WorldWideScience

Sample records for supercooled liquid region

  1. Evidence for compact cooperatively rearranging regions in a supercooled liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elenius, M; Dzugutov, M

    2009-01-01

    We examine structural relaxation in a supercooled glass-forming liquid simulated by constant-energy constant-volume (NVE) molecular dynamics. Time correlations of the total kinetic energy fluctuations are used as a comprehensive measure of the system's approach to the ergodic equilibrium. We find that, under cooling, the total structural relaxation becomes delayed as compared with the decay of the component of the intermediate scattering function corresponding to the main peak of the structure factor. This observation can be explained by collective movements of particles preserving many-body structural correlations within compact three-dimensional (3D) cooperatively rearranging regions.

  2. Elastic properties of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in supercooled liquid region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiyama, N.; Inoue, A.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2001-01-01

    In situ ultrasonic measurements for the Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in three states: Glassy solid, supercooled liquid, and crystalline, have been performed. It is found that velocities of both longitudinal and transverse waves and elastic moduli (shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus......, and Lame parameter), together with Debye temperature, gradually decrease with increasing temperature through the glass transition temperature as the Poisson's ratio increases. The behavior of the velocity of transverse wave vs. temperature in the supercooled liquid region could be explained by viscosity...

  3. Structural stability of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 metallic glass in supercooled liquid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.Z.; Saksl, K.

    2004-01-01

    Phase separation of bulk and ribbon Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 glasses, annealed in the supercooled liquid region at ambient pressure and high pressures, has been studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction techniques. DSC measurements show only one glass transition event in all annealed samples, indicating that no phase separation occurs in the alloy annealed in the supercooled liquid region. Phase analyses reveal at least six crystalline phases in the crystallized sample: monoclinic, tetragonal Cu 3 Pd-like, rhombohedral, fcc-Ni 2 Pd 2 P, fcc-(Ni, Pd) solid solution, and body-centered tetragonal (bct) Ni 3 P-like phases. Annealing treatments under external pressures in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature neither induce phase separation nor alter the glass transition temperature of the Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 bulk glass

  4. Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with a larger supercooled liquid region and high ductility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, K.Q. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110178 (China)], E-mail: kqqiu@yahoo.com.cn; Pang, J.; Ren, Y.L.; Zhang, H.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110178 (China); Ma, C.L.; Zhang, T. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-12-20

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with compositions of Fe{sub 61.5-x}Co{sub 3}Mo{sub 14}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}Er{sub 0.5}M{sub x} (x = 2, 3; M = Ni, Nb) were fabricated by copper mold casting using raw industrial materials. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mechanical tester and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were employed to check the phase constituent, the thermal stability, the mechanical properties and the fracture surfaces of as-cast samples. The results indicate that the BMGs with diameters of 1.5-3 mm were fabricated for the alloys investigated. The largest supercooled liquid region (SLR) up to 76 K was found for Fe{sub 58.5}Co{sub 3}Mo{sub 14}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}Er{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 3} BMG. The BMGs with Ni addition exhibit not only high fracture strengths reaching 3770 MPa for x = 2 and 3980 MPa for x = 3 alloys, respectively, but also apparently plastic strains up to 0.67% and 0.93%, respectively. The fracture surfaces of the Fe{sub 61.5-x}Co{sub 3}Mo{sub 14}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}Er{sub 0.5}Ni{sub x} (x = 2, 3) alloys with plasticity show narrow ridges characteristic of venous patterns combining with tearing flow between the ridges. While the Nb containing alloys show not only a lower SLR below 60 K but also a lower stress below 2400 MPa, as well as almost no plastic strain before fracture.

  5. Strain Pattern in Supercooled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Bernd; Fritschi, Sebastian; Hajnal, David; Klix, Christian; Keim, Peter; Fuchs, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    Investigations of strain correlations at the glass transition reveal unexpected phenomena. The shear strain fluctuations show an Eshelby-strain pattern [˜cos (4 θ ) /r2 ], characteristic of elastic response, even in liquids, at long times. We address this using a mode-coupling theory for the strain fluctuations in supercooled liquids and data from both video microscopy of a two-dimensional colloidal glass former and simulations of Brownian hard disks. We show that the long-ranged and long-lived strain signatures follow a scaling law valid close to the glass transition. For large enough viscosities, the Eshelby-strain pattern is visible even on time scales longer than the structural relaxation time τ and after the shear modulus has relaxed to zero.

  6. Investigation of crystallization kinetics and deformation behavior in supercooled liquid region of CuZr-based bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ke; Fan, Xinhui; Li, Bing; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Xin; Xu, Xuanxuan [Xi' an Technological Univ. (China). School of Material and Chemical Engineering

    2017-08-15

    In this paper, a systematic study of crystallization kinetics and deformation behavior is presented for (Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50}){sub 94}Al{sub 6} bulk metallic glass in the supercooled liquid region. Crystallization results showed that the activation energy for (Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50}){sub 94}Al{sub 6} was calculated using the Arrhenius equation in isothermal mode and the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method in non-isothermal mode. The activation energy was quite high compared with other bulk metallic glasses. Based on isothermal transformation kinetics described by the Johson-Mehl-Avrami model, the average Avrami exponent of about 3.05 implies a mainly diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth with an increasing nucleation rate during the crystallization. For warm deformation, the results showed that deformation behavior, composed of homogeneous and inhomogeneous deformation, is strongly dependent on strain rate and temperature. The homogeneous deformation transformed from non-Newtonian flow to Newtonian flow with a decrease in strain rate and an increase in temperature. It was found that the crystallization during high temperature deformation is induced by heating. The appropriate working temperature/strain rate combination for the alloy forming, without in-situ crystallization, was deduced by constructing an empirical deformation map. The optimum process condition for (Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50}){sub 94}Al{sub 6} can be expressed as T∝733 K and ∝ ε 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}.

  7. Pressure effect on crystallization of metallic glass Fe72P11C6Al5B4Ga2 alloy with wide supercooled liquid region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Olsen, J. S.; Gerward, Leif

    2000-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the crystallization behavior of metallic glass Fe72P11C6Al5B4Ga2 alloy with a wide supercooled liquid region has been investigated by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature x-ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation. In the pressure range from 0 to 2...... mobility and changes of the Gibbs free energy of various phases with pressure. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  8. Polarized View of Supercooled Liquid Water Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Wasilewski, Andrzej P.; McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Platnick, Steven E.; Arnold, G. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Supercooled liquid water (SLW) clouds, where liquid droplets exist at temperatures below 0 C present a well known aviation hazard through aircraft icing, in which SLW accretes on the airframe. SLW clouds are common over the Southern Ocean, and climate-induced changes in their occurrence is thought to constitute a strong cloud feedback on global climate. The two recent NASA field campaigns POlarimeter Definition EXperiment (PODEX, based in Palmdale, California, January-February 2013) and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS, based in Houston, Texas in August- September 2013) provided a unique opportunity to observe SLW clouds from the high-altitude airborne platform of NASA's ER-2 aircraft. We present an analysis of measurements made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) during these experiments accompanied by correlative retrievals from other sensors. The RSP measures both polarized and total reflectance in 9 spectral channels with wavelengths ranging from 410 to 2250 nm. It is a scanning sensor taking samples at 0.8deg intervals within 60deg from nadir in both forward and backward directions. This unique angular resolution allows for characterization of liquid water droplet size using the rainbow structure observed in the polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg. Simple parametric fitting algorithms applied to the polarized reflectance provide retrievals of the droplet effective radius and variance assuming a prescribed size distribution shape (gamma distribution). In addition to this, we use a non-parametric method, Rainbow Fourier Transform (RFT),which allows retrieval of the droplet size distribution without assuming a size distribution shape. We present an overview of the RSP campaign datasets available from the NASA GISS website, as well as two detailed examples of the retrievals. In these case studies we focus on cloud fields with spatial features

  9. Liquid structure and temperature invariance of sound velocity in supercooled Bi melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emuna, M.; Mayo, M.; Makov, G.; Greenberg, Y.; Caspi, E. N.; Yahel, E.; Beuneu, B.

    2014-01-01

    Structural rearrangement of liquid Bi in the vicinity of the melting point has been proposed due to the unique temperature invariant sound velocity observed above the melting temperature, the low symmetry of Bi in the solid phase and the necessity of overheating to achieve supercooling. The existence of this structural rearrangement is examined by measurements on supercooled Bi. The sound velocity of liquid Bi was measured into the supercooled region to high accuracy and it was found to be invariant over a temperature range of ∼60°, from 35° above the melting point to ∼25° into the supercooled region. The structural origin of this phenomenon was explored by neutron diffraction structural measurements in the supercooled temperature range. These measurements indicate a continuous modification of the short range order in the melt. The structure of the liquid is analyzed within a quasi-crystalline model and is found to evolve continuously, similar to other known liquid pnictide systems. The results are discussed in the context of two competing hypotheses proposed to explain properties of liquid Bi near the melting: (i) liquid bismuth undergoes a structural rearrangement slightly above melting and (ii) liquid Bi exhibits a broad maximum in the sound velocity located incidentally at the melting temperature

  10. Structure, thermodynamics, and dynamical properties of supercooled liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambayashi, Shaw

    1992-12-01

    The equilibrium properties of supercooled liquids with repulsive soft-sphere potentials, u(r) = ε(σ/r) n , have been obtained by solving the integral equation of the theory of liquids and by performing constant-temperature molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A thermodynamically consistent approximation, proposed recently by Rogers and Young (RY), has been examined for the supercooled soft-sphere fluids. Then, a new approximation for the integral equation, called MHNCS (modified hypernetted-chain integral equation for highly supercooled soft-sphere fluids) approximation, is proposed. The solution of the MHNCS integral equation for highly supercooled liquid states agrees well with the results of computer simulations. The MHNCS integral equation has also been applied for binary soft-sphere mixtures. Dynamical properties of soft-sphere fluids have been investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The reduced diffusion constant is found to be insensitive to the choice of the softness of the potential. On the other hand, the spectrum of the velocity autocorrelation function shows a pronounced dependence on the softness of the potential. These significant dynamical properties dependent on the softness parameter (n) are consistent to dynamical behavior observed in liquid alkali metals and liquefied inert gases. The self-part of the density-density autocorrelation function obtained shows a clear nonexponential decay in intermediate time, as the liquid-glass transition is approached. (J.P.N.) 105 refs

  11. Supercooled liquid dynamics for the charged hard-sphere model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Chang, S.Y.

    1994-08-01

    We study the dynamics of supercooled liquid and the liquid-glass transition by applying the mode coupling theory to the charged hard-sphere model. By exploiting the two independent parameters inherent in the charged hard-sphere system we examine structurally the subtle and competitive role played by the short-range hard-core correlation and the long-range Coulomb tail. It is found in this work that the long-range Coulombic charge factor effect is generally a less effective contribution to structure when the plasma parameter is less than 500 and becomes dominant when it is greater thereof. To extend our understanding of the supercooled liquid and the liquid-glass transition, an attempt is made to calculate and to give physical relevance to the mode-coupling parameters which are frequently used as mere fitting parameters in analysis of experiments on supercooled liquid systems. This latter information enables us to discuss the possible application of the model to a realistic system. (author). 22 refs, 4 figs

  12. Liquid phase and supercooled liquid phase welding of bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress on welding in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) has been reviewed. BMGs have been successfully welded to BMGs or crystalline metals by liquid phase welding using explosion, pulse-current and electron-beam methods, and by supercooled liquid phase welding using friction method. Successful welding of the liquid phase methods was due to the high glass-forming ability of the BMGs and the high concentration of welding energy in these methods. In contrast, the supercooled liquid phase welding was successful due to the thermally stable supercooled liquid state of the BMGs and the superplasticity and viscous flow of the supercooled liquid. The successful welding of BMGs to BMGs and crystalline materials is promising for the future development of BMGs as engineering materials

  13. Mixing effects in the crystallization of supercooled quantum binary liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kühnel, M.; Kalinin, A.; Fernández, J. M.; Tejeda, G.; Moreno, E.; Montero, S.; Tramonto, F.; Galli, D. E.; Nava, M.; Grisenti, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    By means of Raman spectroscopy of liquid microjets, we have investigated the crystallization process of supercooled quantum liquid mixtures composed of parahydrogen (pH 2 ) or orthodeuterium (oD 2 ) diluted with small amounts of neon. We show that the introduction of the Ne impurities affects the crystallization kinetics in terms of a significant reduction of the measured pH 2 and oD 2 crystal growth rates, similarly to what found in our previous work on supercooled pH 2 -oD 2 liquid mixtures [Kühnel et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 180201(R) (2014)]. Our experimental results, in combination with path-integral simulations of the supercooled liquid mixtures, suggest in particular a correlation between the measured growth rates and the ratio of the effective particle sizes originating from quantum delocalization effects. We further show that the crystalline structure of the mixtures is also affected to a large extent by the presence of the Ne impurities, which likely initiate the freezing process through the formation of Ne-rich crystallites

  14. Mixing effects in the crystallization of supercooled quantum binary liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kühnel, M.; Kalinin, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, J. W. Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fernández, J. M.; Tejeda, G.; Moreno, E.; Montero, S. [Laboratory of Molecular Fluid Dynamics, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Tramonto, F.; Galli, D. E. [Laboratorio di Calcolo Parallelo e di Simulazioni di Materia Condensata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Nava, M. [Laboratorio di Calcolo Parallelo e di Simulazioni di Materia Condensata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Computational Science, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, USI Campus, Via Giuseppe Buffi 13, CH-6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Grisenti, R. E. [Institut für Kernphysik, J. W. Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI - Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-08-14

    By means of Raman spectroscopy of liquid microjets, we have investigated the crystallization process of supercooled quantum liquid mixtures composed of parahydrogen (pH{sub 2}) or orthodeuterium (oD{sub 2}) diluted with small amounts of neon. We show that the introduction of the Ne impurities affects the crystallization kinetics in terms of a significant reduction of the measured pH{sub 2} and oD{sub 2} crystal growth rates, similarly to what found in our previous work on supercooled pH{sub 2}-oD{sub 2} liquid mixtures [Kühnel et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 180201(R) (2014)]. Our experimental results, in combination with path-integral simulations of the supercooled liquid mixtures, suggest in particular a correlation between the measured growth rates and the ratio of the effective particle sizes originating from quantum delocalization effects. We further show that the crystalline structure of the mixtures is also affected to a large extent by the presence of the Ne impurities, which likely initiate the freezing process through the formation of Ne-rich crystallites.

  15. Tensorial analysis of Eshelby stresses in 3D supercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Anaël

    2015-10-01

    It was recently proposed that the local rearrangements governing relaxation in supercooled liquids impress on the liquid medium long-ranged (Eshelby) stress fluctuations that accumulate over time. From this viewpoint, events must be characterized by elastic dipoles, which are second order tensors, and Eshelby fields are expected to show up in stress and stress increment correlations, which are fourth order tensor fields. We construct here an analytical framework that permits analyzing such tensorial correlations in isotropic media in view of accessing Eshelby fields. Two spherical bases are introduced, which correspond to Cartesian and spherical coordinates for tensors. We show how they can be used to decompose stress correlations and thus test such properties as isotropy and power-law scalings. Eshelby fields and the predicted stress correlations in an infinite medium are shown to belong to an algebra that can conveniently be described using the spherical tensor bases. Using this formalism, we demonstrate that the inherent stress field of 3D supercooled liquids is power law correlated and carries the signature of Eshelby fields, thus supporting the idea that relaxation events give rise to Eshelby stresses that accumulate over time.

  16. Linking density functional and mode coupling models for supercooled liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premkumar, Leishangthem; Bidhoodi, Neeta; Das, Shankar P. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2016-03-28

    We compare predictions from two familiar models of the metastable supercooled liquid, respectively, constructed with thermodynamic and dynamic approaches. In the so called density functional theory the free energy F[ρ] of the liquid is a functional of the inhomogeneous density ρ(r). The metastable state is identified as a local minimum of F[ρ]. The sharp density profile characterizing ρ(r) is identified as a single particle oscillator, whose frequency is obtained from the parameters of the optimum density function. On the other hand, a dynamic approach to supercooled liquids is taken in the mode coupling theory (MCT) which predict a sharp ergodicity-non-ergodicity transition at a critical density. The single particle dynamics in the non-ergodic state, treated approximately, represents a propagating mode whose characteristic frequency is computed from the corresponding memory function of the MCT. The mass localization parameters in the above two models (treated in their simplest forms) are obtained, respectively, in terms of the corresponding natural frequencies depicted and are shown to have comparable magnitudes.

  17. Linking density functional and mode coupling models for supercooled liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Leishangthem; Bidhoodi, Neeta; Das, Shankar P

    2016-03-28

    We compare predictions from two familiar models of the metastable supercooled liquid, respectively, constructed with thermodynamic and dynamic approaches. In the so called density functional theory the free energy F[ρ] of the liquid is a functional of the inhomogeneous density ρ(r). The metastable state is identified as a local minimum of F[ρ]. The sharp density profile characterizing ρ(r) is identified as a single particle oscillator, whose frequency is obtained from the parameters of the optimum density function. On the other hand, a dynamic approach to supercooled liquids is taken in the mode coupling theory (MCT) which predict a sharp ergodicity-non-ergodicity transition at a critical density. The single particle dynamics in the non-ergodic state, treated approximately, represents a propagating mode whose characteristic frequency is computed from the corresponding memory function of the MCT. The mass localization parameters in the above two models (treated in their simplest forms) are obtained, respectively, in terms of the corresponding natural frequencies depicted and are shown to have comparable magnitudes.

  18. Mechanical annealing in the flow of supercooled metallic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Meng; Dai, Lan Hong; Liu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Flow induced structural evolution in a supercooled metallic liquid Vit106a (Zr 58.5 Cu 15.6 Al 10.3 Ni 12.8 Nb 2.8 , at. %) was investigated via uni-axial compression combined with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Compression tests at strain rates covering the transition from Newtonian flow to non-Newtonian flow and at the same strain rate 2 × 10 −1 s −1 to different strains were performed at the end of glass transition (T g-end  = 703 K). The relaxation enthalpies measured by DSC indicate that the samples underwent non-Newtonian flow contain more free volume than the thermally annealed sample (703 K, 4 min), while the samples underwent Newtonian flow contain less, namely, the free volume of supercooled metallic liquids increases in non-Newtonian flow, while decreases in Newtonian flow. The oscillated variation of the relaxation enthalpies of the samples deformed at the same strain rate 2 × 10 −1 s −1 to different strains confirms that the decrease of free volume was caused by flow stress, i.e., “mechanical annealing.” Micro-hardness tests were also performed to show a similar structural evolution tendency. Based on the obtained results, the stress-temperature scaling in the glass transition of metallic glasses are supported experimentally, as stress plays a role similar to temperature in the creation and annihilation of free volume. In addition, a widening perspective angle on the glass transition of metallic glasses by exploring the 3-dimensional stress-temperature-enthalpy phase diagram is presented. The implications of the observed mechanical annealing effect on the amorphous structure and the work-hardening mechanism of metallic glasses are elucidated based on atomic level stress model

  19. Orientational ordering as a possible mechanism for viscosity-enhancement of supercooled liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattagupta, S.

    1990-07-01

    A supercooled liquid is viewed to have regions of local orientational order which can be picturized in terms of cages that restrict single particle diffusion. The mismatch in the orientation of two locally ordered neighbouring regions causes an internal stress which is added to the stress that appears in the Maxwell model of viscoelasticity. This leads to a ''renormalized'' Maxwell time which is related to the susceptibility associated with the orientational order. Hence, when the latter becomes very large, one obtains a large enhancement of the viscosity. (author). 7 refs

  20. Applications and limitations of electron correlation microscopy to study relaxation dynamics in supercooled liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei; He, Li [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Besser, Matthew F. [Materials Science and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Liu, Ze; Schroers, Jan [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Kramer, Matthew J. [Materials Science and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Voyles, Paul M., E-mail: paul.voyles@wisc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Electron correlation microscopy (ECM) is a way to measure structural relaxation times, τ, of liquids with nanometer-scale spatial resolution using coherent electron scattering equivalent of photon correlation spectroscopy. We have applied ECM with a 3.5 nm diameter probe to Pt{sub 57.5}Cu{sub 14.7}Ni{sub 5.3}P{sub 22.5} amorphous nanorods and Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glass (BMG) heated inside the STEM into the supercooled liquid region. These data demonstrate that the ECM technique is limited by the characteristics of the time series, which must be at least 40τ to obtain a well-converged correlation function g{sub 2}(t), and the time per frame, which must be less than 0.1τ to obtain sufficient sampling. A high-speed direct electron camera enables fast acquisition and affords reliable g{sub 2}(t) data even with low signal per frame. - Highlights: • Electron Correlation Microscopy (ECM) technique was applied to measure structural relaxation times of supercooled liquids in metallic glass. • In Pt{sub 57.5}Cu{sub 14.7}Ni{sub 5.3}P{sub 22.5} nanowire, τ and β decreases over the measured supercooled liquid regime. • In Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} bulk alloy, τ decreases from T{sub g}+28 °C to T{sub g}+48 °C, then increases as the temperature approaches T{sub x}. • ECM experiment requires a length of time series at least 40 times the characteristic relaxation time and a time per diffraction pattern at most 0.1 times the relaxation time.

  1. Behavior of supercooled aqueous solutions stemming from hidden liquid-liquid transition in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, John W; Holten, Vincent; Anisimov, Mikhail A

    2014-08-21

    A popular hypothesis that explains the anomalies of supercooled water is the existence of a metastable liquid-liquid transition hidden below the line of homogeneous nucleation. If this transition exists and if it is terminated by a critical point, the addition of a solute should generate a line of liquid-liquid critical points emanating from the critical point of pure metastable water. We have analyzed thermodynamic consequences of this scenario. In particular, we consider the behavior of two systems, H2O-NaCl and H2O-glycerol. We find the behavior of the heat capacity in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl, as reported by Archer and Carter [J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 8563 (2000)], to be consistent with the presence of the metastable liquid-liquid transition. We elucidate the non-conserved nature of the order parameter (extent of "reaction" between two alternative structures of water) and the consequences of its coupling with conserved properties (density and concentration). We also show how the shape of the critical line in a solution controls the difference in concentration of the coexisting liquid phases.

  2. Microscopic Theory for the Role of Attractive Forces in the Dynamics of Supercooled Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Zachary E; Schweizer, Kenneth S

    2015-11-13

    We formulate a microscopic, no adjustable parameter, theory of activated relaxation in supercooled liquids directly in terms of the repulsive and attractive forces within the framework of pair correlations. Under isochoric conditions, attractive forces can nonperturbatively modify slow dynamics, but at high enough density their influence vanishes. Under isobaric conditions, attractive forces play a minor role. High temperature apparent Arrhenius behavior and density-temperature scaling are predicted. Our results are consistent with recent isochoric simulations and isobaric experiments on a deeply supercooled molecular liquid. The approach can be generalized to treat colloidal gelation and glass melting, and other soft matter slow dynamics problems.

  3. Correlation between local structure and stability of supercooled liquid state in Zr-based metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Junji; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Sato, Shigeo; Sanada, Takashi; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Inoue, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    The correlation between the local structure and stability of supercooled liquid state is investigated in the Zr 70 (Ni, Cu) 30 binary and Zr 70 Al 10 (Ni, Cu) 20 (numbers indicate at.%) ternary metallic glasses. The Zr 70 Ni 30 binary amorphous alloy with a low stability of supercooled liquid state has a tetragonal Zr 2 Ni-like local structure around Ni atom. Meanwhile, the Zr 70 Cu 30 binary metallic glass has a different local structure of tetragonal Zr 2 Cu, where we suggest the icosahedral local structure by the quasicrystallization behavior in addition of a very small amount of noble metals. The effect of Al addition on the local structure in the Zr-Ni alloy is also examined. We have investigated that the dominant local structure changes in the icosahedral-like structure from the tetragonal Zr 2 Ni-like local structure by the Al substitution with Ni accompanying with the significant stabilization of supercooled liquid state. It is concluded that the formation of icosahedral local structure contributes to the enhancement of stability of supercooled liquid state in the Zr-based alloys

  4. A liquid-liquid transition in supercooled aqueous solution related to the HDA-LDA transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Sander; Ensing, Bernd; Hilbers, Michiel; Zhao, Zuofeng; Angell, C. Austen

    2018-03-01

    Simulations and theory suggest that the thermodynamic anomalies of water may be related to a phase transition between two supercooled liquid states, but so far this phase transition has not been observed experimentally because of preemptive ice crystallization. We used calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate a water-rich hydrazinium trifluoroacetate solution in which the local hydrogen bond structure surrounding a water molecule resembles that in neat water at elevated pressure, but which does not crystallize upon cooling. Instead, this solution underwent a sharp, reversible phase transition between two homogeneous liquid states. The hydrogen-bond structures of these two states are similar to those established for high- and low-density amorphous (HDA and LDA) water. Such structural similarity supports theories that predict a similar sharp transition in pure water under pressure if ice crystallization could be suppressed.

  5. Breaking Through the Glass Ceiling: Recent Experimental Approaches to Probe the Properties of Supercooled Liquids near the Glass Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R Scott; Kay, Bruce D

    2012-03-15

    Experimental measurements of the properties of supercooled liquids at temperatures near their glass transition temperatures, Tg, are requisite for understanding the behavior of glasses and amorphous solids. Unfortunately, many supercooled molecular liquids rapidly crystallize at temperatures far above their Tg, making such measurements difficult to nearly impossible. In this Perspective, we discuss some recent alternative approaches to obtain experimental data in the temperature regime near Tg. These new approaches may yield the additional experimental data necessary to test current theoretical models of the dynamical slowdown that occurs in supercooled liquids approaching the glass transition.

  6. Thermalization calorimetry: A simple method for investigating glass transition and crystallization of supercooled liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jakobsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple method for fast and cheap thermal analysis on supercooled glass-forming liquids. This “Thermalization Calorimetry” technique is based on monitoring the temperature and its rate of change during heating or cooling of a sample for which the thermal power input comes from heat conduction through an insulating material, i.e., is proportional to the temperature difference between sample and surroundings. The monitored signal reflects the sample’s specific heat and is sensitive to exo- and endothermic processes. The technique is useful for studying supercooled liquids and their crystallization, e.g., for locating the glass transition and melting point(s, as well as for investigating the stability against crystallization and estimating the relative change in specific heat between the solid and liquid phases at the glass transition.

  7. Molecular dynamics study of dynamic and structural properties of supercooled liquid and glassy iron in the rapid-cooling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qi-Long; Huang, Duo-Hui; Yang, Jun-Sheng; Wan, Min-Jie; Wang, Fan-Hou, E-mail: eatonch@gmail.com

    2014-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were applied to study the dynamic and structural properties of supercooled liquid and glassy iron in the rapid-cooling processes. The mean-square displacement and the non-Gaussian parameter were used to describe the dynamic properties. The evolution of structural properties was investigated using the pair distribution functions and bond-angle distribution functions. Results for dynamic and structural relaxations indicate that the dynamic features are consistently correlated with the structure evolution, and there are three temperature regions as the temperature decreases: (1) at higher temperatures (1500 K, 1300 K, and 1100 K), the system remains in the liquid characteristics during the overall relaxation process. (2) At medial temperatures (1050 K, 900 K, and 700 K), a fast β-relaxation is followed by a much slower α-relaxation. There is a little change in the structural properties in the β-relaxation region, while major configuration rearrangements occurred in the α-relaxation range and the crystallization process was completed at the end of α-relaxation region. (3) At lower temperature (500 K), the system shows glassy characteristics during the overall relaxation process. In addition, the melting temperature, glass transition temperature and diffusion coefficients of supercooled liquid iron are also computed.

  8. Structural crossover in a supercooled metallic liquid and the link to a liquid-to-liquid phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, S.; Ma, J. L.; Fan, J. [Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong 83 Tat Chee Ave., Kowloon (Hong Kong); Blodgett, M.; Kelton, K. F. [Department of Physics and Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Washington University One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States); Wang, X.-L., E-mail: xlwang@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong 83 Tat Chee Ave., Kowloon (Hong Kong); City University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2016-05-23

    Time-resolved synchrotron measurements were carried out to capture the structure evolution of an electrostatically levitated metallic-glass-forming liquid during free cooling. The experimental data shows a crossover in the liquid structure at ∼1000 K, about 115 K below the melting temperature and 150 K above the crystallization temperature. The structure change is characterized by a dramatic growth in the extended-range order below the crossover temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations have identified that the growth of the extended-range order was due to an increased correlation between solute atoms. These results provide structural evidence for a liquid-to-liquid-phase-transition in the supercooled metallic liquid.

  9. New Scenario of Dynamical Heterogeneity in Supercooled Liquid and Glassy States of 2D Monatomic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoang, Vo; Teboul, Victor; Odagaki, Takashi

    2015-12-24

    Via analysis of spatiotemporal arrangements of atoms based on their dynamics in supercooled liquid and glassy states of a 2D monatomic system with a double-well Lennard-Jones-Gauss (LJG) interaction potential, we find a new scenario of dynamical heterogeneity. Atoms with the same or very close mobility have a tendency to aggregate into clusters. The number of atoms with high mobility (and size of their clusters) increases with decreasing temperature passing over a maximum before decreasing down to zero. Position of the peak moves toward a lower temperature if mobility of atoms in clusters is lower together with an enhancement of height of the peak. In contrast, the number of atoms with very low mobility or solidlike atoms (and size of their clusters) has a tendency to increase with decreasing temperature and then it suddenly increases in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature leading to the formation of a glassy state. A sudden increase in the number of strongly correlated solidlike atoms in the vicinity of a glass transition temperature (Tg) may be an origin of a drastical increase in viscosity of the glass-forming systems approaching the glass transition. In fact, we find that the diffusion coefficient decays exponentially with a fraction of solidlike atoms exhibiting a sudden decrease in the vicinity of the glass transition region.

  10. Thermalization calorimetry: A simple method for investigating glass transition and crystallization of supercooled liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bo; Sanz, Alejandro; Niss, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    and their crystallization, e.g., for locating the glass transition and melting point(s), as well as for investigating the stability against crystallization and estimating the relative change in specific heat between the solid and liquid phases at the glass transition......We present a simple method for fast and cheap thermal analysis on supercooled glass-forming liquids. This “Thermalization Calorimetry” technique is based on monitoring the temperature and its rate of change during heating or cooling of a sample for which the thermal power input comes from heat...

  11. Predicting How Nanoconfinement Changes the Relaxation Time of a Supercooled Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Errington, Jeff; Truskett, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The properties of nanoconfined fluids can be strikingly different from those of bulk liquids. A basic unanswered question is whether the equilibrium and dynamic consequences of confinement are related to each other in a simple way. We study this question by simulation of a liquid comprising...... asymmetric dumbbell-shaped molecules, which can be deeply supercooled without crystallizing. We find that the dimensionless structural relaxation times—spanning six decades as a function of temperature, density, and degree of confinement—collapse when plotted versus excess entropy. The data also collapse...

  12. Predicting how nanoconfinement changes the relaxation time of a supercooled liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond S; Errington, Jeffrey R; Truskett, Thomas M; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2013-12-06

    The properties of nanoconfined fluids can be strikingly different from those of bulk liquids. A basic unanswered question is whether the equilibrium and dynamic consequences of confinement are related to each other in a simple way. We study this question by simulation of a liquid comprising asymmetric dumbbell-shaped molecules, which can be deeply supercooled without crystallizing. We find that the dimensionless structural relaxation times-spanning six decades as a function of temperature, density, and degree of confinement-collapse when plotted versus excess entropy. The data also collapse when plotted versus excess isochoric heat capacity, a behavior consistent with the existence of isomorphs in the bulk and confined states.

  13. Density of states of colloidal glasses and supercooled liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, A.; Mari, R.; Chikkadi, V.; Schall, P.; Kurchan, J.; Bonn, D.

    2010-01-01

    The glass transition is perhaps the greatest unsolved problem in condensed matter physics: the main question is how to reconcile the liquid-like structure with solid-like mechanical properties. In solids, structure and mechanics are related directly through the vibrational density of states of the

  14. Behavior of supercooled aqueous solutions stemming from hidden liquid–liquid transition in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddle, John W.; Holten, Vincent; Anisimov, Mikhail A., E-mail: anisimov@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-08-21

    A popular hypothesis that explains the anomalies of supercooled water is the existence of a metastable liquid–liquid transition hidden below the line of homogeneous nucleation. If this transition exists and if it is terminated by a critical point, the addition of a solute should generate a line of liquid–liquid critical points emanating from the critical point of pure metastable water. We have analyzed thermodynamic consequences of this scenario. In particular, we consider the behavior of two systems, H{sub 2}O-NaCl and H{sub 2}O-glycerol. We find the behavior of the heat capacity in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl, as reported by Archer and Carter [J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 8563 (2000)], to be consistent with the presence of the metastable liquid–liquid transition. We elucidate the non-conserved nature of the order parameter (extent of “reaction” between two alternative structures of water) and the consequences of its coupling with conserved properties (density and concentration). We also show how the shape of the critical line in a solution controls the difference in concentration of the coexisting liquid phases.

  15. Behavior of supercooled aqueous solutions stemming from hidden liquid–liquid transition in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, John W.; Holten, Vincent; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    A popular hypothesis that explains the anomalies of supercooled water is the existence of a metastable liquid–liquid transition hidden below the line of homogeneous nucleation. If this transition exists and if it is terminated by a critical point, the addition of a solute should generate a line of liquid–liquid critical points emanating from the critical point of pure metastable water. We have analyzed thermodynamic consequences of this scenario. In particular, we consider the behavior of two systems, H 2 O-NaCl and H 2 O-glycerol. We find the behavior of the heat capacity in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl, as reported by Archer and Carter [J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 8563 (2000)], to be consistent with the presence of the metastable liquid–liquid transition. We elucidate the non-conserved nature of the order parameter (extent of “reaction” between two alternative structures of water) and the consequences of its coupling with conserved properties (density and concentration). We also show how the shape of the critical line in a solution controls the difference in concentration of the coexisting liquid phases

  16. On the pressure evolution of dynamic properties of supercooled liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozd-Rzoska, Aleksandra; Rzoska, Sylwester J [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ulica Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Roland, C Michael [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States); Imre, Attila R [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2008-06-18

    A pressure counterpart of the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation for representing the evolution of dielectric relaxation times or related dynamic properties is discussed: {tau}(P) = {tau}{sub 0}{sup P}exp[D{sub P}{delta}P(P{sub 0}-{delta}P)], where {delta}P = P-P{sub SL}, P{sub 0} is the ideal glass pressure estimation, D{sub P} is the pressure fragility strength coefficient, and the prefactor {tau}{sub 0}{sup P} is related to the relaxation time at the stability limit (P{sub SL}) in the negative pressure domain. The discussion is extended to the Avramov model (AvM) relation {tau}(T,P) = {tau}{sub 0}exp[{epsilon}(T{sub g}(P)/T){sup D}], supplemented with a modified Simon-Glatzel-type equation for the pressure dependence of the glass temperature (T{sub g}(P)), enabling an insight into the negative pressure region. A recently postulated (Dyre 2006 Rev. Mod. Phys. 78 953) comparison between the VFT and the AvM-type descriptions is examined, for both the temperature and the pressure paths. Finally, we address the question 'Does fragility depend on pressure?' from the title of Paluch M et al (2001 J. Chem. Phys. 114 8048) and propose a pressure counterpart for the 'Angell plot'.

