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Sample records for supercritical co2 extract

  1. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    GÜVENÇ, A.; MEHMETOĞLU, Ü.; ÇALIMLI, A.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of ethanol was studied from both synthetic ethanol solution and fermentation broth using supercritical CO2 in an extraction apparatus in ranges of 313 to 333 K and 80 to 160 atmospheres, for varying extraction times. The experimental system consists mainly of four parts: a CO2 storage system, a high-pressure liquid pump, an extractor and a product collection unit. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Effects of temperature, pressure, extraction time, initial ethan...

  2. [Chemical constituents from supercritical CO2 extraction of Schisandra chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-yan; Lin, Hai-cheng; Wang, Guo-li; Zhang, Lian-xue

    2014-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the supercritical CO2 extraction of Schisandra chinensis. The compounds were separated and purified by conventional column chromatography and their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods. Nine compounds were isolated from the supercritical CO2 extraction of Schisandra chinensis, and their structures were identified as chrysophanol(1),schisandrin B(2), β-sitosterol(3), schisandrin C(4),schisandrol A(5), angeloylgomisin H(6), daucosterol(7) 1, 5-dimethyl citrate (8), and shikimic acid (9). Compounds 1, 8 and 9 are isolated from Schisandra chinensis for the first time,and compound 1 as an anthraquinone is isolated from this genus for the first time.

  3. Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils from Thymus vulgaris

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    S.A.B. Vieira de Melo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris leaves was studied using experimental data recently obtained in the Florys S.p.A. laboratory. Mass transfer coefficients in the supercritical and solid phases from extraction curves at 40°C and 20 MPa were evaluated using a mathematical model based on the local adsorption equilibrium of essential oil on lipid in leaves. The adsorption equilibrium constant was fitted to these experimental data, and internal and external mass transfer resistances were calculated, allowing identification of the mechanism controlling the extraction process.

  4. [Extraction of lobetyolin from codonopsis with supercritical CO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongju; Li, Shufen; Min, Jiang; Bao, Xiaomei

    2009-03-01

    To develop a green and rapid method for extraction of lobetyolin from C. pilosula. Extraction of lobetyolin from C. pilosula with supercritical carbon dioxide in the presence of ethanol was studied. The effects of pressure, temperature, volume of cosolvent and extraction time on efficiency and their interactive relationships were discussed, based on central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM). The key effect factor was volume of cosolvent. The extraction yield of lobetyolin was 0.078 6 mg x g(-1) when C. pilosula (40-60 mesh) was extracted at 30 MPa, 60 degrees C and 2 L x min(-1) (as CO2 in normal pressure and temperature) for 100 minutes with supercritical CO2 and 1 mL x min(-1) ethanol as dynamic cosolvent. This result is better than that obtained from traditional method. Therefore, the optimized process is valuable for extraction of lobetyolin from C. pilosula.

  5. Hazelnut oil production using pressing and supercritical CO2 extraction

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    Jokić Stela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the hazelnut oil production it is very important to find an appropriate method to recover the oil from kernels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the oil extraction process from hazelnuts by screw pressing followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. The effects of temperature head presses, frequency and nozzle size in pressing experiments on oil temperature and recovery were monitored. The optimal pressing condition using response surface methodology was determined. In obtained hazelnut oil the following quality parameters were determined: peroxide value 0 mmol O2/kg, free fatty acids 0.23%, insoluble impurities 0.42%, moisture content 0.045%, iodine value 91.55 g I2/100 g, saponification value 191.46 mg KOH/g and p-anisidine value 0.19. Rosemary extract was the most effective in protecting the oil from oxidative deterioration. The residual oil that remained in the cake after pressing was extracted totally with supercritical CO2 and such defatted cake, free of toxic solvents, can be used further in other processes.

  6. Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils from Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinzhe; Han, Dandan; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung-Ho

    2010-03-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction and hydrodistillation (HD) were used to determine the essential oil composition of the trunks and leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa. The optimal extraction conditions for the oil yield within the experimental range of variables examined were temperature 50 degrees C, pressure 12 MPa, carbon dioxide flow rate 40 mL/min and extraction time 90 min. The maximum measured extraction yield was 2.9%. Entrainer solvents, such as methanol in water, had no additional effect on the extraction of essential oils. The chemical composition of the essential oils was analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were alpha-terpinyl acetate (>10.9%), 1-muurolol (>13.2%) and elemol (>8.1%). Sesquiterpenoids formed the major class of compounds present.

  7. Comparision of conventional and supercritical CO2-extracted rosehip oil

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    J.M. del Valle

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical CO2 (SCO2 can be utilized to extract oils from a number of plant materials as a nontoxic alternative to hexane, and there is industrial interest in using SCO2 extraction to obtain high-quality oils for cosmetics and other high-value applications. A possible substrate is rosehip (Rosa aff. rubiginosa seed. The scope of our work was to select SCO2 extraction conditions and to compare cold-pressed, hexane-extracted and SCO2-extracted rosehip oil. We used a fractional factorial experimental design with extraction temperature (T, 40-60 °C, extraction pressure (p, 300-500 bar and dynamic extraction time (t, 90-270 min as independent variables and yield and color as response variables. Samples of 100 g flaked rosehip seeds were extracted with 21 g CO2/min, following a static extraction (15 min adjustment period. Resulting data were analyzed using response surface methodology. Extracted oil (4.7-7.1% in our experimental region increased slightly with p and more pronouncedly with T and specially t. On the other hand, the photometric color index was independent of t but worsened (increased as a result of an increase in either p or specially T. We extracted five batches of 250 g seeds with 21 g CO2/min at 40 °C and 300 bar for 270 min and compared the oil with samples obtained by solvent extraction (a batch of 2.5 kg of laminated seeds was treated with 10 L hexane and rotaevaporated until there was virtually no residual hexane and cold pressing, by determining color, fatty acid composition, iodine index and saponification index. It was concluded that SCO2 allows an almost complete recovery of rosehip oil (6.5% yield, which is of a better quality than the oil extracted with hexane. Yield was higher than it was when using a cold-pressing process (5.0% yield.

  8. Extractive fermentation of aroma with supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre; Condoret; Marty

    1999-08-20

    This work deals with the feasibility of achieving an extractive fermentation of 2-phenylethyl alcohol, the rose aroma, coupling fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction. The extractive process is, in this case, of special interest due to the strong yeast inhibition by 2-phenylethyl alcohol. First results confirmed that direct SCCO2 extraction is not possible, due to a drastic CO2 effect on cell viability. It is therefore necessary to perform cell separation prior to the extraction. Aroma extraction conditions from a synthetic mixture were then optimized, a pressure of 200 bar and a temperature in the range 35-45 degrees C being chosen. Under these conditions, the distribution coefficient Kd is 2 times higher than during the extraction using a conventional organic solvent, n-hexane. Using a simple model of aroma partition between aqueous and SCCO2 phases, the parameters of a continuous extraction from a synthetic broth were defined. The two substrates, glucose and phenylalanine, are not extracted whatever the conditions. As predicted by the model, more than 90% of 2-phenylethyl alcohol can be extracted, while the extraction of ethanol, the second main product, can be easily tuned with respect to operating conditions, as a function of its influence on the fermentation. Finally, the feasibility of the aroma recovery using two depressurization steps at the outflow of the extraction vessel was demonstrated; 97% of the extracted aroma was recovered, and a mass purity of 91% was achieved. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. [Effect of entrainer on supercritical CO2 for extraction of tradition and herbal drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yanbin; Xia, Xiaohui; Jin, Ran; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Liqin; Tang, Shihuan

    2009-06-01

    Type, mode of affiliating, mechanism of action of entrainer in Supercritical CO2 on extraction of Chinese traditional and herbal drugs were briefly reviewed. Application of entrainer in Supercritical CO2 on extraction of flavones, terpenes, sterols, and saponins in Chinese traditional and herbal drugs were recommended in particular. Some problems and directions in research of entrainer in Supercritical CO2 on extraction of Chinese traditional and herbal drugs were shown in this paper.

  10. The combined extraction of sage (Salvia officinalis L.): ultrasound followed by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisic, Sandra B; Ristic, Mihajlo; Skala, Dejan U

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of phytochemicals could be isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) using different extraction or distillation technique: the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the volatiles compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) isolation using hydrodistillation or higher molecular compounds with Soxhlet extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by re-extraction of obtained extract with supercritical CO(2) was performed in this study. The goal of performed investigation was to concentrate diterpenes present in sage extract which are generally considered to be responsible for antioxidant activity of extracted compounds. The fractionation using the supercritical CO(2), and different combination of the ultrasound-assisted solvent extractions (water-ethanol mixture or only water) followed by supercritical CO(2) re-extraction of obtained extract or treated plant material were analyzed and compared. Based on the results of these investigations it could be proposed the best extraction procedure: the ultrasound pretreatment of plant material with distilled water and re-extraction of plant material (residue) using supercritical CO(2). That procedure gives two valuable products: the ultrasound extract which is rich in sugars and possess the immunomodulatory activity and supercritical extract which is rich in diterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

  11. [Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction of Rosmarinus officinalis and capability of extracts eliminate OH radical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Li, Jia-Cheng; Zhang, De-La; Feng, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Chen, Si-Li

    2008-05-01

    Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction process of antioxidation active components from Rosmarinus officinalis was studied. A new extraction process of components extracted from R. officinalis by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE-CO2 ) was studied in detail. The capability of that the extract eliminate *OH radical was tested by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique and spin catch technique. With free radical clearance as index, by range and variance analysis, the optimum extraction process conditions were: keeping pressure at 30 MPa and temperature at 75 degrees C for 1 h, in the same time adding alcohol 0.30 mL x g(-1).

  12. Use of liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction process for butanol recovery from fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order for butanol fermentation to be a viable option, it is essential to recover it from fermentation broth using economical alternate in-situ product recovery techniques such as liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction as compared to distillation. This technique (liquid CO2 extraction & supercritical...

  13. Extraction of oil from wheat germ by supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Alessandra; Rosa, Antonella; Falconieri, Danilo; Porcedda, Silvia; Dessì, Maria A; Marongiu, Bruno

    2009-07-15

    This study examined the supercritical fluid extraction of wheat germ oil. The effects of pressure (200-300 bar at 40 degrees C) and extraction time on the oil quality/quantity were studied. A comparison was also made between the relative qualities of material obtained by SFE and by organic solvent extraction. The extracts were analyzed for alpha-tocopherol and polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The maximum wheat germ oil yield at about 9% was obtained with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction at 300 bar, while fatty acid and alpha-tocopherol composition of the extracts was not remarkable affected by either pressure or the extraction method.

  14. [Optimization for supercritical CO2 extraction with response surface methodology of Prunus armeniaca oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-Fei; Wu, Yan; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2012-03-01

    To optimize the extraction conditions of Prunus armeniaca oil by Supercritical CO2 extraction and identify its components by GC-MS. Optimized of SFE-CO extraction by response surface methodology and used GC-MS to analysis Prunus armeniaca oil compounds. Established the model of an equation for the extraction rate of Prunus armeniaca oil by supercritical CO2 extraction, and the optimal parameters for the supercritical CO2 extraction determined by the equation were: the extraction pressure was 27 MPa, temperature was 39 degrees C, the extraction rate of Prunus armeniaca oil was 44.5%. 16 main compounds of Prunus armeniaca oil extracted by supercritical CO2 were identified by GC-MS, unsaturated fatty acids were 92.6%. This process is simple, and can be used for the extraction of Prunus armeniaca oil.

  15. Extraction of lapachol from Tabebuia avellanedae wood with supercritical CO2: an alternative to Soxhlet extraction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viana L.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The solubility of lapachol in supercritical CO2 was determined at 40°C and pressures between 90 and 210 bar. Supercritical fluid extraction of lapachol and some related compounds by CO2 from Tabebuia avellanedae wood is compared to Soxhlet extraction with different solvents. A standard macroscale (100-200 g wood and a microscale (~10 mg wood experimental setup are described and their results are compared. The latter involved direct spectrophotometric quantification in a high-pressure autoclave with an integrated optical path and a magnetic stirrer, fitted directly into a commercial spectrophotometer. The relative amount of lapachol extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40°C and 200 bar was about 1.7%, which is similar to the results of Soxhlet extractions. Lower contents of alpha- and beta-lapachone as well as dehydro-alpha-lapachone are also reported.

  16. Extraction of lapachol from Tabebuia avellanedae wood with supercritical CO2: an alternative to Soxhlet extraction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Viana

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The solubility of lapachol in supercritical CO2 was determined at 40°C and pressures between 90 and 210 bar. Supercritical fluid extraction of lapachol and some related compounds by CO2 from Tabebuia avellanedae wood is compared to Soxhlet extraction with different solvents. A standard macroscale (100-200 g wood and a microscale (~10 mg wood experimental setup are described and their results are compared. The latter involved direct spectrophotometric quantification in a high-pressure autoclave with an integrated optical path and a magnetic stirrer, fitted directly into a commercial spectrophotometer. The relative amount of lapachol extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40°C and 200 bar was about 1.7%, which is similar to the results of Soxhlet extractions. Lower contents of alpha- and beta-lapachone as well as dehydro-alpha-lapachone are also reported.

  17. [Extraction of praeruptorin A from Radix Peucedani by supercritical fluid extraction-CO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-dong; Hou, Wei; Chen, Xue-song; Qiu, Zhi-dong

    2008-12-01

    To extract praeruptorin A from Radix Peucedani by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)-CO2. After preliminary experiment, three main factors were acquired that could influence the result of SFE-CO2, including the time, pressure and temperature of the extraction. The optimal extraction process was carried out on orthogonal design, and SFE-CO2 was compared with the traditional methods. In the extraction of the praeruptorin A, the best extraction conditions were 60 degrees C, 20 MPa, and duration for three hours. As cosolvent alcohol was added, the amount of extraction of the praeruptorin A increased, and the amount of SFE-CO2 extraction was higher than those of decoction and heating reflux. The SFE-CO2 in extracting praeruptorin A from Radix Peucedani is feasible and reliable.

  18. [Extraction of 10-Deacetyl Baccatin by Supercritical CO2 from Taxus yunnanensis Branches and Leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang-qin; Li, Hai-chi; Huang, Wen-jie; Xiong, Yan; Ge, Fa-huan

    2015-04-01

    To study the supercritical CO2 fluids extraction (SFE) method to extract the components from Taxus yunnanensis. Medicinal meterials were extracted by supercritical CO2, and then purified by industrial chromatography. Using the extraction yield of 10-DAB as the index,single factor test was carried out to investigate the effect of co-solvent, extraction time, extraction pressure, extraction temperature, pressure and temperature of separation kettle I. Then orthogonal experiment was used to optimize the best extraction condition. The suitable extraction condition was as follows: the ratio of co-solvent (80% ethanol) amount and the madicinal materials was 3: 1, Separation kettle I pressure was 14 MPa, separation kettle I temperature was 40 °C, extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 60 T and extraction time was 90 min. The extract was separated by industrial chromatographic and then crystallized. The supercritical CO2 extraction and purification process of 10-DAB were simple and feasible.

  19. [Supercritical CO2 extraction and component analysis of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Yu; Shi, Zhao-Hua; Li, Hai-Chi; Ge, Fa-Huan; Zhan, Hua-Shu

    2013-03-01

    To research the optimal extraction process of supercritical CO2 extraction and analyze the component of the oil extracted from Aesculus wilsonii seed. Using the yield of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil as the index, optimized supercritical CO2 extraction parameter by orthogonal experiment methodology and analysed the compounds of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil by GC-MS. The optimal parameters of the supercritical CO2 extraction of the oil extracted from Aesculus wilsoniit seed were determined: the extraction pressure was 28 MPa and the temperature was 38 degrees C, the separation I pressure was 12 MPa and the temperature was 40 degrees C, the separation II pressure was 5 MPa and the temperature was 40 degrees C, the extraction time was 110 min. The average extraction rate of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil was 1.264%. 26 kinds of compounds were identified by GC-MS in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil extracted by supercritical CO2. The main components were fatty acids. Comparing with the petroleum ether extraction, the supercritical CO2 extraction has higher extraction rate, shorter extraction time, more clarity oil. The kinds of fatty acids with high amounts in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil is identical in general, the kinds of fatty acids with low amounts in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil have differences.

  20. Water extractable arabinoxylan aerogels prepared by supercritical CO2 drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Escalante, Jorge; Carvajal-Millan, Elizabeth; Miki-Yoshida, Mario; Alvarez-Contreras, Lorena; Toledo-Guillén, Alma Rosa; Lizardi-Mendoza, Jaime; Rascón-Chu, Agustín

    2013-05-14

    Water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) aerogels were prepared by extracting the solvent from the alcogels (WEAX hydrogels with an alcohol as the solvent) with carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions. WEAX aerogels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and adsorption and desorption nitrogen isotherms. The micrographs indicate a heterogeneous porous network structure in WEAX aerogel. Adsorption/desorption nitrogen isotherms of this material were type IV, which confirm that this material possess a mesoporous structure. WEAX aerogels rehydration capability was evaluated and the water absorption mechanism was determined. The WEAX aerogels water absorption mechanism was non-Fickian (n = 0.54).

  1. Water Extractable Arabinoxylan Aerogels Prepared by Supercritical CO2 Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Rascón-Chu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX aerogels were prepared by extracting the solvent from the alcogels (WEAX hydrogels with an alcohol as the solvent with carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions. WEAX aerogels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and adsorption and desorption nitrogen isotherms. The micrographs indicate a heterogeneous porous network structure in WEAX aerogel. Adsorption/desorption nitrogen isotherms of this material were type IV, which confirm that this material possess a mesoporous structure. WEAX aerogels rehydration capability was evaluated and the water absorption mechanism was determined. The WEAX aerogels water absorption mechanism was non-Fickian (n = 0.54.

  2. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Rice Bran Oil -the Technology, Manufacture, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookwong, Phumon; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya

    2017-06-01

    Rice bran is a good source of nutrients that have large amounts of phytochemicals and antioxidants. Conventional rice bran oil production requires many processes that may deteriorate and degrade these valuable substances. Supercritical CO2 extraction is a green alternative method for producing rice bran oil. This work reviews production of rice bran oil by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. In addition, the usefulness and advantages of SC-CO2 extracted rice bran oil for edible oil and health purpose is also described.

  3. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

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    B. Anjaneyulu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar, temperature (50–70 °C and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1. The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1 extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1 was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1. The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil.

  4. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B. Anjaneyulu; S. Satyannarayana; Sanjit Kanjilal; V. Siddaiah; K. N. Prasanna Rani

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar), temperature (50–70 °C) and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1...

  5. Influence of pressure and time on extraction process using supercritical CO2

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    Mićić V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE by carbon dioxide (CO2 of Salvia officinalis L. was investigated. SFE by CO2 was performed at different pressure (80, 100, 150, 200 and 300 bar and constant temperature of 40ºC (all other extraction conditions, such are flow rate, particle diameter of Salvia officinalis, extraction time were kept constant. The GC-MS method was used for determination of qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts and essential oils.

  6. Supercritical CO(2) extraction of carotenoids from pitanga fruits (Eugenia uniflora L.)

    OpenAIRE

    FILHO, Genival L.; ROSSO, VeridianaV. De; M. Angela A. MEIRELES; ROSA, Paulo T. V.; OLIVEIRA, Alessandra L.; MERCADANTE, Adriana Z.; CABRAL,Fernando A.

    2008-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction was employed to extract carotenoids from the freeze-dried pulp of pitanga fruits (Eugenia uniflora L.), an exotic fruit, rich in carotenoids and still little explored commercially. The SC-CO(2) extraction was carried out at two temperatures, 40 and 60 degrees C, and seven pressures, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 bar. The carotenoids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to photodiode array and mass spectro...

  7. [Studies on extraction of active fraction from Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici by supercritical CO2 extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Cai-Ni; He, Wei; Li, Yong; Yuan, Wan-Rui

    2008-10-01

    To study the conditions of extraction of active fraction in Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici by supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE). Using the content of ferulic acid as the index, conditions for the extraction including extracting pressure, extracting temperature, temperature of resolution and extracting time were optimized by uniform design. The best SFE conclusions were as follows: cosolvent was 50% ethanol (ml/g), extracting pressure was 40 MPa, extracting temperature was 50 degrees C, pressure of resolution was 6 MPa, temperature of resolution was 50 degrees C, extracting time was 3.5 hours. The optimum extraction has high extraction ratio of active fraction in Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici, so it is reasonable and practicable.

  8. Supercritical CO2 extraction of mentha (Mentha piperita L. at different solvent densities

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    DUŠAN ADAMOVIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of mentha essential oil and mentha extracts obtained at different pressures/temperatures by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE were studied by GC–MS. The menthol content was also determined spectrophotometrically. The predominant compounds in the essential oil and in the CO2 extract obtained at 100 bar were L-menthon and menthole but at higher pressures (from 150 to 400 bar, squalene was dominant. The equation of Naik et al. was used for modelling the mentha–supercritical CO2 system.

  9. Effect of matrix pretreatment on the supercritical CO2 extraction of Satureja montana essential oil

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    Damjanović-Vratnica Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different matrix pretreatment of winter savory(Satureja montana L. on the supercritical CO2(SC-CO2 extraction - yield, composition and antimicrobial activity of extracts and essential oil (EO was investigated. Herb matrix was submitted to conventional mechanical grinding, physical disruption by fast decompression of supercritical and subcritical CO2 and physical disruption by mechanical compression. The analyses of the essential oil obtained by SC-CO2 extraction and hydrodistillation were done by GC/FID method. Major compounds in winter savory EO obtained by SC-CO2 extraction and hydrodistillation were: thymol (30.4-35.4% and 35.3%, carvacrol (11.5-14.1% and 14.1%, γ-terpinene (10.2-11.4% and 9.1% and p-cymene (8.3-10.1% and 8.6%, respectively. The gained results revealed that physical disruption of essential oils glands by fast CO2 decompression in supercritical region (FDS achieved the highest essential oil yield as well as highest content of thymol, carvacrol and thymoquinone. Antimicrobial activity of obtained winter savory SC-CO2 extracts was the same (FDS or weaker compared to essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation.

  10. Effect of Allelochemicals of Chinese—fir root extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction on Chinese fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINSi-zu; CAOGuang-qiu; DULing; WANGAi-ping

    2003-01-01

    Allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root was extracted by technology of supercritical CO2 extraction under orthogonal experiment design, and it was used to analyze allelopathic activity of Chinese-fir through bioassay of seed germination, The results showed that as to the available rate of allelochemicals, the pressure and temperature of extraction were the most im-portant factors, The allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root extracted by pure CO2 and ethanol mixed with CO2 have different al-lelopathic activities to seed germination, and the allelochemicals extracted by ethanol mixed with CO2 had stronger inhibitory effects on seed Qermination than that extracted by pure CO2.

  11. Metal extraction from the artificially contaminated soil using supercritical CO2 with mixed ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwangheon; Lee, Jeongken; Sung, Jinhyun

    2013-04-01

    Supercritical fluids have good penetrating power with a high capacity to dissolve certain solutes in the fluid itself, making it applicable for soil cleaning. Supercritical CO2 along with mixed ligands has been used for cleaning artificially contaminated soil. The extraction of metal from the soil was successful, and the molar ratio of ligands to the extracted metal was as low as 3. Complicated structures with a large surface area of the real soil seemed to cause the lower efficiency. Reduced efficiency was also observed over time after the sample preparation, indicating the possibility of chemisorption of the metal ion onto the soil. The use of supercritical CO2 with dissolved mixed ligands was sufficient to extract metal from the soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO2 Algal Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Michalak; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Agnieszka Saeid

    2017-01-01

    The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilit...

  13. [Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction and component analysis of leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Zhang, Feng-su; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jian-wei; Yao, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    To research the optimal extraction process of supercritical CO2 extraction and analyze the component of the oil extracted from leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. Using the yield of leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei as the index, investigated the effect of the extraction pressure, extraction temperature and extraction time on the extracting-rate of leaves oil. The chemical composition of the extracted leaves oil was analyzed by derivatized GC-MS. The optimal parameters of the supercritical CO2 extraction of the oil extracted from leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei were determined: CO2 compressor pump frequency was 10 Hz, the extraction pressure was 25 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 45 degrees C, the extraction time was 120 min, the isolator I pressure was 8.0 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 40 degrees C, the isolator II pressure was 5.0 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 35 degrees C. The extracted leaves oil was derivatized with boron trifluoride-methanol complex. Thirty-three kinds of fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The yield of leaves oils are different from Taxus chinensis var. mairei from 3 habitats. The yield of leaves oil from Donggang, Wuxi city is the highest, about 2.61%. The kinds of fatty acids with high amounts in leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei is identical in general, the kinds of fatty acids with low amounts in leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei have differences.

  14. [Study on supercritical CO2 extraction of xiaoyaosan and its GC-MS fingerprint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ya-Mei; Tian, Jun-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Qing; Zhou, Yu-Zhi; Gao, Xiao-Xia; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2014-02-01

    To determine the optimum conditions of supercritical CO2 extraction of Xiaoyaosan, and establish its fingerprint by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the yield of extract were investigated, an orthogonal test was used to quantify the effects of extraction temperature, pressure, CO2 flow rate and time, and fingerprint analysis of different batches of extracts were by GC-MS. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: extraction pressure 20 MPa, extraction temperature 50 degrees C, CO2 flow rate 25 kg x h(-1), extraction time 3 h, and average yield 2.2%. The GC-MS fingerprint was established and 27 common peaks were found, whose contents add up to 81.89% of the total peak area. Among them, 21 compounds were identified, accounting for 53.20% of the total extract. The extraction process is reasonable and favorable for industrial production. The GC-MS method is accurate, reliable, reproducible, and can be used for quality control of supercritical CO2 extract from Xiaoyaosan.

  15. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  16. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  17. Safety study of an experimental apparatus for extraction with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Soares

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the process of supercritical CO2 extraction it is necessary to use high pressures in the procedure. The explosion of a pressure vessel can be harmful to people and cause serious damage to the environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the probability of death and injury in a laboratory unit for supercritical fluid extraction in the case of an explosion of the extractor vessel. The procedure is explained via a case study involving fatty acid extraction from vegetable oils with carbon dioxide above its supercritical conditions and under optimum operating conditions. According to the results, more importance should be given to the use of a protective headset because the probability of eardrum injury is superior to the probability of death from lung injury.

  18. The effect of selected supercritical CO2 plant extract addition on user properties of shower gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Otmar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The formulations of washing cosmetics i.e. shower gels, containing extracts obtained during supercritical CO2 extraction process as active ingredient, were developed. The subject of the study was the analysis of the physicochemical and user properties of the obtained products. In the work supercritical CO2 extracts of black currant seeds, strawberry seeds, hop cones and mint leafs were used. The formulation contains a mixture of surfactants (disodium cocoamphodiacetate, disodium laureth sulfosuccinate, cocoamide DEA, cocoamidepropyl betaine, Sodium Laureth Sulfate. Various thickener agents were applied to the obtained desired rheological properties of the cosmetics. Among others, sorbitol acetal derivatives, methylhydroxypropylcellulose and C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer were used. For stable products, the effect of extracts addition (black currants seeds, strawberries seeds, mint and hops, obtained from supercritical CO2 extraction process on the cosmetics properties, such as pH, viscosity, detergency and foam ability, were determined. The obtained results showed that the extracts could be used as components of shower gels.

  19. Supercritical CO(2) extraction of beta-carotene and lycopene from tomato paste waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, T; Ersus, S; Starmans, D A

    2000-11-01

    Lycopene and beta-carotene were extracted from tomato paste waste using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). To optimize supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) results for the isolation of lycopene and beta-carotene, a factorial designed experiment was conducted. The factors assessed were the temperature of the extractor (35, 45, 55, and 65 degrees C), the pressure of the extraction fluid (200, 250, and 300 bar), addition of cosolvent (5, 10, and 15% ethanol), extraction time (1, 2, and 3 h), and CO(2) flow rate (2, 4, and 8 kg/h). The total amounts of lycopene and beta-carotene in the tomato paste waste, extracts, and residues were determined by HPLC. A maximum of 53.93% of lycopene was extracted by SC-CO(2) in 2 h (CO(2) flow rate = 4 kg/h) at 55 degrees C and 300 bar, with the addition of 5% ethanol as a cosolvent. Half of the initially present beta-carotene was extracted in 2 h (flow rate = 4 kg/h), at 65 degrees C and 300 bar, also with the addition of 5% ethanol.

  20. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  1. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  2. [Study on supercritical CO2 extraction of flavonoids from Cynomorium songaricum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Na; Li, Di

    2010-07-01

    To study the extraction technology of flavonoids from Cynomorium songaricum by supercritical CO2 extraction. The effects of pressure, temperature, time, concentration of alcohol, dosage of chemical preparation, flux of CO2 and particle size were studied by single factor analysis and orthogonal test. The optimized conditions were as follows: particle size 60 - 80 sieve mesh, the pressure was 30 MPa, the temperature was 50 degrees C, the time was 75 min, concentration of alcohol was 50%, entrainment rate was 8%, flux of CO2 was 5 mL/min. The total flavonoids yield could reach 21.18% under the above conditions. This method is simple, rapid and higher extraction yield, so it is suitable for the extraction of flavonoids from Cynomorium songaricum.

  3. Extraction of Lutein Diesters from Tagetes Erecta using Supercritical CO2 and Liquid Propane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerget, Mojca; Bezjak, Miran; Makovšek, Katja; Knez, Zeljko

    2010-03-01

    The efficiency of high pressure extraction of lutein diesters from marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower petals has been investigated. The solvents used for extraction were supercritical carbon dioxide and liquid propane. Operating parameters were 300 bar and 40, 60 and 80 °C for CO2 and 100, 150, 200 bar and 40 and 60 °C for propane, respectively. The influence of process parameters on the total yield of extraction and content of lutein diesters in the extracts was investigated. The results show, that solvent power of propane for lutein diesters is approximately 3.5 times higher than of CO2. The calculation procedure based on the Fick's second law was applied to determine the diffusivities of lutein diesters during extraction from marigold flower petals for both extraction stages: a constant rate stage followed by a stage of decreasing rate. The mathematical model based on the Fick's second law well described the experimental extraction results.

  4. Supercritical CO2 extraction of lipids from grain sorghum dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Weller, Curtis L; Schlegel, Vicki L; Carr, Timothy P; Cuppett, Susan L

    2008-03-01

    Experiments were carried out on a lab supercritical CO(2) extraction system to determine the effects of extraction conditions, including mass ratio of CO(2) consumed to distillers dry grain with solubles (DDGS) extracted, extraction pressure, extraction temperature and time, on yield and composition of extracted lipids. A maximum lipid yield of 150 g/kg DDGS was achieved with a mass ratio approximately 45, an extraction pressure at 27.5 MPa, an extraction temperature at 70 degrees C and an extraction time of 4 h. Under these extraction conditions, the contents of tocols, phytosterols, policosanols and free fatty acids were 0.44, 15.6, 31.2 and 155.3 mg/g in the extract. Experimental results indicated that shorter extraction time and higher flow rate of CO(2) can achieve higher contents of tocols, phytosterols and policosanols but lower content of free fatty acids in the lipid extract. Extraction conditions had no observed effects on the composition of free fatty acids in the extract. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were three main free fatty acids extracted and constituted about 94% of all free fatty acids.

  5. [The extraction technology of epigoitri from isatidis radix by supercritical CO2 fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Si-Hui; Liu, Chun-Yun; Liu, Li-Min; Yang, Li-Fen

    2013-07-01

    To study the extraction technology of epigoitri from Isatidis Radix by supercritical CO2 fluid. The effects of pressure, temperature, time, concentration and dosage of alcohol were studied by single factor analysis and orthogonal test. The optimized conditions were as follows: The pressure was 20 MPs, the temperature was 50 degrees C, the time was 2 h, concentration of alcohol was 100%, dosage was 80 mL. The content of epigoitri in the extract could reach 38.63% under the above conditions. This method is simple, rapid and it is suitable for the extraction of epigoitri from Isatidis Radix.

  6. [Study on supercritical CO2 extraction of fatty oils from the seed of Akebia trifoliata (Thunb) Koidz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiao-xia; Ge, Fa-huan

    2007-03-01

    The extraction of fatty oils from the seed of Akebia trifoliata (Thunb) Koidz with supercritical CO2 was studied. The effects of extraction pressure, extraction temperature on the yields were discussed. The optimal condition of this method was as follow: extraction pressure 30 MPa, extraction temerature 45 degrees C, separator I pressure 11 MPa, separator I temperature 50 degrees C, separator II pressure 6MPa, separator II temperature 45 degrees C, extraction period 2 hours. Compared with the traditional solvent extraction, with a GC-MS analysis, it revealed that the component extracted with supercritical CO2 was basically consistent with that extracted with petroleum ether, and it was rich unsaturated fatty acid.

  7. Biological Properties of Fucoxanthin in Oil Recovered from Two Brown Seaweeds Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Periaswamy Sivagnanam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2 with ethanol as a co-solvent in a semi-batch flow extraction process and compared the results with a conventional extraction process using hexane, ethanol, and acetone mixed with methanol (1:1, v/v. The SC-CO2 method was used at a temperature of 45 °C and pressure of 250 bar. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min was constant for the entire extraction period of 2 h. The obtained oil from the brown seaweeds was analyzed to determine their valuable compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, fucoxanthin and biological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertension effects. The amounts of fucoxanthin extracted from the SC-CO2 oils of S. japonica and S. horneri were 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mg/g, respectively. High antihypertensive activity was detected when using mixed acetone and methanol, whereas the phenolic content and antioxidant property were higher in the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The acetone–methanol mix extracts exhibited better antimicrobial activities than those obtained by other means. Thus, the SC-CO2 extraction process appears to be a good method for obtaining valuable compounds from both brown seaweeds, and showed stronger biological activity than that obtained by the conventional extraction process.

  8. Biological Properties of Fucoxanthin in Oil Recovered from Two Brown Seaweeds Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Saravana Periaswamy; Yin, Shipeng; Choi, Jae Hyung; Park, Yong Beom; Woo, Hee Chul; Chun, Byung Soo

    2015-05-29

    The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri) was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with ethanol as a co-solvent in a semi-batch flow extraction process and compared the results with a conventional extraction process using hexane, ethanol, and acetone mixed with methanol (1:1, v/v). The SC-CO2 method was used at a temperature of 45 °C and pressure of 250 bar. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min) was constant for the entire extraction period of 2 h. The obtained oil from the brown seaweeds was analyzed to determine their valuable compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, fucoxanthin and biological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertension effects. The amounts of fucoxanthin extracted from the SC-CO2 oils of S. japonica and S. horneri were 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mg/g, respectively. High antihypertensive activity was detected when using mixed acetone and methanol, whereas the phenolic content and antioxidant property were higher in the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The acetone-methanol mix extracts exhibited better antimicrobial activities than those obtained by other means. Thus, the SC-CO2 extraction process appears to be a good method for obtaining valuable compounds from both brown seaweeds, and showed stronger biological activity than that obtained by the conventional extraction process.

  9. The experimental study of heat extraction of supercritical CO2 in the geothermal reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Cyun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer phenomena of supercritical CO2 are experimentally investigated in a horizontal tube for improving the efficiency of CO2-EGS.This study discuss the experimental verification of the numerical simulations. The experiment is conducted for the pressure, the flow rate, and particle size 1.54mm. In addition, the experiment and simulation that the maximum heat extraction is occurred at the 9MPa pressure and mass flow rate of 0.00109 kg/s. The maximum specific heat extraction at 9MPa and flow rate of 0.00082 kg/s. The results show that the numerical model has been experimentally verified of the feasibility. Furthermore, the pseudo-critical point had a significant influence on the heat extraction, temperature difference and specific heat extraction.

  10. Extraction of oil and minor lipids from cold-press rapeseed cake with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Uquiche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extraction of oil from cold-press rapeseed cake using Supercritical CO2(SC-CO2. The effects of pressure (20, 30, and 40 MPa, temperature (40, 50, and 60 ºC, and extraction time (60, 90, and 120 min on oil yield and composition (tocopherols and carotenoids were studied using response surface design. The results indicated that pressure influenced the most the yield of oil, followed by temperature and extraction time. Extraction time had no effect on oil composition. Extraction pressure and temperature did not affect the tocopherol concentration of the oil to a great extent, whereas temperature had no affect in its carotenoid concentration. A comparison was made between the relative qualities of oil extracted with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC and with n-hexane. Neither solvent affected the unsaponifiable matter content or the composition of phytosterols (mainly β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol of the oils, although there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in tocopherol. Extraction with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC is recommended to obtain rapeseed-oil enriched with tocopherols and carotenoids as important functional components.

  11. Genotoxicity of rice bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Cheon, Eun Jin; Kim, Tae-Uk; Moon, Woi-Sook; Kim, Joo-Wan; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2014-01-01

    Rice bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction (RB-SCE) reportedly exhibits pharmacological activities such as antioxidant and in vivo hair growth-inducing effects. Such activities raise the possibility of the development of novel hair growth-inducing agents using RB-SCE. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential genotoxic effects of RB-SCE in three short-term mutagenicity assays (bacterial reverse mutation assay, in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus assay). RB-SCE showed no genotoxicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay up to 5000 mg/plate and in the in vivo micronucleus test up to 600 mg/kg body weight. However, at 120 µg/mL with S9 mix and 200 µg/mL without S9 mix RB-SCE showed significantly different genotoxicity than the negative control in the in vitro chromosome aberration test. The induction of chromosomal aberrations under the present conditions may have no biological significance. We have herein demonstrated that RB-SCE can be regarded as a non-genotoxic material based on the available in vivo and in vitro results.

  12. [Harmful elements removal from Polygonum multiflorum by supercritical CO2 extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhen; Liu, Bo; Zheng, Zong-Kun; You, Xin-Kui; Pu, Yi-Tao; Dang, Zhi

    2008-10-01

    To remove harmful elements as copper, lead and arsenic from Polygonum multiflorum, a Chinese traditional medicine, by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. With sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) as a chelating agent and ethanol as a modifier, the effects of extraction style, time, pressure, temperature and amount of chelating agent on chelating extraction process were discussed. The condition was optimized as following: 28 MP as extraction pressure, 60 degrees C as extraction temperature, 1 h as static extraction time, 2 h as dynamic extraction time, m(herb) : m(NaDDC) = 5 : 1, m(herb) : m(ethanol) = 1 : 1. Under this condition, the extraction rate of Cu, Pb and As were up to 60% which achieved US FDA standard, while the physioloically active substance of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy-silbene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside was not extracted. The results show chelating extraction by supercritical CO2 can provide a non-destructive method to decrease the content of harmful elements from Chinese traditional medicines.

  13. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of essential oil from Swietenia mahagoni seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norodin, N. S. M.; Salleh, L. M.; Hartati; Mustafa, N. M.

    2016-11-01

    Swietenia mahagoni (Mahogany) is a traditional plant that is rich with bioactive compounds. In this study, process parameters such as particle size, extraction time, solvent flowrate, temperature and pressure were studied on the extraction of essential oil from Swietenia mahagoni seeds by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. Swietenia mahagoni seeds was extracted at a pressure of 20-30 MPa and a temperature of 40-60°C. The effect of particle size on overall extraction of essential oil was done at 30 MPa and 50°C while the extraction time of essential oil at various temperatures and at a constant pressure of 30 MPa was studied. Meanwhile, the effect of flowrate CO2 was determined at the flowrate of 2, 3 and 4 ml/min. From the experimental data, the extraction time of 120 minutes, particle size of 0.5 mm, the flowrate of CO2 of 4 ml/min, at a pressure of 30 MPa and the temperature of 60°C were the best conditions to obtain the highest yield of essential oil.

  14. Extraction of garlic with supercritical CO2 and conventional organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. del Valle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. and garlic extracts have therapeutical properties that stem from their sulfur-containing compounds, mainly allicin. The main objective of this work was to compare conventional and "premium" garlic extracts in terms of yield and quality, with the latter being obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as the solvent. Yield ranged between 0.65 and 1.0% and increased with extraction pressure (150-400 bar at a constant temperature of 50°C. Extraction temperature (35-60°C, on the other hand, had little effect at a constant pressure of 300 bar. Based on yield and quality considerations, the best extraction conditions using SC-CO2 were 35-50°C and 300-400 bar. A yield of 5.5% was obtained by conventional extraction using ethanol as the solvent, but ethanol appeared to be less selective for valuable components than SC-CO2. The use of fresh garlic resulted in extracts that more closely resembled commercial products, possibly because of thermal and oxidative degradation of valuable microconstituents during drying.

  15. Inhibitory effect of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, extracted from spinach using supercritical CO2, on mammalian DNA polymerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Hiroshi; Musumi, Keiichi; Hada, Takahiko; Maeda, Naoki; Yonezawa, Yuko; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2006-03-08

    We investigated the effective extraction of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) from dried spinach (Spinacia oleracea) using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) with a modifier/entrainer. The yield of MGDG in the SC-CO(2) extract was not influenced by increasing temperature at a constant pressure, although the total extract yield was decreased. The total extract yield and MGDG yield in the extract from commercially purchased spinach (unknown subspecies), were greatly influenced by lower pressure. In a modifier (i.e., ethanol) concentration range of 2.5-20%, both the extract and MGDG yield increased as the ethanol concentration rose. The highest total extract yield (69.5 mg/g of spinach) and a good MGDG yield (16.3 mg/g of spinach) were obtained at 80 degrees C, 25 MPa, and 20% ethanol. The highest MGDG concentration (76.0% in the extract) was obtained at 80 degrees C, 25 MPa, and 2.5% ethanol, although the total extract yield under these conditions was low (5.2 mg/g of spinach). The optimal conditions for the extraction of MGDG were 80 degrees C, 20 MPa, and 10% ethanol. Of the 11 subspecies of spinach tested under these conditions, "Ujyou" had the highest concentration of MGDG. The total extract yield and MGDG concentration of Ujyou were 20.4 mg of the extract/g of spinach and 70.5%, respectively. The concentration of MGDG was higher in the SC-CO(2) extract than in the extract obtained using solvents such as methanol and n-hexane. The extract of Ujyou, which was the optimal subspecies for the extraction of MGDG, inhibited the activity of calf DNA polymerase alpha with IC(50) values of 145 microg/mL but was not effective against DNA polymerase beta.

  16. PREPARATION OF MESOPOROUS TITANIA-SILICA AEROGELS BY CO2 SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Tursiloadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable anatase is attractive because of its notable functions for photocatalysis and photon-electron transfer.  TiO2-nanoparticles dispersed SiO2 wet gels were prepared by hydrolysis of Ti(OC4H9n4 and Si(OC2H54 in a 2-propanol solution with acid catalyst.  The solvent in the wet gels was supercritically extracted using CO2 at 60 oC and 22 Mpa in one-step.  Thermal evolution of the microstructure of the extracted gels (aerogels was evaluated by XRD measurements, TEM and N2 adsorption measurements. The as-extracted aerogel with a large specific surface area, more than 365 m2g-1, contained anatase nanoparticles, about 5 nm in diameter.  The anatase phase was stable after calcinations at temperatures up to 1000 oC, and BET specific surface area, total pore volume and average pore diameter did not change significantly after calcinations at temperature up to 800 oC.   Keywords: Stable anatase, sol-gel, CO2 supercritical extraction.

  17. [Optimization for supercritical CO2 extraction with response surface methodology and component analysis of Sapindus mukorossi oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Xiao, Xin-yu; Ge, Fa-huan

    2012-02-01

    To study the extraction conditions of Sapindus mukorossi oil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction and identify its components. Optimized SFE-CO2 Extraction by response surface methodology and used GC-MS to analysie Sapindus mukorossi oil compounds. Established the model of an equation for the extraction rate of Sapindus mukorossi oil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction, and the optimal parameters for the Supercritical CO2 Extraction determined by the equation were: the extraction pressure was 30 MPa, temperature was 40 degrees C; The separation I pressure was 14 MPa, temperature was 45 degrees C; The separation II pressure was 6 MPa, temperature was 40 degrees C; The extraction time was 60 min and the extraction rate of Sapindus mukorossi oil of 17.58%. 22 main compounds of Sapindus mukorossi oil extracted by supercritical CO2 were identified by GC-MS, unsaturated fatty acids were 86.59%. This process is reliable, safe and with simple operation, and can be used for the extraction of Sapindus mukorossi oil.

  18. Carotenoids extraction from Japanese persimmon (Hachiya-kaki) peels by supercritical CO(2) with ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mayako; Watanabe, Hiromoto; Kikkawa, Junko; Ota, Masaki; Watanabe, Masaru; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Inomata, Hiroshi; Sato, Nobuyuki

    2006-11-01

    The extraction of carotenoids from Japanese persimmon peels by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), of which the solvent was CO(2), was performed. In order to enhance the yield and selectivity of the extraction, some portion of ethanol (5 - 20 mol%) was added as an entrainer. The extraction temperature ranged from 313 to 353 K and the pressure was 30 MPa. The effect of temperature on the extraction yield of carotenoids was investigated at 10 mol% of the ethanol concentration in the extraction solvent, and a suitable temperature was found to be 333 K among the temperatures studied with respect to the carotenoid yield. With increasing the entrainer amount from 0 to 10 mol% at a constant temperature (333 K), the carotenoid yield in the extraction was improved, whereas the selectivity of the extracted carotenoids was drastically depressed. We also conducted qualitative and quantitative analyses for the carotenoid components in the extract by HPLC, and analyzed the extraction behavior of each individual carotenoid (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin). The selectivity of each carotenoid changed with the elapsed time and its time evolution was dependent on the carotenoid component, indicating that the location profile and the content can be important factors to understand the SFE behavior of each carotenoid in persimmon peels.

  19. [Analysis of the chemical constituents of volatile oil from the Folium Rhododendri Daurici by supercritical CO2 extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shu-qing; Liu, Feng-hua

    2009-02-01

    To compare the chemical constituents of volatile oils from Folium Rhododendri Daurici between supercritical CO2 extraction (SCE-CO2) and steam distillation (SD). The chemical constituents of volatile oils obtained by two methods were analyzed by GC-MS. 52 compounds in the volatile oil extracted by SCE-CO2 and 48 compounds in the volatile oil extracted by SD were separated and identified separately. There were 45 same components. The chemical constituents obtained by SCE-CO2 and SD are approached.

  20. Supercritical CO2 extraction of functional compounds from Spirulina and their biological activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K.G, Mallikarjun Gouda; K, Udaya Sankar; R, Sarada; G.A, Ravishankar

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and fractionation of Spirulina platensis was carried out to obtain functional compounds with antioxidant, antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitory activities...

  1. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

  2. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Padilla, Alexis; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Restrepo Flórez, Claudia Estela; Rivero Barrios, Diana Marsela; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry). In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3) and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa) and temperatures (313 and 343 K) were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3) was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC) model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments. PMID:28773640

  3. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

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    Alexis López-Padilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry. In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3 and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa and temperatures (313 and 343 K were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3 was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments.

  4. Development and stability of semisolid preparations based on a supercritical CO2 Arnica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilia, Anna Rita; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Mazzi, Giovanni; Vincieri, Franco Francesco

    2006-05-03

    Conventional herbal drug preparations (HDP) based on Arnica montana L. have a low content of the active principles, sesquiterpene lactones, which show poor stability and low physical compatibility in semisolid formulations. Recently, an innovative supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extract with high sesquiterpene content has been marketed. Development of six semisolid preparations (cetomacrogol, polysorbate 60, polawax, anphyphil, natrosol and sepigel) based on this innovative CO2 extract is discussed. Stability of these preparations was investigated according to ICH guidelines. The evaluation of in vitro release of active constituents was performed using the cell method reported in the European Pharmacopoeia. Preliminary data on in vivo permeation of three selected formulations is demonstrated using the "skin stripping" test, according to the FDA, in healthy subjects. Analysis of sesquiterpene lactones within the extract and in vitro and in vivo studies was performed by RP-HPLC-DAD-MS method. The cetomacrogol showed the best release profile in the in vitro test, while in the in vivo test the best preparation resulted polysorbate 60 and polawax.

  5. Supercritical CO2 extract and essential oil of bay (Laurus nobilis L.) – chemical composition and antibacterial activity

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction and hydrodistillation (HD) of dried bay leaves (Laurus nobilis L.). The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the SC-CO2 extract and essential oil (EO) from dried leaves of bay were compared to each other and literature data. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the SC-CO2 extract and EO were performed using GC–FID and GC–MS analytical methods. A significant difference in the chemical compositio...

  6. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO2 Algal Extracts

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    Izabela Michalak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilitarian properties of the extract-based products. The extracts were analysed for the presence of biologically active molecules (e.g., plant hormones, polyphenols which provide useful properties such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. The bio-products were tested in germination tests and underwent field trials to search for plant growth biostimulatory properties. Tests on animals (laying hens experiments were conducted to assess pro-health properties of new dietary feed supplement. Another application were cosmetic formulations (dermatological tests. The results of the application tests were very promising, however further studies are required for the registration of the products and successful implementation to the market.

  7. Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) fruit using compressed propane and supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ciro E F; Scapinello, Jaqueline; Bohn, Aline; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Magro, Jacir Dall; Palliga, Marshall; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Tres, Marcus V

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, Ilex paraguariensis leaves are consumed in tea form or as typical drinks like mate and terere, while the fruits are discarded processing and has no commercial value. The aim of this work to evaluate phytochemical properties, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Ilex paraguariensis fruits obtained from supercritical CO2 and compressed propane extraction. The extraction with compressed propane yielded 2.72 wt%, whereas with supercritical CO2 1.51 wt% was obtained. The compound extracted in larger amount by the two extraction solvents was caffeine, 163.28 and 54.17 mg/g by supercritical CO2 and pressurized propane, respectively. The antioxidant activity was more pronounced for the supercritical CO2 extract, with no difference found in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus for the two extracts and better results observed for Escherichia coli when using supercritical CO2.

  8. [Optimize the extraction process with supercritical CO2 fluid from lotus leaves by the uniform design and analysis on the chemical constituents by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hui-jing; Qian, Yi-fan; Pu, Cun-hai

    2007-04-01

    To study the optimum parameters of the supercritical CO, fluid extraction of lotus leaves and chemical constituents of extractive matters. Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction condition was selected by uniform design. The extraction pressure, extraction temperature, extraction time were three factors in the experiment. GC-MS was applied for analyzing the extraction. The optimum condition were obtained: the extraction pressure was 26 Mpa, the extraction temperature was 40 degrees C, the extracion time was 90 minutes. The major constituent was 1H-Pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, 1-ethyl-in extractive matters. Uniform design can optimize the CO2 Supercritical Fluid Extraction process quickly and accuratly with satisfactory results.

  9. [Technology of extraction of essential oil from leaves of Vitex negundo L. var. heterophylla (Franch.) Rehd. by supercritical CO2 apparatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianchun; Sun, Baoguo; Zheng, Fuping; Yu, Min

    2005-12-01

    By the designation of mono-factor experiments and orthogonal multifactor experiments, influences of extraction temperature, extraction pressure, CO2 flow rate and extraction times on the yield of oil from the leaves of Vitex negundo L. var. heterophylla (Franch.) Rehd. in the supercritical CO2 extraction process were investigated. The obtained optimal extraction technology was: the extraction pressure: 22 MPa; the extraction temperature: 45 degrees C; the CO2 flow rate: 25 L/h and the extraction time: 3h. The oil yield on the above supercritical CO2 extraction conditions was 3.22%.

  10. Supercritical CO2 extraction of oil and omega-3 concentrate from Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. from Antioquia, Colombia

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    D. M. Triana-Maldonado

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. seeds were employed for oil extraction with supercritical CO2 at laboratory scale. The supercritical extraction was carried out at a temperature of 60 °C, pressure range of 400–500 bars and CO2 flow of 40–80 g/min. The maximum recovery was 58% in 180 min, favored by increasing the residence time of CO2 in the extraction tank. Subsequently, the process was evaluated at pilot scale reaching a maximum recovery of 60% in 105 min, with a temperature of 60 °C, pressure of 450 bars and CO2 flow of 1270 g/min. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected for an extraction period of 30–120 min. The Sacha inchi oil was fractionated with supercritical CO2 to obtain an omega-3 concentrate oil without finding a considerable increase in the proportion of this compound, due to the narrow range in the carbon number of fatty acids present in the oil (16–18 carbons, making it difficult for selective separation.

  11. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as a clean technology for palm kernel oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhuda I

    2009-04-01

    Kyoto Protocol. Keywords: By-product, Solvent extraction, Kyoto protocol, Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, Palm Kernel Oil Received: 13 July 2008 / Received in revised form: 17 February 2009, Accepted: 28 February 2009, Published online: 12 March 2009

  12. Parameters optimization of supercritical fluid-CO2 extracts of frankincense using response surface methodology and its pharmacodynamics effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Ma, Xing-miao; Qiu, Bi-Han; Chen, Jun-xia; Bian, Lin; Pan, Lin-mei

    2013-01-01

    The volatile oil parts of frankincense (Boswellia carterii Birdw.) were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide under constant pressure (15, 20, or 25 MPa) and fixed temperature (40, 50, or 60°C), given time (60, 90, or 120 min) aiming at the acquisition of enriched fractions containing octyl acetate, compounds of pharmaceutical interest. A mathematical model was created by Box-Behnken design, a popular template for response surface methodology, for the extraction process. The response value was characterized by synthetical score, which comprised yields accounting for 20% and content of octyl acetate for 80%. The content of octyl acetate was determined by GC. The supercritical fluid extraction showed higher selectivity than conventional steam distillation. Supercritical fluid-CO(2) for extracting frankincense under optimum condition was of great validity, which was also successfully verified by the pharmacological experiments.

  13. Supercritical CO2 extraction of beta-carotene from a marine strain of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Olimpio; Macías-Sánchez, Maria Dolores; Lama, Carmen M; Lubián, Luis M; Mantell, Casimiro; Rodríguez, Miguel; de la Ossa, Enrique M

    2005-12-14

    Dynamic extraction of carotenoids from a marine strain of Synechococcus sp. (Cyanophyceae) with supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) was investigated with regard to operation pressure and temperature effects on extraction efficiency. Extraction yield (milligrams of pigment per gram of dry weight) for SC-CO2) was compared with the extraction yield for dimethylformamide (DMF). Carotenoids extracted with SC-CO2 were beta-carotene (Ct), zeaxanthin (Z), beta-cryptoxanthin (Cr), and equinenone; chlorophyll a was poorly extracted, whereas myxoxanthophyll, another major carotenoid, was not extracted under any experimental condition. The highest relative yield, which is defined here as y(r) = [(mg of pigment(SC-CO2)/mg of pigment(DMF))] x 100, was 76.1 +/- 8.6% for Ct, but it rose to 87.0 +/- 3.4% when 15% ethanol was used as cosolvent. The pressure effect on y(r) was found to be significant (p extraction were determined to be (358, 50) for Ct, (454, 59) for Cr, and (500, 60) for Z. Cell disruption by sonication or detergent treatment of the biomass did not improve the extraction efficiency. Matrix structure together with material state could explain the low carotenoid extraction yield obtained with SC-CO2 as compared to DMF in Synechococcus sp. However, the process can be applied to selective extraction of different carotenoids.

  14. Immunomodulatory effects of supercritical fluid CO2 extracts from freeze-dried powder of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm

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    QingFeng TANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to take full advantage of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm resources, the supercritical CO2 fluid freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae (fdTML extraction on the immune systems of mice was carried out. The results about the effects of supercritical CO2 fluid fdTML extraction on carbon expurgation and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages experiments of mice indicated that the fdTML extraction enhanced observably carbon expurgatory index, phagocytic rate and phagocytic index. The fdTML extraction could stimulate response of delayed hypersensitivity. The proliferation of ConA-induced mitogenic reponse for spleen lymphocyte was also increased. The amount of hemolytic antibody in mice serum increased compared with those of the control group mice. The half of hemolysis values in serum of treated mice increased compared to the control group. Furthermore, serum NO content in all treatment groups was higher than that of the control group whereas acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity was only significantly higher relative to the control group. Our findings suggest that supercritical CO2 fluid the fdTML extraction has potential as a health food supplement.

