead of the actual formation of a new phase at the interface. This scenario may be more typical than believed, and perhaps the most effective situation leading to enhanced spreading. A rationale for the pervasive variability and hysteresis observed during high temperature wetting also emerges.

  16. Emergence of Blind Areas in Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zi-Ke; Han, Xiao-Pu; Liu, Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Recently, contagion-based (disease, information, etc.) spreading on social networks has been extensively studied. In this paper, other than traditional full interaction, we propose a partial interaction based spreading model, considering that the informed individuals would transmit information to only a certain fraction of their neighbors due to the transmission ability in real-world social networks. Simulation results on three representative networks (BA, ER, WS) indicate that the spreading efficiency is highly correlated with the network heterogeneity. In addition, a special phenomenon, namely \\emph{Information Blind Areas} where the network is separated by several information-unreachable clusters, will emerge from the spreading process. Furthermore, we also find that the size distribution of such information blind areas obeys power-law-like distribution, which has very similar exponent with that of site percolation. Detailed analyses show that the critical value is decreasing along with the network heterog...

  17. Applied anatomy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, A J; See, M S; Ellis, H

    2008-01-01

    The superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) is highly vulnerable to trauma and iatrogenic injury. This study aimed to map the course of the SBRN in the context of surgical approaches and identify a safe area of incision for de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Twenty-five forearms were dissected. The SBRN emerged from under brachioradialis by a mean of 8.31 cm proximal to the radial styloid (RS), and remained radial to the dorsal tubercle of the radius by a mean of 1.49 cm. The nerve divided into a median of four branches. The first branch arose a mean of 4.92 cm proximal to the RS, traveling 0.49 cm radial to the first compartment of the extensor retinaculum, while the main nerve remained ulnar to it by 0.64 cm. All specimens had branches underlying the traditional transverse incision for de Quervain's release. A 2.5-cm longitudinal incision proximal from the RS avoided the SBRN in 17/25 cases (68%). In 20/25 specimens (80%), the SBRN underlay the cephalic vein. In 18/25 (72%), the radial artery was closely associated with a sensory nerve branch near the level of the RS (SBRN 12/25, lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm (LCNF) 6/25.) A longitudinal incision in de Quervain's surgery may be preferable. Cannulation of the cephalic vein in the distal third of the forearm is best avoided. The close association between the radial artery and first branch of the SBRN or the LCNF may explain the pain often experienced during arterial puncture. Particular care should be taken during radial artery harvest to avoid nerve injury.

  18. Analyses of superficial and depth doses in intraoral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Santos de Oliveira, C.; Morais, R.P. de; Nascimento Souza, D. do [Universidade Federal de Sergipe - CCET - Dept. de Fisica, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In this work dosimetric analysis using thermoluminescence technique to study the beams characteristics of x-rays employed in dental radiology has been carried out. The obtained results with CaSO{sub 4}:Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were compared to the doses obtained with parallel-plates ionization chamber. Dosimetric evaluations were also done using radiographic films of large dimensions. The x-rays equipments analyzed were installed in the radiological services of Odontology Department of Sergipe Federal University (U.F.S.). Depending on the anatomical region to be examined the proper exposure time was select, for a fix voltage of 70 kV. The results with TLD and ionization chamber have been determined to female and male individuals. The intraoral regions analysed were the peri apical of the incisors, molar and pre-molar teeth and the occlusive region. These regions were simulated using acrylic plates absorbers installed on the film packet holder. The evaluation of the depth doses in the intraoral tissue was obtained using different acrylic plate thickness. The air kerma values have been evaluated with the ionization chamber located in the dental cone exit of the x-rays equipments. The integrated areas of the thermoluminescent glow curves showed coherent values when compared to the ones obtained with the ionization chamber and both methods presented a linear dependence with the exposition time. The analyses with films have allowed the evaluation of the beam scattering in the simulator apparatus. The studies had proven that the analysis of superficial dose and in depth used in dental radiology can be carried with thermoluminescent dosimeters. (authors)

  19. Superficial white matter: effects of age, sex, and hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R; Clark, Kristi A; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18-74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies.

  20. Spreading of charged micro-droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Iaia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the spreading of a charged microdroplet on a flat dielectric surface whose spreading is driven by surface tension and electrostatic repulsion. This leads to a third order nonlinear partial differential equation that gives the evolution of the height profile. Assuming the droplets are circular we are able to prove existence of solutions with infinite contact angle and in many cases we are able to prove nonexistence of solutions with finite contact angle.

  1. Mapping the Spread of Mounted Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Turchin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Military technology is one of the most important factors affecting the evolution of complex societies. In particular, mounted warfare, the use of horse-riders in military operations, revolutionized war as it spread to different parts of Eurasia and Africa during the Ancient and Medieval eras, and to the Americas during the Early Modern period. Here we use a variety of sources to map this spread.

  2. Investigation of debris bed formation, spreading and coolability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, P.; Konovalenko, A.; Grishchenko, D.; Yakush, S.; Basso, S.; Lubchenko, N.; Karbojian, A. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH. Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    The work is motivated by the severe accident management strategy adopted in Nordic type BWRs. It is assumed that core melt ejected from the vessel will fragment, quench and form a coolable debris bed in a deep water pool below the vessel. In this work we consider phenomena relevant to the debris bed formation and coolability. Several DEFOR-A (Debris Bed Formation - Agglomeration) tests have been carried out with new corium melt material and a melt releasing nozzle mockup. The influence of the melt material, melt superheat, jet free fall height on the (i) faction of agglomerated debris, (ii) particle size distribution, (iii) ablation/plugging of the nozzle mockup has been addressed. Results of the DECOSIM (Debris Coolability Simulator) code validation against available COOLOCE data are presented in the report. The dependence of DHF on system pressure from COOLOCE experiments can be reproduced quite accurately if either the effective particle diameter or debris bed porosity is increased. For a cylindrical debris bed, good agreement is achieved in DECOSIM simulations for the particle diameter 0.89 mm and porosity 0.4. The results obtained are consistent with MEWA simulation where larger particle diameters and porosities were found to be necessary to reproduce the experimental data on DHF. It is instructive to note that results of DHF prediction are in better agreement with POMECO-HT data obtained for the same particles. It is concluded that further clarification of the discrepancies between different experiments and model predictions. In total 13 exploratory tests were carried out in PDS (particulate debris spreading) facility to clarify potential influence of the COOLOCE (VTT) facility heaters and TCs on particle self-leveling process. Results of the preliminary analysis suggest that there is no significant influence of the pins on self-leveling, at least for the air superficial velocities ranging from 0.17 up to 0.52 m/s. Further confirmatory tests might be needed

  3. Cerebral blood flow in migraine and cortical spreading depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, M.

    1987-01-01

    In a series of migraine patients, carotid arteriography was carried out as part of the clinical evalution. Nine patients developed a migrainous attack with focal neurological symptoms and headache after the angiography and during the subsequent, ongoing regional cerebral blood flow rCBF study. rCBF was measured by bolus injection of Xenon/sup 133/ into the internal carotid artery and a gamma camera with 254 collimated scintillation detectors covering the lateral aspect of the hemisphere. This technique depicts rCBF mainly at the level of the superficial cortex, with no depth resolution. The resolution is 1 cm/sup 2/ providing detailed spatial information of the cortical blood flow. Other methods for measuring local blood flow in animal and man employ a radioactive, freely diffusible tracer, in combination with an autoradiographic technique for the assessment of the tissue concentration, the so-called autoradiographic methods. In the series of patients with spontaneous migraine, rCBF was estimated using an in-vivo application of the autoradiographic principle. Xenon/sup 133/ was administered by inhalation and the time course of the arterial concentration curve was assessed by a scintillation detector over the upper right lung, since the arterial curve has been found to follow the shape of the lung curve. The rCBF was studied accompanying cortical spreading depression in rat experiments to evaluate wheter this phenomenon could explain the blood flow changes in migraine. (/sup 14/C) iodoantipyrine was given as an intravenous bolus injection and the brain content of indicator was determined by tissue sample or autoradiography after 10 or 20 seconds of isotope circulation. The conditions of the autoradiographic methods are that the flow remains constant within the period of measuring, and that the region under study is homogenous with regard to flow and lambda. (EG).

  4. Gossip spread in social network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Gossip almost inevitably arises in real social networks. In this article we investigate the relationship between the number of friends of a person and limits on how far gossip about that person can spread in the network. How far gossip travels in a network depends on two sets of factors: (a) factors determining gossip transmission from one person to the next and (b) factors determining network topology. For a simple model where gossip is spread among people who know the victim it is known that a standard scale-free network model produces a non-monotonic relationship between number of friends and expected relative spread of gossip, a pattern that is also observed in real networks (Lind et al., 2007). Here, we study gossip spread in two social network models (Toivonen et al., 2006; Vázquez, 2003) by exploring the parameter space of both models and fitting them to a real Facebook data set. Both models can produce the non-monotonic relationship of real networks more accurately than a standard scale-free model while also exhibiting more realistic variability in gossip spread. Of the two models, the one given in Vázquez (2003) best captures both the expected values and variability of gossip spread.

  5. Wave directional spreading from point field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, M. L.; Venugopal, V.; Borthwick, A. G. L.

    2017-04-01

    Ocean waves have multidirectional components. Most wave measurements are taken at a single point, and so fail to capture information about the relative directions of the wave components directly. Conventional means of directional estimation require a minimum of three concurrent time series of measurements at different spatial locations in order to derive information on local directional wave spreading. Here, the relationship between wave nonlinearity and directionality is utilized to estimate local spreading without the need for multiple concurrent measurements, following Adcock & Taylor (Adcock & Taylor 2009 Proc. R. Soc. A 465, 3361-3381. (doi:10.1098/rspa.2009.0031)), with the assumption that directional spreading is frequency independent. The method is applied to measurements recorded at the North Alwyn platform in the northern North Sea, and the results compared against estimates of wave spreading by conventional measurement methods and hindcast data. Records containing freak waves were excluded. It is found that the method provides accurate estimates of wave spreading over a range of conditions experienced at North Alwyn, despite the noisy chaotic signals that characterize such ocean wave data. The results provide further confirmation that Adcock and Taylor's method is applicable to metocean data and has considerable future promise as a technique to recover estimates of wave spreading from single point wave measurement devices.

  6. ESTUDIO ANATÓMICO DE LA RAMA SUPERFICIAL DEL NERVIO RADIAL. IMPLICACIONES QUIRÚRGICAS Superficial branch of radial nerve: an anatomical study and its surgical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Vergara-Amador; José Luis Nieto

    2010-01-01

    Antecedentes. Conocer la anatomía de la rama superficial del nervio radial, es indispensable para la adecuada práctica de cirugías que involucran la mano y la muñeca. Objetivo. Determinar las relaciones del nervio radial y sus ramas con el tubérculo de Lister, la apófisis estiloides del radio y la distribución en el dorso de la mano. Material y métodos. Se disecaron 25 piezas de cadáveres frescos. Se identificó la rama superficial del nervio radial y se midió la distancia entre la salida del ...

  7. Valoración de la superficie del dializador en la hemodiafiltración on-line. Elección objetiva de la superficie del dializador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maduell

    2015-05-01

    Conclusión: El incremento del 40% y el 80% de la superficie conlleva un aumento del volumen convectivo de un 6 y un 16% respectivamente, aunque se evidenció una reducción en su máximo rendimiento, mostrando mínimas diferencias tanto en el volumen convectivo como en la capacidad depurativa cuando el CUF era superior a 45 ml/h/mmHg. Es recomendable optimizar el rendimiento de los dializadores a la mínima superficie posible adecuando la prescripción de tratamiento.

  8. Primary cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Markus Winther; Steiniche, Torben; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a case of primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the skin and reviews the available literature on this topic. Myoepitheliomas and carcinomas arise most frequently from myoepithelial cells within the salivary glands but are found in many anatomical locations. We documented a case...

  9. [Breast carcinoma in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigić, B; Balvanović, D; Rac, S; Bilbija, S

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe 8 cases of carcinoma of the male breast treated at the Clinic of Surgery, Clinical Medical Center Banja Luka in the period 1968-1988. In their discussion, the authors review contemporary findings concerning the genesis, evolution and treatment of this carcinoma.

  10. Lacrimal gland ductal carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Grauslund, Morten; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    HER2 amplification was found in cases 2 and 3. CONCLUSION: This study identified a spectrum of genetic events and pattern of protein expression in DC of the lacrimal gland similar to a subset of carcinomas of the breast and ductal carcinomas of the salivary glands. For therapeutic purposes...

  11. Recurrent Syncope due to Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Syncope is caused by a wide variety of disorders. Recurrent syncope as a complication of malignancy is uncommon and may be difficult to diagnose and to treat. Primary neck carcinoma or metastases spreading in parapharyngeal and carotid spaces can involve the internal carotid artery and cause neurally mediated syncope with a clinical presentation like carotid sinus syndrome. We report the case of a 76-year-old man who suffered from recurrent syncope due to invasion of the right carotid sinus b...

  12. Femoral Metastasis from Penile Carcinoma: Report of 2 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Braumann; Panagiotis Tsagozis; Rikard Wedin; Otte Brosjö

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Penile cancer rarely gives symptomatic skeletal metastases. Methods. We present 2 patients with squamous carcinoma of the penis who were surgically treated for metastases in the femur. Results. Both patients had pathological fractures and were operated on. In one case, the skeletal metastasis preceded any lymphatic spread of the disease, suggesting early haematogenous dissemination. Conclusions. Endoprosthetic reconstruction resulted in pain relief and restored the ambulatory capacit...