  17. Using Peltier cells to study solid-liquid-vapour transitions and supercooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torzo, Giacomo; Soletta, Isabella; Branca, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We propose an apparatus for teaching experimental thermodynamics in undergraduate introductory courses, using thermoelectric modules and a real-time data acquisition system. The device may be made at low cost, still providing an easy approach to the investigation of liquid-solid and liquid-vapour phase transitions and of metastable states (supercooling). The thermoelectric module (a technological evolution of the thermocouple) is by itself an interesting subject that offers a clear example of both thermo-electric (Seebeck effect) and electro-thermal (Peltier effect) energy transformation. We report here some cooling/heating measurements for several liquids and mixtures, including water, salt/water, ethanol/water and sodium acetate, showing how to evaluate the phenomena of freezing point depression and elevation, and how to evaluate the water latent heat

  18. Correlation between supercooled liquid relaxation and glass poisson’s ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Q.J.; Hu, L.N.; Zhou, C.

    2015-01-01

    in the ratio r and this relation can be described by the empirical function v = 0.5 − A ∗ exp(−B ∗ r), where A and B are constants. This correlation might imply that glass plasticity is associated with the competition between the α and the slow β relaxations in SLs. The underlying physics of this correlation......We report on a correlation between the supercooled liquid (SL) relaxation and glass Poisson’s ratio (v) by comparing the activation energy ratio (r) of the α and the slow β relaxations and the v values for both metallic and nonmetallic glasses. Poisson’s ratio v generally increases with an increase...... lies in the heredity of the structural heterogeneity from liquid to glass. This work gives insights into both the microscopic mechanism of glass deformation through the SL dynamics and the complex structural evolution during liquid-glass transition....

  19. Local structure and structural signature underlying properties in metallic glasses and supercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun

    Metallic glasses (MGs), discovered five decades ago as a newcomer in the family of glasses, are of current interest because of their unique structures and properties. There are also many fundamental materials science issues that remain unresolved for metallic glasses, as well as their predecessor above glass transition temperature, the supercooled liquids. In particular, it is a major challenge to characterize the local structure and unveil the structure-property relationship for these amorphous materials. This thesis presents a systematic study of the local structure of metallic glasses as well as supercooled liquids via classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Three typical MG models are chosen as representative candidate, Cu64 Zr36, Pd82Si18 and Mg65Cu 25Y10 systems, while the former is dominant with full icosahedra short-range order and the prism-type short-range order dominate for latter two. Furthermore, we move to unravel the underlying structural signature among several properties in metallic glasses. Firstly, the temperature dependence of specific heat and liquid fragility between Cu-Zr and Mg-Cu-Y (also Pd-Si) in supercooled liquids are quite distinct: gradual versus fast evolution of specific heat and viscosity/relaxation time with undercooling. Their local structural ordering are found to relate with the temperature dependence of specific heat and relaxation time. Then elastic heterogeneity has been studied to correlate with local structure in Cu-Zr MGs. Specifically, this part covers how the degree of elastic deformation correlates with the internal structure at the atomic level, how to quantitatively evaluate the local solidity/liquidity in MGs and how the network of interpenetrating connection of icosahedra determine the corresponding shear modulus. Finally, we have illustrated the structure signature of quasi-localized low-frequency vibrational normal modes, which resides the intriguing vibrational properties in MGs. Specifically, the

  20. Air oxidation of Zr65Cu17.5Ni10Al7.5 in its amorphous and supercooled liquid states, studied by thermogravimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawan, A.; Sharma, S.K.; Raetzke, K.; Faupel, F.

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation behaviour of the bulk amorphous alloy Zr 65 Cu 17.5 Ni 10 Al 7.5 was studied in air at various temperatures in the temperature range 591-732 K using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The oxidation kinetics of the alloy obeys the parabolic rate law showing two different linear regions (in the plots of mass gain versus square root of oxidation time) which are attributed to the amorphous and the supercooled liquid states of the alloy. The value of the activation energy Q for the amorphous state as calculated from the temperature dependence of the rate constants is found to be 1.80±0.1 eV and the corresponding value obtained for the supercooled liquid state is 1.20±0.1 eV. It is suggested that the rate controlling process during oxidation of the amorphous state is the back-diffusion of Ni, and possibly Cu also, while the oxidation in the supercooled liquid state is dominated by the inward diffusion of oxygen. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. The molecular dynamics simulation of structure and transport properties of sheared super-cooled liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Liu Xiangfa; Zhang Yanning; Yang Hua; Chen Ying; Bian Xiufang

    2003-01-01

    Much more attention has been paid to the microstructure of liquid metal under non-ordinary condition recently. In this Letter, the pair correlation function (PCF), together with internal energy of sheared super-cooled liquid Co as a function of temperature has been calculated by molecular dynamics simulation based upon the embedded atom method (EAM) and analyzed compared to that under normal condition. The finding indicates that there exist three obvious peaks of PCF for liquid Co; while as the shear stress is applied to the liquid, the first and second peaks of PCF become lower, the third peak disappeared. The concentric shell structure representing short-range order of liquid still exists, however, it is weakened by the addition of shear stress, leading to the increases of disordering degree of liquid metal. The curves of energy versus temperature suggest the higher crystalline temperature compared to that under normal condition at the same cooling rate. In addition, the viscosity of super-liquid Co is calculated by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD)

  2. Supercooled and glassy water: Metastable liquid(s), amorphous solid(s), and a no-man's land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Loerting, Thomas; Sciortino, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    We review the recent research on supercooled and glassy water, focusing on the possible origins of its complex behavior. We stress the central role played by the strong directionality of the water-water interaction and by the competition between local energy, local entropy, and local density. In this context we discuss the phenomenon of polyamorphism (i.e., the existence of more than one disordered solid state), emphasizing both the role of the preparation protocols and the transformation between the different disordered ices. Finally, we present the ongoing debate on the possibility of linking polyamorphism with a liquid-liquid transition that could take place in the no-man's land, the temperature-pressure window in which homogeneous nucleation prevents the investigation of water in its metastable liquid form.

  3. Revealing Hidden Structural Order Controlling Both Fast and Slow Glassy Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Tong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a supercooled liquid near the glass transition is characterized by two-step relaxation, fast β and slow α relaxations. Because of the apparently disordered nature of glassy structures, there have been long debates over whether the origin of drastic slowing-down of the α relaxation accompanied by heterogeneous dynamics is thermodynamic or dynamic. Furthermore, it has been elusive whether there is any deep connection between fast β and slow α modes. To settle these issues, here we introduce a set of new structural order parameters characterizing sterically favored structures with high local packing capability, and then access structure-dynamics correlation by a novel nonlocal approach. We find that the particle mobility is under control of the static order parameter field. The fast β process is controlled by the instantaneous order parameter field locally, resulting in short-time particle-scale dynamics. Then the mobility field progressively develops with time t, following the initial order parameter field from disorder to more ordered regions. As is well known, the heterogeneity in the mobility field (dynamic heterogeneity is maximized with a characteristic length ξ_{4}, when t reaches the relaxation time τ_{α}. We discover that this mobility pattern can be predicted solely by a spatial coarse graining of the initial order parameter field at t=0 over a length ξ without any dynamical information. Furthermore, we find a relation ξ∼ξ_{4}, indicating that the static length ξ grows coherently with the dynamic one ξ_{4} upon cooling. This further suggests an intrinsic link between τ_{α} and ξ: the growth of the static length ξ is the origin of dynamical slowing-down. These we confirm for the first time in binary glass formers both in two and three spatial dimensions. Thus, a static structure has two intrinsic characteristic lengths, particle size and ξ, which control dynamics in local and nonlocal manners, resulting

  4. Revealing Hidden Structural Order Controlling Both Fast and Slow Glassy Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hua; Tanaka, Hajime

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of a supercooled liquid near the glass transition is characterized by two-step relaxation, fast β and slow α relaxations. Because of the apparently disordered nature of glassy structures, there have been long debates over whether the origin of drastic slowing-down of the α relaxation accompanied by heterogeneous dynamics is thermodynamic or dynamic. Furthermore, it has been elusive whether there is any deep connection between fast β and slow α modes. To settle these issues, here we introduce a set of new structural order parameters characterizing sterically favored structures with high local packing capability, and then access structure-dynamics correlation by a novel nonlocal approach. We find that the particle mobility is under control of the static order parameter field. The fast β process is controlled by the instantaneous order parameter field locally, resulting in short-time particle-scale dynamics. Then the mobility field progressively develops with time t , following the initial order parameter field from disorder to more ordered regions. As is well known, the heterogeneity in the mobility field (dynamic heterogeneity) is maximized with a characteristic length ξ4, when t reaches the relaxation time τα. We discover that this mobility pattern can be predicted solely by a spatial coarse graining of the initial order parameter field at t =0 over a length ξ without any dynamical information. Furthermore, we find a relation ξ ˜ξ4, indicating that the static length ξ grows coherently with the dynamic one ξ4 upon cooling. This further suggests an intrinsic link between τα and ξ : the growth of the static length ξ is the origin of dynamical slowing-down. These we confirm for the first time in binary glass formers both in two and three spatial dimensions. Thus, a static structure has two intrinsic characteristic lengths, particle size and ξ , which control dynamics in local and nonlocal manners, resulting in the emergence of the two

  5. Kinetic details of crystallization in supercooled liquid Pb during the isothermal relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lili; Liu Rangsu; Tian Zean; Liu Hairong; Hou Zhaoyang; Peng Ping; Zhu Xuanmin; Liu Quanhui

    2012-01-01

    The kinetic details of crystallization in supercooled liquid Pb during the isothermal relaxation process have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations, and the microstructure evolution analyzed by the cluster-type index method (CTIM) and the tracing method. It has been found that, the dynamic features are consistently correlated with the microstructure evolution and the crystallization characteristics in the mean square displacement (MSD) and the non-Gaussian parameter (NGP): the β relaxation regime corresponds to the minor structural rearrangement because of the “cage effect”, and the atoms attempt to escape from the “cages”; the α relaxation regime is related to a more diffusive movement of atoms, and the appearance of the second plateau in MSD and the non-zero plateau in NGP corresponds to the completion of crystallization. In addition, three distinct stages of nucleation, growth of nuclei and coarsening of crystallites in the crystallization process have been clearly revealed.

  6. Vibrating-Wire, Supercooled Liquid Water Content Sensor Calibration and Characterization Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael C.; Bognar, John A.; Guest, Daniel; Bunt, Fred

    2016-01-01

    NASA conducted a winter 2015 field campaign using weather balloons at the NASA Glenn Research Center to generate a validation database for the NASA Icing Remote Sensing System. The weather balloons carried a specialized, disposable, vibrating-wire sensor to determine supercooled liquid water content aloft. Significant progress has been made to calibrate and characterize these sensors. Calibration testing of the vibrating-wire sensors was carried out in a specially developed, low-speed, icing wind tunnel, and the results were analyzed. The sensor ice accretion behavior was also documented and analyzed. Finally, post-campaign evaluation of the balloon soundings revealed a gradual drift in the sensor data with increasing altitude. This behavior was analyzed and a method to correct for the drift in the data was developed.

  7. Measurement of Density, Sound Velocity, Surface Tension, and Viscosity of Freely Suspended Supercooled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    Non-contact methods have been implemented in conjunction with levitation techniques to carry out the measurement of the macroscopic properties of liquids significantly cooled below their nominal melting point. Free suspension of the sample and remote methods allow the deep excursion into the metastable liquid state and the determination of its thermophysical properties. We used this approach to investigate common substances such as water, o-terphenyl, succinonitrile, as well as higher temperature melts such as molten indium, aluminum and other metals. Although these techniques have thus far involved ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and more recently electrostatic levitation, we restrict our attention to ultrasonic methods in this paper. The resulting magnitude of maximum thermal supercooling achieved have ranged between 10 and 15% of the absolute temperature of the melting point for the materials mentioned above. The physical properties measurement methods have been mostly novel approaches, and the typical accuracy achieved have not yet matched their standard equivalent techniques involving contained samples and invasive probing. They are currently being refined, however, as the levitation techniques become more widespread, and as we gain a better understanding of the physics of levitated liquid samples.

  8. Evidence for the existence of supercooled ethane droplets under conditions prevalent in Titan's atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsson, Omar F; Signorell, Ruth

    2008-11-07

    Recent evidence for ethane clouds and condensation in Titan's atmosphere raise the question whether liquid ethane condensation nuclei and supercooled liquid ethane droplets exist under the prevalent conditions. We present laboratory studies on the phase behaviour of pure ethane aerosols and ethane aerosols formed in the presence of other ice nuclei under conditions relevant to Titan's atmosphere. Combining bath gas cooling with infrared spectroscopy, we find evidence for the existence of supercooled liquid ethane aerosol droplets. The observed homogeneous freezing rates imply that supercooled ethane could be a long-lived species in ethane-rich regions of Titan's atmosphere similar to supercooled water in the Earth's atmosphere.

  9. The nucleation process and the roles of structure and density fluctuations in supercooled liquid Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rong; Wu, Yongquan; Xiao, Junjiang

    2014-01-01

    We observed homogeneous nucleation process of supercooled liquid Fe by molecular dynamics simulations. Using bond-orientational order parameters together with Voronoi polyhedron method, we characterized local structure, calculated the volume of Voronoi polyhedra of atoms and identified the structure and density fluctuations. We monitored the formation of nucleus and analyzed its inner structure. The birth and growth of the pre-nucleus and nucleus are accompanied with aggregating and disaggregating processes in the time scale of femtosecond. Only the initial solid-like clusters (ISLC), ranging from 1 to 7 atoms, pop up directly from liquid. The relation between the logarithm of number of clusters and the cluster size was found to be linear for ISLCs and was observed to be parabolic for all solid-like clusters (SLC) due to aggregating and disaggregating effects. The nucleus and pre-nuclei mainly consist of body centered cubic (BCC) and hexagonal close packed atoms, while the BCC atoms tend to be located at the surface. Medium-range structure fluctuations induce the birth of ISLCs, benefit the aggregation of embryos and remarkably promote the nucleation. But density fluctuations contribute little to nucleation. The lifetime of most icosahedral-like atoms (ICO) is shorter than 0.7 ps. No obvious relationship was found between structure/density fluctuations and the appearance of ICO atoms

  10. Breaking through the glass ceiling: The correlation between the self-diffusivity in and krypton permeation through deeply supercooled liquid nanoscale methanol films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

    2010-03-01

    Molecular beam techniques, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) are used to explore the relationship between krypton permeation through and the self-diffusivity of supercooled liquid methanol at temperatures (100-115 K) near the glass transition temperature, Tg (103 K). Layered films, consisting of CH3OH and CD3OH, are deposited on top of a monolayer of Kr on a graphene covered Pt(111) substrate at 25 K. Concurrent Kr TPD and RAIRS spectra are acquired during the heating of the composite film to temperatures above Tg. The CO vibrational stretch is sensitive to the local molecular environment and is used to determine the supercooled liquid diffusivity from the intermixing of the isotopic layers. We find that the Kr permeation and the diffusivity of the supercooled liquid are directly and quantitatively correlated. These results validate the rare-gas permeation technique as a tool for probing the diffusivity of supercooled liquids.

  11. Mobility of supercooled liquid toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene near their glass transition temperatures investigated using inert gas permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, R Alan; Smith, R Scott; Kay, Bruce D

    2013-11-21

    We investigate the mobility of supercooled liquid toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene near their respective glass transition temperatures (Tg). The permeation rate of Ar, Kr, and Xe through the supercooled liquid created when initially amorphous overlayers are heated above their glass transition temperature is used to determine the diffusivity. Amorphous benzene crystallizes at temperatures well below its Tg, and as a result, the inert gas underlayer remains trapped until the onset of benzene desorption. In contrast, for toluene and ethylbenzene the onset of inert gas permeation is observed at temperatues near Tg. The inert gas desorption peak temperature as a function of the heating rate and overlayer thickness is used to quantify the diffusivity of supercooled liquid toluene and ethylbenzene from 115 to 135 K. In this temperature range, diffusivities are found to vary across 5 orders of magnitude (∼10(-14) to 10(-9) cm(2)/s). The diffusivity data are compared to viscosity measurements and reveal a breakdown in the Stokes-Einstein relationship at low temperatures. However, the data are well fit by the fractional Stokes-Einstein equation with an exponent of 0.66. Efforts to determine the diffusivity of a mixture of benzene and ethylbenzene are detailed, and the effect of mixing these materials on benzene crystallization is explored using infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Bond orientational ordering in a metastable supercooled liquid: a shadow of crystallization and liquid–liquid transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    It is widely believed that a liquid state can be characterized by a single order parameter, density, and that a transition from a liquid to solid can be described by density ordering (translational ordering). For example, this type of theory has had great success in describing the phase behaviour of hard spheres. However, there are some features that cannot be captured by such theories. For example, hard spheres crystallize into either hcp or fcc structures, without a tendency of bcc ordering which is expected by the Alexander–McTague theory based on the Landau-type free energy of the density order parameter. We also found hcp-like bond orientational ordering in a metastable supercooled liquid, which promotes nucleation of hcp crystals. Furthermore, theories based on the single order parameter cannot explain water-like thermodynamic and kinetic anomalies of a liquid and liquid–liquid transition in a single-component liquid. Based on these facts, we argue that we need an additional order parameter to describe a liquid state. It is bond orientational order, which is induced by dense packing in hard spheres or by directional bonding in molecular and atomic liquids. Bond orientational order is intrinsically of local nature, unlike translational order which is of global nature. This feature plays a unique role in crystallization and quasicrystal formation. We also reveal that bond orientational ordering is a cause of dynamic heterogeneity near a glass transition and is linked to slow dynamics. In relation to this, we note that, for describing the structuring of a highly disordered liquid, we need a structural signature of low configurational entropy, which is more general than bond orientational order. Finally, the water-like anomaly and liquid–liquid transition can be explained by bond orientational ordering due to hydrogen or covalent bonding and its cooperativity, respectively. So we argue that bond orientational ordering is a key to the physical understanding

  13. Two-Order-Parameter Description of Liquids: Critical Phenomena and Phase Separation of Supercooled Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Hajime

    1997-01-01

    Because of the isotropic and disordered nature of liquids, the anisotropy hidden in intermolecular interactions are often neglected. Accordingly, the order parameter describing a simple liquid has so far been believed to be only density. In contrast to this common sense, we propose that two order parameters, namely, density and bond order parameters, are required to describe the phase behavior of liquids since they intrinsically tend to form local bonds. This model gives us clear physical exp...

  14. Heterogeneous nucleation from a supercooled ionic liquid on a carbon surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoxia; Shen, Yan; Hung, Francisco R; Santiso, Erik E

    2016-12-07

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the nucleation of the crystal phase of the ionic liquid [dmim + ][Cl - ] from its supercooled liquid phase, both in the bulk and in contact with a graphitic surface of D = 3 nm. By combining the string method in collective variables [Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)], with Markovian milestoning with Voronoi tessellations [Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 2589-2594 (2009)] and order parameters for molecular crystals [Santiso and Trout, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064109 (2011)], we computed minimum free energy paths, the approximate size of the critical nucleus, the free energy barrier, and the rates involved in these nucleation processes. For homogeneous nucleation, the subcooled liquid phase has to overcome a free energy barrier of ∼85 kcal/mol to form a critical nucleus of size ∼3.6 nm, which then grows into the monoclinic crystal phase. This free energy barrier becomes about 42% smaller (∼49 kcal/mol) when the subcooled liquid phase is in contact with a graphitic disk, and the critical nucleus formed is about 17% smaller (∼3.0 nm) than the one observed for homogeneous nucleation. The crystal formed in the heterogeneous nucleation scenario has a structure that is similar to that of the bulk crystal, with the exception of the layers of ions next to the graphene surface, which have larger local density and the cations lie with their imidazolium rings parallel to the graphitic surface. The critical nucleus forms near the graphene surface separated only by these layers of ions. The heterogeneous nucleation rate (∼4.8 × 10 11 cm -3 s -1 ) is about one order of magnitude faster than the homogeneous rate (∼6.6 × 10 10 cm -3 s -1 ). The computed free energy barriers and nucleation rates are in reasonable agreement with experimental and simulation values obtained for the homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of other systems (ice, urea, Lennard-Jones spheres, and oxide

  15. Nature of the anomalies in the supercooled liquid state of the mW model of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holten, Vincent; Limmer, David T.; Molinero, Valeria; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2013-05-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the supercooled liquid state of the mW model of water show anomalous behavior. Like in real water, the heat capacity and compressibility sharply increase upon supercooling. One of the possible explanations of these anomalies, the existence of a second (liquid-liquid) critical point, is not supported by simulations for this model. In this work, we reproduce the anomalies of the mW model with two thermodynamic scenarios: one based on a non-ideal "mixture" with two different types of local order of the water molecules, and one based on weak crystallization theory. We show that both descriptions accurately reproduce the model's basic thermodynamic properties. However, the coupling constant required for the power laws implied by weak crystallization theory is too large relative to the regular backgrounds, contradicting assumptions of weak crystallization theory. Fluctuation corrections outside the scope of this work would be necessary to fit the forms predicted by weak crystallization theory. For the two-state approach, the direct computation of the low-density fraction of molecules in the mW model is in agreement with the prediction of the phenomenological equation of state. The non-ideality of the "mixture" of the two states never becomes strong enough to cause liquid-liquid phase separation, also in agreement with simulation results.

  16. Nature of the anomalies in the supercooled liquid state of the mW model of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holten, Vincent; Limmer, David T; Molinero, Valeria; Anisimov, Mikhail A

    2013-05-07

    The thermodynamic properties of the supercooled liquid state of the mW model of water show anomalous behavior. Like in real water, the heat capacity and compressibility sharply increase upon supercooling. One of the possible explanations of these anomalies, the existence of a second (liquid-liquid) critical point, is not supported by simulations for this model. In this work, we reproduce the anomalies of the mW model with two thermodynamic scenarios: one based on a non-ideal "mixture" with two different types of local order of the water molecules, and one based on weak crystallization theory. We show that both descriptions accurately reproduce the model's basic thermodynamic properties. However, the coupling constant required for the power laws implied by weak crystallization theory is too large relative to the regular backgrounds, contradicting assumptions of weak crystallization theory. Fluctuation corrections outside the scope of this work would be necessary to fit the forms predicted by weak crystallization theory. For the two-state approach, the direct computation of the low-density fraction of molecules in the mW model is in agreement with the prediction of the phenomenological equation of state. The non-ideality of the "mixture" of the two states never becomes strong enough to cause liquid-liquid phase separation, also in agreement with simulation results.

  17. Mixed quantum/classical approach to OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectroscopy for ambient and supercooled liquid water and ice Ih

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) has been measured to determine the vibrational density of states (VDOS) in the OH-stretch region for liquid water, supercooled water, and ice Ih, providing complementary information to IR and Raman spectroscopies about hydrogen bonding in these phases. In this work, we extend the combined electronic-structure/molecular-dynamics (ES/MD) method, originally developed by Skinner and co-workers to simulate OH-stretch IR and Raman spectra, to the calculation of IINS spectra with small k values. The agreement between theory and experiment in the limit k → 0 is reasonable, further validating the reliability of the ES/MD method in simulating OH-stretch spectroscopy in condensed phases. The connections and differences between IINS and IR spectra are analyzed to illustrate the advantages of IINS over IR in estimating the OH-stretch VDOS.

  18. Mixed quantum/classical approach to OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectroscopy for ambient and supercooled liquid water and ice Ih

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, L.; Skinner, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) has been measured to determine the vibrational density of states (VDOS) in the OH-stretch region for liquid water, supercooled water, and ice Ih, providing complementary information to IR and Raman spectroscopies about hydrogen bonding in these phases. In this work, we extend the combined electronic-structure/molecular-dynamics (ES/MD) method, originally developed by Skinner and co-workers to simulate OH-stretch IR and Raman spectra, to the calculation of IINS spectra with small k values. The agreement between theory and experiment in the limit k → 0 is reasonable, further validating the reliability of the ES/MD method in simulating OH-stretch spectroscopy in condensed phases. The connections and differences between IINS and IR spectra are analyzed to illustrate the advantages of IINS over IR in estimating the OH-stretch VDOS

  19. An apparatus with a horizontal capillary tube intended for measurement of the surface tension of supercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinš, Václav; Hošek, Jan; Hykl, Jiří; Hrubý, Jan

    2015-05-01

    New experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of liquids under the metastable supercooled state has been designed and assembled in the study. The measuring technique is similar to the method employed by P.T. Hacker [NACA TN 2510] in 1951. A short liquid thread of the liquid sample was sucked inside a horizontal capillary tube partly placed in a temperature-controlled glass chamber. One end of the capillary tube was connected to a setup with inert gas which allowed for precise tuning of the gas overpressure in order of hundreds of Pa. The open end of the capillary tube was precisely grinded and polished before the measurement in order to assure planarity and perpendicularity of the outer surface. The liquid meniscus at the open end was illuminated by a laser beam and observed by a digital camera. Application of an increasing overpressure of the inert gas at the inner meniscus of the liquid thread caused variation of the outer meniscus such that it gradually changed from concave to flat and subsequently convex shape. The surface tension at the temperature of the inner meniscus could be evaluated from the overpressure corresponding to exactly planar outer meniscus. Detailed description of the new setup together with results of the preliminary tests is provided in the study.

  20. Supercooled smectic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Westesen, K; Drechsler, M

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of preparing nanoparticles in the supercooled thermotropic liquid crystalline state from cholesterol esters with saturated acyl chains as well as the incorporation of model drugs into the dispersions was investigated using cholesteryl myristate (CM) as a model cholesterol ester....

  1. Glass transition memorized by the enthalpy-entropy compensation in the shear thinning of supercooled metallic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Lin

    2018-06-01

    To unravel the true nature of glass transition, broader insights into glass forming have been gained by examining the stress-driven glassy systems, where strong shear thinning, i.e. a reduced viscosity under increasing shear rate, is encountered. It is argued that arbitrarily small stress-driven shear rates would ‘melt’ the glass and erase any memory of its thermal history. In this work, we report a glass transition memorized by the enthalpy-entropy compensation in strongly shear-thinned supercooled metallic liquids, which coincides with the thermal glass transition in both the transition temperature and the activation Gibbs free energy. Our findings provide distinctive insights into both glass forming and shear thinning, and enrich current knowledge on the ubiquitous enthalpy-entropy compensation empirical law in condensed matter physics.

  2. Dynamics of supercooled liquids: excess wings, β peaks, and rotation-translation coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, H Z

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric susceptibility spectra of liquids cooled towards the liquid-glass transition often exhibit secondary structure in the frequency region between the α peak and the susceptibility minimum, in the form of either an 'excess wing' or a secondary peak-the Johari-Goldstein β peak. Recently, Goetze and Sperl (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 105701) showed that a simple schematic mode coupling theory model, which incorporates rotation-translation (RT) coupling, successfully describes the nearly logarithmic decay observed in optical Kerr effect data. This model also exhibits both excess wing and β peak features, qualitatively resembling experimental dielectric data. It also predicts that the excess wing slope decreases with decreasing temperature and gradually evolves into a β peak with increasing RT coupling. We therefore suggest that these features and their observed evolution with temperature may be consequences of RT coupling

  3. Two-state thermodynamics and the possibility of a liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled TIP4P/2005 water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rakesh S.; Debenedetti, Pablo G. [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Biddle, John W.; Anisimov, Mikhail A., E-mail: anisimov@umd.edu [Institute of Physical Science and Technology and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Water shows intriguing thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies in the supercooled liquid state. One possible explanation of the origin of these anomalies lies in the existence of a metastable liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) between two (high and low density) forms of water. While the anomalies are observed in experiments on bulk and confined water and by computer simulation studies of different water-like models, the existence of a LLPT in water is still debated. Unambiguous experimental proof of the existence of a LLPT in bulk supercooled water is hampered by fast ice nucleation which is a precursor of the hypothesized LLPT. Moreover, the hypothesized LLPT, being metastable, in principle cannot exist in the thermodynamic limit (infinite size, infinite time). Therefore, computer simulations of water models are crucial for exploring the possibility of the metastable LLPT and the nature of the anomalies. In this work, we present new simulation results in the NVT ensemble for one of the most accurate classical molecular models of water, TIP4P/2005. To describe the computed properties and explore the possibility of a LLPT, we have applied two-structure thermodynamics, viewing water as a non-ideal mixture of two interconvertible local structures (“states”). The results suggest the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point and are consistent with the existence of a LLPT in this model for the simulated length and time scales. We have compared the behavior of TIP4P/2005 with other popular water-like models, namely, mW and ST2, and with real water, all of which are well described by two-state thermodynamics. In view of the current debate involving different studies of TIP4P/2005, we discuss consequences of metastability and finite size in observing the liquid-liquid separation. We also address the relationship between the phenomenological order parameter of two-structure thermodynamics and the microscopic nature of the low-density structure.

  4. Two-state thermodynamics and the possibility of a liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled TIP4P/2005 water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rakesh S.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Biddle, John W.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2016-01-01

    Water shows intriguing thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies in the supercooled liquid state. One possible explanation of the origin of these anomalies lies in the existence of a metastable liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) between two (high and low density) forms of water. While the anomalies are observed in experiments on bulk and confined water and by computer simulation studies of different water-like models, the existence of a LLPT in water is still debated. Unambiguous experimental proof of the existence of a LLPT in bulk supercooled water is hampered by fast ice nucleation which is a precursor of the hypothesized LLPT. Moreover, the hypothesized LLPT, being metastable, in principle cannot exist in the thermodynamic limit (infinite size, infinite time). Therefore, computer simulations of water models are crucial for exploring the possibility of the metastable LLPT and the nature of the anomalies. In this work, we present new simulation results in the NVT ensemble for one of the most accurate classical molecular models of water, TIP4P/2005. To describe the computed properties and explore the possibility of a LLPT, we have applied two-structure thermodynamics, viewing water as a non-ideal mixture of two interconvertible local structures (“states”). The results suggest the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point and are consistent with the existence of a LLPT in this model for the simulated length and time scales. We have compared the behavior of TIP4P/2005 with other popular water-like models, namely, mW and ST2, and with real water, all of which are well described by two-state thermodynamics. In view of the current debate involving different studies of TIP4P/2005, we discuss consequences of metastability and finite size in observing the liquid-liquid separation. We also address the relationship between the phenomenological order parameter of two-structure thermodynamics and the microscopic nature of the low-density structure.

  5. Molecular dynamics studies of the dynamics of supercooled Lennard-Jones liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leeuw, S.W.; Brakkee, M.J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of molecular dynamics experiments, in which the Lennard-Jones liquid is cooled isobarically into the metastable temperature region below the freezing temperature. The variation of the density-density and transverse current correlation functions with temperature is studied. We observed a power-law behaviour for the temperature dependence of dynamical properties (viscosity and coefficienty of self-diffusion) with an exponent in good agreement with prediction of mode coupling theories and recent experimental results. (author). 23 refs, 5 figs

  6. More accurate X-ray scattering data of deeply supercooled bulk liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Benmore, Chris J [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Weber, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Paschek, Dietmar [Rostock University, Rostock, Germany

    2011-01-01

    Deeply supercooled water droplets held container-less in an acoustic levitator are investigated with high energy X-ray scattering. The temperature dependence X-ray structure function is found to be non-linear. Comparison with two popular computer models reveals that structural changes are predicted too abrupt by the TIP5P model, while the rate of change predicted by TIP4P is in much better agreement with experiment. The abrupt structural changes predicted by the TIP5P model to occur in the temperature range between 260-240K as water approaches the homogeneous nucleation limit are unrealistic. Both models underestimate the distance between neighbouring oxygen atoms and overestimate the sharpness of the OO distance distribution, indicating that the strength of the H-bond is overestimated in these models.

  7. The Widom line of supercooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzese, Giancarlo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Water can be supercooled to temperatures as low as -92 deg. C, the experimental crystal homogeneous nucleation temperature T H at 2 kbar. Within the supercooled liquid phase its response functions show an anomalous increase consistent with the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point located in a region inaccessible to experiments on bulk water. Recent experiments on the dynamics of confined water show that a possible way to understand the properties of water is to investigate the supercooled phase diagram in the vicinity of the Widom line (locus of maximum correlation length) that emanates from the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point. Here we explore the Widom line for a Hamiltonian model of water using an analytic approach, and discuss the plausibility of the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point, as well as its possible consequences, on the basis of the assumptions of the model. The present analysis allows us (i) to find an analytic expression for the spinodal line of the high-density liquid phase, with respect to the low-density liquid phase, showing that this line becomes flat in the P-T phase diagram in the physical limit of a large number of available orientations for the hydrogen bonds, as recently seen in simulations and experiments (Xu et al 2005 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 102 16558); (ii) to find an estimate of the values for the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point coordinates that compare very well with Monte Carlo results; and (iii) to show how the Widom line can be located by studying the derivative of the probability of forming hydrogen bonds with local tetrahedral orientation which can be calculated analytically within this approach

  8. The kinetic glass transition of the Zr46.75Ti8.25Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk metallic glass former-supercooled liquids on a long time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, R.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    Viscosity and enthalpy relaxation from the amorphous state into the supercooled liquid state was investigated in the bulk metallic glass forming Zr 46.75 Ti 8.25 Cu 7.5 Ni 10 Be 27.5 alloy below the calorimetric glass transition. At different temperatures, the viscosities relax into states that obey the same Vogel endash Fulcher endash Tammann relation as the data obtained at higher temperatures in the supercooled liquid. Enthalpy recovery experiments after relaxation in the same temperature range show that the enthalpy of the material reaches values that also corresponds to the supercooled liquid state. The glass relaxes into a metastable supercooled liquid state, if it is observed on a long time scale. Equilibration is possible far below the calorimetric glass transition and very likely even below the isentropic temperature. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  9. Communication: Towards first principles theory of relaxation in supercooled liquids formulated in terms of cooperative motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Karl F

    2014-10-14

    A general theory of the long time, low temperature dynamics of glass-forming fluids remains elusive despite the almost 20 years since the famous pronouncement by the Nobel Laureate P. W. Anderson, "The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition" [Science 267, 1615 (1995)]. While recent work indicates that Adam-Gibbs theory (AGT) provides a framework for computing the structural relaxation time of supercooled fluids and for analyzing the properties of the cooperatively rearranging dynamical strings observed in low temperature molecular dynamics simulations, the heuristic nature of AGT has impeded general acceptance due to the lack of a first principles derivation [G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)]. This deficiency is rectified here by a statistical mechanical derivation of AGT that uses transition state theory and the assumption that the transition state is composed of elementary excitations of a string-like form. The strings are assumed to form in equilibrium with the mobile particles in the fluid. Hence, transition state theory requires the strings to be in mutual equilibrium and thus to have the size distribution of a self-assembling system, in accord with the simulations and analyses of Douglas and co-workers. The average relaxation rate is computed as a grand canonical ensemble average over all string sizes, and use of the previously determined relation between configurational entropy and the average cluster size in several model equilibrium self-associating systems produces the AGT expression in a manner enabling further extensions and more fundamental tests of the assumptions.