  15. Determination of extraction conditions of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves by supercritical CO2 using response surface methodology

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    Milošević Svetlana G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of process parameters on the extraction of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves with supercritical carbon dioxide were investigated. The investigated parameters include particle size (mean particle diameter 0.19, 0.467 and 1.009 mm, solvent flow rate (1.5810-3, 3.2210-3 and 4.1610-3 kg CO2/min and pressure (100-300 bar, which were obtained by the response surface methodology (RSM under the following condition ranges: temperature 40-50-60ºC, pressure 100-140-180 bar and extraction time of 2-3-4 h at the flow rate of 3.2210-3 kg/min. Based on the experimental results of kinetics of Ginkgo biloba leaves extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide, modeling of the extraction system of Ginkgo biloba-supercritical CO2 was done. Two mathematical models (Reverchon-Sesti Osseo and Sovová were applied to correlate the experimental data. RSM was applied to optimize the process parameters of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves. A second-order polynomial response surface equation was developed indicating the effect of variables on Ginkgo biloba extraction yield. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that pressure (X1, extraction time (X3, the quadratic of temperature (X22, and the interaction between pressure and extraction time (X1X3, show significant effect on the extraction yield. The results showed that the data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model. It was predicted that the optimum extraction process parameters within the experimental ranges would be the extraction temperature of 52.7ºC, the pressure of 184.4 bar, and the extraction time of 3.86 h. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield is 2.39% (g/100 g drug.

  16. Supercritical CO2 extraction of functional compounds from Spirulina and their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K G, Mallikarjun Gouda; K, Udaya Sankar; R, Sarada; G A, Ravishankar

    2015-06-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and fractionation of Spirulina platensis was carried out to obtain functional compounds with antioxidant, antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitory activities. Extraction of SCCO2 was carried out using 200 g of Spirulina powder at 40 ºC under 120 bar pressure with CO2 flow rate of 1.2 kg h(-1). SCCO2 fraction obtained was further treated with hexane and ethyl acetate to identify its components. Individual components were identified by comparing mass spectra of samples with standard data and retention indices (RI) of C5-C20 n-alkanes mixture using the kovat index formula. The phenolic and flavonoid content of the SCCO2 extract was found to be 0.34 ± 0.01 g/100 g and 0.12 ± 0.01 g/100 g respectively. The SCCO2 extract had antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 109.6 ± 3.0 μg mL(-1) for DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical), IC50 value of 81.66 ± 2.5 μg mL(-1) for reducing power and IC50 value of 112.70 ± 0.8 μg mL(-1) for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Further, antioxidant activity study on oxidative induced DNA damage was analysed to elucidate the positive role of SCCO2 extract. SCCO2 extracts showed high antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722 and Bacillus cereus F 4810) compared to that of Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 108 and Yersinia enterocolitica MTCC 859). The SCCO2 extract exhibited inhibitory activity on both Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 274 ± 1.0 μg mL(-1) and 307 ± 2.0 μg mL(-1) respectively.

  17. Supercritical CO2 extraction of candlenut oil: process optimization using Taguchi orthogonal array and physicochemical properties of the oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subroto, Erna; Widjojokusumo, Edward; Veriansyah, Bambang; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2017-04-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine optimum conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of candlenut oil. A Taguchi experimental design with L9 orthogonal array (four factors in three levels) was employed to evaluate the effects of pressure of 25-35 MPa, temperature of 40-60 °C, CO2 flow rate of 10-20 g/min and particle size of 0.3-0.8 mm on oil solubility. The obtained results showed that increase in particle size, pressure and temperature improved the oil solubility. The supercritical carbon dioxide extraction at optimized parameters resulted in oil yield extraction of 61.4% at solubility of 9.6 g oil/kg CO2. The obtained candlenut oil from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction has better oil quality than oil which was extracted by Soxhlet extraction using n-hexane. The oil contains high unsaturated oil (linoleic acid and linolenic acid), which have many beneficial effects on human health.

  18. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Flowers: Optimisation of Oxygenated Monoterpenes, Coumarin and Herniarin Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Molnar, Maja; Vidović, Senka; Vladić, Jelena; Jokić, Stela

    2017-07-14

    Lavandula angustifolia is good source of oxygenated monoterpenes containing coumarins as well, which are all soluble in supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2 ). The study objective is to investigate SC-CO2 extraction parameters on: the total yield; GC-MS profile of the extracts; relative content of oxygenated monoterpenes; the amount of coumarin and herniarin; and to determine optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions by response surface methodology (RSM). SC-CO2 extraction was performed under different pressure, temperature and CO2 flow rate determined by Box-Behnken design (BBD). The sample mass and the extraction time were kept constant. The chemical profiles and relative content of oxygenated monoterpenes (as coumarin equivalents, CE) were determined by GC-MS. Coumarin and herniarin concentrations were dosed by HPLC. SC-CO2 extracts contained linalool (57.4-217.9 mg CE/100 g), camphor (10.6-154.4 mg CE/100 g), borneol (6.2-99.9 mg CE/100 g), 1,8-cineole (5.0-70.4 mg CE/100 g), linalyl acetate (86.1-267.9 mg CE/100 g), coumarin (0.95-18.16 mg/100 g), and herniarin (0.95-13.63 mg/100 g). The interaction between the pressure and CO2 flow rate as well as between the temperature and CO2 flow rate showed statistically significant influence on the extraction yield. Applying BBD, the optimum extraction conditions for higher monoterpenes and lower coumarin content were at 10 MPa, 41°C and CO2 flow rate 2.3 kg/h, and at 30 MPa, 50°C and CO2 flow rate 3 kg/h for higher monoterpenes and coumarin content. SC-CO2 extraction is a viable technique for obtaining lavender extracts with desirable flavour components. The second-order model based on BBD predicts the results for SC-CO2 extraction quite satisfactorily. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Determination of extractability of pine bark using supercritical CO(2) extraction and different solvents: optimization and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem; Otto, Frank; Gruener, Sabine; Parlar, Harun

    2009-01-28

    Bark from Pinus brutia was extracted with supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), using CO(2), at various extraction conditions both at laboratory and at pilot scale. Optimized parameters were 200 bar, 60 degrees C, and 3% ethanol at a solvent/feed ratio of 30. Additionally, the pine bark was sonicated (1 h at 50 degrees C) by different solvents (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol) to investigate the correlation between the different extraction setups and to obtain information on SFE up-scaling possibilities. Analyzed by HPLC, 7.2% of (-)-catechin was extractable at laboratory scale, and 58.4% (800 bar) and 47.8% (200 bar), both with modifiers, at pilot scale. By sonication with ethanol, 46.8% of (-)-catechin and almost 100% of (-)-epicatechin and (-)-catechin gallate were extracted. Ethyl acetate extract revealed high correlations with the laboratory scale SFE (r = 0.98) and also pilot scale SFE runs at 200 (r = 0.99) and 800 bar (r = 0.98) without modifiers.

  20. Study on Extraction Technology of Tea Seed Oil by Supercritical CO2%超临界CO2萃取茶叶籽油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈升荣; 张彬; 罗家星; 邓丹雯

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, microwave is used to bake tea seed kernel, and the optimal parameter of tea seed oil extraction process by supercritical CO2 is studied. Experimental results show that the optimal conditions are: extrac- tion temperature 60℃ , extraction pressure 30MPa, extraction time 100 min, CO2 flow rate 45 - 55 kg/h, and the ex- traction rate is 94.1%. The physical and chemical properties and the fatty acid composition of the tea seed oil are de- termined.%采用微波加热茶叶籽仁粉,用超临界CO2萃取茶叶籽油,探讨了超临界CO2萃取茶叶籽油适宜工艺参数。实验结果表明:在萃取温度60℃、萃取压力30MPa,萃取时间100min,CO2流量45~55kg/h条件下,油脂提取率为94.1%,并测定了茶叶籽油的理化性质及脂肪酸组成。

  1. Optimization and evaluation of wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu, LiYa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the parameters of supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE of wheat germ oil. The quality of the oil and residual meal obtained by SFE and solvent extraction (SE were evaluated from proximate analysis, fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity. A maximum oil yield of 10.46% was achieved under the optimal conditions of wheat germ particle size 60-80 mesh; water content 4.37%; pressure 30MPa; temperature 40°C extraction time 1.7h. The oil obtained by SFE showed stronger DPPH radical scavenging ability than SE oil at the same concentration. The fatty acid composition of SFE oil was similar to SE oil. Higher contents of protein (34.3% and lysine (2.47g/100g were found in the residual meal obtained by SFE. The results show that oil and defatted meal obtained by SFE can be promising nutritional sources for food.Un diseño Box-Behnken combinado con metodología de superficie de respuesta (RSM fue usado para optimizar los parámetros de extracción con fluido supercrítico (SFE del aceite de germen de trigo. La calidad del aceite y de la harina residual obtenida por SFE y por extracción con solvente (SE fue evaluada mediante su análisis porcentual, composición de ácidos grasos y actividad antioxidante. Un máximo rendimiento de aceite del 10.46% fue obtenido con las condiciones óptimas de 60-80 mesh de tamaño de partícula del germen de trigo; 4.37% contenido de agua; 30MPa de presión; 40°C de temperatura y 1.7 h de tiempo de extracción. El aceite obtenido por SFE mostró una capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres mucho mayor que el aceite obtenido por SE a la misma concentración. La composición de ácidos grasos del aceite SFE fue similar al aceite SE. El mayor contenido de proteínas (34% y de lisina (2.47g/100g fue encontrado en las harinas residuales obtenidas por SFE. Los resultados muestran que el aceite y la harina desengrasada obtenidas por SFE

  2. A mass transfer model applied to the supercritical extraction with CO2 of curcumins from turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Chassagnez-Méndez

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing restrictions on the use of artificial pigments in the food industry, imposed by the international market, have increased the importance of raw materials containing natural pigments. Of those natural substances with potential applications turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa L, are one of the most important natural sources of yellow coloring. Three different pigments (curcumin, desmetoxycurcumin, and bis-desmetoxycurcumin constitute the curcuminoids. These pigments are largely used in the food industry as substitutes for synthetic dyes like tartrazin. Extraction of curcuminoids from tumeric rhizomes with supercritical CO2 can be applied as an alternative method to obtain curcuminoids, as natural pigments are in general unstable, and hence degrade when submitted to extraction with organic solvents at high temperatures. Extraction experiments were carried out in a supercritical extraction pilot plant at pressures between 25 and 30 MPa and a temperature of 318 K. The influence of drying pretreatment on extraction yield was evaluated by analyzing the mass transfer kinetics and the content of curcuminoids in the extracts during the course of extraction. The chemical identification of curcuminoids in both the extract and the residual solid was performed by spectrophotometry. Mass transfer within the solid matrix was described by a linear first-order desorption model, while that in the gas phase was described by a convective mass transfer model. Experimental results showed that the concentration profile for curcuminoids during the supercritical extraction process was higher when the turmeric rhizomes were submitted to a drying pretreatment at 343 K.

  3. Comparative study of lipid extraction from microalgae by organic solvent and supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen-Hsi; Du, Tz-Bang; Pi, Hsien-Chueh; Jang, Shyue-Ming; Lin, Yun-Huin; Lee, Hom-Ti

    2011-11-01

    Pavlova sp. was employed to evaluate the efficiency of different lipid extraction methods. The microalgal crude lipids content determined using the mixed solvent with ultrasonic method was 44.7 wt.%. The triglyceride content obtained by the mixed solvent method was 15.6 wt.%. The extraction yield was the FAME yield divided by the maximum FAME (15.9 wt.%). The extraction yield was improved by cell disruption prior to extraction, and the highest triglyceride extraction yield of 98.7% was observed using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method with bead-beating. The results indicate that the SFE method is effective and provides higher selectivity for triglyceride extraction though the total lipid extracted was less than that using solvent extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM PRESSED PALM OIL (Elaes guineensis FIBERS USING SUPERCRITICAL CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. FRANÇA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Residual fibers from palm oil production are a good source of carotene, since they contain more than 5% of the original oil, with about 5000 ppm of carotenoids. As carotenoids are thermosensitive molecules, supercritical CO2 can be used for oil recovery, because this technique employs low temperatures. In this work results of oil extraction experiments from pressed palm oil fibers are shown. Fibers were from AGROPALMA, an industry which is located in Tailândia (Pará, Brazil. Extractions were carried out at 200, 250 and 300 bar and at temperatures of 45 and 55oC. Oil was analyzed by UV/vis spectrophotometry for total carotene determination. Results showed a large increase in extraction rate from 200 to 250 bar and a small variation from 250 to 300 bar. The total amount of carotenes did not increase in the course of extraction at 300 bar, but it showed a large increase at 200 and at 250 bar. Free fatty acids are present in amounts larger than those found in commercial oils.As fibras residuais do processo de produção de óleo de palma (óleo de dendê, podem ser uma boa fonte de carotenos, pois contém, ainda, mais de 5% do óleo original, com cerca de 5.000 ppm de carotenóides. Como os carotenóides são moléculas termodegradáveis, é importante um estudo do emprego de CO2 supercrítico na extração deste óleo, visto que esta é uma técnica que emprega baixas temperaturas. Neste trabalho são mostrados os resultados de experimentos de extração do óleo das fibras prensadas de dendê, feitas a 200, 250 e 300 bar e temperaturas de 45 e 55oC. As fibras prensadas foram obtidas da produção industrial da indústria AGROPALMA, localizada em Tailândia (Pará, Brasil. O óleo obtido foi analisado por espectrofotometria UV/vis para a determinação do teor de carotenos totais. Os resultados mostram um aumento na taxa de extração entre 200 e 250 bar, mas esta variação foi pequena entre 250 e 300 bar. O teor de carotenos totais não aumenta

  5. [Analyze on chemical compositions of Dalbergia odorifera essential oils extracted by CO2-supercritical-fluid-extraction and steam distillation extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei-Feng; Liao, Mei-Jin; Luo, Shu-Yuan

    2011-11-01

    To analyze the chemical compositions of Dalbergia odorifera essential oils extacted by CO2-supercritical-fluid-extraction (SFE-CO2) and steam distillation extraction (SD). The essential oils of Dalbergia odorifera were extracted by steam distillation extraction and SFE-CO2. The chemical components were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 12 compounds were identified in SFE sample. The major components from essential oils were 2-propenoic acid-3(4-methoxyphenyl)-ethyl ester (14.53%), nerolidol (14.95%), ageratochromene (1.33%). 9 compounds were identified in SD sample. The major components from essential oils were nerolidol (26.61%), cedrol (1.65%). The SFE method is better than the SD method in reliability stability and reproducibility, and suitable for essential oils extraction of Dalbergia odorifera.

  6. Supercritical CO2 extract and essential oil of bay (Laurus nobilis L. – chemical composition and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASNA IVANOVIĆ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction and hydrodistillation (HD of dried bay leaves (Laurus nobilis L.. The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the SC-CO2 extract and essential oil (EO from dried leaves of bay were compared to each other and literature data. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the SC-CO2 extract and EO were performed using GC–FID and GC–MS analytical methods. A significant difference in the chemical composition of the SC-CO2 extract and EO was observed. The EO comprised high contents of monoterpenes and their oxygenated derivates (98.4 %, principally 1,8-cineole (33.4 %, linalool (16.0 % and α-terpinyl acetate (13.8 %, sabinene (6.91 % and methyl eugenol (5.32 %. The SC-CO2 extract comprised twice less monoterpenes and their oxygenated derivates (43.89 %, together with sesquiterpenes (12.43 %, diterpenes (1.33 % and esters (31.13 %. The major components were methyl linoleate (16.18 %, α-terpinyl acetate (12.88 %, linalool (9.00 %, methyl eugenol (8.67 %, methyl arachidonate (6.28 % and eugenol (6.14 %. An investigation of the antibacterial activity of bay SC-CO2 extract and EO was completed on different Staphylococcus strains using the broth macrodilution method. Staphylococcus intermedius strains were the most susceptible to both the SC-CO2 extract and EO (MIC = 640 µg/ml.

  7. Antioxidant effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract on deep fried oil quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solati, Zeinab; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2015-06-01

    Effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract (NE) on frying performance of sunflower oil and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein was investigated at concentrations of 1.2 % and 1.0 % respectively. Two frying systems containing 0 % N. sativa L. extract (Control) and 0.02 % butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used for comparison. Physicochemical properties such as fatty acid composition (FAC), Peroxide Value (PV), Anisidine Value (AV), Totox Value (TV), Total Polar Content (TPC), C18:2/C16:0 ratio and viscosity of frying oils were determined during five consecutive days of frying. Results have shown that N. sativa L. extract was able to improve the oxidative stability of both frying oils during the frying process compared to control. The stabilizing effect of antioxidants were in the order of BHT > NE. RBD palm olein was found to be more stable than sunflower oil based on the ratio of linoleic acid (C18:2) to palmitic acid (C16:0) and fatty acid composition.

  8. Kinetics of the extraction of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L by supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE has been used to obtain total lipid extracts from other oilseeds, and it has also proved successful in the isolation and enrichment of sterols from oilseeds. The SFE of pumpkin seed oil on a laboratory scale was investigated in thus paper, with special interest in the influence of the extraction pressure on the overall yield of pumpkin seed oil. Extractions were carried out at the pressures of 15, 25 and 30 MPa and at 313 K, and at a pressure of 30 MPa and the temperatures 313, 323, and 333 K. The yield of the extractions conducted at 15 MPa was rather low, 0.1814 g oil per 1g of seed feed (18.4% for an extraction time of 14 h. However, extractions at higher pressures yielded greater quantities of the oil; at 22.5 MPa for 9 h, 36.3% of the oil and at 30 MPa for 6 h, 41.0% of the oil. For comparison, hexane extraction of the seed material yielded less than 40% of the oil. Temperature did not influence the extraction yield. At a pressure of 30 MPa, the color of the fractions yielded during successive extraction time intervals varied greatly, from pail yellow (the first 2 h, through orange-yellow (from 2-4 h to red (after 4 h. The experimental results of the oil yields were compared with the data obtained by the mathematical model of Hong et al., presented in the literature.

  9. Study on CO2-supercritical fluid extraction used to extract three kinds of tanshinones from the root of salvia meltiorrhiza bunge with different entrainers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To extract three kinds of tanshinones from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge by CO2-supercritical fluid extraction technology with different entrainers at different flow rates, and to investigate the effects of different entrainers. Methods:Three kinds of tanshinones were extracted at the optimal operation condition, and the massconcentration of three kinds of tanshinones in the extracts was determined by HPLC. Results: Among the three entrainers, the extracting effects of ethanol is the best, for the stronger polarity, followed by ethanol and normal octane. Conclusion: To increase the extracting rate of three kinds of tanshinones by CO2-supercritical fluid extraction technics, it is essential to use polar solvent as entrainer.

  10. Application of supercritical CO2 for extraction of polyisoprenoid alcohols and their esters from plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Adam; Brzozowski, Robert; Bujnowski, Zygmunt; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Swiezewska, Ewa

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a method of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide of polyisoprenoids from plant photosynthetic tissues is described. SFE was an effective extraction method for short- and medium-chain compounds with even higher yield than that observed for the "classical extraction" method with organic solvents. Moreover, SFE-derived extracts contained lower amounts of impurities (e.g., chlorophylls) than those obtained by extraction of the same tissue with organic solvents. Elevated temperature and extended extraction time of SFE resulted in a higher rate of extraction of long-chain polyisoprenoids. Ethanol cofeeding did not increase the extraction efficiency of polyisoprenoids; instead, it increased the content of impurities in the lipid extract. Optimization of SFE time and temperature gives the opportunity of prefractionation of complex polyisoprenoid mixtures accumulated in plant tissues. Extracts obtained with application of SFE are very stable and free from organic solvents and can further be used directly in experimental diet supplementation or as starting material for preparation of semisynthetic polyisoprenoid derivatives, e.g., polyisoprenoid phosphates.

  11. Uranium extraction from TRISO-coated fuel particles using supercritical CO2 containing tri-n-butyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liyang; Duan, Wuhua; Xu, Jingming; Zhu, Yongjun

    2012-11-30

    High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are advanced nuclear systems that will receive heavy use in the future. It is important to develop spent nuclear fuel reprocessing technologies for HTGR. A new method for recovering uranium from tristructural-isotropic (TRISO-) coated fuel particles with supercritical CO(2) containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as a complexing agent was investigated. TRISO-coated fuel particles from HTGR fuel elements were first crushed to expose UO(2) pellet fuel kernels. The crushed TRISO-coated fuel particles were then treated under O(2) stream at 750°C, resulting in a mixture of U(3)O(8) powder and SiC shells. The conversion of U(3)O(8) into solid uranyl nitrate by its reaction with liquid N(2)O(4) in the presence of a small amount of water was carried out. Complete conversion was achieved after 60 min of reaction at 80°C, whereas the SiC shells were not converted by N(2)O(4). Uranyl nitrate in the converted mixture was extracted with supercritical CO(2) containing TBP. The cumulative extraction efficiency was above 98% after 20 min of online extraction at 50°C and 25 MPa, whereas the SiC shells were not extracted by TBP. The results suggest an attractive strategy for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from HTGR to minimize the generation of secondary radioactive waste.

  12. Improved neuroprotective effects by combining Bacopa monnieri and Rosmarinus officinalis supercritical CO2 extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Escalon, Enrique; Melnick, Steven J

    2014-04-01

    Ethnobotanical evidence suggests that herbs such as brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) may possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. We compared the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of supercritical extract of Bacopa monnieri and rosemary antioxidant extract obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis as well as their combination to examine the effects on human glial (U-87 MG) and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cells. Bacopa monnieri extract, rosemary antioxidant extract, and their combination (1:1) are not cytotoxic in both glial and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell lines up to 200 μg/mL concentration. The combination of extracts of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant has better antioxidant potential and antilipid peroxidation activity than either agent alone. Although the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant showed almost similar inhibition of phospho tau expression as Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract alone, the combination has better inhibitory effect on amyloid precursor protein synthesis and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in hypothalamus cells than single agents. These results suggest that the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant is more neuroprotective than Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract.

  13. Research on supercritical fluid CO2 extraction of green bean oil%青豆油超临界CO2萃取技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况楠; 裴云生; 王喜刚; 史永革

    2012-01-01

    运用超临界CO2萃取技术提取青豆油,采用正交设计试验法,研究了温度、压力、萃取时间对青豆油提取率的影响,以提取率最大为目标,确定了最佳工艺条件。试验结果表明,最佳提取条件:萃取时间2.5h,压力30MPa,温度40℃。%The green bean oil was extracted with supercritical fluid CO2. The orthogonal ar- ray design method was adopted to research the influence of temperature, pressure, extraction time on extraction rate of green bean oil. On the aim of the maximal extraction rate, the optimum technological condition was determined. Results show that the optimum extraction condition was as follows: dynamic time as 2.5 h, pressure as 30 MPa, temperature as 40℃.

  14. Optimisation of biological and physical parameters for lycopene supercritical CO2 extraction from ordinary and high-pigment tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenucci, Marcello S; Caccioppola, Alessandro; Durante, Miriana; Serrone, Lucia; Leonardo, Rescio; Piro, Gabriella; Dalessandro, Giuseppe

    2010-08-15

    Lycopene is used for several industrial applications. Supercritical CO(2) (SC-CO(2)) extraction from red-ripe tomato fruits is an excellent technique to replace the use of harmful solvents. In this study, starting from red-ripe tomatoes of ordinary and high-lycopene cultivars, the effect of different agronomical and technical aspects on lycopene content, stability and yield was evaluated throughout the production process from fresh tomatoes to the final SC-CO(2)-extracted oleoresin containing lycopene. Red-ripe tomato cultivars differed in their lycopene content. Irrigation excess or deficit caused an increase in the amount of lycopene in the fruits. Fresh tomatoes were processed into a lyophilised matrix suitable for SC-CO(2) extraction, which could be stored for more than 6 months at -20 degrees C without lycopene loss. Under the optimal extraction conditions, efficiencies of up to 80% were achieved, but the recovery of lycopene in the extracted oleoresin was very low (approximately 24%). Co-extraction of the tomato matrix mixed with a lipid co-matrix allowed the recovery of approximately 90% of lycopene in the oleoresin. Using the high-lycopene cultivars, the yield of total extracted lycopene increased by approximately 60% with respect to the ordinary cultivars. Lipids and other biologically active molecules were present in the oleoresin. A method for extracting, from a tomato matrix, a natural and solvent-free oleoresin containing lycopene dissolved in a highly unsaturated vegetable oil has been described. The oleoresin represents an excellent product for testing on cancer and cardiovascular disease prevention. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Attard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM for maize stover wax extraction was found to be €88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI and utility costs (CUT contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of €10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation. A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity had the greatest effect on the COM.

  16. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Thomas M.; McElroy, Con Robert; Hunt, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM) for maize stover wax extraction was found to be €88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI) and utility costs (CUT) contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of €10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation) and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation). A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity) had the greatest effect on the COM. PMID:26263976

  17. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Thomas M; McElroy, Con Robert; Hunt, Andrew J

    2015-07-31

    To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM) for maize stover wax extraction was found to be € 88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI) and utility costs (CUT) contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of € 10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation) and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation). A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity) had the greatest effect on the COM.

  18. Extraction of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus essential oil using supercritical co2: experimental data and mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Citronella essential oil has more than eighty components, of which the most important ones are citronellal, geranial and limonene. They are present at high concentrations in the oil and are responsible for the repellent properties of the oil. The oil was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide due to the high selectivity of the solvent. The operational conditions studied varied from 313.15 to 353.15 K for the temperature and the applied pressures were 6.2, 10.0, 15.0 and 180.0 MPa. Better values of efficiency of the extracted oil were obtained at higher pressure conditions. At constant temperature, the amount of extracted oil increased when the pressure increased, but the opposite occurred when the temperature increased at constant pressure. The composition of the essential oil was complex, although there were several main components in the oil and some waxes were presented in the extracted oils above 10.0 MPa. The results were modeled using a mathematical model in a predictive way, reproducing the extraction curves over the maximum time of the process.

  19. The use of solvent extractions and solubility theory to discern hydrocarbon associations in coal, with application to the coal-supercritical CO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Samples of three high volatile bituminous coals were subjected to parallel sets of extractions involving solvents dichloromethane (DCM), carbon disulfide (CS2), and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) (40 °C, 100 bar) to study processes affecting coal–solvent interactions. Recoveries of perdeuterated surrogate compounds, n-hexadecane-d34 and four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), added as a spike prior to extraction, provided further insight into these processes. Soxhlet-DCM and Soxhlet-CS2 extractions yielded similar amounts of extractable organic matter (EOM) and distributions of individual hydrocarbons. Supercritical CO2 extractions (40 °C, 100 bar) yielded approximately an order of magnitude less EOM. Hydrocarbon distributions in supercritical CO2 extracts generally mimicked distributions from the other solvent extracts, albeit at lower concentrations. This disparity increased with increasing molecular weight of target hydrocarbons. Five- and six-ring ring PAHs generally were not detected and no asphaltenes were recovered in supercritical CO2 extractions conducted at 40 °C and 100 bar. Supercritical CO2 extraction at elevated temperature (115 °C) enhanced recovery of four-ring and five-ring PAHs, dibenzothiophene (DBT), and perdeuterated PAH surrogate compounds. These results are only partially explained through comparison with previous measurements of hydrocarbon solubility in supercritical CO2. Similarly, an evaluation of extraction results in conjunction with solubility theory (Hildebrand and Hansen solubility parameters) does not fully account for the hydrocarbon distributions observed among the solvent extracts. Coal composition (maceral content) did not appear to affect surrogate recovery during CS2 and DCM extractions but might affect supercritical CO2 extractions, which revealed substantive uptake (partitioning) of PAH surrogates into the coal samples. This uptake was greatest in the sample (IN-1) with the highest vitrinite content. These

  20. Supercritical extraction of essential oil from aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L) using CO2: solubility, kinetics, and composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vera M; Rosa, Paulo T V; Marques, Marcia O M; Petenate, Ademir J; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-03-12

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) from aniseed using carbon dioxide was performed at 30 degrees C and pressures of 80-180 bar. The chemical composition of the SFE extract was determined by GC-MS; the quantitative analysis was done by GC-FID and TLC. The total amount of extractable substances or global yield (mass of extract/mass of feed) for the SFE process varied from 3.13 to 10.67% (mass). The solubilities of the anise essential oil in CO(2) were 0.0110, 0.0277, 0.0143, and 0.0182 kg of solute/kg of CO(2) at 80, 100, 140, and 180 bar, respectively. The major compounds identified and quantified in the extracts were anethole ( approximately 90%), gamma-himachalene (2-4%), p-anisaldehyde (<1%), methylchavicol (0.9-1.5%), cis-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate ( approximately 3%), and trans-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate ( approximately 1.3%). The Sovová model described quite well the experimental overall extraction curves.

  1. HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Ten Annonaceous Acetogenins after Supercritical Fluid CO2 Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haijun; Zhang, Ning; Zeng, Qingqi; Yu, Qiping; Ke, Shihuai; Li, Xiang

    2010-09-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) isolated from Annonaceae plants exhibited a broad range of biological bioactivities such as cytotoxic, antitumoral, antiparasitic, pesticidal and immunosuppresive activities. However, their structures were liable to change at more than 60°C and their extraction yields were low using traditional organic solvent extraction. In the present study, all samples from Annona genus plant seeds were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide under optimized conditions and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established for simultaneously determining ten ACGs. All of the ten compounds were simultaneously separated on reversed-phase C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with the column temperature at 30°C. The mobile phase was composed of (A) methanol and (B) distilled water, the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the detection wavelength was set at 220 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (γ>0.9995) within the test range. The established method showed good precision and accuracy with overall intra-day and inter-day variations of 0.99-2.56% and 1.93-3.65%, respectively, and overall recoveries of 95.16-105.01% for the ten compounds analyzed. The established method can be applied to evaluate the intrinsic quality of Annonaceae plant seeds. The determination results recover the content-variation regularities of various ACGs in different species, which are helpful to choose the good-quality Annonaceae plant seeds for anticancer lead compound discovery.

  2. Supercritical CO2 extraction applied toward the production of a functional beverage from wine

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Fornari, Tiziana; Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Amador, Beatriz; Nieto, Juan Antonio; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Supercritical Fluids . Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in JOURNAL OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS 61 (2012) http://dx.doi.org...

  3. Supercritical CO(2)-extracted tomato Oleoresins enhance gap junction intercellular communications and recover from mercury chloride inhibition in keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Antonella; Zefferino, Roberto; Longo, Cristiano; Leo, Lucia; Zacheo, Giuseppe

    2010-04-28

    A nutritionally relevant phytochemical such as lycopene, found in tomatoes and other fruits, has been proposed to have health-promoting effects by modulating hormonal and immune systems, metabolic pathways, and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). This work analyzes lycopene extracts, obtained from tomato and tomato added with grape seeds by using a safe and environmentally friendly extraction process, based on supercritical carbon dioxide technology (S-CO(2)). Analysis of the innovative S-CO(2)-extracted oleoresins showed peculiar chemical composition with high lycopene concentration and the presence of other carotenoids, lipids, and phenol compounds. The oleoresins showed a higher in vitro antioxidant activity compared with pure lycopene and beta-carotene and the remarkable ability to enhance the GJIC and to increase cx43 expression in keratinocytes. The oleoresins, (0.9 microM lycopene), were also able to overcome, completely, the GJIC inhibition induced by 10 nM HgCl(2), mercury(II) chloride, suggesting a possible action mechanism.

  4. Supercritical CO2 extraction of Schinus molle L with co-solvents: mathematical modeling and antimicrobial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Scopel; Roberto Góes Neto; Manuel Alves Falcão; Eduardo Cassel; Rubem Mário Figueiró Vargas

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the antimicrobial activity of the Schinus molle L. leaves extracts obtained under supercritical conditions using carbon dioxide and co-solvents. Antimicrobial qualitative evaluation was carried out through the bioautography technique and the microorganisms studied were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosas, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Salmonella choleraesuis. The supercritical fluid extraction was carried out in a pilot scale equipment using carbo...

  5. Inhibition of AKT signaling by supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Portalatin, Gilda; Quirin, Karl-W; Escalon, Enrique; Khatib, Ziad; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a less-investigated herb for anticancer properties than other related Curcuma species. AKT (a serine/threonine protein kinase B, originally identified as an oncogene in the transforming retrovirus AKT8) plays a central role in the development and promotion of cancer. In this investigation, we have analyzed the effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) on the genetic pathways associated with AKT signaling in human glioblastoma cells. The inhibitory effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada) on AKT signaling was investigated in U-87MG glioblastoma cells. CA was highly cytotoxic to glioblastoma cell line (IC50=4.92±0.81 µg/mL) compared to mHypoE-N1 normal mouse hypothalamus cell line (IC50=40.57±0.06 µg/mL). CA inhibits AKT (protein Kinase B) and adenosine monophophate -activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) phosphorylation significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The cell migration which is necessary for invasion and metastasis was also inhibited by CA treatment, with about 43% reduction at 20 µg/mL concentration. Analysis of mRNA and protein expression of genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation and angiogenesis showed that CA modulates expression of genes associated with apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-X, BNIP3, caspase-3, mutant p53 and p21), cell proliferation (Ki67) and angiogenesis vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Additionally, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and AMPKα genes interacting with the AKT signaling pathway were also downregulated by CA treatment. These results indicate the molecular targets and mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of CA in human glioblastoma cells.

  6. Evaluation of the composition of Carica papaya L. seed oil extracted with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro T.W. Barroso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the most important tropical fruit grown in the world today and in Brazil, papaya occupies a prominent place. Native to tropical America, papaya has spread to several regions of the world, and Brazil accounts for 12.74% of the world production, followed by Mexico, Nigeria and India. The culture reached a harvested area of 441,042 ha and production of 12,420,585 t worldwide. The largest interest in this fruit relies on its main constituent compounds, like vitamins A, B and C, alkaloids (carpaine and pseudocarpaine, proteolytic enzymes (papain and quimiopapain and benzyl isothiocyanate, more known as BITC, which has anthelmintic activity. Because of that, the present work has as objective the evaluation of the efficiency and composition of the oil extracted from Carica papaya L. seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed in a unit containing mainly a high-pressure pump and a stainless steel extractor with 42 mL of volume. The sampling was performed at each 20 min until the saturation of the process. About 6.5 g of sample were fed for each experiment done at 40, 60 and 80 °C under the pressures of 100, 150 and 200 bar. Samples of the Carica papaya L. fruit were acquired in a popular market and free for personal use intended for the study. After collection, the seeds were crushed with the help of a pestle, and dried at 60 °C for 60 min. For each operational condition, the extraction curves were constructed relating cumulative mass of oil extracted in function of the operational time. The better efficiencies were found at 40 °C and 200 bar (1.33% followed by 80 °C and 200 bar (2.56%. Gas chromatography and NMR analysis could identify an insecticide component (BITC that enables new applications of this residue in pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  7. Evaluation of the composition of Carica papaya L. seed oil extracted with supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Pedro T W; de Carvalho, Pedro P; Rocha, Thiago B; Pessoa, Fernando L P; Azevedo, Debora A; Mendes, Marisa F

    2016-09-01

    Among the most important tropical fruit grown in the world today and in Brazil, papaya occupies a prominent place. Native to tropical America, papaya has spread to several regions of the world, and Brazil accounts for 12.74% of the world production, followed by Mexico, Nigeria and India. The culture reached a harvested area of 441,042 ha and production of 12,420,585 t worldwide. The largest interest in this fruit relies on its main constituent compounds, like vitamins A, B and C, alkaloids (carpaine and pseudocarpaine), proteolytic enzymes (papain and quimiopapain) and benzyl isothiocyanate, more known as BITC, which has anthelmintic activity. Because of that, the present work has as objective the evaluation of the efficiency and composition of the oil extracted from Carica papaya L. seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed in a unit containing mainly a high-pressure pump and a stainless steel extractor with 42 mL of volume. The sampling was performed at each 20 min until the saturation of the process. About 6.5 g of sample were fed for each experiment done at 40, 60 and 80 °C under the pressures of 100, 150 and 200 bar. Samples of the Carica papaya L. fruit were acquired in a popular market and free for personal use intended for the study. After collection, the seeds were crushed with the help of a pestle, and dried at 60 °C for 60 min. For each operational condition, the extraction curves were constructed relating cumulative mass of oil extracted in function of the operational time. The better efficiencies were found at 40 °C and 200 bar (1.33%) followed by 80 °C and 200 bar (2.56%). Gas chromatography and NMR analysis could identify an insecticide component (BITC) that enables new applications of this residue in pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  8. Economic Analysis of an Integrated Annatto Seeds-Sugarcane Biorefinery Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction as a First Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarelli, Juliana Q.; Santos, Diego T.; Cocero, María José; Meireles, M. Angela A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been indicated to be utilized as part of a biorefinery, rather than as a stand-alone technology, since besides extracting added value compounds selectively it has been shown to have a positive effect on the downstream processing of biomass. To this extent, this work evaluates economically the encouraging experimental results regarding the use of SFE during annatto seeds valorization. Additionally, other features were discussed such as the benefits of enhancing the bioactive compounds concentration through physical processes and of integrating the proposed annatto seeds biorefinery to a hypothetical sugarcane biorefinery, which produces its essential inputs, e.g., CO2, ethanol, heat and electricity. For this, first, different configurations were modeled and simulated using the commercial simulator Aspen Plus® to determine the mass and energy balances. Next, each configuration was economically assessed using MATLAB. SFE proved to be decisive to the economic feasibility of the proposed annatto seeds-sugarcane biorefinery concept. SFE pretreatment associated with sequential fine particles separation process enabled higher bixin-rich extract production using low-pressure solvent extraction method employing ethanol, meanwhile tocotrienols-rich extract is obtained as a first product. Nevertheless, the economic evaluation showed that increasing tocotrienols-rich extract production has a more pronounced positive impact on the economic viability of the concept. PMID:28773616

  9. Economic Analysis of an Integrated Annatto Seeds-Sugarcane Biorefinery Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction as a First Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Q. Albarelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE has been indicated to be utilized as part of a biorefinery, rather than as a stand-alone technology, since besides extracting added value compounds selectively it has been shown to have a positive effect on the downstream processing of biomass. To this extent, this work evaluates economically the encouraging experimental results regarding the use of SFE during annatto seeds valorization. Additionally, other features were discussed such as the benefits of enhancing the bioactive compounds concentration through physical processes and of integrating the proposed annatto seeds biorefinery to a hypothetical sugarcane biorefinery, which produces its essential inputs, e.g., CO2, ethanol, heat and electricity. For this, first, different configurations were modeled and simulated using the commercial simulator Aspen Plus® to determine the mass and energy balances. Next, each configuration was economically assessed using MATLAB. SFE proved to be decisive to the economic feasibility of the proposed annatto seeds-sugarcane biorefinery concept. SFE pretreatment associated with sequential fine particles separation process enabled higher bixin-rich extract production using low-pressure solvent extraction method employing ethanol, meanwhile tocotrienols-rich extract is obtained as a first product. Nevertheless, the economic evaluation showed that increasing tocotrienols-rich extract production has a more pronounced positive impact on the economic viability of the concept.

  10. Isolation of Organochlorine Pesticide from Ginseng with Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑芬; 王幼君; 全灿; 田松江

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of removal of the organochlorine pesticides residues of hexachlorocyclohexane(BHC) from radix ginseng with supercritical CO2 was explored. Some factors, such as extraction pressure, extraction temperature, and kinds of co-solvents were investigated. The experimental results indicate that it is possible to reduce BHC residues in radix ginseng to the level of 0.1 × 10-6 with supercritical CO2 in the presence of suitable amount of co-solvent, such as water.

  11. Extraction of rare earth elements from their oxides using organophosphorus reagent complexes with HNO_3 and H_2O in supercritical CO_2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段五华; 曹丕佳; 朱永(贝睿)

    2010-01-01

    Direct extraction of metals from solids with complexing agents in supercritical CO2(SC-CO2) has recently attracted interests in separation,purification,recovery,and analysis of metals.In the present study,the static/dynamic extraction of rare earth elements(Nd,Ce) from their oxides(Nd2O3,CeO2) with organophosphorus complexes with HNO3 and H2O in SC-CO2 was investigated.The static extraction efficiency of Nd from Nd2O3 with the tri-n-butylphosphate(TBP)-HNO3 complex could reach 95% under optimized experiment...

  12. Study on Optimization of Process for Extracting Ginger Oil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction Technology%超临界CO2萃取姜油树脂的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建立; 李公春

    2011-01-01

    [目的]优化采用超临界CO_2萃取取姜油树脂的工艺.[方法]利用超临界CO_2流体作为萃取溶剂从干姜中提取姜油树脂,研究萃取压力、萃取时间和萃取温度对姜油树脂萃取率的影响,通过正交试验确定了姜油树脂萃取工艺的最佳萃取条件.[结果]姜油树脂超临界CO_2萃取的最佳萃取工艺条件为:萃取压力35MPa,萃取时间2.5h,萃取温度40℃,在此条件下,姜油树脂的萃取率为2.86%.[结论]该研究可为调味料科研工作者和生产厂家提供参考.%[ Objective] The research aimed to optimize the process of extracting ginger oil by supercritical CO2 extraction technology. [ Method] The ginger oil was extracted from dry ginger by supercritical CO, fluid, and the effects of extraction pressure, extraction time and extraction temperature on extraction rate of ginger oil were studied. The optimum extraction condition of ginger oil was determined through orthogonal test. [Result] The optimum extraction process of ginger oil was extraction pressure of 35 Mpa, extraction time of 2.5 h, extraction temperature of 40 ℃. Under this condition, the extraction rate of ginger oil was 2.86%. [ Conclusion] The study can provide reference for scientists researching flavoring and manufacturers.

  13. [Comparison of Chemical Components of Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum Extracted by Supercritical CO2 Fluid and Steam Distillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-yu; Zheng, Jia-huan; Shi, Sheng-ying; Luo, Zhi-xiong; Ni, Shun-yu; Lin, Jing-ming

    2015-11-01

    To compare the chemical components of essential oil prepared by steam distillation extraction (SD) and supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE-CO2) from Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum whole plant. The essential oil of Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum were extracted by SD and SFE-CO2. The chemical components of essential oil were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry( GC-MS). Their relative contents were determined by normalization of peak area. 40 and 42 compounds were detected in the essential oil prepared by SD and SFE-CO2 respectively. 25 compounds were common. Thereare significant differences of the chemical components between the Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum essential oil prepared by SD and thatby SFE-CO2. Different methods showed different extraction efficiency with a special compound. It might be a good idea to unite several methods in the modern traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  14. 超临界CO2萃取神香草精油的工艺研究%Study on the Supercritical CO2 Extraction Technology of Essential Oil of Hyssopus Officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓菊

    2015-01-01

    研究超临界CO2萃取神香草精油的工艺,探讨萃取压力、温度、时间和CO2流量对神香草精油得率的影响,正交试验确定最佳工艺条件,各因素对神香草精油得率影响程度是:萃取压力>CO2流量>萃取温度>萃取时间.优化的工艺条件为萃取压力12 MPa、温度40℃、CO2流量20 L/h、萃取时间90 min,神香草精油得率为2.558%.%Study of supercritical CO2 extraction technology of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis, extraction pressure, temperature,time and flow rate on the yield of essential oil Hyssopus officinalis CO2 effect,orthogonal experiment to determine the optimal process conditions,the factors on the yield of essential oil Hyssopus officinalis:influence of extraction pressure>CO2>extraction temperature,extraction time flow. Optimization of process conditions for the extraction pressure,12 MPa;extraction temperature,40 ℃ ;CO2 flow,20 L/h;extraction time,90 min;hyssop oil rate was 2.558%.

  15. Design and Application of CO2 Compressor Used for Exhaust Gas Recovery in the Process of Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction%超临界CO2流体萃取流程中CO2尾气回收压缩机的设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王高平; 张和平

    2012-01-01

    某公司超临界CO2流体萃取流程中CO2尾气回收压缩机抽气时间比预期时间超出4倍以上,为解决这一问题,通过对超临界流体萃取流程和CO2的特性分析,提出了萃取流程中CO2尾气回收压缩机的设计方法及回收流程方案的选择,并对压缩机的使用与保养做了阐述.%The suction time for the CO2 compressor used for exhaust gas recovery in the process of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction is the four times above than expected time.In order to solve the problem,the design method for CO2 compressor used for exhaust gas recovery in the extraction process and the selection of recycling process scheme are pointed out based on the characteristic analysis of supercritical fluid extraction process and of CO2-And the use and maintenance of compressor are specified in this paper.

  16. Therapeutic Effect of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Curcuma Species with Cancer Drugs in Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-W; Escalon, Enrique A; Lollett, Ivonne V; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    Synergistic effect of supercritical CO2 extracts of Curcuma species with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs was investigated in human alveolar (SJRH30) and embryonal (RD) rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. The Curcuma amada (mango ginger) (CA) extract showed the highest levels of cytotoxicity with inhibitory concentration IC50 values of 7.133 µg/ml and 7.501 µg/ml for SJRH30 and RD cell lines, respectively, as compared with Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza (Javanese turmeric) extracts. CA showed synergistic cytotoxic effects with vinblastine (VBL) and cyclophosphamide (CP) as indicated by the combination index values of <1 for VBL + CA, CP + CA, and VBL + CP + CA combinations in both embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. When lower doses of CA (0.1-0.2 µg/ml) were combined with cancer drugs like CP and VBL, caspase-3 activity increased significantly compared with individual agents and correlated with the percentage of apoptotic cells. CA in combination with VBL and CP induced a higher percentage of apoptosis than single agents in both cell lines. CA also modulated the expression of genes associated with intrinsic pathway of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, Bak, and p53) and also inhibited the expression of genes associated with inflammation such as COX-2 and NF-κB. Xenograft studies with SJRH30 tumors in nude mice showed that CA treatment inhibited tumor growth rate with and without VBL and increased the survival rate significantly. These results suggest that CA can be evaluated further as an adjuvant with cancer drugs for the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil

    OpenAIRE

    Da Porto, C.; Natolino, A.; Decorti, D.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using...

  18. Supercritical CO2 extraction of Schinus molle L with co-solvents: mathematical modeling and antimicrobial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Scopel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the antimicrobial activity of the Schinus molle L. leaves extracts obtained under supercritical conditions using carbon dioxide and co-solvents. Antimicrobial qualitative evaluation was carried out through the bioautography technique and the microorganisms studied were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosas, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Salmonella choleraesuis. The supercritical fluid extraction was carried out in a pilot scale equipment using carbon dioxide modified by the addition of co-solvents, such as ethanol and water at 150 bar and 333 K. A mathematical modeling of the process was also performed.

  19. 乳香挥发油的超临界CO2萃取工艺研究%Study on supercritical CO2 extraction technology of frankincense essential oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志军; 胡凯莉; 奉建芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the technology for extracting the frankincense essential oil by supercritical CO2 extraction.Methods The orthogonal test was adopted, and the factors such as pressure, temperature and CO2 flow were investigated for optimizing the processes with the volatile oil extraction rate as measurement indicators.Results The better extraction technology was that the extraction pressure was 15MPa, the temperature was 35℃, the CO2 flow was 30L/h.Conclusion The technology is stable and feasible, and lays the foundation for further development of the frankincense essential oil.%目的 优化超临界CO2流体萃取技术提取乳香挥发油的工艺.方法 采用正交试验,以挥发油萃取率为考查指标,研究超临界CO2流体萃取乳香挥发油过程中压力、温度、CO2流量的影响.结果 确定的较佳提取工艺是压力15MPa,温度35℃,CO2流量30L/h.结论 该工艺稳定可行,为乳香挥发油的进一步开发奠定基础.

  20. Supercritical CO2 as a substitute of volatile hydrocarbons; Superkritisch CO2 vervangt vluchtige koolwaterstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkerts, G. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    In many cases supercritical carbon dioxide can replace volatile hydrocarbons in extraction processes. Currently gaseous or liquid CO2 is already used for industrial purification processes, extraction of caffeine from coffee and as a solvent for paint. Although supercritical extraction s a batch process the technique can be applied as a continuous process. [Dutch] In processen waar vluchtige koolwaterstoffen worden ingezet om stoffen te extraheren, biedt superkritisch CO2 een milieuvriendelijk alternatief. Het koolzuur dat zowel in de vloeistof- als gasfase zit, wordt dan ook steeds meer ingezet in extractieprocessen.

  1. Supercritical CO2 extraction, chemical characterisation and antioxidant potential of Brassica oleracea var capitata against HO·, O2(·-) and ROO·.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Prá, Valéria; Dolwitsch, Carolina Bolssoni; da Silveira, Géssica Domingos; Porte, Liliane; Frizzo, Clarissa; Tres, Marcus Vinicius; Mossi, Vinicius; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Bohrer, Denise; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Viana, Carine; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos

    2013-12-15

    In this work were extracted bioactive compounds from Brassica oleracea var capitata using supercritical CO2 and evaluated the antioxidant potential of the extracts. Five extractions were accomplished to investigate the influence of pressure (10-25 MPa) and temperature (20-60 °C) in the extraction yield, chemical composition and antioxidant potential towards peroxyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The highest extraction yield was obtained at 60 °C and 25 MPa, which was 0.47 wt% (run 2). In the characterisation of the extracts obtained was possible the identification of sulforaphane and iberin nitrile that present known biological properties. The extracts of all runs presented antioxidant activities towards the three radicals, but the highest activities for all radicals were using the extracts obtained in the run 2. The use of supercritical CO2 extraction to obtain bioactive compounds of B. oleracea var capitata showed to be a promising alternative to conventional extraction methods, since allowed the extraction of compounds with scientific and industrial interest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic Analysis of an Integrated Annatto Seeds-Sugarcane Biorefinery Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction as a First Step

    OpenAIRE

    Albarelli, Juliana Q.; Diego T. Santos; María José Cocero; M. Angela A. MEIRELES

    2016-01-01

    Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been indicated to be utilized as part of a biorefinery, rather than as a stand-alone technology, since besides extracting added value compounds selectively it has been shown to have a positive effect on the downstream processing of biomass. To this extent, this work evaluates economically the encouraging experimental results regarding the use of SFE during annatto seeds valorization. Additionally, other features were discussed such as the ben...

  3. Extraction of Flavonoids from the Flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic by Modified Supercritical CO2 Extraction and Determination of Antioxidant and Anti-Adipogenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic has been used for many years in Chinese traditional medicine. In this study, supercritical CO2 plus a modifier was utilized to extract flavonoids from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic. The effects of temperature (40 °C–60 °C, pressure (10–30 MPa and different concentrations of ethanol as modifier (60%–90%, ethanol:water, v/v on major flavonol content and the antioxidant activity of the extracts were studied by response surface methodology (RSM using a Box-Behnken design. The flavonol content was calculated as the sum of the concentrations of seven major flavonoids, namely rutin, hyperin, isoquercetin, hibifolin, myricetin, quercetin-3′-O-glucoside and quercetin, which were simultaneously determined by a HPLC method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydarzyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging assay. The results showed that three factors and their interactions could be well fitted to second-order polynomial models (p < 0.05. At the optimal extraction conditions for flavonol content (20 MPa, 52 °C, and 85% ethanol content, the yield of flavonoids was 41.96 mg/g and the IC50 value was 0.288 mg/mL, respectively, suggesting the extract has high antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic activity of the extract on the 3T3-L1 cell line was investigated. The results indicated that it can downregulate PPARγ and C/EBPα expression at mRNA. In summary, in this study, we have established a cost-effective method for the extraction of flavonoids from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic using supercritical fluid extraction and the extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-adipogenic effects, suggesting a possible therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  4. 超临界CO2萃取云南松松子油提取工艺研究%Extraction Technology of Pinus yunnanensis Franch Nut Oil by Supercritical CO 2 Fluid Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林开

    2014-01-01

    本试验采用超临界CO2萃取云南松松子油,以萃取温度、萃取压力和萃取时间3个因素进行单因素试验,在单因素试验结果的基础上,利用响应面法中的Box-Behnken和中心旋转组合设计对超临界CO2萃取云南松松子油的提取工艺条件进行了优化。各个条件均做3次重复试验,以平均值作为最后结果。试验结果表明:萃取温度、萃取压力和萃取时间3个因素对松子出油率影响都显著。经过验证性试验后,最终得到超临界CO2萃取云南松松子油的最佳工艺条件为:萃取温度36.7℃、萃取压力40.6MPa 和萃取时间112.6min,在最佳条件下的出油率24.68%。%Oil extraction from Pinus yunnanensis Franch seeds with supercritical CO2 fluid was studied. Based on results of single factor experiment, extraction process conditions were optimized by using Box-Behnken and central com-posite rotatable design. Each condition was repeated three times, and average value was taken as final result. Results showed that temperature, pressure and time of these three factors were significant effects on pine nut oil yield. Optimal operation conditions was supercritical CO2 fluid extraction temperature at 36.7℃, pressure 40.6MPa and time 112.6min. Oil yield was 24.68%under optimum conditions.

  5. PREPARATION OF EPA AND DHA ESTERS WITH HIGH PURITY BY SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRACTION AND RECTIFICATION%超临界CO2萃取精馏制取高纯度EPA乙酯和DHA乙酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱榕; 范维澄; 陈钧

    2001-01-01

    Fish oil ethyl esters complexed with aqueous silver nitrate solution were extracted and rectified by supercritical CO2 to obtain DHA ester and EPA ester with high purity. The effects of some independent variables,such as extraction pressure, temperature gradient of rectifying column and programmed pressure,on rectification were investigated.The results showed that programmed pressure is suitable for purification of EPA and DHA esters. Increase of column temperature gradient from bottom to top is one of the key elements in rectification. Furthermore, higher temperature gradient leads to better separation effect.

  6. Comparative analysis of the oil and supercritical CO(2) extract of Schinus molle L. growing in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Al-Othman, Al-Husein M R

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we report the preliminary data on the chemical composition of Yemeni Schinus molle L. volatile oil obtained by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide (40°C and 90 bar), SFE, and by hydrodistillation (HD). The composition of the volatile oil has been analysed by GC and GC-MS. The content of the major constituents in the oils from leaves varied in the following ranges: germacrene D 3.7% in SFE and 16.7% in HD; β-caryophyllene 19.1% in SFE and 13.5% in HD. The amount of monoterpenes constituted 4%, in all the analysed samples, while the number of sesquiterpenes was 44% in supercritical and 67% in HD oil. Some compounds were not identified by GC-MS and it will require further analysis using other analytical techniques.

  7. Supercritical SC-CO(2) and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO(2) extract (T = 40°C, P = 180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO(2) flow rate = 15 mL·s(-1)). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO(2): 57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO(2): 22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO(2): 14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO(2) profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C(20:1), C(20:2), and C(22).The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44-5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C) and 4.13 (T = 70°C).

  8. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P = 180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C) and 4.13 (T = 70°C). PMID:22754699

  9. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Yeddes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny and 8.91% (thornless against 3.4% (spiny and 1.94% (thornless by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P=180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1. Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny, 59.98% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny, 60.66% (thornless, followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny, 22.40% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny, 20.58% (thornless and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny, 12.92% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny, 13.08% (thornless. The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25, and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C and 4.13 (T = 70°C.