  13. Efectos del entrenamiento en superficies inestables sobre el equilibrio y funcionalidad en adultos mayores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan C. López S; Elkin F. Arango V

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: determinar los efectos de un programa de ocho semanas de entrenamiento en superficies inestables con y sin trabajo de fuerza, sobre el equilibrio y la capacidad funcional en adultos mayores de 60...

  14. DETERMINATION OF SUPERFICIAL ABSORBED DOSE FROM EXTERNAL EXPOSURE OF WEAKLY PENETRATING RADIATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽姝

    1994-01-01

    The methods of determining the superficial absorbed dose distributions in a water phantom by means of the experiments and available theories have been reported.The distributions of beta dose were measured by an extrapolation ionization chamber at definite depthes corresponding to some superficial organs and tissues such as the radiosensitive layer of the skin,cornea,sclera,anterior chamber and lens of eyeball.The ratios among superficial absorbed dose D(0.07) and average absorbed doses at the depthes 1,2,3,4,5 and 6mm are also obtained with Cross's methods.They can be used for confining the deterministic effects of some superficial tissues and organs such as the skin and the components of eyeball for weakly penetrating radiations.

  15. Effects of immobilization on thickness of superficial zone of articular cartilage of patella in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Each segment of superficial zone behaves differentially on immobilization and remobilization. Perhaps a much longer duration of remobilization is required to reverse changes of immobilization in articular cartilage and plays a significant role in knee joint movements.

  16. Biomass torrefaction characteristics in inert and oxidative atmospheres at various superficial velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lu, Ke-Miao; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Tsai, Chi-Ming; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Ta-Chang

    2013-10-01

    The reaction characteristics of four biomass materials (i.e. oil palm fiber, coconut fiber, eucalyptus, and Cryptomeria japonica) with non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction at various superficial velocities are investigated where nitrogen and air are used as carrier gases. Three torrefaction temperatures of 250, 300, and 350 °C are considered. At a given temperature, the solid yield of biomass is not affected by N2 superficial velocity, revealing that the thermal degradation is controlled by heat and mass transfer in biomass. Increasing air superficial velocity decreases the solid yield, especially in oil palm fiber and coconut fiber, implying that the torrefaction reaction of biomass is dominated by surface oxidation. There exists an upper limit of air superficial velocity in the decrement of solid yield, suggesting that beyond this limit the thermal degradation of biomass is no longer governed by surface oxidation, but rather is controlled by internal mass transport.

  17. Branch facial nerve trauma after superficial temporal artery biopsy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rison Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Giant cell arteritis is an emergency requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Superficial temporal artery biopsy is the gold diagnostic standard. Complications are few and infrequent; however, facial nerve injury has been reported, leaving an untoward cosmetic outcome. This case report is to the best of our knowledge only the fourth one presented in the available literature so far regarding facial nerve injury from superficial temporal artery biopsy. Case presentation A 73-year-old Caucasian woman presented for neurological evaluation regarding eyebrow and facial asymmetry after a superficial temporal artery biopsy for presumptive giant cell arteritis-induced cephalalgia. Conclusion Damage to branches of the facial nerve may occur after superficial temporal artery biopsy, resulting in eyebrow droop. Although an uncommon and sparsely reported complication, all clinicians of various specialties involved in the care of these patients should be aware of this given the gravity of giant cell arteritis and the widespread use of temporal artery biopsy.

  18. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system due to chronic hemorrhage from a giant invasive prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Jacob; Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Fraifeld, Shifra; Moscovici, Samuel; Rosenthal, Guy; Shoshan, Yigal; Itshayek, Eyal

    2013-07-01

    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare disorder caused by deposition of hemosiderin in neuronal tissue in the subpial layer of the CNS due to slow subarachnoid or intraventricular hemorrhage. The most common neurologic manifestations include progressive gait ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and corticospinal tract signs. We present a case of superficial siderosis in a 43-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department with sudden onset bilateral visual deterioration and a loss of consciousness. A hemorrhagic giant prolactinoma was diagnosed based on brain CT scan, T1-weighted MRI, and an endocrine blood examination. Susceptibility-weighted non-contrast MRI showed pathognomonic signs of superficial siderosis in the form of a hypointensity rim surrounding the brainstem, cerebellar fissures, and cranial nerves VII and VIII. This report demonstrates that superficial siderosis can be caused by pituitary apoplexy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [A single metastasis in the carpal bones as the first clinical manifestation of a hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales Pinzón, R; Alonso Sánchez, J M; de la Mano González, S; El Karzazi Tarazona, K

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary tumor of the liver. Spreading outside the liver usually takes place in advanced stages of the disease, and bone is the third most common site of metastases. We present a case of hepatocellular carcinoma in which the first clinical manifestation was a single metastasis to the carpal bones. The interest of this case lies in the way this hepatocellular carcinoma manifested as well as in the unusual site of the metastasis. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Invasive duct carcinoma of the forearm: a rare case of distant, isolated 'carcinoma en cuirasse'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Ahmed; Mohamed, Samah; Vijay, Adarsh; Magdy, Nesreen; Elaffandi, Ahmed

    2015-06-17

    Cutaneous metastasis (carcinoma en cuirasse) is a condition that results from a tumor spreading via lymphatic or vascular embolization, direct implant during surgery or skin involvement by contiguity. Contralateral distant cutaneous breast cancer has never been reported before and hence, the nature and management of such rare cases remains challenging. We aim to present a case of left-sided 'distant' cutaneous metastatic invasive duct carcinoma affecting the distal upper extremity (contralateral side) two and half years (disease-free) following treatment for right breast cancer (right mastectomy + chemoradiation). A complete metastatic work-up excluded the presence of any underlying disease. Clinical examination revealed a fungating, irregular ulcer that bled easily on touch involving the left forearm. The ulcer was excised totally and the raw area reconstructed using a split thickness graft. The patient had uneventful postoperative course and now remains disease-free for almost 1 year with no evidence of local recurrence.

  1. A case of gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with difficulty in diagnosis before endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatani, Akihiko; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Hayashi, Yoshito; Maekawa, Akira; Hiyama, Satoshi; Yakushijin, Takayuki; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Iijima, Hideki; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Morii, Eiichi; Takehara, Tetsuo

    A woman in her 60s was referred to our hospital with a superficial depressed lesion measuring 8mm in diameter on the lesser curvature of the lower gastric body. Initial biopsy of the lesion indicated a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed, and pathological examination revealed a tumor comprised of adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma with submucosal infiltration, with the final pathological diagnosis being gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Laparoscopic gastrectomy was subsequently performed. No recurrence was observed after 18 months. Most neuroendocrine carcinomas including MANEC are diagnosed at an advanced stage and require surgical resection. Here we report a case of gastric MANEC mimicking early gastric cancer that was removed en bloc via endoscopic submucosal dissection.

  2. Clinical inquiries. How does tissue adhesive compare with suturing for superficial lacerations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukerman, Douglas F; Sebastianelli, Wayne J; Nashelsky, Joan

    2005-04-01

    Tissue adhesives are effective and yield results comparable to those with conventional suturing of superficial, linear, and low-tension lacerations. The cosmetic outcome is similar; wound complications, such as infection and dehiscence, may be lower with tissue adhesives. Wound closure of superficial lacerations by tissue adhesives is quicker and less painful compared with conventional suturing (strength of recommendation: A, systematic reviews of randomized trials).

  3. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Rafiei, MD; Tariq S. Hakky, MD; Daniel Martinez, MD; Justin Parker, MD; Rafael Carrion, MD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Conditions mimicking penile fracture are extremely rare and have been seldom described. Aim: To describe a patient with false penile fracture who presented with superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis managed with ligation. Methods: A 33‐year‐old male presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis after intercourse. A penile ultrasound demonstrated a thrombosed superficial dorsal vein but also questionable fracture of the tunica albuginea. As the thrombus was expanding, h...

  4. Immunoelectron microscopy study of superficial skin nerves in drug-induced acute urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; CRIADO, Roberta Fachini Jardim; TAKAKURA, CLEUSA F.H.; Pagliari, Carla; SOTTO, Mirian Nacagami; Cidia VASCONCELLOS

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the ultrastructure of the superficial skin nerves in urticaria. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe findings in superficial skin nerves in cases of drug-induced acute urticaria. METHODS: Seven patients with drug-induced acute urticaria were included in the study. Skin biopsies were obtained from the urticarial lesion and from the apparently normal skin. The 14 fragments collected were processed for immunogold electron microscopy using ...

  5. A STUDY ON SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH AND IT’S VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Rao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of the frequency of anatomical variations of arterial pattern of hand is crucial for safe and successful hand surgical approach, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The superficial pal mar arch is a major blood supply to the hand. Various ano malous patterns in the superficial arch of hand are reported. The superficial pal mar arch is formed predominantly by ulnar artery with a contribution from superficial branch of radial artery. OBSERVATIONS: Superficial palmar arch is dissected within the p alm and observed from its origin to termination. Variations in its origin, branches were observed. A classic superficial palmar arch was found in 10% [5/50]. O ut of dissected specimens complete arch found in 67% and incomplete arch was 33%. Incomplete arch is formed by ulnar artery alone. It supply four and half fingers and give five branches. Majority of arches is supplied by three and half fingers and gives four branches. DISCUSSION: Many attempts have been made to classify these variations. A complex cla ssification of superficial pal mar arch by Coleman & Anson [1961]. S ince then, many other classification have been suggested by different authors [Karlsson & N iechajev, 1982; al - Turk & Metcalf, 1984; Doscher et al. 1985; Ruengsakulrachh et al. 2001;] provi des simplest understanding of distribution of the arches. Although the classical pattern of the arch occurs in frequently, anatomical presence of a complete superficial palmar arch varies from 84% to 66% [Coleman & Anson]. This incidence was lower in the c urrent study and might be a reflection of sample size [52 hands]. The median artery was found in 10% of the hands, similar frequency to that reported by McCormack et al. [1953].

  6. Anatomic variations of superficial peroneal nerve: clinical implications of a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash; Bhardwaj, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Deepak Kumar; Rajini, T; Jayanthi, V; Singh, Gajendra

    2010-01-01

    Superficial peroneal nerve and its branches are frequently at risk for iatrogenic damage. Although different studies on anatomical variations of superficial peroneal nerve are available in the medical literature, such reports are rare from India. Hence the present study was undertaken on Indian population. A total of 60 specimens of inferior extremities from 30 properly embalmed and formalin fixed cadavers were dissected and examined for the location and course of the superficial peroneal nerve including number, level, course and distributions of branches. The superficial peroneal nerve in 28.3% specimens was located in the anterior compartment of the leg. In 8.3% specimens the superficial peroneal nerve branched before piercing between the peroneus longus and extensor digitorum longus muscle whereas in 11.7% specimens it branched after piercing the aforementioned muscles and before piercing the deep fascia. In 41 out of 60 specimens the sensory division of superficial peroneal nerve branched into the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve and intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve distal to its emergence from the deep fascia and proximal to its relation to the extensor retinaculum. In 20 out of 60 specimens the accessory deep peroneal nerve, an additional branch from the sensory division of superficial peroneal nerve, through its course in the anterior compartment of the leg passed deep to the extensor retinaculum and supplied the ankle and the dorsum of foot. Hopefully the present study will help in minimizing iatrogenic damage to the superficial peroneal nerve and its branches while performing arthroscopy, local anesthetic block, surgical approach to the fibula, open reduction and internal fixation of lateral malleolar fractures, application of external fixators, elevation of a fasciocutaneous or fibular flaps for grafting, surgical decompression of neurovascular structures, or miscellaneous surgery on leg, foot and ankle.