  10. Communication: Towards first principles theory of relaxation in supercooled liquids formulated in terms of cooperative motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freed, Karl F., E-mail: freed@uchicago.edu [James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, 929 East 57 Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-10-14

    A general theory of the long time, low temperature dynamics of glass-forming fluids remains elusive despite the almost 20 years since the famous pronouncement by the Nobel Laureate P. W. Anderson, “The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition” [Science 267, 1615 (1995)]. While recent work indicates that Adam-Gibbs theory (AGT) provides a framework for computing the structural relaxation time of supercooled fluids and for analyzing the properties of the cooperatively rearranging dynamical strings observed in low temperature molecular dynamics simulations, the heuristic nature of AGT has impeded general acceptance due to the lack of a first principles derivation [G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)]. This deficiency is rectified here by a statistical mechanical derivation of AGT that uses transition state theory and the assumption that the transition state is composed of elementary excitations of a string-like form. The strings are assumed to form in equilibrium with the mobile particles in the fluid. Hence, transition state theory requires the strings to be in mutual equilibrium and thus to have the size distribution of a self-assembling system, in accord with the simulations and analyses of Douglas and co-workers. The average relaxation rate is computed as a grand canonical ensemble average over all string sizes, and use of the previously determined relation between configurational entropy and the average cluster size in several model equilibrium self-associating systems produces the AGT expression in a manner enabling further extensions and more fundamental tests of the assumptions.

  11. Comparison of the Supercooled Spin Liquid States in the Pyrochlore Magnets Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Anna; Eyvazov, Azar B.; Dusad, Ritika; Munsie, Timothy J. S.; Luke, Graeme M.; Davis, J. C. Séamus

    Despite a well-ordered crystal structure and strong magnetic interactions between the Dy or Ho ions, no long-range magnetic order has been detected in the pyrochlore titanates Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7. The low temperature state in these materials is governed by spin-ice rules. These constrain the Ising like spins in the materials, yet does not result in a global broken symmetry state. To explore the actual magnetic phases, we simultaneously measure the time- and frequency-dependent magnetization dynamics of Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7 using toroidal, boundary-free magnetization transport techniques. We demonstrate a distinctive behavior of the magnetic susceptibility of both compounds, that is indistinguishable in form from the permittivity of supercooled dipolar liquids. Moreover, we show that the microscopic magnetic relaxation times for both materials increase along a super-Arrhenius trajectory also characteristic of supercooled glass-forming liquids. Both materials therefore exhibit characteristics of a supercooled spin liquid. Strongly-correlated dynamics of loops of spins is suggested as a possible mechanism which could account for these findings. Potential connections to many-body spin localization will also be discussed.

  12. Supercooled dynamics of glass-forming liquids and polymers under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, C M [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States); Hensel-Bielowka, S [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Casalini, R [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States); Chemistry Department, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2005-06-01

    An intriguing problem in condensed matter physics is understanding the glass transition, in particular the dynamics in the equilibrium liquid close to vitrification. Recent advances have been made by using hydrostatic pressure as an experimental variable. These results are reviewed, with an emphasis in the insight provided into the mechanisms underlying the relaxation properties of glass-forming liquids and polymers.

  13. Supercooled liquid vapour pressures and related thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.; Govers, H.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method using Kovats retention indices has been applied to determine the liquid vapour pressure (P-i), enthalpy of vaporization (Delta H-i) and difference in heat capacity between gas and liquid phase (Delta C-i) for a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This group

  14. Using Peltier Cells to Study Solid-Liquid-Vapour Transitions and Supercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torzo, Giacomo; Soletta, Isabella; Branca, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We propose an apparatus for teaching experimental thermodynamics in undergraduate introductory courses, using thermoelectric modules and a real-time data acquisition system. The device may be made at low cost, still providing an easy approach to the investigation of liquid-solid and liquid-vapour phase transitions and of metastable states…

  15. Fragile to strong crossover at the Widom line in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Corradini, D.; Rovere, M., E-mail: rovere@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy)

    2013-11-28

    We study by molecular dynamics simulations the dynamical properties of an aqueous solution of NaCl at a concentration of 0.67 mol/kg upon supercooling. In a previous study of the same ionic solution, we have located the liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) and determined the Widom line connected to the liquid-liquid transition. We present here the results obtained from the study of the self-intermediate scattering function in a large range of temperatures and densities approaching the LLCP. The structural relaxation is in agreement with the mode coupling theory (MCT) in the region of mild supercooling. In the deeper supercooled region the α-relaxation time as function of temperature deviates from the MCT power law prediction showing a crossover from a fragile to a strong behavior. This crossover is found upon crossing the Widom line. The same trend was found in bulk water upon supercooling and it appears almost unchanged by the interaction with ions apart from a shift in the thermodynamic plane toward lower pressures and higher temperatures. These results show that the phenomenology of supercooled water transfers from bulk to solution where the study of the supercooled region is experimentally less difficult.

  16. Equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics in supercooled liquids and glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, S; Nave, E La; Tartaglia, P; Sciortino, F

    2003-01-01

    We review the inherent structure thermodynamical formalism and the formulation of an equation of state (EOS) for liquids in equilibrium based on the (volume) derivatives of the statistical properties of the potential energy surface. We also show that, under the hypothesis that during ageing the system explores states associated with equilibrium configurations, it is possible to generalize the proposed EOS to out-of-equilibrium (OOE) conditions. The proposed formulation is based on the introduction of one additional parameter which, in the chosen thermodynamic formalism, can be chosen as the local minimum where the slowly relaxing OOE liquid is trapped

  17. Structure in sheared supercooled liquids: Dynamical rearrangements of an effective system of icosahedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinney, Rhiannon; Liverpool, Tanniemola B; Royall, C Patrick

    2016-12-21

    We consider a binary Lennard-Jones glassformer whose super-Arrhenius dynamics are correlated with the formation of particles organized into icosahedra under simple steady state shear. We recast this glassformer as an effective system of icosahedra [Pinney et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 244507 (2015)]. From the observed population of icosahedra in each steady state, we obtain an effective temperature which is linearly dependent on the shear rate in the range considered. Upon shear banding, the system separates into a region of high shear rate and a region of low shear rate. The effective temperatures obtained in each case show that the low shear regions correspond to a significantly lower temperature than the high shear regions. Taking a weighted average of the effective temperature of these regions (weight determined by region size) yields an estimate of the effective temperature which compares well with an effective temperature based on the global mesocluster population of the whole system.

  18. Scaling parallels in the non-Debye dielectric relaxation of ionic glasses and dipolar supercooled liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidebottom, D.L.; Green, P.F.; Brow, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    We compare the dielectric response of ionic glasses and dipolar liquids near the glass transition. Our work is divided into two parts. In the first section we examine ionic glasses and the two prominent approaches to analyzing the dielectric response. The conductivity of ion-conducting glasses displays a power law dispersion σ(ω)∝ω n , where n∼0.67, but frequently the dielectric response is analyzed using the electrical modulus M * (ω)=1/var-epsilon * (ω), where var-epsilon * (ω)=var-epsilon(ω)-iσ(ω)/ω is the complex permittivity. We reexamine two specific examples where the shape of M * (ω) changes in response to changes in (a) temperature and (b) ion concentration, to suggest fundamental changes in ion dynamics are occurring. We show, however, that these changes in the shape of M * (ω) occur in the absence of changes in the scaling properties of σ(ω), for which n remains constant. In the second part, we examine the dielectric relaxation found in dipolar liquids, for which var-epsilon * (ω) likewise exhibits changes in shape on approach to the glass transition. Guided by similarities of M * (ω) in ionic glasses and var-epsilon * (ω) in dipolar liquids, we demonstrate that a recent scaling approach proposed by Dixon and co-workers for var-epsilon * (ω) of dipolar relaxation also appears valid for M * (ω) in the ionic case. While this suggests that the Dixon scaling approach is more universal than previously recognized, we demonstrate how the dielectric response can be scaled in a linear manner using an alternative data representation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamics in supercooled liquid state of pharmaceuticals: Itraconazole and ketoconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnacka, M; Madejczyk, O; Adrjanowicz, K; Pionteck, J; Kaminska, E; Kamiński, K; Paluch, M

    2015-06-14

    Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) measurements and broadband dielectric spectroscopy were carried out to investigate molecular dynamics and to test the validity of thermodynamic scaling of two homologous compounds of pharmaceutical activity: itraconazole and ketoconazole in the wide range of thermodynamic conditions. The pressure coefficients of the glass transition temperature (dT(g)/dp) for itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined to be equal to 183 and 228 K/GPa, respectively. However, for itraconazole, the additional transition to the nematic phase was observed and characterized by the pressure coefficient dT(n)/dp = 258 K/GPa. From PVT and dielectric data, we obtained that the liquid-nematic phase transition is governed by the relaxation time since it occurred at constant τ(α) = 10(-5) s. Furthermore, we plotted the obtained relaxation times as a function of T(-1)v(-γ), which has revealed that the validity of thermodynamic scaling with the γ exponent equals to 3.69 ± 0.04 and 3.64 ± 0.03 for itraconazole and ketoconazole, respectively. Further analysis of the scaling parameter in itraconazole revealed that it unexpectedly decreases with increasing relaxation time, which resulted in dramatic change of the shape of the thermodynamic scaling master curve. While in the case of ketoconazole, it remained the same within entire range of data (within experimental uncertainty). We suppose that in case of itraconazole, this peculiar behavior is related to the liquid crystals' properties of itraconazole molecule.

  20. Supercooled liquid vapour pressures and related thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftka, Joris J H; Parsons, John R; Govers, Harrie A J

    2006-11-24

    A gas chromatographic method using Kováts retention indices has been applied to determine the liquid vapour pressure (P(i)), enthalpy of vaporization (DeltaH(i)) and difference in heat capacity between gas and liquid phase (DeltaC(i)) for a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This group consists of 19 unsubstituted, methylated and sulphur containing PAHs. Differences in log P(i) of -0.04 to +0.99 log units at 298.15K were observed between experimental values and data from effusion and gas saturation studies. These differences in log P(i) have been fitted with multilinear regression resulting in a compound and temperature dependent correction. Over a temperature range from 273.15 to 423.15K, differences in corrected log P(i) of a training set (-0.07 to +0.03 log units) and a validation set (-0.17 to 0.19 log units) were within calculated error ranges. The corrected vapour pressures also showed a good agreement with other GC determined vapour pressures (average -0.09 log units).

  1. Configurational entropy measurements in extremely supercooled liquids that break the glass ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Ludovic; Charbonneau, Patrick; Coslovich, Daniele; Ninarello, Andrea; Ozawa, Misaki; Yaida, Sho

    2017-10-01

    Liquids relax extremely slowly on approaching the glass state. One explanation is that an entropy crisis, because of the rarefaction of available states, makes it increasingly arduous to reach equilibrium in that regime. Validating this scenario is challenging, because experiments offer limited resolution, while numerical studies lag more than eight orders of magnitude behind experimentally relevant timescales. In this work, we not only close the colossal gap between experiments and simulations but manage to create in silico configurations that have no experimental analog yet. Deploying a range of computational tools, we obtain four estimates of their configurational entropy. These measurements consistently confirm that the steep entropy decrease observed in experiments is also found in simulations, even beyond the experimental glass transition. Our numerical results thus extend the observational window into the physics of glasses and reinforce the relevance of an entropy crisis for understanding their formation.

  2. Breaking the glass ceiling: Configurational entropy measurements in extremely supercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Ludovic

    Liquids relax extremely slowly on approaching the glass state. One explanation is that an entropy crisis, due to the rarefaction of available states, makes it increasingly arduous to reach equilibrium in that regime. Validating this scenario is challenging, because experiments offer limited resolution, while numerical studies lag more than eight orders of magnitude behind experimentally-relevant timescales. In this work we not only close the colossal gap between experiments and simulations but manage to create in-silico configurations that have no experimental analog yet. Deploying a range of computational tools, we obtain four independent estimates of their configurational entropy. These measurements consistently indicate that the steep entropy decrease observed in experiments is found in simulations even beyond the experimental glass transition. Our numerical results thus open a new observational window into the physics of glasses and reinforce the relevance of an entropy crisis for understanding their formation.

  3. Thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamics in supercooled liquid state of pharmaceuticals: Itraconazole and ketoconazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnacka, M., E-mail: mtarnacka@us.edu.pl; Madejczyk, O.; Kamiński, K.; Paluch, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center of Education and Interdisciplinary Research, University of Silesia, ul. 75 Pulku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); Adrjanowicz, K. [NanoBioMedical Centre, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Pionteck, J. [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Kaminska, E. [Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmacy and Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jagiellonska 4, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2015-06-14

    Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) measurements and broadband dielectric spectroscopy were carried out to investigate molecular dynamics and to test the validity of thermodynamic scaling of two homologous compounds of pharmaceutical activity: itraconazole and ketoconazole in the wide range of thermodynamic conditions. The pressure coefficients of the glass transition temperature (dT{sub g}/dp) for itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined to be equal to 183 and 228 K/GPa, respectively. However, for itraconazole, the additional transition to the nematic phase was observed and characterized by the pressure coefficient dT{sub n}/dp = 258 K/GPa. From PVT and dielectric data, we obtained that the liquid-nematic phase transition is governed by the relaxation time since it occurred at constant τ {sub α} = 10{sup −5} s. Furthermore, we plotted the obtained relaxation times as a function of T{sup −1}v{sup −γ}, which has revealed that the validity of thermodynamic scaling with the γ exponent equals to 3.69 ± 0.04 and 3.64 ± 0.03 for itraconazole and ketoconazole, respectively. Further analysis of the scaling parameter in itraconazole revealed that it unexpectedly decreases with increasing relaxation time, which resulted in dramatic change of the shape of the thermodynamic scaling master curve. While in the case of ketoconazole, it remained the same within entire range of data (within experimental uncertainty). We suppose that in case of itraconazole, this peculiar behavior is related to the liquid crystals’ properties of itraconazole molecule.

  4. Thermal conductivity of supercooled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, John W; Holten, Vincent; Sengers, Jan V; Anisimov, Mikhail A

    2013-04-01

    The heat capacity of supercooled water, measured down to -37°C, shows an anomalous increase as temperature decreases. The thermal diffusivity, i.e., the ratio of the thermal conductivity and the heat capacity per unit volume, shows a decrease. These anomalies may be associated with a hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point in supercooled water below the line of homogeneous nucleation. However, while the thermal conductivity is known to diverge at the vapor-liquid critical point due to critical density fluctuations, the thermal conductivity of supercooled water, calculated as the product of thermal diffusivity and heat capacity, does not show any sign of such an anomaly. We have used mode-coupling theory to investigate the possible effect of critical fluctuations on the thermal conductivity of supercooled water and found that indeed any critical thermal-conductivity enhancement would be too small to be measurable at experimentally accessible temperatures. Moreover, the behavior of thermal conductivity can be explained by the observed anomalies of the thermodynamic properties. In particular, we show that thermal conductivity should go through a minimum when temperature is decreased, as Kumar and Stanley observed in the TIP5P model of water. We discuss physical reasons for the striking difference between the behavior of thermal conductivity in water near the vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid critical points.

  5. Predicting glass-to-glass and liquid-to-liquid phase transitions in supercooled water using classical nucleation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Robert F.

    2018-01-01

    Glass-to-glass and liquid-to-liquid phase transitions are observed in bulk and confined water, with or without applied pressure. They result from the competition of two liquid phases separated by an enthalpy difference depending on temperature. The classical nucleation equation of these phases is completed by this quantity existing at all temperatures, a pressure contribution, and an enthalpy excess. This equation leads to two homogeneous nucleation temperatures in each liquid phase; the first one (Tn- below Tm) being the formation temperature of an "ordered" liquid phase and the second one corresponding to the overheating temperature (Tn+ above Tm). Thermodynamic properties, double glass transition temperatures, sharp enthalpy and volume changes are predicted in agreement with experimental results. The first-order transition line at TLL = 0.833 × Tm between fragile and strong liquids joins two critical points. Glass phase above Tg becomes "ordered" liquid phase disappearing at TLL at low pressure and at Tn+ = 1.302 × Tm at high pressure.

  6. METHANE GAS STABILIZES SUPERCOOLED ETHANE DROPLETS IN TITAN'S CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chia C.; Lang, E. Kathrin; Signorell, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Strong evidence for ethane clouds in various regions of Titan's atmosphere has recently been found. Ethane is usually assumed to exist as ice particles in these clouds, although the possible role of liquid and supercooled liquid ethane droplets has been recognized. Here, we report on infrared spectroscopic measurements of ethane aerosols performed in the laboratory under conditions mimicking Titan's lower atmosphere. The results clearly show that liquid ethane droplets are significantly stabilized by methane gas which is ubiquitous in Titan's nitrogen atmosphere-a phenomenon that does not have a counterpart for water droplets in Earth's atmosphere. Our data imply that supercooled ethane droplets are much more abundant in Titan's clouds than previously anticipated. Possibly, these liquid droplets are even more important for cloud processes and the formation of lakes than ethane ice particles.

  7. An energy landscape based approach for studying supercooled liquid and glassy thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pooja; Mittal, Jeetain; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2004-03-01

    Materials in confined spaces are important in science and technology. Examples include biological fluids in membranes, liquids trapped in porous rocks, and thin-film materials used in high-resolution patterning technologies. However, few reliable rules exist to predict how the properties of materials will be affected by thin-film confinement. We have recently shown that the potential energy landscape formalism can be used to study, by both theory [1] and simulation [2], how the behavior of thin-film materials depends on sample dimensions and film-substrate interactions. Our landscape-based mean-field theory [1] can be used to study both the thermodynamic properties and the ideal glass transition of thin films. It predicts that, in the case of neutral or repulsive walls, the ideal glass transition temperature is lowered by decreasing film thickness. This is in qualitative agreement with experimental trends for the kinetic glass transition in confined fluids. Landscape-based approaches are also valuable for understanding the structural and mechanical properties of thin-film glasses. We demonstrate how the concept of an "equation of state of the energy landscape" [3] can be generalized to thin films [1, 2], where it gives insights into potential molecular mechanisms of tensile strength. [1] T. M. Truskett and V. Ganesan, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1897-1900(2003); J. Mittal, P. Shah and T. M. Truskett, to be submitted to Langmuir. [2] P. Shah and T. M. Truskett, to be submitted to J. Phys. Chem. B. [3] S. Sastry, P. G. Debenedetti and F. H. Stillinger, Phys. Rev. E 56, 5533 (1997)

  8. Transport properties of supercooled confined water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallamace, F.; Baglioni, P.; Corsaro, C.; Spooren, J.; Stanley, H.E.; Chen, S.-H.

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview of recent experiments performed on water in the deeply supercooled region, a temperature region of fundamental importance in the science of water. We examine data generated by nuclear magnetic resonance, quasi-elastic neutron scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, and study water confined in nanometer-scale environments. When contained within small pores, water does not crystallize and can be supercooled well below its homogeneous nucleation temperature T H. On this basis, it is possible to carry out a careful analysis of the well-known thermodynamic anomalies of water. Studying the temperature and pressure dependencies of water dynamics, we show that the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) hypothesis represents a reliable model for describing liquid water. In this model, liquid water is a mixture of two different local structures: a low density liquid (LDL) and a high-density liquid (HDL). The LLPT line terminates at a low-T liquid-liquid critical point. We discuss the following experimental findings: 1.) the crossover from non-Arrhenius behavior at high T to Arrhenius behavior at low T in transport parameters; 2.) the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation; 3.) the existence of a Widom line, which is the locus of points corresponding to a maximum correlation length in the P-T phase diagram and which ends in the liquid-liquid critical point; 4.) the direct observation of the LDL phase; and 5.) the minimum in the density at approximately 70 K below the temperature of the density maximum. In our opinion these results strongly support the LLPT hypothesis. All of the basic science and technology community should be impressed by the fact that, although the few ideas (apparently elementary) developed concerning water approximately 27 centuries ago have changed very little up to now, because of the current expansion in our knowledge in this area, they can begin to change in the near future.

  9. Supercooled Liquid Water Content Instrument Analysis and Winter 2014 Data with Comparisons to the NASA Icing Remote Sensing System and Pilot Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a system for remotely detecting the hazardous conditions leading to aircraft icing in flight, the NASA Icing Remote Sensing System (NIRSS). Newly developed, weather balloon-borne instruments have been used to obtain in-situ measurements of supercooled liquid water during March 2014 to validate the algorithms used in the NIRSS. A mathematical model and a processing method were developed to analyze the data obtained from the weather balloon soundings. The data from soundings obtained in March 2014 were analyzed and compared to the output from the NIRSS and pilot reports.

  10. COOPERATIVITY, CAGE EFFECT AND HOPPING DIFFUSION IN SUPERCOOLED LIQUIDS AND GLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.Bakai

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamic simulations of structure, thermodynamic and kinetic properties of model metallic Ag-Cu alloy are performed to elucidate its behavior at glass transition. In spite of small variations of inherent structure of the alloy the relaxation kinetics undergo dramatic changes at the glass transition. The time dependences of the mean square displacements and the non-Gaussianity parameter show the signs of anomalous diffusion in an intermediate time region. The analysis of time evolution of van Hove correlation function indicates the existence of both jump displacements and short-range cooperative atomic rearrangements. Below Tg these cooperative rearrangements do not contribute to a long-range diffusion but they still dominate the relaxation at short time.

  11. Kinetics of crystal growth in amorphous solid and supercooled liquid TeSe20 using DTA and d.c. conductivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotkata, M.F.; Mahmoud, E.A.; El-Mously, M.K.

    1979-07-01

    Curves of reaction rate versus temperature for constant heating rates (phi=1-10 0 C/min) constructed by analytical methods have been used to demonstrate the crystallization kinetics of amorphous solid TeSe 20 . The devitrification process takes place with predominance of random nucleation and one-dimensional growth, and is limited by combined switching and splitting of the chemical bonds. The mean value for the activation energy of the amorphous-crystal transformation, average E, is found to be 64 Kcal/mole. While, the quantity E calculated on the basis of d.c. conductivity changes during different isothermal crystallization (120-175 0 C) in supercooled liquid TeSe 20 , amounts to 11.5 Kcal/mole and suggests the existence of mixed chains in the liquid alloys. (author)

  12. Raman non-coincidence effect of boroxol ring: The interplay between repulsion and attraction forces in the glassy, supercooled and liquid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalampounias, Angelos G.; Papatheodorou, George N.

    2018-06-01

    Temperature dependent Raman spectra of boric oxide have been measured in a temperature range covering the glassy, supercooled and liquid state. The shift of the isotropic band assigned to boroxol rings relative to the anisotropic component upon heating the glass is measured and attributed to the Raman non-coincidence effect. The measured shift is associated with the competition between attraction and repulsion forces with increasing temperature. The relation of dephasing and orientational relaxation times to the non-coincidence effect of the condensed phases has been examined. We discuss our results in the framework of the current phenomenological status of the field in an attempt to separate the attraction and repulsion contributions corresponding to the observed non-coincidence effect.

  13. Communication: Minimum in the thermal conductivity of supercooled water: A computer simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresme, F., E-mail: f.bresme@imperial.ac.uk [Chemical Physics Section, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom and Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7491 (Norway); Biddle, J. W.; Sengers, J. V.; Anisimov, M. A. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    We report the results of a computer simulation study of the thermodynamic properties and the thermal conductivity of supercooled water as a function of pressure and temperature using the TIP4P-2005 water model. The thermodynamic properties can be represented by a two-structure equation of state consistent with the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point in the supercooled region. Our simulations confirm the presence of a minimum in the thermal conductivity, not only at atmospheric pressure, as previously found for the TIP5P water model, but also at elevated pressures. This anomalous behavior of the thermal conductivity of supercooled water appears to be related to the maximum of the isothermal compressibility or the minimum of the speed of sound. However, the magnitudes of the simulated thermal conductivities are sensitive to the water model adopted and appear to be significantly larger than the experimental thermal conductivities of real water at low temperatures.

  14. Communication: Minimum in the thermal conductivity of supercooled water: A computer simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresme, F.; Biddle, J. W.; Sengers, J. V.; Anisimov, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a computer simulation study of the thermodynamic properties and the thermal conductivity of supercooled water as a function of pressure and temperature using the TIP4P-2005 water model. The thermodynamic properties can be represented by a two-structure equation of state consistent with the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point in the supercooled region. Our simulations confirm the presence of a minimum in the thermal conductivity, not only at atmospheric pressure, as previously found for the TIP5P water model, but also at elevated pressures. This anomalous behavior of the thermal conductivity of supercooled water appears to be related to the maximum of the isothermal compressibility or the minimum of the speed of sound. However, the magnitudes of the simulated thermal conductivities are sensitive to the water model adopted and appear to be significantly larger than the experimental thermal conductivities of real water at low temperatures

  15. Vapor-deposited non-crystalline phase vs ordinary glasses and supercooled liquids: Subtle thermodynamic and kinetic differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2015-01-01

    Vapor deposition of molecules on a substrate often results in glassy materials of high kinetic stability and low enthalpy. The extraordinary properties of such glasses are attributed to high rates of surface diffusion during sample deposition, which makes it possible for constituents to find a configuration of much lower energy on a typical laboratory time scale. However, the exact nature of the resulting phase and the mechanism of its formation are not completely understood. Using fast scanning calorimetry technique, we show that out-of-equilibrium relaxation kinetics and possibly the enthalpy of vapor-deposited films of toluene and ethylbenzene, archetypical fragile glass formers, are distinct from those of ordinary supercooled phase even when the deposition takes place at temperatures above the ordinary glass softening transition temperatures. These observations along with the absolute enthalpy dependences on deposition temperatures support the conjecture that the vapor-deposition may result in formation of non-crystalline phase of unique structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties

  16. Evidence for a liquid-liquid critical point in supercooled water within the E3B3 model and a possible interpretation of the kink in the homogeneous nucleation line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Yicun; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Supercooled water exhibits many thermodynamic anomalies, and several scenarios have been proposed to interpret them, among which the liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) hypothesis is the most commonly discussed. We investigated Widom lines and the LLCP of deeply supercooled water, by using molecular dynamics simulation with a newly reparameterized water model that explicitly includes three-body interactions. Seven isobars are studied from ambient pressure to 2.5 kbar, and Widom lines are identified by calculating maxima in the coefficient of thermal expansion and the isothermal compressibility (both with respect to temperature). From these data we estimate that the LLCP of the new water model is at 180 K and 2.1 kbar. The oxygen radial distribution function is calculated along the 2 kbar isobar. It shows a steep change in the height of its second peak between 180 and 185 K, which indicates a transition between the high-density liquid and low-density liquid phases and which is consistent with the ascribed location of the critical point. The good agreement of the height of the second peak of the radial distribution function between simulation and experiment at 1 bar, as a function of temperature, supports the validity of the model. The location of the LLCP within the model is close to the kink in the experimental homogeneous nucleation line. We use existing experimental data to argue that the experimental LLCP is at 168 K and 1.95 kbar and speculate how this LLCP and its Widom line might be responsible for the kink in the homogeneous nucleation line.

  17. Correlation between thermodynamic anomalies and pathways of ice nucleation in supercooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rakesh S.; Bagchi, Biman

    2014-01-01

    The well-known classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the free energy barrier towards formation of a nucleus of critical size of the new stable phase within the parent metastable phase fails to take into account the influence of other metastable phases having density/order intermediate between the parent metastable phase and the final stable phase. This lacuna can be more serious than capillary approximation or spherical shape assumption made in CNT. This issue is particularly significant in ice nucleation because liquid water shows rich phase diagram consisting of two (high and low density) liquid phases in supercooled state. The explanations of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies of supercooled water often invoke the possible influence of a liquid-liquid transition between two metastable liquid phases. To investigate both the role of thermodynamic anomalies and presence of distinct metastable liquid phases in supercooled water on ice nucleation, we employ density functional theoretical approach to find nucleation free energy barrier in different regions of phase diagram. The theory makes a number of striking predictions, such as a dramatic lowering of nucleation barrier due to presence of a metastable intermediate phase and crossover in the dependence of free energy barrier on temperature near liquid-liquid critical point. These predictions can be tested by computer simulations as well as by controlled experiments

  18. Prediction of supercooled liquid vapor pressures and n-octanol/air partition coefficients for polybrominated diphenyl ethers by means of molecular descriptors from DFT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zunyao; Zeng Xiaolan; Zhai Zhicai

    2008-01-01

    The molecular geometries of 209 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G* level with Gaussian 98 program. The calculated structural parameters were taken as theoretical descriptors to establish two novel QSPR models for predicting supercooled liquid vapor pressures (P L ) and octanol/air partition coefficients (K OA ) of PBDEs based on the theoretical linear solvation energy relationship (TLSER) model, respectively. The two models achieved in this work both contain three variables: most negative atomic partial charge in molecule (q - ), dipole moment of the molecules (μ) and mean molecular polarizability (α), of which R 2 values are both as high as 0.997, their root-mean-square errors in modeling (RSMEE) are 0.069 and 0.062 respectively. In addition, the F-value of two models are both evidently larger than critical values F 0.05 and the variation inflation factors (VIF) of variables herein are all less than 5.0, suggesting obvious statistic significance of the P L and K OA predicting models. The results of Leave-One-Out (LOO) cross-validation for training set and validation with external test set both show that the two models obtained exhibited optimum stability and good predictive power. We suggest that the QSPRs derived here can be used to predict accurately P L and K OA for non-tested PBDE congeners from Mono-BDEs to Hepta-BDEs and from Mono-BDEs to Hexa-BDEs, respectively

  19. Molecular dynamics in supercooled liquid and glassy states of antibiotics: azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin studied by dielectric spectroscopy. Advantages given by the amorphous state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrjanowicz, K; Zakowiecki, D; Kaminski, K; Hawelek, L; Grzybowska, K; Tarnacka, M; Paluch, M; Cal, K

    2012-06-04

    Antibiotics are chemical compounds of extremely important medical role. Their history can be traced back more than one hundred years. Despite the passing time and significant progress made in pharmacy and medicine, treatment of many bacterial infections without antibiotics would be completely impossible. This makes them particularly unique substances and explains the unflagging popularity of antibiotics within the medical community. Herein, using dielectric spectroscopy we have studied the molecular mobility in the supercooled liquid and glassy states of three well-known antibiotic agents: azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin. Dielectric studies revealed a number of relaxation processes of different molecular origin. Besides the primary α-relaxation, observed above the respective glass transition temperatures of antibiotics, two secondary relaxations in the glassy state were identified. Interestingly, the fragility index as well as activation energies of the secondary processes turned out to be practically the same for all three compounds, indicating probably much the same molecular dynamics. Long-term stability of amorphous antibiotics at room temperature was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique, and calorimetric studies were performed to evaluate the basic thermodynamic parameters. Finally, we have also checked the experimental solubility advantages given by the amorphous form of the examined antibiotics.

  20. Externally predictive quantitative modeling of supercooled liquid vapor pressure of polychlorinated-naphthalenes through electron-correlation based quantum-mechanical descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas; Chayawan

    2014-01-01

    For predicting physico-chemical properties related to environmental fate of molecules, quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) are valuable tools in environmental chemistry. For developing a QSPR, molecular descriptors computed through quantum-mechanical methods are generally employed. The accuracy of a quantum-mechanical method, however, rests on the amount of electron-correlation estimated by the method. In this work, single-descriptor QSPRs for supercooled liquid vapor pressure of chloronaphthalenes and polychlorinated-naphthalenes are developed using molecular descriptors based on the electron-correlation contribution of the quantum-mechanical descriptor. The quantum-mechanical descriptors for which the electron-correlation contribution is analyzed include total-energy, mean polarizability, dipole moment, frontier orbital (HOMO/LUMO) energy, and density-functional theory (DFT) based descriptors, namely, absolute electronegativity, chemical hardness, and electrophilicity index. A total of 40 single-descriptor QSPRs were developed using molecular descriptors computed with advanced semi-empirical (SE) methods, namely, RM1, PM7, and ab intio methods, namely, Hartree-Fock and DFT. The developed QSPRs are validated using state-of-the-art external validation procedures employing an external prediction set. From the comparison of external predictivity of the models, it is observed that the single-descriptor QSPRs developed using total energy and correlation energy are found to be far more robust and predictive than those developed using commonly employed descriptors such as HOMO/LUMO energy and dipole moment. The work proposes that if real external predictivity of a QSPR model is desired to be explored, particularly, in terms of intra-molecular interactions, correlation-energy serves as a more appropriate descriptor than the polarizability. However, for developing QSPRs, computationally inexpensive advanced SE methods such as PM7 can be more reliable than

  1. Frequency and Wavevector Dependence of the Atomic Level Stress-Stress Correlation Function in a Model Supercooled Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, Valentin A.; Morris, James R.; Egami, Takeshi

    2012-02-01

    Temporal and spatial correlations among the local atomic level shear stresses were studied for a model liquid iron by molecular dynamics simulation [PRL 106,115703]. Integration over time and space of the shear stress correlation function F(r,t) yields viscosity via Green-Kubo relation. The stress correlation function in time and space F(r,t) was Fourier transformed to study the dependence on frequency, E, and wave vector, Q. The results, F(Q,E), showed damped shear stress waves propagating in the liquid for small Q at high and low temperatures. We also observed additional diffuse feature that appears as temperature is reduced below crossover temperature of potential energy landscape at relatively low frequencies at small Q. We suggest that this additional feature might be related to dynamic heterogeneity and boson peaks. We also discuss a relation between the time-scale of the stress-stress correlation function and the alpha-relaxation time of the intermediate self-scattering function S(Q,E).

  2. Nano-viscosity of supercooled liquid measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: Pressure and temperature dependence and the density scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, G.; Gapinski, J.; Ratajczyk, M.; Lettinga, M. P.; Hirtz, K.; Banachowicz, E.; Patkowski, A.

    2018-03-01

    The Stokes-Einstein relation allows us to calculate apparent viscosity experienced by tracers in complex media on the basis of measured self-diffusion coefficients. Such defined nano-viscosity values can be obtained through single particle techniques, like fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and particle tracking (PT). In order to perform such measurements, as functions of pressure and temperature, a new sample cell was designed and is described in this work. We show that this cell in combination with a long working distance objective of the confocal microscope can be used for successful FCS, PT, and confocal imaging experiments in broad pressure (0.1-100 MPa) and temperature ranges. The temperature and pressure dependent nano-viscosity of a van der Waals liquid obtained from the translational diffusion coefficient measured in this cell by means of FCS obeys the same scaling as the rotational relaxation and macro-viscosity of the system.

  3. Phase diagram of supercooled water confined to hydrophilic nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2012-07-01

    We present a phase diagram for water confined to cylindrical silica nanopores in terms of pressure, temperature, and pore radius. The confining cylindrical wall is hydrophilic and disordered, which has a destabilizing effect on ordered water structure. The phase diagram for this class of systems is derived from general arguments, with parameters taken from experimental observations and computer simulations and with assumptions tested by computer simulation. Phase space divides into three regions: a single liquid, a crystal-like solid, and glass. For large pores, radii exceeding 1 nm, water exhibits liquid and crystal-like behaviors, with abrupt crossovers between these regimes. For small pore radii, crystal-like behavior is unstable and water remains amorphous for all non-zero temperatures. At low enough temperatures, these states are glasses. Several experimental results for supercooled water can be understood in terms of the phase diagram we present.