  10. 超临界CO 2萃取脱皮菜籽饼粕油脂的可行性%Feasibility of extraction of oil from dehulled rapeseed cake using supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万楚筠; 胡双喜; 李文林; 邓乾春; 黄凤洪

    2014-01-01

    The double-low rapeseed contains ≤2%erucic acid in its oil and ≤35μmol/g of dry meal. The oil of double-low rapeseed contains very low levels of saturated fatty acids (6%), high levels of oleic acid (≥60%), and intermediate levels of linoleic and linolenic acids (20%and 10%, respectively). Because of its higher oil content and numerous agricultural advantages, double-low rapeseed is getting worldwide attention. The rapeseed oil, which was extracted by a traditional process with pre-press and solvent extraction, is of bad quality. Commercial hexane, which has been used as a solvent for crude edible oil extraction, has toxicological and environmental safety issues. Carbon dioxide in its supercritical state has properties and extraction capacities very similar to liquids. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a new technique for oil extraction and is similar to conventional solvent extraction in that the material to be extracted is withdrawn from the substrate by using a solvent. In its supercritical state, carbon dioxide is the most commonly used supercritical solvent due to its nontoxicity, non-flammability, low cost, availability in bulk quantities, ease of removal from the extracted materials, and low critical temperature and pressure (31.06 ℃ and 7.38 MPa, respectively). To improve the additional value of oils and meals obtained from the cold press cake of double-low dehulled rapeseed, supercritical CO 2 is used to extract double-low rapeseed oil and then the quality of the oil and meal obtained is studied. The affection of factors, which includes extraction pressure, temperature, and time effecting on oil yield, is investigated by Box-Behnken’s response surface methodology. The model equation for predicting the optimum response values is established by Design Expert software. The adequacy of the model equation for predicting the optimum response values was effectively verified by the validation. The experiment result indicates that affection of

  11. Anticonvulsive action of Pinellia Pedatisecta Schott extract prepared by ethanol-modified supercritical CO2 extraction%掌叶半夏超临界CO2乙醇萃取物的抗惊厥作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈靖京; 杨蓉; 王明正; 成银霞; 何新嘏; 马勇刚; 杨李华; 何巧燕

    2007-01-01

    AIM To investigate the anticonvulsive action of supercritical CO2 ethanol extract from Pinellia Pedatisecta Schott(SEE-CO2PP). METHODS The rat convulsive model was induced by penicillin localized injected in rat cortex. The effects of SEE-CO2PP on the latency of seizure and changes of convulsive behaviors were investigated. The latency of epileptiform discharge, and frequency and amplitude of highest wave in cortex and hippocampus were recorded by using RM6240C multichannel physiological signal collection and analysis recorder. At the same time, the contents of glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp), glycine (Gly) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in hippocampus were determined with high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS SEE-CO2PP 15 and 30 g·kg-1, ig, prolonged the latent period of seizure and weakened the extent. SEE-CO2PP also prolonged the latent period of epileptiform discharge, reduced the frequency and decreased amplitude of the highest wave in both cortex and hippocampus. Moreover, SEE-CO2PP increased the content of GABA in hippocampus, but the levels of Gly,Asp and Glu had no obvious changes. CONCLUSION SEE-CO2PP inhibits the epileptiform discharge and convulsive behaviors of convulsive model rats, which suggests SEE-CO2PP has anticonvulsive action.%目的 研究掌叶半夏超临界CO2乙醇萃取物(SEE-CO2PP)对青霉素诱发惊厥的对抗作用.方法 采用大鼠皮质局部定位注射青霉素诱发惊厥模型,研究SEE-CO2PP对惊厥发作的潜伏期以及惊厥行为变化的影响,并用RM6240C型多道生理信号采集处理仪记录皮质和海马痫性放电的潜伏期、频率和痫波最高发放波幅,同时应用高效液相色谱法测定海马谷氨酸(Glu)、天冬氨酸 (Asp)、甘氨酸(Gly)和γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)递质的含量.结果 SEE-CO2PP 15和30 g·kg-1 (ig)可延长青霉素诱发惊厥的潜伏期,并减弱发作强度.SEE-CO2PP能够延长痫性放电的潜伏期,减少痫性放电的频率,减小皮质

  12. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Green Bean Oil%超临界C02萃取青豆油工艺条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳佳; 鹿保鑫

    2012-01-01

    试验以青豆为原料,对超临界萃取青豆毛油工艺进行了研究,并对影响超临界萃取的主要因素进行了单因素试验,在其基础上又进行了正交优化,最终得到该方法的最佳工艺条件:萃取压力为25MPa,萃取温度为50℃,萃取时间为60min。而随着CO2流量的变化,出油率几乎不受影响,因此CO2流量不作为探讨因素。该条件下得到的青豆油最大出油率为15.81%。%Green beans were used as raw material, and crude oil process for supercritical fluid extraction peas,in addition,the single factor experiment was made to that factors which influence supercritical extraction,using these factors to proceed orthogonal optimization, and finally obtained the best conditions of this method: extraction pressure was 25 MPa,extraction temperature was 50 ℃,extraction time was 60 min. With the CO2 flow rate changed,the oil yield almost unaffected,so CO2 flow not as the factors to investigate in this experiment .Under these conditions the maximum green bean oil degumming rate was 15.81%.

  13. Extraction of passion fruit seed oil using supercritical CO2: a study of mass transfer and rheological property by Bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso de Oliveira, R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of oil from passion fruit seeds using supercritical CO2 was studied. Experimental data were obtained for extraction conducted at 15, 20 and 25 MPa; at temperatures of 40 and 50 °C with CO2 flow rates of 1.5 and 3.0 mL min–1. An increase in the pressure, temperature and CO2 flow rate increased the yield. The maximum extraction yield obtained was 18.5%. The mass transfer coefficients for passion fruit oil were found to be 8.496 3 10-5 s-1 at 25 MPa, 50 °C and 3 mL s–1 CO2 flow rate. Dilatant fluid behavior was observed in all tests of the rheological study.Se ha estudiado la extracción de aceite de semillas de frutos de la pasión con CO2 supercrítico. Los datos experimentales se obtuvieron para una extracción llevada a cabo a 15, 20 y 25 MPa; a temperaturas de 40 y 50 °C y a flujos de CO2 de 1,5 y 3,0 mL min–1. Un incremento de la presión, la temperatura y del flujo de CO2 aumentó el rendimiento. El máximo rendimiento de la extracción obtenida fue de 18,5%. Los coeficientes de transferencia de masa para el aceite de fruta de la pasión encontrados fueron 8,496 3 10-5 s–1 a 25 MPa, 50 °C y 3 mL s–1 de flujo de CO2. Se observó un comportamiento de fluido dilatante en todos los ensayos reológicos.

  14. Significant Enrichment of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) in the Lipids Extracted by Supercritical CO2 from the Livers of Australian Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung T; Zhang, Wei; Barber, Andrew R; Su, Peng; He, Shan

    2015-05-13

    Australian rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) liver contains approximately 24.3% (w/w) lipids, which can contain a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, this material has been found to be contaminated with arsenic (240 mg/kg) and cadmium (8 mg/kg). The high level of contaminants in the raw material and the large amount of PUFAs in the lipids prove a significant challenge in the extraction of high-quality lipids from this byproduct by conventional methods. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a highly promising technology for lipid extraction with advantages including low contamination and low oxidation. The technique was optimized to achieve nearly 94% extraction of lipids relative to conventional Soxhlet extraction in Australian rock lobster liver at conditions of 35 MPa and 50 °C for 4 h. The extracted lipids are significantly enriched in PUFAs at 31.3% of total lipids, 4 times higher than those in the lipids recovered by Soxhlet extraction (7.8%). Specifically, the concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in SC-CO2 extraction are 7 times higher than those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, very small amounts of toxic heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids, 0.5-27 times lower than those in the Soxhlet-extracted lipids, which are 40-200 times lower than the regulatory limit maximum values. The low levels of contaminants and the high proportion of PUFAs (dominated by DHA and EPA) found in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids from Australian rock lobster liver suggest that the material could potentially be used as a valuable source of essential fatty acids for human consumption.

  15. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Porto, C; Natolino, A; Decorti, D

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was shown that the content of linoleic, α-linolenic and oleic acids (the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids) of the hemp seed oils were not affected significantly by the application of ultrasound. UV spectroscopy indices (K232 and K268) and antiradical capacity were used to follow the quality of oils. Significant were the changes in their antiradical capacity due to ultrasound treatment. A comparison with the oil extracted by Soxhlet was also given.

  16. Application of Supercritical CO2 on the Extraction of Functional Components from Winery Wastes%SC-CO2在葡萄酒渣功能性成分提取中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋金慧; 李双石; 马越; 曹奇光; 谢国莉

    2014-01-01

    There are large amounts of winery wastes generated in industrial wine production. Winery wastes contain high levels of functional components that can act as antioxidants and have health-promoting activities. Supercritical CO2 extraction technique is a new technique that concludes rectification and extraction processes, by which high and good quality products can be separated. This paper summarizes the supercritical CO2 extraction technological principle, characteristics and its application on the extraction of functional components from winery wastes. It would provide scientific foundations for utilization of winery wastes.%葡萄酒工业产生大量的废弃物即葡萄酒渣,葡萄酒渣富含具有抗氧化活性和医疗保健功能的组分。超临界二氧化碳萃取技术是近年来兴起的一项具有精馏和萃取两过程的高新物质分离精制技术。介绍了超临界二氧化碳萃取的原理、特点及其在葡萄酒渣功能性成分提取中应用的研究进展,旨在为葡萄酒渣的综合利用提供一定的参考和借鉴。

  17. Experimental and Simulating Study of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil%超临界二氧化碳萃取生姜油实验研究与数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学武; 李志义; 陈淑花; 詹世平; 夏远景; 魏勇

    2005-01-01

    An experimental setup for separating ginger essential oil by supercritical fluid extraction is established.The effects of the extraction pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and particle size of raw material on the extraction rate are investigated, and the optimum process conditions of supercritical CO2 extraction are determined. A mathematical simulation model is established based on the mass conservation in differential units of extraction bed.The total mass transfer driving force and the equilibrium absorption constant are evaluated by the linear driving force theory. The results from numerical simulation agree well with the experimental data.

  18. The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method.

  19. Seed oil extraction from red prickly pear using hexane and supercritical CO2 : assessment of phenolic compound composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Barba, Francisco J; Angelotti, Armel; Bouaziz, Fatma; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2017-01-01

    Investigating Opuntia species for their seed oil content is of much importance owing to their potential use for food and in cosmetic applications. These oils have an important content in unsaturated fatty acids as well as antioxidant compounds (e.g. polyphenols, vitamin E), which have been associated with the prevention of some chronic diseases. Moreover, Opuntia stricta oils possess important antimicrobial activities. For instance, the main focus of this study was to compare the effectiveness of conventional (hexane extraction) and novel (supercritical (SC)-CO2 ) extraction methods for the recovery of oil and phenolic compounds from O. stricta seeds. The oil yield of both extracts was then compared and the polyphenol content and composition of both extracts were determined by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Additionally, antioxidant (DPPH assay) and antimicrobial activities (disc diffusion method) of O. stricta seed oils were determined. The oil yield (based on Soxhlet's method) of O. stricta seeds was determined using SC-CO2 (49.9 ± 2.2%), and hexane (49.0 ± 1.5%). Although obtaining similar oil extraction yields using the two methods, the extracted oil using SC-CO2 was more enriched in polyphenols (172.2 ± 11.9 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) g(-1) oil) than that extracted using hexane (76.0 ± 6.9 µg GAE g(-1) of oil). Polyphenol profiles showed that the SC-CO2 process led to the yield of more compounds (45) than that using hexane extraction (11). Moreover, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of SC-CO2 extract showed a high percentage of inhibition. SC-CO2 extraction of O. stricta seed oil led to extraction of oil with a similar yield to that with hexane extraction, but with higher polyphenol content. The extract containing polyphenols exhibited high antioxidant and antibacterial properties, demonstrating their great potential as feedstock for high-oil quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of

  20. [Optimization of supercritical CO2 extraction of plantaginis semen oil by response surface methodology and studies on its antioxidant activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Ling, Weijian; Chu, Kedan; Li, Huang; Chen, Lidian; Zhang, Yuqin; Chen, Xianwen

    2011-12-01

    The optimum conditions of SFE-CO2 extraction of Plantaginis Semen oil (SPO), the composition of SPO and its antioxidant activities of SPO were all investigated in this paper. Response surface method (RSM) was used to establish the mathematical model of SFE-CO2 extraction of SPO to obtain the optimum conditions based on Single factor experiments. Fatty acid compositions and contents of SPO were tested by GC-MS, and antioxidant activities of SPO were studied by DPPH and ABTS free radical elimination method. The optimum conditions obtained through RSM analysis were as follows: extraction tempreture 70 degrees C, extraction pressure 30 MPa, extraction time 120 min and flow rate 30 L x h(-1). Under the optimal condition, predicted value was 35.91%, while the experimental value was 35.07%. The experimental values agree with the predicted from the regression model with a relative error less than 5%. The main components of SPO were 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid, octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. Most of the fatty acids were polyunsaturated fatty ones, whose quantities were obtained more than 88%. The IC50DPPH and IC50ABTS were 1.13, 3.57 g x L(-1) respectively in DPPH and ABTS assay. Optimization of the extraction process by RSM of SPO is convenient and feasible. SPO has good antioxidant activity and is worth to develop for application.

  1. 超临界CO2萃取茶叶中咖啡碱工艺研究%Preparation of Caffeine from Tea by supercritical CO2 extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭壮; 郭维强; 唐远谋; 赵宇

    2011-01-01

    The caffeine was extracted from tea by supercritical CO2 extraction technology in this paper. The caffeine was measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry method. The extracting rate of the caffeine was chosen as the detective index and the optimum extraction conditions were investigated. The orthogonal test was used to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, extract time, the species of cosolvent on the extracting rate of the caffeine. The results indicated that when using 30% ethanol as cosolvent, extracting pressure was 25MPa ,at 4CC for 4h,The extracting rate of the caffeine was up to 3.95%.%以茶叶为原料,采用超临界CO2萃取技术提取咖啡碱,用紫外分光光度法测定咖啡碱含量,采用正交试验设计考察了压力、温度、时间和夹带剂种类对咖啡碱提取率的影响.结果表明:30%乙醇做夹带剂,萃取温度为40℃,萃取压力为25MPa,萃取4h,此工艺条件下咖啡碱的提取率为3.95%.

  2. 微波-超临界CO2萃取联用萃取柚皮果胶工艺研究%Extraction of Pectin from Pomelo Peel with Microwave-supercritical CO2 Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余先纯; 李湘苏; 龚铮午

    2011-01-01

    采用超临界CO2萃取与微波处理技术相结合萃取柚皮果胶,探讨了微波辐射功率、萃取时间、萃取压力、萃取温度、CO2流量对柚皮果胶得率的影响,并采用正交试验对实验方案进行优化.研究结果表明:当原料用量5 g、微波辐射功率450W、萃取时间15 min、萃取压力8.5 MPa、萃取温度40℃和CO2流量12 L/h时,果胶的平均得率22.63%,比相同条件下微波辅助水浴加热提取法的果胶得率高6.52个百分点.%Pectin of pomelo peel was extracted with microwave-supercritical CO; extraction. The factors of microwave power,extraction time, extraction pressure, extraction temperature and CO, flow rate were discussed. The process was optimized withorthogonal experiment. The results showed that average yield of pectin was 22. 63 % under the conditions of pomelo peel 5 g,microwave power 450 W, extraction time 15 min, extraction pressure 8. 5 Mpa, extraction temperature 40℃ and CO2 flow rate12 L/h. The yield had been increased 6. 50 % compared with the methods of conventional water bath heating under the sameconditions.

  3. 超临界 CO2萃取烟草精油的工艺研究%Study on the Extraction Process of Essential Oil from Tobacco by Supercritical CO2 Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚娟; 刘芸; 王志祥

    2014-01-01

    Using tobacco as raw material,with the extraction rate of essential oil and neophytadiene,the quality of essential oil as evaluation indexes,the effects of volume fraction and flux of modifier,extraction pres-sure,extraction temperature,supercritical CO2 fluid flux,extraction time on extraction efficiency were investiga-ted by single factor experiment.Based on the results obtained,the optimum process parameters were determined by orthogonal experiment as follows:with 94% ethanol at the flux of 0.04 mL·min-1 as modifier,extraction pressure was 25 MPa,extraction temperature was 50 ℃,supercritical CO2 fluid flux was 2.0 L·min-1 ,extrac-tion time was 3.0 h.Under the optimal conditions,the essential oil was golden in color and had fewer residues, the extraction rate of essential oil and neophytadiene was 37.58 mg·g-1 and 4.045 mg·g-1 ,respectively.%以烟草为材料,以精油提取率、新植二烯提取率、精油品质为评价指标,通过单因素实验考察夹带剂乙醇的体积分数、夹带剂流量、萃取压力、萃取温度、CO2流量、萃取时间等因素对萃取效果的影响。在此基础上,通过正交实验优选萃取工艺条件为:94%乙醇为夹带剂、夹带剂流量0.04 mL·min-1、萃取压力25 MPa、萃取温度50℃、CO2流量2.0 L·min-1、萃取时间3.0 h,在此条件下萃取的精油金黄透亮,夹带剂残留少,精油提取率为37.58 mg·g-1,新植二烯提取率为4.045 mg·g-1。

  4. Comparison between supercritical CO2 extraction and hydrodistillation for two species of eucalyptus: yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzi, Najia; Bouajila, Jalloul; Camy, Séverine; Cazaux, Sylvie; Romdhane, Mehrez; Condoret, Jean Stéphane

    2013-05-01

    In this work, 2 Eucalyptus species extracts (Eucalyptus cinerea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis) were prepared by hydrodistillation (HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) techniques. The best yields of E. cinerea and E. camaldulensis (27.5 and 8.8 g/kg, respectively) were obtained using SCE at 90 bar, 40 °C compared to HD (23 and 6.2 g/kg, respectively). Extracts were quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 1,8-cineole and p-menth-1-en-8-ol were the major compounds of E. cinerea essential oil obtained by HD (64.89% and 8.15%, respectively) or by SCE (16.1% and 31.87%, respectively). Whereas, in case of E. camaldulensis, 1,8-cineole (45.71%) and p-cymene (17.14%) were the major compounds obtained by HD, and 8,14-cedranoxide (43.79%) and elemol (6.3%) by SCE. Their antioxidant activity was assessed using 2 methods: 2,2-azino-di-3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid radical cation (ABTS(•+) ) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•) ). In the SCE extracts from both E. cinerea and E. camaldulensis, a promising radical scavenging activity was observed with ABTS(•+) , (65 and 128 mg/L, respectively). The total phenolics composition of the extracts was measured and the range was 2 to 60 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry plant material. The SCE method was superior to HD, regarding shorter extraction times (30 min for SCE compared with 4 h for HD), a low environmental impact, allows production of nondegraded compounds and being part of green chemistry. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Process optimization of total flavonoids from chuan bergamot by supercritical CO2 extraction%川佛手中总黄酮的超临界CO2萃取工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓祥; 黄小梅; 吴狄

    2014-01-01

    采用超临界CO2萃取技术提取川佛手中的总黄酮,通过单因素分析和正交试验,确定了川佛手中总黄酮的最佳提取工艺参数,即萃取压力为30 MPa,萃取温度为50℃,料液比为100:120 g/mL和萃取时间为2.0 h,在此条件下总黄酮的萃取率达到3.79%.%The total flavonoids was extracted from Chuan Bergamot by supercritical CO2 extraction. The optimal parameters were determined as follows:extraction pressure was 30 MPa;extraction temperature was 50 ℃;solid-liquid ratio was 100:120( g/mL)and extraction time was 2. 0 h by single factor tests and orthogonal experiments. Under these conditions,the extraction yield of total flavonoids is 3. 79%.

  6. 薄荷挥发油超临界CO2萃取工艺参数的研究%Study on Extraction of Volatile Oil from Mentha haplocalyx by Supercritical CO2 Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任吉君; 王艳; 周荣; 文素珍; 伍彩旺

    2011-01-01

    The pressure, temperature and time of extracting volatile oil from Asian mint by supercritical CO2 method were studied through orthogonal experiment. The results showed that pressure has the greatest impact on extracting ratio; while time had minimal impact. The optimized extraction conditions were, pressure, 12Mpa; temperature, 55℃; time 1.5h.%以亚洲薄荷作为试验材料,采用超临界CO2萃取法,运用正交设计,针对萃取压力、萃取温度和萃取时间3个因素对薄荷挥发油萃取的影响进行了研究.结果表明,对薄荷挥发油萃取量的影响从大到小依次为萃取压力、萃取温度、萃取时间,超临界CO2萃取薄荷挥发油的最佳工艺参数组合为A3B2C2,即萃取压力12 MPa、萃取温度50℃、萃取时间1-5 h.

  7. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig

    2014-01-29

    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late

  8. 超临界 CO2提取桑叶中总黄酮的工艺研究%Study on the optimal supercritical CO2 extraction of total flavonoids from mulberry leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林英男; 时伟

    2014-01-01

    本文以总黄酮得率为指标,依次用单因素试验和正交试验考察了萃取压力、温度、时间以及夹带剂用量对超临界萃取的综合影响,优选出桑叶黄酮类化合物的超临界CO2最佳萃取工艺。最佳萃取条件是:萃取压力30 MPa,萃取温度40℃,萃取时间3.0 h,夹带剂无水乙醇用量4.0 mL/g,总黄酮得率是3.2%。研究表明超临界萃取的效率远优于传统提取方法,适用于桑叶黄酮类化合物的大规模提取。%Single factor and orthogonal experimental tests were used to determine the comprehensive effects on extraction ratio of total flavonoids by extraction,temperature,time,amount of alcohol solvent by using the extraction ratio of flavonoids as the index to study the optimal supercrnical CO2 extraction conditions of navonoids from mulberry leaves.The optimal conditions of the extraction could be mentioned as the extraction pressure was 30MPa,the extraction temperature was 40 ℃,the extraction time was 3.0 h,the amount of alcohol solvent was 4.0 mL/g,the extraction ratio of total flavonoids was 3.2%. The research showed that the extraction ratio of supercritical extraction was much higher than that of supersonic extraction,and the former was fit to extract total flavonoids in large-scale.

  9. Extraction of lobetyolin from codonopsis with supercritical CO_2%超临界流体萃取党参中党参炔苷的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘同举; 李淑芬; 闵江; 包小妹

    2009-01-01

    目的:党参炔苷是党参中开发一条绿色快速的工艺路线,提取党参中的重要的有效成分之一党参炔苷(lobetyolin).方法:本实验对党参中党参炔苷的超临界CO_2萃取工艺进行了研究.采用中心实验设计结合响应曲面法考察了压力、温度、萃取时间和夹带剂用量等因素对党参炔苷得率的影响及其交互作用.结果:确定了夹带剂用量是关键因素,在动态夹带剂乙醇流速为1 mL·min~(-1),常压CO_2流速为2L·min~(-1)30 MPa,60℃下条件下萃取100 min,党参炔苷得率为0.078 6 mg·g~(-1),优于传统超声萃取法.结论:采用带夹带剂的超临界流体萃取党参中党参炔苷是可行的.%Objective: To develop a green and rapid method for extraction of lobetyolin from C. pilosula.Method:Extraction of lobetyolin from C. pilosula with supercritical carbon dioxide in the presence of ethanol was studied. The effects of pressure,temperature,volume of cosolvent and extraction time on efficiency and their interactive relationships were discussed, based on central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM). Result:The key effect factor was volume of cosolvent. The extraction yield of lobetyolin was 0. 078 6 mg·g~(-1) when C. pilosula (40-60 mesh) was extracted at 30 MPa, 60℃ and 2 L·min~(-1)(as CO_2 in normal pressure and temperature) for 100 minutes with supercritical CO_2 and 1 mL·min~(-1) ethanol as dynamic cosolvent. Conclusion: This result is better than that obtained from traditional method. Therefore, the optimized process is valuable for extraction of lobetyotin from C. pilosula.

  10. Alkyl polyglucoside-stabilized emulsion as a prospective vehicle for Usnea barbata CO2-supercritical extract: Assessing stability, safety and efficiency of a topical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žugić Ana R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Usnea barbata especially against bacteria involved in pathogenesis of various skin conditions has been well documented in literature. Nevertheless, there are no papers dealing with formulation of its isolates into topical preparations for treatment of skin infections. In present study, alkyl polyglucoside (APG - based vehicle was developed as carrier of U. barbata CO2-supercritical extract (U-SE that demonstrated the best antimicrobial potential in preliminary screening. For comparison, chosen extract in the same concentration and using the same procedure was incorporated into a pharmacopoeial vehicle. Comparative evaluation of physicochemical stability, efficiency and safety proved APG-based vehicle to possess certain preferential features as carrier of U-SE compared to the reference one, composing a topical formulation with potential clinical relevance in treatment of skin infections. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45017 i br. TR34031

  11. Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Fixed Oils from Berries of Laurus nobilis L. by Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Assunta Dessì

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of volatile and fixed oils from dried berries of Laurus nobilis L. from Tunisia have been obtained by supercritical fractioned extraction with carbon dioxide. Extraction experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40 °C and pressures of 90 and 250 bar. The extraction step performed at 90 bar produced a volatile fraction mainly composed of (E-β-ocimene (20.9%, 1,8-cineole (8.8%, α-pinene (8.0%, β-longipinene (7.1%, linalool acetate (4.5%, cadinene (4.7%, β-pinene (4.2%, α-terpinyl acetate (3.8% and α-bulnesene (3.5%. The oil yield in this step of the process was 0.9 % by weight charged. The last extraction step at 250 bar produced an odorless liquid fraction, in which a very small percentage of fragrance compounds was found, whereas triacylglycerols were dominant. The yield of this step was 15.0 % by weight. The most represented fatty acids of the whole berry fixed oil were 12:0 (27.6%, 18:1 n-9 (27.1%, 18:2 n-6 (21.4%, and 16:0 (17,1%, with the 18:1 n-9 and 18:2 n-6 unsaturated fatty acids in particular averaging 329 μg/mg of oil.

  12. 芫荽子超临界CO2萃取及其成分分析%Extraction of Coriander Seed by Supercritical CO2 Fluidand Analysis of the Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李列; 熊国玺; 喻世涛; 王娜; 张辉; 朱巍

    2014-01-01

    Orthogonal experimental design was used to optimize the process of extraction of coriander seed by supercritical CO2 fluid. The optimal conditions obtained were as follows:extraction pressure 26 MPa and temperature 50 ℃ for 60 min,the volume dosage of absolute ethyl alcohol as entrainer 10% ,the separate temperature 40℃ and pressure 5 MPa,under which the extraction rate was 23 .78% . The components of extract were analyzed by GC-MS,and 27 kinds of component were identified, which amounted to 89.02% of total extract,the main components wereα-terpinyl acetate,ethyl oleate,caryophyllene oxide, etc. The method is simple,rapid,and the extract obtained was in paste form with pure odor.%采用正交试验法优化芫荽子的萃取工艺条件,确定了超临界 CO2萃取芫荽子的最佳条件:萃取压力26 MPa,萃取温度50℃,选择无水乙醇为夹带剂,夹带剂用量(体积比)为10%,萃取时间为60 min,解析压力为5 MPa,解析温度为40℃,获得萃取率为23.78%。利用GC-MS法对提取物成分进行分析,共检测出α-乙酸松油酯、油酸乙酯、石竹烯氧化物等25种主要化合物,总质量比约为89.02%。与传统提取方法相比,该法简便、快速,得到的膏状萃取物香气纯正。

  13. 超临界CO_2萃取与水蒸汽减压蒸馏萃取柑桔皮精油比较%Comparison Study on Extraction of Essential Oil from Peel of Citrus by Supercritical CO_2 and Vacuum Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 黄萧逸

    2012-01-01

    使用超临界CO2萃取法和水蒸汽减压蒸馏萃取柑桔皮精油,两种方法精油收率相当,最高收率均为1.2%。但水蒸汽减压蒸馏法提取的精油质量好,为浅黄色流动性液体,气味具有新鲜柑桔皮的清香,流程简单,超临界CO2萃取所得产品质量差,流动性差,为深黄色半流动性液体,杂质较多。%Essential oil was extracted from peel of citrus by the methods of supercritical CO2 extraction and steam distillation extraction.The extraction yield of two methods was equal,the highest yield was 1.2%.The quality of the volatile oil extracted by steam distillation extraction was better than those extracted by supercritical CO2,and was light yellow fluidity liquid and smell fresh citrus scent.Technological process of steam distillation extraction was simple than that of supercritical CO2 extraction.The essential oi extracted by supercritical CO2 was dark yellow semi-liquid liquid impurities.

  14. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO2 Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Molnar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH, and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2 targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs content (by Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO2. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO2 extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO2 extracts of S. officinalis, R. graveolens, A. archangelica, and L. officinalis. EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO2 extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO2 extracts were the most potent (95.7%. EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g from H. italicum in comparison to hexane or SC-CO2 extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  15. Technology of supercritical CO2 extraction process of Dragon's Blood%血竭的超临界CO2流体萃取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞蔚; 雍克岚

    2004-01-01

    目的研究超临界CO2流体萃取(SFE-CO2)血竭中抑制α-葡萄糖苷酶有效成分的工艺条件.方法采用单因素法,探讨了压力、温度、时间和CO2流量对血竭萃余率和抑制α-葡萄糖苷酶活力提高率的影响.结果最佳工艺条件为萃取压力15MPa,温度45℃,CO2流量为30kg/h,时间2 h.优于传统的索氏抽提.结论 SFE-CO2工艺用于血竭中有效成分提取,萃余率和抑制α-葡萄糖苷酶活力提高率均有较大程度提高.

  16. Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lucas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments were carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa, low temperatures (35ºC and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate. The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

  17. CO2 超临界萃取印楝素的研究%Study on CO2 supercritical fluid extraction for azadirachtin form neem kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵淑英; 王秋芬; 宋湛谦

    2005-01-01

    文中利用超临界CO2萃取印楝素.通过考察萃取压力、萃取温度、CO2的流量、提携剂的种类以及料液比等因素对萃取产率的影响,发现较适宜的萃取条件为:萃取温度为32 ℃,萃取压力为32 MPa, CO2流量为10 kg·h-1, 较佳提携剂为甲醇,料液比为1∶ 3.该条件下印楝素A的萃取率为0.220%.

  18. Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerten, S. G. J.; Tayler, M. C. D.; Kentgens, A. P. M.; van Bentum, P. J. M.

    2016-06-01

    Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for 1H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in 1H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4 ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4 T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2.

  19. Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerten, S G J; Tayler, M C D; Kentgens, A P M; van Bentum, P J M

    2016-06-01

    Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for (1)H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in (1)H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2.

  20. Supercritical CO2 Extracting Technology of Garlic Essential Oil and Active Components Analysis%大蒜精油的超临界 CO2萃取技术与有效成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李羿为; 赖万东

    2013-01-01

      Introduce the garlic essential oil properties and its application in life and production , summarize supercritical CO 2 extraction principle and process characteristics , analyze the technology application and development prospects , and also describe qualitative and quantitative detection methods of garlic essential oil .%  介绍大蒜精油的性质及其在生活生产中的应用,阐述超临界萃取技术的原理及工艺特点,分析其应用现状及发展前景,并介绍了大蒜精油有效成分的定性和定量检测方法。

  1. Effect of ultrasound on the supercritical CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds from dedo de moça pepper (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Arthur Luiz Baião; Arroio Sergio, Camilla Scarelli; Santos, Philipe; Barbero, Gerardo Fernandéz; Rezende, Camila Alves; Martínez, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Extracts with bioactive compounds were obtained from the red pepper variety "dedo de moça" (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum) through supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide assisted by ultrasound (SFE-US). The process was tested at pressures of 15, 20 and 25 MPa; temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C, and ultrasonic powers of 200, 400 and 600 W applied during 40, 60 and 80 min of extraction. The CO2 mass flow rate was fixed at 1.7569 × 10(-4) kg/s. Global yield, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and capsaicinoid concentration were evaluated in the extracts. The application of ultrasound raised the global extraction yield of SFE up to 45%. The phenolic content of the extract increased with the application of higher ultrasound power and radiation time. The capsaicinoid yield was also enhanced with ultrasound up to 12%. However, the antioxidant capacity did not increase with the ultrasound application. The BET-based model and the broken and intact cell model fitted well to the kinetic SFE curves. The BET-based model with three adjustable parameters resulted in the best fits to the experimental data. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that SFE disturbed the vegetable matrix, releasing particles from the inner region of the plant cells to their surface. When the ultrasound was applied this effect was more pronounced. On the other hand, cracks, fissures or any sign of rupture were not identified on the sample surface.

  2. Response surface methodology as an approach to optimization of ethereal Oil from cassia by supercritical CO2 extraction%CO2超临界萃取桂皮精油工艺条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成国; 王冬冬; 陈瑶; 罗扬

    2011-01-01

    Cassia was used as raw material to extract ethereal oil using supercritical CO2 extraction.Scavenging effect of DPPH · (2,2-Diphenyl-l-Picryhydrazyl)was used as antioxidant activity index, based on single factor experiments, the optimal extraction process was determined using central composite design combined with response surface methodology.Optimal conditions of supereritical CO2 extraction of ethereal oil from cassia can be concluded as follows: Extraction pressure 33.5 MPa, extraction time 1.7 h, extraction temperature 60.5 ℃.On these conditions, the observed and predicted values of the scavenging effect of DPPH · were 84.98% and 85.17%.%以桂皮为原料,利用CO超临界萃取法提取桂皮精油.在单因素试验的基础上,以二苯代苦味酰基自由基清除率(2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picryhydrazyl,DPPH·)为抗氧化性指标,利用Box-Benhnken中心组合试验和响应面分析法,确定提取桂皮精油的最适工艺条件:萃取压力33.5 MPa,萃取时间1.7 h,萃取温度60.5℃.该条件下测得桂皮精油的DPPH·清除率为84.98%,预测值为85.17%.

  3. Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction of terpenoids in platycladus orientalis leaves%超临界CO2流体萃取侧柏叶萜烯化合物方法的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骏; 吴京科

    2011-01-01

    Adding entrainer in supercritical CO2 fluid will increase the extraction quantity and extracted types of terpenoids in platycladus orientalis leaves. In this paper, terpenoids α-pinene and (β-caryophyllene in platy-cladus orientalis leaves were extracted through controlling the single factor and by using ethanol and ethyl acetate as entrainers, and were detected by GC and GC/MS. The results showed that using an extraction vessel with a volume of 10mL, the optimal extraction rate for a-pinene and β-caryophyllene was achieved when 2mL ethanol was used as entrainer and the fresh platycladus orientalis leaves was 1. 5g, with the extraction temperature of 38℃ and the extraction pressure of 30 Mpa.%在改变温度和压力条件下尤其是添加夹带剂后,超临界CO2流体可进一步增加侧柏叶萜烯类化合物的萃取量和化合物种类.本文通过控制单因子变化,选取无水乙醇和乙酸乙酯为夹带剂,对侧柏叶中萜烯类化合物α-蒎烯、β-石竹烯进行萃取和GC、GC/MS检测.研究结果表明,应用体积10mL的萃取釜,在鲜侧柏叶1.5g,萃取温度为38℃、压力为30MPa时,2mL无水乙醇对侧柏叶α-蒎烯、β-石竹烯的提取率较好.

  4. Extraction of whole pine nut kernel with supercritical CO2%超临界CO2对整粒松仁萃取的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小泓; 贺祥柯; 郭小燕; 刘曼丽

    2004-01-01

    采用超临界CO2萃取技术,从整粒松仁中萃取部分松子油.研究了萃取压力、温度和时间对出油率和整仁的影响.获得最佳的工艺条件为:压力30 MPa,萃取时间3 h,萃取温度35℃.

  5. Optimization of process parameters of extraction of amentoflavone, quercetin and ginkgetin from Taxus chinensis using supercritical CO2 plus co-solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiao; Yan, Liu-Ye; Li, Xian-Xian; Liu, Ben; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Qiang

    2014-10-31

    The effects of extraction time, temperature, pressure and different concentration of ethanol and their interactions on the yields of amentoflavone, quercetin and ginkgetin extracted from Taxus chinensis by supercritical CO2 were investigated by using a central composite design (CCD). An CCD experimental design with four factors and five levels was used to optimize the extraction parameters. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was used to analyze the content of the tree components in the extracts. Experimental results show that the main effects of factors and their interactions are significant on the yields (p extraction conditions were established for the three compounds: yield of 4.47 mg/g for amentoflavone at 48 °C, 25 MPa, 2.02 h and 78.5% ethanol, 3.73 mg/g for quercetin at 46 °C, 24 MPa, 2.3 h, 82% ethanol and 3.47 mg/g for ginkgetin at 48 °C, 20 MPa, 2.38 h, 82% ethanol, respectively.

  6. The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO 2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kamali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS procedure, and semi-continuous (SC technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768% was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5° C , 120 min (static: 8×15, 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2° C , 14 min (static, 121.1 min (dynamic. Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56% solvent usage (kg CO 2 /g oil is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method.

  7. Optimization of Extraction Process of Papaya Seed Oil by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Based on Neural Network%神经网络优化番木瓜籽油的超临界CO2萃取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓楚津; 董强; 张常松; 张良; 刘书成

    2012-01-01

    Papaya seed oil was extracted by supercritical CO2. A neural network model of supercritical CO2 extracting papaya seed oil was established to optimize extracting process parameters in JMP 7. 0 software. The parameters were that grinded papaya seeds were screened through a 20 - inch boult,flow of CO2 was 25 L/h,extraction pressure was 27 Mpa,extraction temperature was 54 ℃ ,and extraction time was 3 h. Under these conditions,the extraction rate was above 30%. Papaya seed oil extracted by supercritical CO2 can meet the standard of edible oils and fats.%采用超临界CO2萃取法萃取番木瓜籽油,利用JMP 7.0软件中的神经网络平台,建立超临界CO2萃取番木瓜籽油的神经网络模型,并优化了萃取过程的工艺参数.结果表明:番木瓜籽破碎后过20目筛,CO2流量为25 L/h,萃取压力27 MPa,萃取温度54℃,萃取时间3h,油脂得率达30%以上;超临界CO2萃取的番木瓜籽油的理化性质达到了食用油脂的标准.

  8. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction Technology of Vanilla Bean%香草兰超临界CO2萃取工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗由萍; 崔胜华; 邓鹏飞; 于长江; 吴秀宁

    2013-01-01

    使用国产超临界CO2萃取中试装置,利用均匀设计法研究了香草兰(Vanilla planifolia Andrews)的超临界萃取工艺.以萃取压力、萃取温度、夹带剂乙醇用量和萃取时间为考察因素,确定最佳萃取工艺条件为萃取压力30.9 MPa、萃取温度53.1℃、夹带剂乙醇用量1.53 mL/g、萃取时间135 min,此条件下香兰素的萃取率为19.56 mg/g.

  9. 超临界CO2萃取辣根精油及其在酱油中的应用%Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Horseradish Essential Oil and Its Application in Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛文颖; 刘丽; 张燕燕; 姚婉莹; 李书斌; 马文娟; 赵晓; 孙波

    2012-01-01

    Horseradish essential oil was extracted by supercritical CO2.The effects of extraction pressure,extraction temperature and extraction time on extraction rate of essential oil were investigated.The optimal extraction conditions were optimized by orthogonal tests.The minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) of horseradish essential oil and its application in soy sauce was determined.The results showed that the optimal extraction process parameters were extraction pressure of 25 MPa,extraction temperature of 40 ℃ and extraction time of 90 min.Under the optimal extraction process,the extraction rate of horseradish essential oil was up to 0.91%.The MIC of horseradish essential oil against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were 0.04μL/mL.Compared with 1.0 g/kg sodium benzoate,0.04μL/mL horseradish essential oil or 0.02μL/mL horseradish essential oil coupled with 0.5 g/kg sodium benzoate could remain good quality of soy sauce after 30 days storage at 37 ℃.The simultaneous application of both antioxidants is better than their single applications.%采用超临界CO2萃取辣根精油,研究萃取压力、萃取温度和萃取时间对得率的影响,并利用正交试验优化最适的萃取条件,将萃取的辣根精油进行最小抑菌浓度(minimal inhibitory concentration,MIC)和酱油中应用的实验。结果表明:当萃取压力25MPa、萃取温度40℃、萃取时间90min时,辣根精油得率为0.91%;辣根精油对大肠杆菌和枯草芽孢杆菌的MIC均为0.04μL/mL;与添加1.0g/kg苯甲酸钠相比,单独添加0.04μL/mL辣根精油或同时添加0.02μL/mL辣根精油和0.5g/kg苯甲酸钠,均使酱油在37℃条件下保藏30d品质良好,其中同时添加两种物质的应用性更好。

  10. Effects of process parameters on supercritical CO2 extraction of total phenols from strawberry (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits: An optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Seref; Alpak, Ilknur; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize total phenolic yield of Arbutus unedo fruits using supercritical fluid extraction. A Box-Behnken statistical design was used to evaluate the effect of various values of pressure (50-300 bar), temperature (30-80°C) and concentration of ethanol as co-solvent (0-20%) by CO2 flow rate of 15 g/min for 60 min. The most effective variable was co-solvent ratio (pextraction conditions were elicited as 60 bar, 48°C and 19.7% yielding 25.72 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) total phenols/g extract and 99.9% radical scavenging capacity, which were higher than the values obtained by conventional water (24.89 mg/g; 83.8%) and ethanol (15.12 mg/g; 95.8%) extractions demonstrating challenges as a green separation process with improved product properties for industrial applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Technology Optimization on Extraction of Lycopene by Supercritical CO2%超临界CO2萃取番茄红素工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓岑; 娄岩; 于国萍

    2006-01-01

    本实验以番茄粉为原料,利用超临界CO2流体萃取技术对番茄红素的提取工艺进行了研究.探讨了萃取压力、萃取温度、萃取时间及夹带剂对番茄红素萃取率的影响,应用高效液相色谱仪对萃取物进行分析检测.采用二次回归正交旋转组合设计,通过计算机分析得出最佳工艺参数为:萃取压力38Mpa、萃取温度61℃、夹带剂添加64mL大豆色拉油、萃取时间120min,番茄红素的萃取率为1.18mg/100g.

  12. Technology Optimization on Extraction of Lycopene by Supercritical CO2%超临界CO2萃取番茄红素工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓岑; 于国萍; 娄岩

    2007-01-01

    试验以番茄粉为原料,利用超临界CO2流体萃取技术对番茄红素的提取工艺进行了研究.探讨了萃取压力、萃取温度、萃取时间及夹带剂对番茄红素萃取率的影响,应用高效液相色谱仪对萃取物进行分析检测.采用二次回归正交旋转组合设计,通过计算机分析得出最佳工艺参数为:萃取压力38Mpa、萃取温度61℃、夹带剂添加64mL大豆色拉油、萃取时间120min,番茄红素的萃取率为1.18mg/100g.

  13. Phase behaviour of sterols and vitamins in supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerszt R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction with supercritical solvents has been used in different areas, such as petroleum desasphaltation, descaffeination of coffee and tea and in the separation of other types of natural products. The supercritical solvent most frequently utilized in the extraction of natural products is carbon dioxide (CO2 due to its several advantages over other solvents such as low cost, atoxicity and volatility. The design, evaluation and optimization of a supercritical extraction that is based on phase equilibrium require phase equilibrium data. This type of data is very scarce for natural compounds like sterols and vitamins. These natural compounds are produced synthetically, but nowadays interest in their extraction from natural sources is increasing. Therefore, the objective of this work is to study the thermodynamic modelling equilibrium of systems containing vitamins A, D, E and K, using the predictive LCVM model. The sensitivity of critical properties in the calculation of the phase behavior was also studied. This study proved that the choice of a group contribution method to calculate thermodynamic properties is very important for obtaining good results in the phase equilibrium calculations.

  14. CO2超临界萃取技术对金枪鱼油挥发性成分的分析%The Analysis of the Effect of Supercritical CO2 Extraction Technology on Volatile Component of Tuna Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚男; 季晓敏; 黄健; 王求娟; 陈义芳; 夏静波; 苏秀榕

    2015-01-01

    Based on the existing evaluation indexes of oil oxidation degree,supercritical CO2 extraction technol-ogy was used to refine crude fish oil.Electronic nose and headspace -solid phase micro -extraction (HS -SPME) coupled with gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (GC -MS)were used to analyze the volatiles of tuna fish oil which was extracted differently.The results showed that the AV and POV of the products of fish oil met the require-ments of industry standard,and the AV was the lowest by 32 ℃,20 MPa ,the POV was the lowest by 32 ℃,30 MPa and 40 ℃,20 MPa,and electronic nose can be sensitive to detect the volatiles change of fish oil.The volatiles of crude fish oil which were tested by 32 ℃,20 MPa、32 ℃,30 MPa and 40 ℃,20 MPa were significantly different by PCA and LDA methods.There were 46,19,12,and 23 kinds of volatile compounds including acids,aldehydes,ke-tones,and hydrocarbons,alcohols,esters,as well as a number of heterocyclic compounds,amines.The odor which may affect fish oil including aldehydes,ketones,amines,etc,were removed up to 100% by using supercritical CO2 extraction technology,besides,the acids were removed efficiently.%采用超临界 CO2萃取技术精制金枪鱼粗鱼油,依据现有对油脂氧化程度的评价指标:过氧化值(POV)和酸值(AV),运用电子鼻和顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法对不同萃取条件下的鱼油进行分析。结果表明,超临界 CO2精制的鱼油酸值和过氧化值符合水产行业标准对精制鱼油的要求,32℃,20 MPa 酸值最小,30 MPa 过氧化值最小。电子鼻能够快速、灵敏的检测到鱼油中挥发性物质的变化,通过 PCA 和 LDA 方法分析原鱼油、32℃,20 MPa、32℃,30 MPa 和40℃,20 MPa 条件精制的鱼油挥发性物质明显不同,利用 GC -MS分别检测出46、19、12和23种挥发性物质,包括酸类、醛类、烃类、酮类、醇类、酯类,还有少量杂环化合物、胺类等。超临界 CO2

  15. 超临界CO2从含铀氧化物粉末中直接萃取铀方法研究%Study on Direct Extraction of Uranium from Uranium Oxides Powder Using Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 朱常桂; 刘小龙; 任萌; 刘锦洪

    2013-01-01

    采用超临界CO2/硝酸-磷酸三丁酯(SC-CO2/HNO3-TBP)为萃取体系,研究各影响因素对其直接从含铀氧化物粉末中萃取铀的影响规律.结果表明:HNO3/TBP比值增大,铀萃取效率(EU)明显增大,比值为1.4时有利于萃取;比值一定时,随有机相总体积增加EU呈线性增加;萃取反应大致分为3个阶段:体系趋于稳定时的较慢阶段,稳定状态下的快速萃取阶段以及受粉末状态影响的缓慢阶段;随温度升高,EU在60℃时达到最大值91.4%;随萃取体系压力增大,EU在12 MPa时达到萃取峰值94.7%;萃取产物分离采用二级减压分离方式,在1#分离器8 MPa、2#分离器5 MPa条件下,能对萃取产物实现很好地分离.%The factors with effects on direct extraction of uranium from uranium oxides powder is studied using supercritical CO2/TBP-HNO3 extraction system.The results show that the extraction efficiency of uranium (EU) is increasing obviously with an increased HNO3/TBP,and EU is the best at the ratio value of 1.4;Under certain HNO3/TBP,EU is direct proportional to the volume of organic phase.The extraction reaction can be divided into three phases:react slowly in initial phase,fast in stable phase and slowly in final phase due to powder condition; As temperature increasing,EU has maximum value 91.4% at 60℃; As pressure increasing,EU has maximum value 94.7% at 12 MPa; According to extraction equipment condition,the best separation of extraction products can be achieved in 8 MPa (separation vessel 1) and 5 MPa (separation vessel 2).

  16. Extraction of lycopene by supercritical carbon dioxide%超临界CO2萃取番茄红素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苍久娜; 汤敏顺; 郑永杰

    2009-01-01

    采用超临界CO2萃取技术从番茄皮中提取番茄红素,通过单因素实验和正交实验研究了不同萃取压力、萃取温度、CO2流量和萃取时间对萃取率的影响.确定了萃取的最佳条件为萃取压力26 MPa,萃取时间3.0 h,萃取温度40℃,CO2流量30 kg/h,在此条件下番茄红素的萃取产量为26.34 mg/100 g.

  17. 半夏等7种中药超临界CO2萃取物抗惊厥作用比较%Comparison Study of Supercritical-CO2 Fluid Extractions of Pinellia Rhizoma on Anticonvulsant Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓉; 王明正; 成银霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the anticonvulsion effect of supercritical-CO2 fluid extractions (SFE-CO2) of Bupleuri Radix , and explore their mechanism. Method: One thousand and sixty mice were randomly divided into 11 groups; RB Ⅰ group, RB Ⅱ group, RAT Ⅰ group, RAT Ⅱ group, AR Ⅱ group, UN Ⅱ group, PR Ⅱ group, SCL Ⅰ group, PS Ⅰ group, topamax group and NS group. Every group was divided into 4-6 dose groups. The maximal electroshock seizure ( MES) was used to observe the anticonvulsion effect. ED50 dose against MES was considered as the administrated dosage to observe the anticonvulsant affects in metrazol seizure test ( MET). The rat seizure model was reduced by cortex localion injection of penicillin to investigate the effect of extractions on the convulsant behaviors and hippocampus EEG (the doses were converted by ED95 of MES). Result: ①Except for RB Ⅱ and PS Ⅰ , all the other seven extractions (PR Ⅱ , UN Ⅱ , RAT Ⅰ , PR Ⅱ , SCL Ⅰ , RB Ⅰ , RAT Ⅱ ) could dose-dependently antagonize MES in mice. ②All of the seven extractions could prolong the latent period of MET in mice, and the sequence from maximum to minimum was RP Ⅱ , UN Ⅱ , RAT Ⅰ , PR Ⅱ , SCL Ⅰ , RB Ⅰ , RATⅡ . The effect of RP Ⅱ (11. 06 ±4. 32) min was better than topamax (9. 57 ± 4. 47) min. ③ The extractions with SFE-CO2 showed a faster onset and shorter duration of he anticonvulsant action than that of supercritical-CO2 alcohol fluid extractions (SAFE-CO2). ④PR Ⅱ , AR Ⅱ , UN Ⅱ , RAT Ⅰ , RAT Ⅱ and RB Ⅰ could prolong the latent period of epileptiform discharge, reduce the frequency of epileptiform discharge, and decrease the highest wave of hippocampus EEG. Conclusion: AR Ⅱ , UN Ⅱ , RAT Ⅰ , PTⅡ , SCL Ⅰ , RB Ⅰ , RATⅡ could dose-dependently antagonize MES and MET in mice; PR Ⅱ , ARⅡ , UN Ⅱ , RAT Ⅰ and RB Ⅰ could antagonize penicillin-kindling seizure in rats. PT Ⅱ may be the most effective extraction in antagonizing

  18. Anticonvulsant Effects of Supercritical-CO2 Alcohol Fluid Extractions of Rhizoma Pinelliae%天南星超临界CO2乙醇萃取物抗惊厥作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓉; 王明正; 成银霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antagonize action of supercritical - CO2 alcohol fluid extraction of rhizoma pmelhae(SFE -CO2 RP) on different convulsive model and explore its mechanism of anticonvulsant action. Method Maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and Metrazol seizure test (MET) were used to analyze the anticonvulsant effects in mice treated by SFE-CO2 RP. The model of seizure rats induced by penicillin injected in cortex was used to investigate effect of SFE - CO2 RP on the convulsant behaviors and hippocampus EEG. Result SFE - CO2 RP was dose - dependently antagonize MES, and could prolong latent period (P<0.01) on MET in mice,and could also prolong the latent period on the penicillin -induced seizure and lighten the extent of seizure. At the same time,it could prolong latent period of epileptiform discharge,reduce the frequency of epileptiform discharge,and decrease the highest wave of hippocampus EEG. All above indexes were significantly difference between model group and control groups(P<0.05 or P< 0.01). Conclusion SFE -CO2 RP was dose -dependently antagonize MES and antagonize MET in mice,it also could antagonize penicillin-kindling seizure in rats. Anticonvulsant properties of SFE - CO2 RP was resemble as TPM.%目的 研究中草药天南星超临界CO2乙醇萃取物对不同惊厥动物模型的对抗作用,并探讨其作用机制.方法 采用最大电休克(MES)和戊四唑惊厥模型(MET),以托吡酯(TPM)为阳性对照,观察其抗惊厥作用;建立大鼠皮层定位注射青霉素点燃模型,观察其灌胃给药对惊厥行为和脑电图的影响.结果 天南星超临界CO2萃取物对MES模型有对抗作用,且量效呈正相关性.可延长MET惊厥潜伏期(P<0.01),对抗MET发作.对青霉素点燃模型亦产生对抗作用,可延长痫性发作潜伏期、减轻发作程度,延长痫性放电的潜伏期,减少痫波发放频率,减小放电最高波幅,与模型组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 天南星超临界CO

  19. 牛蒡根挥发油超临界CO2萃取的工艺研究%Technology for volatile oil extraction from the root of Arctium Lappa L.using supercrit-ical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦德宇; 柳春燕; 杨丽芬

    2013-01-01

      目的:对超临界CO2流体萃取牛蒡根挥发油的工艺条件进行研究。方法:通过单因素试验研究萃取温度、萃取压力、萃取时间对萃取率的影响,并采用正交试验设计优化工艺条件。结果:最佳萃取条件为萃取温度45℃、萃取压力25 MPa、萃取时间1.5h,在此条件下,超临界CO2流体萃取牛蒡根挥发油的萃取率为2.92%。结论:超临界CO2流体萃取牛蒡根挥发油具有较高的萃取率,最佳条件为萃取温度45℃、萃取压力25 MPa、萃取时间1.5 h,且萃取温度对萃取率有显著影响。%  Objective:To study the technology for extracting volatile oil from the root of Arctium Lappa L.using supercritical carbon dioxide. Methods:By single factor test,the effects on the yield were examined con-cerning the extraction temperature,pressure and time.Orthogonal experi-ment was used to optimize the extraction technology.Results:The optimal temperature was 45 ℃,pressure at 25 MPa and duration for 1.5 h.Such conditions had led to a yield of volatile oil by 2.92%.Conclusion:Ex-traction of volatile oil from root of Arctium Lappa L.using supercritical carbon dioxide can be productive under the optimum conditions described above.Of the three factors,extraction temperature may greatly affect the extraction yield of volatile oil.