  7. Spreading of liquid drops over porous substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starov, V M; Zhdanov, S A; Kosvintsev, S R; Sobolev, V D; Velarde, M G

    2003-07-01

    The spreading of small liquid drops over thin and thick porous layers (dry or saturated with the same liquid) has been investigated in the case of both complete wetting (silicone oils of different viscosities) and partial wetting (aqueous SDS solutions of different concentrations). Nitrocellulose membranes of different porosity and different average pore size have been used as a model of thin porous layers, glass and metal filters have been used as a model of thick porous substrates. The first problem under investigation has been the spreading of small liquid drops over thin porous layers saturated with the same liquid. An evolution equation describing the drop spreading has been deduced, which showed that both an effective lubrication and the liquid exchange between the drop and the porous substrates are equally important. Spreading of silicone oils over different nitrocellulose microfiltration membranes was carried out. The experimental laws of the radius of spreading on time confirmed the theory predictions. The spreading of small liquid drops over thin dry porous layers has also been investigated from both theoretical and experimental points of view. The drop motion over a dry porous layer appears caused by the interplay of two processes: (a). the spreading of the drop over already saturated parts of the porous layer, which results in a growth of the drop base, and (b). the imbibition of the liquid from the drop into the porous substrate, which results in a shrinkage of the drop base and a growth of the wetted region inside the porous layer. As a result of these two competing processes the radius of the drop base goes through a maximum as time proceeds. A system of two differential equations has been derived to describe the time evolution of the radii of both the drop base and the wetted region inside the porous layer. This system includes two parameters, one accounts for the effective lubrication coefficient of the liquid over the wetted porous substrate, and

  8. Meningeal carcinomatosis in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Daniel M; Giese, German; Rouhani, Panta

    2014-07-01

    Meningeal carcinomatosis is the tumoral invasion of the leptomeninges. It is caused by the spread of malignant cells throughout the subarachnoid space, which produces signs and symptoms due to multifocal involvement. Cranial nerve symptoms are the most common focal findings. The diagnosis is usually made by imaging and/or cytology. Head and neck cancers are the cause of approximately 2% of all cases of meningeal carcinomatosis; in very rare cases, they are caused by a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We report a case of meningeal carcinomatosis that was caused by a recurrence of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The patient, a 60-year-old woman, experienced no focal neurologic symptoms and exhibited no radiologic evidence of meningeal involvement. We also review the literature on meningeal carcinomatosis secondary to nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic gastrobiopsy in carcinoma of the stomach. A histopathological review of 101 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyberg, Mogens; Hougen, H P; Tønnesen

    1983-01-01

    negatives and histological type. The rate of false negatives was significantly higher in cases, where the number of biopsies taken was below seven. The rate of histopathological misinterpretations was significantly higher in cases, where the number of actually positive biopsies was below four. Attempts......101 gastrobioptic series from 93 consecutive patients with a final diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach were reviewed. 20 false negative cases were found. Of these, ten cases were missed because of erroneous histopathological interpretation, two because of too few sections, and eight because...... carcinoma was not represented in the biopsies. The frequency of false negatives was slightly larger in ulcerating carcinomas than in polypoid and diffusely spreading carcinomas, mainly due to seven cases of ulcerating carcinoma being missed by the pathologist. There was no correlation between false...

  10. [Comparative rate of regional metastasis of high differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, N N; Evmenova, T D; Drozdova, D É

    2014-01-01

    The rate of metastasis of high differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid glands to the neck lymph nodes was studied in people of Kemerovo Region. The metastatic lesions of pretracheal lymph nodes (VI group) were detected in 49.5% patients with papillary carcinoma and 21.0% of patients with follicular cancer. Metastases in jungular lymph nodes were revealed in 37.3% patients with papillary carcinoma. It was noted that an extension of metastatic lesions of regional lymph nodes was observed in the case of primary tumour foci spread beyond borders of the capsula glandularis in patients with papillary carcinoma. There wasn't such a relation in a case of follicular cancer. Metastases in regional lymph nodes were detected more often (67.6%) in the case of papillary carcinoma in uncontaminated zone of the thyroid gland compared with other thyroid pathology (31.7%).

  11. Gene expression in the urinary bladder: a common carcinoma in situ gene expression signature exists disregarding histopathological classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær

    2004-01-01

    The presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) lesions in the urinary bladder is associated with a high risk of disease progression to a muscle invasive stage. In this study, we used microarray expression profiling to examine the gene expression patterns in superficial transitional cell carcinoma (s...... urothelium and urothelium with CIS lesions from the same urinary bladder revealed that the gene expression found in sTCC with surrounding CIS is found also in CIS biopsies as well as in histologically normal samples adjacent to the CIS lesions. Furthermore, we also identified similar gene expression changes...

  12. Parallel Impurity Spreading During Massive Gas Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    Extended-MHD simulations of disruption mitigation in DIII-D demonstrate that both pre-existing islands (locked-modes) and plasma rotation can significantly influence toroidal spreading of impurities following massive gas injection (MGI). Given the importance of successful disruption mitigation in ITER and the large disparity in device parameters, empirical demonstrations of disruption mitigation strategies in present tokamaks are insufficient to inspire unreserved confidence for ITER. Here, MHD simulations elucidate how impurities injected as a localized jet spread toroidally and poloidally. Simulations with large pre-existing islands at the q = 2 surface reveal that the magnetic topology strongly influences the rate of impurity spreading parallel to the field lines. Parallel spreading is largely driven by rapid parallel heat conduction, and is much faster at low order rational surfaces, where a short parallel connection length leads to faster thermal equilibration. Consequently, the presence of large islands, which alter the connection length, can slow impurity transport; but the simulations also show that the appearance of a 4/2 harmonic of the 2/1 mode, which breaks up the large islands, can increase the rate of spreading. This effect is seen both for simulations with spontaneously growing and directly imposed 4/2 modes. Given the prevalence of locked-modes as a cause of disruptions, understanding the effect of large islands is of particular importance. Simulations with and without islands also show that rotation can alter impurity spreading, even reversing the predominant direction of spreading, which is toward the high-field-side in the absence of rotation. Given expected differences in rotation for ITER vs. DIII-D, rotation effects are another important consideration when extrapolating experimental results. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FG02-95ER54309.

  13. A network model for Ebola spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Alessandro; Pedalino, Biagio; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    The availability of accurate models for the spreading of infectious diseases has opened a new era in management and containment of epidemics. Models are extensively used to plan for and execute vaccination campaigns, to evaluate the risk of international spreadings and the feasibility of travel bans, and to inform prophylaxis campaigns. Even when no specific therapeutical protocol is available, as for the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), models of epidemic spreading can provide useful insight to steer interventions in the field and to forecast the trend of the epidemic. Here, we propose a novel mathematical model to describe EVD spreading based on activity driven networks (ADNs). Our approach overcomes the simplifying assumption of homogeneous mixing, which is central to most of the mathematically tractable models of EVD spreading. In our ADN-based model, each individual is not bound to contact every other, and its network of contacts varies in time as a function of an activity potential. Our model contemplates the possibility of non-ideal and time-varying intervention policies, which are critical to accurately describe EVD spreading in afflicted countries. The model is calibrated from field data of the 2014 April-to-December spreading in Liberia. We use the model as a predictive tool, to emulate the dynamics of EVD in Liberia and offer a one-year projection, until December 2015. Our predictions agree with the current vision expressed by professionals in the field, who consider EVD in Liberia at its final stage. The model is also used to perform a what-if analysis to assess the efficacy of timely intervention policies. In particular, we show that an earlier application of the same intervention policy would have greatly reduced the number of EVD cases, the duration of the outbreak, and the infrastructures needed for the implementation of the intervention.

  14. High-temperature spreading kinetics of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, N.

    2005-05-15

    In this PhD work a drop transfer setup combined with high speed photography has been used to analyze the spreading of Ag on polished polycrystalline Mo and single crystalline Mo (110) and (100) substrates. The objective of this work was to unveil the basic phenomena controlling spreading in metal-metal systems. The observed spreading kinetics were compared with current theories of low and high temperature spreading such as a molecular kinetic model and a fluid flow model. Analyses of the data reveal that the molecular model does describe the fastest velocity data well for all the investigated systems. Therefore, the energy which is dissipated during the spreading process is a dissipation at the triple line rather than dissipation due to the viscosity in the liquid. A comparison of the determined free activation energy for wetting of {delta}G95{approx}145kJ/mol with literature values allows the statement that the rate determining step seems to be a surface diffusion of the Ag atoms along the triple line. In order to investigate possible ridge formation, due to local atomic diffusion of atoms of the substrate at the triple during the spreading process, grooving experiments of the polycrystalline Mo were performed to calculate the surface diffusities that will control ridge evolution. The analyses of this work showed that a ridge formation at the fastest reported wetting velocities was not possible if there is no initial perturbation for a ridge. If there was an initial perturbation for a ridge the ridge had to be much smaller than 1 nm in order to be able to move with the liquid font. Therefore ridge formation does not influence the spreading kinetics for the studied system and the chosen conditions. SEM, AFM and TEM investigations of the triple line showed that ridge formation does also not occur at the end of the wetting experiment when the drop is close to equilibrium and the wetting velocity is slow. (orig.)

  15. Tension characteristics of the iliotibial tract and role of its superficial layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H; Seedhom, B

    1995-04-01

    Change in tension along the iliotibial tract by sectioning its superficial layer was analyzed using 5 fresh whole cadavers, and the role of the superficial layer was investigated. Tibial attachment of the iliotibial tract (Gerdy's tubercle) was detached and pulled gradually in a distal direction with respect to the femur. Tension along the iliotibial tract by the distal movement of Gerdy's tubercle (stretching the iliotibial tract) was measured first when the whole iliotibial tract was intact, and then when the superficial layer was sectioned at different levels. When the superficial layer was sectioned above the greater trochanter, no significant change in tension was observed from that observed when the whole iliotibial tract was intact. When the superficial layer was sectioned at the middle of the thigh, the tension at Gerdy's tubercle was significantly reduced. It was concluded that not only Kaplan's fibers, those attached to the distal end of the femur and Gerdy's tubercle, but also the superficial layer of the iliotibial tract had an important role in producing tension at Gerdy's tubercle.

  16. Multisensory Response Modulation in the Superficial Layers of the Superior Colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Nidiffer, Aaron; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) is made up of seven distinct layers. Based on overall differences in neuronal morphology, afferent and efferent projection patterns, physiological properties, and presumptive behavioral role, the upper three layers have been classically grouped together as the superficial layers and the remaining four layers collectively make up the deep layers. Although the superficial layers receive their primary inputs from the retina and primary visual cortex, the deep layers receive inputs from extrastriate visual cortical areas and from auditory, somatosensory, and motor-related structures. In contrast, there is no evidence of monosynaptic nonvisual inputs to the superficial layers. However, more recent studies have revealed anatomical connections between the superficial and deep layers, thus providing the substrate for possible communication between these two functional divisions of the SC. In this study, we provide physiological evidence for auditory influences on visual responses in the superficial layers of the SC. Using extracellular recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) and multiunit activity, we demonstrate multisensory effects in the superficial layers of the cat SC such that subthreshold auditory activity (as seen in the LFP) modulates visual responses (reflected in spiking activity) when the two stimuli are presented together. These results have important implications for our understanding of the functional organization of the SC and for the neural basis of multisensory integration in general. PMID:24647954

  17. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Computed Tomographic Differentiation from Other Thyroid Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Won; Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Chul Soon; Chang, Suk Ki; Yun, Eun Joo; Seo, Young Lan; Rho, Young-Soo; Jin Cho, Sung; Kim, Keon Ha (Depts. of Radiology, Otorhinolaryngology, and Pathology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (KR))

    2008-04-15

    Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is rare but is one of the most aggressive malignancies. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is important in order to provide appropriate therapy. Purpose: To establish useful computed tomographic (CT) criteria for differentiating anaplastic carcinoma from other thyroid masses. Material and Methods: The CT scans of nine patients with anaplastic carcinomas were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 32 patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 12) or benign lesions (n = 20) exceeding a maximum diameter of 2.0 cm. Image analysis was performed according to the following CT parameters: size, margin (well defined or ill defined), composition (cystic, mixed, or solid), mean attenuation value, ratio of attenuation of the mass to that of the adjacent muscle (M/m attenuation ratio), necrosis (present or absent), and calcification (stippled, nodular, or absent) of the thyroid mass; and tumor-spreading patterns including the presence of surrounding normal thyroid tissue in the involved lobe, involvement of the contralateral thyroid lobe, extension into the adjacent structures, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Results: Anaplastic carcinomas appeared as large (average 4.6 cm), solid (100%), and ill-defined (88.9%) masses accompanied by necrosis (100%), nodular calcification (44.4%), direct invasion into the adjacent organs (55.6%), and cervical lymph node involvement (77.8%). Tumor necrosis was the most valuable parameter in differentiating anaplastic carcinomas from other thyroid masses. Patient age (>70 years) and low attenuation value on postcontrast scan (attenuation value <100 HU, or M/m attenuation ratio <1.3) are also helpful predictors for anaplastic carcinoma. Conclusion: If a patient is older than 70 years of age and has a large necrotic thyroid mass of low attenuation, anaplastic carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis

  18. Metastatic thyroid follicular carcinoma of masticator space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Tae In; Heo, Min Suk; An, Chang Hyeon; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mi [Department of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Follicular carcinomas are the second most common form of thyroid cancer, accounting for 10 to 20% of all thyroid cancers. Follicular carcinomas have a propensity to metastasize via the bloodstream, spreading to bone, lungs, liver, and elsewhere. We described the case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with swelling of the left pre auricular area, which was a consequence of a metastatic follicular carcinoma of the masticator space. Plain films showed ill defined erosive bony changes from the left condylar head to the mandibular notch. Contrast-enhanced CT images showed a well circumscribed round mass with well enhancement within left masticator space. On MR images, the mass was heterogenously hyperintense to the muscle on T2-weighted images and isointense or hyperintense to the muscle on T1-weighted images, and showed good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Upon microscopic examination, the metastatic mass was found to be composed of fairly uniform cells forming small follicles containing colloid, showing capsular and vascular invasion.

  19. Variation of wave directional spread parameters along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.

    Directional spreading of wave energy is popularly modeled with the help of the Cosine Power model and it mainly depends on the spreading parameter. This paper describes the variation of the spreading parameter estimated based on the wave data...

  20. Endoscopic Detection of Early Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Patients with Achalasia: Narrow-Band Imaging versus Lugol's Staining

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Ide; Fred Olavo Aragão Andrade Carneiro; Mariana Souza Varella Frazão; Dalton Marques Chaves; Rubens Antônio Aissar Sallum; Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux De Moura; Paulo Sakai; Ivan Cecconello; Fauze Maluf-Filho

    2013-01-01

    Chromoendoscopy with Lugol's staining remains the gold standard technique for detecting superficial SCC. An alternative technique, such as narrow-band imaging (NBI), for “optical staining” would be desirable, since NBI is a simpler technique and has no known complications. In this study, we compare NBI without magnification and chromoendoscopy with Lugol's staining for detecting high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients with achalasia. This was...