  4. Mechanism of supercooled droplet freezing on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Stefan; Tiwari, Manish K; Doan, N Vuong; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-01-10

    Understanding ice formation from supercooled water on surfaces is a problem of fundamental importance and general utility. Superhydrophobic surfaces promise to have remarkable 'icephobicity' and low ice adhesion. Here we show that their icephobicity can be rendered ineffective by simple changes in environmental conditions. Through experiments, nucleation theory and heat transfer physics, we establish that humidity and/or the flow of a surrounding gas can fundamentally switch the ice crystallization mechanism, drastically affecting surface icephobicity. Evaporative cooling of the supercooled liquid can engender ice crystallization by homogeneous nucleation at the droplet-free surface as opposed to the expected heterogeneous nucleation at the substrate. The related interplay between droplet roll-off and rapid crystallization is also studied. Overall, we bring a novel perspective to icing and icephobicity, unveiling the strong influence of environmental conditions in addition to the accepted effects of the surface conditions and hydrophobicity.

  5. Time scales of supercooled water and implications for reversible polyamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2015-09-01

    Deeply supercooled water exhibits complex dynamics with large density fluctuations, ice coarsening and characteristic time scales extending from picoseconds to milliseconds. Here, we discuss implications of these time scales as they pertain to two-phase coexistence and to molecular simulations of supercooled water. Specifically, we argue that it is possible to discount liquid-liquid criticality because the time scales imply that correlation lengths for such behaviour would be bounded by no more than a few nanometres. Similarly, it is possible to discount two-liquid coexistence because the time scales imply a bounded interfacial free energy that cannot grow in proportion to a macroscopic surface area. From time scales alone, therefore, we see that coexisting domains of differing density in supercooled water can be no more than nanoscale transient fluctuations.

  6. Decompression-induced melting of ice IV and the liquid-liquid transition in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Osamu; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1998-03-01

    Although liquid water has been the focus of intensive research for over 100 years, a coherent physical picture that unifies all of the known anomalies of this liquid, is still lacking. Some of these anomalies occur in the supercooled region, and have been rationalized on the grounds of a possible retracing of the liquid-gas spinodal (metastability limit) line into the supercooled liquid region, or alternatively the presence of a line of first-order liquid-liquid phase transitions in this region which ends in a critical point,. But these ideas remain untested experimentally, in part because supercooled water can be probed only above the homogeneous nucleation temperature TH at which water spontaneously crystallizes. Here we report an experimental approach that is not restricted by the barrier imposed by TH, involving measurement of the decompression-induced melting curves of several high-pressure phases of ice in small emulsified droplets. We find that the melting curve for ice IV seems to undergo a discontinuity at precisely the location proposed for the line of liquid-liquid phase transitions. This is consistent with, but does not prove, the coexistence of two different phases of (supercooled) liquid water. From the experimental data we calculate a possible Gibbs potential surface and a corresponding equation of state for water, from the forms of which we estimate the coordinates of the liquid-liquid critical point to be at pressure Pc ~ 0.1GPa and temperature Tc ~ 220K.

  7. Fundamental research on supercooling phenomenon on heat transfer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, A.; Okawa, S.; Koganezawa, S.

    1991-01-01

    In relation to the problem of supercooling for ice storage devices, experiments on freezing a relatively large volume of supercooled water is carried out. In the experiment, an experimental method to determine a probability of freezing a large volume of supercooled water with a uniform temperature distribution is introduced. It is accomplished by dividing the water into many smaller droplets. In a statistical analysis, a method to improve an accuracy in a case of having a limited number of experiments is introduced, and the probability of freezing is calculated for each degree of supercooling. The average freezing temperature for the experiment is placed just at the extended region of the other researchers results worked on small droplets. By relating the value with the probability of freezing on various kinds of heat transfer surfaces, the probability of freezing which is independent of the surface is calculated. In this paper it is confirmed to be negligible compared with the one on the surface

  8. Liquid-liquid phase transition in Stillinger-Weber silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaucage, Philippe; Mousseau, Normand

    2005-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that Stillinger-Weber silicon undergoes a liquid-liquid first-order phase transition deep into the supercooled region (Sastry and Angell 2003 Nat. Mater. 2 739). Here we study the effects of perturbations on this phase transition. We show that the order of the liquid-liquid transition changes with negative pressure. We also find that the liquid-liquid transition disappears when the three-body term of the potential is strengthened by as little as 5%. This implies that the details of the potential could affect strongly the nature and even the existence of the liquid-liquid phase

  9. Supercooled smectic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Koch, Michel H J; Fahr, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Cholesteryl nonanoate (CN), myristate (CM), palmitate (CP) and oleate (CO) alone or in combination were evaluated as matrix lipids for the preparation of supercooled smectic nanoparticles with a high stability against recrystallization during storage. The phase behavior of the cholesterol esters......, laser diffraction combined with polarizing intensity differential scattering, DSC and SAXS. The morphology of selected formulations was studied by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. All smectic nanoparticles with a mixed cholesterol ester matrix were stable against recrystallization when stored...... at room temperature. Nanoparticles with a pure CN and mixed CM/CN matrix with a high fraction of CN (60% of the whole lipid matrix) could even be stored at 4 degrees C for at least 18 months without any recrystallization. As smectic nanoparticles are studied especially with regard to parenteral...

  10. Evaluating the Liquid Liquid Phase Transition Hypothesis of Supercoooled Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David; Chandler, David

    2011-03-01

    To explain the anomalous behavior of supercooled water it has been conjectured that buried within an experimentally inaccessible region of liquid water's phase diagram there exists a second critical point, which is the terminus of a first order transition line between two distinct liquid phases. The so-called liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) has since generated much study, though to date there is no consensus on its existence. In this talk, we will discuss our efforts to systematically study the metastable phase diagram of supercooled water through computer simulation. By employing importance-sampling techniques, we have calculated free energies as a function of the density and long-range order to determine unambiguously if two distinct liquid phases exist. We will argue that, contrary to the LLPT hypothesis, the observed phenomenology can be understood as a consequence of the limit of stability of the liquid far away from coexistence. Our results suggest that homogeneous nucleation is the cause of the increased fluctuations present upon supercooling. Further we will show how this understanding can be extended to explain experimental observations of hysteresis in confined supercooled water systems.

  11. Experimental evidence for two distinct deeply supercooled liquid states of water – Response to “Comment on ‘Water's second glass transition”’, by G.P. Johari, Thermochim. Acta (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, J.; Seidl, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Gainaru, C. [Fakultät Physik, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Fuentes-Landete, V.; Amann-Winkel, K.; Handle, P.H. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Köster, K.W.; Nelson, H. [Fakultät Physik, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Böhmer, R., E-mail: roland.bohmer@tu-dortmund.de [Fakultät Physik, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Loerting, T., E-mail: thomas.loerting@uibk.ac.at [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-10-10

    Highlights: • Two samples of amorphous ices quench-recovered from 140 K to 0.07 GPa are compared. • Calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, dielectric spectroscopy and volumetry are employed. • The two samples are distinct and cannot both be termed “pressure-densified glassy water”. • One route of preparation leads to high- (HDA), and the other to low-density amorphous ice (LDA). • Two distinct glass transitions are observed and interpreted to indicate two liquid H{sub 2}O phases. - Abstract: Recently, our earlier data which led us to conclude that deeply supercooled water displays a second glass transition (Amann-Winkel et al., 2013) was reinterpreted (Johari, 2015). In particular, the increase in heat capacity observed for high-density amorphous ice (HDA) samples at 116 K was reinterpreted to indicate sub-T{sub g} features of low-density amorphous ice's (LDA's) glass transition. We reply to the criticism in detail and report an experiment triggered by the comment on our work. This experiment unequivocally confirms our original interpretation of the observations and reinforces the case for water's second glass transition, its polyamorphism, and the observation of two distinct ultraviscous states of water differing by about 25% in density.

  12. Supercooling of natural water, heavy water and of the blends H2O-D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, C.; Babin, L.; Clausse, D.; Lere-Porte, M.; Broto, F.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the coherency of the results of various measurements on water freezing temperatures proves that freezing temperatures must be dependent on the structure of the supercooled liquid. Recent experiments that confirm this interpretation are described: study of the stability of supercooled water as a function of time at fixed temperature, study of the influence of various thermal treatments on the behavior of supercooled water, study of the supercooling of heavy water and of D 2 O-H 2 O blends [fr

  13. A metastable liquid melted from a crystalline solid under decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kono, Yoshio; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-01-01

    A metastable liquid may exist under supercooling, sustaining the liquid below the melting point such as supercooled water and silicon. It may also exist as a transient state in solid-solid transitions, as demonstrated in recent studies of colloidal particles and glass-forming metallic systems. One important question is whether a crystalline solid may directly melt into a sustainable metastable liquid. By thermal heating, a crystalline solid will always melt into a liquid above the melting point. Here we report that a high-pressure crystalline phase of bismuth can melt into a metastable liquid below the melting line through a decompression process. The decompression-induced metastable liquid can be maintained for hours in static conditions, and transform to crystalline phases when external perturbations, such as heating and cooling, are applied. It occurs in the pressure-temperature region similar to where the supercooled liquid Bi is observed. Akin to supercooled liquid, the pressure-induced metastable liquid may be more ubiquitous than we thought.

  14. Nonlinear permittivity spectra of supercooled ionic liquids: Observation of a "hump" in the third-order permittivity spectra and comparison to double-well potential models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, L N; Burghaus, O; Roling, B

    2017-04-21

    We have measured the third-order permittivity spectra ε 3 3 of a monocationic and of a dicationic liquid close to the glass transition temperature by applying ac electric fields with large amplitudes up to 180 kV/cm. A peak ("hump") in the modulus of ε 3 3 is observed for a mono-cationic liquid after subtraction of the dc contribution from the imaginary part of ε 3 3 . We show that the origin of this experimental "hump" is a peak in the imaginary part of ε 3 3 , with the peak height strongly increasing with decreasing temperature. Overall, the spectral shape of the third-order permittivity of both ionic liquids is similar to the predictions of a symmetric double well potential model, although this model does not predict a "hump" in the modulus. In contrast, an asymmetric double well potential model predicts a "hump," but the spectral shape of both the real and imaginary part of ε 3 3 deviates significantly from the experimental spectra. These results show that not only the modulus of ε 3 3 but also its phase is an important quantity when comparing experimental results with theoretical predictions.

  15. Singularity-free interpretation of the thermodynamics of supercooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, S.; Debenedetti, P.G.; Sciortino, F.; Stanley, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    The pronounced increases in isothermal compressibility, isobaric heat capacity, and in the magnitude of the thermal expansion coefficient of liquid water upon supercooling have been interpreted either in terms of a continuous, retracing spinodal curve bounding the superheated, stretched, and supercooled states of liquid water, or in terms of a metastable, low-temperature critical point. Common to these two scenarios is the existence of singularities associated with diverging density fluctuations at low temperature. We show that the increase in compressibility upon lowering the temperature of a liquid that expands on cooling, like water, is not contingent on any singular behavior, but rather is a thermodynamic necessity. We perform a thermodynamic analysis for an anomalous liquid (i.e., one that expands when cooled) in the absence of a retracing spinodal and show that one may in general expect a locus of compressibility extrema in the anomalous regime. Our analysis suggests that the simplest interpretation of the behavior of supercooled water consistent with experimental observations is free of singularities. We then develop a waterlike lattice model that exhibits no singular behavior, while capturing qualitative aspects of the thermodynamics of water. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Communication: Diffusion constant in supercooled water as the Widom line is crossed in no man's land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yicun; Hestand, Nicholas J.; Skinner, J. L.

    2018-05-01

    According to the liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) hypothesis, there are two distinct phases of supercooled liquid water, namely, high-density liquid and low-density liquid, separated by a coexistence line that terminates in an LLCP. If the LLCP is real, it is located within No Man's Land (NML), the region of the metastable phase diagram that is difficult to access using conventional experimental techniques due to rapid homogeneous nucleation to the crystal. However, a recent ingenious experiment has enabled measurement of the diffusion constant deep inside NML. In the current communication, these recent measurements are compared, with good agreement, to the diffusion constant of E3B3 water, a classical water model that explicitly includes three-body interactions. The behavior of the diffusion constant as the system crosses the Widom line (the extension of the liquid-liquid coexistence line into the one-phase region) is analyzed to derive information about the presence and location of the LLCP. Calculations over a wide range of temperatures and pressures show that the new experimental measurements are consistent with an LLCP having a critical pressure of over 0.6 kbar.

  17. Physical limit of stability in supercooled D2O and D2O+H2O mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, S. B.; Ely, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    The fluctuation theory of homogeneous nucleation was applied for calculating the physical boundary of metastable states, the kinetic spinodal, in supercooled D2O and D2O+H2O mixtures. The kinetic spinodal in our approach is completely determined by the surface tension and equation of state of the supercooled liquid. We developed a crossover equation of state for supercooled D2O, which predicts a second critical point of low density water-high density water equilibrium, CP2, and represents all available experimental data in supercooled D2O within experimental accuracy. Using Turnbull's expression for the surface tension we calculated with the crossover equation of state for supercooled D2O the kinetic spinodal, TKS, which lies below the homogeneous nucleation temperature, TH. We show that CP2 always lies inside in the so-called "nonthermodynamic habitat" and physically does not exist. However, the concept of a second "virtual" critical point is physical and very useful. Using this concept we have extended this approach to supercooled D2O+H2O mixtures. As an example, we consider here an equimolar D2O+H2O mixture in normal and supercooled states at atmospheric pressure, P=0.1 MPa.

  18. Supercooling of aqueous dimethylsulfoxide solution at normal and high pressures: Evidence for the coexistence of phase-separated aqueous dimethylsulfoxide solutions of different water structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, H.; Kajiwara, K.; Miyata, K.

    2010-05-01

    Supercooling behavior of aqueous dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution was investigated as a function of DMSO concentration and at high pressures. A linear relationship was observed for TH (homogeneous ice nucleation temperature) and Tm (melting temperature) for the supercooling of aqueous DMSO solution at normal pressure. Analysis of the DTA (differential thermal analysis) traces for homogeneous ice crystallization in the bottom region of the TH curve for a DMSO solution of R =20 (R: moles of water/moles of DMSO) at high pressures supported the contention that the second critical point (SCP) of liquid water should exist at Pc2=˜200 MPa and at Tc2pressure of SCP, Tc2: temperature of SCP). The presence of two TH peaks for DMSO solutions (R =15, 12, and 10) suggests that phase separation occurs in aqueous DMSO solution (R ≤15) at high pressures and low temperatures (pressure dependence of the two TH curves for DMSO solutions of R =10 and 12 indicates that the two phase-separated components in the DMSO solution of R =10 have different liquid water structures [LDL-like and HDL-like structures (LDL: low-density liquid water, HDL: high-density liquid water)] in the pressure range of 120-230 MPa.

  19. Thermodynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    1998-03-01

    The behavior of metastable water at low temperatures is unusual. The isothermal compressibility, the isobaric heat capacity, and the magnitude of the thermal expansion coefficient increase sharply upon supercooling, and structural relaxation becomes extremely sluggish at temperatures far above the glass transition(Angell, C.A., Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem., 34, 593, 1983)(Debenedetti, P.G., Metastable Liquids. Concepts and Principles, Princeton University Press, 1996). Water has two distinct glassy phases, low- and high-density amorphous ice (LDA, HDA). The transition between LDA and HDA is accompanied by sharp volume and enthalpy changes, and appears to be first-order(Mishima, O., L.D.Calvert, and E. Whalley, Nature, 314, 76, 1985)(Mishima, O., J. Chem. Phys., 100, 5910, 1994). The understanding of these observations in terms of an underlying global phase behavior remains incomplete(Speedy, R.J., J. Phys. Chem., 86, 982, 1982)(Poole, P.H., F. Sciortino, U. Essman, and H.E. Stanley, Nature, 360, 324, 1992)(Sastry, S., P.G. Debenedetti, F. Sciortino, and H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. E, 53, 6144, 1996)(Tanaka, H., Nature, 380, 328, 1996)(Xie, Y., K.F. Ludwig, G. Morales, D.E. Hare, and C.M. Sorensen, Phys. Rev. Lett., 71, 2050, 1993). Microscopic theories and computer simulations suggest several scenarios that can reproduce some experimental observations. Interesting and novel ideas have resulted from this body of theoretical work, such as the possibility of liquid-liquid immiscibility in a pure substance(Poole, P.H., F.Sciortino, T.Grande, H.E. Stanley, and C.A. Angell, Phys. Rev. Lett., 73, 1632, 1994)(Roberts, C.J., and P.G. Debenedetti, J. Chem. Phys., 105, 658, 1996)(Roberts, C.J., P.G. Debenedetti, and A.Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 4386, 1996)(Harrington, S., R. Zhang, P.H. Poole, F. Sciortino, and H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. Lett., 78, 2409, 1997). In this talk I will review the experimental facts, discuss their theoretical interpretation, and identify key

  20. Surface Tension of Supercooled Water Determined by Using a Counterpressure Capillary Rise Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Fransen, M. A. L. J.; Hykl, Jiří; Hrubý, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 17 (2015), s. 5567-5575 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG13056; GA ČR GJ15-07129Y Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : capillary tube * interfacial tension * metastable liquid * supercooled liquid Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.187, year: 2015 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b00545

  1. Slow Dynamics and Structure of Supercooled Water in Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Camisasca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We review our simulation results on properties of supercooled confined water. We consider two situations: water confined in a hydrophilic pore that mimics an MCM-41 environment and water at interface with a protein. The behavior upon cooling of the α relaxation of water in both environments is well interpreted in terms of the Mode Coupling Theory of glassy dynamics. Moreover, we find a crossover from a fragile to a strong regime. We relate this crossover to the crossing of the Widom line emanating from the liquid-liquid critical point, and in confinement we connect this crossover also to a crossover of the two body excess entropy of water upon cooling. Hydration water exhibits a second, distinctly slower relaxation caused by its dynamical coupling with the protein. The crossover upon cooling of this long relaxation is related to the protein dynamics.

  2. Liquidity and firm performance: Evidence from the MENA region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Bouaich, Fatima Zahra

    2012-01-01

    relationship between liquidity and firm performance. We argue that higher level of information asymmetries in the MENA region exposes stock market participants to excessive risk, and therefore any mechanism that can provide them with opportunity to lower this risk (by exiting the stock) is valuable. Our...... results also show that this relationship is stronger in the civil law countries than in the common law countries. Civil law countries have weaker investor protection mechanisms, thereby exposing investors to more risk. As a consequence, liquidity is valued more in the civil law countries relative...

  3. Dynamics of supercooled confined water measured by deep inelastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michele, Vincenzo; Romanelli, Giovanni; Cupane, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present the results of deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) measurements on supercooled water confined within the pores (average pore diameter 20 Å) of a disordered hydrophilic silica matrix obtained through hydrolysis and polycondensation of the alkoxide precursor Tetra-Methyl-Ortho-Silicate via the sol-gel method. Experiments were performed at two temperatures (250 K and 210 K, i.e., before and after the putative liquid-liquid transition of supercooled confined water) on a "wet" sample with hydration h 40% w/w, which is high enough to have water-filled pores but low enough to avoid water crystallization. A virtually "dry" sample at h 7% was also investigated to measure the contribution of the silica matrix to the neutron scattering signal. As is well known, DINS measurements allow the determination of the mean kinetic energy and the momentum distribution of the hydrogen atoms in the system and therefore, allow researchers to probe the local structure of supercooled confined water. The main result obtained is that at 210 K the hydrogen mean kinetic energy is equal or even slightly higher than at 250 K. This is at odds with the predictions of a semiempirical harmonic model recently proposed to describe the temperature dependence of the kinetic energy of hydrogen in water. This is a new and very interesting result, which suggests that at 210 K, the water hydrogens experience a stiffer intermolecular potential than at 250 K. This is in agreement with the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis.

  4. Improvement of bio-corrosion resistance for Ti42Zr40Si15Ta3 metallic glasses in simulated body fluid by annealing within supercooled liquid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C H; Lai, J J; Wei, T Y; Chen, Y H; Wang, X; Kuan, S Y; Huang, J C

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the nanocrystalline phases on the bio-corrosion behavior of highly bio-friendly Ti42Zr40Si15Ta3 metallic glasses in simulated body fluid were investigated, and the findings are compared with our previous observations from the Zr53Cu30Ni9Al8 metallic glasses. The Ti42Zr40Si15Ta3 metallic glasses were annealed at temperatures above the glass transition temperature, Tg, with different time periods to result in different degrees of α-Ti nano-phases in the amorphous matrix. The nanocrystallized Ti42Zr40Si15Ta3 metallic glasses containing corrosion resistant α-Ti phases exhibited more promising bio-corrosion resistance, due to the superior pitting resistance. This is distinctly different from the previous case of the Zr53Cu30Ni9Al8 metallic glasses with the reactive Zr2Cu phases inducing serious galvanic corrosion and lower bio-corrosion resistance. Thus, whether the fully amorphous or partially crystallized metallic glass would exhibit better bio-corrosion resistance, the answer would depend on the crystallized phase nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transient surface liquid in Titan's south polar region from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A.G.; Aharonson, O.; Lunine, J.I.; Kirk, R.L.; Zebker, H.A.; Wye, L.C.; Lorenz, R.D.; Turtle, E.P.; Paillou, P.; Mitri, Giuseppe; Wall, S.D.; Stofan, E.R.; Mitchell, K.L.; Elachi, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cassini RADAR images of Titan's south polar region acquired during southern summer contain lake features which disappear between observations. These features show a tenfold increases in backscatter cross-section between images acquired one year apart, which is inconsistent with common scattering models without invoking temporal variability. The morphologic boundaries are transient, further supporting changes in lake level. These observations are consistent with the exposure of diffusely scattering lakebeds that were previously hidden by an attenuating liquid medium. We use a two-layer model to explain backscatter variations and estimate a drop in liquid depth of approximately 1-m-per-year. On larger scales, we observe shoreline recession between ISS and RADAR images of Ontario Lacus, the largest lake in Titan's south polar region. The recession, occurring between June 2005 and July 2009, is inversely proportional to slopes estimated from altimetric profiles and the exponential decay of near-shore backscatter, consistent with a uniform reduction of 4 ± 1.3 m in lake depth. Of the potential explanations for observed surface changes, we favor evaporation and infiltration. The disappearance of dark features and the recession of Ontario's shoreline represents volatile transport in an active methane-based hydrologic cycle. Observed loss rates are compared and shown to be consistent with available global circulation models. To date, no unambiguous changes in lake level have been observed between repeat images in the north polar region, although further investigation is warranted. These observations constrain volatile flux rates in Titan's hydrologic system and demonstrate that the surface plays an active role in its evolution. Constraining these seasonal changes represents the first step toward our understanding of longer climate cycles that may determine liquid distribution on Titan over orbital time periods.

  6. Crystallization Behavior and Relaxation Dynamics of Supercooled S‑Ketoprofen and the Racemic Mixture along an Isochrone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrjanowicz, Karolina; Kaminski, Kamil; Paluch, Marian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study crystallization behavior and molecular dynamics in the supercooled liquid state of the pharmaceutically important compound ketoprofen at various thermodynamic conditions. Dielectric relaxation for a racemic mixture was investigated in a wide range of temperatures and press...

  7. Gelation on heating of supercooled gelatin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigo, Nathanaël; Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas; Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2012-04-23

    Diluted (1.0-1.5 wt%) aqueous gelatin solutions have been cooled to -10 °C at a cooling rate 20 °C min(-1) without freezing and detectable gelation. When heated at a constant heating rate (0.5 -2 °C min(-1)), the obtained supercooled solutions demonstrate an atypical process of gelation that has been characterized by regular and stochastically modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as by isoconversional kinetic analysis. The process is detectable as an exothermic peak in the total heat flow of regular DSC and in the nonreversing heat flow of stochastically modulated DSC. Isoconversional kinetic analysis applied to DSC data reveals that the effective activation energy of the process increases from approximately 75 to 200 kJ mol(-1) as a supercooled solution transforms to gel on continuous heating. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Heat transfer to liquid sodium in the thermal entrance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, R.

    1981-01-01

    It is well known that the convective heat transfer in the regions of duct systems where the thermal boundary layers are not yet established can be far superior to heat transfer in the fully developed regions. A quantitative understanding of heat transfer in the thermal entrance region is essential in designing high heat-flux nuclear reactors. More specifically, if the thermal boundary layers have not been fully established in the system, the forced-convection relations for the fully developed regions cannot be used to predict the heat transfer characteristics. The present work is characterized by the following: 1. The behaviours in the thermal entrance region have been examined more completely. 2. To obtain a higher accuracy of analyses, in present study the method of SPARROW et al. for pipe was improved for annulus by utilizing a finite difference technique. Furthermore, an asymptotic solution was developed. 3. This is, in our knowledge, the first experimental investigation about the thermal development effect on turbulent heat transfer from rod element to liquid sodium in annulus with fully developed flow. (MDC)

  9. Vapor Pressure Plus: An Experiment for Studying Phase Equilibria in Water, with Observation of Supercooling, Spontaneous Freezing, and the Triple Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Liquid-vapor, solid-vapor, and solid-liquid-vapor equilibria are studied for the pure substance water, using modern equipment that includes specially fabricated glass cells. Samples are evaporatively frozen initially, during which they typically supercool to -5 to -10 [degrees]C before spontaneously freezing. Vacuum pumping lowers the temperature…

  10. Supercooling of Water Controlled by Nanoparticles and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Jia, Lisi; Chen, Ying; Li, Yi'ang; Li, Jun; Mo, Songping

    2018-05-01

    Nanoparticles, including Al2O3 and SiO2, and ultrasound were adopted to improve the solidification properties of water. The effects of nanoparticle concentration, contact angle, and ultrasonic intensity on the supercooling degree of water were investigated, as well as the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in water during solidification. Experimental results show that the supercooling degree of water is reduced under the combined effect of ultrasound and nanoparticles. Consequently, the reduction of supercooling degree increases with the increase of ultrasonic intensity and nanoparticle concentration and decrease of contact angle of nanoparticles. Moreover, the reduction of supercooling degree caused by ultrasound and nanoparticles together do not exceed the sum of the supercooling degree reductions caused by ultrasound and nanoparticles separately; the reduction is even smaller than that caused by ultrasound individually under certain conditions of controlled nanoparticle concentration and contact angle and ultrasonic intensity. The dispersion stability of nanoparticles during solidification can be maintained only when the nanoparticles and ultrasound together show a superior effect on reducing the supercooling degree of water to the single operation of ultrasound. Otherwise, the aggregation of nanoparticles appears in water solidification, which results in failure. The relationships among the meaningful nanoparticle concentration, contact angle, and ultrasonic intensity, at which the requirements of low supercooling and high stability could be satisfied, were obtained. The control mechanisms for these phenomena were analyzed.

  11. potential for liquid biofuel production in the southern african region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... There has been a sustained and growing interest in the production of liquid fuel from biomass in recent years. ... This work looks at the energy situation in South Africa and especially the liquid fuel sector and explores the ...... alcohol production.http://www.lowcvp.org.uk/assets/reports/HGCA%20RR61.

  12. Stock Market Liquidity: Comparative Analysis of Croatian and Regional Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Benić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On the Croatian stock market liquidity has never been in the focus of academic research thus we find it necessary to observe liquidity at the aggregate level. This paper observes multi-dimensional liquidity through the impact of turnover on price change together with several one-dimensional measures. In our empirical research we applythe illiquidity measureto seven different stock markets. We focus on the Croatian stock market as compared to other markets in the Central and Eastern Europe and German market. The results of the research indicate a substantial level of illiquidity in the Croatian and other developing markets.

  13. Apparent Violation of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem due to Dynamic Heterogeneity in a Model Glass-Forming Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tanaka, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Here we study the relation between the mobility and the translational diffusion in supercooled two-dimensional polydisperse colloidal liquids, using numerical simulations. We find an apparent violation of the Einstein-Smoluchowski (ES) relation D=k B Tμ (D: diffusion constant; μ: mobility; k B ; Boltzmann's constant; T: temperature). The violation is a direct consequence of the fact that it is difficult for a driven particle to enter a jammed region with high order due to its yield stress. The degree of this apparent ES violation is controlled solely by the characteristic size of slow jammed regions, ξ. Our finding implies that the characteristic time of this problem is not the structural relaxation time τ α but the lifetime of dynamic heterogeneity, τ ξ . A supercooled liquid can be regarded to be ergodic only over τ ξ , which may be the slowest intrinsic time scale of the system.

  14. Perspective on the structure of liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.; Pettersson, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Liquid water can be described in a fluctuating inhomogeneous picture with two local structural motifs that are spatially separated. At ambient temperatures most molecules favor a closer packing than tetrahedral, with strongly distorted hydrogen bonds giving higher density (yellow), which allows the quantized librational modes to be excited and contribute to the entropy, but with enthalpically favored tetrahedrally bonded water patches appearing as fluctuations (blue), i.e. a competition between entropy and enthalpy. Upon cooling water the amount of molecules participating in tetrahedral structures and the size of the tetrahedral patches increase. Highlights: ► Two components maximizing either enthalpy (tetrahedral, low-density) or entropy (non-specific H-bonding, higher density). ► Interconvert discontinuously and ratio depends on temperature. ► Density fluctuations on 1 nm length scale. ► Increasing size in supercooled region. ► Connection to Widom line and 2nd critical point. - Abstract: We present a picture that combines discussions regarding the thermodynamic anomalies in ambient and supercooled water with recent interpretations of X-ray spectroscopy and scattering data of water in the ambient regime. At ambient temperatures most molecules favor a closer packing than tetrahedral, with strongly distorted hydrogen bonds, which allows the quantized librational modes to be excited and contribute to the entropy, but with enthalpically favored tetrahedrally bonded water patches appearing as fluctuations, i.e. a competition between entropy and enthalpy. Upon cooling water the amount of molecules participating in tetrahedral structures and the size of the tetrahedral patches increase. The two local structures are connected to the liquid–liquid critical point hypothesis in supercooled water corresponding to high density liquid and low density liquid. We will discuss the interpretation of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray emission

  15. Surface Tension of Supercooled Water: No Inflection Point down to-25 degrees C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubý, Jan; Vinš, Václav; Mareš, R.; Hykl, Jiří; Kalová, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2014), s. 425-428 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760905; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/11/P046; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13056 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100761201 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : liquid * metastable * supercooled Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 7.458, year: 2014

  16. Experimental investigations on heat content of supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate by a simple heat loss method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2016-01-01

    Sodium acetate trihydrate is a phase change material that can be used for long term heat storage in solar heating systems because of its relatively high heat of fusion, a melting temperature of 58 °C and its ability to supercool stable. In practical applications sodium acetate trihydrate tend to ......, 0.3–0.5 % (wt.%) Xanthan Gum or 1–2% (wt.%) of some solid or liquid polymers as additives had significantly higher heat contents compared to samples of sodium acetate trihydrate suffering from phase separation....

  17. Surface Tension of Supercooled Water: Inflection Point-Free Course down to 250 K Confirmed Using a Horizontal Capillary Tube

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Hošek, Jan; Hykl, Jiří; Hrubý, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 11 (2017), s. 3823-3832 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-07129Y Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : horizontal technique * metastable liquid * supercooled Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2016 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.jced.7b00519

  18. Amorphous ices explained in terms of nonequilibrium phase transitions in supercooled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David; Chandler, David

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the phase diagram of supercooled water out-of-equilibrium using concepts from space-time thermodynamics and the dynamic facilitation theory of the glass transition, together with molecular dynamics simulations. We find that when water is driven out-of-equilibrium, it can exist in multiple amorphous states. In contrast, we find that when water is at equilibrium, it can exist in only one liquid state. The amorphous non-equilibrium states are solids, distinguished from the liquid by their lack of mobility, and distinguished from each other by their different densities and local structure. This finding explains the experimentally observed polyamorphism of water as a class of nonequilibrium phenomena involving glasses of different densities. While the amorphous solids can be long lived, they are thermodynamically unstable. When allowed to relax to equilibrium, they crystallize with pathways that pass first through liquid state configurations and then to ordered ice.

  19. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yang; Mamontov, Eugene; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ 0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χ T (Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement (x 2 ) and the non-Gaussian parameter α 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  20. Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Studies of the Slow Dynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Aspirin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Tyagi, M. [NCNR and University of Maryland; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Chen, Sow-hsin H [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 K down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent (Q) is independent of the wave vector transfer Q in the measured Q-range, and (ii) the structural relaxation time (Q) follows a power law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of 0 can be fitted with the mode coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by M. Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function T(Q,t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows a direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement x2 and non-Gaussian parameter 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  1. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-02-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χT(Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement langx2rang and the non-Gaussian parameter α2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  2. The effect of additives on the speed of the crystallization front of xylitol with various degrees of supercooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, Ari; Merilaeinen, Arttu [Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics, P.O. Box 4400, 02015 TKK (Finland); Wikstroem, Lisa; Kauranen, Pertti [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Advanced Materials, P.O. Box 1300, 33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Some liquids can be kept in a supercooled or supersaturated metastable state for substantially long periods. Such liquids can be applied as long-term heat storage where the latent heat can be released when needed. As xylitol possesses a relatively high value of latent heat and as it can be easily supercooled, it has promising properties for this application. However, the speed of the crystallization of xylitol is low, leading to a low release rate of latent heat. Several additives have been experimentally tested for the purpose of accelerating the crystallization speed. The effect of the additives on the latent heat, on the melting temperatures, and on the long-term durability of the supercooled state was also measured. The highest speeds of the crystallization front, at a temperature of 22 C, were achieved with methanol as an additive leading to speeds 33 times higher in vertical experiments and in 170 times higher in horizontal ones than with pure xylitol. The improved speed of the crystallization front is mostly caused by the methanol flow currents generated as a result of the separation of methanol during crystallization, and to a lesser extent, as a result of the increase in the speed of the growth of the crystals. (author)

  3. Structure of liquid Au-Si alloys around the eutectic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, S. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)], E-Mail: takeda@rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Fujii, H. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kawakita, Y. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Fujita, S. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Yokota, Y. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, S. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouo Mikazuki-cho, Sayou-gun Hyogo 670-5198 (Japan)

    2007-03-25

    X-ray diffraction measurements have been carried out for liquid Au-Si alloys around the eutectic region by the transmission method using high-energy X-ray to investigate the atomic arrangements in the liquid state. From the temperature dependence of the observed structure factors, the partial pair correlation and the detailed atomic arrangements will be discussed on the basis of a Reverse Monte Carlo analysis. The reproduced atomic arrangements around the eutectic region suggest the substitution structure and also rather dense liquid with decreasing temperature.

  4. Reliable Correlation for Liquid-Liquid Equilibria Outside the Critical Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruszczynski, Lukasz; Zubov, Alexandr; O’Connell, John P.

    2017-01-01

    , uncertainty analysis of regression results, obtained parameters, and predicted mole fractions has been formulated. The procedure is applied to three cases: hydrocarbons + water, ionic liquids + water, and nitroethane + hydrocarbons. The model has four parameters in the most basic formulation. Depending upon...