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Rice Bran Supercritical CO2 Extract for Hair Growth in Androgenic Alopecia: A 16-Week Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Park, Jae Beom; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a 16-week double-blind randomized controlled single-center trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dermal rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Fifty alopecia patients were randomly assigned to the experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received a dermal application of 0.5% RB-SCE (8 mL/d) to the head skin for 16 weeks while the control group received a dermal application of placebo. Changes in hair count, diameter, and density were evaluated with a Folliscope(®). Patient satisfaction was evaluated via questionnaire and clinical photographs were rated by dermatologists. The results showed that RB-SCE significantly increased hair density and hair diameter in male subjects. Patient satisfaction and the evaluation of photographs by dermatologists also confirmed the effectiveness of RB-SCE in the treatment of alopecia. No adverse reactions related to RB-SCE were reported. Therefore, RB-SCE shows promise for use in functional cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  1. Chemical composition of Lycium europaeum fruit oil obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and cell absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Antonella; Maxia, Andrea; Putzu, Danilo; Atzeri, Angela; Era, Benedetta; Fais, Antonella; Sanna, Cinzia; Piras, Alessandra

    2017-09-01

    We studied the total phenols and flavonoids, liposoluble antioxidants, fatty acid and triacylglycerol profiles, and oxidative status of oil obtained from Lycium europaeum fruits following supercritical CO2 extraction (at 30MPa and 40°C). Linoleic (52%), palmitic (18%), oleic (13%), and α-linolenic (6%) were the main oil fatty acids, while trilinolein and palmitodilinolein/oleodilinolein represented the main triacylglycerols. The oil was characterized by high levels of all-trans-zeaxanthin and all-trans-β-carotene (755 and 332μg/g of oil, respectively), α-tocopherol (308μg/g of oil), total phenols (13.6mg gallic acid equivalents/g of oil), and total flavonoids (6.8mg quercetin equivalents/g of oil). The oil showed radical scavenging activities (ABTS and DPPH assays) and inhibited Caco-2 cell growth. Moreover, the incubation of differentiated Caco-2 cells with a non-toxic oil concentration (100μg/mL) induced a significant intracellular accumulation of essential fatty acids. The results qualify L. europaeum oil as a potential source for food/pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasticisation and complexation of certain polymers in supercritical CO2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, Philip W

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A polymer system (polyvinylpyrrolidone + polyvinyl acetate-co-crotonic acid) was successfully identified for use as encapsulation material for sensitive actives using supercritical CO2 as plasticisation medium, having the following properties: 1...

  3. Use of reverse osmosis membranes for the separation of lemongrass essential oil and supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.V. Sarmento

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is still used very little by industry, the process of essential oil extraction from vegetable matrices with supercritical CO2 is regarded as a potentially viable technique. The operation of separating the extract from the solvent is carried out by reducing the pressure in the system. Separation by membranes is an alternative that offers lower energy consumption and easier operation than traditional methods of separation. Combining the processes essential oil extraction with supercritical CO2 and separation by membranes permits the separation of solvent and oil without the need for large variations in extraction conditions. This results in a large energy savings in the case of solvent repressurisation and reuse. In this study, the effectiveness of reverse osmosis membranes in separating lemongrass essential oil from mixtures with supercritical CO2 was tested. The effects of feed oil concentration and transmembrane pressure on CO2 permeate flux and oil retention were studied for three membrane models.

  4. Application of GC–MS chromatography for the analysis of the oil fractions extracted by supercritical CO2 at high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Spirov, Pavel; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    GC–MS chromatographic analysis has been applied for the investigation of the fractions of oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide at a temperature of 60 °C and at pressure values ranging from 22 to 56 MPa. The observations revealed, that the whole extraction process is clearly reflected...... of the chromatographic method for the quantitative evaluation of oil recovery. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

  5. Study of supercritical-CO2 alcohol fluid extractions of Pinellia tuber on anticonvulsant effect%半夏超临界CO2乙醇萃取物抗惊厥作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓉; 王明正; 成银霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antagonize action of supercritical-Ccfe alcohol fluid extraction of Pinellia tuber (SFE-CO2 PT) on different convulsive model and explore its mechanism of anticonvulsant action. Method: Maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and Metrazol seizure test (MET) were used to analyze the anticonvulsant effects in mice given by ig SFE-CO2 PT. Using the model of seizure rats induced by penicillin localized injected in cortex investigated the effect of SFE-CO2 PT on the convulsant behaviors and hippocampus EEC Result: SFE-CO2 PT could dose-dependently antagonize MET modle, and the dose-effect was positively correlated. It could be extended MET convulsions incubation period (P<0.01) and against the attack of MET. It had antagonism effect to the model of seizure rats induced by penicillin localized injected in cortex, extended incubation period of seizure, reduced the extent of attack, extended incubation period of epileptic discharges, reduced the frequency of epileptic waves release, reduced the maximum amplitude of the discharge, which compared with model group, all of them had significant differences (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: The SFE-CCh PT can dose-dependently antagonize MES and MET modle, meanwhile, it can against the attack of seizure rats induced by penicillin localize injected in cortex. The anticonvulsant effect is similar to Topamax modle, but compared with Topamax modle, the MES and MET modle is stronger while the seizure rats induced by penicillin localize injected in cortex is weaker.%目的:研究半夏超临界CO2乙醇萃取物对不同惊厥动物模型的对抗作用,并探讨其作用机制.方法:采用最大电休克( MES)和戊四唑惊厥模型(MET),以托吡酯(TPM)为阳性对照,观察其抗惊厥作用;建立大鼠皮层定位注射青霉素点燃模型,观察其灌胃给药对惊厥行为和脑电图的影响.结果:半夏超临界CO2萃取物对MES模型有对抗作用,且量效呈正相关

  6. High Materials Performance in Supercritical CO2 in Comparison with Atmospheric Pressure CO2 and Supercritical Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Tylczak, Joseph [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Carney, Casey [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Dogan, Omer N. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2017-02-26

    This presentation covers environments (including advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) steam boiler/turbine and sCO2 indirect power cycle), effects of pressure, exposure tests, oxidation results, and mechanical behavior after exposure.

  7. 黑茶中茶多酚及咖啡碱的超临界CO2流体萃取研究%Extraction of Tea Polyphenols and Caffeine from Black Tea with Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹志芳; 钟桐生; 彭晓赟; 李劼; 王科

    2012-01-01

      Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract tea polyphenols and caffeine from black tea. Conditions such as teperature, pressure, entrainer agents concentration and the dosage of entrainer were optimized with orthogonal test (extraction time was 2 hours). The content of tea polyphenols and caffeine were determined by spectrophotometry. According to the results of orthogonal test, it showed that the optimum conditions were: the extraction temperature 50℃, pressure 2 volume ratio) as cosolvent, and the most appropriate amount 100 mL/150 g for tea polyphenols;the extraction temperature 40℃, pressure 2 appropriate amount 300 mL/150 g for coffeine. The extraction rate was (0.190±0.004)%for tea polyphenols and (0.457±0.036)%for caffeine in this extraction condition.%  以益阳黑茶为原料,采用超临界CO2萃取技术提取黑茶中的茶多酚和咖啡碱,采用正交试验对萃取温度、萃取压力、夹带剂浓度和夹带剂用量等因素进行优化(固定萃取时间为2 h).采用分光光度法测定茶叶中茶多酚和咖啡碱的含量,根据正交试验极差分析结果得出茶多酚的最佳萃取条件:萃取温度50℃,萃取压力20 MPa,夹带剂采用体积分数为70%的乙醇,适宜用量为100 mL/150 g,得率为(0.190±0.004)%.咖啡碱的最佳萃取条件:萃取温度40℃,萃取压力20 MPa,夹带剂采用体积分数为70%的乙醇,适宜用量为300 mL/150 g,咖啡碱得率为(0.457±0.036)%.

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  9. Study on the optimum extraction of Bullatacin from seeds ofAnnona squamosa L.by supercritical fluid CO2 extraction%超临界CO2萃取番荔枝种子中布拉他辛的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晋艳; 陈彦; 张振海; 章永红; 王璐

    2011-01-01

    目的:筛选超临界CO2流体萃取番荔枝种子中布拉他辛的最佳工艺条件.方法:用HPLC法测定布拉他辛的含量,并采用正交试验优化超临界CO2流体萃取布拉他辛的工艺条件.结果:超临界CO2流体萃取布拉他辛的最佳工艺条件为:萃取压力为30MPa,萃取温度为35°C,萃取时间为2h,夹带剂(无水乙醇)用量为0.3mL/g.结论:超临界CO2流体萃取法可有效提取番荔枝种子中的布拉他辛,该方法切实可行.%Objective: To optimize the technology parameters of bullatacin from seeds of Annona squamosa L. By supercritical fluid extraction and definite the optimal extraction conditions. Methods: The content of bullatacin was detected by HPLC, and optimum extraction conditions were studied by orthogonal tests. Results: The optimal extraction conditions were extraction pressure as 30MPa, extraction temperature at 351, extraction time for 2 hours with 30% ethanol. Conclusion: Supercritical fluid extraction method can extract bullatacin in seeds of Annonaceae plants effectively and it was feasible.

  10. Development of an extraction method for the determination of avermectins in soil using supercritical CO2 modified with ethanol and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyouk; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Abd El-Aty, A M; Park, Joon-Seong; Kim, Bo Mi; Na, Tae-Woong; Park, Ki Hun; Yang, Angel; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Shim, Jae-Han

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a multiresidue analytical method for determination of avermectins (abamectin, ivermectin, moxidectin, and doramectin) in soil samples using supercritical fluid extraction and LC-MS/MS. The optimal extraction conditions for supercritical fluid extraction were 80°C for temperature, 300 kg/cm(2) for pressure, 40 min as an extraction time, and 30% of a modifier ratio. The linearity of the calibration curves was excellent and yielded the correlation coefficients (r(2) = 0.998-0.999, at a range of 1.5-500 ng/g). Soil samples were fortified with known quantities of the analytes at three different concentration levels (5, 10, and 50 ng/g) and the recoveries were in the range of 82.5-96.2% with relative standard deviation values ranging between 2.1 and 7.9%. The limits of detections and limits of quantitations were 1.5 and 5 ng/g, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze avermectin residues in soil samples collected from 13 sites in the Honam area, Republic of Korea. In sum, a combination of supercritical fluid extraction and LC-MS/MS has been proven to be highly efficient as an environmentally friendly technique for the simultaneous determination of avermectins in soil samples. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Optimization for Supercritical CO2 Extraction with Response Surface Methodology and Component Analysis of Sapindus mukorossi Oil%响应曲面法优化无患子油超临界CO2萃取工艺研究及其成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕; 肖新玉; 葛发欢

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究无患子油超临界CO2萃取工艺及其成分分析.方法:以无患子为材料,采用响应曲面法优化无患子油超临界CO2萃取工艺,并采用GC-MS对无患子油成分进行分析.结果:建立了一个能较好预测萃取结果的数学模型,并根据该方程对无患子油的超临界萃取工艺参数进行了优选.确定了无患子油超临界CO2萃取最佳工艺为:萃取压力30 MPa,萃取温度40℃,分离I压力14 MPa、温度45℃,分离Ⅱ压力6MPa、温度40℃,萃取时间60 min,得率为17.58%;并对无患子油进行了GC-MS分析,鉴定了22种成分,其中不饱和脂肪酸含量为86.59%.结论:优化后的工艺合理可行,操作简单,可用于无患子油的提取.%Objective:To study the extraction conditions of Sapindus mukorossi oil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction and identify its components. Methods: Optimized SFE-CO, Extraction by Response Surface Methodology and used GC-MS to analysis Sapindus mukorossi oil compounds. Results: Established the model of an equation for the extraction rate of Sapindus mukorossi oil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction, and the optimal parameters for the Supercritical CO2 Extraction determined by the equation were:the extraction pressure was 30 MPa, temperature was 40 ℃; The separation I pressure was 14 MPa. temperature was 45℃ ; The separation Ⅱ pressure was 6 MPa, temperature was 40℃ ; The extraction time was 60 min and the extraction rate of Sapindus mukorossi oil of 17.58%. 22 main compounds of Sapindus mukorossi oil extracted by supercritical CO2 were identified by GC-MS, unsaturated fatty acids were 86. 59%. Conclusion·This process is reliable, safe and with simple operation, and can be used for the extraction of Sapindus mukorossi oil.

  12. Study on Optimization of Extraction Conditions of Catechin from Roasted Green Tea by Supercritical-CO2 Fluid Extraction%炒青绿茶儿茶素超临界CO2萃取工艺优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛世红; 邱涛涛

    2014-01-01

    The extraction conditions of catechin from roasted green tea by supercritical-CO 2 fluid extraction (SFE-CO2)were studied. Influences of extraction temperature, extraction pressure, materiel-liquid ratio, and extraction time on the content of catechin were investigated, and the effect of extraction conditions on the extraction rate of catechin from extracts was evaluated by single factor and orthogonal tests.Experimental results showed that the successive order of diferent effect factors on yield of catechin was extraction pressure>materiel-liquid ratio>extraction time>materiel granularity. The optimal extraction conditions of catechin from roasted green tea as follows:extraction temperature 50℃, extraction time 120 min, extraction pressure 25 MPa, 1∶2.5 of solid to liquid ratio was used as a modifier, and 0.65 mm of particle size. The maximum SFE-CO2 extracting rate of catechin 6.053 6%.%采用单因素试验和正交试验对炒青绿茶儿茶素超临界CO2萃取工艺进行探讨,确定萃取效果影响的程度从高到低依次为:萃取压力>夹带剂乙醇用量>萃取时间>萃取粒度,最佳萃取工艺为:底物与夹带剂(乙醇)之比为100 g/250 mL,萃取压力25 MPa,萃取温度50℃,粒度为60目,萃取120 min。按照该工艺茶叶中儿茶素粗提物的得率为6.0536%。

  13. SOLID PHASE TRANSITION OF SYNDIOTACTIC POLYSTYRENE IN SUPERCRITICAL CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-ying Li; Jia-song He

    2002-01-01

    Solid phase transition of the a form crystals to the β form crystals in syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) samples has occurred in supercritical CO2. This transformation is different from those detected under other conditions. The effects of some factors (e.g. time, temperature, and pressure) on the solid phase transformation of sPS in supercritical CO2 were analyzed in detail. Experimental results show that longer time, higher temperature or higher pressure favors the transformation of the α form crystals to the β form crystals.

  14. Asymmetric Synthesis Using Enzymes in Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Matsuda

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Great efforts have been extended to catalysis in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) since the early 1990's due to the environmental friendliness, high diffusivity, high solubilizing power, easiness of the product separation,etc.. A combined process of scCO2 and enzymatic catalyst system would be a promising synthetic tool to produce optically active compounds because the enzyme has advantages of being natural and having high enantioselectivity in nature. Here we report asymmetric synthesis using lipase and alcohol dehydrogenase in scCO2[1,2].

  15. Design of experimental setup for supercritical CO2 jet under high ambient pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; He, Zhenguo; Wang, Haizhu; Zhang, Shikun

    2016-12-01

    With the commercial extraction of hydrocarbons in shale and tight reservoirs, efficient methods are needed to accelerate developing process. Supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) jet has been considered as a potential way due to its unique fluid properties. In this article, a new setup is designed for laboratory experiment to research the SC-CO2 jet's characteristics in different jet temperatures, pressures, standoff distances, ambient pressures, etc. The setup is composed of five modules, including SC-CO2 generation system, pure SC-CO2 jet system, abrasive SC-CO2 jet system, CO2 recovery system, and data acquisition system. Now, a series of rock perforating (or case cutting) experiments have been successfully conducted using the setup about pure and abrasive SC-CO2 jet, and the results have proven the great perforating efficiency of SC-CO2 jet and the applications of this setup.

  16. The Study of Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Lycopene on Autumn Olive%秋橄榄番茄红素超临界CO2萃取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成建红; 刘惠斌; 于喜涛

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, orthogonal test design of three factors at three different levels was applied to optimize the lycopene extraction technology from autumn olive using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The results showed that the extraction temperature had significant influences on extraction yield of lycopene. The effects of extraction temperature and extract time were in order reduced. Under the 60 L/h CO 2 flow rate, the optimal pa-rameter to extract the lycopene from the fruits of autumn olive was using 30 MPa extraction pressure, extracting for 1.5 h at 45℃.%以野生秋橄榄为原料,采用三因素三水平正交试验设计对果实番茄红素无助提剂条件下的超临界CO2提取(SFE)工艺进行了研究。结果表明,在检测的3个因素中萃取压力对秋橄榄果实番茄红素的提取效率影响最大,其次为温度和提取时间。在CO2流速约为60 L/h的条件下,果实番茄红素提取的最佳工艺参数为45℃,30 MPa,每次1.5 h。

  17. 超临界CO2萃取牛蒡片挥发油及气相色谱-质谱联用分析%GC-MS analysis of volatile oil from slices of Arctium Lappa L.by supercritical CO2 extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦德宇; 刘炎; 柳春燕; 杨丽芬; 陈靠山

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To verify the feasibility of obtaining the volatile oil from slices of Arctium Lappa L. By supercritical carbon dioxide (C02 ) extraction and determine the chemical components of the extract. Methods: The volatile oil was obtained by supercritical CO2 and the chemical components were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry(GC-MS). Results-. The extraction rate was 0. 84 % , and 31 compounds were identified from 41 extraction peaks. Conclusion; The technology is competent for extracting the volatile oil from slices of Arctium Lappa L. By supercritical CO2 , and the oil was identified as a mixture of multiple chemical components.%目的:探讨超临界CO2萃取牛蒡片挥发油的可行性并检测其化学成分.方法:采用超临界CO2萃取得到牛蒡片挥发油,并用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)对其化学成分进行分析.结果:挥发油的萃取率为0.84%,从挥发油中分离出41个峰,鉴定出其中31种化合物.结论:超临界CO2萃取可作为一种有效提取牛蒡片挥发油的方法,其挥发油为多种类型化合物的混合物.

  18. Preparation of PMMA Foam by Supercritical CO2 with Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 with ethanol as blowing agent foamed poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) fiber at 308.15K and in the pressure range from 12-15MPa. The foam structure was detected using scanning electron microscope. It was found that the concentration of ethanol in the fluid is a major parameter to affect the foam structure.

  19. 超临界CO2萃取芫荽籽油的数学模型%Research on the Mathematical Model of the Extraction of Coriander Seed Oil with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成江晨; 白凌

    2011-01-01

    [目的]优化超临界CO2萃取芫荽籽油的工艺条件.[方法]通过单因子试验考察萃取压力、CO2流量、萃取时间以及萃取温度对芫荽籽油萃取率的影响.利用MATLAB软件,对试验数据进行多元多项式拟合.[结果]对纯粹二次拟合模型进行拟合可信度的F检验,结果表明多项式各项对y线性关系极显著(P<0.01),从而确定萃取压力、CO2流量、萃取时间以及萃取温度对萃取率影响的较为合理的拟合模型为纯粹二次多项式模型.将上述二次多项式代入MATLAB的无约束最优化工具,计算出超临界CO2萃取芫荽籽油的最佳工艺条件是:萃取压力21.84 MPa,CO2流量33.26 L/h,萃取时间142.90 min,萃取温度42.6℃,该条件下最佳萃取率为12.61%.[结论]超临界CO2萃取芫荽籽油工艺中,萃取压力、CO2流量、萃取时间、萃取温度对萃取率的影响是相互独立的,通过对各工艺条件的改变可以大幅度提高芫荽籽油萃取率.%[ Objective] The process condition of the extraction of coriander seed oil with the method of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid was optimized. [Method] The effect of the extracting pressure, time and temperature, the rate of CO2 flow, on the yield of coriander seed oil based on the method was investigated through the single factor experimental design. The experimental data was fitted in multiply-element and multiply-item/polynomial by means of MATLAB software. [ Result] The reliability of the purely quadratic fitting model was done with F-test and the testing results showed that the item of multiply-item/polynomial was significant with the y linear relationship with (P < 0.01 ), so it was determined that more reasonable fitting model of the effect of the extraction pressure, the flow rate of carbon dioxide, the extraction time and the extraction temperature on the extraction rate was the purely quadratic multiply-item/polynomial model. After the quadratic multiply-item/polynomial was put

  20. 川芎水蒸气蒸馏和超临界CO2提取物化学成分的GC-MS分析鉴别%GC-MS Analysis and Determination of Chemical Components of the Extracts from Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort.by Steam Distillation and Supercritical CO2 Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志; 谢润乾; 谭丽贤; 张涛

    2011-01-01

    The chemical components of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Were extracted by steam distillation and supercritical C02 extraction, and analyzed by combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Thirty and thirty four compounds were identified, respectively, and their relative contents were determined. This study revealed that the major components of L chuanxiong Hort. By steam distillation and supercritical CO2 extraction were (Z) -ligustilide. The chemical components from L chuanxiong Hort. Extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction possessed more bioactive substances such as butylphthalide, butylidene phthalide, senkyunolide A, (Z)-ligustilide, (E)-ligustilide and senkyunobde I. However, the components from L chuanxiong Hort. Extracted by steam distillation contained more terpenes except for the bioactive substances. Therefore, supercritical CO2 extraction has more productivity than steam distillation for the extraction of the bioactive substances from L chuanxiong Hort. Through the interpretation and summarization of the regular patterns of the lactones with unsaturated and saturated side chains from L. Chuanxiong Hort. , the structures of the lactones with unsaturated side chain such as (Z)-ligustilide, (E)-ligustilide, butylidene phthalide and senkyunolide I as well as the lactones with saturated side chain such as butylphthalide and senkyunolide A have been determined.%用水蒸气蒸馏和超临界CO2提取方法对川芎药材中的化学成分进行提取,用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)对提取物进行分析,分别鉴定出30和34个化合物,测定了其相对含量.结果表明,水蒸气蒸馏和超临界CO2提取物的主要成分均为(Z)-藁本内酯.超临界CO2提取方法能提取出较多的川芎药效物质,如丁基酞内酯、丁烯基酞内酯、川芎内酯A、(Z)-藁本内酯、(E)-藁本内酯和川芎内酯I.而水蒸气蒸馏提取物中除了川芎药效物质外,还含有较多的萜烯类化合物.结果表明,超临界CO

  1. Evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of crude ginger and rosemary extracts obtained through supercritical CO2 extraction on macrophage and tumor cell line: the influence of vehicle type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, Oselys Rodriguez; Simioni, Patricia Ucelli; Gabriel, Dirce Lima; Tamashiro, Wirla Maria da Silva Cunha; Rosa, Paulo de Tarso Vieira; Moraes, Ângela Maria

    2015-10-29

    Numerous plants from have been investigated due to their anti-inflammatory activity and, among then, extracts or components of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sources of polyphenolic compounds. 6-gingerol from ginger rhizome and carnosic acid and carnosol from rosemary leaves present anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, the evaluation of the mechanisms of action of these and other plant extracts is limited due to their high hydrophobicity. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a vehicle of liposoluble materials to mammalian cells in vitro, presenting enhanced cell penetration. Liposomes are also able to efficiently deliver agents to mammalian cells, being capable to incorporate in their structure not only hydrophobic molecules, but also hydrophilic and amphiphilic compounds. Another strategy is based on the use of Pluronic F-68, a biocompatible low-foaming, non-ionic surfactant, to disperse hydrophobic components. Here, these three delivery approaches were compared to analyze their influence on the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of ginger and rosemary extracts, at different concentrations, on primary mammalian cells and on a tumor cell line. Ginger and rosemary extracts free of organic solvents were obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and dispersed in DMSO, Pluronic F-68 or liposomes, in variable concentrations. Cell viability, production of inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide (NO) release were measured in vitro on J774 cell line and murine macrophages primary culture stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ after being exposed or not to these extracts. Ginger and rosemary extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the release of NO by peritoneal macrophages and J774 cells. The delivery vehicles influenced the anti-inflammatory effects. Comparatively, the ginger extract showed the

  2. INTEGRATED SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION AND BIOPROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Catchpole

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluids are increasingly being used and promoted at a laboratory and pilot scale to produce high value, natural bioactives from biologically based raw materials. Supercritical CO2 is overwhelmingly the solvent of choice for these operations, but is largely limited to the processing of dry raw materials and the extraction of low polarity, low molecular weight compounds. The use of co-solvents and the use of alternative ‘near-critical’ extraction fluids such as dimethyl ether show potential to mitigate these limitations. Commercialisation of new supercritical extraction processes has arguably been limited because the supercritical extraction process has been developed in isolation of other processing steps necessary to achieve a successful product. This study reviews recent developments in integrated processing that incorporate the use of supercritical fluids for bioseparations and in particular process schemes that produce high value natural bioactives. Integrated processes include prior operation (fermentation, extraction, enzyme pre-treatment, physical fractionation or size reduction followed by supercritical extraction or fractionation and processes in which operations are carried out in situ in supercritical fluids (supercritical chromatography, enzymatic conversion, precipitation and coating of solutes. The use of co-solvents and alternative extraction solvents in these processes is discussed. Prospects for future developments are also discussed.

  3. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2006-06-15

    are regulated as food supplements but are intended to treat disease or maintain health. Antioxidants and beneficial lipid products are major examples in this category. The final major category consists of environmental applications, both as an extraction technique for environmental analysis, and as a possible remediation strategy for removing contaminants that would otherwise be too expensive to recover. Most of the work in this area has focused on non-polar compounds, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), where non-polar supercritical (SC) CO2 offers high extraction efficiencies. Co-solvent systems combining CO2 with one or more modifiers extend the utility of SC CO2 to polar and even ionic compounds. Supercritical water can extract polar compounds, and it has the additional advantage of combining extraction and destruction of contaminants via the supercritical water oxidation (SUWOX) process. Supercritical fluids are also useful in various niche applications. Fuel extraction, conversion, and analysis is one such application. Extraction of metals from various matrixes is also an area of continuing interest. The application of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology to production of nano-structured materials is a new area likely to see rapid growth in the next few years.

  4. Supercritical Extraction of Lycopene from Tomato Industrial Waste with Ethane

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Beatriz P.; Gouveia, L.; Patricia G. S. Matos; Cristino, Ana F.; António F. Palavra; Mendes, Rui L.

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of all-E-lycopene from tomato industrial wastes (mixture of skins and seeds) was carried out in a semi-continuous flow apparatus using ethane as supercritical solvent. The effect of pressure, temperature, feed particle size, solvent superficial velocity and matrix initial composition was evaluated. Moreover, the yield of the extraction was compared with that obtained with other supercritical solvents (supercritical CO2 and a near critical mixture of ethane and p...

  5. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrio L Valle

    Full Text Available Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE, extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn. Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant

  6. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Demetrio L; Cabrera, Esperanza C; Puzon, Juliana Janet M; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn). Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant bacteria.

  7. Perspectives on the integration of a supercritical fluid extraction plant to a sugarcane biorefinery: thermo-economical evaluation of CO2 recycle systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Q. ALBARELLI

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, the software Aspen Plus® was used to analyse two different systems for CO2 recycle in a SFE process for extraction of more polar compounds using ethanol as co-solvent, the most common co-solvent used due to its environment-friendly nature. The extraction process of β-ecdysone from Brazilian ginseng roots was considered as example in the computational simulations. The first CO2 recycle system, named Recycle A, considered the compression of the CO2 separated in the second flash to the recycle pressure assumed at the first flash tank, its cooling to 25 °C and recirculation, while the second recycle system, named Recycle B, considered the cooling and pumping of the CO2 separated in the second flash, its heating to 25 °C and recirculation. The best techno-economic condition to operate the recycling step would be using Recycle A at 40 bar and 30 °C considering a stand-alone SFE process; and using Recycle B at 40 bar and 40 °C, considering this process in close proximity of a hypothetical sugarcane biorefinery. Therefore, these results suggest that the selection where would be located the SFE plant should be taken into account during the first steps of the process design.

  8. Supercritical CO2 Extraction and Composition Analysis of Essential Oil from Kuerle Fragrant Pear*%超临界CO2萃取法提取库尔勒香梨精油及其成分分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄在祥; 柳杨; 王洪新

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil from kuerle fragrant pear is extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction method,steam distillation and the solid phase micro-extraction. The results show that compared to the yield of essential oil by supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils was 0.0549% , which was higher than that of steam distillation and solid phase micro extraction. Sensory analysis results showed that the essential oil obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction was orange, transparent liquid oil, and taste good. 28 compounds were identified in the essential oil of kuerle fragrant pear. The compositions of the essential oil was then identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) ,28 compounds had been characterized. The content of Ethyl butyrate was the highest, which was 5. 19%.%采用超临界CO2萃取法提取库尔勒香梨精油,用气相色谱-串联质谱技术对其成分进行分析,并对几种提取方法进行综合比较。结果表明,与水蒸气蒸馏法、固相微萃取法相比,超临界CO2萃取法具有香梨精油提取率最高,为0.0549%。感官分析的结果表明,超临界CO2萃取法所得的库尔勒香梨精油颜色为橙色透明液体,而且风味好。气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)分析结果表明:超临界CO2萃取法所得的香梨精油中共鉴定出28种成分。丁酸乙酯、顺-7-十四烯-1-醇和乙酸己酯的含量最高,含量分别为5.19%、4.85%和4.37%。

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN ZEKOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.

  10. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  11. POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES FROM SUPERCRITICAL CO2 MICROEMULSION POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-jun Ye; Jason S. Keiper; Joseph M. DeSimone

    2006-01-01

    Herein, we reported the microemulsion polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide. With the aid of an anionic phosphate fluorosurfactant (bis-[2-(F-hexyl)ethyl]phosphate sodium), water-soluble/CO2-insoluble acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride monomer and N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide cross-linker were solubilized into CO2 continuous phase via the formation of water-in-CO2 (w/c) microemulsion water pools. Initiated by a CO2-soluble initiator, 2,2'-azo-bisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), cross-linked poly(acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) particles were produced and stabilized in these w/c internal water pools. Nano-sized particles with sizes less than 20 nm in diameter and narrow particle size distributions were obtained.

  12. Components Comparison of Essential Oil Extracted from Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus by Supercritical Fluid CO2 Extraction and Steam Distillation%超临界流体CO2提取法与水蒸汽蒸馏法提取南五味子挥发油的成分比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛日文; 张敏; 徐佐旗; 赵婷; 樊懿娜; 周叶; 仰榴青

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the different chemical constituents of essential oil from Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fractus extracted by supercritical fluid C02 extraction (SFE-C02) and steam distillation (SD).Methods The orthogonal test was carried out to determine the optimal extraction conditions according to the yield of essential oil extracted by SFE-C02.The SFE-C02 and SD were used to extract essential oil which was identified by GC-MS.Results The optimal SFE-C02 extraction conditions were as follows: The extraction temperature was 40 ℃, with extraction pressure 15 Mpa and extraction time 3 hours.The average extraction rate of the essential oil by SFE-C02 and SD were 8.2 7% and 1.4 %, and 16 and 24 components were identified by GC-MS analysis, respectively.Conclusion The results indicated that the average extraction rate of essential oil by SFE-C02 was higher than that by SD, and both the components and content of the oil were different.%目的:比较超临界流体CO2提取法和水蒸汽蒸馏法提取南五味子挥发油的主要化学成分.方法:通过正交试验确定超临界流体CO2提取的最佳工艺条件,采用超临界流体CO2提取和水蒸汽蒸馏法提取五味子挥发油,并采用GC-MS方法分析成分.结果:超临界流体CO2提取的最佳工艺条件为提取温度40℃、提取压力15MPa、提取时间3h,在此条件下南五味子挥发油得率为8.2%,鉴定出16个成分.水蒸汽蒸馏法提取南五味子挥发油得率为1.4%,鉴定出24个成分.结论:超临界流体CO2提取南五味子挥发油的得率比水蒸汽蒸馏法高,挥发油的组分和含量均有一定的差异.

  13. Optimization and selection of extraction conditions of essential oil from Mentha haplocalyx by supercritical CO2 extraction method%薄荷油超临界CO2萃取条件的优化和筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁呈元; 李维林; 夏冰; 房海灵; 王小敏

    2006-01-01

    以样品中的薄荷脑含量为指标,通过单因素和正交实验对影响薄荷(Mentha haplocalyx Briq.)油超临界CO2萃取的因素进行研究,筛选出薄荷油超临界CO2萃取的最佳条件.研究结果表明,影响样品中薄荷脑萃取率的因素从大到小依次为萃取压力、萃取温度、萃取时间、CO2流量.样品中薄荷脑含量最高的超临界CO2萃取条件为萃取压力10 MPa、萃取温度50℃、CO2流量30 L·h-1且萃取时间1.5 h.

  14. 响应面法优化超临界CO2萃取丁香酚的工艺研究%Optimization of supercritical CO2 extraction of eugenol from clove (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb) bud by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢莹莹; 王志祥; 史益强; 丁朝中

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the supercritical CO2 extraction process of cugcnol from colve(Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb). Method On the basis of single factors, using extraction rate as reference, extraction conditions of cugcnol from clove (Eugenia car yo phyllala Thunb) bud with supercritical CO2 extraction was optimized with response surface analysis. Results The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: power 25 Mpa, temperature 55 ℃ , time 1 h, volume fraction of alcohol 90%, and flow of modifier 0.04 mL · min-1 ,particle size 100 mesh. Under these conditions cugenol extraction rate could reach to 17. 41 %. Conclusion The optimized process conditions arc stable and practicable in manufacture.%目的 优选丁香中丁香酚的超临界CO2萃取工艺.方法 以丁香酚得率为考察指标,在单因素实验的基础上,采用响应面法对超临界CO2萃取丁香酚的工艺条件进行优化.结果 得到优选萃取条件为:萃取压力25 MPa,萃取温度55 ℃,萃取时间1 h,夹带剂体积分数90%乙醇,夹带剂流量0.04 mL·min-1,原料粒径100目,在此条件下丁香酚得率可达到17.41%.结论 优选的萃取工艺稳定、可行.

  15. 超临界CO2流体萃取-精馏联用技术提取脱酸月见草油的工艺优选%Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction-Fractionation Technology for One Step Deacidification of Evening Primrose Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷满仓; 钱亚芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To optimize extraction technology conditions of deacidification evening primrose oil by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction-fractionation technology (SCFEF).Method:With yield of oil and the content of γ-linolenic acid as indexes,single factor tests were adopted to investigate effect of extraction pressure,extraction temperature,separation pressure and separation temperature on extraction technology of evening primrose oil.And quality differences of evening primrose oil was compared,which were extracted by SCFEF and supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SCFE).Result:Optimal extraction parameters were as follows:extraction pressure 22 MPa,extraction temperature 36 ℃,separation pressure 10-12 MPa,separation temperature 48 ℃,dosage of CO2 45 kg,oil yield 16.7%-18.1%,the acid values of 0.85-1.21 mg KOH · g-1,each physical and chemical indicators of evening primrose oil from SCFEF were better than that from SCFE.Conclusion:SCFEF successfully prepared deacidified evening primrose oil by integration of extraction,separation and purification processions into one step.%目的:优选超临界CO2流体萃取-精馏联用技术(SCFEF)提取脱酸月见草油的工艺条件.方法:以得油率和γ-亚麻酸含量为指标,采用单因素试验考察萃取压力、萃取温度、分离压力和分离温度对月见草油提取工艺的影响.比较SCFEF与超临界CO2流体萃取技术(SCFE)提取的月见草油质量差异.结果:优选的脱酸月见草油提取工艺参数为萃取压力22 MPa,萃取温度308 K,分离压力10~12 MPa,分离温度321 K,CO2用量45 kg,脱酸月见草油得率16.7%~18.1%,酸值0.85~1.21 mg KOH·g-1,所得脱酸月见草油各项理化指标均优于SCFE所得月见草油.结论:SCFEF通过将萃取、分离与纯化工序耦合,可做到一步提取脱酸月见草油.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of the key characteristics of the supercritical CO2-pentaerythritol tetraacetate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Peiyu; Jin, Zunlong; Liu, Hong; Wang, Dingbiao; Liu, Donglai

    2016-12-01

    Supercritical CO2 is widely used in many fields of industry. Investigation of statistical mechanics of CO2 fluid under quasi critical and supercritical state has great significance. Equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations are carried out to investigate the statistical mechanics and macroscopic performance of CO2 fluid under the quasi critical and supercritical state. The results show that the bond length and bond angle distributions for supercritical CO2 are Gaussian distribution basically. The dimers' proportion of supercritical CO2 system changes with pressure increasing. T-type dimer has high share within the system when pressure is higher than 9MPa. It can be inferred that T-type dimer leads to CO2 physical properties changing tempestuously under supercritical state. The effect that lubricating oil has on microstructure and heat transfer of supercritical CO2 is also investigated in the present work. The results show the lubricating oil produces significant effect on the dimers' structure under low pressure.

  17. Supercritical carbondioxide extraction of cypermethrin in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... century coincided with the development of industrial methods of cultivation ... though supercritical CO2 is a good solvent only for the extraction of non-polar to ..... 101-111. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry (1985) . ed. Dean JA ...

  18. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON MIXTURES FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly contaminated (with PAHs) topsoils were extracted with supercritical CO2 to determine the feasibility and mechanism of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Effect of SCF density, temperature, cosolvent type and amount, and of slurrying the soil with water were ...

  19. Alteration of bentonite when contacted with supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinseok, K.; Jo, H. Y.; Yun, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    Deep saline formations overlaid by impermeable caprocks with a high sealing capacity are attractive CO2 storage reservoirs. Shales, which consist of mainly clay minerals, are potential caprocks for the CO2 storage reservoirs. The properties of clay minerals in shales may affect the sealing capacity of shales. In this study, changes in clay minerals' properties when contacted with supercritical (SC) CO2 at various conditions were investigated. Bentonite, whichis composed of primarily montmorillonite, was used as the clay material in this study. Batch reactor tests on wet bentonite samples in the presence of SC CO2 with or without aqueous phases were conducted at high pressure (12 MPa) and moderate temperature (50 oC) conditions for a week. Results show that the bentonite samples obtained from the tests with SC CO2 had less change in porosity than those obtained from the tests without SC CO2 (vacuum-drying) at a given reaction time, indicating that the bentonite samples dried in the presence of SC CO2 maintained their structure. These results suggest that CO2 molecules can diffuse into interlayer of montmorillonite, which is a primary mineral of bentonite, and form a single CO2 molecule layer or double CO2 molecule layers. The CO2 molecules can displace water molecules in the interlayer, resulting in maintaining the interlayer spacing when dehydration occurs. Noticeable changes in reacted bentonite samples obtained from the tests with an aqueous phase (NaCl, CaCl2, or sea water) are decreases in the fraction of plagioclase and pyrite and formation of carbonate minerals (i.e., calcite and dolomite) and halite. In addition, no significant exchanges of Na or Ca on the exchangeable complex of the montmorillonite in the presence of SC CO2 occurred, resulting in no significant changes in the swelling capacity of bentonite samples after reacting with SC CO2 in the presence of aqueous phases. These results might be attributed by the CO2 molecule layer, which prevents

  20. Operation and analysis of a supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven Alan; Radel, Ross F.; Vernon, Milton E.; Pickard, Paul S.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investigating advanced Brayton cycles using supercritical working fluids for use with solar, nuclear or fossil heat sources. The focus of this work has been on the supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle (S-CO2) which has the potential for high efficiency in the temperature range of interest for these heat sources, and is also very compact, with the potential for lower capital costs. The first step in the development of these advanced cycles was the construction of a small scale Brayton cycle loop, funded by the Laboratory Directed Research & Development program, to study the key issue of compression near the critical point of CO{sub 2}. This document outlines the design of the small scale loop, describes the major components, presents models of system performance, including losses, leakage, windage, compressor performance, and flow map predictions, and finally describes the experimental results that have been generated.

  1. 超临界 CO2萃取废弃油基钻屑的实验研究%Experimental study on waste oil-based drilling cuttings by utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赵; 杜国勇; 朱盟翔; 杨露; 涂雯雯

    2016-01-01

    In this paper ,supercritical carbon dioxide was used as an extracting agent to recovery the oil from the oil‐based drilling cuttings .By setting the residual oil contents as the main evaluation index , the effect of several factors including extracting pressure , extracting temperature , and extracting time were investigated .The results showed that the residual oil content was 0 .748% when the extracting pressure was 25 MPa ,the extracting temperature was 50 ℃ ,and the extracting time was 100 min .This extraction technology shows a favorable treatment efficiency .%采用超临界CO2为萃取剂,以萃取后油基钻屑的残油率为主要评价指标,研究了不同萃取条件(萃取压力、萃取温度、萃取时间)对废弃油基钻屑萃取的影响。实验结果表明,当萃取温度为50℃、萃取时间为100 m in、萃取压力为25 M Pa时,残油率为0.748%,此萃取工艺展现出了良好的处理效果。

  2. Supercritical CO2 impregnation of polyethylene components for medical purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamse Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modem hip and knee endoprosthesis are produced in titanium and to reduce the friction at the contact area polymer parts, mainly ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE, are installed. The polyethylene is impregnated with a-tocopherol (vitamin E before processing for remarkable decrease of oxidative degradation. Cross linked UHMW-PE offers much higher stability, but a-tocopherol cannot be added before processing, because a-tocopherol hinders the cross linking process accompanied by a heavy degradation of the vitamin. The impregnation of UHMW-PE with a-tocopherol has to be performed after the cross linking process and an accurate concentration has to be achieved over the cross section of the whole material. In the first tests UHMW-PE-cubes were stored in pure a-tocopherol under inert atmosphere at temperatures from 100 to 150 °C resulting in a high mass fraction of a-tocopherol in the edge zones and no constant concentration over the cross section. For better distribution and for regulating the mass fraction of a-tocopherol in the cross linked UHMW-PE material supercritical CO2 impregnation tests were investigated. Again UHMW-PE-cubes were impregnated in an autoclave with a-tocopherol dissolved in supercritical CO2 at different pressures and temperatures with variable impregnation times and vitamin E concentrations. Based on the excellent results of supercritical CO2 impregnation standard hip and knee cups were stabilized nearly homogeneously with varying mass fraction of a-tocopherol.

  3. 沉香种子超临界CO2萃取物的气相色谱-质谱联用分析%Analysis of Constituents in Supercritical Fluid CO2 Extraction in Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum Fruits by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 蒋海强; 巩丽丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the chemical compositions from Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum fruits. Method: The chemical structures of products were identified by supercritical fluid CO2 extraction ( GC-MS) , combined with NIST database queries. Result: By GC-MS, 24 compounds can be identified, the content of ethyl palmitate is the highest up to 28.26%, and 4-methyl-l(-1 , 5-dimethyl)-benzene is 10.22%, methyl hexadecanoate is 8.09% and camphene is 7.26%. Conclusion: The extraction of essential oil from Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum fruits by supercritical fluid C02 extraction (SFE-CO2) is satisfactory.%目的:分析沉香种子的挥发性成分.方法:采用超临界CO2流体萃取技术,提取沉香种子中的挥发性成分,经气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析,结合NIST数据库查询,鉴定化合物结构.结果:经GC-MS分析,分离得到沉香种子中25个化学成分,鉴定了22个,其中棕榈酸乙酯的含量最高,为28.26%,4-甲基-1-(1,5-二甲基)-苯含量为10.22%,棕榈酸甲酯的含量为8.09%,莰烯含量为7.26%.结论:超临界CO2萃取法是提取沉香种子提取物较为理想的方法.

  4. Potential Improvements of Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle by Modifying Critical Point of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo Seok; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    A Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is one of strong candidates for a next generation nuclear reactor. However, the conventional design of a SFR concept with an indirect Rankine cycle is subjected to a sodium water reaction, which can deteriorate the safety of a SFR. To prevent any hazards from sodium-water reaction, a SFR with the Brayton cycle using Helium or Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO2) as working fluids can be an alternative approach to improve the current SFR design. As in a helium cycle, there has been an investigation to modify thermo-physical properties to increase the efficiency of the cycle and reduce the size of turbomachineries. Particularly, He-Xe or He-N2 binary mixture were successful to decrease the stages of turbomachines due to the increment of molecular weight of gas mixture than that of pure helium. Similar to the case of helium, CO2 has a potential to modify its thermo-physical properties by mixing with other gases. For instance, it was reported that critical point of CO2 can be shifted by mixing with different gases. Since, the efficiency of a S-CO2 cycle is limited to the critical point of CO2, the shift in critical point implies that there is a possibility of improving the cycle efficiency than the current design. This paper presents the results of a preliminary analysis to identify the effects of CO2 critical point modification on the Brayton cycle performance.

  5. EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water saturated with Supercritical CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; William Smith; Carl Palmer

    2013-02-01

    EGS using CO2 as a working fluid will likely involve hydro-shearing low-permeability hot rock reservoirs with a water solution. After that process, the fractures will be flushed with CO2 that is maintained under supercritical conditions (> 70 bars). Much of the injected water in the main fracture will be flushed out with the initial CO2 injection; however side fractures, micro fractures, and the lower portion of the fracture will contain connate water that will interact with the rock and the injected CO2. Dissolution/precipitation reactions in the resulting scCO2/brine/rock systems have the potential to significantly alter reservoir permeability, so it is important to understand where these precipitates form and how are they related to the evolving ‘free’ connate water in the system. To examine dissolution / precipitation behavior in such systems over time, we have conducted non-stirred batch experiments in the laboratory with pure minerals, sandstone, and basalt coupons with brine solution spiked with MnCl2 and scCO2. The coupons are exposed to liquid water saturated with scCO2 and extend above the water surface allowing the upper portion of the coupons to be exposed to scCO2 saturated with water. The coupons were subsequently analyzed using SEM to determine the location of reactions in both in and out of the liquid water. Results of these will be summarized with regard to significance for EGS with CO2 as a working fluid.

  6. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  7. Analysis of Chemical Constituents in the Supercritical CO2Extract of Black Pepper in Hainan by GC-MS%海南黑胡椒超临界萃取物中化学成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 魏娜; 李洪福; 李永辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the chemical constituents in the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extract of fruits of Piper nigrum (black pepper) in Hainan.Method:The black pepper oil was extracted by supercritical fluid extraction and its chemical constituents were separated,determined and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with computer retrieval in compound databases.The relative percentage content of each compound was calculated by peak area normalization method.Result:32 compounds were separated from black pepper oil and 24 of them were identified,which covered 86.86% of the total oil.The major constituents with higher relative content were piperine (39.47%),chrondriamide B (6.25%) and oleic acid (5.49%).Conclusion:Piperine is the major constituent in the black pepper oil.The research provided basis for the further research and exploitation of black pepper oil.%目的:研究海南黑胡椒超临界CO2萃取物中的化学成分.方法:采用超临界CO2流体萃取法提取海南黑胡椒油,并通过气相色谱-质谱联用技术对其成分进行测定,结合计算机检索技术对分离的化合物进行鉴定,同时采用峰面积归一化法确定各成分的相对百分含量.结果:从海南黑胡椒油中共分离出32个组分,鉴定了其中的24种成分,所鉴定的成分占总挥发油成分的86.86%,其中相对百分含量较高的有胡椒碱(39.47%),柳叶藻内酰胺B(6.25%)和油酸(5.49%)等.结论:海南黑胡椒超临界CO2萃取物中主要成分为胡椒碱,本研究为海南黑胡椒油的进一步开发利用提供了依据.

  8. Protective Effects of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Armeniacae Semen Amarum on Human Fibroblast Damaged by Ultraviolet A%杏仁超临界CO2萃取物抗 UVA 对成纤维细胞的损伤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈巧云; 王业秋; 张宁; 任燕冬; 井丽巍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨杏仁超临界CO2萃取物对UVA诱导的人皮肤成纤维细胞(ESF-1)损伤的保护作用及其作用机制.方法 用20J.cm-2的UVA照射ESF-1细胞建立光老化细胞模型,以不同浓度杏仁超临界CO2萃取物处理光老化细胞,MTT法检测细胞活力,羟胺法检测细胞SOD活性,比色法检测GSH-Px活性,TBA法检测MDA含量,酶联免疫法检测TNF-α、IL-1β分泌量.结果 UVA照射ESF-1细胞后,细胞活力、SOD、GSH-Px活性降低,MDA含量升高,TNF-α、IL-1β分泌量增加(P<0.01),40 μg·mL-1和80 μg·mL-1杏仁超临界CO2萃取物能显著提高成纤维细胞活力、SOD、GSH-Px活性,降低MDA含量,减少TNF-α、IL-1β分泌(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 杏仁超临界CO2萃取物能减轻UVA对人皮肤成纤维细胞的损伤,其机制可能与其清除氧自由基,抗脂质过氧化,抑制氧化损伤,减少炎症细胞因子分泌有关.%OBJECTIVE To observe the protective of supercritical CO2 extracts of Armeniacae Semen Amarum on human fibroblasts iniured by irradiation of ultraviolet A and explore its possible mechanism. METHODS The model of photoaging fibroblasts was established by irradiating of ultraviolet light(20 J·cm-2). The different concentration of supercritical CO2 extracts of Armeniacae Semen Amarum were used for photoaging cell. The cell viability,SOD activity,GSH-Px activity,MDA content were assayed by MTT,hydroxylamine,colorimetric and TBA methods,respectively. The secretion levels of TNF-α and IL-1β of cultured ESF-1 cells were detected by ELISA. RESULTS After the UVA irradiation,the cell viability,the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were decreased,the content of MDA,TNF-α,and IL-lβ were increased(P<0.01) by 40 μg·mL-1 and 80 μg·mL-1 supercritical CO2 extracts of Armeniacae Semen Amarum. CONCLUSION The supercritical CO2 extracts of Armeniacae Semen Amarum might inhibit the proliferation decreasing which induced by UVA. And its mechanism may have relationship with the ability of

  9. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2 and Sodium Citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Schaef, T.; Wang, Z.; Miller, Q.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Lin Qiu1*, Herbert T. Schaef2, Zhengrong Wang1, Quin R.S. Miller3, BP McGrail2 1. Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA 2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA 3. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA Geologic reservoirs for managing carbon emissions (mostly CO2) have expanded over the last 5 years to include unconventional formations including basalts and fractured shales. Recently, ~1000 metric tons of CO2 was injected into the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) in Eastern Washington as part of the Wallula Pilot Project, Big Sky Regional Carbon Partnership. Based on reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is present as a supercritical fluid that dissolves into the formation water over time, and reacts with basalt components to form carbonate minerals. In this paper, we discuss mineral transformation reactions occurring when the forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is exposed to wet scCO2 in equilibrium with pure water and sodium citrate solutions. Forsterite was selected as it is an important olivine group mineral present in igneous and mafic rocks. Citrate was selected as it has been shown to enhance mineral dissolution and organic ligands are possible degradation products of the microbial communities present in the formational waters of the CRB. For the supercritical phase, transformation reactions were examined by in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction (HXRD) in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in contact with water and sodium citrate solutions at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration. Experimental results show close-to-complete dissolution of forsterite in contact with scCO2 equilibrated with pure water for 90 hours (90 bar and 50°C). Under these conditions, thin films of water coated the mineral surface, providing a mechanism for silicate dissolution and transport of cations necessary for carbonate formation. The primary crystalline component initially detected with in situ HXRD was the hydrated magnesium carbonate, nesquehonite [Mg

  10. 超临界CO2萃取法与水蒸气蒸馏法提取香茅草挥发油化学成分比较%Comparison of Chemical Components in the Essential Oil Extracted by Supercritical CO2 Fluid and Steam Distillation from Cymbopogon citratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽莎; 龚志强; 欧阳炜; 黄振园

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To compare the chemical components in the essential oil extracled by different methods from Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ) Stapf. [ Method] The essential oils were extracted by supercritical CO3 fluid and steam distillation. And then their chemical components were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by GC-MS. [Result] 31 components were identified in the essential oil extracted by supercritical CO, fluid from Cymbopogon citratus, accounting for over 91% of the total volatile components; while 17 components were identified in the essential oil extracted by steam distillation, accounting for about 94% of the total components. The essential oil extracted by the two methods had different types and different contents of chemical components, geranial and neral were the most. [ Conclusion ] The essential oil extracted by supercritical C02 fluid is better than that extracted by steam distillation to truly and comprehensively reflect the chemical components in medicines.%[目的]比较不同方法提取的香茅草挥发油化学成分.[方法]采用超临界CO2流体萃取法(SCDE)及水蒸气蒸馏法(SD)从香茅草中提取挥发油,用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)对其化学成分进行定性定量分析.[结果]在超临界CO2流体萃取法提取的挥发油中共鉴定了31种成分,占挥发油总成分的91%以上;在水蒸气蒸馏法提取的挥发油中共鉴定了17种成分,占挥发油的94%以上.2种提取方法得到的挥发油组分及其含量差异较大,含量最高的都是香叶醛和橙花醛.[结论]超临界CO2流体萃取法提取的挥发油比水蒸气蒸馏法能更真实、全面的反映药材中的化学成分.

  11. Determination of the potency of a novel saw palmetto supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE for 5α-reductase isoform II inhibition using a cell-free in vitro test system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais P

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pilar Pais, Agustí Villar, Santiago Rull Euromed, Barcelona, Spain Background: The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent membrane protein 5α-reductase catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen – 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Two 5α-reductase isoenzymes are expressed in humans: type I and type II. The latter is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE has been used extensively in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5α-reductase, as well as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Clinical studies of SPE have been inconclusive – some have shown significant results, and others have not – possibly the result of varying bioactivities of the SPEs used in the studies. Purpose: To determine the in vitro potency in a cell-free test system of a novel SP supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE, an inhibitor of the 5α-reductase isoenzyme type II. Materials and methods: The inhibitory potency of SPSE was compared to that of finasteride, an approved 5α-reductase inhibitor, on the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5α-reduced product 5α-androstanedione. Results: By concentration-dependent inhibition of 5α-reductase type II in vitro (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 3.58±0.05 µg/mL, SPSE demonstrated competitive binding toward the active site of the enzyme. Finasteride, the approved 5α-reductase inhibitor tested as positive control, led to 63%–75% inhibition of 5α-reductase type II. Conclusion: SPSE effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is comparatively low. It can be confirmed from the results of this study that SPSE has bioactivity that promotes prostate health at a level that is superior to that of many other phytotherapeutic extracts. The

  12. Recovery of Minerals in Martian Soils Via Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    2001-03-01

    We are investigating the use of supercritical fluids to extract mineral and/or carbonaceous material from Martian surface soils and its igneous crust. Two candidate supercritical fluids are carbon dioxide and water. The Martian atmosphere is composed mostly of carbon dioxide (approx. 95.3%) and could therefore provide an in-situ source of carbon dioxide. Water, although present in the Martian atmosphere at only approx. 0.03%, is also a candidate supercritical solvent. Previous work done with supercritical fluids has focused primarily on their solvating properties with organic compounds. Interestingly, the first work reported by Hannay and Hogarth at a meeting of the Royal Society of London in 1879 observed that increasing or decreasing the pressure caused several inorganic salts e.g., cobalt chloride, potassium iodide, and potassium bromide, to dissolve or precipitate in supercritical ethanol. In high-pressure boilers, silica, present in most boiler feed waters, is dissolved in supercritical steam and transported as dissolved silica to the turbine blades. As the pressure is reduced the silica precipitates onto the turbine blades eventually requiring the shutdown of the generator. In supercritical water oxidation processes for waste treatment, dissolved salts present a similar problem. The solubility of silicon dioxide (SiO2) in supercritical water is shown. The solubility curve has a shape characteristic of supercritical systems. At a high pressure (greater than 1750 atmospheres) increasing the temperature results in an increase in solubility of silica, while at low pressures, less than 400 atm., the solubility decreases as temperature increases. There are only a few studies in the literature where supercritical fluids are used in extractive metallurgy. Bolt modified the Mond process in which supercritical carbon monoxide was used to produce nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4). Tolley and Tester studied the solubility of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) in supercritical CO2

  13. 维药神香草挥发油与超临界 CO2流体萃取物化学成分的比较研究%The comparison of chemical constituents in the volatile oil and supercritical CO2 fluid extracts of Hyssopus officinalis L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖丽菲亚·吾斯曼; 努尔江·肉孜; 买吾拉尼江·依孜布拉; 麦合苏木·艾克木

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究维药神香草水蒸气蒸馏提取挥发油与超临界 CO2流体萃取物化学成分的异同。方法采用水蒸气蒸馏法与超临界 CO2流体萃取法分别提取神香草挥发油和超临界 CO2流体萃取物,并通过气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用仪对其化学成分进行分析和鉴定。结果维药神香草挥发油的水蒸气蒸馏法提取率为0.68%,GC-MS 分析、鉴定出所有65种化合物,其中含量较高的是亚油酸(13.83%)、棕榈酸(13.80%)、(+)-胡薄荷酮(8.31%)、(+)斯巴醇(6.27%)、二十一烷(5.34%)、香茅酸(4.07%)、二十六烷(4.02%)、二十四烷(3.28%)、二十烷(3.06%)。维药神香草超临界 CO2流体萃取物的萃取得率为5.5%,GC-MS 分析、鉴定出所有34种化合物,其中γ-谷甾醇(31.882%)、二十八烷(19.953%)、亚麻酸(16.279%)、三十六烷(15.939%)、棕榈酸(10.658%)、亚麻酸乙酯(12.471%)、三十一烷(12.215%)、9,12,15-十八烷三烯酸乙酯(9.057%)化合物含量较高。结论维药神香草挥发油与超临界 CO2流体萃取物化学组成存在较大的差异,超临界 CO2流体萃取物中的γ-谷甾醇、亚麻酸、亚麻酸乙酯等被认为是具有较强生物活性的化合物,且含量较高,具有较大的潜在研究前景。%Objective To study the similarity and differences in chemical composition and relative content of volatile oil by steam distillation and supercritical CO2 Fluid extraction extracts of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Hyssop),a Traditional Uighur Hreb Medicine.Methods Hyssopus volatile oil and SFE exctracts was extracted by steam distillation and supercritical CO2 Fluid extraction methods and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)were used to analyze its chemical composition.Then,relative content of each component has been calculated

  14. Research on the physical properties of supercritical CO2 and the log evaluation of CO2-bearing volcanic reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Baozhi; Lei, Jian; Zhang, Lihua; Guo, Yuhang

    2017-10-01

    CO2-bearing reservoirs are difficult to distinguish from other natural gas reservoirs during gas explorations. Due to the lack of physical parameters for supercritical CO2, particularly neutron porosity, at present a hydrocarbon gas log evaluation method is used to evaluate CO2-bearing reservoirs. The differences in the physical properties of hydrocarbon and CO2 gases have led to serious errors. In this study, the deep volcanic rock of the Songliao Basin was the research area. In accordance with the relationship between the density and acoustic velocity of supercritical CO2 and temperature and pressure, the regularity between the CO2 density and acoustic velocity, and the depth of the area was established. A neutron logging simulation was completed based on a Monte Carlo method. Through the simulation of the wet limestone neutron logging, the relationship between the count rate ratio of short and long space detectors and the neutron porosity was acquired. Then, the nature of the supercritical CO2 neutron moderation was obtained. With consideration given to the complexity of the volcanic rock mineral composition, a volcanic rock volume model was established, and the matrix neutron and density parameters were acquired using the ECS log. The properties of CO2 were applied in the log evaluation of the CO2-bearing volcanic reservoirs in the southern Songliao Basin. The porosity and saturation of CO2 were obtained, and a reasonable application was achieved in the CO2-bearing reservoir.