  1. Clinico-pathological features of bladder carcinoma in women in Pakistan and smokeless tobacco as a possible risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Muhammad

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder carcinoma is one of the common urological malignancies occurring worldwide in both sexes. Use of smokeless tobacco by women is common in rural areas of Pakistan. The clinico-pathological features of bladder carcinoma in women and association of smokeless tobacco as a possible risk factor for bladder carcinoma has not been well described in the literature. The objective of the study was to determine the clinico-pathological features of histologically confirmed bladder carcinoma in women and to investigate the role of smokeless tobacco use as a possible risk factor for its development. Patients and methods Of the 204 patients (160 male and 44 female M:F ratio 3.6:1 of newly diagnosed bladder carcinoma treated at Nishtar Medical College Hospital Multan from January 1998 to December 2004, the 44 female patients were evaluated with respect to age, clinical presentation, cystoscopic findings, histopathological reports and possible etiological factors. Data were collected and prospectively updated at the time of discharge from hospital and during follow-up in urology out-patient clinic. Results Transitional cell carcinoma accounted for all of the bladder carcinoma in women. Median age of the patients was 55 years and 68% patients were under 60 years of age. Majority of patients (88% presented with hematuria. Eleven (25% patients had superficial (pTa/pT1 while 33 (75% patients had muscle invasive (T2–T4 bladder carcinoma. Most (81% superficial tumors were papillary while muscle invasive tumors had solid configuration at cystoscopy. Of these, 21 (47% patients had long history of smokeless tobacco use (chewable or moist snuff. Conclusion Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common bladder malignancy in women in Pakistan. Many women with bladder carcinoma had long history of use of smokeless tobacco. Majority of patients presented with hematuria and were under 60 years of age. At the time of diagnosis 75% women had muscle

  2. Spreading of Cholera through Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2009-12-01

    Cholera epidemics are still a major public health concern to date in many areas of the world. In order to understand and forecast cholera outbreaks, one of the most important factors is the role played by the environmental matrix in which the disease spreads. We study how river networks, acting as environmental corridors for pathogens, affect the spreading of cholera epidemics. The environmental matrix in which the disease spreads is constituted by different human communities and their hydrologic interconnections. Each community is characterized by its spatial position, population size, water resources availability and hygiene conditions. By implementing a spatially explicit cholera model we seek the effects on epidemic dynamics of: i) the topology and metrics of the pathogens pathways that connect different communities; ii) the spatial distribution of the population size; and iii) the spatial distributions and quality of surface water resources and public health conditions, and how they vary with population size. The model has been applied to study the space-time evolution of a well documented cholera epidemic occurred in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The epidemic lasted for two years and involved about 140,000 confirmed cholera cases. The model does well in reproducing the distribution of the cholera cases during the two outbreaks as well as their spatial spreading. We further extend the model by deriving the speed of propagation of traveling fronts in the case of uniformly distributed systems for different topologies: one and two dimensional lattices and river networks. The derivation of the spreading celerity proves instrumental in establishing the overall conditions for the relevance of spatially explicit models. The conditions are sought by comparison between spreading and disease timescales. Consider a cholera epidemic that starts from a point and spreads throughout a finite size system, it is possible to identify two different timescales: i

  3. Free energy analysis of cell spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Eóin; Deshpande, Vikram S; McGarry, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    In this study we present a steady-state adaptation of the thermodynamically motivated stress fiber (SF) model of Vigliotti et al. (2015). We implement this steady-state formulation in a non-local finite element setting where we also consider global conservation of the total number of cytoskeletal proteins within the cell, global conservation of the number of binding integrins on the cell membrane, and adhesion limiting ligand density on the substrate surface. We present a number of simulations of cell spreading in which we consider a limited subset of the possible deformed spread-states assumed by the cell in order to examine the hypothesis that free energy minimization drives the process of cell spreading. Simulations suggest that cell spreading can be viewed as a competition between (i) decreasing cytoskeletal free energy due to strain induced assembly of cytoskeletal proteins into contractile SFs, and (ii) increasing elastic free energy due to stretching of the mechanically passive components of the cell. The computed minimum free energy spread area is shown to be lower for a cell on a compliant substrate than on a rigid substrate. Furthermore, a low substrate ligand density is found to limit cell spreading. The predicted dependence of cell spread area on substrate stiffness and ligand density is in agreement with the experiments of Engler et al. (2003). We also simulate the experiments of Théry et al. (2006), whereby initially circular cells deform and adhere to "V-shaped" and "Y-shaped" ligand patches. Analysis of a number of different spread states reveals that deformed configurations with the lowest free energy exhibit a SF distribution that corresponds to experimental observations, i.e. a high concentration of highly aligned SFs occurs along free edges, with lower SF concentrations in the interior of the cell. In summary, the results of this study suggest that cell spreading is driven by free energy minimization based on a competition between decreasing

  4. Post-Tanner spreading of nematic droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechkov, S; Oshanin, G [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Cazabat, A M, E-mail: mechkov@lptmc.jussieu.f, E-mail: anne-marie.cazabat@lps.ens.f, E-mail: oshanin@lptmc.jussieu.f [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-11-18

    The quasistationary spreading of a circular liquid drop on a solid substrate typically obeys the so-called Tanner law, with the instantaneous base radius R(t) growing with time as Rapproxt{sup 1/10}-an effect of the dominant role of capillary forces for a small-sized droplet. However, for droplets of nematic liquid crystals, a faster spreading law sets in at long times, so that Rapproxt{sup a}lpha with alpha significantly larger than the Tanner exponent 1/10. In the framework of the thin film model (or lubrication approximation), we describe this 'acceleration' as a transition to a qualitatively different spreading regime driven by a strong substrate-liquid interaction specific to nematics (antagonistic anchoring at the interfaces). The numerical solution of the thin film equation agrees well with the available experimental data for nematics, even though the non-Newtonian rheology has yet to be taken into account. Thus we complement the theory of spreading with a post-Tanner stage, noting that the spreading process can be expected to cross over from the usual capillarity-dominated stage to a regime where the whole reservoir becomes a diffusive film in the sense of Derjaguin.

  5. Appraisal of the technologies and review of the genomic landscape of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jia-Min B; Gorringe, Kylie L; Wong, Stephen Q; Dobrovic, Alexander; Campbell, Ian G; Fox, Stephen B

    2015-06-16

    Ductal carcinoma in situ is a biologically diverse entity. Whereas some lesions are cured by local surgical excision, others recur as in situ disease or progress to invasive carcinoma with subsequent potential for metastatic spread. Reliable prognostic biomarkers are therefore desirable for appropriate clinical management but remain elusive. In common with invasive breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ exhibits many genomic changes, predominantly copy number alterations. Although studies have revealed the genomic heterogeneity within individual ductal carcinoma in situ lesions and the association of certain copy number alterations with nuclear grade, none of the genomic changes defined so far is consistently associated with invasive transformation or recurrence risk in pure ductal carcinoma in situ. This article will review the current landscape of genomic alterations in ductal carcinoma in situ and their potential as prognostic biomarkers together with the technologies used to define these.

  6. Penile squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the literature and case report treated with Mohs micrographic surgery*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionne, Elizabeth; Perez, Caroline; Hui, Andrea; Khachemoune, Amor

    2017-01-01

    The majority of penile carcinoma is squamous cell carcinoma. Although uncommon in the United States, it represents a larger proportion of cancers in the underdeveloped world. Invasive squamous cell carcinoma may arise from precursor lesions or de novo , and has been associated with lack of circumcision and HPV infection. Early diagnosis is imperative as lymphatic spread is associated with a poor prognosis. Radical surgical treatment is no longer the mainstay, and penile sparing treatments now are often used, including Mohs micrographic surgery. Therapeutic decisions should be made with regard to the size and location of the tumor, as well as the functional desires of the patient. It is critical for the dermatologist to be familiar with the evaluation, grading/staging, and treatment advances of penile squamous cell carcinoma. Herein, we present a review of the literature regarding penile squamous cell carcinoma, as well as a case report of invasive squamous cell carcinoma treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. PMID:28225964

  7. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the parathyroid gland: A very rare occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofo, Enyinnaya; Mandavia, Rishi; Jeannon, Jean-Pierre; Odell, Edward; Simo, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    Metastases to the parathyroid gland are very uncommon. Although renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the head and neck region is well recognised, with a predilection for unpredictable metastasis to unusual sites such as the thyroid gland, nose, paranasal sinuses, and cranial bones, there are no reports of parathyroid gland involvement. We describe an unusual case of renal cell carcinoma metastasis to a parathyroid gland in a 69-year-old male who had been treated 8 years previously for a pT3b N0 M1 clear cell carcinoma of the right kidney with a right nephrectomy, and interferon immunotherapy for 18 months. The patient had originally presented to the plastic surgeons with a rapidly enlarging 3cm superficial lesion on the ventral aspect of the left forearm, which was excised with histology revealing metastatic renal (clear) cell carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma has a reputation for unpredictable patterns of metastasis, and our case highlights this, with the first description in the literature of parathyroid gland metastasis. Despite the poor prognosis associated with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, our patient is still alive 10 years following original presentation, despite having metastasis to two different extra-renal sites and a shortened course of initial adjuvant systemic therapy. In parathyroid gland metastasis, metastectomy can offer excellent local long term local control. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Esophageal verrucous carcinoma arising from hyperkeratotic plaques associated with human papilloma virus type 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonna, J; Palefsky, J M; Rabban, J; Campos, G M; Theodore, P; Ladabaum, U

    2010-07-01

    Esophageal verrucous carcinoma is a rare variant of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We report a case of esophageal verrucous carcinoma associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) type 51. The patient had long-standing dysphagia and odynophagia, and white esophageal plaques showing hyperkeratosis on biopsy. At repeat endoscopy, the esophagus was covered with verrucous white plaques and areas of nodular mucosa with white fronds, with a distal 10-cm smooth mass protruding into the lumen. Biopsies demonstrated an atypical squamoproliferative lesion but no frank malignancy. HPV type 51 DNA was detected in endoscopic biopsy specimens by polymerase chain reaction. Because the size of the lesion favored an underlying verrucous carcinoma, our patient underwent minimally invasive esophagectomy with gastric pull-up and cervical anastomosis. The pathologic diagnosis was a well-differentiated esophageal verrucous carcinoma. One year after esophagectomy, the patient feels well and is free of disease. Although HPV DNA was not detected in the cancer tissue obtained at surgery, our case suggests an association between HPV type 51 and esophageal verrucous carcinoma. The clinical evolution in this case highlights the importance of endoscopic surveillance in patients with exuberant esophageal hyperkeratosis, and of definitive surgical resection when malignancy is suspected even if frank malignancy is not demonstrated on superficial biopsies.

  9. Salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M;

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance...... of the expression of these structures in a retrospective study of 133 patients with salivary gland carcinomas, using immunohistochemistry and a panel of well-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Sialosyl-Tn, T and sialosyl-T antigens were not correlated with prognosis...

  10. Social distancing strategies against disease spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Valdez, L D; Macri, P A; Braunstein, L A

    2013-01-01

    The recurrent infectious diseases and their increasing impact on the society has promoted the study of strategies to slow down the epidemic spreading. In this review we outline the applications of percolation theory to describe strategies against epidemic spreading on complex networks. We give a general outlook of the relation between link percolation and the susceptible-infected-recovered model, and introduce the node void percolation process to describe the dilution of the network composed by healthy individual, $i.e$, the network that sustain the functionality of a society. Then, we survey two strategies: the quenched disorder strategy where an heterogeneous distribution of contact intensities is induced in society, and the intermittent social distancing strategy where health individuals are persuaded to avoid contact with their neighbors for intermittent periods of time. Using percolation tools, we show that both strategies may halt the epidemic spreading. Finally, we discuss the role of the transmissibil...

  11. Epidemic spreading on evolving signed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saeedian, M; Jafari, G R; Kertesz, J

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of disease spreading consider the underlying social network as obtained without the contagion, though epidemic influences peoples willingness to contact others: A friendly contact may be turned to unfriendly to avoid infection. We study the susceptible-infected (SI) disease spreading model on signed networks, in which each edge is associated with a positive or negative sign representing the friendly or unfriendly relation between its end nodes. In a signed network, according to Heiders theory, edge signs evolve such that finally a state of structural balance is achieved, corresponding to no frustration in physics terms. However, the danger of infection affects the evolution of its edge signs. To describe the coupled problem of the sign evolution and disease spreading, we generalize the notion of structural balance by taking into account the state of the nodes. We introduce an energy function and carry out Monte-Carlo simulations on complete networks to test the energy landscape, where we find loc...

  12. Temporal network structures controlling disease spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter

    2016-08-01

    We investigate disease spreading on eight empirical data sets of human contacts (mostly proximity networks recording who is close to whom, at what time). We compare three levels of representations of these data sets: temporal networks, static networks, and a fully connected topology. We notice that the difference between the static and fully connected networks—with respect to time to extinction and average outbreak size—is smaller than between the temporal and static topologies. This suggests that, for these data sets, temporal structures influence disease spreading more than static-network structures. To explain the details in the differences between the representations, we use 32 network measures. This study concurs that long-time temporal structures, like the turnover of nodes and links, are the most important for the spreading dynamics.