  5. Effects of PVA(Polyvinyl Alcohol) on Supercooling Phenomena of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Hiroyuki; Saito, Akio; Okawa, Seiji; Takizawa, Hiroshi

    In this paper, effects of polymer additive on supercooling of water were investigated experimentally. Poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as the polymer, and the samples were prepared by dissolving PVA in ultra pure water. Concentration, degree of polymerization and saponification of PVA were varied as the experimental parameters. The sample was cooled, and the temperature at the instant when ice appears was measured. Since freezing of supercooled water is statistical phenomenon, many experiments were carried out and average degrees of supercooling were obtained for each experimental condition. As the result, it was found that PVA affects nucleation of supercooling and the degree of supercooling increases by adding the PVA. Especially, it is found that the average degree of supercooling increases and the standard deviation of average degree of supercooling decreases with increase of degree of saponification of PVA. However, the average degree of supercooling are independent of the degree of polymerization of PVA in the range of this study.

  6. Super-cool Dark Matter arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Hambye, Thomas; Teresi, Daniele

    In dimension-less theories of dynamical generation of the weak scale, the Universe can undergo a period of low-scale inflation during which all particles are massless and super-cool. This leads to a new mechanism of generation of the cosmological Dark Matter (DM) relic density: super-cooling can easily suppress the amount of DM to the desired level. This is achieved for TeV-scale DM, if super-cooling ends when quark condensates form at the QCD phase transition. Along this scenario, the baryon asymmetry can be generated either at the phase transition or through leptogenesis. We show that the above mechanism takes place in old and new dimension-less models.

  7. Solidity of viscous liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1999-01-01

    Recent NMR experiments on supercooled toluene and glycerol by Hinze and Böhmer show that small rotation angles dominate with only a few large molecular rotations. These results are here interpreted by assuming that viscous liquids are solidlike on short length scales. A characteristic length...

  8. What Property of the Contour of a Deforming Region Biases Percepts toward Liquid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawabe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human observers can perceive the existence of a transparent surface from dynamic image deformation. They can also easily discriminate a transparent solid material such as plastic and glass from a transparent fluid one such as water and shampoo just by viewing them. However, the image information required for material discrimination of this sort is still unclear. A liquid changes its contour shape non-rigidly. We therefore examined whether additional properties of the contour of a deformation-defined region, which indicated contour non-rigidity, biased percepts of the region toward liquid materials. Our stimuli had a translating circular region wherein a natural texture image was deformed at the spatiotemporal deformation frequency that was optimal for the perception of a transparent layer. In Experiment 1, we dynamically deformed the contour of the circular region and found that large deformation of the contour biased the percept toward liquid. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the blurriness of the contour and observed that a strongly blurred contour biased percepts toward liquid. Taken together, the results suggest that a deforming region lacking a discrete contour biases percepts toward liquid.

  9. Droplet-Sizing Liquid Water Content Sensor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Icing is one of the most significant hazards to aircraft. A sizing supercooled liquid water content (SSLWC) sonde is being developed to meet a directly related need...

  10. Substrate Dependence of the Freezing Dynamics of Supercooled Water Films: A High-Speed Optical Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pach, E; Rodriguez, L; Verdaguer, A

    2018-01-18

    The freezing of supercooled water films on different substrates was investigated using a high-speed camera coupled to an optical microscope, obtaining details of the freezing process not described in the literature before. We observed the two well known freezing stages (fast dendritic growth and slow freezing of the water liquid left after the dendritic growth), but we separated the process into different phenomena that were studied separately: two-dimensional dendrite growth on the substrate interface, vertical dendrite growth, formation and evolution of ice domains, trapping of air bubbles and freezing of the water film surface. We found all of these processes to be dependent on both the supercooling temperature and the substrate used. Ice dendrite (or ice front) growth during the first stage was found to be dependent on thermal properties of the substrate but could not be unequivocally related to them. Finally, for low supercooling, a direct relationship was observed between the morphology of the dendrites formed in the first stage, which depends on the substrate, and the roughness and the shape of the surface of the ice, when freezing of the film was completed. This opens the possibility of using surfaces and coatings to control ice morphology beyond anti-icing properties.

  11. Analysis of supercooling activity of tannin-related polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Wang, Donghui; Endoh, Keita; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2013-08-01

    Based on the discovery of novel supercooling-promoting hydrolyzable gallotannins from deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in Katsura tree (see Wang et al. (2012) [38]), supercooling capability of a wide variety of tannin-related polyphenols (TRPs) was examined in order to find more effective supercooling-promoting substances for their applications. The TRPs examined were single compounds including six kinds of hydrolyzable tannins, 11 kinds of catechin derivatives, two kinds of structural analogs of catechin and six kinds of phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives, 11 kinds of polyphenol mixtures and five kinds of crude plant tannin extracts. The effects of these TRPs on freezing were examined by droplet freezing assays using various solutions containing different kinds of identified ice nucleators such as the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, the INB Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide and phloroglucinol as well as a solution containing only unintentionally included unidentified airborne ice nucleators. Among the 41 kinds of TRPs examined, all of the hydrolyzable tannins, catechin derivatives, polyphenol mixtures and crude plant tannin extracts as well as a few structural analogs of catechin and phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives exhibited supercooling-promoting activity (SCA) with significant differences (p>0.05) from at least one of the solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators. It should be noted that there were no TRPs exhibiting ice nucleation-enhancing activity (INA) in all solutions containing identified ice nucleators, whereas there were many TRPs exhibiting INA with significant differences in solutions containing unidentified ice nucleators alone. An emulsion freezing assay confirmed that these TRPs did not essentially affect homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. It is thought that not only SCA but also INA in the TRPs are produced by interactions with heterogeneous ice nucleators, not by direct interaction with water

  12. Generation of live offspring from vitrified embryos with synthetic polymers SuperCool X-1000 and SuperCool Z-1000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Jimenez, F; Jimenez-Trigos, E; Lavara, R; Vicente, J S

    2014-01-01

    Ice growth and recrystallisation are considered important factors in determining vitrification outcomes. Synthetic polymers inhibit ice formation during cooling or warming of the vitrification process. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding commercially available synthetic polymers SuperCool X-1000 and SuperCool Z-1000 to vitrification media on in vivo development competence of rabbit embryos. Four hundred and thirty morphologically normal embryos recovered at 72 h of gestation were used. The vitrification media contained 20% dimethyl sulphoxide and 20% ethylene glycol, either alone or in combination with 1% of SuperCool X-1000 and 1% SuperCool. Our results show that embryos can be successfully vitrified using SuperCool X-1000 and SuperCool Z-1000 and when embryos are transferred, live offspring can be successfully produced. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that we succeeded for the first time in obtaining live offspring after vitrification of embryos using SuperCool X-1000 and SuperCool Z-1000 polymers.

  13. Space resolved x-ray diffraction measurements of the supercooled state of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Shinya; Nishida, Akira; Mina, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    In order to measure an ordering process of polymers, the supercooled state near the crystallizing surface was observed by a space resolved X-ray diffraction method at Photon Factory (PF). Using temperature slope crystallization, low density polyethylene and even-number paraffins were examined during crystallization from the melt state. The results indicate that polyethylene shows a sharp b-axis orientation where the lamellar normal and crystalline c-axis are perpendicular to the temperature slope. The crystalline lamellae are well-developed with lamellar thickness of 180 A. The supercooled melt state just above the crystallizing plane shows some diffraction in the small angle region without any crystalline reflection in the wide angle. This fact suggests that a long-range ordering (lamellar structure) appears prior to the short-range one (crystalline structure). The in-situ crystallizing surface was observed by an optical microscope connected to a TV system. The crystallizing surface of even-number paraffins moves to upwards in the temperature slope. In-situ X-ray measurements at PF revealed that the crystalline c-axis and lamellar normal of the even number paraffins are parallel to the temperature slope. From these results, the crystalline ordering and the surface movement of even number paraffins are explained using special nucleation mechanism including a screw dislocation. (author)

  14. Effect of mechanical ventilation on regional variation of pleural liquid thickness in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P M; Lai-Fook, S J

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effect of ventilation on the regional distribution of pleural liquid thickness in anesthetized rabbits. Three transparent pleural windows were made between the second and eight intercostal space along the midaxillary line of the right chest. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (1 ml) was injected into the pleural space through a rib capsule and allowed to mix with the pleural liquid. The light emitted from the pleural space beneath the windows was measured by fluorescence videomicroscopy at a constant tidal volume (20 ml) and two ventilation frequencies (20 and 40 breaths/min). Pleural liquid thickness was determined from the light measurements after in vitro calibration of pleural liquid collected postmortem. At 20 breaths/min, pleural liquid thickness increased with a cranial-caudal distance from 5 microns at the second to third intercostal space to 30 microns at the sixth through eighth intercostal space. At 40 breaths/min, pleural space thickness was unchanged at the second to third intercostal space but increased to 46 microns at the sixth through eighth intercostal space. To determine this effect on pleural liquid shear stress, we measured relative lung velocity from videomicroscopic images of the lung surface through the windows. Lung velocity amplitude increased with cranial-caudal distance and with ventilation frequency. Calculated shear stress amplitude was constant with cranial-caudal distance but increased with ventilation frequency. Thus, pleural liquid thickness is matched to the relative lung motion so as to maintain a spatially uniform shear stress amplitude in pleural liquid during mechanical ventilation.

  15. Effects of poly-vinyl alcohol on supercooling phenomena of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Tetsuo; Kudoh, Tomoya [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1, Wakasato, Nagano City, 380-8553 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    The effects of a polymer additive on the supercooling of water were investigated experimentally. Poly-vinyl alcohols (PVAs) were used as the additives, and samples were prepared by dissolving the PVA in water. Since the characteristics of PVA are decided by its degrees of polymerization and saponification, these were varied along with the concentration as the experimental parameters. Moreover, the effect of purity of the water was also considered. Each sample was cooled and the temperature at the instant when ice appeared was measured. Since the freezing of supercooled water is a statistical phenomenon, many experiments were carried out and the average degree of supercooling was obtained. It was found that PVA affects the nucleation of ice in supercooled water and the degree of supercooling increases with the addition of PVA even for water with low purity. The average degree of supercooling increases with an increase in the degree of saponification of PVA. (author)

  16. Effects of Artificial Supercooling Followed by Slow Freezing on the Microstructure and Qualities of Pork Loin

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yiseul; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of artificial supercooling followed by still air freezing (SSF) on the qualities of pork loin. The qualities of pork frozen by SSF were compared with the fresh control (CT, stored at 4? for 24 h), slow freezing (SAF, still air freezing) and rapid freezing (EIF, ethanol immersion freezing) treatments. Compared with no supercooling phenomena of SAF and EIF, the extent of supercooling obtained by SSF treatment was 1.4?. Despite that SSF was conducted with the ...

  17. Heuristic Methodology for Estimating the Liquid Biofuel Potential of a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dusmanescu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a heuristic methodology for estimating the possible variation of the liquid biofuel potential of a region, an appraisal made for a future period of time. The determination of the liquid biofuel potential has been made up either on the account of an average (constant yield of the energetic crops that were used, or on the account of a yield that varies depending on a known trend, which can be estimated through a certain method. The proposed methodology uses the variation of the yield of energetic crops over time in order to simulate a variation of the biofuel potential for a future ten year time period. This new approach to the problem of determining the liquid biofuel potential of a certain land area can be useful for investors, as it allows making a more realistic analysis of the investment risk and of the possibilities of recovering the investment. On the other hand, the presented methodology can be useful to the governmental administration in order to elaborate strategies and policies to ensure the necessity of fuels and liquid biofuels for transportation, in a certain area. Unlike current methods, which approach the problem of determining the liquid biofuel potential in a deterministic way, by using econometric methods, the proposed methodology uses heuristic reasoning schemes in order to reduce the great number of factors that actually influence the biofuel potential and which usually have unknown values.

  18. Rotational dynamics in supercooled water from nuclear spin relaxation and molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Johan; Mattea, Carlos; Sunde, Erik P; Halle, Bertil

    2012-05-28

    Structural dynamics in liquid water slow down dramatically in the supercooled regime. To shed further light on the origin of this super-Arrhenius temperature dependence, we report high-precision (17)O and (2)H NMR relaxation data for H(2)O and D(2)O, respectively, down to 37 K below the equilibrium freezing point. With the aid of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we provide a detailed analysis of the rotational motions probed by the NMR experiments. The NMR-derived rotational correlation time τ(R) is the integral of a time correlation function (TCF) that, after a subpicosecond librational decay, can be described as a sum of two exponentials. Using a coarse-graining algorithm to map the MD trajectory on a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) in angular space, we show that the slowest TCF component can be attributed to large-angle molecular jumps. The mean jump angle is ∼48° at all temperatures and the waiting time distribution is non-exponential, implying dynamical heterogeneity. We have previously used an analogous CTRW model to analyze quasielastic neutron scattering data from supercooled water. Although the translational and rotational waiting times are of similar magnitude, most translational jumps are not synchronized with a rotational jump of the same molecule. The rotational waiting time has a stronger temperature dependence than the translation one, consistent with the strong increase of the experimentally derived product τ(R) D(T) at low temperatures. The present CTRW jump model is related to, but differs in essential ways from the extended jump model proposed by Laage and co-workers. Our analysis traces the super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of τ(R) to the rotational waiting time. We present arguments against interpreting this temperature dependence in terms of mode-coupling theory or in terms of mixture models of water structure.

  19. Study of magnetoresistance in the supercooled state of Dy-Y alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Rudra Prasad; Lakhani, Archana

    2018-02-01

    We report the magnetoresistance studies on Dy1-xYx (x ≤ 0.05) alloys across the first order helimagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition. These alloys exhibit multiple magnetic phases on varying the temperature and magnetic field. The magnetoresistance studies in the hysteresis region shows irreversibility in forward and reverse field cycles. The resistivity values at zero field for these alloys after zero field cooling to the measurement temperatures, are different in both forward and reverse field cycles. The path dependence of magnetoresistance suggests the presence of helimagnetic phase as the supercooled metastable state which transforms to the stable ferromagnetic state on increasing the field. At high magnetic fields negative magnetoresistance following a linear dependence with field is observed which is attributed to the magnon scattering.

  20. Empirical Formulae for The Calculation of Austenite Supercooled Transformation Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzaska J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical formulae for the calculation of austenite supercooled transformation temperatures, basing on the chemical composition, austenitising temperature and cooling rate. The multiple regression method was used. Four equations were established allowing to calculate temperature of the start area of ferrite, perlite, bainite and martensite at the given cooling rate. The calculation results obtained do not allow to determine the cooling rate range of ferritic, pearlitic, bainitic and martensite transformations. Classifiers based on logistic regression or neural network were established to solve this problem.

  1. The freezing and supercooling of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Christian; Seignemartin, Violaine; James, Stephen J. [Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, Churchill Building, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    This work shows that peeled garlic cloves demonstrate significant supercooling during freezing under standard conditions and can be stored at temperatures well below their freezing point (-2.7 C) without freezing. The nucleation point or 'metastable limit temperature' (the point at which ice crystal nucleation is initiated) of peeled garlic cloves was found to be between -7.7 and -14.6 C. Peeled garlic cloves were stored under static air conditions at temperatures between -6 and -9 C for up to 69 h without freezing, and unpeeled whole garlic bulbs and cloves were stored for 1 week at -6 C without freezing. (author)

  2. Observation of two regions of selective light reflection from a thin film of a cholesteric liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaverdyan, R B; Dadalyan, T K; Chilingaryan, Yurii S

    2013-01-01

    Two regions of selective light reflection (in the short- and long- wavelength parts of the visible spectrum) from a thin film of a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC), consisting of the mixture of two CLCs with opposite chirality and a nematic liquid crystal, are experimentally found for the first time. The spectral position of the reflection regions and the separation between them varies depending on the CLC composition and the temperature. The long-wavelength region of reflection corresponds to the region of Bragg reflection from the CLC helix, while the short-wavelength region is probably due to the defects in the structure of the CLC film. (letters)

  3. Probing spatial heterogeneity in supercooled glycerol and temporal heterogeneity with single-molecule FRET in polyprolines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents two lines of research. On the one hand, we investigate heterogeneity in supercooled glycerol by means of rheometry, small-angle neutron scattering, and fluorescence imaging. We find from the rheological experiments that supercooled glycerol can behave like weak solids at

  4. Complex bud architecture and cell-specific chemical patterns enable supercooling of Picea abies bud primordial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud primordia of Picea abies, despite a frozen shoot, stay ice free down to -50 °C by a mechanism termed supercooling whose biophysical and biochemical requirements are poorly understood. Bud architecture was assessed by 3D-reconstruction, supercooling and freezing patterns by infrared video thermog...

  5. Shear viscosity of glass-forming melts in the liquid-glass transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanditov, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to interpreting the hole-activation model of a viscous flow of glass-forming liquids is proposed. This model underlies the development of the concept on the exponential temperature dependence of the free energy of activation of a flow within the range of the liquid-glass transition in complete agreement with available experimental data. The 'formation of a fluctuation hole' in high-heat glass-forming melts is considered as a small-scale low-activation local deformation of a structural network, i.e., the quasi-lattice necessary for the switching of the valence bond, which is the main elementary event of viscous flow of glasses and their melts. In this sense, the hole formation is a conditioned process. A drastic increase in the activation free energy of viscous flow in the liquid-glass transition region is explained by a structural transformation that is reduced to a limiting local elastic deformation of the structural network, which, in turn, originates from the excitation (critical displacement) of a bridging atom like the oxygen atom in the Si-O-Si bridge. At elevated temperatures, as a rule, a necessary amount of excited bridging atoms (locally deformed regions of the structural network) always exists, and the activation free energy of viscous flow is almost independent of temperature. The hole-activation model is closely connected with a number of well-known models describing the viscous flow of glass-forming liquids (the Avramov-Milchev, Nemilov, Ojovan, and other models).

  6. Comment on "Spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation of water"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2015-01-01

    Yagasaki et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 020301 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.020301] present results from a molecular dynamics trajectory illustrating coarsening of ice, which they interpret as evidence of transient coexistence between two distinct supercooled phases of liquid water. We point out that neither two distinct liquids nor criticality are demonstrated in this simulation study. Instead, the illustrated trajectory is consistent with coarsening behaviors analyzed and predicted in earlier work by others.

  7. Comment on "Spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation of water".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T; Chandler, David

    2015-01-01

    Yagasaki et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 020301 (2014)] present results from a molecular dynamics trajectory illustrating coarsening of ice, which they interpret as evidence of transient coexistence between two distinct supercooled phases of liquid water. We point out that neither two distinct liquids nor criticality are demonstrated in this simulation study. Instead, the illustrated trajectory is consistent with coarsening behaviors analyzed and predicted in earlier work by others.

  8. Deuteron-NMR investigation on the dynamics of supercooled, confined water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattig, Matthias; Vogel, Michael [TU Darmstadt, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The dynamical behaviour of water in the regime of the supercooled liquid is a topic of large interest. In particular, the existence of a fragile-to-strong transition (FST) at T=225K related to the transition between two distinct phases of liquid water is controversially discussed. Due to crystallization the temperature range proposed for the FST is hardly accessible in bulk water. Therefore, we confine heavy water to narrow pores in the mesoporous silicate MCM-41. This suppresses the freezing of a substantial fraction of water, enabling direct investigation of the interesting temperatures. Deuteron-NMR methods are utilised to determine the rotational correlation times τ of water on time scales from ns up to s. The spin-lattice-relaxation time T{sub 1} exhibits a typical minimum at about T = 230 K. Above this minimum the correlation times follow a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law. Below the minimum, two relaxation processes could be observed. The low-temperature processes show a different temperature dependence, where the curves τ(T) of all processes intersect at about T = 230 K. A comparison with literature data from neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy gives rise to the idea that the observed crossover is due to this intersection of processes rather than to a FST. To test this idea studies on water confined to MCM-41 with different pore sizes and fillings are in progress.

  9. Xylem development in prunus flower buds and the relationship to deep supercooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, E N

    1984-04-01

    Xylem development in eight Prunus species was examined and the relationship to deep supercooling assessed. Dormant buds of six species, P. armeniaca, P. avium, P. cerasus, P. persica, P. salicina, and P. sargentii deep supercooled. Xylem vessel elements were not observed within the dormant floral primordia of these species. Instead, discrete bundles containing procambial cells were observed. Vascular differentiation resumed and xylem continuity was established during the time that the capacity to deep supercool was lost. In P. serotina and P. virginiana, two species which do not supercool, xylem vessels ran the length of the inflorescence and presumably provided a conduit for the spread of ice into the bud. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of xylem continuity is an important feature of buds which deep supercool.

  10. Development of regional cerebral sub-hypothermia with perfusion of hypothermic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Ji Xunming

    2007-01-01

    The neuroprotection of induced hypothermia has been investigated intensively and confirmed in animal models and it has been used clinically in many fields since the finding of sub-hypothermia can also reduce cerebral injury. However the use of hypothermia in clinics is limited by the simultaneously induced systemic complications. Recently the sub-hypothermia induced by hypothermic regional arterial perfusion is proved to be the most effective method to reach the goal, including hypothermic normal saline with no influences on whole body temperature, cardiac rhythm and blood coagulation. According to the well development, fruitful achievement in the present status of this field, the authors are surely to have the inspiration for the further investigation and development of regional cerebral sub-hypothermia with perfusion of hypothermic liquids. (authors)

  11. Dynamical, structural and chemical heterogeneities in a binary metallic glass-forming liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puosi, F.; Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.

    2018-04-01

    As it approaches the glass transition, particle motion in liquids becomes highly heterogeneous and regions with virtually no mobility coexist with liquid-like domains. This complex dynamic is believed to be responsible for different phenomena including non-exponential relaxation and the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation. Understanding the relationships between dynamical heterogeneities and local structure in metallic liquids and glasses is a major scientific challenge. Here we use classical molecular dynamics simulations to study the atomic dynamics and microscopic structure of Cu50Zr50 alloy in the supercooling regime. Dynamical heterogeneities are identified via an isoconfigurational analysis. We demonstrate the transition from isolated to clustering low mobility with decreasing temperature. These slow clusters, whose sizes grow upon cooling, are also associated with concentration fluctuations, characterized by a Zr-enriched phase, with a composition CuZr2 . In addition, a structural analysis of slow clusters based on Voronoi tessellation evidences an increase with respect of the bulk system of the fraction of Cu atoms having a local icosahedral order. These results are in agreement with the consolidated scenario of the relevant role played by icosahedral order in the dynamic slowing-down in supercooled metal alloys.

  12. Supercooling of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions under acoustic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2006-10-14

    The supercooling capability of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions is investigated at containerless state by using acoustic levitation method. The supercooling of water is obviously enhanced by the alkali metal ions and increases linearly with the augmentation of concentrations. Furthermore, the supercooling depends on the nature of ions and is 2-3 K larger for NaCl solution than that for KCl solution in the present concentration range: Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to reveal the intrinsic correlation between supercoolability and microstructure. The translational and orientational order parameters are applied to quantitatively demonstrate the effect of ionic concentration on the hydrogen-bond network and ice melting point. The disrupted hydrogen-bond structure determines essentially the concentration dependence of supercooling. On the other hand, the introduced acoustic pressure suppresses the increase of supercooling by promoting the growth and coalescence of microbubbles, the effective nucleation catalysts, in water. However, the dissolved ions can weaken this effect, and moreover the degree varies with the ion type. This results in the different supercoolability for NaCl and KCl solutions under the acoustic levitation conditions.

  13. Seasonal change in the capacity for supercooling by neonatal painted turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, G C; Packard, M J; McDaniel, L L

    2001-05-01

    Hatchlings of the North American painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) typically spend their first winter of life inside the shallow, subterranean nest where they completed incubation the preceding summer. This facet of their natural history commonly causes neonates in northerly populations to be exposed in mid-winter to ice and cold, which many animals survive by remaining unfrozen and supercooled. We measured the limit of supercooling in samples of turtles taken shortly after hatching and in other samples after 2 months of acclimation (or acclimatization) to a reduced temperature in the laboratory or field. Animals initially had only a limited capacity for supercooling, but they acquired an ability to undergo deeper supercooling during the course of acclimation. The gut of most turtles was packed with particles of soil and eggshell shortly after hatching, but not after acclimation. Thus, the relatively high limit of supercooling for turtles in the days immediately after hatching may have resulted from the ingestion of soil (and associated nucleating agents) by the animals as they were freeing themselves from their eggshell, whereas the relatively low limit of supercooling attained by acclimated turtles may have resulted from their purging their gut of its contents. Parallels may, therefore, exist between the natural-history strategy expressed by hatchling painted turtles and that expressed by numerous terrestrial arthropods that withstand the cold of winter by sustaining a state of supercooling.

  14. Superheating and supercooling of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Q; Sharp, I D; Yuan, C W; Yi, D O; Liao, C Y; Glaeser, A M; Minor, A M; Beeman, J W; Ridgway, M C; Kluth, P; Iii, J W Ager; Chrzan, D C; Haller, E E

    2007-01-01

    Free-standing nanocrystals exhibit a size-dependant thermodynamic melting point reduction relative to the bulk melting point that is governed by the surface free energy. The presence of an encapsulating matrix, however, alters the interface free energy of nanocrystals and their thermodynamic melting point can either increase or decrease relative to bulk. Furthermore, kinetic contributions can significantly alter the melting behaviours of embedded nanoscale materials. To study the effect of an encapsulating matrix on the melting behaviour of nanocrystals, we performed in situ electron diffraction measurements on Ge nanocrystals embedded in a silicon dioxide matrix. Ge nanocrystals were formed by multi-energy ion implantation into a 500 nm thick silica thin film on a silicon substrate followed by thermal annealing at 900 deg. C for 1 h. We present results demonstrating that Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO 2 exhibit a 470 K melting/solidification hysteresis that is approximately symmetric about the bulk melting point. This unique behaviour, which is thought to be impossible for bulk materials, is well described using a classical thermodynamic model that predicts both kinetic supercooling and kinetic superheating. The presence of the silica matrix suppresses surface pre-melting of nanocrystals. Therefore, heterogeneous nucleation of both the liquid phase and the solid phase are required during the heating and cooling cycle. The magnitude of melting hysteresis is governed primarily by the value of the liquid Ge/solid Ge interface free energy, whereas the relative values of the solid Ge/matrix and liquid Ge/matrix interface free energies govern the position of the hysteresis loop in absolute temperature

  15. Experimental investigations on cylindrical latent heat storage units with sodium acetate trihydrate composites utilizing supercooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Kong, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Latent heat storage units utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) composites were tested in a laboratory. The stainless steel units were 1.5 m high cylinders with internal heat exchangers of tubes with fins. One unit was tested with 116 kg SAT with 6% extra water. Another...... in the thickened phase change material after melting. The heat content in the fully charged state and the heat released after solidification of the supercooled SAT mixtures at ambient temperature was higher for the unit with the thickened SAT mixture. The heat discharged after solidification of the supercooled SAT...

  16. Laboratory test of a prototype heat storage module based on stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Kong, Weiqiang; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory test of a long term heat storage module utilizing the principle of stable supercooling of 199.5 kg of sodium acetate water mixture has been carried out. Avoiding phase separation of the incongruently melting salt hydrate by using the extra water principle increased the heat storage...... capacity. An external expansion vessel minimized the pressure built up in the module while heating and reduced the risk of instable supercooling. The module was stable supercooled at indoor ambient temperature for up to two months after which it was discharged. The energy discharged after activating...

  17. Long term thermal energy storage with stable supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Schultz, Jørgen M.; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate makes it possible to store thermal energy partly loss free. This principle makes seasonal heat storage in compact systems possible. To keep high and stable energy content and cycling stability phase separation of the storage material must...... it expands and will cause a pressure built up in a closed chamber which might compromise stability of the supercooling. This can be avoided by having an air volume above the phase change material connected to an external pressure less expansion tank. Supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate at 20 °C stores up...

  18. Theory of terahertz electric oscillations by supercooled superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishonov, Todor M; Mishonov, Mihail T [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia St Kliment Ohridski, 5 J Bourchier Boulevard, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Laboratorium voor Vaste-Stoffysica en Magnetisme, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2005-11-15

    We predict that below T{sub c} a regime of negative differential conductivity (NDC) can be reached. The superconductor should be supercooled to Tsupercooled superconductors to be used as an active medium for generation of electric oscillations. Such generators can be used in the superconducting electronics as a new type THz source of radiation. Oscillations can be modulated by the change of the bias voltage, electrostatic doping by a gate electrode when the superconductor is the channel of a field effect transistor, or by light. When small amplitude oscillations are stabilized near the critical temperature T{sub c} the generator can be used as a bolometer. NDC, which is essential for the applications, is predicted on the basis of analysis of known results for fluctuation conductivity, obtained in previous papers by solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation for the Cooper pairs metastable in the normal phase. The Boltzmann equation for fluctuation Cooper pairs is a result of state-of-the-art application of the microscopic theory of superconductivity. Our theoretical conclusions are based on some approximations like time dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory initially derived for gapless superconductors, but nevertheless can reliably predict the appearance of NDC. NDC is the main ingredient of the proposed technical applications. The maximal frequency at which superconductors can operate as generators is determined by the critical temperature {Dirac_h}/2{pi}{omega}{sub max} {approx} k{sub B}T{sub c}. For high-T{sub c} superconductors this maximal frequency falls well inside the terahertz range. Technical conditions to avoid nucleation of the superconducting phase are briefly discussed. We suggest that nanostructured high-T{sub c} superconductors patterned in a single chip can

  19. Scaling of viscous dynamics in simple liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøhling, Lasse; Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Grzybowski, A.

    2012-01-01

    Supercooled liquids are characterized by relaxation times that increase dramatically by cooling or compression. From a single assumption follows a scaling law according to which the relaxation time is a function of h(ρ) over temperature, where ρ is the density and the function h(ρ) depends on the...

  20. Flow Strength of Shocked Aluminum in the Solid-Liquid Mixed Phase Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, William

    2011-06-01

    Shock waves have been used to determine material properties under high shock stresses and very-high loading rates. The determination of mechanical properties such as compressive strength under shock compression has proven to be difficult and estimates of strength have been limited to approximately 100 GPa or less in aluminum. The term ``strength'' has been used in different ways. For a Von-Mises solid, the yield strength is equal to twice the shear strength of the material and represents the maximum shear stress that can be supported before yield. Many of these concepts have been applied to materials that undergo high strain-rate dynamic deformation, as in uni-axial strain shock experiments. In shock experiments, it has been observed that the shear stress in the shocked state is not equal to the shear strength, as evidenced by elastic recompressions in reshock experiments. This has led to an assumption that there is a yield surface with maximum (loading)and minimum (unloading), shear strength yet the actual shear stress lies somewhere between these values. This work provides the first simultaneous measurements of unloading velocity and flow strength for transition of solid aluminum to the liquid phase. The investigation describes the flow strength observed in 1100 (pure), 6061-T6, and 2024 aluminum in the solid-liquid mixed phase region. Reloading and unloading techniques were utilized to provide independent data on the two unknowns (τc and τo) , so that the actual critical shear strength and the shear stress at the shock state could be estimated. Three different observations indicate a change in material response for stresses of 100 to 160 GPa; 1) release wave speed (reloading where applicable) measurements, 2) yield strength measurements, and 3) estimates of Poisson's ratio, all of which provide information on the melt process including internal consistency and/or non-equilibrium and rate-dependent melt behavior. The study investigates the strength properties

  1. Supercooling release of micro-size water droplets on microporous surfaces with cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chun Wan; Kang, Chae Dong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The gas diffusion layer (GDL) of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells plays a key role in controlling moisture in these cells. When the GDL is exposed to a cold environment, the water droplets or water nets in the GDL freeze. This work observed the supercooling and freezing behaviors of water droplets under low temperature. A GDL made of carbon fiber was coated with a waterproof material with 0%, 40%, and 60% PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) contents. The cooling process was investigated according to temperature, and the water droplets on the GDL were supercooled and frozen. Delay in the supercooling release was correlated with the size of water droplets on the GDL and the coating rate of the layer. Moreover, the supercooling degree of the droplets decreased as the number of freeze thaw cycles in the GDL increased.

  2. Effect of freeze-thaw repetitions upon the supercooling release ability of ice-nucleating bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Yooko; Hasegawa, Hiromi; Sasaki, Kazuhiro

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the durability of ice-nucleating bacteria with a potent supercooling release capacity through repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Through experiment, we confirmed that UV sterilized Erwinia ananas maintains a superior supercooling release capacity at around -1degC through 2000 freeze-thaw cycles. We also found that γ-ray sterilization, which is more suitable than UV for large-scale sterilization treatment, has a similar effect at appropriately selected doses. (author)

  3. NASA/FAA/NCAR Supercooled Large Droplet Icing Flight Research: Summary of Winter 1996-1997 Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean; Ratvasky, Thomas; Bernstein, Ben; McDonough, Frank; Strapp, J. Walter

    1998-01-01

    During the winter of 1996-1997, a flight research program was conducted at the NASA-Lewis Research Center to study the characteristics of Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD) within the Great Lakes region. This flight program was a joint effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Based on weather forecasts and real-time in-flight guidance provided by NCAR, the NASA-Lewis Icing Research Aircraft was flown to locations where conditions were believed to be conducive to the formation of Supercooled Large Droplets aloft. Onboard instrumentation was then used to record meteorological, ice accretion, and aero-performance characteristics encountered during the flight. A total of 29 icing research flights were conducted, during which "conventional" small droplet icing, SLD, and mixed phase conditions were encountered aloft. This paper will describe how flight operations were conducted, provide an operational summary of the flights, present selected experimental results from one typical research flight, and conclude with practical "lessons learned" from this first year of operation.

  4. On the temperature dependence of the Adam-Gibbs equation around the crossover region in the glass transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Michel; Andraca, Adriana; Goldstein, Patricia; del Castillo, Luis Felipe

    2018-04-01

    The Adam-Gibbs equation has been used for more than five decades, and still a question remains unanswered on the temperature dependence of the chemical potential it includes. Nowadays, it is a well-known fact that in fragile glass formers, actually the behavior of the system depends on the temperature region it is being studied. Transport coefficients change due to the appearance of heterogeneity in the liquid as it is supercooled. Using the different forms for the logarithmic shift factor and the form of the configurational entropy, we evaluate this temperature dependence and present a discussion on our results.