  15. Research on Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction of Piper nigrum L .and Its GC-MS Fingerprints%白胡椒挥发油的超临界CO2萃取及其GC-MS指纹图谱的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肜霖; 张敦铁; 夏秋冬; 朱巍; 赵同林; 吴昭; 谭烨; 邵兴伟; 黄龙

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop new natural cigarette flavors,Pipernigrum L.was extracted with supercritical CO2 .The ob-tained oil was analyzed by GC-MS,and its fingerprints was estabilished,the method was investigated by methodological ap-proach as well .The results showed that:①the optimum extraction conditions were extraction temperature 45 ℃ ,extraction pressure 35 MPa,extraction time 2 h,the appropriate particle size 0.3 mm;②66 components in the extract were identified by GC-MS,mainly including terpenes,alcohols,acids and esters;③12 common peaks with their retention time and peak area of the components appeared the chromatographic fingerprints of this oil;④ the fingerprints would be beneficial for the quality and stability control for piper oil obtained by suppercritical CO2 fluid extraction method.%为开发新的天然烟用香料,研究了超临界CO2萃取白胡椒挥发油的工艺,采用GC-MS法分析了白胡椒挥发油的成分,同时建立了挥发油GC-MS指纹图谱,并进行了方法学考察。结果表明:①超临界CO2萃取白胡椒挥发油的最佳工艺条件为萃取温度45℃、萃取压力35 MPa、萃取时间2 h,原料粉碎至粒径0.3 mm;②以GC-MS方法分析白胡椒挥发油共鉴定出66种成分,主要是萜烯类、醇类、酸类物质;③12个主要成分的出峰次序及其相对含量构成了超临界 CO2萃取白胡椒挥发油的特征指纹图谱;④利用所建立的指纹图谱,可以控制超临界CO2萃取白胡椒挥发油的质量及稳定性。

  16. Extraction of lycopene by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid%超临界CO2流体萃取番茄红素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖益强; 黄彪; 陆则坚

    2008-01-01

    采用超临界CO2萃取技术从番茄果实中提取番茄红素.研究了不同萃取压力、萃取温度、CO2流量、携带剂和萃取时间对萃取率的影响.通过单因素试验,获得超临界CO2萃取番茄红素的最佳工艺条件,即萃取压力30 Mpa,萃取温度45 ℃,CO2流量 30 L·h-1,乙醇体积分数90%,萃取时间2 h.

  17. Oxidation of Styrene with Molecular Oxygen in Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao JIANG; Bu Xing HAN; Guo Ying ZHAO; Zhong Hao LI; Yan Hong CHANG; Hai Xiang GAO; Jun Chun LI

    2004-01-01

    The oxidation of styrene with molecular oxygen catalyzed by PdCl2+CuCl2 has been investigated in supercritical CO2 with a batch reactor. The oxidative system of styrene contains four components at the beginning and seven components during the reaction. The critical temperature, critical pressure, and critical density at different conversions are determined by using a high-pressure view cell. The effect of phase behavior on the conversion and selectivity were studied. Experimental results showed that the critical parameters of the reaction mixture at fixed initial molar ratio changed with the conversion of reactant. The conversion of styrene reached maximum near the critical density of the reaction mixture. Product selectivity also varied with density of reaction mixture and could be tuned to some degree.

  18. 超临界CO2萃取冷破碎苹果皮蜡质工艺优化及其成分分析%Optimization of extracting process of waxes from cold-break apple peel by supercritical CO2 and analysis of the composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卓; 郭玉蓉; 闫玉培

    2012-01-01

    The extraction condition of waxes from cold-break apple peel by supercritical CO_2 extraction technology was studied and the composition of apple waxes was analyzed by GC-MS.The optimum condition of supercritical CO_2 were as follows:extraction pressure 35MPa,extraction temperature 50℃,raw material particle size100 mesh,extraction time 1.5h.Under optimal conditions,the yield of apple waxes was 2.081%.36 compounds of apple waxes were detected.Main ingredients were hydrocarbons and esters which account for 41.44% and 37.41% respectively of all the detected compounds.Alcohols,fatty acids,ketones,β-sitosterol and friedelin were also detected.%以冷破碎苹果皮渣为原料,研究超临界CO2萃取苹果皮蜡质的工艺条件,并用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)分析苹果皮蜡质的化学组成。结果表明:超临界CO2萃取苹果皮蜡质的最佳工艺条件为:萃取压力35MPa,萃取温度50℃,萃取时间1.5h,原料粒度〉100目,该条件下萃取率为2.081%;用GC-MS检测到萃取物中36种化合物,其中主要成分是饱和烷烃和酯类,这两类物质的相对含量分别为41.44%和37.41%;其次,苹果皮蜡质还含有醇类、脂肪酸、酮类、β-谷甾醇、木栓酮等成分。

  19. Design of an efficient space constrained diffuser for supercritical CO2 turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Joshua A.; Head, Adam J.; Jahn, Ingo H.

    2017-03-01

    Radial inflow turbines are an arguably relevant architecture for energy extraction from ORC and supercritical CO 2 power cycles. At small scale, design constraints can prescribe high exit velocities for such turbines, which lead to high kinetic energy in the turbine exhaust stream. The inclusion of a suitable diffuser in a radial turbine system allows some exhaust kinetic energy to be recovered as static pressure, thereby ensuring efficient operation of the overall turbine system. In supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycles, the high turbine inlet pressure can lead to a sealing challenge if the rotor is supported from the rotor rear side, due to the seal operating at rotor inlet pressure. An alternative to this is a cantilevered layout with the rotor exit facing the bearing system. While such a layout is attractive for the sealing system, it limits the axial space claim of any diffuser. Previous studies into conical diffuser geometries for supercritical CO 2 have shown that in order to achieve optimal static pressure recovery, longer geometries of a shallower cone angle are necessitated when compared to air. A diffuser with a combined annular-radial arrangement is investigated as a means to package the aforementioned geometric characteristics into a limited space claim for a 100kW radial inflow turbine. Simulation results show that a diffuser of this design can attain static pressure rise coefficients greater than 0.88. This confirms that annular-radial diffusers are a viable design solution for supercritical CO2 radial inflow turbines, thus enabling an alternative cantilevered rotor layout.

  20. Optimization of supercritical CO2 extraction of astaxanthin from pacific white shrimp(Litopenaeus vannamei) using response surface methodology%超临界CO2萃取南美白对虾虾青素的工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞; 张志胜; 郑乾魏; 祖铁红; 淑英

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the extraction yield and content of astaxanthin, supercritical CO2 fluid extraction was used to extract astaxanthin from the head of Pacific White Shrimp, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was adopted to determine the content of astaxanthin after saponification, the influence of extraction parameters on the extraction yield and astaxanthin content was determined by single factor test, then response surface method was employed to optimize technical parameters. The results showed that the influence of extraction parameters on the extraction yield of astaxanthin was not significant(p>0.05),but significant on the astaxanthin content (p<0.05). When the particle size of material was 40 mesh, moisture content was 9%, the theory optimum conditions for extraction astaxanthin with supercritical CO2 extraction were confirmed as follow:pressure 403.95 Pa, extraction temperature 39.95 , CO℃ 2 flow rate 1.16 L/min, under the conditions, the astaxanthin content was 796.3 mg/g. In application, the astaxanthin content in validation test was 789.61 mg/g when the extraction pressure was 400 Pa, the extraction temperature was 40 and the CO℃ 2 flow rate was 1.2 L/min. The results can provide a reference for extraction and purification of astaxanthin.%  为提高虾青素萃取物得率和虾青素纯度,采用超临界CO2萃取南美白对虾虾头废弃物中的虾青素,皂化后用高效液相色谱对虾青素含量进行测定。单因素试验确定萃取参数对虾青素萃取物得率和虾青素纯度的影响,然后进一步运用响应面法对萃取工艺参数进行优化。结果表明:超临界CO2萃取工艺参数对虾青素萃取物得率影响不显著(P>0.05),但对虾青素纯度影响显著(P<0.05);物料粒径40目,质量含水率9%时,响应面理论优化最佳萃取参数为萃取压力403.95 Pa,萃取温度39.95℃,CO2流量1.16 L/min,虾青素纯度为796.3mg/g。结合实际应用

  1. [The optimation of extraction technology of chuanxiong and xiangfu compatibility by SFE-CO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing; Li, Yuan; Li, Mei; Huang, Kai-Ming

    2013-02-01

    To optimize the extraction conditions of Chuanxiong and Xiangfu compatibility by supercritical CO2 and control the quality of the extract. The orthogonal design experiments were used to select the optimal conditions and the factors were extraction pressure, extraction temperature, extraction time and flow rate of CO2. The extraction rate was used as inspection index. The contents of alpha-cyperolone and butenyl were detected by HPLC. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction pressure 25 Mpa, extraction temperature 45 degrees C, extraction time 2 h, flow rate of CO2 20 Kg/h. The average content of alpha-cyperolone, butenyl was 3.26%, 1.50% respectively. The method of supercritical CO2 extraction is reliable and feasible and can be used in industry. The quality of the extract is stable and controlled.

  2. Extraction Technology on the Volatile Oil from Ocimum Basilicum L. by Supercritical CO2%超临界CO2萃取罗勒挥发油的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慧明; 张文成; 潘见

    2003-01-01

    本文介绍了超临界CO2萃取罗勒干叶中挥发油的提取分离工艺,重点研究了前处理浸提时间,超临界CO2萃取压力、温度、时间对出油率的影响.应用正交实验优化出:影响超临界CO2萃取的主次因素为C>A>B(A为萃取压力,B为萃取温度,C为萃取时间);较佳工艺参数:浸泡时间150min,SC-CO2萃取压力为18MPa,温度为55℃,时间为120min,流量为25L/min,得到超临界CO2萃取罗勒挥发油的出油率高达2.8‰.

  3. 超临界CO2萃取薄荷挥发油及其抗氧化能力的研究%The antioxidant capacity of volatile oil from Mentha haplocalyx by supercritical CO2 extraction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岗; 余德顺; 杨军; 田弋夫; 范文垒

    2013-01-01

    应用超临界CO2萃取技术,采用正交实验法对影响薄荷挥发油萃取率大小的萃取压力、萃取温度和CO2流量3个因素进行了研究,得出最佳工艺条件为:萃取压力15 MPa,CO2流量40L/h,萃取温度50℃,此工艺条件下的萃取率为3.2%;应用ABTS和FRAP法对薄荷超临界提取物抗氧化能力进行检测,并与水蒸汽蒸馏法萃取的薄荷挥发油抗氧化能力进行对比,结果表明:ABTS法下,薄荷超临界提取物之间的抗氧化能力差异显著,而FRAP法下薄荷超临界CO2提取物之间的抗氧化能力差异不显著,但超临界CO2萃取薄荷挥发油在两种方法下检测的抗氧化能力均强于水蒸汽提取法.

  4. MALEIC ANHYDRIDE HYDROGENATION OF PD/AL2O3 CATALYST UNDER SUPERCRITICAL CO2 MEDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogenation of maleic anhydride (MA) to either y-butyrolactone of succinic anhydride over simple Pd/Al2O3 impregnated catalyst in supercritical CO2 medium has been studied at different temperatures and pressures. A comparison of the supercritical CO2 medium reaction with the c...

  5. Study on Supercritical CO2 Extraction of the Essence Oil from Black Pepper%超临界CO2萃取黑胡椒精油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢敏华

    2012-01-01

    研究了CO2流量、萃取压力、萃取时间和萃取温度四个因素对黑胡椒精油超临界CO2萃取的影响,以黑胡椒精油得率为指标,通过正交试验方法优选了萃取条件.结果表明:黑胡椒精油最佳萃取条件为:CO2流量22 kg/h、萃取压力34 MPa、萃取时间140 min、萃取温度38℃,此条件下黑胡椒精油的得率为7.02%.

  6. Gradient Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Analysis of Hemp Oil%火麻仁油超临界CO2梯度萃取与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海胜; 朱景涛; 臧鹏; 张淑静; 陈斌

    2013-01-01

    以脱壳火麻仁为原料,采用超临界CO2梯度萃取火麻仁油,采用标准方法分别分析火麻仁油的脂肪酸组成及生育酚组成.结果表明:采用三段式超临界CO2梯度萃取,不同萃取阶段得到的火麻仁油脂肪酸组成存在一定差异,随着萃取压力及温度的升高,超临界CO2萃取出部分微量脂肪酸,包括:C20∶3n6、C22∶0及C24∶0.火麻仁油中生育酚以(β+γ)-生育酚为主,采用三段式超临界CO2梯度萃取火麻仁油,生育酚主要在前两个阶段被萃取出来.

  7. 响应面法优化超临界CO_2萃取火龙果籽油工艺%Optimization of Supercritical C02 Extraction of Pitaya Seed Oil by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋玲; 莫建光; 谢一兴

    2012-01-01

    采用响应面法优化超临界二氧化碳萃取工艺提取火龙果籽油,用Design Expert软件对试验数据进行分析,并用气相色谱-质谱法对萃取所得火龙果籽油进行成分分析。结果表明:萃取时间、萃取压力、萃取温度对火龙果籽油超临界CO2萃取工艺影响显著,其最佳提取工艺参数为萃取压力25MPa、萃取温度40℃、萃取时间3.5h,火龙果籽油萃取得率为30.21%。火龙果籽油中脂肪酸主要成分以不饱和脂肪酸为主,占总脂肪酸含量的74.64%,其中亚油酸及其异构体为46.91%,油酸及其异构体为25.36%;饱和脂肪酸以棕榈酸为主,棕榈酸及其异构体占总脂肪酸含量的21.10%。火龙果籽油可以作为一种食品保健油进行开发。%The extraction process for pitaya seeds oil via supercritical carbon dioxide was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), the test data were analyzed by software Design Expert and the chemical compositions of pitaya seed oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that sUpereritical CO2 extraction process were impacted significantly by extraction time, pressure, and temperature; the optimum exti:action parameters were extraction pressure at 25 MPa, extraction temperature at 40 *C, and extraction time for 3.5 h the oil extraction yield was 30.21%. The main fatty acids of pitaya seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids, which accounted for 74.64% of total fatty acids, and linoleic acid and its isomer were 46.91%, oleic acid and its isomer were 25.36%; saturated fatty acids were dominated by palmitic acid, and palmitic acid and its isomer consisted of 21.10%. Pitaya seed oil can be used as healthy oil for development.

  8. GC-MS Analysis and Biological Activities in vitro of the Supercritical CO2 Extracts from the Roots of Poly-althia nemoralis%陵水暗罗根超临界CO2萃取物的GC-MS分析及其体外生物活性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冬苑; 刘嘉炜; 李武国; 林伟杰

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To extract and identify the volatile components of the roots of Polyalthia nemoralis,and to evaluate its biological activity in vitro. METHODS:Supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE-CO2) was performed to extract volatile compounds from the roots of P. nemoralis,and the volatile components were separated and determined by GC-MS. Human hepatic cancer Huh-7 cells were cultured with 0(blank control),5,10,20,30,40 and 50 μg(medicinal material)/ml extract for 24 h,and then MTT assay was used to detect the inhibitory effect of the extracts on cells. Relative cell viability and IC50 were calculated. The an-ti-bacterial activities of extract to Staphylococcus aureus,Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,Enterococcus faecalis and oth-er strain were determined by Kirby-bauer method and broth dilution method. RESULTS:Forty compounds were identified from the SFE-CO2 extracts from the roots of P. nemoralis. The main constituents were(Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octa-decatrien-1-ol,glycerin,cinna-maldehyde,n-hexadecanoic acid and eugenol. Compared with blank control group,SFE-CO2 extracts from the roots of P. nemoralis 5 μg(medicinal material)/ml and above showed significant inhibitory effect on cell growth(P<0.05),and the inhibitory effect was strengthened as the concentration of extracts increased,IC50 values was 5.2 μg(medicinal material)/ml. However,the supercritical extract didn't showed antibacterial activity against three microorganisms in 2 kinds of antibacterial tests. CONCLUSIONS:SFE-CO2 and GC-MS method can effectively extract and identify volatile components of the roots of P. nemoralis,and supercritical extracts can inhibit the viability of cells but have no antibacterial activity.%目的:提取、鉴定陵水暗罗根提取物中挥发性成分,并评价其体外生物活性.方法:采用超临界CO2萃取法提取陵水暗罗根中的挥发性化学成分,气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)法分析其化学成分组成;以0(空白对照)、5、10、20、30、40、50

  9. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Flavonoids from Dandelion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the total flavonoids from dandelion was extracted by supercritical CO2 and the total flavonoids content in the extract was investigated by the sodium nitrite-aluminum nitrate method with Rutin as a standard product. Single-factor experiments were carried out to map the effects of extraction pressure, temperature, time and entrainer amount on the yield of flavonoids. The orthogonal experiments on the optimum technology parameters demonstrated that the influence of the experimental conditions over the yield from high to low was: (a pressure, (b temperature, (c entrainer amount, (d time. The optimization result showed that under the conditions of 50°C, 35 MPa, 80 min and 4.0 mL/g entrainer amount, the yield of the preparative supercritical fluid extraction was 4.974%.

  10. 超临界CO2流体萃取辛夷精油的组分分析%PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE OIL OF MAGNOLIA LILIFLORA BY SUPERCRITICAL CO2 FLUID EXTRACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤; 朱凤岗; 曲祥金; 柳仁民

    2005-01-01

    采用超临界CO2流体萃取辛夷精油,萃取率3.8%,比水蒸气蒸馏的萃取率高58%.利用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MC)法对辛夷精油进行组分的定性和定量分析,并与水蒸气蒸馏法所得辛夷精油的组分相比较,发现超临界CO2流体萃取所得辛夷精油的香气、品质、产率优于水蒸气蒸馏法所得辛夷精油.

  11. Extraction of Sambucus williamsii fruits oil by supercritical CO2 fluid and its microencapsulation%接骨木果油的超临界CO2流体萃取及其微胶囊技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓旭; 戚继忠

    2005-01-01

    用超临界CO2流体萃取技术对接骨木果油进行萃取,采用四因素三水平正交试验,探讨了萃取压力、温度、时间、CP2流量对接骨木果油萃取率的影响.研究得出最佳萃取条件为:压力30MPa,温度45℃,时间3 h,CO2流量25kg/h.以接骨木果油为心材,食用胶为壁材,经乳化、均质和喷雾干燥得接骨木果油微胶囊,包埋率可达89.6%.

  12. Study on Extraction Technology with Supercritical CO2 Fluid and Quantification of Lycopene%天然番茄红素超临界CO2萃取和定量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左爱仁; 范青生; 周洁; 刘燕

    2003-01-01

    本文研究了超临界CO2萃取天然番茄红素的工艺,确定了提携剂的选择,萃取温度,萃取压力,萃取时间等最佳参数,并对提取物中的番茄红素进行了定量测定.实验表明:30 Mpa,55℃,2h,CO2流量为30kg/h,提携剂为30ml大豆色拉油的条件下,提取率达到93.58%,100克干料可以获得29.15克纯度为1.37%的番茄红素提取物.

  13. Aglycone tyrosol extraction from Rhodiola by supercritical CO2%超临界CO2萃取红景天中甙元酪醇的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强; 张乃湛; 洪莉珍; 谢鹏飞

    2008-01-01

    采用超临界CO2萃取技术提取红景天中的甙元酪醇,通过正交实验优化的萃取条件为:红景天颗粒为细粉、萃取压力20MPa、携带剂乙醇浓度为80%、红景天和乙醇用量之比为1:1.0(M/V).超临界CO2萃取对甙元酪醇的提取率不高.因此,与其他方法结合才能更有效地发挥出它的优势.

  14. Extraction of Essential Oil from the Flower of Chionanthus retusus Lindl. et Paxton by Supercritical CO2 and Its Antibacterial Activities%流苏花精油的超临界CO2萃取及抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘普; 李小方; 高嘉屿; 尹卫平; 邓瑞雪

    2015-01-01

    Single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment design were used to study the influences of extraction conditions on the yield of essential oil from the flower of Chionanthus retusus Lindl. et Paxton by supercritical CO2 method. The components of the essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS ) . The in vitro antibacterial activity of the eessential oil was characterized. The optimum extraction parameters were established with the extraction pressure 25 MPa, extraction temperature 45 ℃,extraction time 2. 0 h,and the fluent of CO2 22 kg/h. The yield of essential oil was up to 0. 409%. Sixty compositions were separated. Among them,57 components were identified and respresented 96. 18% of the total detected constituents. The results of the antibacteria,i. e. , assay showed that the essential oil displayed good antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial,i. e. Staphyloccocus aureu,Staphyloccocus albus,Escherichia coli.%采用单因素和正交试验法讨论了超临界CO2流体法萃取流苏花精油的工艺条件,利用气相色谱-质谱( GC-MS)联用技术分析了精油的化学成分,并对精油的抑菌活性进行了评价. 结果表明采用超临界CO2流体技术萃取流苏花精油的最佳工艺条件是:100 g流苏花粉末在萃取压力25 MPa,萃取温度45 ℃,萃取时间2. 0 h,CO2流量22 kg/h,在最佳工艺条件下精油的得率为0. 409%. 从流苏花精油中共分离出60个峰,确定了其中的57种化合物,所鉴定成分占总馏出峰面积的96. 18%. 体外抑菌试验结果表明,流苏花精油对金黄色葡萄球菌、白葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌等菌株具有较好的抑制作用.

  15. Principium Study on Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hazelnut Oil%超临界CO2萃取榛子油工艺条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景圣; 郑鸿雁; 袁媛; 毕元才

    2003-01-01

    本文采用超临界CO2萃取的方法,通过正交试验设计确定了萃取榛子油的合理工艺条件为:萃取压力20MPa,萃取温度50℃,萃取时间2h,在此工艺条件下萃取榛子油提取率为89.7%.

  16. Optimization for supercritical CO2 extraction of tilapia fish head oil by response surface method%响应面优化超临界CO2萃取罗非鱼头油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春华; 包斌; 陈山乔; 沈晶晶; 潘镜; 陶宁萍; 吴文惠

    2015-01-01

    为优化罗非鱼头油的提取工艺,通过单因素试验选择超临界CO2萃取罗非鱼头油的单因素水平,采用响应面法优化超临界CO2萃取罗非鱼头油的工艺条件,分析了罗非鱼头油的品质及脂肪酸组成.结果表明:超临界CO2技术萃取罗非鱼头油的最优工艺条件是压力36 MPa、温度41℃和时间3.1h,超临界CO2流体技术优于蒸煮法、碱水解法和酶解法;罗非鱼头油的最大提取率是79.5%,其碘值、过氧化值和酸值分别是(5.36-0.15) mg/kg、(4.27±0.33) mmol/kg、(139.0±8.9)g/l00g;罗非鱼头油的饱和脂肪酸(saturated fatty acid,SFA)、单不饱和脂肪酸(monounsaturated fatty acid,MUFA)和多不饱和脂肪酸(polyunsaturated fatty acid,PUFA)的含量分别是27.85%,41.74%和30.41%,罗非鱼头油丰富的脂肪酸构成暗示着其优良的营养价值和功能性.

  17. 超临界CO2萃取芦柑籽油的工艺优化%Techniques optimization for the extraction of oil from mandarin orange seed by supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢三都; 张惠婷; 江佳佳; 许沂杰; 应陈寿

    2013-01-01

    研究了超临界CO2流体技术萃取芦柑籽油的工艺条件.结果表明,超临界CO2萃取芦柑籽油最优工艺条件:萃取压力25 MPa、CO2流量25L.h-1、萃取温度40℃、萃取时间150 min,所得芦柑籽油萃取率为42.65%.气相色谱—质谱联用(GC-MS)分析表明,芦柑籽油含10,13-十八碳二烯酸(36.37%)、(Z)-9-油酸(29.42%)、棕榈酸(27.95%)、硬脂酸(3.54%)、亚麻酸(2.71%),不饱和脂肪酸含量高达68.10%.

  18. Study on supercritical CO2 extraction of salidroside and P-tyrosol in Rhodiola sachalinensis%超临界CO2萃取红景天中红景天苷、苷元酪醇的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王化田; 祖元刚; 毛子军

    2004-01-01

    采用超临界CO2萃取法和乙醇常温浸提法相比较,研究从红景天中提取红景天苷、苷元酪醇的工艺条件,结论是:采用超临界CO2萃取法能萃取出红景天生药中红景天苷的1.2%,提取率不高,但该方法能萃取出80%的苷元酪醇,萃取液中苷元酪醇的相对含量可达45.68%;乙醇常温浸提法能将红景天苷、苷元酪醇同时有效萃取,且得率较高,但是萃取液中两物质相对含量较低,进一步分离纯化将有难度.本研究结果表明,将超临界CO2萃取法和乙醇常温浸提法有效结合,可实现两物质的有效分离,推进红景天有效成分的产业化进程.

  19. Supercritical CO2 extraction on tobacco stem and application of stem extract in e-cigarette liquids%烟梗的超临界CO2流体萃取工艺及萃取物在电子烟中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菁; 沈晓洁; 张怡春; 蔡振波; 陆诚玮; 郑赛晶

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential of tobacco stems and develop a new e-cigarette flavor, supercritical fluid CO2 extraction technology was employed to extract aroma components in tobacco stems. The chemical components in the extract were analyzed by GC/MS, and the flavoring effect of the e-cigarette liquid was evaluated by sensory evaluation of the aerosol produced. The results showed that: 1) The optimal extraction parameters were: extraction pressure 20 MPa, extraction CO2 flow 5 L/min, extracting for 30 min at 120 ℃, and the yield was 9.9% of the stem by weight under such condition. 2) GC/MS identified 32 aroma components in tobacco stem; among them, the content of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methy-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP) was higher, which was believed to mainly contribute to the roasted and tobacco-like aroma of the e-cigarette aerosol. 3) The obtained tobacco stem extract was shown to impart sweet, roasted and tobacco-like aroma to e-cigarette, and thus had the potential to aid the development of e-cigarettes of tobacco characteristic styles.%为开发新型电子烟烟液提取手段并实现烟梗的资源化利用,以超临界CO2流体萃取(SFE)工艺萃取烟梗末的香味物质,采用GC/MS法对萃取物的成分进行分析,并进行了电子烟加香效果评价。结果表明:①最佳萃取工艺条件为:萃取温度120℃,萃取流量5 L/min,萃取时间30 min,萃取压力20 MPa;此条件下烟梗末萃取物的产率为9.9%。②烟梗末样品萃取物经GC/MS分析共鉴定出32种主要成分,其中质量分数较高的2,3-二氢-3,5-二羟基-6-甲基-4H-吡喃-4-酮(DDMP)对电子烟烟气表现出的烘烤香和烟草本香具有重要贡献。③该法所制备的烟梗末萃取物为电子烟烟气赋予了甜的、烘烤的烟草香味,为特征风格电子烟产品的开发提供了潜在的应用价值。

  20. Process Optimization and Principal Component Analysis of Extracts from Chinese Torreya by Supercritical CO2 Technology%超临界 CO2萃取香榧假种皮提取物的工艺优化及其主要成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于勇杰; 韩琴; 倪穗; 邬玉芬; 桑卫国

    2015-01-01

    采用响应面法优化了超临界 CO2流体萃取(SCE)香榧假种皮提取物的工艺,并采用气相色谱质谱联用仪(GC -MS)对其提取物成分进行了分析。在单因素试验的基础上,选取动态萃取时间、萃取温度、萃取压力作为变量,以香榧假种皮提取物得率为指标,采用 Box -Behnken 试验设计方法进行Í因素Í水平试验,根据回归方程的预测模型对结果进行响应面分析,确定超临界 CO2流体萃取香榧假种皮提取物的优化工艺为:粉碎度40目,静态萃取时间20 min,动态萃取时间2.5 h、萃取温度45℃、萃取压力34 MPa,在此条件下提取物平均提取率为(22.12±0.09)%。经过 GC -MS 检测分析,香榧假种皮提取物的主要成分为二萜类物质,其次为羧酸、酯类、倍半萜类和单萜类物质。%A response surface method (RSM)was used to optimize supercritical CO2 extraction (SCE)of the extracts from Chinese Torreya aril and the main components of aril extracts was analyzed by gas chromatograph -mass spectrometer (GC -MS).Based on the single factor experiments,the dynamic extraction time,extraction tempera-ture and extraction pressure were selected as variables.The extraction yield of Chinese Torreya aril was regarded as index and the three -factor and three -level experiment was conducted by Box -Behnke experiment design method. The optimization process of extracts of Chinese Torreya aril by supercritical CO2 extraction was particle size of 40 mush,extraction time of 20 min,dynamic time of 2.5 h,temperature of 45 ℃ and pressure of 34 MPa.The optimal yield (22.12 ±0.09%)was obtained at the operating conditions.The results of GC -MS analysis showed that the main complements of aril extracts were diterpenoids,fatty acid,followed by sesquiterpenoids and monoterpenoids.

  1. A Procedure for the supercritical fluid extraction of coal samples, with subsequent analysis of extracted hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report provides a detailed, step-by-step procedure for conducting extractions with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) using the ISCO SFX220 supercritical fluid extraction system. Protocols for the subsequent separation and analysis of extracted hydrocarbons are also included in this report. These procedures were developed under the auspices of the project 'Assessment of Geologic Reservoirs for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration' (see http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs026-03/fs026-03.pdf) to investigate possible environmental ramifications associated with CO2 storage (sequestration) in geologic reservoirs, such as deep (~1 km below land surface) coal beds. Supercritical CO2 has been used previously to extract contaminants from geologic matrices. Pressure-temperature conditions within deep coal beds may render CO2 supercritical. In this context, the ability of supercritical CO2 to extract contaminants from geologic materials may serve to mobilize noxious compounds from coal, possibly complicating storage efforts. There currently exists little information on the physicochemical interactions between supercritical CO2 and coal in this setting. The procedures described herein were developed to improve the understanding of these interactions and provide insight into the fate of CO2 and contaminants during simulated CO2 injections.

  2. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars.

  3. Research on Extraction Processing of Lycopene from Tomato Using Supercritical CO2 and Its Antioxidant Activity%超临界CO2萃取番茄红素工艺及其抗氧化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂宝军; 李勇; 陈尚龙; 邹绮

    2014-01-01

    研究超临界CO2萃取番茄红素的条件及其抗氧化活性.通过单因素试验,确定最佳夹带剂及其添加量,采用响应面分析法确定最佳萃取压力、萃取温度和萃取时间,并对番茄红素提取物的抗氧化活性进行研究.最佳夹带剂为乙酸乙酯,其合适的添加量为15%;超临界CO2萃取的最佳条件分别为:萃取压力为36 MPa,萃取温度为40o℃,萃取时间为150 min;与传统溶剂提取相比,提取率提高了33.4%;番茄红素提取物具有较强的清除羟基自由基和DPPH自由基的能力,且明显优于作为阳性对照的BHA.超临界CO2萃取技术对番茄中番茄红素具有较好的提取效果,所得的番茄红素提取物具有很强的抗氧化性能,为进一步开发利用番茄中番茄红素提供理论依据.

  4. STUDY ON CO2 SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF URSOLIC ACID FROM ASPARAGUS%CO2超临界流体萃取芦笋中熊果酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔星明; 王勇为; 陈光宇

    2004-01-01

    CO2超临界流体萃取得到的芦笋(Asparagus officinalis L.)提取物,用甲醇抽提醇溶部分,经用液质联用仪检测,得到56个紫外检测峰.其中,有保留时间与熊果酸基本一致的峰.其质谱的分子离子峰及特征碎片峰也与熊果酸的一致.确定该化合物为熊果酸.

  5. Study on the Stability of Lycopene Extracted by Supercritical CO2%超临界CO2萃取的番茄红素稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贞理; 管从胜; 王威强

    2006-01-01

    系统研究了温度、光、氨气保护、氧化剂和还原剂对超临界CO2萃取番茄红素稳定性的影响.研究表明,温度升高,番茄红素稳定性急剧下降;蔽光和氮气保护能有效的提高番茄红素的稳定性;氧化剂加速其分解;适宜浓度的还原剂可以有效的提高其稳定性.

  6. Supercritical CO2 recovery of caffeine from green coffee oil: new experimental solubility data and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Álvaro Bandeira Antunes de; Kieckbusch,Theo Guenter; Tashima,Alexandre Keiji; Mohamed,Rahoma Sadeg; Mazzafera,Paulo; Melo, Silvio Alexandre Beisl Vieira de

    2008-01-01

    p. 1319-1323. The caffeine solubility in supercritical CO2 was studied by assessing the effects of pressure and temperature on the extraction of green coffee oil (GCO). The Peng-Robinson1 equation of state was used to correlate the solubility of caffeine with a thermodynamic model and two mixing rules were evaluated: the classical mixing rule of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters (PR-VDW) and a density dependent one, proposed by Mohamed and Holder2 with two (PR-MH, two parameters...

  7. Preliminary Study on the Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Lycopene from Autumn Olive Fruit%秋橄榄果实中番茄红素的超临界CO2萃取初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李京; 惠伯棣

    2006-01-01

    由于其果实中含有丰富的番茄红素,秋橄榄被认为是一种新食品资源.在本研究中,应用超临界流体CO2萃取技术对秋橄榄果肉中的番茄红素进行了萃取研究,包括对萃取压力、温度和助提剂种类等参数的优化.结果表明:增大压力和使用助提剂均可提高萃取效率.同时,超临界CO2萃取法所得产物中番茄红素含量较溶剂法产物中的高.今后如果能在提高萃取效率方面取得进展,超临界流体萃取有可能成为一种从秋橄榄果实中制备番茄红素的技术选择.

  8. EFFECT OF LYCOPENE BY SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRACTION ON ANTI-AGING%超临界CO2提取的番茄红素对衰老的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓岑; 于国萍; 娄毅

    2007-01-01

    [目的]研究应用超临界CO2提取的番茄红素对衰老的作用.[方法]在小鼠颈背部皮下注射D-半乳糖制成衰老模型,同时给予不同剂量的番茄红素灌喂,8周后,检测小鼠血浆、肝脏组织中的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)、谷光甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px).[结果]适量的番茄红素能显著提高D-半乳糖致衰老模型小鼠血浆、肝脏中SOD、GSH-Px活力,显著降低模型小鼠血浆、肝脏中MDA含量.[结论]超临界CO2提取的番茄红素有良好的抗衰老作用.

  9. Extraction of carotenoids from calyx of Physalis alkekengi var.francheti by supercritical CO2%超临界CO2流体用于萃取酸浆宿萼中类胡萝卜素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晴; 黄震

    2011-01-01

    The supercritical CO2 extraction has been examined for carotenoids extraction from Physalis alkekengi var. francheti calyx. The influences of the extraction pressure, temperature, time and particle size on the extraction yield were investigated. By means of UV spectrometry analysis,the stability of the extracted carotenoids was also investigated under several different conditions. The results showed that the obtained carotenoids were thermostable but very sensitive to sun-shining light. They were also strongly affected by some metal ion such as Fe3+ ,Fe2+ and Al3+ ,relatively weakly influenced by Cu2+ ,Zn2+ and Ca2+ ,and nearly not affected by two earth ions of Na+ and K+.%采用超临界CO2流体从酸浆宿萼中提取类胡萝卜素,探讨了萃取压力、温度、时间和原料粒度等萃取参数对提取量的影响.还利用UV定量地考察了所提取类胡萝卜素的耐光照稳定性、耐热稳定性和抗金属离子稳定性.结果表明,这些提取物耐热稳定,但对光很敏感.与金属离子的相互作用结果显示,Fe3+、Fe2+和Al3+对类胡萝卜素提取物的影响很显著,Cu2+、Zn2+和Ca2+等金属离子的影响相对较小,而Na+和K+基本没有影响.

  10. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir; Sahena Ferdosh; Mohd Yazid Abdul Manap; Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman; Mohammed Jahurul Haque Akanda; Mohammed Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO2) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be ext...

  11. Research on CO2 supercritical fluid extraction of essential oil from Allium cepa L. Var. Agrogatum Don%超临界CO2萃取分蘖葱头精油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振扬; 赵红霞; 刘超

    2009-01-01

    通过单因素和正交实验研究,对超临界CO2萃取分蘖葱头精油的工艺进行了优化设计.实验结果表明各因素对分蘖葱头精油得率的影响主次顺序是:萃取压力>萃取温度>萃取时间>料液比;最佳萃取实验工艺条件为:萃取压力35 MPa,萃取温度50℃,萃取时间3 h,料液比(g∶mL)1∶1.5,分蘖葱头精油的得率为0.4715%.

  12. The Chemical Components from Vitis vinifena Seeds Oil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction%超临界CO2萃取葡萄籽油的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易元芬; 余珍; 丁靖垲; 陈昌祥; 蒲卫国

    2001-01-01

    @@ 葡萄籽油的化学成分,前人曾研究过山葡萄(Vitis amtrensis Rupr)种子中的油脂,含 有棕榈酸、硬脂酸、油酸和亚油酸(中国油脂编写委员会,1987).葡萄(Vitis vinifera L.) 种子油除含上述成分外还含亚麻酸和微量月桂酸、肉豆蔻酸(Bombardelle,1995).但对挥 发油,特别是酿酒后的葡萄籽油的成分尚未报道.作者利用超临界CO2萃取装置提取该葡 萄籽油,对挥发性成分和脂肪酸进行了研究,现报道如下.

  13. Supercritical CO2 extraction and analysis of aroma components of coriander leaf by GC/MS%超临界CO2萃取芫荽芳香成分及GC/MS解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆占国; 郭红转; 李伟; 杨书良

    2006-01-01

    采用超临界CO2萃取方法,对新鲜芫荽(Coriandrum sativum L.)茎叶进行萃取,得油率0.27%,用气相色谱/质谱联机(GC/MS)对精油成分进行了解析.共检测出60种成分,其中30种化合物被确定,占挥发油成分的82.772%.其中酯类35.046%,脂肪醛类22.792%,醇类15.641%,有机酸类5.357%,烃类3.936%.

  14. 超临界CO2萃取原生态椰子油工艺及其抗氧化性的研究%Supercritical CO2 Extraction and Antioxidation of Virgin Coconut Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亚军; 李艳; 陈卫军; 赵松林; 马子龙

    2010-01-01

    研究超临界CO2萃取原生态椰子油(VCO)的最佳工艺及VCO的抗氧化性.首先采取单因素试验,分别研究椰肉粒度、压力、温度等因素对萃取率的影响.在此基础上,采用正交试验探讨最佳的萃取条件;最后对所提VCO的抗氧化性进行研究.结果表明:粒度、压力等因素对萃取率有显著的影响.超临界萃取VCO最佳的工艺条件为:原料粒度40目、萃取时间60 min、CO2流量25 L/h、温度45℃、压力35 MPa;分离Ⅰ压力8 MPa、温度45℃;分离Ⅱ压力6 MPa、温度40℃.此时萃取率可达93.24%.所提VCO色泽淡黄、清亮、椰子油固有香气十分浓郁.抗氧化性试验表明,超临界萃取VCO对DPPH·、·OH有一定的清除能力,而且对Fe2+有很强的络合能力.

  15. Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction of Volatile Flavor Compounds from Oxidized Mutton Fat%超临界CO2萃取氧化羊脂中的挥发性香味成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建春; 孙宝国; 郑福平; 肖永辉; 刘晶鑫

    2009-01-01

    以萃取物的状态、气味特征及萃取率为指标,考察萃取温度、萃取压力、萃取时间的影响,确定超临界CO2萃取氧化羊脂(过氧化值=197mmol氧/kg脂肪、酸值=3.90mg KOH/kg脂肪)中挥发性香成分的较佳条件:萃取压力20MPa、温度45℃,分离釜Ⅰ压力4.8MPa、温度20℃,分离釜Ⅱ压力4.8MPa、温度20℃,CO2流速45L/h,萃取时间1h.用GC-MS和GC-O分析萃取物,通过保留指数将二者的分析结果关联,得出对氧化羊脂香味起重要作用的是醛类和羧酸类,其中(E)-2-己烯醛、(Z)-2-庚烯醛、(E)-2-辛烯醛、癸醛、(E)-2-癸烯醛、(E,E)-2,4-癸二烯醛等六种短链脂肪醛,及庚酸、工酸、癸酸等三种短链脂肪羧酸认为是构成氧化羊脂香味的主要成分.

  16. Water-in-Supercritical CO2 Microemulsion Stabilized by a Metal Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tian; Zhang, Jianling; Tan, Xiuniang; Liu, Chengcheng; Wu, Tianbin; Li, Wei; Sang, Xinxin; Han, Buxing; Li, Zhihong; Mo, Guang; Xing, Xueqing; Wu, Zhonghua

    2016-10-17

    Herein we propose for the first time the utilization of a metal complex for forming water-in-supercritical CO2 (scCO2 ) microemulsions. The water solubility in the metal-complex-stabilized microemulsion is significantly improved compared with the conventional water-in-scCO2 microemulsions stabilized by hydrocarbons. Such a microemulsion provides a promising route for the in situ CO2 reduction catalyzed by a metal complex at the water/scCO2 interface.

  17. Optimization of Extraction Process of Pitaya Seed Oil by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Based on Artificial Neural Network%人工神经网络优化火龙果籽油的超临界CO2萃取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓楚津; 刘书成; 陶柳清; 吴晓萍

    2014-01-01

    采用超临界CO2萃取火龙果籽油,通过单因素试验研究了干燥时间、原料粒度、CO2流量等因素对油脂得率的影响,利用JMP 7.0软件中的人工神经网络平台,建立了超临界CO2萃取火龙果籽油的人工神经网络模型,并优化了萃取过程的工艺条件。试验结果表明:火龙果籽晒干后经(80±1)℃干燥1 h,稍粉碎过40目筛,CO2流量为20 L/h,萃取压力30 MPa,萃取温度55℃,萃取时间3 h,油脂得率达31%以上;超临界CO2萃取的火龙果籽油酸值、过氧化值都较低,不饱和程度较高,是一种具有较高的开发潜力的植物油脂。%Pitaya see d oil was extracted by supercritical CO2 . Single-factor tests was applied to study the effects of drying time, granularity of raw material and flux of CO2 on the extraction rate of pitaya seed oil. A artificial neural network model of supercritical CO2 extracting pitaya seed oil was established to optimize extracting process parameters in JMP 7.0 software. The parameters were listed as follows:the sun-burned pitaya seed were dried at the temperature of (80±1)℃for 1 hour, slightly-grinded pitaya seeds were screened through a 40-inch boult, flow of CO2 was 20 L/h, extraction pressure was 30 MPa, extraction temperature was 55℃, and extraction time was 3 hours. Under these conditions, the extraction rate was above 31%. With a comparatively low acid value, peroxide value, as well as a high degree of unsaturation in fatty acids, Pitaya seed oil extracted by supercritical CO2 is a kind of vegetable fat with a high development potential.

  18. 超临界二氧化碳萃取菊苣酸的研究%Extraction of cichoric acid from echinacea purpurea by supercritical CO2 fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杰; 陈如溪; 曾伟山

    2011-01-01

    利用超临界二氧化碳萃取技术对紫锥菊主要有效成分苣酸的萃取工艺进行了研究。在萃取过程中采用单因素试验和正交试验分析了萃取压力、萃取温度、萃取时间、CO2流量、夹带剂等对萃取效率的影响,确定了萃取菊苣酸的最佳工艺条件。结果表明,利用超临界二氧化碳萃取菊苣酸的最佳工艺条件为:以体积分数为40%的乙醇做为夹带剂,萃取力为30MPa,萃取温度为60℃,萃取时间2h,CO2流量25kg·h-1。用超临界二氧化碳萃取法萃取所得的菊苣酸具有提取率高、产品的纯好、流程简单的优点。

  19. Study on the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of evening primrose oil%超临界CO2萃取月见草油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王腾宇; 李振岚; 齐颖; 王玉; 于殿宇

    2010-01-01

    应用超临界CO2流体萃取技术萃取月见草油,通过单因素和正交实验得出最佳参数:即原料含水量4%,粉碎度50目,萃取时间3 h,萃取压力30 MPa,萃取温度35℃,月见草油萃取率达95.97%;然后将萃取的月见草油进行冷冻结晶,降温速度3℃/h,搅拌速度30 r/min,温 度降至-20℃后停止搅拌,并保持此温度储存18 h,于-20℃,以10000 r/min的速度冷冻离心20 min,月见草油碘值从143 g I2/100 g提高到157 g I2/100 g.

  20. GC-MS Analysis of the Essential Oil from Ultrafine-Powder of Ganoderma sinense by Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction%超临界流体萃取紫芝挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建国; 王宏雨; 吴岩斌; 陈体强

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Further to analysis chemical components in the essential oil (EO) of Ganoderma sinense. Methods: EO was extracted using Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE-CO2 ) technique from the ultrafine-powder of Ganoderma sinense, and detected by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) . Results: 46 compounds were checked out from the EO extract (with 1.47% of extract rate, ω/ω), and 26 compounds (matching degree >83%) were identified representing 79. 2% of the total EO, including n-Hexadecanoic acid, (E)-9-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester, (E)-9- Octadecenoic acid and (E,E)-2,4- Decadienal, 9-Methyl-Z-10-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, 1, 8, 8-trimethyl-2-( 3-oxocyclo- pentenyl )-Tricyclo [3.2.1.0 (2, 4)] octane-3, 3-dicarbonitrile, (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid-2-hydroxy-l- (hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester and E-11-Hexadecen-l-ol and so on. Collusion: The results indicated that chemical components and their relative contents of the EO extracted by SFE-CO2 were different from that by steam distillation(SD) after ether refluxing.%为进一步研究紫芝挥发油的化学成分,采用超临界CO2流体萃取法从紫芝超细粉中提取分离挥发油,气相色谱-质谱联用分析其化学成分.从挥发油萃取物(1.47%,w/w)中检出46个峰(组分),鉴定了其中26个化合物(匹配度>83%),总相对含量占79.2%,主要成分有十六(烷)酸(18.88%)、(E)-十八碳-9-烯酸甲脂(18.74%)、(Z)-9-十八碳烯酸(24.33%)、(E)-2-癸烯醛(0.77%)、(E,E)-葵二烯醛(1.53%)、1,8,8-三甲基-2-(3-氧代环戊基)-三环[3.2.1.0(2,4)]辛烷-3,3-二腈(4.41%)、9-甲基-Z-1-十四碳-1-醇乙脂(1.20%)、(Z)-9-十八碳烯酸-2-羟基-1-羟甲基乙脂(1.95%)和E-11-十六烯-1-醇(2.38%)等.超临界流体萃取分离的紫芝挥发油成分及其相对含量有别于乙醚回流-水蒸气蒸馏法提取得到的挥发油成分.

  1. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Palm Carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puah C. Wei

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of carotenoids from crude palm oil was carried out in a dynamic (flow- through supercritical fluid extraction system. The carotenoids obtained were quantified using off-line UV-visible spectrophotometry. The effects of operating pressure and temperature, flow rate of the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2, sample size of feed used on the solubility of palm carotenoids were investigated. The results showed that the extraction of carotenoids was governed by its solubility in the SC-CO2 and can be enhanced by increasing pressure at a constant temperature or decreasing temperature at a constant pressure. Increasing the flow rate and decreasing the sample size can reduce the extraction time but do not enhance the solubility. Palm carotenoids have very low solubility in SC-CO2 in the range of 1.31 x 10-4 g kg-1 to 1.58 x 10-3 g kg-1 for the conditions investigated in this study. The experimental data obtained were compared with those published by other workers and correlated by a density-based equation as proposed by Chrastil.

  2. Non-catalytic transfer hydrogenation in supercritical CO2 for coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhussien, Hussien

    This thesis presents the results of the investigation on developing and evaluating a low temperature (coal dissolution in supercritical CO2. The main idea behind the thesis was that one hydrogen atom from water and one hydrogen atom from the hydrogen transfer agent (HTA) were used to hydrogenate the coal. The products of coal dissolution were non-polar and polar while the supercritical CO2, which enhanced the rates of hydrogenation and dissolution of the non-polar molecules and removal from the reaction site, was non-polar. The polar modifier (PM) for CO2 was added to the freed to aid in the dissolution and removal of the polar components. The addition of a phase transfer agent (PTA) allowed a seamless transport of the ions and by-product between the aqueous and organic phases. DDAB, used as the PTA, is an effective phase transfer catalyst and showed enhancement to the coal dissolution process. COAL + DH- +H 2O → COAL.H2 + DHO-- This process has a great feature due to the fact that the chemicals were obtained without requir-ing to first convert coal to CO and H2 units as in indirect coal liquefaction. The experiments were conducted in a unique reactor set up that can be connected through two lines. one line to feed the reactor with supercritical CO 2 and the other connected to gas chromatograph. The use of the supercritical CO2 enhanced the solvent option due to the chemical extraction, in addition to the low environmental impact and energy cost. In this thesis the experiment were conducted at five different temperatures from atmos-pheric to 140°C, 3000 - 6000 psi with five component of feed mixture, namely water, HTA, PTA, coal, and PM in semi batch vessels reactor system with a volume of 100 mL. The results show that the chemicals were obtained without requiring to first convert coal to CO and H2 units as in indirect coal liquefaction. The results show that the conversion was found to be 91.8% at opti-mum feed mixtures values of 3, 1.0 and 5.4 for water: PM

  3. Micronization of Griseofulvin by Ress in Supercritical CO2 with Cosolvent Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国勤; 陈鸿雁; 蔡建国; 邓修

    2003-01-01

    Griseofulvin (GF) is an antifungal drug whose pharmaceutical activity can be improved by reducing particle size. In this study the rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) was employed to micronize GF.Carbon dioxide with cosolvent acetone was chosen as a supercritical mixed solvent. The solubility of GF in super-critical CO2 with cosolvent acetone was measured using a dynamic apparatus at pressures between 12 and 32 MPa,temperatures at 313, 323 and 333 K and cosolvent concentration at 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% (by mole). The effect of pre-expansion pressure, extraction temperature, spraying distance, nozzle size and concentration of cosolvent on the precipitated particles was investigated. The results show that the mean particle size of griseofulvin precipitated by RESS was less than 1.2μm. An increase in pre-expansion pressure, extraction temperature, spraying distance and concentration of cosolvent resulted in a decrease in particle size under the operating condition studied. With the decrease of nozzle diameter the particle size reduces. The crystallinity and melting point of the original material and the processed particle by RESS were tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).No evident modification in the crystal habit was found under the experimental conditions tested. The morphology of particles precipitated was analyzed bY scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  4. Assay of 6-gingerol in CO2 supercritical fluid extracts of ginger and evaluation of its sustained release from a transdermal delivery system across rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Cuiping; Zhang, Mei; Fu, Xiaobing

    2014-07-01

    Ginger has been widely used as healthy food condiment as well as traditional Chinese medicine since antiquity. Multiple potentials of ginger for treatment of various ailments have been revealed. However, the biological half-life of 6-gingerol (a principal pungent ingredient of ginger) is only 7.23 minutes while taken orally. Delivery of ginger compositions by routes other than oral have scarcely been reported. Therefore, we studied a noninvasive transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) of ginger to bypass hepatic first pass metabolism, avoid gastrointestinal degradation and achieve long persistent release of effective compositions. After establishment of a HPLC analysis method of 6-gingerol, assays of 6-gingerol were performed to compare two kinds of ginger extracts. Then, the characteristics of transdermal delivery of 6-gingerol in TDDS were exhibited. The results showed that the contents of 6-gingerol in two kinds of ginger extracts were significantly different. The maximal delivery percentage of 6-gingerol across rat skin at 20 h was more than 40% in different TDDS formulations. TDDS may provide long-lasting delivery of ginger compounds.

  5. Hypouricemic and nephroprotective effects of total flavonoids from the residue of supercritical CO2 extraction of Humulus lupulus in potassium oxonate-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen Jing; Li, Zhuan; Dong, Xiao Ying; Lu, Lai Feng; Wang, Chang Lu

    2017-03-01

    Total flavonoids of Humulus lupulus (TFHL) were prepared using ethanol extraction, liquid-liquid partition and purification with polyamide resin. Different dose of TFHL were orally administered to normal and hyperuricemic mice for 7 days. The xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity and hypouricemic effects of TFHL on potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice were examined. The TFHL showed very potent XOD inhibitory activity with IC50=66.8 μg/mL. At a single oral dose of 100mg/kg TFHL, the serum uric acid levels of hyperuricemic mice significantly decreased (P<0.01) compared with a hyperuricemic control group, and the XOD activity was inhibited by 22%. Moreover, TFHL has a protective role against potassium oxonate-induced renal damage in mice. The results suggested that TFHL could be used as a promising drug or ingredient for treatment of hyperuricemia and gout.

  6. Biocompatibility of supercritical CO2-treated titanium implants in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C M; Kang, Q K; Wahl, C; Jimenez, A; Laberge, M; Drews, M; Matthews, M A; An, Y H

    2006-04-01

    Supercritical phase CO2 is a promising method for sterilizing implantable devices and tissue grafts. The goal of this study is to evaluate the biocompatibility of titanium implants sterilized by supercritical phase CO2 in a rat subcutaneous implantation model. At 5 weeks post implantation titanium implants sterilized by supercritical phase CO2 produce a soft tissue reaction that is comparable to other methods of sterilization (steam autoclave, ultraviolet light radiation, ethylene oxide gas, and radio-frequency glow-discharge), as indicated by the thickness and density of the foreign body capsule, although there were some differences on the capillary density. Overall the soft tissue response to the implants was similar among all methods of sterilization, indicating supercritical phase CO2 treatment did not compromise the biocompatibility of the titanium implant.