  13. Substrate stress relaxation regulates cell spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Gu, Luo; Darnell, Max; Klumpers, Darinka; Bencherif, Sidi A.; Weaver, James C.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J.

    2015-02-01

    Studies of cellular mechanotransduction have converged upon the idea that cells sense extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity by gauging resistance to the traction forces they exert on the ECM. However, these studies typically utilize purely elastic materials as substrates, whereas physiological ECMs are viscoelastic, and exhibit stress relaxation, so that cellular traction forces exerted by cells remodel the ECM. Here we investigate the influence of ECM stress relaxation on cell behaviour through computational modelling and cellular experiments. Surprisingly, both our computational model and experiments find that spreading for cells cultured on soft substrates that exhibit stress relaxation is greater than cells spreading on elastic substrates of the same modulus, but similar to that of cells spreading on stiffer elastic substrates. These findings challenge the current view of how cells sense and respond to the ECM.

  14. Disordered contact process with asymmetric spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Róbert

    2013-02-01

    An asymmetric variant of the contact process where the activity spreads with different and independent random rates to the left and to the right is introduced. A real space renormalization scheme is formulated for the model by means of which it is shown that the local asymmetry of spreading is irrelevant on large scales if the model is globally (statistically) symmetric. Otherwise, in the presence of a global bias in either direction, the renormalization method predicts two distinct phase transitions, which are related to the spreading of activity in and against the direction of the bias. The latter is found to be described by an infinite randomness fixed point while the former is not.

  15. Extended oil spill spreading with Langmuir circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Lehr, William J

    2017-09-15

    When spilled in the ocean, most crude oils quickly spread into a thin film that ruptures into smaller slicks distributed over a larger area. Observers have also reported the film tearing apart into streaks that eventually merge forming fewer but longer bands of floating oil. Understanding this process is important to model oil spill transport. First, slick area is calculated using a spreading model. Next, Langmuir circulation models are used to approximate the merging of oiled bands. Calculations are performed on Troll blended and Alaska North Slope crude oils and results compared with measurements from the 1990s North Sea field experiments. Langmuir circulation increases the oil area but decreases the surface coverage of oil. This work modifies existing oil spreading formulas by providing a surface area correction due to the effects of Langmuir circulation. The model's simplicity is advantageous in situations with limited data, such as emergency oil spill response. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Temporal network structures controlling disease spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2016-01-01

    We investigate disease spreading on eight empirical data sets of human contacts (mostly proximity networks recording who is close to whom, at what time). We compare three levels of representations of these data sets: temporal networks, static networks and a fully connected topology. We notice that the difference between the static and fully-connected networks -- with respect to time to extinction and average outbreak size -- is smaller than between the temporal and static topologies. This suggests that, for these data sets, temporal structures influence disease spreading more than static network structures. To explain the details in the differences between the representations, we use 32 network measures. This study concur that long-time temporal structures, like the turnover of nodes and links, are the most important for the spreading dynamics.

  17. Prognosis and staging of superficial endobronchial lung cancer: the impact of invasion depth, tumor diameter, and coexistent pneumonitis or atelectasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang; ZHENG Hui; GAO Wen; ZHOU Ying; JIANG Sen; SUEN Hon-chi

    2010-01-01

    Background There are few reports discussing the surgical pathological characteristics of superficial endobronchial lung cancer (SELC) defined as cancer growth limited to the bronchial wall. Its prognosis and corresponding TNM staging have not been fully clarified. Little is known as to whether T status is impacted by the existence of associated atelectasis or pneumonia (which might be controversial, indicating either T1 or T2), and circumstantial invasion depth.Methods Between 1988 and 2007, 81 out of 8817 surgically treated patients met SELC criteria; there was no detectable invasion beyond the bronchial wall. A retrospective review was performed and follow-up information was collected.Results The overall five-year survival rate of 81 patients was 85.6%; for NOM0 (n=67), N1M0 (n=7) and N2M0 (n=7)patients, they were 89.3%, 75.0% and 60.0%, respectively. Intraluminal tumor size measured from 0.4 to 3.0 cm;obstructive atelectasis or pneumonia was noted in 14 patients. The presence of tumor-associated obstructive atelectasis or pneumonia did not have a significant impact upon prognosis (P=0.96), nor did the greatest diameter of the tumor (P=0.70). Histology showed carcinoma in situ (level one) in 13 cases; invasion of the submucosal layer (level two) in 12,involvement of the muscular layer (level three) in 20, invasion into the space between the muscular layer and cartilage (level four) in 21, and bronchial cartilage infiltration in 15 (level five). In cases without lymphnode metastases, five-year survival was 100% for the first three levels and 84.0% and 61.3% for the level four and level five.Conclusions Relative to TNM-based prognostic data, superficial endobronchial lung cancer exhibits increased five-year survival rates, and therefore should be placed at the forefront among tumors in the T1 class, regardless of tumor size or the presence of secondary obstructive atelectasis or pneumonia. Lymphnode metastasis is associated with a worse prognosis. Survival is

  18. Narrow-Band Imaging Magnifying Endoscopy versus Lugol Chromoendoscopy with Pink-Color Sign Assessment in the Diagnosis of Superficial Esophageal Squamous Neoplasms: A Randomised Noninferiority Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Goda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown the high diagnostic accuracy of narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME and Lugol chromoendoscopy with pink-color sign assessment (LCE-PS for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC. However, there has been no controlled trial comparing these two diagnostic techniques. We conducted a randomized noninferiority trial to compare the diagnostic accuracy of NBI-ME and LCE-PS. We recruited patients with, or with a history of, squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region or in the esophagus. They were randomly assigned to either NBI-ME or LCE-PS. When lesions > 5 mm in diameter were found as brownish areas on NBI or as Lugol-voiding lesions (LVL, they were evaluated to determine whether they are SESCC on the basis of the findings of NBI-ME or PS in the LVL. NBI-ME and LCE-PS were completed in 147 patients each. There was no significant difference in all diagnostic values between the two techniques. Compared with LCE-PS, NBI-ME showed a significantly shorter examination time but a larger number of misdiagnosed lesions especially in patients with many irregularly shaped multiform LVLs. Compared with LCE-PS, NBI-ME might be similarly accurate and less invasive, but less reliable in patients with many LVLs, in the diagnosis of SESCC.

  19. Analysis of BER Performance of the Spread Spectrum Communication System with Constrained Spreading Code

    OpenAIRE

    長谷川, 孝明; 羽渕, 裕真

    1996-01-01

    Copyright notice. c1996 IEICE All rights reserved. "Analysis of BER Performance of the Spread Spectrum Communication System with Constrained Spreading Code"Hiromasa HABUCHI, Toshio TAKEBAYASHI, Takaaki HASEGAWA. IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences ,1996 Vol.E79-A No.12 pp. 2078-2080 許諾No.07RB0055.

  20. Spreading of Ultrarelativistic Wave Packet and Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Lev, Felix M

    2012-01-01

    The red shift of light coming to the Earth from distant objects is usually explained as a consequence of the fact that the Universe is expanding. Such an explanation implies that photons emitted by distant objects travel in the interstellar medium practically without interaction with interstellar matter and hence they can survive their long journey to the Earth. We analyze this assumption by considering wave-packet spreading for an ultrarelativistic particle. We derive a formula which shows that spreading in the direction perpendicular to the particle momentum is very important and cannot be neglected. The implications of the results are discussed.

  1. Origin and turbulence spreading of plasma blobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, P.; Birkenmeier, G.; Stroth, U. [Physik-Department E28, Technische Universität München, James-Franck. Str. 1, Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany); Ribeiro, T. T.; Scott, B. D.; Carralero, D.; Müller, S. H.; Müller, H. W.; Wolfrum, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany); Fuchert, G. [IJL, Université de Lorraine, CNRS (UMR 7198), BP 40239, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)

    2015-02-15

    The formation of plasma blobs is studied by analyzing their trajectories in a gyrofluid simulation in the vicinity of the separatrix. Most blobs arise at the maximum radial electric field outside the separatrix. In general, blob generation is not bound to one particular radial position or instability. A simple model of turbulence spreading for the scrape-off layer is derived. The simulations show that the blob dynamics can be represented by turbulence spreading, which constitutes a substantial energy drive for far scrape-off layer turbulence and is a more suitable quantity to study blob generation compared to the skewness.

  2. Technique for Controlling Spread of Limnotic Oncomelania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Damei(李大美); WANG Xiangsan(王祥三); LAI Yonggen

    2003-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease mostly found in areas along the Changjiang River of China. The disease is spread solely through an intermediary named oncomelania, so its spread of schistosomiasis can be controlled by properly designing water intakes which prevent oncomelania from entering fanning land or residential areas. This paper reports a successful design process and a new oncomelania-free intake device. The design of the new intake is based on a sound research program in which extensive experimental studies were carried out to gain knowledge of oncomelania eco-hydraulic behavior and detailed flow field information through CFD simulation.

  3. Burstiness and spreading on temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lambiotte, Renaud; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how spreading processes on temporal networks are impacted by the shape of their inter-event time distributions. Through simple mathematical arguments and toy examples, we find that the key factor is the ordering in which events take place, a property that tends to be affected by the bulk of the distributions and not only by their tail, as usually considered in the literature. We show that a detailed modeling of the temporal patterns observed in complex networks can change dramatically the properties of a spreading process, such as the ergodicity of a random walk process or the persistence of an epidemic.

  4. Breast carcinoma metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, G A; Staren, E D; Faber, L P

    1998-02-01

    With careful selection of patients, complete resection of pulmonary metastases from breast carcinoma may be a useful therapeutic option. Such a treatment appears to offer a significant survival benefit when compared with medical treatment alone, or with incomplete resection.

  5. Parathyroid carcinoma: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    STURNIOLO, G.; GAGLIANO, E.; TONANTE, A.; TARANTO, F.; PAPALIA, E.; CASCIO, R.; DAMIANO, C.; VERMIGLIO, F.; STURNIOLO, G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The authors present a case of parathyroid carcinoma in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. Following a literature review, the clinical and diagnostic profile, treatment and prognosis of this rare disease are discussed. PMID:23837957

  6. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... the lower neck. Causes About 80% of all thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States are the papillary ...

  7. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Medvedev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  8. Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coca-Pelaz, A.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Triantafyllou, A.; Hunt, J.L.; Rinaldo, A.; Strojan, P.; Haigentz, M., Jr.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Takes, R.P.; Poorten, V. Van der; Ferlito, A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicopathological features, prognosis and therapeutic strategies for mucoepidermoid carcinoma originating in salivary and salivary-type glands of the head and neck are reviewed. We emphasise histopathological aspects, appraise the value of histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry

  9. Unusual Metastasis from Carcinoma Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Virendra; Kausar, Mehlam; Naik, Ayush; Batra, Manika

    2016-10-01

    Although the incidence of cancer cervix has reduced in India during the last two decades, still most of the patients presenting in tertiary care centers are in advanced stages. At this center, we see 6% of cancer cervix cases every year, and most of these cases are in stage III and IVa. All these patients have squamous cell carcinoma and were treated with a combination of external and intracavitary radiotherapy along with concurrent cisplatin given once weekly. Eighty-nine point nine % patients had achieved a complete response. Local recurrence was seen in 17.9% at a median duration of 10.5 months, and 8.17% developed distant metastasis involving lung, liver, bone, and supraclavicular lymph nodes. Three patients developed metastasis at unusual sites involving breast, paraspinal muscles, and duodenum which are very rarely involved. These patients were treated with chemotherapy using carboplatin and Paclitaxel combination but succumbed within 8-10 months of development of metastasis. The cause of involvement of these unusual sites is not clear, but it may be hematological spread, and we want to share these reports such that these sites are seen during follow-up of patients of cancer cervix.

  10. Imaging of tongue carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Cheng K.; Chong, Vincent F.H.

    2006-01-01

    The tongue enables taste and plays a critical role in formation of food bolus and deglutition. The tongue is also crucial for speech and the earliest sign of tongue paresis is a change in the quality of speech. Given the importance of the tongue, tongue carcinoma should be accurately staged in order to optimise treatment options and preserve organ function. The intent of this review is to familiarise radiologists with the pertinent anatomy of the tongue and the behaviour of tongue carcinoma s...

  11. Papillary thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Sørensen, J A;

    1994-01-01

    The age influence on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was analyzed in a group of 67 patients. A marked decline in cause-specific survival was found for patients older than 60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. In order to find a tumor-biological explanation of the prognostic...... invasion and distant metastases. The results indicate that 60 years of age the time of diagnosis may be the "prognostic break-point" for papillary thyroid carcinoma....

  12. Pathobiology of ovarian carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojgan Devouassoux-Shisheboran; Catherine Genestie

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions, displaying distinct tumor pathology and oncogenic potentiel. These tumors are subdivided into three main categories: epithelial, germ cell, and sex-cord stromal tumors. We report herein the newly described molecular abnormalities in epithelial ovarian cancers (carcinomas). Immunohistochemistry and molecular testing help pathologists to decipher the significant heterogeneity of this disease. Our better understanding of the molecular basis of ovarian carcinomas represents the first step in the development of targeted therapies in the near future.