  5. Computer simulations of supercooled polymer melts in the bulk and in confined geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baschnagel, J; Varnik, F

    2005-01-01

    We survey results of computer simulations for the structure and dynamics of supercooled polymer melts and films. Our survey is mainly concerned with features of a coarse grained polymer model-a bead-spring model-in the temperature regime above the critical glass temperature T c of the ideal mode-coupling theory (MCT). We divide our discussion into two parts: a part devoted to bulk properties and a part dealing with thin films. The discussion of the bulk properties focuses on two aspects: a comparison of the simulation results with MCT and an analysis of dynamic heterogeneities. We explain in detail how the analyses are performed and what results may be obtained, and we critically assess their strengths and weaknesses. In discussing the application of MCT we also present first results of a quantitative comparison which does not rely on fits, but exploits static input from the simulation to predict the relaxation dynamics. The second part of this review is devoted to extensions of the simulations from the bulk to thin films. We explore in detail the influence of the boundary condition, imposed by smooth or rough walls, on the structure and dynamics of the polymer melt. Geometric confinement is found to shift the glass transition temperature T g (or T c in our case) relative to the bulk. We compare our and other simulation results for the T g shift with experimental data, briefly survey some theoretical ideas for explaining these shifts and discuss related simulation work on the glass transition of confined liquids. Finally, we also present some technical details of how to perform fits to MCT and give a brief introduction to another approach to the glass transition based on the potential energy landscape of a liquid. (topical review)

  6. Metastable liquid-liquid transition in a molecular model of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy C.; Martelli, Fausto; Liu, Yang; Car, Roberto; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2014-06-01

    Liquid water's isothermal compressibility and isobaric heat capacity, and the magnitude of its thermal expansion coefficient, increase sharply on cooling below the equilibrium freezing point. Many experimental, theoretical and computational studies have sought to understand the molecular origin and implications of this anomalous behaviour. Of the different theoretical scenarios put forward, one posits the existence of a first-order phase transition that involves two forms of liquid water and terminates at a critical point located at deeply supercooled conditions. Some experimental evidence is consistent with this hypothesis, but no definitive proof of a liquid-liquid transition in water has been obtained to date: rapid ice crystallization has so far prevented decisive measurements on deeply supercooled water, although this challenge has been overcome recently. Computer simulations are therefore crucial for exploring water's structure and behaviour in this regime, and have shown that some water models exhibit liquid-liquid transitions and others do not. However, recent work has argued that the liquid-liquid transition has been mistakenly interpreted, and is in fact a liquid-crystal transition in all atomistic models of water. Here we show, by studying the liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model of water with the use of six advanced sampling methods to compute the free-energy surface, that two metastable liquid phases and a stable crystal phase exist at the same deeply supercooled thermodynamic condition, and that the transition between the two liquids satisfies the thermodynamic criteria of a first-order transition. We follow the rearrangement of water's coordination shell and topological ring structure along a thermodynamically reversible path from the low-density liquid to cubic ice. We also show that the system fluctuates freely between the two liquid phases rather than crystallizing. These findings provide unambiguous evidence for a liquid-liquid transition in

  7. Supercooling and cold energy storage characteristics of nano-media in ball-packed porous structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qunzhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented experiments aimed to study the supercooling and cold-energy storage characteristics of nanofluids and water-based nano-media in ball-packed porous structures (BPS. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs measuring 20nm and 80nm were used as additives and sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS was used as anionic surfactant. The experiments used different concentrations of nanofluid, distilled with BPS of different spherical diameter and different concentrations of nano-media, and were conducted 20 times. Experimental results of supercooling were analysed by statistical methods. Results show that the average and peak supercooling degrees of nanofluids and nano-media in BPS are lower than those of distilled water. For the distilled water in BPS, the supercooling degree decreases on the whole with the decrease of the ball diameter. With the same spherical diameter (8mm of BPS, the supercooling degree of TiO2 NPs measuring 20nm is lower than the supercooling degree of distilled water in BPS. Step-cooling experiments of different concentrations of nanofluids and nano-media in BPS were also conducted. Results showed that phase transition time is reduced because of the presence of TiO2 NPs. The BPS substrate and the NPs enhance the heat transfer. Distilled water with a porous solid base and nanoparticles means the amount of cold-energy storage increases and the supercooling degree and the total time are greatly reduced. The phase transition time of distilled water is about 3.5 times that of nano-media in BPS.

  8. Advanced control of liquid water region in diffusion media of polymer electrolyte fuel cells through a dimensionless number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Ken S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, a three-dimension (3-D) model of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is employed to investigate the complex, non-isothermal, two-phase flow in the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Phase change in gas flow channels is explained, and a simplified approach accounting for phase change is incorporated into the fuel cell model. It is found that the liquid water contours in the GDL are similar along flow channels when the channels are subject to two-phase flow. Analysis is performed on a dimensionless parameter Da0 introduced in our previous paper [Y. Wang and K. S. Chen, Chemical Engineering Science 66 (2011) 3557-3567] and the parameter is further evaluated in a realistic fuel cell. We found that the GDL's liquid water (or liquid-free) region is determined by the Da0 number which lumps several parameters, including the thermal conductivity and operating temperature. By adjusting these factors, a liquid-free GDL zone can be created even though the channel stream is two-phase flow. Such a liquid-free zone is adjacent to the two-phase region, benefiting local water management, namely avoiding both severe flooding and dryness.

  9. Experimental Evidence of Low Density Liquid Water under Decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, G.; Lin, C.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Smith, J.

    2017-12-01

    Water is not only the most important substance for life, but also plays important roles in liquid science for its anomalous properties. It has been widely accepted that water's anomalies are not a result of simple thermal fluctuation, but are connected to the formation of various structural aggregates in the hydrogen bonding network. Among several proposed scenarios, one model of fluctuations between two different liquids has gradually gained traction. These two liquids are referred to as a low-density liquid (LDL) and a high-density liquid (HDL) with a coexistence line in the deeply supercooled regime at elevated pressure. The LDL-HDL transition ends with decreasing pressure at a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) with its Widom line extending to low pressures. Above the Widom line lies mostly HDL which is favored by entropy, while LDL, mostly lying below the Widom line, is favored by enthalpy in the tetrahedral hydrogen bonding network. The origin of water's anomalies can then be explained by the increase in structural fluctuations, as water is cooled down to deeply supercooled temperatures approaching the Widom line. Because both the LLCP and the LDL-HDL transition line lie in water's "no man's land" between the homogeneous nucleation temperature (TH, 232 K) and the crystallization temperature (TX, 150 K), the success of experiments exploring this region has been limited thus far. Using a rapid decompression technique integrated with in situ x-ray diffraction, we observe that a high-pressure ice phase transforms to a low-density noncrystalline (LDN) form upon rapid release of pressure at temperatures of 140-165K. The LDN subsequently crystallizes into ice-Ic through a diffusion-controlled process. The change in crystallization rate with temperature indicates that the LDN is a LDL with its tetrahedrally-coordinated network fully developed and clearly linked to low-density amorphous ices. The observation of the tetrahedral LDL supports the two-liquid model for

  10. Mechanism of Supercooled Water Droplet Breakup near the Leading Edge of an Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras-Alba, Belen; Palacios, Jose; Vargas, Mario; Ruggeri, Charles; Bartkus, Tadas P.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental study on supercooled droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The results are compared to prior room temperature droplet deformation results to explore the effects of droplet supercooling. The experiments were conducted in the Adverse Environment Rotor Test Stand (AERTS) at The Pennsylvania State University. An airfoil model placed at the end of the rotor blades mounted onto the hub in the AERTS chamber was moved at speeds ranging between 50 and 80 m/sec. The temperature of the chamber was set at -20°C. A monotonic droplet generator was used to produce droplets that fell from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil. The supercooled state of the droplets was determined by measurement of the temperature of the drops at various locations below the droplet generator exit. A temperature prediction code was also used to estimate the temperature of the droplets based on vertical velocity and the distance traveled by droplets from the droplet generator to the airfoil stagnation line. High speed imaging was employed to observe the interaction between the droplets and the airfoil. The high speed imaging provided droplet deformation information as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. A tracking software program was used to measure the horizontal and vertical displacement of the droplet against time. It was demonstrated that to compare the effects of water supercooling on droplet deformation, the ratio of the slip velocity and the initial droplet velocity must be equal. A case with equal slip velocity to initial velocity ratios was selected for room temperature and supercooled droplet conditions. The airfoil velocity was 60 m/s and the slip velocity for both sets of data was 40 m/s. In these cases, the deformation of the weakly supercooled and warm droplets did not present different trends. The similar behavior for both environmental conditions indicates that water

  11. Effects of Artificial Supercooling Followed by Slow Freezing on the Microstructure and Qualities of Pork Loin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of artificial supercooling followed by still air freezing (SSF) on the qualities of pork loin. The qualities of pork frozen by SSF were compared with the fresh control (CT, stored at 4℃ for 24 h), slow freezing (SAF, still air freezing) and rapid freezing (EIF, ethanol immersion freezing) treatments. Compared with no supercooling phenomena of SAF and EIF, the extent of supercooling obtained by SSF treatment was 1.4℃. Despite that SSF was conducted with the same method with SAF, application of artificial supercooling accelerated the phase transition (traverse from -0.6℃ to -5℃) from 3.07 h (SAF) to 2.23 h (SSF). The observation of a microstructure indicated that the SSF prevented tissue damage caused by ice crystallization and maintained the structural integrity. The estimated quality parameters reflected that SSF exhibited superior meat quality compared with slow freezing (SAF). SSF showed better water-holding capacity (lower thawing loss, cooking loss and expressible moisture) and tenderness than SAF, and these quality parameters of SSF were not significantly different with ultra-fast freezing treatment (EIF). Consequently, the results demonstrated that the generation of supercooling followed by conventional freezing potentially had the advantage of minimizing the quality deterioration caused by the slow freezing of meat. PMID:27857541

  12. Effects of Artificial Supercooling Followed by Slow Freezing on the Microstructure and Qualities of Pork Loin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yiseul; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2016-10-31

    This study investigated the effects of artificial supercooling followed by still air freezing (SSF) on the qualities of pork loin. The qualities of pork frozen by SSF were compared with the fresh control (CT, stored at 4℃ for 24 h), slow freezing (SAF, still air freezing) and rapid freezing (EIF, ethanol immersion freezing) treatments. Compared with no supercooling phenomena of SAF and EIF, the extent of supercooling obtained by SSF treatment was 1.4℃. Despite that SSF was conducted with the same method with SAF, application of artificial supercooling accelerated the phase transition (traverse from -0.6℃ to -5℃) from 3.07 h (SAF) to 2.23 h (SSF). The observation of a microstructure indicated that the SSF prevented tissue damage caused by ice crystallization and maintained the structural integrity. The estimated quality parameters reflected that SSF exhibited superior meat quality compared with slow freezing (SAF). SSF showed better water-holding capacity (lower thawing loss, cooking loss and expressible moisture) and tenderness than SAF, and these quality parameters of SSF were not significantly different with ultra-fast freezing treatment (EIF). Consequently, the results demonstrated that the generation of supercooling followed by conventional freezing potentially had the advantage of minimizing the quality deterioration caused by the slow freezing of meat.

  13. Experimental evidence for stochastic switching of supercooled phases in NdNiO3 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Rajeev, K. P.; Alonso, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    A first-order phase transition is a dynamic phenomenon. In a multi-domain system, the presence of multiple domains of coexisting phases averages out the dynamical effects, making it nearly impossible to predict the exact nature of phase transition dynamics. Here, we report the metal-insulator transition in samples of sub-micrometer size NdNiO3 where the effect of averaging is minimized by restricting the number of domains under study. We observe the presence of supercooled metallic phases with supercooling of 40 K or more. The transformation from the supercooled metallic to the insulating state is a stochastic process that happens at different temperatures and times in different experimental runs. The experimental results are understood without incorporating material specific properties, suggesting that the behavior is of universal nature. The size of the sample needed to observe individual switching of supercooled domains, the degree of supercooling, and the time-temperature window of switching are expected to depend on the parameters such as quenched disorder, strain, and magnetic field.

  14. Correlation Between Superheated Liquid Fragility And Onset Temperature Of Crystallization For Al-Based Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous alloys or metallic glasses have attracted significant interest in the materials science and engineering communities due to their unique physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The viscous flow of amorphous alloys exhibiting high strain rate sensitivity and homogeneous deformation is considered to be an important characteristic in thermoplastic forming processes performed within the supercooled liquid region because it allows superplastic-like deformation behavior. Here, the correlation between the superheated liquid fragility, and the onset temperature of crystallization for Al-based alloys, is investigated. The activation energy for viscous flow of the liquid is also investigated. There is a negative correlation between the parameter of superheated liquid fragility and the onset temperature of crystallization in the same Al-based alloy system. The activation energy decreases as the onset temperature of crystallization increases. This indicates that the stability of a superheated liquid can affect the thermal stability of the amorphous alloy. It also means that a liquid with a large superheated liquid fragility, when rapidly solidified, forms an amorphous alloy with a low thermal stability.

  15. The Putative Liquid-Liquid Transition is a Liquid-Solid Transition in Atomistic Models of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, David; Limmer, David

    2013-03-01

    Our detailed and controlled studies of free energy surfaces for models of water find no evidence for reversible polyamorphism, and a general theoretical analysis of the phase behavior of cold water in nano pores shows that measured behaviors of these systems reflect surface modulation and dynamics of ice, not a liquid-liquid critical point. A few workers reach different conclusions, reporting evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water. In some cases, it appears that these contrary results are based upon simulation algorithms that are inconsistent with principles of statistical mechanics, such as using barostats that do not reproduce the correct distribution of volume fluctuations. In other cases, the results appear to be associated with difficulty equilibrating the supercooled material and mistaking metastability for coarsening of the ordered ice phase. In this case, sufficient information is available for us to reproduce the contrary results and to establish that they are artifacts of finite time sampling. This finding leads us to the conclusion that two distinct, reversible liquid phases do not exist in models of supercooled water.

  16. Development of seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Andersen, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    A number of heat storage modules for seasonal heat storages based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture have been tested by means of experiments in a heat storage test facility. The modules had different volumes and designs. Further, different methods were used to transfer heat...... to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the modules. By means of the experiments: • The heat exchange capacity rates to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the heat storage modules were determined for different volume flow rates. • The heat content of the heat storage modules were determined....... • The reliability of the supercooling was elucidated for the heat storage modules for different operation conditions. • The reliability of a cooling method used to start solidification of the supercooled sodium acetate water mixture was elucidated. The method is making use of boiling CO2 in a small tank in good...

  17. Limited Impact of Subglacial Supercooling Freeze-on for Greenland Ice Sheet Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Christine F.; Karlsson, Nanna B.; Werder, Mauro A.

    2018-02-01

    Large units of disrupted radiostratigraphy (UDR) are visible in many radio-echo sounding data sets from the Greenland Ice Sheet. This study investigates whether supercooling freeze-on rates at the bed can cause the observed UDR. We use a subglacial hydrology model to calculate both freezing and melting rates at the base of the ice sheet in a distributed sheet and within basal channels. We find that while supercooling freeze-on is a phenomenon that occurs in many areas of the ice sheet, there is no discernible correlation with the occurrence of UDR. The supercooling freeze-on rates are so low that it would require tens of thousands of years with minimal downstream ice motion to form the hundreds of meters of disrupted radiostratigraphy. Overall, the melt rates at the base of the ice sheet greatly overwhelm the freeze-on rates, which has implications for mass balance calculations of Greenland ice.

  18. Enzyme kinetics in acoustically levitated droplets of supercooled water: a novel approach to cryoenzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, David D; Nardozzi, Jonathan D

    2005-04-15

    The rate of the alkaline phosphatase-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferone phosphate was measured in acoustically levitated droplets of aqueous tris (50 mM) at pH 8.5 at 22 +/- 2 degrees C and in supercooled solution at -6 +/- 2 degrees C. At 22 degrees C, the rate of product formation was in excellent agreement with the rate observed in bulk solution in a cuvette, indicating that the acoustic levitation process does not alter the enzyme activity. The rate of the reaction decreased 6-fold in supercooled solution at -6 +/- 2 degrees C. The acoustic levitator apparatus is described in detail.

  19. Structural dynamics of supercooled water from quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Johan; Schober, Helmut; Halle, Bertil

    2011-04-14

    One of the outstanding challenges presented by liquid water is to understand how molecules can move on a picosecond time scale despite being incorporated in a three-dimensional network of relatively strong H-bonds. This challenge is exacerbated in the supercooled state, where the dramatic slowing down of structural dynamics is reminiscent of the, equally poorly understood, generic behavior of liquids near the glass transition temperature. By probing single-molecule dynamics on a wide range of time and length scales, quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) can potentially reveal the mechanistic details of water's structural dynamics, but because of interpretational ambiguities this potential has not been fully realized. To resolve these issues, we present here an extensive set of high-quality QENS data from water in the range 253-293 K and a corresponding set of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to facilitate and validate the interpretation. Using a model-free approach, we analyze the QENS data in terms of two motional components. Based on the dynamical clustering observed in MD trajectories, we identify these components with two distinct types of structural dynamics: picosecond local (L) structural fluctuations within dynamical basins and slower interbasin jumps (J). The Q-dependence of the dominant QENS component, associated with J dynamics, can be quantitatively rationalized with a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) model with an apparent jump length that depends on low-order moments of the jump length and waiting time distributions. Using a simple coarse-graining algorithm to quantitatively identify dynamical basins, we map the newtonian MD trajectory on a CTRW trajectory, from which the jump length and waiting time distributions are computed. The jump length distribution is gaussian and the rms jump length increases from 1.5 to 1.9 Å as the temperature increases from 253 to 293 K. The rms basin radius increases from 0.71 to 0.75 Å over the same range. The

  20. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  1. Multiple critical points and liquid-liquid equilibria from the van der Waals like equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemenko, Sergey; Lozovsky, Taras; Mazur, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The principal aim of this work is a comprehensive analysis of the phase diagram of water via the van der Waals like equations of state (EoSs) which are considered as superpositions of repulsive and attractive forces. We test more extensively the modified van der Waals EoS (MVDW) proposed by Skibinski et al (2004 Phys. Rev. E 69 061206) and refine this model by introducing instead of the classical van der Waals repulsive term a very accurate hard sphere EoS over the entire stable and metastable regions (Liu 2006 Preprint cond-mat/0605392). It was detected that the simplest form of MVDW EoS displays a complex phase behavior, including three critical points, and identifies four fluid phases (gas, low density liquid (LDL), high density liquid (HDL), and very high density liquid (VHDL)). Moreover the experimentally observed (Mallamace et al 2007 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104 18387) anomalous behavior of the density of water in the deeply supercooled region (a density minimum) is reproduced by the MWDW EoS. An improvement of the repulsive part does not change the topological picture of the phase behavior of water in the wide range of thermodynamic variables. The new parameters set for second and third critical points are recognized by thorough analysis of experimental data for the loci of thermodynamic response function extrema

  2. Experimental investigations on prototype heat storage units utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Dragsted, Janne; Fan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory tests of two heat storage units based on the principle of stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) mixtures were carried out. One unit was filled with 199.5 kg of SAT with 9% extra water to avoid phase separation of the incongruently melting salt hydrate. The other unit...

  3. Crystallization in diblock copolymer thin films at different degrees of supercooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darko, C.; Botiz, I.; Reiter, G.

    2009-01-01

    The crystalline structures in thin films of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymers were studied in dependence on the degree of supercooling. Atomic force microscopy showed that the crystalline domains (lamellae) consist of grains, which are macroscopic at low and interme...

  4. Contact freezing of supercooled cloud droplets on collision with mineral dust particles: effect of particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Duft, Denis; Kiselev, Alexei; Leisner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The contact freezing of supercooled cloud droplets is one of the potentially important and the least investigated heterogeneous mechanism of ice formation in the tropospheric clouds [1]. On the time scales of cloud lifetime the freezing of supercooled water droplets via contact mechanism may occur at higher temperature compared to the same IN immersed in the droplet. However, the laboratory experiments of contact freezing are very challenging due to the number of factors affecting the probability of ice formation. In our experiment we study single water droplets freely levitated in the laminar flow of mineral dust particles acting as the contact freezing nuclei. By repeating the freezing experiment sufficient number of times we are able to reproduce statistical freezing behavior of large ensembles of supercooled droplets and measure the average rate of freezing events. We show that the rate of freezing at given temperature is governed only by the rate of droplet -particle collision and by the properties of the contact ice nuclei. In this contribution we investigate the relationship between the freezing probability and the size of mineral dust particle (represented by illite) and show that their IN efficiency scales with the particle size. Based on this observation, we discuss the similarity between the freezing of supercooled water droplets in immersion and contact modes and possible mechanisms of apparent enhancement of the contact freezing efficiency. [1] - K.C. Young, The role of contact nucleation in ice phase initiation in clouds, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 31, 1974

  5. Formation, structure, and evolution of boiling nucleus and interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Peng, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Yong; Wang, Bu-Xuan

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, the concept of the molecular free path is introduced to derive a criterion distinguishing active molecules from inactive molecules in liquid phase. A concept of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of active molecules is proposed to describe the physical configuration before the formation of a nucleus during vapor-liquid phase transition. All active molecules exist as monomers when the concentration of active molecules is lower than CAC, while the active molecules will generate aggregation once the concentration of the active molecules reaches CAC. However, these aggregates with aggregation number, N, smaller than five can steadily exist in bulk phase. The other excess active molecules can only produce infinite aggregation and form a critical nucleus of vapor-liquid phase transition. Without any outer perturbation the state point of CAC corresponds to the critical superheated or supercooled state. Meanwhile, a model of two-region structure of a nucleus is proposed to describe nucleus evolution. The interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus is dependent of the density gradient in the transition region and varies with the structure change of the transition region. With the interfacial tension calculated using this model, the predicted nucleation rate is very close to the experimental measurement. Furthermore, this model and associated analysis provides solid theoretical evidences to clarify the definition of nucleation rate and understand nucleation phenomenon with the insight into the physical nature.

  6. Endogenous and exogenous ice-nucleating agents constrain supercooling in the hatchling painted turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Jon P; Baker, Patrick J; Dinkelacker, Stephen A; Lee, Richard E

    2003-02-01

    Hatchlings of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) commonly hibernate in their shallow, natal nests. Survival at temperatures below the limit of freeze tolerance (approximately -4 degrees C) apparently depends on their ability to remain supercooled, and, whereas previous studies have reported that supercooling capacity improves markedly with cold acclimation, the mechanistic basis for this change is incompletely understood. We report that the crystallization temperature (T(c)) of recently hatched (summer) turtles acclimated to 22 degrees C and reared on a substratum of vermiculite or nesting soil was approximately 5 degrees C higher than the T(c) determined for turtles acclimated to 4 degrees C and tested in winter. This increase in supercooling capacity coincided with elimination of substratum (and, in fewer cases, eggshell) that the hatchlings had ingested; however, this association was not necessarily causal because turtles reared on a paper-covered substratum did not ingest exogenous matter but nevertheless showed a similar increase in supercooling capacity. Our results for turtles reared on paper revealed that seasonal development of supercooling capacity fundamentally requires elimination of ice-nucleating agents (INA) of endogenous origin: summer turtles, but not winter turtles, produced feces (perhaps derived from residual yolk) that expressed ice-nucleating activity. Ingestion of vermiculite or eggshell, which had modest ice-nucleating activity, had no effect on the T(c), whereas ingestion of nesting soil, which contained two classes of potent INA, markedly reduced the supercooling capacity of summer turtles. This effect persisted long after the turtles had purged their guts of soil particles, because the T(c) of winter turtles reared on nesting soil (mean +/- S.E.M.=-11.6+/-1.4 degrees C) was approximately 6 degrees C higher than the T(c) of winter turtles reared on vermiculite or paper. Experiments in which winter turtles were fed INA commonly found in

  7. Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Chen; Krüger, Yves; Wilke, Max

    2016-01-01

    water with a density of 0.921 kg/m3 remains in a homogeneous state during cooling down to the temperaure of −30.5 °C, where it is transformed into ice whose density corresponds to zero pressure. iii) ice melting. Ice melting temperatures of up to 6.8 °C were measured in absence of the vapour bubble, i......We present new experimental data of the low-temperature metastable region of liquid water derived from high-density synthetic fluid inclusions (996−916 kg/m3) in quartz. Microthermometric measurements include: i) Prograde (upon heating) and retrograde (upon cooling) liquid-vapour homogenisation. We...

  8. The liquid–liquid coexistence curves of {benzonitrile + n-pentadecane} and {benzonitrile + n-heptadecane} in the critical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Bai, Yongliang; Yin, Tianxiang; An, Xueqin; Shen, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Coexistence curves of (benzonitrile + n-pentadecane) and (benzonitrile + n-heptadecane) were measured. ► The values of the critical exponent β are consistent with that predicted by the 3D-Ising model. ► The coexistence curves are well described by the critical crossover model. ► The asymmetry of the diameters of the coexistence curves were discussed by the complete scaling theory. - Abstract: Liquid + liquid coexistence curves for the binary solutions of {benzonitrile + n-pentadecane} and {benzonitrile + n-heptadecane} have been measured in the critical region. The critical exponent β and the critical amplitudes have been deduced and the former is consistent with the theoretic prediction. It was found that the coexistence curves may be well described by the crossover model proposed by Gutkowski et al. The asymmetries of the diameters of the coexistence curves were also discussed in the frame of the complete scaling theory.

  9. Influence of Nanoparticles and Graphite Foam on the Supercooling of Acetamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.; Chen, X.; Ma, X.; Song, Q.; Zhao, Y.; Cao, J.

    2014-01-01

    Acetamide is a promising phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal storage,but the large supercooling during the freezing process has limited its application. In this study, we prepared acetamide-SiO 2 composites by adding nano-SiO 2 into acetamide. This modified PCM was then impregnated into the porous graphite foam forming acetamide-SiO 2 -graphite foam form-stable composites. These composites were subjected to melting-solidification cycles 50 times; the time-temperature curves were tracked and recorded during these cycles. The time-temperature curves showed that, for the acetamide containing 2 wt. % SiO 2 , the supercooling phenomenon was eliminated and the material’s performance was stable for 50 cycles. The solidification temperature of the acetamide-SiO 2 -graphite foam samples was 65°C and the melting temperature was lowered to 65°C. The samples exhibited almost no supercooling and the presence of SiO 2 had no significant effect on the melting-solidification temperature. The microscopic supercooling of the acetamide-SiO 2 composite was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that when the content of SiO 2 was 1 wt. to 2 wt. %, the supercooling could be reduced to less than 10°C and heat was sufficiently released during solidification. Finally, a set of algorithms was derived using MATLAB software for simulating the crystallization of samples based on the classical nucleation theory. The results of the simulation agreed with the experiment results.

  10. Influence of Nanoparticles and Graphite Foam on the Supercooling of Acetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetamide is a promising phase change materials (PCMs for thermal storage,but the large supercooling during the freezing process has limited its application. In this study, we prepared acetamide-SiO2 composites by adding nano-SiO2 into acetamide. This modified PCM was then impregnated into the porous graphite foam forming acetamide-SiO2-graphite foam form-stable composites. These composites were subjected to melting-solidification cycles 50 times; the time-temperature curves were tracked and recorded during these cycles. The time-temperature curves showed that, for the acetamide containing 2 wt. % SiO2, the supercooling phenomenon was eliminated and the material’s performance was stable for 50 cycles. The solidification temperature of the acetamide-SiO2-graphite foam samples was 65°C and the melting temperature was lowered to 65°C. The samples exhibited almost no supercooling and the presence of SiO2 had no significant effect on the melting-solidification temperature. The microscopic supercooling of the acetamide-SiO2 composite was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results indicated that when the content of SiO2 was 1 wt. to 2 wt. %, the supercooling could be reduced to less than 10°C and heat was sufficiently released during solidification. Finally, a set of algorithms was derived using MATLAB software for simulating the crystallization of samples based on the classical nucleation theory. The results of the simulation agreed with the experiment results.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of microencapsulated phase change material with low supercooling for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiaofen; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xingxiang; Shi, Haifeng

    2014-01-01

    Microencapsulated phase change material with a low supercooling degree is one of the increasing important researches as well as industrial application for thermal energy storage. This study develops a novel and low supercooling microencapsulated n-octadecane (MicroC18) with n-octadecyl methacrylate (ODMA)–methacrylic acid (MAA) copolymer as shell using suspension-like polymerization. The fabrication and properties of MicroC18 were characterized by using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size distribution analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The MicroC18 with spherical shapes and an average diameter of 1.60–1.68 μm are fabricated. The onset crystallizing temperatures of MicroC18 are only 4 °C below that of n-octadecane. The unique copolymer shell has a significant impact on the low supercooling of MicroC18. The n-octadecane in all of the samples crystalizes by heterogeneous nucleation. The content of n-octadecane in the microcapsules is low; however, the microcapsules still exhibit high enthalpy through the contribution of the shells. At a monomers/n-octadecane mass ratio is 2:1, as used in the recipes, the MicroC18 with highest phase change enthalpy was obtained. The temperature of thermal resistant of MicroC18 is approximately 235.6 °C, which is affected by the thickness of the polymer shell. - Highlights: • Microencapsulated n-octadecane with comb-like copolymer shell has low supercooling. • The unique shell plays a significant role in suppressing supercooling. • The types of cross-linker affect morphologies and heat enthalpies of microcapsules. • Microcapsules exhibit high phase change enthalpies and thermal stabilities

  12. The putative liquid-liquid transition is a liquid-solid transition in atomistic models of water. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2013-06-01

    This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [D. T. Limmer and D. Chandler, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134503 (2011), 10.1063/1.3643333 and preprint arXiv:1107.0337 (2011)]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, Stillinger-Weber silicon, and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate using both analytical theory and computer simulation. For the latter, we describe robust methods for computing reversible free energy surfaces, and we consider effects of electrostatic boundary conditions. We show that sensible alterations of models and boundary conditions produce no qualitative changes in low-temperature phase behaviors of these systems, only marginal changes in equations of state. On the other hand, we show that altering sampling time scales can produce large and qualitative non-equilibrium effects. Recent reports of evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water are considered in this light.

  13. The putative liquid-liquid transition is a liquid-solid transition in atomistic models of water. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [D. T. Limmer and D. Chandler, J. Chem. Phys.135, 134503 (2011) and preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1107.0337 (2011)]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, Stillinger-Weber silicon, and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate using both analytical theory and computer simulation. For the latter, we describe robust methods for computing reversible free energy surfaces, and we consider effects of electrostatic boundary conditions. We show that sensible alterations of models and boundary conditions produce no qualitative changes in low-temperature phase behaviors of these systems, only marginal changes in equations of state. On the other hand, we show that altering sampling time scales can produce large and qualitative non-equilibrium effects. Recent reports of evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water are considered in this light

  14. The putative liquid-liquid transition is a liquid-solid transition in atomistic models of water. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David, E-mail: chandler@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-06-07

    This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [D. T. Limmer and D. Chandler, J. Chem. Phys.135, 134503 (2011) and preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1107.0337 (2011)]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, Stillinger-Weber silicon, and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate using both analytical theory and computer simulation. For the latter, we describe robust methods for computing reversible free energy surfaces, and we consider effects of electrostatic boundary conditions. We show that sensible alterations of models and boundary conditions produce no qualitative changes in low-temperature phase behaviors of these systems, only marginal changes in equations of state. On the other hand, we show that altering sampling time scales can produce large and qualitative non-equilibrium effects. Recent reports of evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water are considered in this light.

  15. The putative liquid-liquid transition is a liquid-solid transition in atomistic models of water. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T; Chandler, David

    2013-06-07

    This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [D. T. Limmer and D. Chandler, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134503 (2011) and preprint arXiv:1107.0337 (2011)]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, Stillinger-Weber silicon, and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate using both analytical theory and computer simulation. For the latter, we describe robust methods for computing reversible free energy surfaces, and we consider effects of electrostatic boundary conditions. We show that sensible alterations of models and boundary conditions produce no qualitative changes in low-temperature phase behaviors of these systems, only marginal changes in equations of state. On the other hand, we show that altering sampling time scales can produce large and qualitative non-equilibrium effects. Recent reports of evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water are considered in this light.

  16. The phase transition of the first order in the critical region of the gas-liquid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Yukhnovskii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a summarising investigation of the events of the phase transition of the first order that occur in the critical region below the liquid-gas critical point. The grand partition function has been completely integrated in the phase-space of the collective variables. The basic density measure is the quartic one. It has the form of the exponent function with the first, second, third and fourth degree of the collective variables. The problem has been reduced to the Ising model in an external field, the role of which is played by the generalised chemical potential μ*. The line μ*(η =0, where η is the density, is the line of the phase transition. We consider the isothermal compression of the gas till the point where the phase transition on the line μ*(η =0 is reached. When the path of the pressing reaches the line μ* =0 in the gas medium, a droplet of liquid springs up. The work for its formation is obtained, the surface-tension energy is calculated. On the line μ* =0 we have a two-phase system: the gas and the liquid (the droplet one. The equality of the gas and of the liquid chemical potentials is proved. The process of pressing is going on. But the pressure inside the system has stopped, two fixed densities have arisen: one for the gas-phase ηG=ηc(1-d/2 and the other for the liquid-phase ηL=ηc(1+d/2 (symmetrically to the rectlinear diameter, where ηc=0.13044 is the critical density. Starting from that moment the external pressure works as a latent work of pressure. Its value is obtained. As a result, the gas-phase disappears and the whole system turns into liquid. The jump of the density is equal to ηc d, where d=(D/2G1/2 ~ τν/2. D and G are coefficients of the Hamiltonian in the last cell connected with the renormalisation-group symmetry. The equation of state is written.

  17. Crystallization Kinetics of Supercooled Liquid Ge-Sb Based on Ultrafast Calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Bin; Momand, Jamo; Vermeulen, Paul A.; Kooi, Bart J.

    The crystallization kinetics of phase-change materials (PCMs) entails a crucial aspect of phase-change memory technology, and their study is also of interest to advance the understanding of crystallization in general. Research on crystallization of PCMs remains challenging because of the short

  18. Magnetic, electric and optic properties of liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, St.C.

    1980-01-01

    We study the nematic liquid crystals of thermotrop type. We also studied the crystals whose mesomorphism occured both at temperature increasing and decreasing and during the supercooling phase (monotrope). Investigation results performed by us have had in view the following: clearing up and experimental support of a new mechanism of nuclear relaxation in liquid crystals, proposed by author; usage of experimental techniques and methods for to characterize and test some mesomorph media used in very important applications, such as color TV. (author)

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Recognition of supercooled dew in a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor by slip phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Byung-Il

    2007-10-01

    Distinguishing between a supercooled dew and frost below 0 °C in dew/frost-point measurements is an important and challenging problem that has not yet been completely solved. This study presents a new method for the recognition of a supercooled dew in a dew/frost-point sensor. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was used as a dew/frost-point sensor to detect a dew and a supercooled dew as well as frost. The slip phenomenon occurring at an interface between the water droplet and the surface of the quartz crystal resonator of the QCM sensor gives a simple and accurate way of distinguishing between a supercooled dew and frost below 0 °C. This method can give a highly accurate measurement of the dew or the frost point without misreading in the dew-point sensor at temperatures below 0 °C.

  20. On abnormal decomposition of supercooled austenite in carbon and alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parusov, V.V.; Dolzhenkov, I.I.; Podobedov, L.V.; Vakulenko, I.A.

    1980-01-01

    Residual stresses which appear as a result of thermal cycling in the temperature range of 300-700 deg C are investigated in an austenitic class steel (03Kh18N11) to ground the assumption on the effect of plastic deformation, appearing due to thermal stresses, on the mechanism of supercooled austenite decomposition. The determination of residual stresses is carried out with the help of X-ray diffraction analysis. It is established that the deformation brings about an increase in density of dislocation the interaction of which leads to the formation of a typical austenite substructure which conditions the proceeding of the eutectoid transformation according to an abnormal mechanism. It is noted, that the grain pearlite formation due to plastic and microplastic deformation of supercooled austenite induced by thermal stresses should be taken into account when developing steel heat treatment shedules [ru

  1. Potential Energy Landscape of the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in Water and the transformation between Low-Density and High-Density Amorphous Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovambattista, N.; Sciortino, F.; Starr, F. W.; Poole, P. H.