  7. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  8. Using ground and intact coal Samples to evaluate hydrocarbon fate during supercritical CO2 injection into coal beds: effects of particle size and coal moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jon; Hackley, Paul C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Warwick, Peter D.; Burruss, Robert

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the potential for mobilizing organic compounds from coal beds during geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage (sequestration), a series of solvent extractions using dichloromethane (DCM) and using supercritical CO2 (40 °C and 10 MPa) were conducted on a set of coal samples collected from Louisiana and Ohio. The coal samples studied range in rank from lignite A to high volatile A bituminous, and were characterized using proximate, ultimate, organic petrography, and sorption isotherm analyses. Sorption isotherm analyses of gaseous CO2 and methane show a general increase in gas storage capacity with coal rank, consistent with findings from previous studies. In the solvent extractions, both dry, ground coal samples and moist, intact core plug samples were used to evaluate effects of variations in particle size and moisture content. Samples were spiked with perdeuterated surrogate compounds prior to extraction, and extracts were analyzed via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The DCM extracts generally contained the highest concentrations of organic compounds, indicating the existence of additional hydrocarbons within the coal matrix that were not mobilized during supercritical CO2 extractions. Concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic compounds measured in supercritical CO2 extracts of core plug samples generally are lower than concentrations in corresponding extracts of dry, ground coal samples, due to differences in particle size and moisture content. Changes in the amount of extracted compounds and in surrogate recovery measured during consecutive supercritical CO2extractions of core plug samples appear to reflect the transition from a water-wet to a CO2-wet system. Changes in coal core plug mass during supercritical CO2 extraction range from 3.4% to 14%, indicating that a substantial portion of coal moisture is retained in the low-rank coal samples. Moisture retention within core plug samples, especially in low-rank coals, appears to inhibit

  9. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of supercritical CO2 extract of flower bud of Chrysanthemum indicum and its antibacterial activity%菊米超临界CO2萃取物的气相色谱-质谱分析及其抑菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春荣; 方程吉; 余庆青; 蒋鹏; 田薇

    2013-01-01

      用气相色谱‐质谱( gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry , GC‐MS)对通过超临界CO2萃取的菊米精油成分进行分析,并通过测定其抑菌圈直径判断其抑菌活性.结果表明:经GC‐MS分析在菊米精油中共鉴定出28个相似度在70%以上的成分,以萜类及其衍生物为主,其中萜类主要为单萜和倍半萜,其衍生物主要为醇;菊米精油对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌具有一定的抑菌效果,其最小抑菌质量浓度( minimum inhibitory concentration , MIC)为1.6 mg/mL ,显示出良好的抑菌活性.%Summary Jumi , the flower bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L . , is a special tea from Shilian , Zhejiang Province , and it is famous for its unique fragrance . Jumi essential oil has numerous efficacies and applications in the field of pharmacy and cosmetic industry , therefore developing effective oil extracting method which can keep both biological activity and fragrance is of considerable significance . At present , steam distillation has been reported as essential oil extract method , but this method can not keep the unique fragrance of Jumi due to the decomposition of fragrant component at high temperature . However , the supercritical fluid of CO 2 ( SFE‐CO2 ) is a low temperature processing technique and can fully keep the unique fragrance of Jumi , which is an efficient , non‐toxic , pollution‐free , and non‐residual method to extract and separate Jumi essential oil . The objective of this paper is to evaluate the quality of Jumi essential oil extracted by SFE‐CO2 and determine its biological activity . The chemical compositions of Jumi essential oil were determined by GC‐MS and their inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were analyzed by filter paper tablet bacteriostatic method and minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC) .The results showed that the 28 types of components with the similarity of more than 70% were

  10. Preliminary Study on Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Ce(Ⅳ) in Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Zhi-jun; LIANG; Xiao-hu; DING; You-qian

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction(SFE)has many advantages,such as rapid mass transfer and high solubility.Metal samples can be extracted using supercritical fluid with a small amount of complexant.So in comparison to conventional solvent extraction process,SFE minimizes the amount of secondary waste and the pollution to environment.In order to study the extraction of Pu using supercritical CO2,the

  11. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) assisted preparation of hydrogen-bonded interpolymer complexes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, Philip W

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of supercritical CO2 as medium in polymer processing eliminates many of disadvantages associated with other means of processing, i.e. high temperatures or toxic solvents. The “soft” processing conditions make CO2 specifically suitable...

  12. Supercritical CO2 assisted process for the production of high-purity and sterile nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan hybrid scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruphuy, G; Souto-Lopes, M; Paiva, D; Costa, P; Rodrigues, A E; Monteiro, F J; Salgado, C L; Fernandes, M H; Lopes, J C; Dias, M M; Barreiro, M F

    2017-05-04

    Hybrid scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp), in particular in its nanometric form (n-HAp), and chitosan (CS) are promising materials for non-load-bearing bone graft applications. The main constraints of their production concern the successful implementation of the final purification/neutralization and sterilization steps. Often, the used purification strategies can compromise scaffold structural features, and conventional sterilization techniques can result in material's thermal degradation and/or contamination with toxic residues. In this context, this work presents a process to produce n-HAp/CS scaffolds mimicking bone composition and structure, where an innovative single step based on supercritical CO2 extraction was used for both purification and sterilization. A removal of 80% of the residual acetic acid was obtained (T = 75°C, p = 8.0 MPa, 2 extraction cycles of 2 h) giving rise to scaffolds exhibiting adequate interconnected porous structure, fast swelling and storage modulus compatible with non-load-bearing applications. Moreover, the obtained scaffolds showed cytocompatibility and osteoconductivity without further need of disinfection/sterilization procedures. Among the main advantages, the proposed process comprises only three steps (n-HAp/CS dispersion preparation; freeze-drying; and supercritical CO2 extraction), and the supercritical CO2 extraction show clear advantages over currently used procedures based on neutralization steps. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 超临界二氧化碳萃取及水蒸气蒸馏法提取降香挥发油及其GC-MS分析%Analyze on Chemical Compositions of Dalbergia odorifera Essential Oils Extracted by CO2-Supercritical-Fluid-Extraction and Steam Distillation Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟峰; 廖美金; 罗淑媛

    2011-01-01

    目的:用超临界二氧化碳萃取及水蒸气蒸馏法提取降香挥发油,并对挥发油进行GC-MS分析.方法:采用超临界二氧化碳萃取法(SFE-CO2)及水蒸气蒸馏法提取降香挥发油,并应用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术分析挥发油的化学成分,用峰面积归一法测定各化合物的相对含量.结果:在超临界CO2提取物中共鉴定出12种化合物,占总峰面积的34.49%,含量最高的是橙花叔醇(14.95%)、2-丙烯酸3-(4-甲氧基)乙酯(14.53%)、胜红蓟色烯(1.33%).在水蒸气蒸馏法提取的降香挥发油中共鉴定出9种化合物,占总峰面积的30.62%,含量最高的是橙花叔醇(26.61%)、雪松醇(1.65%).结论:超临界法较水蒸气法更加稳定可靠、重现性好,适用于降香挥发油的提取.%Objective;To analyze the chemical compositions of Dalbergia odorifera essential oils extacted by CO2-supercritical-fluid-extraction (SFE-CO2)and steam distillation extraction (SD). Methods:The essential oils of Dalbergia odorifera were extracted by steam distillation extraction and SFE-CO2. The chemical components were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry. Results: 12 compounds were identified in SFE sample. The major components from essential oils were 2-propenoic acid-3(4-methoxyphenyl)-ethyl ester( 14. 53% ), nerolidol( 14. 95% ), ageratochromene(1. 33% ). 9 compounds were identified in SD sample. The major components from essential oils were nerolidol(26. 61% ) ,cedrol( 1. 65% ). Conclusion:The SFE method is better than the SD method in reliability stability and reproducibility, and suitable for essential oils extraction of Dalbergia odorifera.

  14. 超临界CO2辅助聚合物加工%Supercritical CO2 assisted polymer processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲; 刘涛

    2013-01-01

    近年来,以超临界CO2替代聚合物加工过程中大量使用的有机溶剂实现超临界CO2辅助聚合物加工过程已引起人们越来越多的关注.CO2在聚合物中的溶解扩散可导致其结构和形态的变化,能够溶胀增塑聚合物并且将溶解于其中的小分子物质携带输运到聚合物基体中,进而影响聚合物的结晶及晶型转变行为,聚合物/CO2体系界面张力以及聚合物/CO2体系流变行为等基本物性的变化.利用聚合物基本物性的变化可实现CO2辅助聚合物接枝反应,CO2辅助聚合物渗透小分子物质以及CO2辅助聚合物发泡等超临界CO2辅助聚合物加工过程的应用.结合本研究室的实例,探讨了CO2作用下等规聚丙烯和间规聚丙烯的结晶行为以及一种多晶型聚合物——等规聚丁烯-1的晶型转变行为;探讨了利用CO2对等规聚丙烯、聚乳酸和聚酯三种典型的低熔体强度结晶聚合物具有的不同诱导结晶作用,调控聚合物的结晶行为,使其具备发泡所需的熔体强度,制备了具有不同结构特征的发泡聚合物材料.%The use of CO2 for substituting volatile organic compounds in polymer processing, i. e. , supercritical CO2-assisted polymer processing, has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Dissolution of CO2 in polymer could swell, plasticize and deliver small molecules into the polymer matrixes. Consequently, the structure and morphology of the polymer would change, as well as the fundamental properties, including polymer crystallization, interfacial tension between polymer and gas, and rheology of CO2 /polymers melt. CO2 -induced changes in these properties could be used to realize the supercritical CO2-assisted polymer processing, e.g., CO2-assisted polymer grafting, CO2-assisted penetrating of small molecules into polymer and CO2-assisted polymer foaming. Several cases from the authors' laboratory are presented for elucidating how to use the changes to manipulate

  15. Supercritical CO 2 -philic nanoparticles suitable for determining the viability of carbon sequestration in shale

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yisheng

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. A fracture spacing less than a decimeter is probably required for the successful sequestration of CO2 in shale. Tracer experiments using inert nanoparticles could determine if a fracturing this intense has been achieved. Here we describe the synthesis of supercritical CO2-philic nanoparticles suitable for this application. The nanoparticles are ~50 nm in diameter and consist of iron oxide (Fe3O4) and silica (SiO2) cores functionalized with a fluorescent polymeric corona. The nanoparticles stably disperse in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and are detectable to concentrations of 10 ppm. This journal is

  16. 超临界CO2萃取穿心莲内酯的实验研究%Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata: Effect of the Solvent Flow Rate,Pressure,and Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees has been extensively used for traditional medicine and help against fever,dysentery,diarrhoea,inflammation,and sore throat. In this study,andrographolide,the main component of this plant was extracted from the leaves of A. paniculata using supercritical carbon dioxide. The operating pressures were varied from 7.50 to 20 MPa,the temperatures were varied from 30℃ to 60℃,and the flow rates were varied 3g sample of A. paniculata ground-dried leaves. The measured extraction rate was found to be about 0.0174g of andrographolide per gram of andrographolide present in the leaves per hour of operation. The future studies must focus on the interaction between the various operating parameters such as temperature,pressure,and flow rate of supercritical carbon dioxide.

  17. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pasquel

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  18. Supercritical CO2 recovery of caffeine from green coffee oil: new experimental solubility data and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Bandeira Antunes de Azevedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The caffeine solubility in supercritical CO2 was studied by assessing the effects of pressure and temperature on the extraction of green coffee oil (GCO. The Peng-Robinson¹ equation of state was used to correlate the solubility of caffeine with a thermodynamic model and two mixing rules were evaluated: the classical mixing rule of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters (PR-VDW and a density dependent one, proposed by Mohamed and Holder² with two (PR-MH, two parameters adjusted to the attractive term and three (PR-MH3 two parameters adjusted to the attractive and one to the repulsive term adjustable parameters. The best results were obtained with the mixing rule of Mohamed and Holder² with three parameters.

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction and bioactivity of cedarwood oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (70°C, 4,000 psi) was used to extract cedarwood oil from Eastern redcedar, Juniperus virginiana L. The CO2-derived oil was tested for biological activity against several species of arthropods, including mosquitoes, ticks, houseflies, and ants. The cedarwood oil was found...

  20. Effect of impurities on the corrosion behavior of CO2 transmission pipeline steel in supercritical CO2-water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Seok; Nesic, Srdjan; Young, David

    2010-12-01

    The corrosion property of carbon steel was evaluated using an autoclave under CO(2)-saturated water phase and water-saturated CO(2) phase with impurities (O(2) and SO(2)) at 80 bar CO(2) and 50 °C to simulate the condition of CO(2) transmission pipeline in the carbon capture and storage (CCS) applications. The results showed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel in CO(2)-saturated water was very high and it increased with adding O(2) in the system due to the inhibition effect of O(2) on the formation of protective FeCO(3). It is noteworthy that corrosion took place in the water-saturated CO(2) phase under supercritical condition when no free water is present. The addition of O(2) increased the corrosion rates of carbon steel in water-saturated CO(2) phase. The addition of 0.8 bar SO(2) (1%) in the gas phase dramatically increased the corrosion rate of carbon steel from 0.38 to 5.6 mm/y. This then increased to more than 7 mm/y with addition of both O(2) and SO(2). SO(2) can promote the formation of iron sulfite hydrate (FeSO(3)·3H(2)O) on the steel surface which is less protective than iron carbonate (FeCO(3)), and it is further oxidized to become FeSO(4) and FeOOH when O(2) is present with SO(2) in the CO(2)-rich phase. The corrosion rates of 13Cr steel were very low compared with carbon steel in CO(2)-saturated water environments with O(2), whereas it was as high as carbon steel in a water-saturated CO(2) phase with O(2) and SO(2).

  1. Flow of subcritical and supercritical CO2 in coal at variable insitu conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishal, V.

    2016-12-01

    Fluid flow in unconventional reservoirs is influenced by various conditions such as the insitu pressure, temperature, pore pressure, effective stresses, reservoir characteristics such as porosity, permeability, etc. Many laboratory, pilot scale and field scale activities have only enhanced the understanding of these reservoirs such as shale and coal. An important domain of investigation, however, is the phase of the fluid itself. CO2 that is being injected into the subsurface for the purpose of geologic sequestration is likely to experience a transition of phases in the reservoirs. The present work examines the effects of change in phase of CO2 on the permeability evolution of porous coal. Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of change of phase of CO2 from gas to liquid and gas to supercritical state on the flow and deformation of coal. It was found that the permeability of coal to supercritical CO2 was nearly half than that using liquid CO2. Further, upon saturation of the sample for two days using CO2, further reduction of permeability was observed. Saturation with liquid CO2 led to nearly 24% decline in permeability of coal while supercritical CO2 led to nearly 40% reduction in the same. It is hypothesized that liquid and supercritical CO2 lead to large amount of coal matrix deformation and in turn, the matrix swelling leads to the closure of path of fluid flow, resulting in high reduction of permeability. This study presents the real-term underground scenarios likely to be encountered during CO2 flow in coal.

  2. Microfluidic study for investigating migration and residual phenomena of supercritical CO2 in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyuryeong; Wang, Sookyun; Lee, Minhee; Um, Jeong-Gi; Kim, Seon-Ok

    2017-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in underground geological formation such as deep saline aquifers or depleted oil and gas reservoirs is one of the most promising technologies for reducing the atmospheric CO2 release. The processes in geological CO2 storage involves injection of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) into porous formations saturated with brine and initiates CO2 flooding with immiscible displacement. The CO2 migration and porewater displacement within geological formations, and , consequentially, the storage efficiency are governed by the interaction of fluid and rock properties and are affected by the interfacial tension, capillarity, and wettability in supercritical CO2-brine-mineral systems. This study aims to observe the displacement pattern and estimate storage efficiency by using micromodels. This study aims to conduct scCO2 injection experiments for visualization of distribution of injected scCO2 and residual porewater in transparent pore networks on microfluidic chips under high pressure and high temperature conditions. In order to quantitatively analyze the porewater displacement by scCO2 injection under geological CO2 storage conditions, the images of invasion patterns and distribution of CO2 in the pore network are acquired through a imaging system with a microscope. The results from image analysis were applied in quantitatively investigating the effects of major environmental factors and scCO2 injection methods on porewater displacement process by scCO2 and storage efficiency. The experimental observation results could provide important fundamental information on capillary characteristics of reservoirs and improve our understanding of CO2 sequestration progress.

  3. 超临界CO2技术在PP中应用进展%Application Progress of Supercritical CO2 Technology for Polypropylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 康鹏; 金滟

    2012-01-01

    The application of the supercritical CO2 technology to polypropylene in grafting modification, crystallizing modification, microporous foamed material, processing and composite material at home and abroad is reviewed. And the application prospect of the supercritical CO2 technology is predicted.%综述了超临界CO2(SC-CO2)技术在聚丙烯(PP)接枝改性、结晶改性、PP微发泡材料、加工和复合材料等方面应用,并展望了SC-CO2技术在PP中的应用前景.

  4. Measuring water adsorption on mineral surfaces in air, CO2, and supercritical CO2 with a quartz-crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, C. R.; Wells, R. K.; Burton, P. D.; Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon sequestration via underground storage in geologic formations is a proposed approach for reducing industrial CO2 emissions. However, current models for carbon injection and long-term storage of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) do not consider the development and stability of adsorbed water films at the scCO2-hydrophilic mineral interface. The thickness and properties of the water films control the surface tension and wettability of the mineral surface, and on the core scale, affect rock permeability, saturation, and capillary properties. The film thickness is strongly dependent upon the activity of water in the supercritical fluid, which will change as initially anhydrous scCO2 absorbs water from formation brine. As described in a companion paper by the coauthors, the thickness of the adsorbed water layer is controlled by the disjoining pressure; structural and van der Waals components dominate at low water activity, while electrostatic forces become more important with increasing film thickness (higher water activities). As scCO2 water activity and water layer thickness increase, concomitant changes in mineral surface properties and reservoir/caprock hydrologic properties will affect the mobility of the aqueous phase and of scCO2. Moreover, the development of a water layer may be critical to mineral dissolution reactions in scCO2. Here, we describe the use of a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) to monitor adsorption of water by mineral surfaces. QCMs utilize a piezoelectrically-stimulated quartz wafer to measure adsorbed or deposited mass via changes in vibrational frequency. When used to measure the mass of adsorbed liquid films, the frequency response of the crystal must be corrected for the viscoelastic, rather than elastic, response of the adsorbed layer. Results are presented for adsorption to silica in N2 and CO2 at one bar, and in scCO2. Additional data are presented for water uptake by clays deposited on a QCM wafer. In this case, water uptake occurs by the

  5. Scaling considerations for a multi-megawatt class supercritical CO2 brayton cycle and commercialization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Conboy, Thomas M.; Pasch, James Jay; Wright, Steven A; Rochau, Gary E; Fuller, Robert Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Small-scale supercritical CO2 demonstration loops are successful at identifying the important technical issues that one must face in order to scale up to larger power levels. The Sandia National Laboratories supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle test loops are identifying technical needs to scale the technology to commercial power levels such as 10 MWe. The small size of the Sandia 1 MWth loop has demonstration of the split flow loop efficiency and effectiveness of the Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHXs) leading to the design of a fully recuperated, split flow, supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle demonstration system. However, there were many problems that were encountered, such as high rotational speeds in the units. Additionally, the turbomachinery in the test loops need to identify issues concerning the bearings, seals, thermal boundaries, and motor controller problems in order to be proved a reliable power source in the 300 kWe range. Although these issues were anticipated in smaller demonstration units, commercially scaled hardware would eliminate these problems caused by high rotational speeds at small scale. The economic viability and development of the future scalable 10 MWe solely depends on the interest of DOE and private industry. The Intellectual Property collected by Sandia proves that the ~10 MWe supercritical CO2 power conversion loop to be very beneficial when coupled to a 20 MWth heat source (either solar, geothermal, fossil, or nuclear). This paper will identify a commercialization plan, as well as, a roadmap from the simple 1 MWth supercritical CO2 development loop to a power producing 10 MWe supercritical CO2 Brayton loop.

  6. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Organic Matter from Petroleum Source Rocks and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈忠民; 周光甲; 等

    1996-01-01

    Organic matter was experimentally extracted by supercritical fluids(CO2+1% isopropanol)from petroleum source rocks of different thermo-maturities at different buried depths in the same stratigraphic unit in the Dongying Basin.The results show that supercritical fluid extraction(SFE)is more effective than Soxhlet extraction(SE),with higher amounts and greater varieties of hydrocarbons and soluble organic matter becoming extractive.The supercritical CO2 extraction is therefore considered more valuable in evaluation of petroleum source rocks and oil resources,particularly those of immature types.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of supercritical CO2-water drainage displacement in porous media: CO2 saturation and displacement mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Hirotatsu; Tsuji, Takeshi; Liang, Yunfeng; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2015-01-06

    CO2 geosequestration in deep aquifers requires the displacement of water (wetting phase) from the porous media by supercritical CO2 (nonwetting phase). However, the interfacial instabilities, such as viscous and capillary fingerings, develop during the drainage displacement. Moreover, the burstlike Haines jump often occurs under conditions of low capillary number. To study these interfacial instabilities, we performed lattice Boltzmann simulations of CO2-water drainage displacement in a 3D synthetic granular rock model at a fixed viscosity ratio and at various capillary numbers. The capillary numbers are varied by changing injection pressure, which induces changes in flow velocity. It was observed that the viscous fingering was dominant at high injection pressures, whereas the crossover of viscous and capillary fingerings was observed, accompanied by Haines jumps, at low injection pressures. The Haines jumps flowing forward caused a significant drop of CO2 saturation, whereas Haines jumps flowing backward caused an increase of CO2 saturation (per injection depth). We demonstrated that the pore-scale Haines jumps remarkably influenced the flow path and therefore equilibrium CO2 saturation in crossover domain, which is in turn related to the storage efficiency in the field-scale geosequestration. The results can improve our understandings of the storage efficiency by the effects of pore-scale displacement phenomena.

  8. Combination of supercritical CO2 and vacuum distillation for the fractionation of bergamot oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tao; Goto, Motonobu; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Hirose, Tsutomu

    2004-08-11

    Supercritical CO2 can be used to separate oxygenated compounds from essential oils. This technique still cannot replace vacuum distillation as an industrial process because of low recoveries and inconsistent results. In the present work, a comparison between the two methods was made in terms of composition, recovery, and color. Vacuum distillation and supercritical CO2 are complementary processes for producing high quality oxygenated compounds with high recovery rates. The former is more suitable for removing monoterpenes at low fraction temperatures ( or =85%) and without other macromolecules, such as pigments and waxes.

  9. Extractions of Oil from Descurainia sophia Seed Using Supercritical CO2, Chemical Compositions by GC-MS and Evaluation of the Anti-Tussive, Expectorant and Anti-Asthmatic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hong Gong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Descurainia sophia is widely distributed in China and is one of the most troublesome annual weeds. It has diverse medicinal usage. D. sophia has abundant oil, making it an important oil plant in China. The main goal of this study was to obtain the maximum yield of the oil by an optimal selection of supercritical fluid extraction parameters. According to the central composite design and response surface methodology for supercritical fluid extraction method, a quadratic polynomial model was used to predict the yield of D. sophia seed oil. A series of runs was performed to assess the optimal extraction conditions. The results indicated that the extraction pressure had the greatest impact on oil yield within the range of the operating conditions studied. A total of approximately 67 compounds were separated in D. sophia seed oil by GC-MS, of which 51 compounds represented 98.21% of the total oils, for the first time. This study was also aimed at evaluating the anti-asthmatic, anti-tussive and expectorant activities in vivo of D. sophia seed oil which supplied for further research on bioactive constituents and pharmacological mechanisms.

  10. Chemical constituents of essential oil from a Tibetan herb-Bibilin (Piper longum L.) extracted by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction%藏药毕毕林二氧化碳超临界流体萃取精油化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    热增才旦; 刘斌; 董芳; 王英锋

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究习称为“三辛药”之一的藏药毕毕林精油化学成分及其相对含量.方法 采用超临界CO2流体萃取法提取毕毕林精油,采用气相色谱-质谱联用方法分离鉴定精油化学成分并测定其相对含量.结果 毕毕林超临界CO2流体萃取精油得率为9.7%,分离得到59个色谱峰,鉴定出52种成分,主要成分是胡椒碱(19.24%)、毕澄茄烯(l0.62%)、4-硝基苯酯邻甲氧基苯甲酸(6.47%)、1-(1-氧代-11,14-二十碳三烯基)-吡咯烷(4.75%)、14(E)-十六碳烯醛(4.38%)、十五烷(4.35%)和反亚油酸甲酯(4.28%)等.结论 二氧化碳超临界流体萃取精油是藏药毕毕林的药效组分之一,且是其辛味的主要物质基础.%Objective To study the chemical constituents and relevant content of essential oil from a Tibetan herb-Bibilin (Piper longum L. ) , which was usually considered as one of "three pungent herbs". Methods The essential oil from Bibilin was extracted by using supercritical CO2 fluid extraction, the chemical constituents were separated and identified and their relevant content was determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS). Results The yield of the essential oil was 9. 7%. There were 59 peaks separated and 52 constituents identified. The main constituents were piperylpiperidine (19.24% ), cubebene (10.62% ), 4-nitrophenyl o-anisic ester (6.47% ), l-( 1-oxo-11, 14-eicosadienyl)-pyrrolidine (4.75%), E-14-hexadecenal (4.38%), n-pentadecane (4.35%) and trans-methyl linolelaidate (4.28% ). ConclusionThe essential oil extracted by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction is one of effective components of Bibilin, which is the major material base of its pungent flavor.

  11. Relationship between the density of supercritical CO2 +ethanol binary system and its critical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬畅; 张建军; 曹维良

    2003-01-01

    The dependent relation between temperature and pressure of supercritical CO2 + ethanol binary system under the pressure range from 5 to 10 MPa with the variety of densities and mole fractions of ethanol that range from 0 to 2% was investigated by the static visual method in a constant volume. The critical temperature and pressure were experimentally determined simultaneously. The PTρ figures at different ethanol contents were described based on the determined pressure and temperature data, from which pressure of supercritical CO2 + ethanol binary system was found to increase linearly with the increasing temperature. P-T lines show certain convergent feature in a specific concentration of ethanol and the convergent points shift to the region of higher temperature and pressure with the increasing ethanol compositions. Furthermore, the effect of density and ethanol concentration on the critical point of CO2 + ethanol binary system was discussed in details. Critical points increase linearly with the increasing mole fraction of ethanol in specific density and critical points change at different densities. The critical compressibility factors Zc of supercritical CO2 + ethanol binary systems at different compositions of ethanol were calculated and Zc-ρ figure was obtained accordingly. It was found from Zc-ρ figure that critical compressibility factors of supercritical CO2 unitary or binary systems decline linearly with the increasing density, by which the critical point can be predicted precisely.

  12. Extraction of copper ions by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Complexation combined with supercritical fluid extraction was used to extract Cu2+ in this study. The effects of pressure, temperature, volume of CO2 on the efficiency of extraction were systematically investigated. At the optimum condition a 57.32% recovery was achieved. Addition of suitable amount of methanol(v/v = 5 % ) to the supercritical CO2 can increase in the extraction of Cu2+ (72.69 %, RSD = 2.12 %, n = 3). And the recovery can further increase in the presence of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 because of its function of solubilization. Surfactant was first used in the extraction of metal ions in the present study, and the results are satisfied (90.52%, RSD=2.20%, n =3).

  13. In Situ Molecular Spectroscopic Evidence for CO2 Intercalation into Montmorillonite in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, John S.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Thompson, Christopher J.; Miller, Quin RS; Martin, Paul F.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2012-04-25

    The interaction of anhydrous supercritical CO2 (scCO2) with both kaolinite and ~1W (i.e. close to but less than one layer of hydration) calcium-saturated montmorillonite was investigated under conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (50 °C and 90 bar). The CO2 molecular environment was probed in situ using a combination of three novel high-pressure techniques: X-ray diffraction, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. We report the first direct evidence that the expansion of montmorillonite under scCO2 conditions is due to CO2 migration into the interlayer. Intercalated CO2 molecules are rotationally constrained and do not appear to react with waters to form bicarbonate or carbonic acid. In contrast, CO2 does not intercalate into kaolinite. The findings show that predicting the seal integrity of caprock will have complex dependence on clay mineralogy and hydration state.

  14. In situ molecular spectroscopic evidence for CO2 intercalation into montmorillonite in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, John S; Schaef, Herbert T; Turcu, Romulus V F; Thompson, Christopher J; Miller, Quin R S; Martin, Paul F; Hu, Jianzhi; Hoyt, David W; Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S; Felmy, Andrew R; Rosso, Kevin M

    2012-05-08

    The interaction of anhydrous supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) with both kaolinite and ~1W (i.e., close to but less than one layer of hydration) calcium-saturated montmorillonite was investigated under conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (50 °C and 90 bar). The CO(2) molecular environment was probed in situ using a combination of three novel high-pressure techniques: X-ray diffraction, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. We report the first direct evidence that the expansion of montmorillonite under scCO(2) conditions is due to CO(2) migration into the interlayer. Intercalated CO(2) molecules are rotationally constrained and do not appear to react with waters to form bicarbonate or carbonic acid. In contrast, CO(2) does not intercalate into kaolinite. The findings show that predicting the seal integrity of caprock will have complex dependence on clay mineralogy and hydration state.

  15. Swelling-induced changes in coal microstructure due to supercritical CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihuai; Lebedev, Maxim; Sarmadivaleh, Mohammad; Barifcani, Ahmed; Iglauer, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Enhanced coalbed methane recovery and CO2 geostorage in coal seams are severely limited by permeability decrease caused by CO2 injection and associated coal matrix swelling. Typically, it is assumed that matrix swelling leads to coal cleat closure, and as a consequence, permeability is reduced. However, this assumption has not yet been directly observed. Using a novel in situ reservoir condition X-ray microcomputed tomography flooding apparatus, for the first time we observed such microcleat closure induced by supercritical CO2 flooding in situ. Furthermore, fracturing of the mineral phase (embedded in the coal) was observed; this fracturing was induced by the internal swelling stress. We conclude that coal permeability is drastically reduced by cleat closure, which again is caused by coal matrix swelling, which again is caused by flooding with supercritical CO2.

  16. Extraction of tannin by Acacia mearnsii with supercritical fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Pansera

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on solvent and supercritical extraction to obtain natural tannins. The results showed that the best co-solvent to extract tannin with CO2 supercritical was water with a concentration of 5.0% and the best trap rinse solvent was methanol.Neste trabalho foram utilizados dois processos de extração de tanino vegetal: extração a quente em aparelho Soxhlet e extração com CO2 supercítico. Os resultados mostraram que o melhor co-solvente para extração de taninos com CO2 supercrítico foi a água na concentração de 5% e o melhor solvente para lavagem do trap foi o metanol.

  17. Migration behavior of supercritical and liquid CO2 in a stratified system: Experiments and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junho; Kim, Kue-Young; Han, Weon Shik; Park, Eungyu; Kim, Jeong-Chan

    2015-10-01

    Multiple scenarios of upward CO2 migration driven by both injection-induced pressure and buoyancy force were investigated in a horizontally and vertically stratified core utilizing a core-flooding system with a 2-D X-ray scanner. Two reservoir-type scenarios were considered: (1) the terrestrial reservoir scenario (10 MPa and 50°C), where CO2 exists in a supercritical state and (2) the deep-sea sediment reservoir scenario (28 MPa and 25°C), where CO2 is stored in the liquid phase. The core-flooding experiments showed a 36% increase in migration rate in the vertical core setting compared with the horizontal setting, indicating the significance of the buoyancy force under the terrestrial reservoir scenario. Under both reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 tended to find a preferential flow path (low capillary entry pressure and high-permeability (high-k) path) and bypass the unfavorable pathways, leaving low CO2 saturation in the low-permeability (low-k) layers. No distinctive fingering was observed as the CO2 moved upward, and the CO2 movement was primarily controlled by media heterogeneity. The CO2 saturation in the low-k layers exhibited a more sensitive response to injection rates, implying that the increase in CO2 injection rates could be more effective in terms of storage capacity in the low-k layers in a stratified reservoir. Under the deep-sea sediment condition, the storage potential of liquid CO2 was more than twice as high as that of supercritical CO2 under the terrestrial reservoir scenario. In the end, multiphase transport simulations were conducted to assess the effects of heterogeneity on the spatial variation of pressure buildup, CO2 saturation, and CO2 flux. Finally, we showed that a high gravity number (Ngr) tended to be more influenced by the heterogeneity of the porous media.

  18. Adsorption of ethyl acetate onto modified clays and its regeneration with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Cavalcante

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Modified clays were used to remove ethyl acetate from aqueous solutions. These clays were regenerated using supercritical CO2. Structural changes in the montmorillonite clay after treatment with quaternary amines were studied. The surface properties of the modified clay changed from highly hydrophilic to highly organophilic. The clay was regenerated by percolation of a stream of CO2 through the porous montmorillonite matrix. Different pressures and temperatures were employed, resulting in different fluid conditions (gas, liquid, and supercritical. The experimental data was fitted with a simplified model. The best desorption result was found under supercritical conditions. A crossover effect was observed. The capacity of the modified clay as a pollutant attenuator remained almost unchanged after a regeneration cycle.

  19. Supercritical CO2-assisted preparation of ibuprofen loaded PEG-PVP complexes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, Philip W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stoichiometric ratios of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mw = 400) with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP, Mw = ±3.1 x 104 & Mw = 1.25 x 106 Mw) were prepared from ethanol cast solutions and in supercritical CO2. The complex formation was studied via glass...

  20. Cosolvent Effect on the Tautomerism of Ethyl Acetoacetate in Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of cosolvent cyclohexane, chloroform, and acetonitrile on the keto-enol tautomeric equilibrium of ethyl acetoacetate in supercritical CO2 was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy over the pressure range from 76 to 110 bar at 308.15 K. It was found that the equilibrium constant decreases with increasing polarity of the cosolvents.

  1. Effects of Supercritical CO 2 Conditioning on Cross-Linked Polyimide Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kratochvil, Adam M.

    2010-05-25

    The effects of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditioning on high-performance cross-linked polyimide membranes is examined through gas permeation and sorption experiments. Under supercritical conditions, the cross-linked polymers do not exhibit a structural reorganization of the polymer matrix that was observed in the non-cross-linkable, free acid polymer. Pure gas permeation isotherms and mixed gas permeabilities and selectivities show the cross-linked polymers to be much more stable to scCO2 conditioning than the free acid polymer. In fact, following scCO2 conditioning, the mixed gas CO2 permeabilities of the cross-linked polymers increased while the CO2/CH4 separation factors remained relatively unchanged. This response highlights the stability and high performance of these cross-linked membranes in aggressive environments. In addition, this response reveals the potential for the preconditioning of cross-linked polymer membranes to enhance productivity without sacrificing efficiency in practical applications which, in effect, provides another tool to \\'tune\\' membrane properties for a given separation. Finally, the dual mode model accurately describes the sorption and dilation characteristics of the cross-linked polymers. The changes in the dual mode sorption model parameters before and after the scCO2 exposure also provide insights into the alterations in the different glassy samples due to the cross-linking and scCO2 exposure. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. Review of supercritical CO2 power cycle technology and current status of research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonhan Ahn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical CO2 (S-CO2 Brayton cycle has recently been gaining a lot of attention for application to next generation nuclear reactors. The advantages of the S-CO2 cycle are high efficiency in the mild turbine inlet temperature region and a small physical footprint with a simple layout, compact turbomachinery, and heat exchangers. Several heat sources including nuclear, fossil fuel, waste heat, and renewable heat sources such as solar thermal or fuel cells are potential application areas of the S-CO2 cycle. In this paper, the current development progress of the S-CO2 cycle is introduced. Moreover, a quick comparison of various S-CO2 layouts is presented in terms of cycle performance.

  3. Supercritical CO2 pipeline transportation and safety%超临界CO2管道输送与安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋秀; 屈定荣; 刘小辉

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 transportation by pipeline is the most economical and feasible method to transport large-scale CO2.There are already some short distance gaseous CO2 pipelines in China,but not long distance supercritical CO2 pipelines yet.The paper introduces the status quo of supercritical CO2 pipelines overseas,and there are no design and operation reference standards and CO2 quality control standards yet.The risk and security issues related to pipeline transmission,such as corrosion,elastomeric seals,leakage and running fracture of supercritical CO2 pipeline are analyzed.The aim of this paper is to draw upon the design,operating and risk control experiences gained from the existing CO2 pipeline networks to provide references to the design and operation of supercritical CO2 pipeline in China.Special attention should be paid on safety since the supercritical CO2 pipeline will inevitably pass through densely populated areas in China.%通过管道输送超临界CO2是大规模运输CO2最经济、可行的方法,国内目前仅有少量短程气态CO2输送管道,尚无超临界CO2长输管道.介绍了国外超临界CO2管道的发展现状,迄今尚无针对性的管道设计、运行参考标准及管输超临界CO2的质量控制标准.分析了超临界CO2管道腐蚀、橡胶溶胀、泄漏、断裂等影响超临界CO2管道运行安全的因素及控制经验,可为中国未来超临界CO2管道的设计与运行提供参考.国内建设超临界CO2输送管道必然经过人口密集区域,运行风险增大,应予以重视.

  4. Materials, Turbomachinery and Heat Exchangers for Supercritical CO2 Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Nellis, Greg; Corradini, Michael

    2012-10-19

    The objective of this project is to produce the necessary data to evaluate the performance of the supercritical carbon dioxide cycle. The activities include a study of materials compatibility of various alloys at high temperatures, the heat transfer and pressure drop in compact heat exchanger units, and turbomachinery issues, primarily leakage rates through dynamic seals. This experimental work will serve as a test bed for model development and design calculations, and will help define further tests necessary to develop high-efficiency power conversion cycles for use on a variety of reactor designs, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR) and very high-temperature gas reactor (VHTR). The research will be broken into three separate tasks. The first task deals with the analysis of materials related to the high-temperature S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. The most taxing materials issues with regard to the cycle are associated with the high temperatures in the reactor side heat exchanger and in the high-temperature turbine. The system could experience pressures as high as 20MPa and temperatures as high as 650°C. The second task deals with optimization of the heat exchangers required by the S-CO{sub 2} cycle; the S-CO{sub 2} flow passages in these heat exchangers are required whether the cycle is coupled with a VHTR or an SFR. At least three heat exchangers will be required: the pre-cooler before compression, the recuperator, and the heat exchanger that interfaces with the reactor coolant. Each of these heat exchangers is unique and must be optimized separately. The most challenging heat exchanger is likely the pre-cooler, as there is only about a 40°C temperature change but it operates close to the CO{sub 2} critical point, therefore inducing substantial changes in properties. The proposed research will focus on this most challenging component. The third task examines seal leakage through various dynamic seal designs under the conditions expected in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle

  5. Supercritical CO2 Cleaning for Planetary Protection and Contamination Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Zhong, Fang; Aveline, David; Anderson, Mark; Chung, Shirley; Mennella, Jerami; Schubert, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    We have designed and built a prototype Supercritical CO? Cleaning (SCC) system at JPL. The key features of the system are: 1) the parts inside a high-pressure vessel can be rotated at high speeds; 2) the same thermodynamic condition is maintained during First-In First-Out flushing to keep solvent power constant; and 3) the boil-off during decompression is induced in a separate vessel downstream. Our goal is to demonstrate SCC's ability to remove trace amounts of microbial and organic contaminants down to parts per billion levels from spacecraft material surfaces for future astrobiology missions. The initial cleaning test results showed that SCC can achieve cleanliness levels of 0.01 microgram/cm(sup 2) or less for hydrophobic contaminants such as dioctyl phthalate and silicone and it is less effective in the removal and inactivation of the hydrophilic bacterial spores as expected. However, with the use of a polar co-solvent, the efficacy may improve dramatically. The same results were obtained using liquid CO?. This opens up the possibility of using subcritical cleaning conditions, which may prove to be more compatible with certain spacecraft hardware.

  6. Extraction of Rosemary Oil by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid and Activity Component of the Extract%超临界CO2流体萃取法提取迷迭香中主要挥发性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎乃维; 马丽杰; 金海珠

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil was extracted from the stems and leaves of the plant produced in Yunnan by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction. With the single-factor and orthogonal design, to determine the optimal conditions test. Experimental results show that the optimal conditions as follow:Extraction temperature 40℃, Pressure 20 MPa, Time 120 min, CO2 Flow 25 L/h. The activity components of the essential oil were analyzed by GC-MS. From the Experimental date, we can see Essential oil composition is complex and diverse. Mixed aroma of high contents, such as Camphor (25%),Eucalyptol (32%),Ammonium acetat e (9%),beta.-Pinene (4%), make up the featured aroma of Rosemary.%以云南迷迭香为原料,利用超临界CO2流体萃取装置提取迷迭香精油,然后采用GC-MS联用分析仪对所得的萃取物进行分析。通过单因素和正交试验优化萃取条件,实验结果表明萃取温度40℃、萃取压力20 MPa、萃取时间120 min、CO2流量25 L/h为最优萃取条件。通过GC-MS联用进行活性成分分析,所得迷迭香精油主要是樟脑(25%),桉叶油素(32%),乙酸铵(9%), beta.-蒎烯(4%)等混合香气构成了迷迭香的特征香气。

  7. Extraction of Corn Germ Oil by Supercritical Extraction Technology%玉米酒精副产胚芽油的超临界CO2提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝菊; 刘霄; 杨勇

    2008-01-01

    胚芽油和CO2是玉米酒精生产中的重要副产品.本文采用超临界CO2技术从玉米胚芽中萃取玉米胚芽油,解决传统方法中出油率低及有机溶剂残留等问题;试验考察了压力、温度、CO2流量和萃取时间对提取率的影响,并得出最佳萃取工艺条件.采用超临界CO2技术萃取玉米胚芽油具有较强的技术优势和良好的工业应用前景.

  8. Development of a Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Heterogeneous Catalysis in Supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazrul M.; Chatterjee, Maya; Ikushima, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Toshiro; Kawanami, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    A novel type of high-pressure membrane reactor has been developed for hydrogenation in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The main objectives of the design of the reactor are the separate feeding of hydrogen and substrate in scCO2 for safe reactions in a continuous flow process, and to reduce the reaction time. By using this new reactor, hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde into hydrocinnamaldehyde has been successfully carried out with 100% selectivity at 50 °C in 10 MPa (H2: 1 MPa, CO2: 9 MPa) with a flow rate of substrate ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 mL/min. PMID:20162008

  9. Isolation of Organochlorine Pesticide from Ginseng with Supercritical CO2%超临界流体萃取脱除人参中痕量有机氯农药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑芬; 王幼君; 全灿; 田松江

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of removal of the organochlorine pesticides residues of hexachlorocyclohexane(BHC)from radix ginseng with supercritical CO2 was explored. Some factors, such as extraction pressure, extraction temperature, and kinds of co-solvents were investigated. The experimental results indicate that it is possible to reduce BHC residues in radix ginseng to the level of 0.1 × 10-6 with supercritical CO2 in the presence of suitable amount of co-solvent, such as water.

  10. The influence of water and supercritical CO2 on the failure behavior of chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liteanu, E.; Spiers, C. J.; de Bresser, J. H. P.

    2013-06-01

    Reduction of compressive strength by injection of water into chalk is a well-known mechanism responsible for increased compaction in chalk reservoirs. This raises the question of whether such effects might be enhanced in the context of long-term storage of CO2 or of CO2 injection for enhanced oil and gas recovery (EOR/EGR) purposes. Therefore, data regarding the effect of supercritical CO2 on the mechanical behavior of chalk are needed. The effect of supercritical CO2 on the short-term failure behavior of wet chalk was accordingly investigated by means of conventional triaxial deformation experiments, performed on Maastrichtian chalk cores under dry conditions, in the presence of saturated chalk solution and using CO2-saturated solution at temperatures simulating reservoir conditions (20-80 °C) and effective confining pressures up to 7 MPa. Increasing temperature from 20 to 80 °C did not show any significant effects on the strength of the dry samples. Addition of aqueous solution to the samples led to drastic weakening of the chalk, the effect being more pronounced at high effective confining pressures (Peff > 3 MPa). Addition of 10 MPa supercritical CO2 to wet samples did not produce any significant additional effect in comparison with the wet samples. All samples showed a yield strength envelope characterized by shear failure at low effective mean stresses giving way to a compaction cap at high mean stresses. The weakening effect of aqueous solution was explained in terms of a reduction in frictional resistance of the material, due to water-enhanced grain-contact cracking, and perhaps pressure solution, with a possible contribution by disjoining pressure effects caused by water adsorption. While CO2 does not seem to reduce short-term failure strength of wet chalk, processes such as intergranular pressure solution have to be considered for assessing mechanical stability of chalk in the context of long-term CO2 storage or EOR/EGR operations.

  11. Solubility of caffeine from green tea in supercritical CO2: a theoretical and empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Pravin Vasantrao; Balaraman, Manohar

    2015-12-01

    Decaffeination of fresh green tea was carried out with supercritical CO2 in the presence of ethanol as co-solvent. The solubility of caffeine in supercritical CO2 varied from 44.19 × 10(-6) to 149.55 × 10(-6) (mole fraction) over a pressure and temperature range of 15 to 35 MPa and 313 to 333 K, respectively. The maximum solubility of caffeine was obtained at 25 MPa and 323 K. Experimental solubility data were correlated with the theoretical equation of state models Peng-Robinson (PR), Soave Redlich-Kwong (SRK), and Redlich-Kwong (RK). The RK model had regressed experimental data with 15.52 % average absolute relative deviation (AARD). In contrast, Gordillo empirical model regressed the best to experimental data with only 0.96 % AARD. Under supercritical conditions, solubility of caffeine in tea matrix was lower than the solubility of pure caffeine. Further, solubility of caffeine in supercritical CO2 was compared with solubility of pure caffeine in conventional solvents and a maximum solubility 90 × 10(-3) mol fraction was obtained with chloroform.

  12. Supercritical fluid extraction: Application in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skala Dejan U.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction is an extraction process realized with supercritical fluids, which are at a temperature and pressure above their critical temperature and critical pressure. This process has shown to be very efficient one for the isolation of different substances of medium molecular weights and molecules of relatively low polarity. The solubility of more polar substances in supercritical fluids can be improved by the addition of small amounts of other polar solvents (cosolvent to the supercritical fluids, which is the main solvent in extraction process. The advantage of supercritical extraction compared to other extraction procedures (the application of classical organic solvents hydrodistillation, distillation with steam is that SFE is usually performed at moderate temperature (e.g. with SF CO2 at 40-70°C so it can be applied for the separation of different substances which are thermally unstable and have a larger vapour pressure. All of these facts indicate that SFE is of special interest for the food and pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Extraction of lipids from microalgae using CO2-expanded methanol and liquid CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Ashok; Jessop, Michael J; Stubbins, Spencer H; Champagne, Pascale; Jessop, Philip G

    2015-05-01

    The use of CO2-expanded methanol (cxMeOH) and liquid carbon dioxide (lCO2) is proposed to extract lipids from Botryococcus braunii. When compressed CO2 dissolves in methanol, the solvent expands in volume, decreases in polarity and so increases in its selectivity for biodiesel desirable lipids. Solid phase extraction of the algal extract showed that the cxMeOH extracted 21 mg of biodiesel desirable lipids per mL of organic solvent compared to 3mg/mL using either neat methanol or chloroform/methanol mixture. The non-polar lCO2 showed a high affinity for non-polar lipids. Using lCO2, it is possible to extract up to 10% neutral lipids relative to the mass of dry algae. Unlike extractions using conventional solvents, these new methods require little to no volatile, flammable, or chlorinated organic solvents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Control system options and strategies for supercritical CO2 cycles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Kulesza, K. P.; Sienicki, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Oregon State Univ.

    2009-06-18

    The Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton Cycle is a promising alternative to Rankine steam cycle and recuperated gas Brayton cycle energy converters for use with Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs), Lead-Cooled Fast Reactors (LFRs), as well as other advanced reactor concepts. The S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle offers higher plant efficiencies than Rankine or recuperated gas Brayton cycles operating at the same liquid metal reactor core outlet temperatures as well as reduced costs or size of key components especially the turbomachinery. A new Plant Dynamics Computer Code has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory for simulation of a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle energy converter coupled to an autonomous load following liquid metal-cooled fast reactor. The Plant Dynamics code has been applied to investigate the effectiveness of a control strategy for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle for the STAR-LM 181 MWe (400 MWt) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor. The strategy, which involves a combination of control mechanisms, is found to be effective for controlling the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle over the complete operating range from 0 to 100 % load for a representative set of transient load changes. While the system dynamic analysis of control strategy performance for STARLM is carried out for a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle energy converter incorporating an axial flow turbine and compressors, investigations of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle have identified benefits from the use of centrifugal compressors which offer a wider operating range, greater stability near the critical point, and potentially further cost reductions due to fewer stages than axial flow compressors. Models have been developed at Argonne for the conceptual design and performance analysis of centrifugal compressors for use in the SCO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle. Steady state calculations demonstrate the wider operating range of centrifugal compressors versus axial compressors installed in a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle as

  15. Fast and Green - CO2 Based Extraction, Isolation, and Quantification of Phenolic Styrax Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuba, Johanna; Wronski, Valerie-Katharina; Rollinger, Judith M; Grienke, Ulrike

    2017-08-01

    In this study the first supercritical fluid based protocol for the extraction, analysis, and isolation of six polar compounds, i.e., o-vanillin (1), styracin (2), vanillin (3), trans-cinnamic acid (4), vanillic acid (5), and shikimic acid (6), was developed. First, eight styrax resin products (R1-R8) obtained from various Liquidambar tree species, which are known to contain compounds 2-6, were extracted with a 1 : 1 mixture of supercritical CO2 and EtOH. Within 4 minutes, the compounds were successfully baseline separated on an Acquity UPC(2) BEH 2-EP (3.0 × 100 mm, 1.7 µm) column using a mobile phase of supercritical CO2 and MeOH with 0.1 % phosphoric acid. The compounds were quantified and the method was validated according to current ICH guidelines. Scaling up to preparative supercritical fluid chromatography using a Viridis BEH 2-EP (10 × 250 mm, 5 µm) column allowed for a fast separation and isolation of the selected constituents 2 and 4 from R6 within 7 minutes. This supercritical fluid protocol is easily adaptable to compounds of similar polarity. The increase in speed and its environmental friendliness underline its superiority over conventional set-ups. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Extraction of betulin from bark of Betula platyphylla by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-hong; YU Tao; WANG Yang

    2003-01-01

    Betulin, which is a medicinal pentacyclic triterpene, is abundant in the bark of white birch (Betula platyphlly). The bark of birch was collected at Tayuan Forest Farm of Jiagedaqi, Heilongjiang Province in September 2000. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that is a new separation technology has been used for the processing pharmaceutical and natural products. In this paper, the extraction of betulin from the bark of birch by supercritical CO2 extraction was studied. The authors investigated and analyzed a few parameters such as modifier dosage, extraction pressure and extraction temperature. The optimal extraction conditions showed that the modifier dosage used for per gram bark powder was 1.5 mL, the extraction pressure was at 20 Mpa, and the extraction temperature was at 55 ℃. The velocity of flow of liquid CO2 was at 10 kg/h. The pressure and temperature in separation vessel were at 5.5 Mpa and 50 ℃, respectively.

  17. Decontamination of Uranium-Contaminated Soil Sand Using Supercritical CO2 with a TBP–HNO3 Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangheon Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An environmentally friendly decontamination process for uranium-contaminated soil sand is proposed. The process uses supercritical CO2 as the cleaning solvent and a TBP–HNO3 complex as the reagent. Four types of samples (sea sand and coarse, medium, and fine soil sand were artificially contaminated with uranium. The effects of the amount of the reagent, sand type, and elapsed time after the preparation of the samples on decontamination were examined. The extraction ratios of uranium in all of the four types of sand samples were very high when the time that elapsed after preparation was less than a few days. The extraction ratio of uranium decreased in the soil sand with a higher surface area as the elapsed time increased, indicating the possible formation of chemisorbed uranium on the surface of the samples. The solvent of supercritical CO2 seemed to be very effective in the decontamination of soil sand. However, the extraction of chemisorbed uranium in soil sand may need additional processes, such as the application of mechanical vibration and the addition of bond-breaking reagents.

  18. Chemicals loading in acetylated bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silviana, Petermann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia has a large tropical forest. However, the deforestation still appears annually and vastly. This reason drives a use of bamboo as wood alternative. Recently, there are many modifications of bamboo in order to prolong the shelf life. Unfortunately, the processes need more chemicals and time. Based on wood modification, esterifying of bamboo was undertaken in present of a dense gas, i.e. supercritical CO2. Calculation of chemicals loading referred to ASTM D1413-99 by using the phase equilibrium data at optimum condition by a statistical design. The results showed that the acetylation of bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 required 14.73 kg acetic anhydride/m3 of bamboo for a treatment of one hour.

  19. Pore-scale supercritical CO2 dissolution and mass transfer under imbibition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chun; Zhou, Quanlin; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Yu, Qingchun

    2016-06-01

    In modeling of geological carbon storage, dissolution of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is often assumed to be instantaneous with equilibrium phase partitioning. In contrast, recent core-scale imbibition experiments have shown a prolonged depletion of residual scCO2 by dissolution, implying a non-equilibrium mechanism. In this study, eight pore-scale scCO2 dissolution experiments in a 2D heterogeneous, sandstone-analogue micromodel were conducted at supercritical conditions (9 MPa and 40 °C). The micromodel was first saturated with deionized (DI) water and drained by injecting scCO2 to establish a stable scCO2 saturation. DI water was then injected at constant flow rates after scCO2 drainage was completed. High resolution time-lapse images of scCO2 and water distributions were obtained during imbibition and dissolution, aided by a scCO2-soluble fluorescent dye introduced with scCO2 during drainage. These images were used to estimate scCO2 saturations and scCO2 depletion rates. Experimental results show that (1) a time-independent, varying number of water-flow channels are created during imbibition and later dominant dissolution by the random nature of water flow at the micromodel inlet, and (2) a time-dependent number of water-flow channels are created by coupled imbibition and dissolution following completion of dominant imbibition. The number of water-flow paths, constant or transient in nature, greatly affects the overall depletion rate of scCO2 by dissolution. The average mass fraction of dissolved CO2 (dsCO2) in water effluent varies from 0.38% to 2.72% of CO2 solubility, indicating non-equilibrium scCO2 dissolution in the millimeter-scale pore network. In general, the transient depletion rate decreases as trapped, discontinuous scCO2 bubbles and clusters within water-flow paths dissolve, then remains low with dissolution of large bypassed scCO2 clusters at their interfaces with longitudinal water flow, and finally increases with coupled transverse water flow and

  20. Experimental Determination and Modeling of the Phase Behavior for the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol in Supercritical CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Beier, Matthias Josef; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2011-01-01

    In this study the phase behavior of mixtures relevant to the selective catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by molecular oxygen in supercritical CO2 is investigated. Initially, the solubility of N2 in benzaldehyde as well as the dew points of CO2–benzyl alcohol–O2 and CO2...

  1. Catalytic nanoreactors in continuous flow: hydrogenation inside single-walled carbon nanotubes using supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Thomas W; Earley, James H; Anderson, Daniel P; Khlobystov, Andrei N; Bourne, Richard A

    2014-05-25

    One nanometre wide carbon nanoreactors are utilised as the reaction vessel for catalytic chemical reactions on a preparative scale. Sub-nanometre ruthenium catalytic particles which are encapsulated solely within single-walled carbon nanotubes offering a unique reaction environment are shown to be active when embedded in a supercritical CO2 continuous flow reactor. A range of hydrogenation reactions were tested and the catalyst displayed excellent stability over extended reaction times.