  13. Diaphragmatic metastases from colon carcinoma mimicking a hepatic neoplasm: report of a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Shu-guang; CHEN Zhe-yu; CHEN Wei-xia; HUANG Wei; YAN Lü-nan; ZENG Yong

    2010-01-01

    @@ The incidence of primary and metastatic diaphragm tumors is rare.Etiologically speaking, diaphragmatic metastases usually derive from either lymphatic or hematogenous spread.Furthermore, studies show that peritoneal stomata played an important role in this process.We herein cover a metastatic diaphragm tumor mimicking a liver lesion originating from ascending colon carcinoma, an entity that has rarely been reported previously.

  14. Metástasis parotídea de un carcinoma renal: A propósito de un caso Parotid metastasis of renal carcinoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mogedas Vegara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de metástasis de un carcinoma renal a nivel parotídeo es un fenómeno poco frecuente. En la literatura indexada, solo se han descrito 29 pacientes desde 1986. Presentamos un paciente de 61 años, que tras cinco años de la realización de una nefrectomía unilateral por un carcinoma renal de células claras, desarrolló una metástasis de localización parotídea.Metastastic spread of renal cell carcinoma to the parotid gland is rare. In the indexed literature, with only 29 patients recorded since 1986. The case of a 61-year-old patient who developed parotid metastasis of renal cell carcinoma five years after unilateral nephrectomy is reported.

  15. Relativistic suppression of wave packet spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Q; Smetanko, B; Grobe, R

    1998-03-30

    We investigate numerically the solution of Dirac equation and analytically the Klein-Gordon equation and discuss the relativistic motion of an electron wave packet in the presence of an intense static electric field. In contrast to the predictions of the (non-relativistic) Schroedinger theory, the spreading rate in the field's polarization direction as well as in the transverse directions is reduced.

  16. Hiding Single Photons With Spread Spectrum Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Belthangady, Chinmay; Yu, Ite A; Yin, G Y; Kahn, J M; Harris, S E

    2010-01-01

    We describe a proof-of-principal experiment demonstrating the use of spread spectrum technology at the single photon level. We show how single photons with a prescribed temporal shape, in the presence of interfering noise, may be hidden and recovered.

  17. Modeling and simulation of epidemic spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shatnawi, Maad; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Zaki, Nazar

    2013-01-01

    and control such epidemics. This paper presents an overview of the epidemic spread modeling and simulation, and summarizes the main technical challenges in this field. It further investigates the most relevant recent approaches carried out towards this perspective and provides a comparison and classification...

  18. Restricted spread of tomato spotted wilt virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, P.C.; Joosten, N.N.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.

    2003-01-01

    Spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and population development of its vector Frankliniella occidentalis were studied on the pepper accessions CPRO-1 and Pikante Reuzen, which are resistant and susceptible to thrips, respectively. Viruliferous thrips were released on plants of each accession (

  19. Damage spreading on networks: Clustering effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Z Z Guo; Xiao-Wei Wu; Chun-An Wang

    2007-04-01

    The damage spreading of the Ising model on three kinds of networks is studied with Glauber dynamics. One of the networks is generated by evolving the hexagonal lattice with the star-triangle transformation. Another kind of network is constructed by connecting the midpoints of the edges of the topological hexagonal lattice. With the evolution of these structures, damage spreading transition temperature increases and a general explanation for this phenomenon is presented from the view of the network. The relationship between the transition temperature and the network measure-clustering coefficient is set up and it is shown that the increase of damage spreading transition temperature is the result of more and more clustering of the network. We construct the third kind of network-random graphs with Poisson degree distributions by changing the average degree of the network. We show that the increase in the average degree is equivalent to the clustering of nodes and this leads to the increase in damage spreading transition temperature.

  20. Social distancing strategies against disease spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, L. D.; Buono, C.; Macri, P. A.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2014-03-01

    The recurrent infectious diseases and their increasing impact on the society has promoted the study of strategies to slow down the epidemic spreading. In this review we outline the applications of percolation theory to describe strategies against epidemic spreading on complex networks. We give a general outlook of the relation between link percolation and the susceptible-infected-recovered model, and introduce the node void percolation process to describe the dilution of the network composed by healthy individual, i.e, the network that sustain the functionality of a society. Then, we survey two strategies: the quenched disorder strategy where an heterogeneous distribution of contact intensities is induced in society, and the intermittent social distancing strategy where health individuals are persuaded to avoid contact with their neighbors for intermittent periods of time. Using percolation tools, we show that both strategies may halt the epidemic spreading. Finally, we discuss the role of the transmissibility, i.e, the effective probability to transmit a disease, on the performance of the strategies to slow down the epidemic spreading.

  1. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  2. Energy spread in plasma-based acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, A.; Trines, R.; Goloviznin, V.

    2000-01-01

    Electron acceleration in a one-dimensional plasma wave has been simulated, with emphasis on minimizing the energy spread of an accelerated electron bunch, while keeping the mean energy gain at a reasonable level. Bunch length, beam loading, and the injection phase are tuned to reach this goal. The s

  3. Optimization of network protection against virus spread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourdin, E.; Omic, J.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of virus spreading in a telecommunication network, where a certain curing strategy is deployed, can be captured by epidemic models. In the N-intertwined model proposed and studied in [1], [2], the probability of each node to be infected depends on the curing and infection rate of its neig

  4. Experiments in water spreading at Newark, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Durward Haye; Rima, Donald Robert

    1962-01-01

    Two experiments in water spreading were made at Newark, Del., to evaluate the prospects of using excess storm runoff to recharge the shallow water-table aquifer which serves the community. Water was diverted from 1 of the city's 3 production wells and released into an infiltration ditch near the municipal well field. Although slightly more than 65,000 cubic feet of water (nearly 500,000 gallons ) was spread in the infiltration ditch and allowed to seep into the subsurface, there was no indication that any appreciable amount of water reached the producing aquifer. Instead, a perched zone of saturation was created by the presence of an impermeable or slightly permeable bed above the water table. So effective is this barrier to the downward movement of water that within a period of less than 1 day, the apex of the perched zone rose about 10 feet to the level of the bottom of the infiltration ditch. As more water was added, the mound of saturation spread laterally. On the basis of these experiments, it appears that the principal aquifer at Newark, Del., would not be benefited by spreading water in shallow infiltration ditches or basins. However, the absorptive capacity of the unsaturated materials which occur at a shallow depth, is sufficient to permit the disposal of large volumes of storm runoff.

  5. Centerfolds: Your Newspaper's Most Exciting Spreads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Jose

    1977-01-01

    Gives guidelines for planning copy and design for the centerfold spread of a newspaper in order to use this natural display section to enhance the overall interest of the newspaper. Shows how college and professional papers have used centerfolds effectively. (GW)

  6. ParB spreading requires DNA bridging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, Thomas G. W.; Wang, Xindan; Song, Dan; Etson, Candice M.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Rudner, David Z.; Loparo, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The parABS system is a widely employed mechanism for plasmid partitioning and chromosome segregation in bacteria. ParB binds to parS sites on plasmids and chromosomes and associates with broad regions of adjacent DNA, a phenomenon known as spreading. Although essential for ParB function, the mechani

  7. DataSpread: Unifying Databases and Spreadsheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendre, Mangesh; Sun, Bofan; Zhang, Ding; Zhou, Xinyan; Chang, Kevin ChenChuan; Parameswaran, Aditya

    2015-08-01

    Spreadsheet software is often the tool of choice for ad-hoc tabular data management, processing, and visualization, especially on tiny data sets. On the other hand, relational database systems offer significant power, expressivity, and efficiency over spreadsheet software for data management, while lacking in the ease of use and ad-hoc analysis capabilities. We demonstrate DataSpread, a data exploration tool that holistically unifies databases and spreadsheets. It continues to offer a Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet front-end, while in parallel managing all the data in a back-end database, specifically, PostgreSQL. DataSpread retains all the advantages of spreadsheets, including ease of use, ad-hoc analysis and visualization capabilities, and a schema-free nature, while also adding the advantages of traditional relational databases, such as scalability and the ability to use arbitrary SQL to import, filter, or join external or internal tables and have the results appear in the spreadsheet. DataSpread needs to reason about and reconcile differences in the notions of schema, addressing of cells and tuples, and the current "pane" (which exists in spreadsheets but not in traditional databases), and support data modifications at both the front-end and the back-end. Our demonstration will center on our first and early prototype of the DataSpread, and will give the attendees a sense for the enormous data exploration capabilities offered by unifying spreadsheets and databases.

  8. Spreading of Excellence in Serious Gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim; Berta, Riccardo; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Bellotti, Francesco; Nadolski, Rob; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen Luisa; Boyle, Liz; Beligan, Daniel; Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke

    2014-01-01

    Westera, W., Berta, R., Moreno-Ger, P., Bellotti, F., Nadolski, R., Padrón-Nápoles, C. L., Boyle, L., Beligan, D., & Baalsrud Hauge, J. (2013, December 12). Spreading of Excellence in Serious Gaming. Presentation on the GALA project review meeting. Luxembourg: European Commission.

  9. Natural Spread of Plant Viruses by Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, D.; Engels, C.; Sarra, S.

    2012-01-01

    Observations made in Mali strongly suggest that Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) is spread by weaverbirds (Quelea quelea) below and around baobab trees (Adansonia digitata) in which they nest. Rice leaves in bird nests appeared to be infected. In Spain, an infection of Southern bean mosaic virus (SBM

  10. Experiments and modelling on vertical flame spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Mangs, J. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    he principle and some preliminary results are shown of a new vertical flame spread modelling effort. Quick experimental screenings on relevant phenomena are made, some models are evaluated, and a new set of needed measuring instruments is proposed. Finally a single example of FRNC cable is shown as application of the methods. (orig.)

  11. Turbulence spreading in gyro-kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliano, P.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Hornsby, W. A.; Peeters, A. G.; Stauffert, O.

    2016-01-01

    In this letter a new operative definition for the turbulence intensity in connection with magnetized plasmas is given. In contrast to previous definitions the new definition satisfies a Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov type equation. Furthermore, explicit expressions for the turbulence intensity and the turbulence intensity flux, that allow for the first time direct numerical evaluation, are derived. A carefully designed numerical experiment for the case of a tokamak is performed to study the impact of turbulence spreading. The effective turbulence diffusion coefficient is measured to be smaller than the heat conduction coefficient and the turbulence spreading length is found to be of the order of the turbulence correlation length. The results show that turbulence spreading can play a role in the non-local flux gradient relation, or in the scaling of transport coefficients with the normalized Larmor radius, only over lengths scale of the order of the turbulence correlation length. A new turbulence convection mechanism, due to the drift connected with the magnetic field inhomogeneities, is described. The convective flux integrates to zero under the flux surface average unless there is an up-down asymmetry in the tubulence intensity. The latter asymmetry can be generated through a radial inhomogeneity or plasma rotation. It is shown that the turbulence convection can lead to a spreading of the order of the correlation length.

  12. Spreading of water nanodroplets on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Joseph; Sinha, Shayandev; Chung, Peter; Das, Siddhartha

    Understanding the wetting of 2D materials is central to the successful application of these materials in a variety of disciplines that involve the interaction of a liquid with such layered substrates. Recent studies focusing on wetting statics and contact angle selection on graphene-coated solids indicate a wetting translucent behavior of graphene. However, little research has been done on the wetting dynamics of graphene-coated systems. Here, we simulate the wetting dynamics of water drops on free-standing graphene layers using a molecular dynamics framework. We employ the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) model to simulate the water drops. Our simulations are validated against the experimental results of water drop contact angles on graphite. Unlike many existing MD studies, we obtain the results starting from a physical consideration of spherical water drops. We observe the half power law for the spreading dynamics, i.e., r~t(1/2) (r is the spreading radius and t is the spreading time). Identical spreading laws have been identified for Lennard Jones (LJ) nanodroplets on non-layered surfaces; therefore, we establish that the change in the nature of the substrate (non-layered to 2D) and the liquid (LJ to water) does not alter the physics of wetting dynamics of nanodroplets.

  13. Spreading depolarization may link migraine and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Migraine increases the risk of stroke, particularly in young and otherwise healthy adults. Being the most frequent neurological condition, migraine prevalence is on a par with that of other common stroke risk factors, such as diabetes or hypertension. Several patterns of association have emerged: (1) migraine and stroke share a common association (eg, vasculopathies, patent foramen ovale, or pulmonary A-V malformations); (2) injury to the arterial wall such as acute arterial dissections can present as migraine aura attacks or stroke; (3) strokes rarely develop during a migraine attack, as described for "migrainous stroke." Increasing experimental evidence suggests that cerebral hyperexcitability and enhanced susceptibility to spreading depolarization, the electrophysiologic event underlying migraine, may serve as a mechanism underlying the migraine-stroke association. Mice carrying human vascular or neuronal migraine mutations exhibit an enhanced susceptibility to spreading depolarization while being particularly vulnerable to cerebral ischemia. The severe stroke phenotype in migraine mutant mice can be prevented by suppressing spreading depolarization. If confirmed in the clinical setting, inhibiting spreading depolarization might protect migraineurs at stroke risk as well as decrease attacks of migraine. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  14. Spreading of Excellence in Serious Gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim; Berta, Riccardo; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Bellotti, Francesco; Nadolski, Rob; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen Luisa; Boyle, Liz; Beligan, Daniel; Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke

    2014-01-01

    Westera, W., Berta, R., Moreno-Ger, P., Bellotti, F., Nadolski, R., Padrón-Nápoles, C. L., Boyle, L., Beligan, D., & Baalsrud Hauge, J. (2013, December 12). Spreading of Excellence in Serious Gaming. Presentation on the GALA project review meeting. Luxembourg: European Commission.