    The potential energy landscape (PEL) formalism is a valuable approach within statistical mechanics for describing supercooled liquids and glasses. We use the PEL formalism and computer simulations to study the transformation between low-density (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL) water, and between low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). We employ the ST2 water model that exhibits a LDL-HDL first-order phase transition and a sharp LDA-HDA transformation, as observed in experiments. Our results are consistent with the view that LDA and HDA configurations are associated with two distinct regions (megabasins) of the PEL that are separated by a potential energy barrier. At higher temperature, we find that LDL configurations are located in the same megabasin as LDA, and that HDL configurations are located in the same megabasin as HDA. We show that the pressure-induced LDL-HDL and LDA-HDA transformations occur along paths that interconnect these two megabasins, but that the path followed by the liquid and the amorphous ice differ. We also study the liquid-to-ice-VII first-order phase transition. The PEL properties across this transition are qualitatively similar to the changes found during the LDA-HDA transformation, supporting the interpretation that the LDA-HDA transformation is a first-order-like phase transition between out-of-equilibrium states.

  2. The relationship between gut contents and supercooling capacity in hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Gary C; Packard, Mary J

    2006-05-01

    Painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) typically spend their first winter of life in a shallow, subterranean hibernaculum (the natal nest) where they seemingly withstand exposure to ice and cold by resisting freezing and becoming supercooled. However, turtles ingest soil and fragments of eggshell as they are hatching from their eggs, and the ingestate usually contains efficient nucleating agents that cause water to freeze at high subzero temperatures. Consequently, neonatal painted turtles have only a modest ability to undergo supercooling in the period immediately after hatching. We studied the limit for supercooling (SCP) in hatchlings that were acclimating to different thermal regimes and then related SCPs of the turtles to the amount of particulate matter in their gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Turtles that were transferred directly from 26 degrees C (the incubation temperature) to 2 degrees C did not purge soil from their gut, and SCPs for these animals remained near -4 degrees C for the 60 days of the study. Animals that were held at 26 degrees C for the duration of the experiment usually cleared soil from their GI tract within 24 days, but SCPs for these turtles were only slightly lower after 60 days than they were at the outset of the experiment. Hatchlings that were acclimating slowly to 2 degrees C cleared soil from their gut within 24 days and realized a modest reduction in their SCP. However, the limit of supercooling in the slowly acclimating animals continued to decline even after all particulate material had been removed from their GI tract, thereby indicating that factors intrinsic to the nucleating agents themselves also may have been involved in the acclimation of hatchlings to low temperature. The lowest SCPs for turtles that were acclimating slowly to 2 degrees C were similar to SCPs recorded in an earlier study of animals taken from natural nests in late autumn, so the current findings affirm the importance of seasonally declining temperatures in

  3. Supercooling suppression of microencapsulated phase change materials by optimizing shell composition and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Fangyu; Yang, Bao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for supercooling suppression of microPCMs by optimizing the structure of the microcapsule shell. • Large effective latent heat (up to 213 J/g) of the microPCMs, much higher than those using additive as nucleating agents. • Change of shell composition and structure significantly affects the phase transition processes of the encapsulated PCMs. • The latent heat of the shell-induced phase transition is maximized, reaching 83.7% of the latent heat of bulk octadecane. • Hollow spheres with porous rather than solid resin shell are also formed when the SDS concentration is very high. - Abstract: A new method for supercooling suppression of microencapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) has been developed by optimizing the composition and structure of the microcapsule resin shell. The microcapsules comprising paraffin octadecane encapsulated in melamine–formaldehyde resin shell were synthesized with the use the oil-in-water emulsion technique. These PCM microcapsules are 5–15 μm in diameter. The supercooling of these octadecane microcapsules can be as large as 13.6 °C, when the homogeneous nucleation is dominant during the melt crystallization into the thermodynamically stable triclinic phase. It is discovered that the homogeneous nucleation can be mediated by shell-induced nucleation of the triclinic phase and the metastable rotator phase when the shell composition and structure are optimized, without need of any nucleating additives. The effects of synthesis parameters, such as ratio of melamine to formaldehyde, pH of pre-polymer, and pH of emulsion, on the phase transition properties of the octadecane microcapsules have been investigated systemically. The optimum synthesis conditions have been identified in terms of minimizing the supercooling while maintaining heat capacity. Potential applications of this type of phase changeable microcapsules include high heat capacity thermal fluids, thermal management in smart buildings

  4. Photoproduction of neutral kaons on a liquid deuterium target in the threshold region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsukada, K.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, T.; Fujii, Y.; Futatsukawa ., K.; Hashimoto, O.; Hirose, K.; Ito, K.; Kameoka, S.; Kanda, H.; Maeda, K.; Matsumura, A.; Miura, Y.; Myiase, H.; Nakamura, S. N.; Nomura, H.; Nonaka, K.; Osaka, T.; Okayasu, Y.; Tamura, H.; Tsubota, H.; Ukai, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Wakamatsu, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Kinoshita, T.; Miyahara, F.; Nakabayashi, T.; Shimizu, H.; Tamae, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Sasaki, A.; Konno, O.; Bydžovský, Petr; Sotona, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2008), 014001/1-014000/10 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2142 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutral kaons * liguit deuterium * treshold region Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.124, year: 2008

  5. Dynamically slow processes in supercooled water confined between hydrophobic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Giancarlo [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Santos, Francisco de los, E-mail: gfranzese@ub.ed, E-mail: fdlsant@ugr.e [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2009-12-16

    We study the dynamics of water confined between hydrophobic flat surfaces at low temperature. At different pressures, we observe different behaviors that we understand in terms of the hydrogen bond dynamics. At high pressure, the formation of the open structure of the hydrogen bond network is inhibited and the surfaces can be rapidly dried (dewetted) by formation of a large cavity with decreasing temperature. At lower pressure we observe strong non-exponential behavior of the correlation function, but with no strong increase of the correlation time. This behavior can be associated, on the one hand, to the rapid ordering of the hydrogen bonds that generates heterogeneities and, on the other hand, to the lack of a single timescale as a consequence of the cooperativity in the vicinity of the liquid-liquid critical point that characterizes the phase diagram at low temperature of the water model considered here. At very low pressures, the gradual formation of the hydrogen bond network is responsible for the large increase of the correlation time and, eventually, the dynamical arrest of the system, with a strikingly different dewetting process, characterized by the formation of many small cavities.

  6. Dynamically slow processes in supercooled water confined between hydrophobic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzese, Giancarlo; Santos, Francisco de los

    2009-01-01

    We study the dynamics of water confined between hydrophobic flat surfaces at low temperature. At different pressures, we observe different behaviors that we understand in terms of the hydrogen bond dynamics. At high pressure, the formation of the open structure of the hydrogen bond network is inhibited and the surfaces can be rapidly dried (dewetted) by formation of a large cavity with decreasing temperature. At lower pressure we observe strong non-exponential behavior of the correlation function, but with no strong increase of the correlation time. This behavior can be associated, on the one hand, to the rapid ordering of the hydrogen bonds that generates heterogeneities and, on the other hand, to the lack of a single timescale as a consequence of the cooperativity in the vicinity of the liquid-liquid critical point that characterizes the phase diagram at low temperature of the water model considered here. At very low pressures, the gradual formation of the hydrogen bond network is responsible for the large increase of the correlation time and, eventually, the dynamical arrest of the system, with a strikingly different dewetting process, characterized by the formation of many small cavities.

  7. A simulation study of homogeneous ice nucleation in supercooled salty water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Guiomar D.; Espinosa, Jorge R.; Ramirez, Jorge; Valeriani, Chantal; Vega, Carlos; Sanz, Eduardo

    2018-06-01

    We use computer simulations to investigate the effect of salt on homogeneous ice nucleation. The melting point of the employed solution model was obtained both by direct coexistence simulations and by thermodynamic integration from previous calculations of the water chemical potential. Using a seeding approach, in which we simulate ice seeds embedded in a supercooled aqueous solution, we compute the nucleation rate as a function of temperature for a 1.85 NaCl mol per water kilogram solution at 1 bar. To improve the accuracy and reliability of our calculations, we combine seeding with the direct computation of the ice-solution interfacial free energy at coexistence using the Mold Integration method. We compare the results with previous simulation work on pure water to understand the effect caused by the solute. The model captures the experimental trend that the nucleation rate at a given supercooling decreases when adding salt. Despite the fact that the thermodynamic driving force for ice nucleation is higher for salty water for a given supercooling, the nucleation rate slows down with salt due to a significant increase of the ice-fluid interfacial free energy. The salty water model predicts an ice nucleation rate that is in good agreement with experimental measurements, bringing confidence in the predictive ability of the model. We expect that the combination of state-of-the-art simulation methods here employed to study ice nucleation from solution will be of much use in forthcoming numerical investigations of crystallization in mixtures.

  8. Nonthermal ice nucleation observed at distorted contact lines of supercooled water drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Cruikshank, Owen; He, Weilue; Kostinski, Alex; Shaw, Raymond A

    2018-02-01

    Ice nucleation is the crucial step for ice formation in atmospheric clouds and therefore underlies climatologically relevant precipitation and radiative properties. Progress has been made in understanding the roles of temperature, supersaturation, and material properties, but an explanation for the efficient ice nucleation occurring when a particle contacts a supercooled water drop has been elusive for over half a century. Here, we explore ice nucleation initiated at constant temperature and observe that mechanical agitation induces freezing of supercooled water drops at distorted contact lines. Results show that symmetric motion of supercooled water on a vertically oscillating substrate does not freeze, no matter how we agitate it. However, when the moving contact line is distorted with the help of trace amounts of oil or inhomogeneous pinning on the substrate, freezing can occur at temperatures much higher than in a static droplet, equivalent to ∼10^{10} increase in nucleation rate. Several possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the observations. One plausible explanation among them, decreased pressure due to interface curvature, is explored theoretically and compared with the observational results quasiquantitatively. Indeed, the observed freezing-temperature increase scales with contact line speed in a manner consistent with the pressure hypothesis. Whatever the mechanism, the experiments demonstrate a strong preference for ice nucleation at three-phase contact lines compared to the two-phase interface, and they also show that movement and distortion of the contact line are necessary contributions to stimulating the nucleation process.

  9. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering of liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Anders; Tokushima, Takashi; Horikawa, Yuka; Harada, Yoshihisa; Ljungberg, Mathias P.; Shin, Shik; Pettersson, Lars G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two peaks are observed in the lone pair region of the XES spectrum of water assigned to tetrahedral and distorted hydrogen bonding configurations. ► The isotope effect observed as different relative peak heights is due to spectral line shape differences. ► The two different hydrogen bonding environments can be related to local structures mimicking either low density water or high density water. -- Abstract: We review recent studies using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) or also here denoted X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) on liquid water and the assignment of the two sharp peaks in the lone-pair region. Using the excitation energy dependence we connect the two peaks to specific features in the X-ray absorption (XAS) spectrum which have independently been assigned to molecules in tetrahedral or distorted configurations. The polarization dependence shows that both peaks are of 1b 1 origin supporting an interpretation in terms of two structural species, tetrahedral or disordered, which is furthermore consistent with the temperature-dependence of the two peaks. We discuss effects of life-time vibrational interference and how this affects the two components differently and also leads to differences in the relative peak heights for H 2 O and D 2 O. We show furthermore that the inherent structure in molecular dynamics simulations contain the structural bimodality suggested by XES, but this is smeared out in the real structure when temperature is included. We present a discussion around alternative interpretations suggesting that the origin of the two peaks is related to ultrafast dissociation and show evidence that such a model is inconsistent with several experimental observations and theoretical concepts. We conclude that the peaks reflect a temperature-dependent balance in fluctuations between tetrahedral and disordered structures in the liquid. This is well-aligned with theories of water under supercooled conditions and higher pressures

  10. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering of liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Anders, E-mail: nilsson@slac.stanford.edu [SUNCAT Ctr Interface Sci and Catalysis, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Tokushima, Takashi [RIKEN/Spring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Horikawa, Yuka [RIKEN/Spring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Harada, Yoshihisa [RIKEN/Spring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, The University of Tokyo, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan); Ljungberg, Mathias P. [Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Shin, Shik [RIKEN/Spring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, The University of Tokyo, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan); Pettersson, Lars G.M. [Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Two peaks are observed in the lone pair region of the XES spectrum of water assigned to tetrahedral and distorted hydrogen bonding configurations. ► The isotope effect observed as different relative peak heights is due to spectral line shape differences. ► The two different hydrogen bonding environments can be related to local structures mimicking either low density water or high density water. -- Abstract: We review recent studies using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) or also here denoted X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) on liquid water and the assignment of the two sharp peaks in the lone-pair region. Using the excitation energy dependence we connect the two peaks to specific features in the X-ray absorption (XAS) spectrum which have independently been assigned to molecules in tetrahedral or distorted configurations. The polarization dependence shows that both peaks are of 1b{sub 1} origin supporting an interpretation in terms of two structural species, tetrahedral or disordered, which is furthermore consistent with the temperature-dependence of the two peaks. We discuss effects of life-time vibrational interference and how this affects the two components differently and also leads to differences in the relative peak heights for H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O. We show furthermore that the inherent structure in molecular dynamics simulations contain the structural bimodality suggested by XES, but this is smeared out in the real structure when temperature is included. We present a discussion around alternative interpretations suggesting that the origin of the two peaks is related to ultrafast dissociation and show evidence that such a model is inconsistent with several experimental observations and theoretical concepts. We conclude that the peaks reflect a temperature-dependent balance in fluctuations between tetrahedral and disordered structures in the liquid. This is well-aligned with theories of water under supercooled conditions and

  11. Densities and derived thermodynamic properties of binary (alkanol + boldine) mixtures in the compressed liquid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durán-Zenteno, Moisés S.; Pérez-López, Hugo I.; Galicia-Luna, Luis A.; Elizalde-Solis, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measured densities for {alkanol (ethanol or 1-propanol) + boldine} mixtures. ► Liquid densities are reported in the ranges of (1 to 20) MPa and (313 to 363) K. ► Thermodynamic derived properties were calculated using an empirical correlation. ► Extrapolated densities at atmospheric pressure agree with the literature data. - Abstract: In this work, densities of two binary systems of {alkanol (ethanol and 1-propanol) + boldine} are measured at temperatures from (313 to 363) K and pressures up to 20 MPa using an Anton Paar vibrating tube densimeter. Each (alkanol + boldine) system was prepared at five diluted compositions with respect to the alkaloid. These are (x 2 = 0.0012, 0.0074, 0.0136, 0.0196, 0.0267) and (x 2 = 0.0018, 0.0046, 0.0077, 0.0112, 0.0142) mixed in ethanol and 1-propanol, respectively. Experimental densities are correlated using an empirical 6-parameter equation with deviations within 0.04%. Extrapolated densities at atmospheric pressure agree with the literature data. Isobaric expansivity, isothermal compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, and internal pressure have been calculated.

  12. Solar Photovoltaic and Liquid Natural Gas Opportunities for Command Naval Region Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    panels made of monocrystalline (c-Si) panels (EPRI, 2010). The price breakdown is as follows: Table 8. Utility-Scale Solar PV Power Plant O&M Costs...Battery Energy Storage System CBA Cost Benefit Analysis CNG Containerized Natural Gas CNRH Command Naval Region Hawaii c-Si Monocrystalline ...of ground-mounted solar-PV panels on the West Loch Peninsula, on Pearl Harbor Naval Base. The second proposed project is a land lease to an

  13. Protocol for Measuring the Thermal Properties of a Supercooled Synthetic Sand-water-gas-methane Hydrate Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Michihiro; Susuki, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Hiroko; Tsuji, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka

    2016-03-21

    Methane hydrates (MHs) are present in large amounts in the ocean floor and permafrost regions. Methane and hydrogen hydrates are being studied as future energy resources and energy storage media. To develop a method for gas production from natural MH-bearing sediments and hydrate-based technologies, it is imperative to understand the thermal properties of gas hydrates. The thermal properties' measurements of samples comprising sand, water, methane, and MH are difficult because the melting heat of MH may affect the measurements. To solve this problem, we performed thermal properties' measurements at supercooled conditions during MH formation. The measurement protocol, calculation method of the saturation change, and tips for thermal constants' analysis of the sample using transient plane source techniques are described here. The effect of the formation heat of MH on measurement is very small because the gas hydrate formation rate is very slow. This measurement method can be applied to the thermal properties of the gas hydrate-water-guest gas system, which contains hydrogen, CO2, and ozone hydrates, because the characteristic low formation rate of gas hydrate is not unique to MH. The key point of this method is the low rate of phase transition of the target material. Hence, this method may be applied to other materials having low phase-transition rates.

  14. High density liquid structure enhancement in glass forming aqueous solution of LiCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camisasca, G.; De Marzio, M.; Rovere, M.; Gallo, P.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate using molecular dynamics simulations the dynamical and structural properties of LiCl:6H2O aqueous solution upon supercooling. This ionic solution is a glass forming liquid of relevant interest in connection with the study of the anomalies of supercooled water. The LiCl:6H2O solution is easily supercooled and the liquid state can be maintained over a large decreasing temperature range. We performed simulations from ambient to 200 K in order to investigate how the presence of the salt modifies the behavior of supercooled water. The study of the relaxation time of the self-density correlation function shows that the system follows the prediction of the mode coupling theory and behaves like a fragile liquid in all the range explored. The analysis of the changes in the water structure induced by the salt shows that while the salt preserves the water hydrogen bonds in the system, it strongly affects the tetrahedral hydrogen bond network. Following the interpretation of the anomalies of water in terms of a two-state model, the modifications of the oxygen radial distribution function and the angular distribution function of the hydrogen bonds in water indicate that LiCl has the role of enhancing the high density liquid component of water with respect to the low density component. This is in agreement with recent experiments on aqueous ionic solutions.

  15. A Review of Environmental Life Cycle Assessments of Liquid Transportation Biofuels in the Pan American Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonnard, David R; Klemetsrud, Bethany; Sacramento-Rivero, Julio; Navarro-Pineda, Freddy; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert; Suppen, Nydia; Donovan, Richard P

    2015-12-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to many biofuel and bioenergy systems to determine potential environmental impacts, but the conclusions have varied. Different methodologies and processes for conducting LCA of biofuels make the results difficult to compare, in-turn making it difficult to make the best possible and informed decision. Of particular importance are the wide variability in country-specific conditions, modeling assumptions, data quality, chosen impact categories and indicators, scale of production, system boundaries, and co-product allocation. This study has a double purpose: conducting a critical evaluation comparing environmental LCA of biofuels from several conversion pathways and in several countries in the Pan American region using both qualitative and quantitative analyses, and making recommendations for harmonization with respect to biofuel LCA study features, such as study assumptions, inventory data, impact indicators, and reporting practices. The environmental management implications are discussed within the context of different national and international regulatory environments using a case study. The results from this study highlight LCA methodology choices that cause high variability in results and limit comparability among different studies, even among the same biofuel pathway, and recommendations are provided for improvement.

  16. A Review of Environmental Life Cycle Assessments of Liquid Transportation Biofuels in the Pan American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonnard, David R.; Klemetsrud, Bethany; Sacramento-Rivero, Julio; Navarro-Pineda, Freddy; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert; Suppen, Nydia; Donovan, Richard P.

    2015-12-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to many biofuel and bioenergy systems to determine potential environmental impacts, but the conclusions have varied. Different methodologies and processes for conducting LCA of biofuels make the results difficult to compare, in-turn making it difficult to make the best possible and informed decision. Of particular importance are the wide variability in country-specific conditions, modeling assumptions, data quality, chosen impact categories and indicators, scale of production, system boundaries, and co-product allocation. This study has a double purpose: conducting a critical evaluation comparing environmental LCA of biofuels from several conversion pathways and in several countries in the Pan American region using both qualitative and quantitative analyses, and making recommendations for harmonization with respect to biofuel LCA study features, such as study assumptions, inventory data, impact indicators, and reporting practices. The environmental management implications are discussed within the context of different national and international regulatory environments using a case study. The results from this study highlight LCA methodology choices that cause high variability in results and limit comparability among different studies, even among the same biofuel pathway, and recommendations are provided for improvement.

  17. Search for the first-order liquid-to-liquid phase transition in low-temperature confined water by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Kao-Hsiang

    2013-02-01

    It has been conjectured that a 1st order liquid-to-liquid (L-L) phase transition (LLPT) between high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL) in supercooled water may exist, as a thermodynamic extension to the liquid phase of the 1st order transition established between the two bulk solid phases of amorphous ice, the high density amorphous ice (HDA) and the low density amorphous ice (LDA). In this paper, we first recall our previous attempts to establish the existence of the 1st order L-L phase transition through the use of two neutron scattering techniques: a constant Q elastic diffraction study of isobaric temperature scan of the D2O density, namely, the equation of state (EOS) measurements. A pronounced density hysteresis phenomenon in the temperature scan of the density above P = 1500 bar is observed which gives a plausible evidence of crossing the 1st order L-L phase transition line above this pressure; an incoherent quasi-elastic scattering measurements of temperature-dependence of the α-relaxation time of H2O at a series of pressures, namely, the study of the Fragile-to-Strong dynamic crossover (FSC) phenomenon as a function of pressure which we interpreted as the results of crossing the Widom line in the one-phase region. In this new experiment, we used incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure the density of states (DOS) of H atoms in H2O molecules in confined water as function of temperature and pressure, through which we may be able to follow the emergence of the LDL and HDL phases at supercooled temperature and high pressures. We here report for the first time the differences of librational and translational DOSs between the hypothetical HDL and LDL phases, which are similar to the corresponding differences between the well-established HDA and LDA ices. This is plausible evidence that the HDL and LDL phases are the thermodynamic extensions of the corresponding amorphous solid water HDA and LDA ices.

  18. Antibiotic residues in liquid manure from swine feedlot and their effects on nearby groundwater in regions of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Chong; Chen, Yongxing; Huang, Hongkun; Ren, Tianzhi

    2018-04-01

    A survey was conducted in regions of North China to better understand the effect of antibiotic residue pollution from swine feedlots to nearby groundwater environment. A total of nine experimental sites located in the regions of Beijing, Hebei, and Tianjin were selected to analyze the presence of residues of 11 most commonly used antibiotics, including tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQNs), sulfonamides (SAs), macrolides, and fenicols, by using liquid chromatography spectrometry. The three most common antibiotics were TCs, FQNs, and SAs, with mean concentrations of 416.4, 228.8, and 442.4 μg L -1 in wastewater samples; 19.9, 11.8, and 0.3 μg L -1 in groundwater samples from swine feedlots; and 29.7, 14.0, and 0 μg L -1 in groundwater samples from villages. Ordination analysis revealed that the composition and distribution of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (AGRs) were similar in groundwater samples from swine feedlots and villages. FQNs and TCs occurred along the path from wastewater to groundwater at high concentrations and showed correlations with ARGs, with a strong correlation between FQN resistance gene (qnrA) copy number. FQN concentration was also found (P swine feedlots through wastewater could disseminate into surrounding groundwater environments together with ARG occurrence (i.e., qnrA, sulI, sulII, tetG, tetM, and tetO). Overall, this study suggests that the spread of veterinary antibiotics from swine feedlots to groundwater environments should be highly attended and controlled by restricting excess antibiotic usage or improving the technology of manure management.

  19. Radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming systems. VII. Polymerization in supercooled state under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaetsu, I.; Yoshii, F.; Watanabe, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomers such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate under high pressure was studied. The glass transition temperature of these monomers was heightened by increased pressure. The temperature dependence of polymerizability showed a characteristic relation, similar to those in supercooled-phase polymerization under normal pressure, that had a maximum at T/sub ν/ which shifted to higher levels of temperature as well as to T/sub g/ under high pressure. Polymerizability in the supercooled state also increased under increased pressure

  20. In-situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic studies of aluminosilicate liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Isabelle; Gillet, Philippe; Poe, Brent T.; McMillan, Paul F.

    1995-03-01

    We have measured in-situ Raman spectra of aluminosilicate glasses and liquids with albite (NaAlSi3 O8) and anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) compositions at high temperatures, through their glass transition range up to 1700 and 2000 K, respectively. For these experiments, we have used a wire-loop heating device coupled with micro-Raman spectroscopy, in order to achieve effective spatial filtering of the extraneous thermal radiation. A major concern in this work is the development of methodology for reliably extracting the first and second order contributions to the Raman scattering spectra of aluminosilicate glasses and liquids from the high temperature experimental data, and analyzing these in terms of vibrational (anharmonic) and configurational changes. The changes in the first order Raman spectra with temperature are subtle. The principal low frequency band remains nearly constant with increasing temperature, indicating little change in the T-O-T angle, and that the angle bending vibration is quite harmonic. This is in contrast to vitreous SiO2, studied previously. Above Tg, intensity changes in the 560 590 cm-1 regions of both sets of spectra indicate configurational changes in the supercooled liquids, associated with formation of additional Al-O-Al linkages, or 3-membered (Al, Si)-containing rings. Additional intensity at 800 cm-1 reflects also some rearrangement of the Si-O-Al network.

  1. Supercooling as a viable non-freezing cell preservation method of rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Berk Usta

    Full Text Available Supercooling preservation holds the potential to drastically extend the preservation time of organs, tissues and engineered tissue products, and fragile cell types that do not lend themselves well to cryopreservation or vitrification. Here, we investigate the effects of supercooling preservation (SCP at -4(oC on primary rat hepatocytes stored in cryovials and compare its success (high viability and good functional characteristics to that of static cold storage (CS at +4(oC and cryopreservation. We consider two prominent preservation solutions a Hypothermosol (HTS-FRS and b University of Wisconsin solution (UW and a range of preservation temperatures (-4 to -10 (oC. We find that there exists an optimum temperature (-4(oC for SCP of rat hepatocytes which yields the highest viability; at this temperature HTS-FRS significantly outperforms UW solution in terms of viability and functional characteristics (secretions and enzymatic activity in suspension and plate culture. With the HTS-FRS solution we show that the cells can be stored for up to a week with high viability (~56%; moreover we also show that the preservation can be performed in large batches (50 million cells with equal or better viability and no loss of functionality as compared to smaller batches (1.5 million cells performed in cryovials.

  2. Inflorescences of alpine cushion plants freeze autonomously and may survive subzero temperatures by supercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jürgen; Ladinig, Ursula; Wagner, Johanna; Neuner, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Freezing patterns in the high alpine cushion plants Saxifraga bryoides, Saxifraga caesia, Saxifraga moschata and Silene acaulis were studied by infrared thermography at three reproductive stages (bud, anthesis, fruit development). The single reproductive shoots of a cushion froze independently in all four species at every reproductive stage. Ice formation caused lethal damage to the respective inflorescence. After ice nucleation, which occurred mainly in the stalk or the base of the reproductive shoot, ice propagated throughout that entire shoot, but not into neighboring shoots. However, anatomical ice barriers within cushions were not detected. The naturally occurring temperature gradient within the cushion appeared to interrupt ice propagation thermally. Consequently, every reproductive shoot needed an autonomous ice nucleation event to initiate freezing. Ice nucleation was not only influenced by minimum temperatures but also by the duration of exposure. At moderate subzero exposure temperatures (−4.3 to −7.7 °C) the number of frozen inflorescences increased exponentially. Due to efficient supercooling, single reproductive shoots remained unfrozen down to −17.4 °C (cooling rate 6 K h−1). Hence, the observed freezing pattern may be advantageous for frost survival of individual inflorescences and reproductive success of high alpine cushion plants, when during episodic summer frosts damage can be avoided by supercooling. PMID:21151351

  3. Liquid -to-glass transition in bulk glass-forming Cu55-xZr45Agx alloys using molecular dynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celtek M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We report results from molecular dynamics (MD studies concerning the microscopic structure of the ternary, bulk metallic glass-forming Cu55-x Zr45Agx (x=0,10,20 alloys using tight-binding potentials. Understanding of the nature of Glass Forming Ability (GFA of studied alloys, GFA parameters, glass transition temperature (T-g, melting temperature (T-m, reduced glass transition temperature (T-g/T-m, the supercooled liquid region and other parameters were simulated and compared with experiments. The computed pair distribution functions reproduce well experimental x-ray data of Inoue and co-workers. Structure analysis of the Cu-Zr-Ag alloy based on MD simulation will be also presented

  4. Conserved and narrow temperature limits in alpine insects: Thermal tolerance and supercooling points of the ice-crawlers, Grylloblatta (Insecta: Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoville, Sean D; Slatyer, Rachel A; Bergdahl, James C; Valdez, Glenda A

    2015-07-01

    For many terrestrial species, habitat associations and range size are dependent on physiological limits, which in turn may influence large-scale patterns of species diversity. The temperature range experienced by individuals is considered to shape the breadth of the thermal niche, with species occupying temporally and/or geographically stable climates tolerating a narrow temperature range. High-elevation environments experience large temperature fluctuations, with frequent periods below 0 °C, but Grylloblatta (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae) occupy climatically stable microhabitats within this region. Here we test critical thermal limits and supercooling points for five Grylloblatta populations from across a large geographic area, to examine whether the stable microhabitats of this group are associated with a narrow thermal niche and assess their capacity to tolerate cold conditions. Thermal limits are highly conserved in Grylloblatta, despite substantial genetic divergence among populations spanning 1500 m elevation and being separated by over 500 km. Further, Grylloblatta show exceptionally narrow thermal limits compared to other insect taxa with little capacity to improve cold tolerance via plasticity. In contrast, upper thermal limits were significantly depressed by cold acclimation. Grylloblatta maintain coordinated movement until they freeze, and they die upon freezing. Convergence of the critical thermal minima, supercooling point and lower lethal limits point to adaptation to a cold but, importantly, constant thermal environment. These physiological data provide an explanation for the high endemism and patchy distribution of Grylloblatta, which relies on subterranean retreats to accommodate narrow thermal limits. These retreats are currently buffered from temperature fluctuations by snow cover, and a declining snowpack thus places Grylloblatta at risk of exposure to temperatures beyond its tolerance capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Isolated ecosystems on supercooled scree slopes in subalpine environments - interaction between permafrost, soil and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Daniel; Kozák, Johanna-Luise; Kohlpaintner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    In the central European Alps, permafrost can be expected in altitudes above 2300 m a.s.l., where mean annual air temperatures are below -1°C. However, attributed to the thermally induced "chimney effect", isolated permafrost lenses can be found in scree slopes far below the timberline where mean annual air temperature is positive. Usually the supercooled subsurface appears as lenses at the foot of talus slopes, covered by a thick layer of organic material and a unique vegetation composition most obviously characterized by dwarf grown trees ("Hexenwäldli") and azonal plant species. The fact that mean annual air temperature is positive and therefore can be excluded as a driving factor makes these sites unique for studying interdependencies between a supercooled subsurface, plant adaptation and vegetation sociology as well as the soil development. Three study sites in the Swiss Alps, differing in altitude and substrate (granite, dolomite, limestone) were investigated. Studies covered the permafrost-affected central parts of the slope as well as the surrounding areas. For characterizing distribution and temporal variability of ground ice geophysical methods were applied (electrical resistivity- and seismic refraction tomography). Temperature data loggers were used for monitoring the thermal regime (air-, surface- and soil temperatures). Chemical parameters (pH, C/N ratio) and nutrient contents (N, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, K) were analyzed in different depth levels. Plant communities were analyzed with the Braun-Blanquet method. To characterize physiognomic adaptation of trees, transects have been determined parallel to slope, measuring tree height, diameter and age. Results show a strong spatial correlation between frozen ground, formation of a thick organic layer (Tangelhumus), azonal plant species distribution and pronounced dwarfing of trees. Surrounding areas with unfrozen subsurface show an - for the particular altitude - expected species and soil composition and normal

  6. Review of solid–liquid phase change materials and their encapsulation technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Weiguang; Darkwa, Jo; Kokogiannakis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Various types of solid–liquid phase change materials (PCMs) have been reviewed for thermal energy storage applications. The review has shown that organic solid–liquid PCMs have much more advantages and capabilities than inorganic PCMs but do possess low thermal conductivity and density as well as being flammable. Inorganic PCMs possess higher heat storage capacities and conductivities, cheaper and readily available as well as being non-flammable, but do experience supercooling and phase segre...

  7. Experimental-statistical model of liquid-phase epitaxy for InP/InGaAsP/InP heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.G.; Selin, A.A.; Shelyakin, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematic model of the process of liquid-phase epitaxy for double InP/InGaAsP/InP heterostructures is constructed using statistical methods of experiment planning. The analysis of the model shows that the degree of In-P system melt supercooling affects considerably the characteristics of double heterostructures

  8. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water, solute content and cell wall rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Nadia S; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    Plants can avoid freezing damage by preventing extracellular ice formation below the equilibrium freezing temperature (supercooling). We used Olea europaea cultivars to assess which traits contribute to avoid ice nucleation at sub-zero temperatures. Seasonal leaf water relations, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen and tissue damage and ice nucleation temperatures in different plant parts were determined in five cultivars growing in the Patagonian cold desert. Ice seeding in roots occurred at higher temperatures than in stems and leaves. Leaves of cold acclimated cultivars supercooled down to -13 °C, substantially lower than the minimum air temperatures observed in the study site. During winter, leaf ice nucleation and leaf freezing damage (LT50 ) occurred at similar temperatures, typical of plant tissues that supercool. Higher leaf density and cell wall rigidity were observed during winter, consistent with a substantial acclimation to sub-zero temperatures. Larger supercooling capacity and lower LT50 were observed in cold-acclimated cultivars with higher osmotically active solute content, higher tissue elastic adjustments and lower apoplastic water. Irreversible leaf damage was only observed in laboratory experiments at very low temperatures, but not in the field. A comparative analysis of closely related plants avoids phylogenetic independence bias in a comparative study of adaptations to survive low temperatures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sonocrystallization of Interesterified Soybean Oil: Effect of Saturation Level and Supercooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhee; Claro da Silva, Roberta; Gibon, Veronique; Martini, Silvana

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supercooling and degree of saturation on lipid sonocrystallization under similar driving force of crystallization. Samples consisting of 100%, 50%, and 20% interesterified soybean oil (IESBO) diluted in high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSFO) were crystallized with and without high-intensity ultrasound (HIU). Two power levels were used by changing the amplitude of vibration of the tip (24 μm and 108 μm of tip amplitude). HIU operating at a frequency of 20 kHz was applied for 10 s. Sonication induced crystallization in the 100% IESBO sample and sonication power did not affect the results. A greater induction in crystallization was observed when higher power levels were used in the 50% IESBO sample, while no effect was observed in the crystallization kinetics of the 20% IESBO samples. Changes in the crystallization kinetics affected physical properties of the material, influencing elasticity. For example, sonication increased the elasticity of the 100% IESBO sample for both tip amplitudes from 435.9 ± 173.3 Pa to 72735.0 ± 9547.9 Pa for the nonsonicated and sonicated samples using 108 μm of amplitude, respectively. However, sonication only increased the elasticity in the 50% sample when used at the higher power level of 108 μm from 564.2 ± 175.2 Pa to 21774.0 ± 5694.9 Pa, and it did not affect the elasticity of the 20% IESBO samples. These results show that the level of saturation and the degree of supercooling affect sonication efficiency. High-intensity ultrasound (HIU) has been used as a novel method for changing the crystallization behavior of fats. HIU can be used to improve the physical properties of trans-free fats that are low in saturated fatty acids. Although recent studies have proven the effectiveness of this method to induce crystallization, the process must still be optimized to the industrial setting. All process parameters should be considered during the application of HIU, as they directly

  10. Aerodynamic levitator furnace for measuring thermophysical properties of refractory liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langstaff, D; Gunn, M; Greaves, G N; Marsing, A; Kargl, F

    2013-12-01

    The development of novel contactless aerodynamic laser heated levitation techniques is reported that enable thermophysical properties of refractory liquids to be measured in situ in the solid, liquid, and supercooled liquid state and demonstrated here for alumina. Starting with polished crystalline ruby spheres, we show how, by accurately measuring the changing radius, the known density in the solid state can be reproduced from room temperature to the melting point at 2323 K. Once molten, by coupling the floating liquid drop to acoustic oscillations via the levitating gas, the mechanical resonance and damping of the liquid can be measured precisely with high-speed high-resolution shadow cast imaging. The resonance frequency relates to the surface tension, the decay constant to the viscosity, and the ellipsoidal size and shape of the levitating drop to the density. This unique instrumentation enables these related thermophysical properties to be recorded in situ over the entire liquid and supercooled range of alumina, from the boiling point at 3240 K, until spontaneous crystallization occurs around 1860 K, almost 500 below the melting point. We believe that the utility that this unique instrumentation provides will be applicable to studying these important properties in many other high temperature liquids.