  2. Insights into Silicate Carbonation Processes in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2 Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Quin RS; Thompson, Christopher J.; Loring, John S.; Windisch, Charles F.; Bowden, Mark E.; Hoyt, David W.; Hu, Jian Z.; Arey, Bruce W.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2013-07-01

    Long-term geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered an integral part to moderating CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and subsequently minimizing effects of global climate change. Although subsurface injection of CO2 is common place in certain industries, deployment at the scale required for emission reduction is unprecedented and therefore requires a high degree of predictability. Accurately modeling geochemical processes in the subsurface requires experimental derived data for mineral reactions occurring between the CO2, water, and rocks. Most work in this area has focused on aqueous-dominated systems in which dissolved CO2 reacts to form crystalline carbonate minerals. Comparatively little laboratory research has been conducted on reactions occurring between minerals in the host rock and the wet supercritical fluid phase. In this work, we studied the carbonation of wollastonite [CaSiO3] exposed to variably hydrated supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at a range of temperatures (50, 55 and 70 °C) and pressures (90,120 and 160 bar) that simulate conditions in geologic repositories. Mineral transformation reactions were followed by three novel in situ high pressure techniques, including x-ray diffraction that tracked the rate and extents of wollastonite conversion to calcite. Increased dissolved water concentrations in the supercritical CO2 resulted in increased silicate carbonation approaching ~50 wt. %. Development of thin water films on the mineral surface were directly observed with infrared spectroscopy and determined to be critical for facilitating carbonation processes. Even in extreme low water conditions, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance detected formation of Q3 [Si(OSi)3OH] and Q4 [Si(OSi)4] amorphous silica species. Unlike the thick (<10 μm) passivating silica layers observed in the fully water saturated scCO2 experiments, images obtained from a focused ion beam sectioned sample indicted these coatings were chemically wollastonite

  3. Supercritical CO2 decaffeination of unroasted coffee beans produces melanoidins with distinct NF-κB inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yumin; Brown, Peter H; Hu, Kang; Black, Richard M; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Chu, Yi-Fang

    2011-09-01

    The supercritical CO(2)-decaffeination process causes unroasted coffee beans to turn brown. Therefore, we suspected that the decaffeinated beans contained melanoidins. Decaffeinated unroasted coffee extract absorbed light at 405 nm with a specific extinction coefficient, K(mix 405 nm), of 0.02. Membrane dialysis (molecular weight cut-off, 12 to 14 kDa) increased the K(mix 405 nm) value 15 fold. Gel filtration chromatography showed that the high-MW fraction (MW > 12 kDa) had an elution profile closer to that of melanoidins of medium-roast coffee than to the corresponding fraction of unroasted coffee, indicating the presence of melanoidins in decaffeinated unroasted beans. Using murine myoblast C2C12 cells with a stably transfected nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) luciferase reporter gene, we found that the high-MW fraction of decaffeinated unroasted beans had an NF-κB inhibitory activity of IC(50) = 499 μg/mL, more potent than that of regular-roast coffee (IC(50) = 766 μg/mL). Our results indicate that melanoidins form during the supercritical CO(2)-decaffeination process and possess biological properties distinct from those formed during the regular roasting process. We discovered the roasting effect of decaffeination process, reporting the discovery of melanoidins in green (unroasted) decaf coffee beans. Our results indicated that melanoidins form during the supercritical CO2-decaffeination process and possess biological properties distinct from those formed during the regular roasting process. Our results offer new insights into the formation of bioactive coffee components during coffee decaffeination process. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides from soil. Comparison with conventional extraction methods and optimization for real soil samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde EG van der; Ramlal MR; Kootstra PR; Liem AKD; LOC

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the first results of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) as technique for the extraction of organic components from soil. SFE is based on the extraction properties of supercritical fluids - in this case CO2 - having liquidlike as well as gaslike behaviour as their low

  5. Modeling of the Kinetics of Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Lipids from Microalgae with Emphasis on Extract Desorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Sovová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae contain valuable biologically active lipophilic substances such as omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids. In contrast to the recovery of vegetable oils from seeds, where the extraction with supercritical CO2 is used as a mild and selective method, economically viable application of this method on similarly soluble oils from microalgae requires, in most cases, much higher pressure. This paper presents and verifies hypothesis that this difference is caused by high adsorption capacity of microalgae. Under the pressures usually applied in supercritical fluid extraction from plants, microalgae bind a large fraction of the extracted oil, while under extremely high CO2 pressures their adsorption capacity diminishes and the extraction rate depends on oil solubility in supercritical CO2. A mathematical model for the extraction from microalgae was derived and applied to literature data on the extraction kinetics in order to determine model parameters.

  6. Maximising opportunities in supercritical chemistry: the continuous conversion of levulinic acid to gamma-valerolactone in CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Richard A; Stevens, James G; Ke, Jie; Poliakoff, Martyn

    2007-11-28

    Phase behaviour is manipulated during the hydrogenation of aqueous levulinic acid in supercritical CO(2) to separate almost pure gamma-valerolactone from water and unreacted acid with reduced energy requirements compared to conventional processing.

  7. Synthesis of siliceous hollow spheres with large mesopore wall structure by supercritical CO2-in-water interface templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Xia, Yongde; Wang, Wenxin; Mokaya, Robert; Poliakoff, Martyn

    2005-01-14

    Hollow silica spheres with large mesopore wall structures have been synthesized via CO(2)-in-water emulsion templating in the presence of PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymers under supercritical fluid conditions.

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Permeability of Coal in Supercritical CO2 and N2 Injection Under Stress and Strain Restricted Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KIYAMA, Tamotsu; NISHIMOTO, Soshi; FUJIOKA, Masaji; XUE, Zique; MIYAZAWA, Daisuke; ISHIJIMA, Yoji

    2010-01-01

    .... In this study, the strain and stress constraint conditions were created in-laboratory and N2 and supercritical CO2 were injected repeatedly in a coal specimen for observation of the permeability, Vp...

  9. Formation of Magnesite at Low Temperature in Mineral:Supercritical CO2 Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qafoku, O.; Hu, J.; Arey, B.; Liu, J.; Ilton, E. S.; Felmy, A.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most promising options for mitigating the impacts of greenhouse gases on global warming is storage and sequestration of the anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations. Consequently, evaluating mineral-fluid interaction in aqueous systems saturated with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) has been the focus for subsurface CO2 storage research. An important factor in assessing mineral-fluid interactions is the potential for the formation of stable divalent metal carbonates, principally Ca and Mg, which can immobilize the disposed CO2 as mineral precipitates. The formation of some of these phases, especially the Mg anhydrous phase magnesite (MgCO3), has been hindered by slow precipitation kinetics owing to the strong affinity of Mg2+ ion for the waters of hydration. Understanding conditions that lead to formation of magnesite at temperatures significant to subsurface disposal of CO2 can be substantial in the development of efficient carbon sequestration techniques. Here we present recently obtained experimental data on the formation of magnesite at low temperature (as low as 350C) and microscopy data that can elucidate factors that might contribute to magnesite formation. The experimental studies were conducted over a range of temperature, pressure, pH, and initial Mg(HCO3)2 concentration to map out the specific solution phase conditions which result in nucleation of magnesite in aqueous solution saturated with scCO2.

  10. Pore-scale supercritical CO2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun; Zhou, Quanlin; Oostrom, Mart; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Mehta, Hardeep

    2017-02-01

    Recently, both core- and pore-scale imbibition experiments have shown non-equilibrium dissolution of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and a prolonged depletion of residual scCO2. In this study, pore-scale scCO2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions were investigated using a two-dimensional heterogeneous micromodel and a novel fluorescent water dye with a sensitive pH range between 3.7 and 6.5. Drainage experiments were conducted at 9 MPa and 40 °C by injecting scCO2 into the sandstone-analogue pore network initially saturated by water without dissolved CO2 (dsCO2). During the experiments, time-lapse images of dye intensity, reflecting water pH, were obtained. These images show non-uniform pH in individual pores and pore clusters, with average pH levels gradually decreasing with time. Further analysis on selected pores and pore clusters shows that (1) rate-limited mass transfer prevails with slowly decreasing pH over time when the scCO2-water interface area is low with respect to the volume of water-filled pores and pore clusters, (2) fast scCO2 dissolution and phase equilibrium occurs when scCO2 bubbles invade into water-filled pores, significantly enhancing the area-to-volume ratio, and (3) a transition from rate-limited to diffusion-limited mass transfer occurs in a single pore when a medium area-to-volume ratio is prevalent. The analysis also shows that two fundamental processes - scCO2 dissolution at phase interfaces and diffusion of dsCO2 at the pore scale (10-100 μm) observed after scCO2 bubble invasion into water-filled pores without pore throat constraints - are relatively fast. The overall slow dissolution of scCO2 in the millimeter-scale micromodel can be attributed to the small area-to-volume ratios that represent pore-throat configurations and characteristics of phase interfaces. This finding is applicable for the behavior of dissolution at pore, core, and field scales when water-filled pores and pore clusters of varying size are surrounded

  11. Development of a Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Heterogeneous Catalysis in Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiro Yokoyama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel type of high-pressure membrane reactor has been developed for hydrogenation in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2. The main objectives of the design of the reactor are the separate feeding of hydrogen and substrate in scCO2 for safe reactions in a continuous flow process, and to reduce the reaction time. By using this new reactor, hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde into hydrocinnamaldehyde has been successfully carried out with 100% selectivity at 50 °C in 10 MPa (H2: 1 MPa, CO2: 9 MPa with a flow rate of substrate ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 mL/min.

  12. 3-D loaded scaffolds obtained by supercritical CO2 assisted process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardea, S.; Reverchon, E.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, a supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) drying process for the formation of 3-D PVDF-HFP loaded scaffolds was tested. Experiments at pressures ranging between 150 and 250 bar and at temperatures ranging between 35 and 55°C were performed. The PVDF-HFP- acetone-ethanol solution at 15% w/w polymer was selected as the base case. The drug (amoxicillin) concentration was varied from 20 to 30% w/w with respect to PVDF-HFP. SC- CO2 drying process was confirmed to be a valid alternative to generate loaded structures; indeed, scaffolds characterized by nanometric networks (with mean pore diameter of about 300 nm) with a homogeneous drug distribution were obtained. Drug controlled release experiments were also performed and a quasi-zero order release kinetic was observed.

  13. High-pressure Phase Equilibria for Binary Ethanol System Containing Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    High-pressure phase behavior of supercritical (SC) CO2+ethanol system was investigated at 333.2 K, 348.2 K, 353.2 K, 368.2 K, 413.2 K and 453.2 K and pressure from 2.0 MPa to 14.3 MPa. The measurement was carried out in a cylindrical autoclave with a moveable piston and a window for adjustment and observation of phase equilibria at given T and p. The samples were taken from two coexisting phases and were analyzed to obtain their compositions. It is shown that the solubility of SC CO2 in ethanol increases drastically with pressures at the given temperature, but the content of ethanol in CO2-rich phase increase faintly.

  14. Preparation of Porous Biodegradable Polymer and Its Nanocomposites by Supercritical CO2 Foaming for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 as an alternative to conventional methods in the preparation of porous biodegradable polymer and polymer/nanocomposites for tissue engineering has attracted increasing interest in recent years due to the absence of using organic solvents and the ability to incorporate thermosensitive biologicals without loss of bioactivity. Additionally, scCO2 can exert a high level of control over porosity and morphology of scaffolds by tuning the processing parameters. This paper describes the newly achievements on the preparation of porous polymer materials using scCO2 foaming technology with focus on the porous biodegradable materials and its nanocomposites relevant to tissue engineering.

  15. Drug loading of polymer implants by supercritical CO2 assisted impregnation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeau, M; Thomassin, J-M; Tassaing, T; Jérôme, C

    2015-07-10

    Drug loaded implants also called drug-eluting implants have proven their benefits over simple implants. Among the developed manufacturing processes, the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) assisted impregnation has attracted growing attention to load Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients into polymer implants since it enables to recover a final implant free of any solvent residue and to operate under mild temperature which is suitable for processing with thermosensitive drugs. This paper is a review of the state-of-the-art and the application of the scCO2 assisted impregnation process to prepare drug-eluting implants. It introduces the process and presents its advantages for biomedical applications. The influences of the characteristics of the implied binary systems and of the experimental conditions on the drug loading are described. Then, the various current applications of this process for manufacturing drug-eluting implants are reviewed. Finally, the new emerging variations of this process are described.

  16. Impregnation of pet films and PHB granules with curcumin in supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. S. Herek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of dyeing poly(ethylene terephthalate - PET films at 50, 60 and 65ºC and poly(hydroxybutyrate - PHB granules at 60, 70 and 80ºC using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent was studied by DSC, TGA analysis and measurements of shrinkage to determine the morphological modifications caused by the scCO2 treatment of these materials. A comparison of the effects of annealing both polymers in scCO2 provided evidence that PHB had plasticization activity due to its crystallinity and that PET favored the dyeing process at high pressure when its temperature was raised to close to the Tg value. DSC and TGA measurements were obtained for all the samples. The DSC results showed that there was no significant structural change and the TGA data showed that thermal stability was not affected in the samples analyzed.

  17. [Preparation of microparticles of SCF-CO2 extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza by RESS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuai; Lei, Zheng-Jie; Huang, Dong-Yi; Zhang, Zhong-Yi

    2008-09-01

    Application of rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) in preparing micropaticles of SCF-CO2 extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza. The mixture which was composed of beta-cyclodextrin and SCF-CO2 extraction of S. miltiorrhiza with proportion 8:1 by weight, was granulated by RESS. The characteristics of the resululting particles were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the assay of salviol IIA in particles which was determinated by HPLC. The resulting particles were jacinth and photomicrograph produced by SEM showed that the morphology were silkiness and rugosity globular, the size distribution between 2 and 80 microm, and the contents of salviol IIA was 0.54%. The RESS method is applicable for preparing microparticles of SCF-CO2 extraction of S. miltiorrhiza and low operating temperature, simple processing, and no environmental pollution, and no residual solvent.

  18. New Class of Amphiphiles Designed for Use in Water-in-Supercritical CO2 Microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagisaka, Masanobu; Ogiwara, Shunsuke; Ono, Shinji; James, Craig; Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Mohamed, Azmi; Rogers, Sarah E; Heenan, Richard K; Yan, Ci; Peach, Jocelyn Alice; Eastoe, Julian

    2016-11-29

    Water-in-supercritical CO2 microemulsions formed using the hybrid F-H surfactant sodium 1-oxo-1-[4-(perfluorohexyl)phenyl]hexane-2-sulfonate, FC6-HC4, have recently been shown to have the highest water-solubilizing power ever reported. FC6-HC4 demonstrated the ability to outperform not only other surfactants but also other FCm-HCn analogues containing different fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon chain lengths (Sagisaka, M. et al. Langmuir 2015, 31, 7479-7487). With the aim of clarifying the key structural features of this surfactant, this study examined the phase behavior and water/supercritical CO2 aggregate formation of 1-oxo-1-[4-(perfluorohexyl)phenyl]hexane (Nohead FC6-HC4), which is an FC6-HC4 analogue but now, interestingly, without the sulfonate headgroup. Surprisingly, Nohead FC6-HC4, which would not normally be identified as a classic surfactant, yielded transparent single-phase W/CO2 microemulsions with polar cores able to solubilize a water-soluble dye, even at pressures and temperatures so low as to approach the critical point of CO2 (e.g., ∼100 bar at 35 °C). High-pressure small-angle scattering (SANS) measurements revealed the transparent phases to consist of ellipsoidal nanodroplets of water. The morphology of these droplets was shown to be dependent on the pressure, Nohead FC6-HC4 concentration, and water-to-surfactant molar ratio. Despite having almost the same structure as Nohead FC6-HC4, analogues containing both shorter and longer hydrocarbons were unable to form W/CO2 microemulsion droplets. This shows the importance of the role of the hydrocarbon chain in the stabilization of W/CO2 microemulsions. A detailed examination of the mechanism of Nohead FC6-HC4 adsorption onto the water surface suggests that the hexanoyl group protrudes into the aqueous core, allowing for association between the carbonyl group and water.

  19. Particle seeding enhances interconnectivity in polymeric scaffolds foamed using supercritical CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Niki J; Bridson, Rachel H; Leeke, Gary A; Grover, Liam M

    2010-03-01

    Foaming using supercritical CO(2) is a well-known process for the production of polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering. However, this method typically leads to scaffolds with low pore interconnectivity, resulting in insufficient mass transport and a heterogeneous distribution of cells. In this study, microparticulate silica was added to the polymer during processing and the effects of this particulate seeding on the interconnectivity of the pore structure and pore size distribution were investigated. Scaffolds comprising polylactide and a range of silica contents (0-50 wt.%) were produced by foaming with supercritical CO(2). Scaffold structure, pore size distributions and interconnectivity were assessed using X-ray computed microtomography. Interconnectivity was also determined through physical measurements. It was found that incorporation of increasing quantities of silica particles increased the interconnectivity of the scaffold pore structure. The pore size distribution was also reduced through the addition of silica, while total porosity was found to be largely independent of silica content. Physical measurements and those derived from X-ray computed microtomography were comparable. The conclusion drawn was that the architecture of foamed polymeric scaffolds can be advantageously manipulated through the incorporation of silica microparticles. The findings of this study further establish supercritical fluid foaming as an important tool in scaffold production and show how a previous limitation can be overcome.

  20. Assembling Metal-Organic Frameworks in Ionic Liquids and Supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingxing; Zhang, Jianling; Han, Buxing

    2016-10-06

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ) are both considered to be green solvents with tunable properties. Recently, studies of the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in the presence of ILs and scCO2 has become a burgeoning direction in chemistry and materials science. ILs have been shown to be ideal media for the synthesis of a variety of MOFs owing to their unique properties including the ability to dissolve a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds and flexible designability. scCO2 has adjustable solvent power and excellent mass-transfer characteristics that offer the opportunity to replace organic solvents for MOF activation, MOF aerogel synthesis, and MOF construction. More interestingly, the simultaneous utilization of IL and scCO2 can combine the advantages of the two liquids, which provides novel routes for the fabrication of MOF structures. This review describes the advances in MOF synthesis in ILs, scCO2 , and IL/scCO2 systems. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Supercritical CO2 Foaming of Radiation Cross-Linked Isotactic Polypropylene in the Presence of TAIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Guang Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the maximum foaming temperature window is only about 4 °C for supercritical CO2 (scCO2 foaming of pristine polypropylene, it is important to raise the melt strength of polypropylene in order to more easily achieve scCO2 foaming. In this work, radiation cross-linked isotactic polypropylene, assisted by the addition of a polyfunctional monomer (triallylisocyanurate, TAIC, was employed in the scCO2 foaming process in order to understand the benefits of radiation cross-linking. Due to significantly enhanced melt strength and the decreased degree of crystallinity caused by cross-linking, the scCO2 foaming behavior of polypropylene was dramatically changed. The cell size distribution, cell diameter, cell density, volume expansion ratio, and foaming rate of radiation-cross-linked polypropylene under different foaming conditions were analyzed and compared. It was found that radiation cross-linking favors the foamability and formation of well-defined cell structures. The optimal absorbed dose with the addition of 2 wt % TAIC was 30 kGy. Additionally, the foaming temperature window was expanded to about 8 °C, making the handling of scCO2 foaming of isotactic polypropylene much easier.

  2. Features of the supercritical CO2-assisted immobilization of fluorinated tetraphenylporphyrins into tetrafluoroethylene copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shershnev, I. V.; Cherkasova, A. V.; Kopylov, A. S.; Glagolev, N. N.; Bragina, N. A.; Solov'eva, A. B.

    2017-07-01

    The immobilization of fluorinated tetraphenylporphyrins (FTPPs) into tetrafluoroethylene copolymers (fluoroplast F-42 and MF-4SK, a perfluorinated sulfonic acid cation exchanger in H+-form) is conducted in supercritical CO2 (scCO2). The effects the conditions of immobilization (the temperature and pressure of scCO2, reaction time, and the addition of cosolvents) and the structure of the carrier polymer have on the content of porphyrin in these polymers is studied. The porphyrin-loaded polymer systems are shown to exhibit photosensitizing activity in anthracene and cholesterol oxidation in scCO2. Under conditions of photocatalysis, chemical and functional stability is a feature of only MF-4SK polymer systems; this is attributed to the formation of protonated forms of the porphyrins and their interaction with SO3 --groups of the polymer (an ion exchange process), which prevents leaching of the FTPP from the polymer matrix. The photocatalytic process actually occurs inside the matrix of the perfluorinated copolymer, with the protonated form of the porphyrin acting as a photosensitizer. The rate constant of anthracene photooxidation in the presence of FTPP-loaded MF-4SK films in scCO2 is found to pass through a maximum as a function of the porphyrin content and the polymer film thickness. The use of such catalytic systems for cholesterol photooxidation in scCO2 is shown to produce a virtual monoproduct (yield, 10%): 6-formyl-B-norcholestane-3,5-diol, a compound with high biological activity.

  3. Amphiphilic conetworks as activating carriers for the enhancement of enzymatic activity in supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Nico; Bannwarth, Willi; Tiller, Joerg C

    2008-09-01

    Enzymatic reactions in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) represent a way of combining the advantages of biocatalysis with the environmental benign nature of scCO2 as a solvent. Here we demonstrate that activities of enzymes in scCO2 can be greatly enhanced by incorporating them into amphiphilic conetworks (APCNs), a novel type of enzyme support. Two sets of hydrophilic/scCO2-philic APCNs, poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate)-linked by-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PHEA-l-PDMS) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate)-linked by-perfluoropolyether (PHEA-l-PFPE), were prepared and loaded with the synthetically relevant lipase from Rhizomucor miehei. The effect of the APCNs' composition on the amount of the absorbed lipase was studied. It is observed that both sets of lipase-loaded APCNs enhance the catalytic activity of the enzyme in scCO2. The chemical nature of the scCO2-philic phase as well as the conetworkscomposition greatly influences the activity of the lipase in the conetworks. Activities obtained with PFPE-basedAPCNS were up to 10-fold higher than those obtained with PDMS-based conetworks. The highest specific activity measured corresponds to a 2,000-fold activation compared to the lyophilized enzyme powder. This activity is 10 times higher than the specific activity of the lipase immobilized on an optimized commercial carrier.

  4. The Role of H2O in the Carbonation of Forsterite in Supercritical CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Hu, Jian Z.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Rosso, Kevin M.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Wang, Chong M.; Sears, Jesse A.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hoyt, David W.

    2011-07-01

    The water concentration dependence of forsterite carbonation in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at 80°C and 76 bars was investigated by a combination of NMR, XRD, TEM and XPS. Reaction products were not detected using scCO2 alone without added H2O. When trace amounts of water were included, limited reaction was observed. Below saturation, reaction products were a mixture of partially hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonates and hydroxylated silica species that were mainly in an amorphous state, forming a non-resolved layer on the forsterite surface. At water concentrations above saturation, where forsterite was in contact with both a CO2-saturated aqueous fluid and a water-saturated scCO2 fluid, solid reaction products were magnesite (MgCO3) and an amorphous polymerized SiO2 dominated by Q4, and to a lesser extent by Q3 silica coordination. Formation of these phases implies H2O initially bound in precursor hydrated/hydroxylated reaction products was liberated, inducing further reaction. Hence, for a given fluid/mineral ratio there is a water threshold above which a significant portion of the water serves in a catalytic role where more extensive carbonation reaction occurs. Defining the role of water, even in low water content environments, is therefore critical to determining the long term impact of CO2 reactivity in the subsurface.

  5. Supercritical CO2-based solvents in next generation micro- electronics processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XiaoGang; Keith P.JOHNSTON

    2007-01-01

    Large amount of chemicals and highly purified-water are needed in microelectronic manufacture. The ability of solutions to penetrate tiny spaces will become significantly more challenging as the feature size of semiconductor devices decreases to nanoscale dimensions and the functional complexity of integrated circuitries (ICs) ever increases. Supercritical fluids (SCFs) possess a unique combination of properties (no surface tension and gas-like viscosity) that can potentially be exploited for application in microelectronics manufacturing and processing in response to needs for material-compatible cleaning systems, small-dimension developing solvents, and low chemical-use processes. Recent microelectronics processes for cleaning and rinsing of patterned porous low-k dielectrics and drying of photoresist in CO2-based solvents are the main focus of this review. Additional topics in supercritical fluid processing include spin coating of photoresists, development with nanoscale dimensions, metal deposition and silylation.

  6. Designed polar cosolvent-modified supercritical CO2 removing caffeine from and retaining catechins in green tea powder using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Jong; Wu, Jia-Jiuan; Chiu, Yung-Ho; Lai, Cheng-Yung; Chang, Chieh-Ming J

    2007-10-31

    This study examines cosolvent-modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) to remove caffeine from and to retain catechins in green tea powder. The response surface method was adopted to determine the optimal operation conditions in terms of the extraction efficiencies and concentration factors of caffeine and catechins during the extractions. When SC-CO2 was used at 333 K and 300 bar, 91.5% of the caffeine was removed and 80.8% of catechins were retained in the tea: 3600 g of carbon dioxide was used in the extraction of 4 g of tea soaked with 1 g of water. Under the same extraction conditions, 10 g of water was added to decaffeination increased the concentrations of caffeine in the SC-CO2 extracts at 353 K.

  7. Advance in Polymer Modifications by Supercritical CO2%超临界CO2在聚合物改性中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丰; 张子勇

    2003-01-01

      综述了超临界CO2在聚合物改性中的研究进展。用超临界CO2作为介质进行聚合物改性的途径包括:挤出共混、聚合共混、与小分子复合、接枝、交联以及表面改性等。采用不同的改性方法,可制备具有各种不同性能的高分子材料。超临界CO2作为一种绿色反应介质,将在聚合物改性方面发挥巨大的作用。%  Advance in polymer modifications by supercritical CO2 was reviewed. The methods of polymer modifications by using supercritical CO2 medium include the blend by extruding or impregnating, composite with small molecules, cross-linking, grafting and surface refinement and so on. Various different ways were used to prepare polymer materials with special properties. Supercritical CO2, as a green medium, should play an important role in the polymer modifications.

  8. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  9. Swelling kinetics and impregnation of PLA with thymol under supercritical CO2 conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Stoja L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was aimed to study swelling kinetics of polylactic acid (PLA and its impregnation with thymol in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 medium. The influences of temperature and soaking time on the swelling kinetics and impregnation yield of PLA cylindrical disc and film were investigated. Swelling experiments were performed in a high pressure view cell at 10 MPa and temperatures of 40°C, 60°C and 75°C for 2 to 24 h. On the basis of swelling kinetics, pressure of 10 MPa and temperature of 40°C were chosen for supercritical solvent impregnation (SSI of the PLA samples during 2 to24 h. The highest swelling extent was observed for the PLA monolith after 24 h treatment with pure scCO2 (7.5% and scCO2 with thymol (118.3%. It was shown that sufficiently high amount of thymol can be loaded into both PLA monolith and film using SSI after only 2 h (10.0% and 6.6%, respectively. Monolith and film of PLA impregnated with thymol could be suitable for active food packaging and sterile medical disposables.

  10. Silver nanoparticles generated by pulsed laser ablation in supercritical CO2 medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmudah, Siti; Sato, Takayuki; Wahyudiono; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) has been widely employed in industrial and biological applications and in other fields. The environmental conditions in which PLA is conducted are important parameters that affect both the solid particle cloud and the deposition produced by the plume. In this work, the generation of nanoparticles (NPs) has been developed by performing PLA of silver (Ag) plates in a supercritical CO2 medium. Ag NPs were successfully generated by allowing the selective generation of clusters. Laser ablation was performed with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm under various pressures and temperatures of CO2 medium. On the basis of the experimental result, both surface of the irradiated Ag plate and structure of Ag NPs were significantly affected by the changes in supercritical CO2 pressure and temperature. With increasing irradiation pressure, plume deposited in the surrounding crater created by the ablation was clearly observed. In Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) the image of the generated Ag NPs on the silicon wafer and the morphology of Ag particles were basically a sphere-like structure. Ag particles contain NPs with large-varied diameter ranging from 5 nm to 1.2 μm. The bigger Ag NPs melted during the ablation process and then ejected smaller spherical Ag NPs, which formed nanoclusters attached on the molten Ag NPs. The smaller Ag NPs were also formed around the bigger Ag NPs. Based on the results, this new method can also be used to obtain advanced nano-structured materials.

  11. Partitioning of Organic Compounds into Supercritical CO2 in Depleted Oil Reservoirs - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burant, A.; Lowry, G. V.; Karamalidis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Depleted oil reservoirs, with enhanced oil recovery, will be one of the first adopters of carbon capture and storage (CCS), which is a promising mitigation strategy for global climate change. The large scale implementation of CCS mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO2 injection, especially in regards to potential leakage of the stored CO2. Organics, in the residual oil and dissolved in the brine, can partition into supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) and move with that phase if it leaks. This review presents an overview of the thermodynamic models and trends in experimental partitioning data needed to understand what compounds may be expected to move with the sc-CO2. There are two main types of thermodynamic models used for predicting the solubility of organic compounds in sc-CO2, equations of state and quantitative structure activity relationships. Both can predict the partitioning behavior of one compound in sc-CO2, however only equations of state can predict solubility in multicomponent systems. In addition, equations of state have been developed to determine the effect of electrolytes on the partitioning behavior of organics dissolved in brines. There are three main trends in the partitioning behavior of organics in sc-CO2: Pure phase solubility follows trends in vapor pressure; compounds with higher volatility have higher solubility in sc-CO2. Second, the partitioning from water to sc-CO2 follows trends in Henry's constants, which follow the relative solubility of a compound in both the sc-CO2 and aqueous phases. Thirdly, the solubility of a compound can be enhanced by the presence of another; highly volatile compounds enhance the solubility of compounds with lower volatility. Finally, the review presents the gaps in experimental research that can be used to improve the modeling of the partitioning behavior of organics in sc-CO2, specifically in regards to co-solvency effects and the effects of electrolytes on the partitioning of dissolved

  12. Breaking it into pieces for storage: An engineering approach to enhancing supercritical CO2 entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Bryan, C. R.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration and storage (CSS) is a possible option for the mitigation of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. Residual trapping of a non-wetting liquid phase in a brine reservoir is considered as an important mechanism for long-term CSS, because similar processes have been observed in a variety of fields such as oil recovery and groundwater remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids. Residual trapping can potentially relax stringent requirements for the integrity of cap rocks and allow utilization of open or dipping structures for carbon storage. Here, we propose an engineering approach to enhancing the immobilization of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) in a brine reservoir. This approach is based on the concept of viscous instability of immiscible flow and the dynamics of the movement of scCO2 ganglia in porous media. The movement of a non-wetting ganglion is inversely dependent on its dimension: the smaller the ganglion, the more difficult to move. The critical size (lc) for a ganglion to become immobilized, given its buoyancy, is determined by: lc=2βσ/(rkrw Δρg) where β is the geometric factor characterizing the grain size and pore neck radius (r), σ is the interfacial tension between scCO2 and water, rkrw is the relative permeability to water, Δρ is the density difference between water and scCO2, and g is the gravity. This suggests that, by dispersing injected scCO2 into small ganglia, we can potentially immobilize the injected scCO2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia could be accomplished by controlling the injection rate and the alternating injection of scCO2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the scCO2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces, small enough for immobilization, through viscous instability: v>(2π2 r2 krkrw Δρ2 g2)/(μβ2 σ) where v is the velocity of the advancement of scCO2 front, k is the permeability of water and μ is the viscosity of

  13. Supercritical extraction of carqueja essential oil: experiments and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. F. Vargas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera is a native Brazilian plant which has medicinal properties. In this work a method of supercritical extraction was studied to obtain the popularly essential oil from Baccharis trimera, known as carqueja. The aim was to obtain experimental data and to compare two mathematical models used in the simulation of carqueja (Baccharis trimera oil extraction by supercritical CO2. The two mathematical models are based on mass transfer. One of the models, proposed by Reverchon, is solved numerically and requires two adjustable parameters from the experimental data. The other model chosen is the one proposed by Sovová. This model is solved analytically and requires four adjustable parameters. Numerical results are presented and discussed for the adjusted parameters. The experimental results are obtained in a temperature range of 313.15 K to 343.15 K at 90 bar. The extraction yield of carqueja essential oil using supercritical carbon dioxide ranged between 1.72 % (w/w at 323.15 K and 2.34 % (w/w at 343.15 K, 90 bar with a CO2 flow rate of 3.34.10-8 m³/s for a 0.0015 kg sample of Baccharis trimera.

  14. [Study on condition for extraction of arctiin from fruits of Arctium lappa using supercritical fluid extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-hong; Liu, Ben

    2006-08-01

    To study the feasibility of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for arctiin from the fruits of Arctium lappa. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC, optimum extraction conditions were studied by orthogonal tests. The optimal extraction conditions were: pressure 40 MPa, temperature 70 degrees C, using methanol as modifier carrier at the rate of 0.55 mL x min(-1), static extraction time 5 min, dynamic extraction 30 min, flow rate of CO2 2 L x min(-1). SFE has the superiority of adjustable polarity, and has the ability of extracting arctiin.

  15. CFD analysis of supercritical CO2 used as HTF in a solar tower receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, M. I.; Fernández-Reche, J.

    2016-05-01

    The relative cost of a solar receiver can be minimized by the selection of an appropriate heat transfer fluid capable of achieving high receiver efficiencies. In a conventional central receiver system, the concentrated solar energy is transferred from the receiver tube walls to the heat transfer fluid (HTF), which passes through a heat exchanger to generate steam for a Rankine cycle. Thus, higher working fluid temperature is associated with greater efficiency in receiver and power cycle. Emerging receiver designs that can enable higher efficiencies using advanced power cycles, such as supercritical CO2 (s-CO2) closed-loop Brayton cycles, include direct heating of s-CO2 in tubular receiver designs capable of withstanding high internal fluid pressures (around 20 MPa) and temperatures (900 K). Due to the high pressures required and the presence of moving components installed in pipelines (ball-joints and/or flexible connections), the use of s-CO2 presents many technical challenges due to the compatibility of seal materials and fluid leakages of the moving connections. These problems are solved in solar tower systems because the receiver is fixed. In this regard, a preliminary analysis of a tubular receiver with s-CO2 as HTF has been developed using the design of a molten-salt receiver which was previously tested at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA). Therefore, a simplified CFD model has been carried out in this study in order to analyze the feasibility of s-CO2 as HTF in solar towers. Simulation results showed that the heat gained by s-CO2 was around 75% greater than the one captured by molten salts (fluid inlet temperature of 715 K), but at a pressure range of 7.5-9.7 MPa. Thus, the use of s-CO2 as HTF in solar tower receivers appears to be a promising alternative, taking into account both the operating conditions required and their maintenance cost.

  16. Fayalite Dissolution and Siderite Formation in Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Kovarik, Libor; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Arey, Bruce W.; Tucek, Jiri; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-11-25

    Olivines, a significant constituent of basaltic rocks, have the potential to immobilize permanently CO2 after it is injected in the deep subsurface, due to carbonation reactions occurring between CO2 and the host rock. To investigate the reactions of fayalitic olivine with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and formation of mineral carbonates, experiments were conducted at temperatures of 35 °C to 80 °C, 90 atm pressure and anoxic conditions. For every temperature, the dissolution of fayalite was examined both in the presence of liquid water and H2O-saturated scCO2. The experiments were conducted in a high pressure batch reactor at reaction time extending up to 85 days. The newly formed products were characterized using a comprehensive suite of bulk and surface characterization techniques X-ray diffraction, Transmission/Emission Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Focused Ion Beam, and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Siderite with rhombohedral morphology was formed at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 80 °C in the presence of liquid water and scCO2. In H2O-saturated scCO2, the formation of siderite was confirmed only at high temperature (80 °C). Characterization of reacted samples in H2O-saturated scCO2 with high resolution TEM indicated that siderite formation initiated inside voids created during the initial steps of fayalite dissolution. Later stages of fayalite dissolution result in the formation of siderite in layered vertical structures, columns or pyramids with a rhombus base morphology.

  17. Effect of supercritical CO2 on the morphology and fluorescent behavior of fluorinated polyylidenefluorenes derivative/graphene oxide nanohybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jing; Zheng, Shijun; Wang, Xiaobo; Yang, Hongxia; Loos, Katja; Xu, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Fluorinated polyylidenefluorenes derivative, poly [(9-ylidene-{2-tetradecyloxy-5-tetrafluorophthalimide-phenyl}fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(1,4-phenyl)] (PFFB)/graphene oxide (GO) nanohybrids (SC-PFFB/GO) were successfully fabricated via a facile method with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (SC CO2).

  18. Batch production of micron size particles from poly(ethylene glycol) using supercritical CO2 as a processing solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalawade, Sameer P.; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, L. P. B. M.

    2007-01-01

    The major advantage of using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a solvent in polymer processing is an enhancement in the free volume of a polymer due to dissolved CO2, which causes a considerable reduction in the viscosity. This allows spraying the polymer melt at low temperatures to produce micr

  19. Effect of supercritical CO2 on the morphology and fluorescent behavior of fluorinated polyylidenefluorenes derivative/graphene oxide nanohybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jing; Zheng, Shijun; Wang, Xiaobo; Yang, Hongxia; Loos, Katja; Xu, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Fluorinated polyylidenefluorenes derivative, poly [(9-ylidene-{2-tetradecyloxy-5-tetrafluorophthalimide-phenyl}fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(1,4-phenyl)] (PFFB)/graphene oxide (GO) nanohybrids (SC-PFFB/GO) were successfully fabricated via a facile method with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (SC CO2).

  20. Batch production of micron size particles from poly(ethylene glycol) using supercritical CO2 as a processing solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalawade, Sameer P.; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, L. P. B. M.

    The major advantage of using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a solvent in polymer processing is an enhancement in the free volume of a polymer due to dissolved CO2, which causes a considerable reduction in the viscosity. This allows spraying the polymer melt at low temperatures to produce

  1. Application of a phosphazene derivative as a flame retardant for cotton fabric using conventional method and supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional pad-dry-cure (non-scCO2) and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) application methods were investigated to study the effectiveness of a phosphazene derivative as a flame retardant on cotton fabric. 1,1',4,5-tetrahydrotrispiro[1,3,2-diazaphosphole-2,2'-[1,3,5,2,4,6]triazatriphosphinine-4...

  2. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus in raw salmon with supercritical CO2 using experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica CUPPINI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering the microbial safety of consumption of raw foods (Asian food, this study aimed to explore the inactivation S. aureus in raw salmon by supercritical CO2 treatment (SC-CO2. For this purpose, experimental design methodology was employed as a tool to evaluate the effects of pressure (120-220 bar, the depressurization rate (10 to 100 bar.min–1 and the salmon:CO2 mass relation (1:0.2 to 1:1.0. It was observed that the pressure and the depressurization rate was statistically significant, i.e. the higher the system pressure and depressurization rate, the greater the microbial inactivation. The salmon: CO2 mass relation did not influence the S. aureus inactivation in raw salmon. There was a total reduction in S. aureus with 225 bar, a depressurizing rate of 100 bar.min–1, a salmon: CO2 mass relation of 1:0.6, for 2 hours at 33 °C.

  3. In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Forsterite Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, John S.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Wang, Zheming; Joly, Alan G.; Sklarew, Deborah S.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2011-07-19

    Carbonation reactions are central to the prospect of CO2 trapping by mineralization in geologic reservoirs. In contrast to the relevant aqueous-mediated reactions, little is known about the propensity for carbonation in the long-term partner fluid: water-containing supercritical carbon dioxide (‘wet’ scCO2). We employed in situ mid-infrared spectroscopy to follow the reaction of a model silicate mineral (forsterite, Mg2SiO4) for 24 hr with wet scCO2 at 50°C and 180 atm, using water concentrations corresponding to 0%, 55%, 95%, and 136% saturation. Results show a dramatic dependence of reactivity on water concentration and the presence of liquid water on the forsterite particles. Exposure to neat scCO2 showed no detectable carbonation reaction. At 55% and 95% water saturation, a liquid-like thin water film was detected on the forsterite particles; less than 1% of the forsterite transformed, mostly within the first 3 hours of exposure to the fluid. At 136% saturation, where an (excess) liquid water film approximately several nanometers thick was intentionally condensed on the forsterite, the carbonation reaction proceeded continuously for 24 hr with 10% to 15% transformation. Our collective results suggest constitutive links between water concentration, water film formation, reaction rate and extent, and reaction products in wet scCO2.

  4. Silicate Carbonation Processes in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2 Fluids: Implications for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Q. R.; Schaef, T.; Thompson, C.; Loring, J. S.; Windisch, C. F.; Bowden, M. E.; Arey, B. W.; McGrail, P.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change is viewed by many as an anthropogenic phenomenon that could be mitigated through a combination of conservation efforts, alternative energy sources, and the development of technologies capable of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Continued increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected over the next decade, due to developing nations and growing populations. One economically favorable option for managing CO2 involves subsurface storage in deep basalt formations. The silicate minerals and glassy mesostasis basalt components act as metal cation sources, reacting with the CO2 to form carbonate minerals. Most prior work on mineral reactivity in geologic carbon sequestration settings involves only aqueous dominated reactions. However, in most sequestration scenarios, injected CO2 will reside as a buoyant fluid in contact with the sealing formation (caprock) and slowly become water bearing. Comparatively little laboratory research has been conducted on reactions occurring between minerals in the host rock and the wet scCO2. In this work, we studied the carbonation of wollastonite [CaSiO3] exposed to variably wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at a range of temperatures (50, 55 and 70 °C) and pressures (90,120 and 160 bar) in order to gain insight into reaction processes. Mineral transformation reactions were followed by two novel in situ high pressure techniques, including x-ray diffraction that tracked the rate and extents of wollastonite conversion to calcite. Increased dissolved water concentrations in the scCO2 resulted in increased carbonation approaching ~50 wt. %. Development of thin water films on the mineral surface were directly observed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy and indirectly with 18O isotopic labeling techniques (Raman spectroscopy). The thin water films were determined to be critical for facilitating carbonation processes in wet scCO2. Even in extreme low water conditions, the IR technique detected the formation of

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction of mercury species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, G P; Pacey, G E

    2003-12-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction was used to recover organic and inorganic mercury species. Variations in pressure, water, methanol, and chelator create methods that allowed separation of inorganic from organic mercury species. When extracted using a compromised set of extraction conditions, the order of extraction was methyl, phenyl and inorganic mercury. For the individually optimized conditions, quantitative recoveries were observed. Level as low as 20 ppb were extracted and then determined using ICP.

  6. Supercritical fluid extraction and chromatographic analysis (HRGC-FID and HRGC-MS) of Lupinus spp. alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Nossack,Ana C.; Janete H.Y. VILEGAS; Baer,Dietrich von; Fernando M. LANÇAS

    2000-01-01

    The alkaloid extracts from Lupinus spp., obtained by conventional methods (maceration/sonication - solid phase extraction; maceration/sonication - liquid-liquid extraction) and SFE (supercritical fluid extraction) using CO2 and modified CO2 (CO2/MeOH, CO2/EtOH, CO2/iPrOH and CO2/H2O) were analysed by HRGC-FID (high resolution gas chromatography - flame ionization detector) and HRGC-MS (high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry). The HRGC-FID quantitative analyses were performed w...

  7. Supercritical CO2-driven,periodic patterning on one-dimensionals carbon nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One-dimensional carbon nano-materials,in particular carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs),are of scientific and technological interest due to their satisfactory properties and ability to serve as templates for directed assembly.In this work,linear high density polyethylene (PE) was periodically decorated on CNTs and CNFs using a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)antisolvent-induced polymer epitaxy (SAIPE) method,leading to nano-hybrid shish-kebab (NHSK) structures.The formation mechanism of different morphologies of PE lamellae on CNTs and CNFs has been discussed.Palladium nanoparticles were synthesized and immobilized on the PE/CNF NHSK structure with the assistance of scCO2.The obtained hierarchical nano-hybrid architecture may find applications in microfabrication and other related fields.

  8. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil and phytosterol in supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lizhi; Llibin, Sun; Li, Jun; Qi, Liangjun; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Dianyu; Walid, Elfalleh; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2015-12-01

    The transesterification of phytosterol and soybean oil was performed using Novozym 435 in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). The transesterification reaction was conducted in soybean oil containing 5-25% phytosterol at 55-95 °C and free-water solvent. The effects of temperature, reaction time, phytosterol concentration, lipase dosage and reaction pressure on the conversion rate of transesterification were investigated. The optimal reaction conditions were the reaction temperature (85 °C), reaction time (1 h), phytosterol concentration (5%), reaction pressure (8 Mpa) and lipase dosage (1%). The highest conversion rate of 92% could be achieved under the optimum conditions. Compared with the method of lipase-catalyzed transesterification of phytosterol and soybean oil at normal pressure, the transesterification in SC-CO2 reduced significantly the reaction temperature and reaction time.

  9. Behavior of water in supercritical CO2: adsorption and capillary condensation in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Bryan, C. R.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The chemical potential of water in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) may play an important role in water adsorption, capillary condensation, and evaporation under partially saturated conditions at geologic CO2 storage sites, especially if initially anhydrous CO2 is injected. Such processes may affect residual water saturations, relative permeability, shrink/swell of clays, and colloidal transport. We have developed a thermodynamic model of water or brine film thickness as a function of water relative humidity in scCO2. The model is based on investigations of liquid water configuration in the vadose zone and uses the augmented Young-Laplace equation, which incorporates both adsorptive and capillary components. The adsorptive component is based on the concept of disjoining pressure, which reflects force per area normal to the solid and water/brine-scCO2 interfaces. The disjoining pressure includes van der Waals, electrostatic, and structural interactions. The van der Waals term includes the effects of mutual dissolution of CO2 and water in the two fluid phases on partial molar volumes, dielectric coefficients, and refractive indices. Our approach treats the two interfaces as asymmetric surfaces in terms of charge densities and electrostatic potentials. We use the disjoining pressure isotherm to evaluate the type of wetting (e.g., total or partial wetting) for common reservoir and caprock minerals and kerogen. The capillary component incorporates water activity and is applied to simple pore geometries with slits and corners. Finally, we compare results of the model to a companion study by the coauthors on measurement of water adsorption to mineral phases using a quartz-crystal microbalance. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Leaching of organic acids from macromolecular organic matter by non-supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, P.; Glombitza, C.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in underground reservoirs is discussed controversly in the scientific literature. The worldwide search for suitable storage formations also considers coal-bearing strata. CO2 is already injected into seams for enhanced recovery of coal bed methane. However, the effects of increased CO2 concentration, especially on organic matter rich formations, are rarely investigated. The injected CO2 will dissolve in the pore water, causing a decrease in pH and resulting in acidic formation waters. Huge amounts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) are chemically bound to the macromolecular matrix of sedimentary organic matter and may be liberated by hydrolysis, which is enhanced by the acidic porewater. Recent investigations outlined the importance of LMWOAs as a feedstock for microbial life in the subsurface [1]. Therefore, injection of CO2 into coal formations may result in enhanced nutrient supply for subsurface microbes. To investigate the effect of high concentrations of dissolved CO2 on the release of LMWOAs from coal we developed an inexpensive high-pressure high temperature system that allows manipulating the partial pressure of dissolved gases at pressures and temperatures up to 60 MPa and 120° C, respectively. In a reservoir vessel, gases are added to saturate the extraction medium to the desired level. Inside the extraction vessel hangs a flexible and inert PVDF sleeve (polyvinylidene fluoride, almost impermeable for gases), holding the sample and separating it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the sleeve allows for subsampling without loss of pressure. Coal samples from the DEBITS-1 well, Waikato Basin, NZ (R0 = 0.29, TOC = 30%). were extracted at 90° C and 5 MPa, either with pure or CO2-saturated water. Subsamples were taken at different time points during the extraction. The extracted LMWOAs such as formate, acetate and oxalate were analysed by ion chromatography. Yields of LMWOAs were higher with pure water than with CO2

  11. 响应面法优化烟草花超临界二氧化碳萃取工艺及香气分析%Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction of Flowers of Nicotiana tabacum by Response Surface Method and Analysis of Aroma Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘煜宇; 李仙; 念小魁; 普元柱; 郑琳

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SCFE) was optimized by response surface method (RSM) to study the utilization of flowers of Nicotiana tabacum in tobacco,spice and medicine,etc.Taking the extraction yield of flowers of Nicotiana tabacum as response value,the effects of technical conditions on the extraction yield were determined by designing experiments according to Box-Behnken Design (BBD).The volatile components in the extract were identified by GC/MS method.The results showed that:1) The optimal extraction conditions were:pressure 31.9 MPa,temperature 47.3 ℃,and time 108.5 mins.2) 28 components were identified,and their contents were determined with peak area normalization method,among them,the component with the highest content (43.81%) was 1,5,9-trimethyl-12-(1-methylethyl)-4,8,13-cyclotetradecatriene-1,3-diol.%为了研究烟草花在烟草、香料、医药等方面的应用,以响应面法对烟草花超临界CO2萃取工艺进行了优化.以烟草花萃取率为响应值,根据Box-Behnken Design(BBD)设计实验,确定各工艺条件对萃取率的影响;采用气相色谱-质谱法对萃取物挥发性成分进行分析鉴定.结果表明:①烟草花的最佳超临界CO2萃取条件为:萃取压力31.9 MPa,萃取温度47.3℃,萃取时间108.5 min.②烟草花超临界CO2提取物中共鉴定出28种化合物,其中,含量最高的是1,5,9-三甲基-12-(1-异丙基)-4,8,13-环十四碳三烯-1,3-二醇(43.81%).

  12. Supercritical fluid extraction of vapor-deposited pyrene from carbonaceous coal stack ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, R F; Vienneau, J M; Wehry, E L; Mamantov, G

    1990-11-01

    The efficiencies of extraction of vapor-deposited pyrene from a high-carbon coal stack ash by Soxhlet extraction with methanol, ultrasonic extraction with toluene, acid pretreatment and subsequent ultrasonic extraction with toluene, batch extraction with toluene, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) are compared. SFE using CO(2) or isobutane yielded extraction recoveries virtually identical with those obtained using ultrasonic or Soxhlet extraction processes. Collection of the SFE extract was performed by expansion into a solvent or onto the head of a gas chromatography (GC) column. No loss of extracted pyrene was observed upon collection of methanol-modified CO(2) SFE by expansion into methanol. Also, no loss of pure CO(2) SFE extract was observed upon collection on the head of a GC column. However, use of a methanol or toluene modifier for CO(2) SFE directly coupled to GC effected complete loss of extracted pyrene.

  13. 螺旋藻油的超临界提取及GC/MS分析%Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction and GC/MS determination of spirulina oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程霜; 崔庆新; 刘敏

    2001-01-01

    研究了超临界CO2流体萃取螺旋藻油的条件,着重研究了萃取压力、温度、萃取时间和CO2流量对油脂萃取率的影响,优化了萃取工艺条件:即萃取压力25MPa,温度40℃,时间2h,CO2流量30kg/h,并利用GC/MS分析了最佳条件下萃取的螺旋藻油成分组成.

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction: Present status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King, Jerry W.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical extraction (SFE, using primarily environmentally-benign carbon dioxide (CO2 as the extracting agent, is reviewed with respect to its present status and future use. SFE was developed for analytical application in the mid 1980’s in response to the desire to reduce the use of organic solvents in the laboratory environment and is becoming a standard method for the preparation and analysis of lipid-containing sample matrices. Currently, analytical SFE is predominately practiced in the off-line mode, using both sequential and parallel extraction modes. Depending on the instrumental configuration, the preparation of up to 24 samples can be accomplished on one instrument on a daily basis. Several other benefits can be achieved using SFE, such as the processing of thermally-sensitive analytes and rapid analyte extraction kinetics relative to extraction with liquid solvents. Examples are provided not only of the analytical SFE of oils and fats, but of volatile solutes from an array of sample types. Finally, the relevance of analytical SFE to processing with supercritical fluids (SFs is documented using examples from our own research involving a combinatorial approach to optimising processing conditions.Este artículo revisa el presente y el uso futuro de la extracción con fluidos supercríticos (SFE, principalmente dióxido de carbono (CO2 benigno para el ambiente. La extracción con fluidos supercríticos se desarrolló como aplicación analítica a mediados de los años 80 como respuesta al deseo de reducir el uso de disolventes orgánicos en el ambiente del laboratorio, y se está convirtiendo en un método estándar con respecto a la preparación y análisis de muestras conteniendo lípidos. Actualmente, la analítica de SFE es predominantemente aplicada en modo “off-line”, usando modos de extracción secuenciales y paralelos. Dependiendo de la configuración de la instrumentación, se pueden llegar a preparar diariamente

  15. MICROPOROUS PVDF-HFP-BASED POLYMER MEMBRANES FORMED FROM SUPERCRITICAL CO2 INDUCED PHASE SEPARATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Microporous poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)(PVDF-HFP)membranes following supercritical CO2 induced phase separation process were prepared using four solvents.The solid electrolytes of PVDF-HFP were formed by microporous PVDF-HFP membranes filled and swollen by a liquid electrolyte.The effect of the solvents on the morphology and structure,electrolyte absorptions and lithium ionic conductivity of the activated membranes were investigated.It was approved that all the membrane had the similar"sponge-like"and asymmetric structure when different solvent was used.As the mutual affinity between solvent and supercritical CO2 decreased,the membrane porosity and the average pore diameter increased.The PVDF-HFP membrane with porosity at 88% and pore size at 10 μm were successfully prepared.The uptake of electrolyte solution and lithium ionic conductivity could reach 487 wt% and 3.09×10-3 S/cm respectively for obtained membrane.

  16. Extraction of Tamarindus indica L. Volatile Oil by Supercritical CO2 Fluid and GC-MS Analysis of the Extract%罗望子挥发油的超临界CO2萃取及其GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峻松; 姚二民; 徐如彦; 马林

    2007-01-01

    用超临界CO2流体萃取技术(SFE-CO2),对罗望子进行了的萃取,得到罗望子萃取物.考察了萃取压力、温度、时间、粒度、CO2流量对罗望子萃取收率的影响,得到最佳萃取工艺条件:压力25Mpa、温度40℃、时间4h、粒度40目和CO2流量25 L/h,在此工艺条件下超临界CO2法得到的罗望子萃取收率为4.08%.并利用气相色谱仪-质谱仪(GC-MS)对罗望子萃取物的化学组成进行了分析鉴定,并用面积归一化法测定了各种成分的质量分数,共鉴定了48种成分,占总质量分数为98.35%,其中主要成分为:5-甲基-2(3H)-呋喃酮、丁二酸二乙酯、糠醛、十六酸、亚麻酸、5-甲基糠醛、油酸、亚油酸等.

  17. Hydrolases in supercritical CO2 and their use in a high-pressure membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Z; Habulin, M; Primozic, M

    2003-03-01

    The thermal stability and activity of enzymes in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO(2)) and near-critical propane were studied at a pressure of 300 bar in the temperature range 20-90 degrees C. Proteinase from Carica papaya was incubated in microaqueous SC CO(2) at atmospheric pressure in a nonaqueous system. Lipase stability in an aqueous medium at atmospheric pressure and in SC CO(2) as well as near-critical propane at 100 bar and 40 degrees C was studied. In order to investigate the impact of solvent on lipases, these were chosen from different sources: Pseudomonas fluorescences, Rhizpous javanicus, Rhizopus niveus and porcine pancreas. On the basis of our previous study on lipase activities in dense gases, a high-pressure continuous flat-shape membrane reactor was designed. The hydrolysis of sunflower oil in SC CO(2) was performed as a model reaction in this reactor. The reaction was catalyzed by the lipase preparation Lipolase 100T and was performed at 50 degrees C and 200 bar.