  15. Modelling of fire spread in car parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, L.M.; Lemaire, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, design codes assume that in a car park fire at most 3-4 vehicles are on fire at the same time. Recent incidents in car parks have drawn international attention to such assumptions and have raised questions as to the fire spreading mechanism and the resulting fire load on the structure.

  16. Anterior Approach Total Ankle Arthroplasty: Superficial Peroneal Nerve Branches at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Jeffrey E; DeMill, Shyler L; Hyer, Christopher F; Berlet, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    In ankle arthroplasty, little attention has been given to intraoperative nerve injury and its postoperative sequelae. The aim of the present anatomic study was to determine the relationship of the superficial peroneal nerve to the standard anterior approach for total ankle arthroplasty. The superficial peroneal nerve was dissected in 10 below-the-knee cadaver specimens. The medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches were identified. A needle was placed at the ankle joint. The following measurements were recorded: bifurcation into the medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches, reference needle to the branches of the medial and intermediate superficial peroneal nerve, and the crossing branches of the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve. Two specimens (20%) had a medial dorsal cutaneous branch cross from medially to laterally. Eight specimens (80%) had a crossing branch of the medial dorsal cutaneous branch within 5 cm of the incision. No intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches were within the incision. The results from the present cadaver study suggest that during an anterior ankle approach, aberrant branches of the superficial peroneal nerve could require transection in 20% of patients at the joint level and ≤80% of patients with distal extension >35 mm from the ankle joint. The risk of injury to branches of the superficial peroneal nerve is substantial. The risk of nerve injury can be decreased with meticulous operative technique, smaller incisions, and the avoidance of aggressive retraction.

  17. Effect of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser energies on superficial and deep dentin microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinelatti, Michelle Alexandra; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated the microhardness of superficial and deep dentin irradiated with different erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser energies. Seventy-two molars were bisected and randomly assigned to two groups (superficial dentin or deep dentin) and into six subgroups (160 mJ, 200 mJ, 260 mJ, 300 mJ, 360 mJ, and control). After irradiation, the cavities were longitudinally bisected. Microhardness was measured at six points (20 microm, 40 microm, 60 microm, 80 microm, 100 microm, and 200 microm) under the cavity floor. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's tests (alpha = 0.05). Superficial dentin presented higher microhardness than deep dentin; energy of 160 mJ resulted in the highest microhardness and 360 mJ the lowest one. Values at all points were different, exhibiting increasing microhardness throughout; superficial dentin microhardness was the highest at 20 microm with 160 mJ energy; for deep dentin, microhardness after irradiation at 160 mJ and 200 mJ was similar to that of the control. The lowest energy increased superficial dentin microhardness at the closest extent under the cavity; deep dentin microhardness was not altered by energies of 160 mJ and 200 mJ.

  18. Roles of the Fibrous Superficial Zone in the Mechanical Behavior of TMJ Condylar Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Leonardo; Zimmerman, Brandon K; Park, Miri; Han, Lin; Wang, Liyun; Burris, David L; Lu, X Lucas

    2015-11-01

    In temporomandibular joints (TMJs), the cartilage on the condylar head displays a unique ultrastructure with a dense layer of type I collagen in the superficial zone, different from hyaline cartilage in other joints. This study aims to elucidate the roles of this fibrous zone in the mechanical behaviors, particularly lubrication, of TMJ under physiological loading regimes. Mechanical tests on porcine condylar cartilage demonstrated that the superficial and middle-deep zones exhibit tension-compression nonlinearity. The tensile and compressive moduli of the superficial zone are 30.73 ± 12.97 and 0.028 ± 0.016 MPa, respectively, while those for the middle-deep zone are 2.43 ± 1.75 and 0.14 ± 0.09 MPa. A nonlinear finite element model of condylar cartilage was built to simulate sliding of a spherical probe over the articular surface. The presence of the superficial zone significantly promoted interstitial fluid pressurization (IFP) inside the loaded cartilage and reduced the friction force on the surface, compared to the case without the superficial zone. Finite element simulations showed that IFP depends on sliding speed but not normal load, which matches the experimental results. This study revealed the presence of the fibrous zone can significantly reduce the deformation of condylar cartilage under compression and the friction force on its surface during sliding.

  19. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to study the gross anatomy of future localized fat deposits (LFDs area of abdomen in fetus. Materials and Methods: Four fetus (two male & two female of four month of intrauterine life were dissected. Attachments & layers of superficial fascia and future subcutaneous fat deposit area of upper and lower abdomen were noted. Results: Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multi layered in mid line and number of layers reduced laterally as in adult. The future abdominal LFD (localized fat deposits area in fetus shows brownish-white blubbary tissue without well-defined adult fat lobules. Conclusion: The attachment and gross anatomy of superficial fascia of the fetus was similar to that in adults. The future LFD areas showed brownish white blubbary tissue with ill-defined fat lobules.

  20. Superficial and deep lymph node dissection for stage III cutaneous melanoma: clinical outcome and prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozzillo Nicola

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this retrospective analysis were to evaluate the effect of combined superficial and deep groin dissection on disease-free and melanoma-specific survival, and to identify the most important factors for predicting the involvement of deep nodes according to clinically or microscopically detected nodal metastases. Methods Between January 1996 and December 2005, 133 consecutive patients with groin lymph node metastases underwent superficial and deep dissection at the National Cancer Institute, Naples. Lymph node involvement was clinically evident in 84 patients and detected by sentinel node biopsy in 49 cases. Results The 5-year disease-free survival was significantly better for patients with superficial lymph node metastases than for patients with involvement of both superficial and deep lymph nodes (34.9% vs. 19.0%; P = 0.001. The 5-year melanoma-specific survival was also significantly better for patients with superficial node metastases only (55.6% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.001. Conclusions Metastasis in the deep nodes is the strongest predictor of both disease-free and melanoma-specific survival. Deep groin dissection should be considered for all patients with groin clinical nodal involvement, but might be spared in patients with a positive sentinel node. Prospective studies will clarify the issue further.

  1. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial cancer of the cervical esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Toshiro; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Hoteya, Shu; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Kaise, Mitsuru

    2017-08-01

    Cervical esophageal cancer (CEC) is a less common form of cancer and often locally advanced at the time of diagnosis; thus, survival rates for patients with CEC remain poor. However, no reports exist on results of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for superficial cancer at the cervical esophagus. The aim of this retrospective study was to elucidate the clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes of ESD for superficial CEC.  ESD was performed on 891 lesions (in 662 patients) for superficial esophageal cancer from January 2008 to December 2015. Of these, 45 lesions (45 patients) were enrolled in the case group (CEC), and 405 lesions (375 patients) were enrolled in the control group (superficial cancer in the middle thoracic esophagus). The safety of ESD, including R0 resection rate and adverse events, and the efficacy, such as the local recurrence rate and overall survival rate, were evaluated.  The R0 resection rate was 91.1 % in the case group and 96 % in the control group. The rate of esophageal stricture was significantly higher in the case group (20 %) than in the control group (6.6 %). There was no local recurrence, and the 3-year survival rate was 88.4 % in the case group and 96.7 % in the control group. ESD for superficial cancer in the cervical esophagus was achieved safely, and successful local control was also confirmed. However, the esophageal stricture after ESD was more frequent.

  2. Superficial Mucocele of the Ventral Tongue: Presentation of a Rare Case and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John K; Schwartz, Kevin G; Basile, John R

    2016-06-01

    The superficial mucocele is a rare variant of the common mucocele and noted microscopically by subepithelial pools of mucin. To increase the understanding of oral superficial mucoceles, a database was created from the demographics of case reports and case series from a PubMed search. At least 200 patients with superficial mucoceles have been described in the English-language literature, 82 of whom had biopsy-proven lesions; additional clinical information was available for 39 of these 82 patients. Compiled data suggest superficial mucoceles offered phenotypic distinctions from the common mucocele because they were more apt to occur in middle-aged women, often on the soft palate and buccal mucosa. Affected patients frequently had multiple lesions that were smaller than 3 mm and nearly 50% of patients developed recurrence. This report also describes the first histopathologically confirmed case of a superficial mucocele arising on the ventral tongue in a 22-year-old man. It is speculated that the glossal lesion might have developed from long-term impingement from exposed metal barbs from an orthodontic splint. Persistent lesions or atypical presentations underscore the need for histopathologic examination. Copyright © 2015 The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Superficial corneal foreign body: laboratory and epidemiologic aspects Corpo estranho corneal superficial: aspectos laboratoriais e epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednajar Tavares Macedo Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine by bacterioscopy and culture the microorganisms carried by corneal foreign body and their sensitivity to antibiotics by antibiotic sensitivity test. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out and information was collected on 101 patients who presented with corneal foreign body at the São Paulo Hospital Eye Emergency Service. Prior to any treatment, a sample of the ipsilateral inferior conjunctival fornix and the foreign body were collected and immersed in thioglycolate broth. Samples were sown on solid culture media including blood, chocolate and Sabouraud agar. Bacterioscopic examination using Gram and Giemsa staining and sensitivity test were performed. Positive foreign body culture results were compared to ipsilateral conjunctival fornix culture to exclude possible normal flora growth. RESULTS: Approximately 92% of patients were males with a mean age of 35 years and in 62.4% (95% confidence interval: 52.2 - 71.8% had the right eye was affected. Foreign body positive cultures were achieved in 32.7% (95% confidence interval: 23.7 - 42.7% of the cases. The microorganisms isolated from the foreign body culture were identified as: Streptococcus, alpha-hemolytic (n=4, Staphylococcus aureus (n=4, Staphylococcus, coagulase-negative (n=4, Corynebacterium xerosis (n=3, unidentified Gram-positive bacillus (n=2, Moraxella sp (n=1, Serratia sp (n=1, Acynetobacter sp (n=1. The microbial sensitivity test showed that 95% of the cases were sensitive to chloramphenicol and 90% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, these being antibiotics used in our routine service. CONCLUSION: Superficial corneal foreign body acts as important contaminant vector and the great majority of isolated bacteria were sensitive to the antibiotic prophylaxis used in the treatment.OBJETIVOS: Identificar por meio de cultura e bacterioscopia os microrganismos veiculados por corpo estranho corneal e sua sensibilidade aos antibióticos em teste de antibiograma. M

  4. Endometrial carcinoma metastatic to the clitoris: a case report and review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Fakor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer generally carries a good prognosis. Endometrial carcinoma more frequently metastasizes to the pelvic and para-aortic nodes. Visceral metastases usually occur in the vagina and ovaries. Distant metastases involve lungs and occur as a terminal event. This case report describes vulvalar metastasis of endometrial cancer to the clitoris. Metastatic tumors of the vulva are rare. Moreover, in the presence of metastatic endometrial carcinoma to the vulva, it is necessary to verify if other visceral metastases are present. Endometrial cancer can extend through direct dermatogens and lymphatic spread. We report a clitoral metastasis of an endometrial carcinoma and discuss whether the possible mechanism is vascular spreading or direct seeding.

  5. [Is immediate prophylactic thyroidectomy indispensable in familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañizo, A; Fanjul, M; Cerdá, J; Menárguez, J; Parente, A; Laín, A; Carrera, N; Rodríguez-Arnao, M D; Rodríguez-Sánchez, A; Polo, J R; Vázquez, J

    2008-04-01

    To emphasize the importance of genetic studies in family members and early prophylactic thyroidectomy in oncogene mutation carriers in the management of familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma. A retrospective review of families with familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma treated at our center in the last 7 years was performed. We identified a total of 7 families who has isolated prevalences with thyroid malignancies. Forty members of the 7 families were screened for gene RET mutations. Prophylactic total thyroidectomy was performed in every RET mutation gene carriers. In all families the index case were patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma presenting at a mean age of 37.25 years (range 23-42). The RET oncogen mutation was in codon 634 in exon 11 (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A) in all these patients. Fourteen gene carriers were identified with a mean age of 20 years (range 7-37), eleven of whom had medullary thyroid carcinoma at the time of surgery. Five of the gene carriers were children, with a mean age of 11 years (range 7-16), four of whom had microcarcinoma and one had metastatic carcinoma at the time of surgery. After surgery no hypoparathyroidism or recurrent nerve paralysis were documented. No pediatric patient has presented with phaeochromocytoma or hypoparathyroidism to date Four of the five children have normal calcitonin levels (< 2 pg/ml) and they are free of disease. The one who presented metastatic carcinoma has recurrent disease and is awaiting surgical treatment. Genetic studies of family members related to patients with familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma and RET mutations is indispensable. The RET mutation in codon 634 exon 11 was found to be the most frequent association. Prophylactic thyroidectomy is the only curative treatment and has minimal complications when performed by expert surgeons. Early thyroidectomy is recommended since distant metastatic spread can occur at early age.