  18. High Resolution X-ray CMT Imaging of Supercritical CO2 in Porous Media: Experimental Challenges, Solutions, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, A. L.; Andersson, L.; Newell, D. L.; Carey, J. W.; Wildenschild, D.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has been proposed as a climate change mitigation strategy to limit emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from large fossil-fuel burning CO2 point sources; however, there are concerns associated with the long-term stability of a mobile subsurface CO2 plume. Capillary trapping of supercritical CO2 (scCO2), wherein the CO2 is held within the pore structure of the geologic matrix by capillary forces, is a more secure form of subsurface storage than structural trapping, which relies on an impermeable caprock to contain the buoyant CO2 plume. To understand the multiphase physics of CO2 transport, and to subsequently produce quantitative estimates of potential CO2 capillary trapping, it is necessary to study field, core, and pore-scale processes. X-ray computed microtomography (x-ray CMT) allows for three-dimensional (3D) in-situ visualization of fluid phases within and the physical structure of a porous medium at the pore-scale. We have designed and built a mobile experimental set-up capable of running at pressures up to 2000 PSI and temperatures up to 50°C, made with materials that are compatible with corrosive fluids. Our experimental procedure includes pressurizing, mixing, and separating fluids; and subsequently running immiscible drainage and imbibition flow experiments with brine and supercritical CO2. With this set-up and procedure, we successfully conducted a brine-scCO2 drainage experiment in Bentheimer sandstone at 1200 PSI and 36°C, and confirmed and quantified CO2 flow in the sandstone core via synchrotron-based x-ray CMT with a resolution of 4.65 μm at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. We have proven that we can observe, on a pore-scale basis, the movement of supercritical CO2 within a porous media. The properties of supercritical CO2 (e.g. viscosity, density, interfacial tension and solubility in brine) vary significantly with changes in pressure and temperature; consequently, precise

  19. Supercritical CO2 Cleaning System for Planetary Protection and Contamination Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Zhong, Fang; Aveline, David C.; Anderson, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Current spacecraft-compatible cleaning protocols involve a vapor degreaser, liquid sonication, and alcohol wiping. These methods are not very effective in removing live and dead microbes from spacecraft piece parts of slightly complicated geometry, such as tubing and loosely fitted nuts and bolts. Contamination control practices are traditionally focused on cleaning and monitoring of particulate and oily residual. Vapor degreaser and outgassing bakeout have not been proven to be effective in removing some less volatile, hydrophilic biomolecules of significant relevance to life detection. A precision cleaning technology was developed using supercritical CO2 (SCC). SCC is used as both solvent and carrier for removing organic and particulate contaminants. Supercritical fluid, like SCC, is characterized by physical and thermal properties that are between those of the pure liquid and gas phases. The fluid density is a function of the temperature and pressure. Its solvating power can be adjusted by changing the pressure or temperature, or adding a secondary solvent such as alcohol or water. Unlike a regular organic solvent, SCC has higher diffusivities, lower viscosity, and lower surface tension. It readily penetrates porous and fibrous solids and can reach hard-to-reach surfaces of the parts with complex geometry. Importantly, the CO2 solvent does not leave any residue. The results using this new cleaning device demonstrated that both supercritical CO2 with 5% water as a co-solvent can achieve cleanliness levels of 0.01 mg/cm2 or less for contaminants of a wide range of hydrophobicities. Experiments under the same conditions using compressed Martian air mix, which consists of 95% CO2, produced similar cleaning effectiveness on the hydrophobic compounds. The main components of the SCC cleaning system are a high-pressure cleaning vessel, a boil-off vessel located downstream from the cleaning vessel, a syringe-type high-pressure pump, a heat exchanger, and a back pressure

  20. 超临界CO2萃取芫荽油树脂工艺研究%Experimental study on supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of coriander oleoresin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石华治; 刘玉平; 孙宝国; 黄明泉

    2007-01-01

    通过单因素实验和3因素4水平正交实验考察了超临界二氧化碳萃取中萃取压力、萃取温度、CO2流量对芫荽油树脂萃取率的影响,结果表明各影响因素的影响顺序为:萃取温度>萃取压力>CO2流量.在萃取时间为3h时,得出萃取的最佳工艺条件为:萃取压力18MPa、萃取温度43℃、CO2流量35L/h,此条件下芫荽油树脂的萃取率达到1.035%.

  1. Supercritical fluid extraction of lycopene from tomato processing byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzi, N L; Singh, R K; Vierling, R A; Watkins, B A

    2002-04-24

    Tomato seeds and skins acquired from the byproduct of a local tomato processing facility were studied for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of phytochemicals. The extracts were analyzed for lycopene, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol content using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection and compared to a chemically extracted control. SFEs were carried out using CO(2) at seven temperatures (32-86 degrees C) and six pressures (13.78-48.26 MPa). The effect of CO(2) flow rate and volume also was investigated. The results indicated that the percentage of lycopene extracted increased with elevated temperature and pressure until a maximum recovery of 38.8% was reached at 86 degrees C and 34.47 MPa, after which the amount of lycopene extracted decreased. Conditions for the optimum extraction of lycopene from 3 g of raw material were determined to be 86 degrees C, 34.47 MPa, and 500 mL of CO(2) at a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min. These conditions resulted in the extraction of 61.0% of the lycopene (7.19 microg lycopene/g).

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF GREEN TEA CAFFEINE REMOVAL PROCESS BY SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRACTION USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY%用响应面法优化超临界CO2脱除绿茶咖啡因工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈日春

    2011-01-01

    以咖啡因脱除率为指标,在单因素试验的基础上,利用二次正交旋转组合设计与响应面法优化超临界CO2脱除绿茶咖啡因的工艺参数,考察了萃取压力、萃取温度和萃取时间对咖啡因脱除率的影响,并确定了回归模型.结果表明:回归方程极显著,拟合性好;脱除绿茶咖啡因的最优工艺参数为茶叶含水率40%、萃取压力30 MPa、萃取温度60℃、萃取时间150 min;在最佳工艺条件下,咖啡因脱除率为87.19%.%Taking the caffeine removal rate as the index, the paper optimized the green tea caffeine removal process using quadratic-orthogonal-rotation-combination design and response surface methodology, and studied the effects of extraction pressure, extraction temperature and extraction time on the caffeine removal rate, and also determined the regression model. The results showed that the regression equation was significant and had excellent goodness of fit; the optimized conditions for removing caffeine from green tea were water content 40%,extraction pressure 30 MPa, extraction temperature 60 ℃, and extraction time 150 min; under the optimized conditions, the caffeine removal rate reached 87.19%.

  3. Study on Technology of Pistachio Oil with Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction%超临界C02萃取开心果种仁油工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳; 李朝晖

    2009-01-01

    本文探讨了超临界CO2萃取的压力、温度、流量、时间等因素对开心果种仁油萃取率的影响,确定其最佳萃取条件:萃取压力35MPa、温度40℃、CO2流量30kg/h、萃取时间120min,萃取率为47.4%.有机溶剂萃取法的萃取率为34.5%.

  4. 超临界CO2萃取玫瑰精油的优化工艺研究%Study on optimization supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technology for rose oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓丽

    2010-01-01

    探讨了超临界CO2萃取玫瑰精油的最佳工艺条件,通过单因素及正交试验确定出最佳提取工艺.试验表明:最佳萃取条件为萃取压力25 MPa、萃取温度50 ℃、原料粒度60目、CO2流量28 L/h、萃取时间90 min,萃取率为1.01%.

  5. Research on Flow Characteristics of Supercritical CO2 Axial Compressor Blades by CFD Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kazuhisa; Muto, Yasushi; Ishizuka, Takao; Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori

    A supercritical CO2 gas turbine of 20MPa is suitable to couple with the Na-cooled fast reactor since Na - CO2 reaction is mild at the outlet temperature of 800K, the cycle thermal efficiency is relatively high and the size of CO2 gas turbine is very compact. In this gas turbine cycle, a compressor operates near the critical point. The property of CO2 and then the behavior of compressible flow near the critical point changes very sharply. So far, such a behavior is not examined sufficiently. Then, it is important to clarify compressible flow near the critical point. In this paper, an aerodynamic design of the axial supercritical CO2 compressor for this system has been carried out based on the existing aerodynamic design method of Cohen1). The cycle design point was selected to achieve the maximum cycle thermal efficiency of 43.8%. For this point, the compressor design conditions were determined. They are a mass flow rate of 2035kg/s, an inlet temperature of 308K, an inlet static pressure of 8.26MPa, an outlet static pressure of 20.6MPa and a rotational speed of 3600rpm. The mean radius was constant through axial direction. The design point was determined so as to keep the diffusion factor and blade stress within the allowable limits. Number of stages and an expected adiabatic efficiency was 14 and 87%, respectively. CFD analyses by FLUENT have been done for this compressor blade. The blade model consists of one set of a guide vane, a rotor blade and a stator blade. The analyses were conducted under the assumption both of the real gas properties and also of the modified ideal gas properties. Using the real gas properties, analysis was conducted for the 14th blade, whose condition is remote from the critical point and the possibility of divergence is very small. Then, the analyses were conducted for the blade whose conditions are nearer to the critical point. Gradually, divergence of calculation was encountered. Convergence was relatively easy for the modified ideal

  6. Ultrasonic enhancement of the supercritical extraction from ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, S; Kentish, S E; Mawson, R; Ashokkumar, M

    2006-09-01

    This work examines the concurrent use of power ultrasound during the extraction of pungent compounds from a typical herb (ginger) with supercritical CO(2). A power ultrasonic transducer with an operating frequency of 20 kHz is connected to an extraction vessel and the extraction of gingerols from freeze-dried ginger particles (4-8 mm) is monitored. In the presence of ultrasound, we find that both the extraction rate and the yield increase. The higher extraction rate is attributed to disruption of the cell structures and an increase in the accessibility of the solvent to the internal particle structure, which enhances the intra-particle diffusivity. While cavitation would readily account for such enhancement in ambient processes, the absence of phase boundaries should exclude such phenomena above the critical point. Possible alternate mechanisms for the cell structure damage are discussed.

  7. Study on Supercritical CO2 Extraction Process of Piperine in Piper nigrum Linn by Orthogonal Design%胡椒中胡椒碱超临界二氧化碳萃取工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立红; 周丽莉; 礼彤

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究胡椒中胡椒碱的超临界二氧化碳(SFE - CO2)萃取最佳工艺条件.方法 高效液相色谱(HPLC)法测定胡椒碱含量,以胡椒碱收率和浸膏中胡椒碱含量为指标,采用正交实验法对其SFE - CO2工艺进行优化,并与传就提取工艺进行比较.结果 胡椒碱的SFE - CO2最佳条件为温度60。C,压力30MPa,夹带剂用量1:0.5(W/V),CO2流量5.6L·h-1,萃取时间2h.结论 与其他方法相比,该法具有收率高、含量高、萃取时间短、溶剂易加收等优点.

  8. Investigation of Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical CO2 by Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor; Wang, Zheming; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2011-10-10

    The capture and storage of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in deep geologic formations represents one of the most promising options for mitigating the impacts of greenhouse gases on global warming. In this regard, mineral-fluid interactions are of prime importance since such reactions can result in the long term sequestration of CO2 by trapping in mineral phases. Recently it has been recognized that interactions with neat to water-saturated non-aqueous fluids are of prime importance in understanding mineralization reactions since the introduced CO2 is likely to contain water initially or soon after injection and the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is less dense than the aqueous phase which can result in a buoyant scCO2 plume contacting the isolating caprock. As a result, unraveling the molecular/microscopic mechanisms of mineral transformation in neat to water saturated scCO2 has taken on an added important. In this study, we are examining the interfacial reactions of the olivine mineral forsterite (Mg2SiO4) over a range of water contents up to and including complete water saturation in scCO2. The surface precipitates that form on the reacted forsterite grains are extremely fragile and difficult to experimentally characterize. In order to address this issue we have developed experimental protocols for preparing and imaging electron-transparent samples from fragile structures. These electron-transparent samples are then examined using a combination of STEM/EDX, FIB-TEM, and helium ion microscope (HIM) imaging (Figures 1-3). This combination of capabilities has provided unique insight into the geochemical processes that occur on scCO2 reacted mineral surfaces. The experimental procedures and protocols that have been developed also have useful applications for examining fragile structures on a wide variety of materials. This research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and

  9. Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farawila, Anne F.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

    2012-07-31

    Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used

  10. Liberation of microbial substrates from macromolecular organic matter by non-supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, P.; Glombitza, C.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-12-01

    The worldwide search for suitable underground storage formations for CO2 also considers coal-bearing strata. CO2 is already injected into coal seams for enhanced recovery of coal bed methane. However, the geochemical and microbiological effects of increased CO2 concentrations on organic matter rich formations are rarely investigated. The injected CO2 will dissolve in the pore water, causing a decrease in pH and resulting in acidic formation waters. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) are chemically bound to the macromolecular matrix of sedimentary organic matter and may be liberated by hydrolysis, which is enhanced under acidic conditions. Recent investigations outlined the importance of LMWOAs as a feedstock for subsurface microbial life [1]. Therefore, injection of CO2 into coal formations may result in enhanced nutrient supply for subsurface microbes. To investigate the effects of highly CO2-saturated waters on the release of LMWOAs from coal, we developed an inexpensive high-pressure-high-temperature system that allows manipulating the concentration of dissolved gases up to 60 MPa and 120°C, respectively. The sample is placed in a flexible, gas-tight and inert PVDF sleeve, separating it from the pressure fluid and allowing for subsampling without loss of pressure. Lignite samples from the DEBITS-1 well, Waikato Basin, NZ and the Welzow-Süd open-cast mine, Niederlausitz, Germany, were extracted at 90° C and 5 MPa, with either pure water, CO2-saturated water, CO2/NO2 or CO2/SO2-saturated water. Subsamples were taken at different time points during the 72 hrs. long extraction. Extraction of LMWOAs from coal samples with our pressurised system resulted in yields that were up to four times higher than those reported for Soxhlet extraction [2]. These higher yields may be explained by the fact that during Soxhlet extraction the sample only gets into contact with freshly distilled water, whereas in our system the extraction fluid is circulated, resulting in

  11. Supercritical extraction of sunflower oil: A central composite design for extraction variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Mohanty, Bikash; Bhargava, Ravindra

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of sunflower seed for the production of vegetable oil is investigated and compared to conventional methods. The effects of extracting variables, namely pressure, temperatures, particle size, SC-CO2 flow rate and co-solvent, on SC-CO2 extraction are investigated. The maximum yield for sunflower oil is found to be about 54.37 wt%, and is obtained when SC-CO2 extraction is carried out at 80 °C, 400 bar, 0.75 mm particle and 10 g/min solvent flow with 5% co-solvent. A central composite design is used to develop the model and also to predict the optimum conditions. At optimum conditions obtained based on desirability function, 80.54 °C, 345 bar, 1.00 mm, 10.50 g/min and 7.58% ethanol, SC-CO2 extraction has performed and found that extraction yield dropped by 2.88% from the predicted value. Fatty acid composition of SC-CO2 and hexane extracted oil shows negligible difference and found high source of linoleic acid.

  12. Conceptual System Design of a Supercritical CO2 cooled Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Oh, Bongseong; Baik, Seung Joon; Yu, Hwanyeal; Kim, Yonghee; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The S-CO2 Brayton cycle has many advantages for SMR's power conversion system. The S-CO2 cycle can achieve small component size and simple cycle layout as shown in Fig. 1. Therefore, a concept of one module containing the S-CO2 cooled fast reactor core and power conversion system is realizable. Thanks to the compact heat exchanger technology such as Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE), the supercritical fluid with mediocre heat transfer performance can be utilized to a thermal cycle. This concept of fully modularized reactor is named as KAIST Micro Modular Reactor (MMR). It can achieve large economic by production in series, and transported in the land way or sea way. Based on the design results and dimensions of the reactor core and cycle components, the authors propose a conceptual layout of KAIST MMR. Based on this concept of reactor core, power conversion system, and decay heat removal system, the seasonal operation and transient analysis will be performed in the further works.

  13. [Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of bioactive components in Ligusticum chuanxiong by orthogonal array design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Cui; Wu, Xun; Yang, Xue-Dong

    2013-10-01

    With the yields of ferulic acid, coniferylferulate, Z-ligustilide, senkyunolide A, butylidenephthalide, butylphthalide, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, riligustilide, levistolide A, and total pharmacologically active ingredient as evaluation indexes, the extraction of Ligusticum chuanxiong by supercritical fluid technology was investigated through an orthogonal experiment L9 (3(4)). Four factors, namely temperature, pressure, flow rate of carbon dioxide, co-solvent concentration of the supercritical fluid, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, namely 65 degrees C of temperature, 35 MPa of pressure, 1 L x min(-1) of CO2 flow rate, 8% of co-solvent concetration, supercritical fluid extraction could achieve a better yield than the conventional reflux extraction using methanol. And the supercritical fluid extraction process was validated to be stable and reliable.

  14. VIABILITY AND ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS IN SUPERCRITICAL CO2%超临界二氧化碳中微生物的存活率与催化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝泉; 刘秀凤; 甘一如; 贾士儒

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION In-situ removal of inhibitory products by supercritical fluid extraction(SCFE)has drawn much attention recently[1,2].Supercritical CO2(SCCO2) possesses many advantages over organic solvents due to its special characteristics and environmental benefits [1,3-5].It has been widely used in food processing and preservation, alcohol production, and enzyme-catalyzed reactions [1-6].

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction and processing of foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumers are aware of the processing techniques used to manufacture food and health supplements and are concerned about the impact of those processes on their health and the environment. Processes that use supercritical fluids as an alternative to solvents that are used to extract nutrients and bio...

  16. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

  17. Characterisation of natural fibre reinforced PLA foams prepared by supercritical CO2 assisted extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bocz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibre reinforced polylactic acid (PLA foams, as potential green replacements for petroleum-based polymer foams, were investigated. Highly porous (ε > 95% microcellular PLA foams were manufactured by supercritical CO2 assisted extrusion process. To overcome the inherently low melt strength of PLA, epoxy-functionalized chain extender was applied, while talc was added to improve its crystallization kinetics. The combined application of chain extender and talc effectively promoted the formation of uniform cell structures. The effect of cellulose and basalt fibre reinforcement on the foamability, morphology, structure and mechanical properties of the PLA foams were investigated as well. The addition of 5 wt% natural fibres promoted the cell nucleation, but caused non-uniform distribution of cell size due to the microholes induced by local fibre-matrix debonding. The compression strength of the manufactured basalt fibre reinforced PLA foams reached 40 kPa.

  18. CO2-emissions from Norwegian oil and gas extraction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from oil and gas extraction matter for the lifecycle emissions of fossil fuels, and account for significant shares of domestic emissions in many fossil fuel exporting countries. In this study we investigate empirically the driving forces behind CO2-emission intensities of Norwegian oil and gas extraction, using detailed field-specific data that cover all Norwegian oil and gas activity. We find that emissions per unit extraction increase significantly as a field’s extraction declines...

  19. CO2-emissions form Norwegian oil and gas extraction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from oil and gas extraction matter for the lifecycle emissions of fossil fuels, and account for significant shares of domestic emissions in many fossil fuel exporting countries. In this study we investigate empirically the driving forces behind CO2-emission intensities of Norwegian oil and gas extraction, using detailed field-specific data that cover all Norwegian oil and gas activity. We find that emissions per unit extraction increase significantly as a field's extraction declines...

  20. A Conceptual Study of a Supercritical CO2-Cooled Micro Modular Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanyeal Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A neutronics conceptual study of a supercritical CO2-cooled micro modular reactor (MMR has been performed in this work. The suggested MMR is an extremely compact and truck-transportable nuclear reactor. The thermal power of the MMR is 36.2 MWth and it is designed to have a 20-year lifetime without refueling. A salient feature of the MMR is that all the components including the generator are integrated in a small reactor vessel. For a minimal volume and long lifetime of the MMR core, a fast neutron spectrum is utilized in this work. To enhance neutron economy and maximize the fuel volume fraction in the core, a high-density uranium mono-nitride U15N fuel is used in the fast-spectrum MMR. Unlike the conventional supercritical CO2-cooled fast reactors, a replaceable fixed absorber (RFA is introduced in a unique way to minimize the excess reactivity and the power peaking factor of the core. For a compact core design, the drum-type control absorber is adopted as the primary reactivity control mechanism. In this study, the neutronics analyses and depletions have been performed by using the continuous energy Monte Carlo Serpent code with the evaluated nuclear data file ENDF/B-VII.1 Library. The MMR core is characterized in view of several important safety parameters such as control system worth, fuel temperature coefficient (FTC and coolant void reactivity (CVR, etc. In addition, a preliminary thermal-hydraulic analysis has also been performed for the hottest channel of the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST MMR.

  1. Antiageing Mechanisms of a Standardized Supercritical CO2 Preparation of Black Jack (Bidens pilosa L. in Human Fibroblasts and Skin Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Dieamant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of topical retinoids to treat skin disorders and ageing can induce local reactions, while oral retinoids are potent teratogens and produce several unwanted effects. This way, efforts to explore complementary care resources should be supported. Based on this, we evaluate the antiageing effects of a supercritical CO2 extract from Bidens pilosa L. (BPE-CO2A containing a standardized multicomponent mixture of phytol, linolenic, palmitic, linoleic, and oleic acids. BPE-CO2A was assessed for its effects on human dermal fibroblasts (TGF-β1 and FGF levels using ELISA; collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by colorimetric assays, and mRNA expression of RXR, RAR, and EGFr by qRT-PCR and human skin fragments (RAR, RXR, collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by immunohistochemical analysis. Levels of extracellular matrix elements, TGF-β1 and FGF, and EGFr gene expression were significantly increased by BPE-CO2A. The modulation of RXR and RAR was positively demonstrated after the treatment with BPE-CO2A or phytol, a component of BPE-CO2A. The effects produced by BPE-CO2A were similar to or better than those produced by retinol and retinoic acid. The ability to stimulate extracellular matrix elements, increase growth factors, and modulate retinoid and rexinoid receptors provides a basis for the development of preparation containing BPE-CO2A as an antiageing/skin-repair agent.

  2. Process intensification using CO2 as cosolvent under supercritical conditions applied to the design of biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Maçaira, Jose; Santana, Aline; Oliveira Costa, Ana Carolina; Ramírez, E.; Larrayoz Iriarte, María Angeles

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a new process for biodiesel production under supercritical conditions in presence of cosolvent (CO2) is designed and simulated using the process simulator Aspen Plus. The model was developed using experimental reaction data of continuous catalytic biodiesel synthesis at a 74:25:1 CO2 to methanol to triglycerides molar ratio, temperature range between 150 and 300 C, at 250 bar. To decrease the temperature and pressure of operation and increase the conversion efficiency of biodies...

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of Beauvericin from maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, P; Galvano, F; Fogliano, V; Logrieco, A; Fresa, R; Ritieni, A

    2004-02-27

    Beauvericin (BEA), a supercritical fluid extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide from maize was investigated. Extraction efficiencies under several different extraction conditions were examined. Pressure, temperature, extraction time, organic modifier and water matrix content (10%) were investigated. The best extraction conditions were at a temperature of 60 degrees C, 3200psi, for 30min static extraction time and methanol as modifier solvent. Extraction recovery of 36% without modifier by adding water to the matrix in the extraction vessel (reproducibility relative standard deviations (R.S.D.)=3-5%) were recorded. Extraction recovery of 76.9% with methanol as co-solvent (reproducibility R.S.D.=3-5%) was obtained. Data shows that SFE gives a lower BEA recovery compared to conventional extraction protocol with organic solvents while SFE with modifier and conventional extraction yields are comparable. BEA extract contents were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) at 205nm and BEA peak confirmed by LC-MS. Acetonitrile-water as mobile phase and column C-18 were both tested. Instrumental and analytical parameters were optimized in the range linear interval from 1 to 500mgkg(-1) and reached a detection limit of 2ng.

  4. Supercritical Extraction of Lycopene from Tomato Industrial Wastes with Ethane

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Rui L.; Cristino, Ana F.; Nobre, Beatriz P.; Luisa Gouveia; António F. Palavra; Patricia G. S. Matos

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of all-E-lycopene from tomato industrial wastes (mixture of skins and seeds) was carried out in a semi-continuous flow apparatus using ethane as supercritical solvent. The effect of pressure, temperature, feed particle size, solvent superficial velocity and matrix initial composition was evaluated. Moreover, the yield of the extraction was compared with that obtained with other supercritical solvents (supercritical CO2...

  5. Significant improvement of thermal stability for CeZrPrNd oxides simply by supercritical CO(2 drying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhao Fan

    Full Text Available Pr and Nd co-doped Ce-Zr oxide solid solutions (CZPN were prepared using co-precipitation and microemulsion methods. It is found that only using supercritical CO(2 drying can result in a significant improvement of specific surface area and oxygen storage capacity at lower temperatures for CZPN after aging at 1000°C for 12 h in comparison with those using conventional air drying and even supercritical ethanol drying. Furthermore, the cubic structure was obtained in spite of the fact that the atomic ratio of Ce/(Ce+Zr+Pr+Nd is as low as 29%. The high thermal stability can be attributed to the loosely aggregated morphology and the resultant Ce enrichment on the nanoparticle surface, which are caused by supercritical CO(2 drying due to the elimination of surface tension effects on the gas-liquid interface.

  6. Modeling of mass transfer of Phospholipids in separation process with supercritical CO2 fluid by RBF artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    An artificial Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network model was developed for the prediction of mass transfer of the phospholipids from canola meal in supercritical CO2 fluid. The RBF kind of artificial neural networks (ANN) with orthogonal least squares (OLS) learning algorithm were used for mod...

  7. Drug-polymer filled micro-containers for oral delivery loaded using supercritical CO2 aided-impregnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marizza, Paolo; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Rades, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an effective loading technique of micro-containers for oral drug delivery of a poorly water soluble drug in a solid dispersion with polymer. By combining inkjet printing and supercritical CO2 impregnation we load ketoprofen in a solid dispersion with poly...

  8. HYDROGENATION OF 4-OXOISOPHORONE OVER PD/AL2/O2 CATALYST UNDER SUPERCRITICAL CO2 MEDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogenation of 4-oxoisophorone has been studied over 1% Pd/Al2O3 impregnated catalyst in supercritical CO2 medium at different reaction conditions. The effect of temperature, pressure and reaction medium on the conversion and product selectivity is discussed. Phase behavior stu...

  9. Effect of combined treatment with supercritical CO2 and rosemary on microbiological and physicochemical properties of ground pork stored at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shirong; Liu, Bin; Ge, Du; Dai, Jiehui

    2017-03-01

    The effect of combined treatment with supercritical CO2 (2000psi, 35°C for 2h) and rosemary powder (2.5% and 5.0% (w/w)) on microbiological and physicochemical properties of ground pork stored at 4°C was investigated. The changes in total viable count, pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), lipid oxidation and instrumental color (CIE L(⁎), a(⁎), b(⁎)) were analyzed during a week period of refrigerated storage. It was found that microbial populations were reduced by supercritical CO2 treatment, with the more pronounced effect being achieved by combined treatment with supercritical CO2 and 5.0g rosemary powder/100g meat. Supercritical CO2 treatment for 2h could accelerate lipid oxidation of ground pork during refrigerated storage, whereas combination with rosemary can significantly slow down the increase of oxidation rate. Combined treatment of supercritical CO2 and rosemary significantly increased L(⁎) and b(⁎) values of the ground pork, while the a(⁎), pH and TVB-N value were not affected as compared to the treatment with supercritical CO2 alone. The results of this study indicate that combined treatment of supercritical CO2 and rosemary may be useful in the meat industry to enhance the storage stability of ground pork treated with long time exposure of supercritical CO2 during refrigerated storage.

  10. Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles: Design Considerations for Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neises, Ty; Turchi, Craig

    2014-09-01

    A comparison of three supercritical CO2 Brayton cycles: the simple cycle, recompression cycle and partial-cooling cycle indicates the partial-cooling cycle is favored for use in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. Although it displays slightly lower cycle efficiency versus the recompression cycle, the partial-cooling cycle is estimated to have lower total recuperator size, as well as a lower maximum s-CO2 temperature in the high-temperature recuperator. Both of these effects reduce recuperator cost. Furthermore, the partial-cooling cycle provides a larger temperature differential across the turbine, which translates into a smaller, more cost-effective thermal energy storage system. The temperature drop across the turbine (and by extension, across a thermal storage system) for the partial-cooling cycle is estimated to be 23% to 35% larger compared to the recompression cycle of equal recuperator conductance between 5 and 15 MW/K. This reduces the size and cost of the thermal storage system. Simulations by NREL and Abengoa Solar indicate the partial-cooling cycle results in a lower LCOE compared with the recompression cycle, despite the former's slightly lower cycle efficiency. Advantages of the recompression cycle include higher thermal efficiency and potential for a smaller precooler. The overall impact favors the use of a partial-cooling cycle for CSP compared to the more commonly analyzed recompression cycle.

  11. A facile synthesis of poly(3-octylthiophene)-titanium dioxide nanocomposite particles in supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, Haldorai; Woo, Min Hee; Park, Eun Ju; Gal, Yeong-Soon; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2008-09-01

    Poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT)-titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite powder where TiO2 was embedded with homogeneous dispersion was synthesized by in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization of 3-octylthiophene in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), using ferric chloride as the oxidant. The synthesized materials could be obtained as dry powder upon venting of CO2 after the polymerization. The composites were subsequently characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction studies (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and photoluminescence (PL). The incorporation of TiO2 in the composite was endorsed by FT-IR studies. TGA revealed enhanced thermal stability of P3OT/TiO2 nanocomposite compared to 3-octylthiophene. TEM analysis showed that well dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Photoluminescence quenching increased with increasing TiO2 concentration in the composite.

  12. Extraction of curcumin from Curcuma longa L. using ultrasound assisted supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimthet, Chhouk; Wahyudiono, Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2017-05-01

    Curcumin is one of phenolic compounds, which has been recently shown to have useful pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-carcinogenic, antifungal, and antimicrobial activities. The objective of this research is to extract the curcumin from Curcuma longa L. using ultrasound assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (USC-CO2). The extraction was performed at 50°C, 25 MPa, CO2 flow rate of 3 mL/min with 10% cosolvent. The result of extraction, thermogravimetry (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that ultrasound power could disrupt cell wall and release the target compounds from Curcuma longa L. USC-CO2 could provide higher curcumin content in the extracts and faster extraction compared to SC-CO2 extraction without ultrasound.

  13. Study on Extracting Volatile Components from Oregano by Supercritical CO2%超临界二氧化碳萃取牛至挥发性组分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车国勇; 庞浩; 廖兵; 张镜澄

    2006-01-01

    采用GC-MS技术对在超临界CO2中加入夹带剂萃取牛至的萃取物的化学成分进行了分析,共鉴定出20种化合物.同时与水蒸气蒸馏产物的组成进行了比较.结果发现在超临界萃取中加入夹带剂所得精油得率明显高于水蒸气蒸馏的精油得率;夹带剂极性越大,萃取物得率越多,抗氧化剂的量也越多.

  14. Assessment of Supercritical Fluid Extraction Use in Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this investigation, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 was assessed as a confirmatory tool in Phase III of whole sediment toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs). The SFE procedure was assessed on two reference sediments and three contaminated sediments usi...

  15. Essential Oil from Inula britannica Extraction with SF-CO2 and Its Antifungal Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Te; GAO Fei; ZHOU Lin; SONG Tian-you

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extraction technique of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) for the essential oil from Inula britannica flowers and its antifungal activities against plant pathogenic fungi for its potential application as botanical fungicide. The effects of factors, including extraction temperature, extraction pressure, SF-CO2 flow rate, flower powder size, and time on the essential oil yield were studied using the single factor experiment. An orthogonal experiment was conducted to determine the best operating conditions for the maximum extraction oil yield. Adopting the optimum conditions, the maximum yield reached 10.01% at 40°C temperature, 30 MPa pressure, 60 mesh flower powder size, 20 L h-1 SF-CO2 flow rate, and 90 min extraction time. The antifungal activities of I. britannica essential oil using the SF-CO2 against the most important plant pathogenic fungi were also examined through in vitro and in vivo tests. Sixteen plant pathogenic fungi were inhibited to varying degrees at 1 mg mL-1 concentration of the essential oil. The mycelial growth of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici was completely inhibited. The radial growths of Phytophthora capsici and Fusarium monilifome were also inhibited by 83.76 and 64.69%, respectively. In addition, the essential oil can inhibit the spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum orbiculare, and Pyricularia grisea, and the corresponding inhibition rates were 98.26, 96.54, 87.89, and 87.35%respectively. The present study has demonstrated that the essential oil of I. britannica flowers extracted through the SF-CO2 technique is one potential and promising antifungal agent that can be used as botanical fungicide to protect crops.

  16. Measurement and correlation of supercritical CO2 and ionic liquid systems for design of advanced unit operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi MACHIDA; Ryosuke TAGUCHI; Yoshiyuki SATO; Louw J.FLORUSSE; Cor J.PETERS; Richard L.SMITH,Jr

    2009-01-01

    Ionic liquids combined with supercritical fluid technology hold great promise as working solvents for developing compact processes. Ionic liquids, which are organic molten salts, typically have extremely low volatility and high functionality, but possess high viscos-ities, surface tensions and low diffusion coefficients, which can limit their applicability. CO2, on the other hand,especially in its supercritical state, is a green solvent that can be used advantageously when combined with the ionic liquid to provide viscosity and surface tension reduction and to promote mass transfer. The solubility of CO2 in the ionic liquid is key to estimating the important physical properties that include partition coefficients, viscosities,densities, interfacial tensions, thermal conductivities and heat capacities needed in contactor design. In this work, we examine a subset of available high pressure pure component ionic liquid PVT data and high pressure CO2-ionic liquid solubility data and report new correlations for CO2-ionic liquid systems with equations of state that have some industrial applications including: (1) general, (2) fuel desulfurization, (3) CO2 capture, and (4) chiral separation.New measurements of solubility data for the CO2 and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate, [bmim][OcSO4] system are reported and correlated. In the correlation of the CO2 ionic liquid phase behavior, the Peng-Robinson and the Sanchez-Lacombe equations of state were considered and are compared. It is shown that excellent correlation of CO2 solubility can be obtained with either equation and they share some common characteristics regarding inter-action parameters. In the Sanchez-Lacombe equation,parameters that are derived from the supercritical region were found to be important for obtaining good correlation of the CO2-ionic liquid solubility data.

  17. The cooling heat transfer characteristics of the supercritical CO2 in micro-fin tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Saeng; Kim, Hyeon-Ju; Yoon, Jung-In; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Son, Chang-Hyo

    2013-02-01

    This study intended to verify the cooling heat transfer characteristics of supercritical gas for refrigerating and air-conditioning devices that use CO2, a natural refrigerant, as the operating fluid. Experiments were performed with a gas cooler, which was the test part. The gas cooler was a heat exchanger made of a micro-fin tube with an inner diameter of 4.6 mm and an outer diameter of 5.0 mm. The experiment results are summarized as follows. The heat transfer coefficient, according to the mass flux, peaked at the low cooling pressure of 8.0 MPa in the gas cooler, and reached its minimum at the high pressure of 10.0 MPa. Furthermore, when the mass flux of the refrigerant increased, the coefficient increased faster with the lower cooling pressure in the gas cooler. The heat transfer coefficient, according to the shape of the heat transfer tube, showed that the maximum values of the CO2 cooling heat transfer coefficients of the smooth tube and the micro-fin tube were found at 44.7 °C, which were the pseudo-critical temperatures for the entrance pressures. It was found that the cooling heat transfer coefficient of the micro-fin tube increased by 12-39 % more than that of the smooth tube. The experiment results for the CO2 heat transfer coefficients of the smooth tube and the micro-fin tube were compared with the results estimated from previous correlations. It was found that the experiment values generally significantly differed from and the experiment values greater than the estimated values. The differences were especially greater in the vicinity of the critical temperature points. Based on these results, a new correlation was suggested that includes the density ratio and the specific heat ratio.

  18. Hydrodynamics and Mass Transfer Performance in Supercritical Fluid Extraction Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石冰洁; 张泽廷; 等

    2002-01-01

    New models for describing hydrodynamics and mass transfer performance in supercritical fluid extraction columns were proposed.Those models were proved by experimental data,which were obtained in supercritical fluid extraction packed column,spray column and sieve tray column respectively.The inner diameter of those columns areΦ25mm,These experimental systems include supercritical carbon dioxideisopropanol-water and supercritical carbon dioxide-ethanol-water,in which supercritical carbon dioxide was dispersed phase,and another was continuous phase.The extraction processes were operated with continuous countercurrent flow.The predicted values are agreed well with experimental data.

  19. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE that uses carbon dioxide (CO2 as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Extracted by SC-CO2 from Seeds of Trachyspermum ammi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bcakground: Extracts obtained from natural sources such as plants are of immense importance for humans. Methods: Therefore this study was conducted to obtain essential oil from the seeds of T. ammi by conventional and non-conventional methods. Hydrodistillation (HD, Solvent Extraction (SE, Ultrasonication (US, and Supercritical Carbon-dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction techniques were used to extract essential oil from the powdered seeds of T. ammi. A quality control method for each extracted oil was developed using HPTLC, FTIR, and GC-MS. The optimization process was carried out using fractional factorial design (FFD under which three parameters were considered: pressure (150, 175, and 300 bar, temperature (25, 30, and 40 °C, and CO2 flow rate (5, 10, 15 g/min. Results: The yield of essential oil obtained from the HD, SE, US, and SC-CO2 methods were 1.20%, 1.82%, 2.30%, and 2.64% v/w, respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods and the IC50 (Inhibition Concentration values of the T. ammi oil sample were found to be 36.41 and 20.55 µg mL−1, respectively. Conclusion: The present paper reported that different extraction methods lead to different yields of essential oils and the choice of a suitable method is extremely important to obtain more preferred compounds. The yield was higher in the SC-CO2 method and it is a sustainable and green extraction technique. Many important constituents were detected in analytical techniques. Antioxidant activities carried out showed that essential oil extracted from T. ammi seeds possess significant antioxidant activity.

  1. Use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Masayuki (Niigata Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Niigata, (Japan))

    1989-09-25

    Supercritical fluid extraction is a novel diffusion and separation technique which exploits simultaneously the increase of vapor pressure and the difference of chemical affinities of fluids near the critical point. A solvent which is used as the supercritical fluid has the following features: the critical point exists in the position of relatively ease of handling, the solvent is applicable to the extraction of a physiological active substance of thermal instability. Carbon dioxide as the solvent is non-flammable, non-corrosive, non-toxic, cheap, and readily available of high purity. The results of studies on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) as a solvent for natural products in the fermentation and food industries, were collected. SC-CO{sub 2} extraction are used in many fields, examples for the application are as follows: removal of organic solvents from antibiotics; extraction of vegetable oils contained in wheat germ oil, high quality mustard seeds, rice bran and so on; brewing of sake using rice and rice-koji; use as a non-aqueous medium for the synthesis of precursors of the Aspartame; and use in sterilization. 66 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs.

  2. Stochastic simulation of supercritical fluid extraction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizutani F. T.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Process simulation involves the evaluation of output variables by the specification of input variables and process parameters. However, in a real process, input data and parameters cannot be known without uncertainty. This fact may limit the utilization of simulation results to predict plant behavior. In order to achieve a more realistic analysis, the procedure of stochastic simulation can be conducted. This technique is based on a large set of simulation runs where input variables and parameters are randomly selected according to adequate probability density functions. The objective of this work is to illustrate the application of a stochastic simulation procedure to the process of fractionation of orange essential oil, using supercritical carbon dioxide in a multistage extraction column. Analysis of the proposed example demonstrates the importance of the stochastic simulation to develop more reliable designs and operating conditions for a supercritical fluid extraction process.

  3. Isolation of essential oil from different plants and herbs by supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Tiziana; Vicente, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Erika; García-Risco, Mónica R; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-08-10

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative, clean and environmental friendly technology with particular interest for the extraction of essential oil from plants and herbs. Supercritical CO(2) is selective, there is no associated waste treatment of a toxic solvent, and extraction times are moderate. Further, supercritical extracts were often recognized of superior quality when compared with those produced by hydro-distillation or liquid-solid extraction. This review provides a comprehensive and updated discussion of the developments and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is normally performed with pure CO(2) or using a cosolvent; fractionation of the extract is commonly accomplished in order to isolate the volatile oil compounds from other co-extracted substances. In this review the effect of pressure, temperature and cosolvent on the extraction and fractionation procedure is discussed. Additionally, a comparison of the extraction yield and composition of the essential oil of several plants and herbs from Lamiaceae family, namely oregano, sage, thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram and marigold, which were produced in our supercritical pilot-plant device, is presented and discussed.

  4. Formation of curcumin nanoparticles via solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Z

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zheng Zhao,1,3 Maobin Xie,2 Yi Li,2 Aizheng Chen,4 Gang Li,5 Jing Zhang,2 Huawen Hu,2 Xinyu Wang,1,3 Shipu Li1,31State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong; 3Biomedical Materials and Engineering Research Center of Hubei Province, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 4College of Chemical Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of China; 5National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In order to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble curcumin, solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 (SEDS was employed to prepare curcumin nanoparticles for the first time. A 24 full factorial experiment was designed to determine optimal processing parameters and their influence on the size of the curcumin nanoparticles. Particle size was demonstrated to increase with increased temperature or flow rate of the solution, or with decreased precipitation pressure, under processing conditions with different parameters considered. The single effect of the concentration of the solution on particle size was not significant. Curcumin nanoparticles with a spherical shape and the smallest mean particle size of 325 nm were obtained when the following optimal processing conditions were adopted: P =20 MPa, T =35°C, flow rate of solution =0.5 mL.min-1, concentration of solution =0.5%. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy measurement revealed that the chemical composition of curcumin basically remained unchanged. Nevertheless, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and thermal analysis indicated that the crystalline state of the original curcumin decreased after the SEDS process. The

  5. Clay hydration/dehydration in dry to water-saturated supercritical CO2: Implications for caprock integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, John S.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Miller, Quin R.; Chen, Jeffrey; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Martin, Paul F.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Injection of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) for the geologic storage of carbon dioxide will displace formation water, and the pore space adjacent to overlying caprocks could eventually be dominated by dry to water-saturated scCO2. Wet scCO2 is highly reactive and capable of carbonating and hydrating certain minerals, whereas anhydrous scCO2 can dehydrate water-containing minerals. Because these geochemical processes affect solid volume and thus porosity and permeability, they have the potential to affect the long-term integrity of the caprock seal. In this study, we investigate the swelling and shrinkage of an expandable clay found in caprock formations, montmorillonite (Ca-STx-1), when exposed to variable water-content scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar using a combination of in situ probes, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), in situ magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR), and in situ attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). We show that the extent of montmorillonite clay swelling/shrinkage is dependent not only on water hydration/dehydration, but also on CO2 intercalation reactions. Our results also suggest a competition between water and CO2 for interlayer residency where increasing concentrations of intercalated water lead to decreasing concentrations of intercalated CO2. Overall, this paper demonstrates the types of measurements required to develop fundamental knowledge that will enhance modeling efforts and reduce risks associated with subsurface storage of CO2.

  6. PREPARATION OF MACROPOROUS TIO2 BY STARCH MICROSPHERES TEMPLATE WITH ASSISTANCE OF SUPERCRITICAL CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Qi Tang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work a green route is reported to prepare a TiO2 macroporous network using corn starch microspheres flake as a bio-template. The starch microspheres prepared by emulsion technology were used as a template into which precursor tetrabutyl titanate (TBOT was permeated using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 as a forceful carrier or infiltration media, resulting in the formation of an organic/inorganic hybrid material; then the coated template was gelled and dried during the scCO2-coating and the depressurization processes, followed by removal of the template by calcination at 700°C; finally, TiO2 inverse-opals-like material reversely replicating the starch microspheres template was obtained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, nitrogen sorption measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD indicated that the products were the inverse replicas from their templates. The obtained TiO2 inverse opals-like material showed a wide dispersion of pore sizes from mesopores to macropores – a few nanometers to several micrometers –with the BET surface area up to 103 m2/g, and a predominantly anatase crystalline phase. In addition, the wall thickness of the macropores varied with tunable pressure for closed cells or open-cell foams. So this facile and environmentally friendly process for the preparation of high-surface area, thermally-stable, metal-oxide catalysts and supports by a starch microsphere templating approach may have widespread potential applications in catalysis, absorbents, photoelectric materials, and so on.

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Mentha pulegium L. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghel, Nasrin; Yamini, Yadollah; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi

    2004-02-06

    The dependence of Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal) essential oil composition, obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)), with the following parameters: pressure, temperature, extraction time (dynamic), and modifier (methanol) was studied. The results were also compared with those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation method in laboratory conditions. Regarding the percentages of menthone (30.3%) and pulegone (52.0%), the optimum SFE results were obtained at the following experimental conditions: pressure=100atm, T=35 degrees C, dynamic time=10min, and V(modifier)=0mul. The results of hydrodistillation showed that the major components of M. pulegium L. were pulegone (37.8%), menthone (20.3%), and piperitenone (6.8%). The evaluation of the composition of each extract was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  8. Synthesis of a proline-modified acrylic acid copolymer in supercritical CO2 for glass-ionomer dental cement applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Roohpour, Nima; Darr, Jawwad A; Rehman, Ihtesham U

    2009-06-01

    Supercritical (sc-) fluids (such as sc-CO(2)) represent interesting media for the synthesis of polymers in dental and biomedical applications. Sc-CO(2) has several advantages for polymerization reactions in comparison to conventional organic solvents. It has several advantages in comparison to conventional polymerization solvents, such as enhanced kinetics, being less harmful to the environment and simplified solvent removal process. In our previous work, we synthesized poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PAA-IA-NVP) terpolymers in a supercritical CO(2)/methanol mixture for applications in glass-ionomer dental cements. In this study, proline-containing acrylic acid copolymers were synthesized, in a supercritical CO(2) mixture or in water. Subsequently, the synthesized polymers were used in commercially available glass-ionomer cement formulations (Fuji IX commercial GIC). Mechanical strength (compressive strength (CS), diametral tensile strength (DTS) and biaxial flexural strength (BFS)) and handling properties (working and setting time) of the resulting modified cements were evaluated. It was found that the polymerization reaction in an sc-CO(2)/methanol mixture was significantly faster than the corresponding polymerization reaction in water and the purification procedures were simpler for the former. Furthermore, glass-ionomer cement samples made from the terpolymer prepared in sc-CO(2)/methanol exhibited higher CS and DTS and comparable BFS compared to the same polymer synthesized in water. The working properties of glass-ionomer formulations made in sc-CO(2)/methanol were comparable and better than the values of those for polymers synthesized in water.

  9. Atomic Layer Deposition of High-k Dielectrics Using Supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Rajesh

    2005-03-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-κdielectric was performed in supercritical CO2 (SCCO2), using a two-step reaction sequence. In step one, tetraethoxy silane (TEOS) precursor was injected in SCCO2 at 80-100 C and 50 MPa pressure to obtain a chemisorbed surface monolayer, which was then oxidized into SiO2 using peroxide entrained in SCCO2. ALD process was controlled by estimating precursor solubility and its mass transport with respect to the density of SCCO2, and correlating these parameters with precursor injection volume. In the ALD process, 7 pulses of precursor were used anticipating deposition of one atomic layer in each of the pulses. The thickness of the SiO2 atomic layers deposited using SCCO2 was measured by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), and the C-V measurements were also performed. The result obtained using VASE indicates that there were 7 monolayers of SiO2 with total thickness of 35 å, and the dielectric constant of the deposited layers was 4.0±0.1. Our initial findings clearly demonstrate that SCCO2 is capable of atomic layer deposition of high quality dielectric films at very low process temperatures preventing interface reaction. More research is in progress to achieve ALD of HfO2 and TiO2 in SCCO2.

  10. Capillary pressure heterogeneity and hysteresis for the supercritical CO2/water system in a sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Ronny; Benson, Sally M.

    2017-10-01

    We report results from an experimental investigation on the hysteretic behaviour of the capillary pressure curve for the supercritical CO2-water system in a Berea Sandstone core. Previous observations have highlighted the importance of subcore-scale capillary heterogeneity in developing local saturations during drainage; we show in this study that the same is true for the imbibition process. Spatially distributed drainage and imbibition scanning curves were obtained for mm-scale subsets of the rock sample non-invasively using X-ray CT imagery. Core- and subcore-scale measurements are well described using the Brooks-Corey formalism, which uses a linear trapping model to compute mobile saturations during imbibition. Capillary scaling yields two separate universal drainage and imbibition curves that are representative of the full subcore-scale data set. This enables accurate parameterisation of rock properties at the subcore-scale in terms of capillary scaling factors and permeability, which in turn serve as effective indicators of heterogeneity at the same scale even when hysteresis is a factor. As such, the proposed core-analysis workflow is quite general and provides the required information to populate numerical models that can be used to extend core-flooding experiments to conditions prevalent in the subsurface, which would be otherwise not attainable in the laboratory.

  11. Optimized, Competitive Supercritical-CO2 Cycle GFR for Gen IV Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. Driscoll; P. Hejzlar; G. Apostolakis

    2008-09-08

    An overall plant design was developed for a gas-cooled fast reactor employing a direct supercritical Brayton power conversion system. The most important findings were that (1) the concept could be capital-cost competitive, but startup fuel cycle costs are penalized by the low core power density, specified in large part to satisfy the goal of significatn post-accident passive natural convection cooling; (2) active decay heat removal is preferable as the first line of defense, with passive performance in a backup role; (3) an innovative tube-in-duct fuel assembly, vented to the primpary coolant, appears to be practicable; and (4) use of the S-Co2 GFR to support hydrogen production is a synergistic application, since sufficient energy can be recuperated from the product H2 and 02 to allow the electrolysis cell to run 250 C hotter than the reactor coolant, and the water boilers can be used for reactor decay heat removal. Increasing core poer density is identified as the top priority for future work on GFRs of this type.

  12. Extraction fatty acid as a source to produce biofuel in microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Do Chiem; Hai, Dam Thi Thanh; Vinh, Nguyen Hanh; Phung, Le Thi Kim

    2016-06-01

    In this research, the fatty acids of isolated microalgae were extracted by some technologies such as maceration, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction; and analyzed for biodiesel production using GC-MS. This work deals with the extraction of microalgae oil from dry biomass by using supercritical fluid extraction method. A complete study at laboratory of the influence of some parameters on the extraction kinetics and yields and on the composition of the oil in terms of lipid classes and profiles is proposed. Two types of microalgae were studied: Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. For the extraction of oil from microalgae, supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) is regarded with interest, being safer than n-hexane and offering a negligible environmental impact, a short extraction time and a high-quality final product. Whilst some experimental papers are available on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from microalgae, only limited information exists on the kinetics of the process. These results demonstrate that supercritical CO2 extraction is an efficient method for the complete recovery of the neutral lipid phase.

  13. Extraction of azadirachtin A from neem seed kernels by supercritical fluid and its evaluation by HPLC and LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, P; Fresa, R; Fogliano, V; Monti, S M; Ritieni, A

    1999-12-01

    A new supercritical extraction methodology was applied to extract azadirachtin A (AZA-A) from neem seed kernels. Supercritical and liquid carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were used as extractive agents in a three-separation-stage supercritical pilot plant. Subcritical conditions were tested too. Comparisons were carried out by calculating the efficiency of the pilot plant with respect to the milligrams per kilogram of seeds (ms/mo) of AZA-A extracted. The most convenient extraction was gained using an ms/mo ratio of 119 rather than 64. For supercritical extraction, a separation of cuticular waxes from oil was set up in the pilot plant. HPLC and electrospray mass spectroscopy were used to monitor the yield of AZA-A extraction.

  14. Wettability-Water/brine Film Thickness Relationship and the Effect of Supercritical CO2 Pre-contact for CO2/brine/mineral Systems under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Song, Y.; Li, W.

    2016-12-01

    Injection CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the main options for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS). A successful GCS in saline aquifers requires full knowledge about CO2/brine/mineral systems under sequestration conditions to reduce uncertainties during subsurface storage of CO2. Adsorbed water film thickness and wettability on mineral surfaces are two key characteristics for CO2/brine/mineral systems. Wettability and water/brine film thickness have been measured experimentally and predicted by molecular simulation (MD) studies. However, these studies only consider the films apart from contact angles. Investigations on wettability for CO2/brine/mineral systems only consider contact angles without measurements on film thickness. The relationship between film thicknesses with water contact angles is open to questions. In this paper, MD simulations have been performed to investigate the interrelationship between water film thicknesses and water contact angles. Three silica surfaces with different silanol group number densities (Q3, Q3-50%, Q3/Q4) were selected to represent silica surfaces with different wettabilities. We found that as water contact angle increases, the film thickness decreases. We also studied the effect of CO2-mineral pre-contact and found that: on Q3 surface, if a CO2 bubble was pre-contacted with the surface, it can remain on the surface without forming a water film; however, if a CO2 bubble was placed certain distances away from the surface, it formed a water film. Wettability analysis revealed that on the same surface, water contact angle was larger when there was no water film. These findings show that on some silica surfaces, water film may be destroyed by supercritical CO2 even the silica surfaces are hydrophilic. A water film rupture mechanism was propsed for CO2 adhesion on mineral surfaces [Wang (2013) Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 11858; Zhang (2016) Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 10.1021/acs.estlett.5b00359]. The rupture of water film

  15. Chemical Processes with Supercritical CO2 in Engineered Geologic Systems: Significance, Previous Study, and Path Forward (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical reactions with dissolved CO2 in the aqueous phase have long been considered in fundamental geosciences and practical applications. Recently, studies on geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems using CO2 as heat transmission fluid have brought new interests in chemical reaction processes directly with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, or gas phase). In the vicinity of a CO2 injection well, the aqueous fluid initially present in a geological formation would be quickly removed by dissolution (evaporation) into the flowing gas stream and by immiscible displacement by the scCO2, creating a gas phase dominant zone. In this zone, the water evaporation could cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, reducing formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. The scCO2 may directly attack well construction materials such as cement. Over time, the gas phase will tend to migrate upwards towards the caprock because the density of the scCO2 is lower than that of the aqueous phase. In the upper portions of the reservoir, the scCO2 will directly react with caprock minerals and alter the hydrological properties and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the scCO2 phase will maintain the dissolution into the aqueous phase, lowering pH, inducing mineral dissolution, complexing with dissolved cations, increasing CO2 solubility, increasing the density of the aqueous phase, and promoting “convective mixing”. Chemical processes are quite different in the scCO2 dominant geologic systems. The absence of an aqueous phase poses unique questions, as little is presently known about the chemistry of non-aqueous systems. Additional issues arise from the reactivity of water that is dissolved in the ScCO2 phase. In this presentation, the author will discuss the importance, state of the studies performed, and future research directions.

  16. Supercritical Fluid Extraction: Present Status and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J. W.

    2002-07-01

    Supercritical extraction (SFE), using primarily environmentally-benign carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as the extraction agent, is reviewed with respect to its present status and future use. SFE was developed for analytical application in the mid 1980's in response to the desire to reduce the use of organic solvents in the laboratory environment and is becoming a standard method for the preparation and analysis of lipid-containing sample matrices. Currently, analytical SFE is predominately practiced in the off-line mode, using both sequential and parallel extraction modes. Depending on the instrumental configuration, the preparation of up to 24 samples can be accomplished on one instrument on a daily basis. Several other benefits can be achieved using SFE, such as the processing of thermally-sensitive analytes and rapid analyte extraction kinetics relative to extraction with liquid solvents. Examples are provided not only of the analytical SFE of oils and fats, but of volatile solutes from an array of sample types. Finally, the relevance of analytical SFE to processing with supercritical fluids (SFs) is documented using examples from our own research involv