  6. Phase diagram of epidemic spreading - unimodal vs. bimodal probability distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Lancic, Alen; Sikic, Mile; Stefancic, Hrvoje

    2009-01-01

    The disease spreading on complex networks is studied in SIR model. Simulations on empirical complex networks reveal two specific regimes of disease spreading: local containment and epidemic outbreak. The variables measuring the extent of disease spreading are in general characterized by a bimodal probability distribution. Phase diagrams of disease spreading for empirical complex networks are introduced. A theoretical model of disease spreading on m-ary tree is investigated both analytically and in simulations. It is shown that the model reproduces qualitative features of phase diagrams of disease spreading observed in empirical complex networks. The role of tree-like structure of complex networks in disease spreading is discussed.

  7. Photodynamic therapy of nodular basal cell carcinoma with multifiber contact light delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Marcelo Soto; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune; Johansson, T; Palsson, Sara; Bendsoe, Niels; Derjabo, A; Kapostins, J; Stenram, Unne; Spigulis, J; Svanberg, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    To overcome the limited treatment depth of superficial photodynamic therapy we investigate interstitial light delivery. In the present work the treatment light was delivered using a system in which three or six clear-cut fibers were placed in direct contact with the tumor area. This placement was thought to represent a step toward general purpose interstitial PDT. Twelve nodular basal cell carcinomas were treated employing delta-aminolevulinic acid and 635 nm laser irradiation. Fluorescence measurements were performed monitoring the buildup and subsequent bleaching of the produced sensitizer protoporphyrin IX. The treatment efficacy, judged at a 28-month follow-up, showed a 100% complete response. Two punch excisions at 7 months converted two partial responses to complete responses. One patient failed to appear at all follow-up sessions. The outcome of the treatments was comparable to superficial photodynamic therapy in terms of histological, clinical, and cosmetic results.

  8. Oesophageal carcinoma presenting with a synchronous asymptomatic colon carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Gupta; Bharat Chauhan; V Rangarajan; Saral Desai; Vanita Noronha; Kumar Prabhash

    2013-01-01

    The advancement in diagnostic techniques has resulted in increased incidence of occult second primary in cancer patients. Here, we report a case of symptomatic oesophageal carcinoma and synchronous asymptomatic colon carcinoma diagnosed through Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography imaging.

  9. ESTUDIO ANATÓMICO DE LA RAMA SUPERFICIAL DEL NERVIO RADIAL. IMPLICACIONES QUIRÚRGICAS Superficial branch of radial nerve: an anatomical study and its surgical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vergara-Amador

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Conocer la anatomía de la rama superficial del nervio radial, es indispensable para la adecuada práctica de cirugías que involucran la mano y la muñeca. Objetivo. Determinar las relaciones del nervio radial y sus ramas con el tubérculo de Lister, la apófisis estiloides del radio y la distribución en el dorso de la mano. Material y métodos. Se disecaron 25 piezas de cadáveres frescos. Se identificó la rama superficial del nervio radial y se midió la distancia entre la salida del nervio y la apófisis estiloides del radio. Se identificaron las ramas del nervio en el antebrazo distal y en la muñeca y se midieron respecto a la apófisis estiloides y al tubérculo de Lister. Resultados. La rama superficial del nervio radial emergió en la región dorsal y radial del tercio distal del antebrazo entre el músculo braquiradialis y el extensor carpis radialis longus, a una distancia de 8,45 cm proximal a la apófisis estiloides. Su primera rama de división discurrió palmar a la apófisis estiloides radial a una distancia promedio de 0,74 cm respecto a la misma. El tronco principal se dividió en varias ramas terminales así: proximal a la apófisis estiloides del radio (28%, a nivel de la misma (12% y distal (60%. El patrón de distribución de las ramas nerviosas en la base de los dedos más frecuente fue el del primero, segundo y el lado radial del tercer dedo (56%. Discusión. Este estudio mostró la gran variabilidad de la rama superficial del nervio radial en el dorso de la mano y la alta probabilidad de daño del mismo durante los procedimientos abiertos, artroscópicos o procedimientos percutáneos en la muñeca.Background. The anatomy of the superficial branch of radial nerve is essential for the proper practice of surgery involving the hand and wrist. Objetive. Determine relationship between the superficial radial nerve and his branches with the radial styloid process level, Lister’s tubercle and the distribution of

  10. Synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seo [Chonnam National Univ. School of Dentistry, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Thyroid carcinoma occurring as a second primary associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unusual. This report presents a synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the anterior palate region of a 41-year-old man. The clinical, radiologic, and histologic features are described. At 10-month follow-up after operation, no evidence of recurrence ana metastasis was present.

  11. Castelli di carta. La piega per la costruzione di superfici articolate

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    Andrea Casale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L’antica arte del piegare la carta, l’Origami, sta vivendo un rinnovato interesse che coinvolge molti aspetti della ricerca.  Con il termine origami, si intende lo studio del modo di piegare il foglio di carta per imporgli una specifica forma.  La superficie tassellata per mezzo di specifiche pieghe, si propone come un nuovo soggetto di studio: la superficie piegata articolata. La forma congiunta al movimento, assume un particolare interesse nella contemporanea ricerca geometrica e architettonica. Il panorama contemporaneo, propone opere di architettura “responsiva”, capaci di modificare le proprie caratteristiche per adeguarsi a nuove condizioni. La superficie piegata articolata sembra particolarmente adatta a descrivere questo modo d’intendere l’architettura, reagendo a diverse volontà e di conseguenza modificando la propria conformazione attraverso un attento controllo progettuale della forma.

  12. Neurothekeoma palpebrae in association with multiple superficial angiomyxomas: Tegumental Angiomyxoma- Neurothekeoma syndrome (TAN syndrome

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    Tan Aik Kah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 10-year-old Indian girl with history of multiple superficial angiomyxoma, presented with three months history of painless right upper lid swelling. There were no visual dysfunctions. Previously, the patient had multiple superficial angiomyxoma (left pinna, left upper cheek, left upper limb, chest, right axilla, hard palate and epidermal cyst (chin. The histopathological specimens were negative to S-100 protein antibody. Systemic review and family history was unremarkable. Excision biopsy and upper lid reconstruction were performed. Intraoperatively the tumor was multilobulated, firm, well encapsulated and did not invade the underlying tarsal plate. Histopathological features of the upperlid tumor were consistent with nerves sheath myxoma (neurothekeoma. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of neurothekeoma in association with multiple superficial angiomyxoma.

  13. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system secondary to spinal ependymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikis, Stylianos; Cohen, José E; Vargas, Andres A; Gomori, J Moshe; Harnof, Sagi; Itshayek, Eyal

    2014-11-01

    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system is a syndrome caused by deposition of hemosiderin in the subpial layers of the central nervous system, occurring as a result of recurrent asymptomatic or symptomatic bleeding into the subarachnoid space. We report a rare case of superficial siderosis in a 33-year-old man who presented with sensorineural hearing loss. The diagnosis of superficial siderosis on MRI brain studies led to further investigations with detection of a spinal ependymoma at L1-L2, compressing the cauda equina. Gross total resection of the tumor arrested the progression of the neurological deterioration. Our report underlies the importance of early diagnosis and surgical management, with imaging examination of the full neuroaxis to identify the source of bleeding, to halt disease progression and improve prognosis.

  14. Establishment of a superficial skin infection model in mice by using Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Norström, Tobias; Petersen, Thomas K; Duvold, Tore; Andersson, Dan I; Hughes, Diarmaid

    2005-08-01

    A new animal model for the purpose of studying superficial infections is presented. In this model an infection is established by disruption of the skin barrier by partial removal of the epidermal layer by tape stripping and subsequent application of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The infection and the infection route are purely topical, in contrast to those used in previously described animal models in mice, such as the skin suture-wound model, where the infection is introduced into the deeper layers of the skin. Thus, the present model is considered more biologically relevant for the study of superficial skin infections in mice and humans. Established topical antibiotic treatments are shown to be effective. The procedures involved in the model are simple, a feature that increases throughput and reproducibility. This new model should be applicable to the evaluation of novel antimicrobial treatments of superficial infections caused by S. aureus and S. pyogenes.

  15. Rethinking the standard trans-cortical approaches in the light of superficial white matter anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-12-01

    A better comprehension of the superficial white matter organization is important in order to minimize potential and avoidable damage to long or intermediate association fibre bundles during every step of a surgical approach. We recently proposed a technique for cadaver specimen preparation, which seems able to identify a more systematic organization of the superficial white matter terminations. Moreover, the use of the physiological intracranial vascular network for the fixation process allowed us to constantly show main vascular landmarks associated with white matter structures. Hence three examples of standard approaches to eloquent areas are herein reanalyzed starting from the first superficial layer. New insights into the possible surgical trajectories and subsequent quantitative damages of both vessels and white matter fibres can help readapt even the most standard and widely accepted approach trough the brain cortex. A more detailed study of these fine anatomical details may become in the near future a fundamental part of the neurosurgical training and the preoperative planning.

  16. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

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    Kaltreider Sara A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C→A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients.

  17. Isolated superficial peroneal nerve lesion in pure neural leprosy: case report Acometimento isolado do nervo peroneiro superficial na lepra neurítica pura: relato de caso

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    Marcos R.G. de Freitas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with leprosy may have only nerve involvement without skin changes. These cases are known as pure neural leprosy and can be seen in 10% of leprosy patients. Most patients have mononeuritic or multiple mononeuritic neuropathy patterns. The isolated lesion of the superficial peroneal nerve is uncommonly seen. We report a patient with involvement of this nerve in which there was no thickening of superficial nerves. The performed nerve biopsy showed inflammatory infiltration, loss of fibers and presence of Mycobacterium leprae. We believe that in prevalent leprosy countries we should take in mind the possibility of isolated pure neural leprosy in some patients without skin lesion. In these cases the diagnosis of leprosy is impossible on clinical grounds and nerve biopsy is mandatory.Em alguns casos de lepra podemos encontrar acometimento de nervos periféricos sem manifestações cutâneas. É a denominada lepra neurítica pura que pode ocorrer em até 10% dos casos desta doença. Na maioria das vezes predominam quadros de mononeuropatia ou mononeuropatia múltipla. O acometimento isolado do nervo peroneiro superficial tem sido pouco relatado. Referimos a uma paciente com acometimento isolado deste nervo sem hipertrofia de troncos nervosos. A biópsia realizada mostrou presença de infiltrado inflamatório, perda moderada de fibras e presença do Mycobacterium leprae. Acreditamos que, em países onde a lepra é endêmica, diante de acometimento isolado de nervos periféricos, deve-se pensar na possibilidade de se tratar da forma neurítica pura desta moléstia, mesmo em pacientes sem alterações dermatológicas. Nestes casos o diagnóstico só será possível com a realização de biópsia de nervo superficial.

  18. Mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from synovium and infrapatellar fat pad as a source for superficial zone cartilage tissue engineering: analysis of superficial zone protein/lubricin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yang; Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Reddi, A Hari

    2010-01-01

    Superficial zone protein (SZP) is a boundary lubricant of articular cartilage in joints. As SZP at the surface of articular cartilage plays an important role in the normal function of synovial joints, the localization of SZP-secreting cells at the surface of tissue-engineered cartilage is prerequisite. The aim of this study was to identify suitable progenitor cell sources for tissue engineering of superficial zone cartilage. We investigated whether mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) from synovium and infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have the potential for secretion of SZP after chondrogenic differentiation in an aggregate pellet culture system. SZP was immunolocalized in pellets from synovium-MPCs and IFP-MPCs. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of SZP demonstrated that chondrogenically differentiated synovium-MPC and IFP-MPC pellets secreted SZP into media. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed significant upregulation of SZP mRNA in synovium-MPC and IFP-MPC pellets after chondrogenic differentiation. The synovium-MPCs demonstrated the higher colony-forming, proliferative, and chondrogenic potential, and exhibited greater SZP secretion after chondrogenic induction compared with IFP-MPCs. In conclusion, both synovium and IFP are promising cell sources for tissue engineering of superficial zone cartilage.

  19. Proton radiotherapy of skin carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umebayashi, Y.; Uyeno, K.; Otsuka, F. (Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Tsujii, H. (Proton Medical Research Center, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    At the Proton Medical Research Centre, University of Tsukuba, a pilot study of proton-beam radiotherapy was performed in 12 patients with the following types of carcinoma: Bowen's disease (4), oral verrucous carcinoma (5), and squamous cell carcinoma (3). They received total doses of 51-99.2 Gy in fractions of 2-12.5 Gy. All tumours responded well to the treatment. All four lesions of Bowen's disease, three of the five oral verrucous carcinomas, and the three squamous cell carcinomas completely regressed following irradiation. Two squamous cell carcinomas recurred during the follow-up period. One recurrent squamous cell carcinoma was successfully treated by a salvage surgical operation, and in the other case the patient refused further therapy. In two verrucous carcinomas there was 90% regression of tumour volume. No severe radiation-related complication occurred. (Author).

  20. CASTonCAST: Superficies arquitectónicas complejas a partir de componentes prefabricados apilables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluis Enrique

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el sistema CASTonCAST para el diseño y laproducción de superficies arquitectónicas complejas a partir de componentes prefabricados apilables. Este sistema está compuesto por dos partes complementarias: una innovadora técnica de fabricación de componentes prefabricados apilables y un nuevo método geométrico para el diseño de superficies complejas a partir de baldosas sólidas apilables. Este trabajo describe las dos partes del sistema mediante prototipos físicos y estudios geométricos.