  11. Impact of the transition to continous trading on emerging financial market's liquidity : Case study of the West Africa Regional Exchange Market (BRVM)

    OpenAIRE

    OUATTARA, Aboudou

    2016-01-01

    After 18 years of activities and take-off difficulties due to socio-economic and political environment of the WAEMU zone, the west Africa regional exchange market (BRVM)’s authorities decided to move to continuous trading. The decision was effective on 16th september 2013. This action, beyond the upgrading of this stock exchange market to international standards, aims at improving market liquidity. Two years after its implementation, it seemed interesting to question the relevancy of this dec...

  12. Hydrophobic Surfaces: Topography Effects on Wetting by Supercooled Water and Freezing Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydari, Golrokh; Thormann, Esben; Järn, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Hydrophobicity, and in particular superhydrophobicity, has been extensively considered to promote ice-phobicity. Dynamic contact angle measurements above 0 °C have been widely used to evaluate the water repellency. However, it is the wetting properties of supercooled water at subzero temperatures...... and the derived work of adhesion that are important for applications dealing with icing. In this work we address this issue by determining the temperature-dependent dynamic contact angle of microliter-sized water droplets on a smooth hydrophobic and a superhydrophobic surface with similar surface chemistry....... The data highlight how the work of adhesion of water in the temperature interval from about 25 °C to below −10 °C is affected by surface topography. A marked decrease in contact angle on the superhydrophobic surface is observed with decreasing temperature, and we attribute this to condensation below...

  13. Ice-lens formation and geometrical supercooling in soils and other colloidal materials

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.

    2011-10-14

    We present a physically intuitive model of ice-lens formation and growth during the freezing of soils and other dense, particulate suspensions. Motivated by experimental evidence, we consider the growth of an ice-filled crack in a freezing soil. At low temperatures, ice in the crack exerts large pressures on the crack walls that will eventually cause the crack to split open. We show that the crack will then propagate across the soil to form a new lens. The process is controlled by two factors: the cohesion of the soil and the geometrical supercooling of the water in the soil, a new concept introduced to measure the energy available to form a new ice lens. When the supercooling exceeds a critical amount (proportional to the cohesive strength of the soil) a new ice lens forms. This condition for ice-lens formation and growth does not appeal to any ad hoc, empirical assumptions, and explains how periodic ice lenses can form with or without the presence of a frozen fringe. The proposed mechanism is in good agreement with experiments, in particular explaining ice-lens pattern formation and surges in heave rate associated with the growth of new lenses. Importantly for systems with no frozen fringe, ice-lens formation and frost heave can be predicted given only the unfrozen properties of the soil. We use our theory to estimate ice-lens growth temperatures obtaining quantitative agreement with the limited experimental data that are currently available. Finally we suggest experiments that might be performed in order to verify this theory in more detail. The theory is generalizable to complex natural-soil scenarios and should therefore be useful in the prediction of macroscopic frost-heave rates. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  14. Performance of the ATLAS liquid argon endcap calorimeter in the pseudorapidity region 2.5<|η|<4.0 in beam tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinfold, J.; Soukup, J.; Archambault, J.P.; Cojocaru, C.; Khakzad, M.; Oakham, G.; Schram, M.; Vincter, M.G.; Datskov, V.; Drobin, V.; Fedorov, A.; Golubykh, S.; Javadov, N.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kakurin, S.; Kazarinov, M.; Kukhtin, V.; Ladygin, E.; Lazarev, A.; Neganov, A.

    2008-01-01

    The pseudorapidity region 2.5<|η|<4.0 in ATLAS is a particularly complex transition zone between the endcap and forward calorimeters. A set-up consisting of 1/4 resp. 1/8 of the full azimuthal acceptance of the ATLAS liquid argon endcap and forward calorimeters has been exposed to beams of electrons, pions and muons in the energy range E≤200GeV at the CERN SPS. Data have been taken in the endcap and forward calorimeter regions as well as in the transition region. This beam test set-up corresponds very closely to the geometry and support structures in ATLAS. A detailed study of the performance in the endcap and forward calorimeter regions is described. The data are compared with MC simulations based on GEANT 4 models

  15. Transitions through critical temperatures in nematic liquid crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala; Ockendon, John; Howell, Peter; Surovyatkina, Elena

    2013-01-01

    We obtain estimates for critical nematic liquid crystal (LC) temperatures under the action of a slowly varying temperature-dependent control variable. We show that biaxiality has a negligible effect within our model and that these delay estimates are well described by a purely uniaxial model. The static theory predicts two critical temperatures: the supercooling temperature below which the isotropic phase loses stability and the superheating temperature above which the ordered nematic states do not exist. In contrast to the static problem, the isotropic phase exhibits a memory effect below the supercooling temperature in the dynamic framework. This delayed loss of stability is independent of the rate of change of temperature and depends purely on the initial value of the temperature. We also show how our results can be used to improve estimates for LC material constants. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  16. Transitions through critical temperatures in nematic liquid crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala

    2013-08-06

    We obtain estimates for critical nematic liquid crystal (LC) temperatures under the action of a slowly varying temperature-dependent control variable. We show that biaxiality has a negligible effect within our model and that these delay estimates are well described by a purely uniaxial model. The static theory predicts two critical temperatures: the supercooling temperature below which the isotropic phase loses stability and the superheating temperature above which the ordered nematic states do not exist. In contrast to the static problem, the isotropic phase exhibits a memory effect below the supercooling temperature in the dynamic framework. This delayed loss of stability is independent of the rate of change of temperature and depends purely on the initial value of the temperature. We also show how our results can be used to improve estimates for LC material constants. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  17. Liquid Structures and Physical Properties -- Ground Based Studies for ISS Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, K. F.; Bendert, J. C.; Mauro, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of electrostatically-levitated supercooled liquids have demonstrated strong short- and medium-range ordering in transition metal and alloy liquids, which can influence phase transitions like crystal nucleation and the glass transition. The structure is also related to the liquid properties. Planned ISS experiments will allow a deeper investigation of these results as well as the first investigations of a new type of coupling in crystal nucleation in primary crystallizing liquids, resulting from a linking of the stochastic processes of diffusion with interfacial-attachment. A brief description of the techniques used for ground-based studies and some results relevant to planned ISS investigations are discussed.

  18. Variation along liquid isomorphs of the driving force for crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Adrjanowicz, Karolina; Niss, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    at a reference temperature. More general analysis allows interpretation of experimental data for molecular liquids such as dimethyl phthalate and indomethacin, and suggests that the isomorph scaling exponent γ in these cases is an increasing function of density, although this cannot be seen in measurements......We investigate the variation of the driving force for crystallization of a supercooled liquid along isomorphs, curves along which structure and dynamics are invariant. The variation is weak, and can be predicted accurately for the Lennard-Jones fluid using a recently developed formalism and data...

  19. Anomalous structural evolution and liquid fragility signatures in Cu–Zr and Cu–Hf liquids and glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, N.A.; Vogt, Adam J.; Johnson, Mark L.; Bendert, James C.; Soklaski, Ryan; Yang, Li; Kelton, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    The results of high energy X-ray scattering studies of equilibrium and supercooled Cu 100−x Zr x (x = 46 and 54) and Cu x Hf 100−x (x = 55 and 60.8) liquids and the corresponding glasses are presented. The liquid data were obtained in a containerless environment using the beamline electrostatic levitation (BESL) technique. The total structure factor and total pair correlation functions were measured as a function of temperature for the liquids, and for the glasses at room temperature. A developing asymmetry in the peak of the first coordination shell in the total pair correlation function suggests chemical ordering in the liquids with cooling. This asymmetry takes the form of two prominent peaks, suggesting two prominent ordering length scales. When the magnitudes of these peaks are extrapolated to the glass transition temperature a discontinuity is observed, indicating that an abrupt increase in the magnitude is required to match the observed peak heights in the glass. This suggests that the structure of the supercooled liquid orders more rapidly near the glass transition temperature, a conclusion that is supported by molecular dynamics simulations. This observed structural evolution of the liquid indicates that the concept of fragility, typically defined from the behavior of viscosity with temperature, has a measurable structural signature as well, which can be observed in X-ray diffraction studies

  20. Electro-suppression of water nano-droplets' solidification in no man's land: Electromagnetic fields' entropic trapping of supercooled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Prithwish K.; Burnham, Christian J.; English, Niall J.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding water solidification, especially in "No Man's Land" (NML) (150 K < T < 235 K) is crucially important (e.g., upper-troposphere cloud processes) and challenging. A rather neglected aspect of tropospheric ice-crystallite formation is inevitably present electromagnetic fields' role. Here, we employ non-equilibrium molecular dynamics of aggressively quenched supercooled water nano-droplets in the gas phase under NML conditions, in externally applied electromagnetic (e/m) fields, elucidating significant differences between effects of static and oscillating fields: although static fields induce "electro-freezing," e/m fields exhibit the contrary - solidification inhibition. This anti-freeze action extends not only to crystal-ice formation but also restricts amorphisation, i.e., suppression of low-density amorphous ice which forms otherwise in zero-field NML environments. E/m-field applications maintain water in the deeply supercooled state in an "entropic trap," which is ripe for industrial impacts in cryo-freezing, etc.

  1. Microviscosity of supercooled water confined within aminopropyl-modified mesoporous silica as studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Namekawa, Manato; Itoh, Tetsuji; Teramae, Norio

    2012-01-01

    The fluorescence dynamics of rhodamine B (RhB) immobilized on the pore surface of aminopropyl (AP)-modified mesoporous silica (diameter of the silica framework, 3.1 nm) was examined at temperatures between 293 and 193 K to study the microviscosity of supercooled water confined inside the pores. The mesoporous silica specimen with a dense AP layer (2.1 molecules nm(-2)) was prepared, and RhB isothiocyanate was covalently bound to part of the surface AP groups. The fluorescence lifetime of the surface RhB increased with decreasing temperature from 293 to 223 K, indicating that freezing of the confined water did not occur in this temperature range. The microviscosity of the supercooled confined water was evaluated from an analysis of the lifetime data based on a frequency-dependent friction model.

  2. Turbulent heat transfer as a control of platelet ice growth in supercooled under-ice ocean boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Miles G.; Stevens, Craig L.; Smith, Inga J.; Robinson, Natalie J.

    2016-04-01

    Late winter measurements of turbulent quantities in tidally modulated flow under land-fast sea ice near the Erebus Glacier Tongue, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, identified processes that influence growth at the interface of an ice surface in contact with supercooled seawater. The data show that turbulent heat exchange at the ocean-ice boundary is characterized by the product of friction velocity and (negative) water temperature departure from freezing, analogous to similar results for moderate melting rates in seawater above freezing. Platelet ice growth appears to increase the hydraulic roughness (drag) of fast ice compared with undeformed fast ice without platelets. Platelet growth in supercooled water under thick ice appears to be rate-limited by turbulent heat transfer and that this is a significant factor to be considered in mass transfer at the underside of ice shelves and sea ice in the vicinity of ice shelves.

  3. Sucrose in the concentrated solution or the supercooled “State”: A review of caramelisation reactions and physical behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Quintas, M. A. C.; Fundo, J. F.; Silva, C. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Sucrose is probably one of the most studied molecules by food scientists, since it plays an important role as an ingredient or preserving agent in many formulations and technological processes. When sucrose is present in a product with a concentration near or greater than the saturation point—i.e. in the supercooled state—it possesses high potentialities for the food industry in areas as different as pastry industry, dairy and frozen desserts or films and coatings production. This paper prese...

  4. Thermal conductivity enhancement of sodium acetate trihydrate by adding graphite powder and the effect on stability of supercooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Berg; Dannemand, Mark; Kong, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    . The graphite powder was stabilized using carboxymetyl cellulose and successfully tested in heating and supercooling cycles with no loss of performance. Thermal conductivity enhancing properties of graphite powder was shown in samples. Since the experiments were conducted in small scale, at 200 g per sample......, large scale experiments are required to validate graphite as a thermo conductivity enhancing agent, suitable for use in seasonal heat storage applications utilizing SAT....

  5. Inhibition of ice nucleation by slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter W; Lu, Weizhe; Xu, Haojun; Kim, Philseok; Kreder, Michael J; Alvarenga, Jack; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-01-14

    Ice repellent coatings have been studied and keenly sought after for many years, where any advances in the durability of such coatings will result in huge energy savings across many fields. Progress in creating anti-ice and anti-frost surfaces has been particularly rapid since the discovery and development of slippery, liquid infused porous surfaces (SLIPS). Here we use SLIPS-coated differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) pans to investigate the effects of the surface modification on the nucleation of supercooled water. This investigation is inherently different from previous studies which looked at the adhesion of ice to SLIPS surfaces, or the formation of ice under high humidity conditions. Given the stochastic nature of nucleation of ice from supercooled water, multiple runs on the same sample are needed to determine if a given surface coating has a real and statistically significant effect on the nucleation temperature. We have cycled supercooling to freezing and then thawing of deionized water in hydrophilic (untreated aluminum), hydrophobic, superhydrophobic, and SLIPS-treated DSC pans multiple times to determine the effects of surface treatment on the nucleation and subsequent growth of ice. We find that SLIPS coatings lower the nucleation temperature of supercooled water in contact with statistical significance and show no deterioration or change in the coating performance even after 150 freeze-thaw cycles.

  6. The existence of a plastic phase and a solid-liquid dynamical bistability region in small fullerene cluster (C60)7: molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatek, A; Dawid, A; Gburski, Z

    2006-01-01

    We have simulated (by the molecular dymanics (MD) method) the dynamics of fullerenes (C 60 ) in an extremely small cluster composed of only as many as seven C 60 molecules. The interaction is taken to be the full 60-site pairwise additive Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential which generates both translational and anisotropic rotational motions of each molecule. Our atomically detailed MD simulations discover the plastic phase (no translations but active reorientations of fullerenes) at low energies (temperatures) of the (C 60 ) 7 cluster. We provide the in-depth evidence of the dynamical solid-liquid bistability region in the investigated cluster. Moreover, we confirm the existence of the liquid phase in (C 60 ) 7 , the finding of Gallego et al (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 5258) obtained earlier on the basis of Girifalco's model, which assumes single-site only and spherically symmetrical interaction between C 60 molecules. We have calculated the translational and angular velocity autocorrelation functions and estimated the diffusion coefficient of fullerene in the liquid phase

  7. Application of UPTF data for modeling liquid draindown in the downcomer region of a PWR using RELAP5/MOD2-B&W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissinger, G.; Klingenfus, J. [B & W Nuclear Technologies, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    B&W Nuclear Technologies (BWNT) currently uses an evaluation model that analyzes large break loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors using several computer codes. These codes separately calculate the system performance during the blowdown, refill, and reflooding phases of the transient. Multiple codes are used, in part, because a single code has been unable to effectively model the transition from blowdown to reflood, particularly in the downcomer region where high steam velocities do not allow the injected emergency core cooling (ECC) liquid to penetrate and begin to refill the vessel lower plenum until after the end of blowdown. BWNT is developing a method using the RELAP5/MOD2-B&W computer code that can correctly predict the liquid draindown behavior in the downcomer during the late blowdown and refill phases. Benchmarks of this method have been performed against Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF) data for ECC liquid penetration and valves using both cold leg and downcomer ECC injection. The use of this new method in plant applications should result in the calculation of a shorter refill period, leading to lower peak clad temperature predictions and increased core peaking. This paper identifies changes made to the RELAP/MOD2-B&W code to improve its predictive capabilities with respect to the data obtained in the UPTF tests.

  8. Experimental Observation of Bulk Liquid Water Structure in ``No Man's Land''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor; Huang, Congcong; Loh, Duane; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond; Hampton, Christina; Starodub, Dmitri; Deponte, Daniel; Martin, Andrew; Barty, Anton; Wikfeldt, Thor; Schlesinger, Daniel; Pettersson, Lars; Beye, Martin; Nordlund, Dennis; Weiss, Thomas; Feldkamp, Jan; Caronna, Chiara; Seibert, Marvin; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth; Boutet, Sebastien; Bogan, Michael; Nilsson, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Experiments on pure bulk water below about 235 K have so far been difficult: water crystallization occurs very rapidly below the homogeneous nucleation temperature of 232 K and above 160 K, leading to a ``no man's land'' devoid of experimental results regarding the structure. Here, we demonstrate a new, general experimental approach to study the structure of liquid states at supercooled conditions below their limit of homogeneous nucleation. We use femtosecond x-ray pulses generated by the LCLS x-ray laser to probe evaporatively cooled droplets of supercooled bulk water and find experimental evidence for the existence of metastable bulk liquid water down to temperatures of 223 K in the previously largely unexplored ``no man's land''. We acknoweledge NSF (CHE-0809324), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and the Swedish Research Council for financial support.

  9. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  10. Gravitational waves from a supercooled electroweak phase transition and their detection with pulsar timing arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Lagger, Cyril; Manning, Adrian [University of Sydney, ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Yue, Jason [National Taiwan Normal University, Department of Physics, Taipei (China)

    2017-08-15

    We investigate the properties of a stochastic gravitational wave background produced by a first-order electroweak phase transition in the regime of extreme supercooling. We study a scenario whereby the percolation temperature that signifies the completion of the transition, T{sub p}, is as low as a few MeV (nucleosynthesis temperature), while most of the true vacuum bubbles are formed much earlier at the nucleation temperature, T{sub n} ∝ 50 GeV. This implies that the gravitational wave spectrum is mainly produced by the collisions of large bubbles and characterised by a large amplitude and a peak frequency as low as f ∝ 10{sup -9}-10{sup -7} Hz. We show that such a scenario can occur in (but not limited to) a model based on a non-linear realisation of the electroweak gauge group, so that the Higgs vacuum configuration is altered by a cubic coupling. In order to carefully quantify the evolution of the phase transition of this model over such a wide temperature range we go beyond the usual fast transition approximation, taking into account the expansion of the Universe as well as the behaviour of the nucleation probability at low temperatures. Our computation shows that there exists a range of parameters for which the gravitational wave spectrum lies at the edge between the exclusion limits of current pulsar timing array experiments and the detection band of the future Square Kilometre Array observatory. (orig.)

  11. Experimental studies on seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dragsted, Janne; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    to transfer heat to and from the module have been tested. Further, a solidification start method, based on a strong cooling of a small part of the salt water mixture in the module by boiling CO2 in a small brass tank in good thermal contact to the outer side of the module wall, has been tested. Tests......Laboratory tests of a 230 l seasonal heat storage module with a sodium acetate water mixture have been carried out. The aim of the tests is to elucidate how best to design a seasonal heat storage based on the salt water mixture, which supercools in a stable way. The module can be a part...... of a seasonal heat storage, that will be suitable for solar heating systems which can fully cover the yearly heat demand of Danish low energy buildings. The tested module has approximately the dimensions 2020 mm x 1285 mm x 80 mm. The module material is steel and the wall thickness is 2 mm. Different methods...

  12. Super-cool paints: optimizing composition with a modified four-flux model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Marc A.; Arnold, Matthew D.; Gentle, Angus R.; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2017-09-01

    The scope for maximizing the albedo of a painted surface to produce low cost new and retro-fitted super-cool roofing is explored systematically. The aim is easy to apply, low cost paint formulations yielding albedos in the range 0.90 to 0.95. This requires raising the near-infrared (NIR) spectral reflectance into this range, while not reducing the more easily obtained high visible reflectance values. Our modified version of the four-flux method has enabled results on more complex composites. Key parameters to be optimized include; fill factors, particle size and material, using more than one mean size, thickness, substrate and binder materials. The model used is a variation of the classical four-flux method that solves the energy transfer problem through four balance differential equations. We use a different approach to the characteristic parameters to define the absorptance and scattering of the complete composite. This generalization allows extension to inclusion of size dispersion of the pigment particle and various binder resins, including those most commonly in use based on acrylics. Thus, the pigment scattering model has to take account of the matrix having loss in the NIR. A paint ranking index aimed specifically at separating paints with albedo above 0.80 is introduced representing the fraction of time at a sub-ambient temperature.

  13. The effect of the melt thermal gradient on the size of the constitutionally supercooled zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A; StJohn, D; Yuan, L; Lee, P D; Easton, M

    2016-01-01

    Recent verification of the analytical Interdependence model by a numerical solidification model (µMatIC) confirmed the critical role of constitutional supercooling (CS) in achieving sufficient undercooling to trigger successful nucleation events. The location of the maximum amount of CS (ΔT CSmax ) is some distance from the interface of the previously growing grain and this distance contributes to the final as-cast grain size. The effect of the thermal gradient, G, on the size of the CS zone (CSZ) was neglected in that work. However, G is expected to affect the size of the CSZ (i.e. the length of the CSZ, x’ CSZ , and the location of ΔTCSmax, x’ CSmax ). This investigation assesses the effect of G on x’csz and x' CSmax . A range of G values is introduced into both the analytical and the numerical models to obtain a correlation between the value of G and the dimensions of the CSZ. The result of a test case from the analytical model shows that x’ CSmax initially decreases rapidly and then decreases gradually approaching zero at very high values of G. Independent of the analytical model, the results from the numerical model replicate the trend obtained from the analytical model. (paper)

  14. In-Situ Phase Transition Control in the Supercooled State for Robust Active Glass Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shichao; Cao, Maoqing; Li, Chaoyu; Li, Jiang; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhou, Shifeng

    2017-06-21

    The construction of a dopant-activated photonic composite is of great technological importance for various applications, including smart lighting, optical amplification, laser, and optical detection. The bonding arrangement around the introduced dopants largely determines the properties, yet it remains a daunting challenge to manipulate the local state of the matrix (i.e., phase) inside the transparent composite in a controllable manner. Here we demonstrate that the relaxation of the supercooled state enables in-situ phase transition control in glass. Benefiting from the unique local atom arrangement manner, the strategy offers the possibility for simultaneously tuning the chemical environment of the incorporated dopant and engineering the dopant-host interaction. This allows us to effectively activate the dopant with high efficiency (calculated as ∼100%) and profoundly enhance the dopant-host energy-exchange interaction. Our results highlight that the in-situ phase transition control in glass may provide new opportunities for fabrication of unusual photonic materials with intense broadband emission at ∼1100 nm and development of the robust optical detection unit with high compactness and broadband photon-harvesting capability (from X-ray to ultraviolet light).

  15. Computational study of heat transfer from the inner surface of a circular tube to force high temperature liquid metal flow in laminar and transition regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, K.; Fukuda, K.; Masuzaki, S.

    2018-03-01

    Heat transfer through forced convection from the inner surface of a circular tube to force the flow of liquid sodium in the laminar and transition regions were numerically analysed for two types of tube geometries (concentric annular and circular tubes) and two types of equivalent diameters (hydraulic and thermal equivalent diameters). The unsteady laminar three-dimensional basic equations for forced convection heat transfer caused by a step heat flux were numerically solved until a steady state is attained. The code of the parabolic hyperbolic or elliptic numerical integration code series (PHOENICS) was used for calculations by considering relevant temperature dependent thermo-physical properties. The concentric annular tube has a test tube with inner and outer diameters of 7.6 and 14.3 mm, respectively, has a heated length of 52 mm, and an L/d of 6.84. The two circular tubes have inner diameters of 6.7 and 19.3 mm with L/d of 7.76 and 2.69, respectively, and a heated length of 52 mm. The inlet liquid temperature, inlet liquid velocity, and surface heat flux were equally set for each test tube as T in ≅573 to 585 K, u in = 0.0852 to 1 m/s, and q = 2×105 to 2.5×106 W/m2, respectively. The increase in temperature from the leading edge of the heated section to the outlet of the circular tubes (with a hydraulic diameter of d H = 6.7 mm and a thermal equivalent diameter d te = 19.3 mm) was approximately 2.70 and 1.21 times as large as the corresponding values of the concentric annular tube with an inner diameter of 7.6 mm and an outer diameter of 14.3 mm, respectively. A quantity in the laminar and transition regions was suggested as the dominant variable involved in the forced convection heat transfer in the circular tube. The values of the local and average Nusselt numbers, Nu z and Nu av , respectively, for a concentric annular tube with d H = 6.7 mm and for a circular tube with d H = 6.7 mm were calculated to examine the effects of q, T in , and Pe on heat

  16. Long range stress correlations in the inherent structures of liquids at rest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Sadrul; Abraham, Sneha; Hudson, Toby; Harrowell, Peter [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-03-28

    Simulation studies of the atomic shear stress in the local potential energy minima (inherent structures) are reported for binary liquid mixtures in 2D and 3D. These inherent structure stresses are fundamental to slow stress relaxation and high viscosity in supercooled liquids. We find that the atomic shear stress in the inherent structures (IS’s) of both liquids at rest exhibits slowly decaying anisotropic correlations. We show that the stress correlations contribute significantly to the variance of the total shear stress of the IS configurations and consider the origins of the anisotropy and spatial extent of the stress correlations.

  17. Acoustic and thermal anomalies in a liquid-glass transition of racemic S(+)-R(-) ketoprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomohiko; Takayama, Haruki; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kojima, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic and thermal properties of pharmaceutical racemic S(+)-R(-) ketoprofen were investigated in wide temperature range including glassy, supercooled liquid and liquid states by Brillouin scattering and temperature modulated DSC. Sound velocity and acoustic attenuation exhibited clear changes at 265 K indicating a liquid-glass transition and showed the typical structural relaxation above Tg. The high value of the fragility index m = 71 was determined by the dispersion of the complex heat capacity. New relaxation map was suggested in combination with previous study of dielectric measurement.

  18. Model for the alpha and beta shear-mechanical properties of supercooled liquids and its comparison to squalane data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2017-01-01

    represented by a “Cole-Cole retardation element” defined as a series connection of a capacitor and a constant-phase element, resulting in the Cole-Cole compliance function well-known from dielectrics. The model, which assumes that the high-frequency decay of the alpha shear compliance loss varies...

  19. Dielectric relaxation studies in super-cooled liquid and glassy phases of anti-cancerous alkaloid: Brucine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Aboothahir; Shahin Thayyil, M.; Sulaiman, M. K.; Kulkarni, A. R.

    2018-05-01

    Brucine has good anti-tumor effects, on both liver cancer and breast cancer. It has bioavailability of 40.83%. Since the bioavailability of the drug is low, an alternative method to increase its bioavailability and solubility is by changing the drug into glassy form. We used Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for studying the glass forming ability of the drug. Brucine was found to be a very good glass former glass transition temperature 365 K. Based on the DSC analysis we have used broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) for studying the drug in the super cooled and glassy state. BDS is an effective tool to probe the molecular dynamics in the super cooled and glassy state. Molecular mobility is found to be present even in the glassy state of this active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) which is responsible for the instability. Our aim is to study the factors responsible for instability of this API in amorphous form. Cooling curves for dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss revealed the presence of structural (α) and secondary relaxations (β and γ). Temperature dependence of relaxation time is fitted by Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and found the values of activation energy of the α relaxation, fragility and glass transition temperature. Paluch's anti correlation is also verified, that the width of the α-loss peak at or near the glass transition temperature Tg is strongly anticorrelated with the polarity of the molecule. The larger the dielectric relaxation strength Δɛ (Tg) of the system, the narrower is the α-loss peak (higher value of βKWW).

  20. Preparation and Supercooling Modification of Salt Hydrate Phase Change Materials Based on CaCl₂·2H₂O/CaCl₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Dong, Zhijun; Memon, Shazim Ali; Bao, Xiaohua; Cui, Hongzhi

    2017-06-23

    Salt hydrates have issues of supercooling when they are utilized as phase change materials (PCMs). In this research, a new method was adopted to prepare a salt hydrate PCM (based on a mixture of calcium chloride dihydrate and calcium chloride anhydrous) as a novel PCM system to reduce the supercooling phenomenon existing in CaCl₂·6H₂O. Six samples with different compositions of CaCl₂ were prepared. The relationship between the performance and the proportion of calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl₂·2H₂O) and calcium chloride anhydrous (CaCl₂) was also investigated. The supercooling degree of the final PCM reduced with the increase in volume of CaCl₂·2H₂O during its preparation. The PCM obtained with 66.21 wt % CaCl₂·2H₂O reduced the supercooling degree by about 96.8%. All six samples, whose ratio of CaCl₂·2H₂O to (CaCl₂ plus CaCl₂·2H₂O) was 0%, 34.03%, 53.82%, 76.56%, 90.74%, and 100% respectively, showed relatively higher enthalpy (greater than 155.29 J/g), and have the possibility to be applied in buildings for thermal energy storage purposes. Hence, CaCl₂·2H₂O plays an important role in reducing supercooling and it can be helpful in adjusting the solidification enthalpy. Thereafter, the influence of adding different percentages of Nano-SiO₂ (0.1 wt %, 0.3 wt %, 0.5 wt %) in reducing the supercooling degree of some PCM samples was investigated. The test results showed that the supercooling of the salt hydrate PCM in Samples 6 and 5 reduced to 0.2 °C and 0.4 °C respectively. Finally, the effect of the different cooling conditions, including frozen storage (-20 °C) and cold storage (5 °C), that were used to prepare the salt hydrate PCM was considered. It was found that both cooling conditions are effective in reducing the supercooling degree of the salt hydrate PCM. With the synergistic action of the two materials, the performance and properties of the newly developed PCM systems were better especially in terms of reducing

  1. Detection of various phases in liquids from the hypersound velocity and damping near closed phase-separation regions of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, K. V.; Krivokhizha, S. V.; Chaban, I. A.; Chaikov, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analysis revealed that experimental results obtained in our studies on hypersound propagation in a guaiacol-glycerol solution in the vicinity of the closed phase-separation region, double critical point, and special point, as well as the origin of these regions, can be explained by the presence of two different phases (I and II) of the solution with phase-transition temperature T 0 . Temperature T 0 coincides with the temperature at the center of closed phase-separation regions, as well as with the double critical point and with the special point. In (Frenkel) phase I, molecules are in potential wells whose depth exceeds the thermal energy of a molecule, while thermal energy in (gaslike) phase II is higher than the potential well depth. At the lower critical point, the thermodynamic potential of phase I is equal to the thermodynamic potential of the phase-separated solution. At the upper critical point, the thermodynamic potential of phase II is equal to the thermodynamic potential of the phase-separated solution. The observed broad dome of the hypersound absorption coefficient near T 0 can be explained by the contribution associated with fluctuations of the order parameter corresponding to the transition from phase I to phase II. The difference in the temperature coefficients of hypersound velocity on different sides of T 0 and some other effects are also explained

  2. Assessing the full costs of water, liquid waste, energy and solid waste infrastructure in the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.

    2001-01-01

    This document presents a newly drafted growth strategy developed by the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD) in British Columbia. It guides the sustainable growth, change and development of the region for the next 25 years and deals with air pollution, water quality, traffic congestion, affordable housing, employment, energy use, parks and green space. In particular, this case study develops a method to apply full cost accounting (FCA) to a growth strategy. FCA is the most appropriate way to approach a sustainable strategy because it considers economic, social and environmental issues. The study also includes the development of a software tool consisting of an ACCESS database and an ARCVIEW GIS file for compiling and analyzing detailed infrastructure profiles which can be used to assess the full costs of different growth scenarios. The following four issue categories of environmental and economic indicators of FVRD performance were addressed: solid waste, water and wastewater, energy, and infrastructure costs. Each issue category was then used to establish a set of 5 performance indicators that can be measured and assessed over time. These included solid waste, water consumption, wastewater, energy consumption and air emissions. The database and methodology developed for this project is suitable for other regions. The software can be viewed by contacting the Sheltair Group Resource Consultants Inc. in Vancouver

  3. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    optical study. Film formation goes a step beyond adsorption; some surfactants form monolayers or multilayers at the interface. A polymer microfilm or a polymer-particle matrix can be synthesized at the liquid-liquid boundary. Such films exhibit unique adsorption and ion-intercalation properties of their own. Electrowetting refers broadly to the phenomenon in which an applied voltage modulates the shape of a liquid-liquid interface, essentially by altering the surface tension. Electric fields can be used to induce droplets on solid substrates to change shape, or to affect the structure of liquid-liquid emulsions. Various chemical reactions can be performed at the liquid-liquid boundary. Liquid-liquid microelectrodes allow detailed study of ion-transfer kinetics at the interface. Photochemical processes can also be used to control the conformations of molecules adsorbed at the interface. But how much precise control do we actually have on the state of the interfacial region? Several contributions to this issue address a system which has been studied for decades in electrochemistry, but remains essentially unfamilar to physicists. This is the interface between two immiscible electrolytic solutions (ITIES), a progressing interdisciplinary field in which condensed-matter physics and physical chemistry meet molecular electrochemistry. Why is it so exciting? The reason is simple. The ITIES is chargeable: when positioned between two electrodes it can be polarized, and back- to-back electrical double layers form on both sides of the liquid-liquid interface. Importantly, the term immiscible refers not only to oil and water but also to the electrolytes. Inorganic electrolytes, such as alkali halides, tend to stay in water, whereas organic electrolytes, such as tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate, stay in oil. This behaviour arises because energies of the order of 0.2-0.3 eV are needed to drive ions across the interface. As long as these free energies of transfer are not exceeded by

  4. Simultaneous determination of ordinary and extraordinary refractive index dispersions of nematic liquid crystals in the visible and near-infrared regions from an interference spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Ryotaro; Nishi, Koji; Kan, Takayuki; Kadowaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    An improved interference method is proposed to determine ordinary and extraordinary refractive index dispersions of nematic liquid crystals (LCs). In this method, an LC cell coated with a thin metal layer is used as a Fabry-Perot interferometer, which shows us a sharp transmission fringe. To ensure high reliability, the wavelength dispersion of the refractive index of the metal is taken into account in fitting calculation. In spite of measuring ordinary and extraordinary components, the LC cell, polarizers, and other equipment are not rotated during the experiment. The index evaluation from a single spectrum avoids errors depending on the measurement position owing to non-uniformities of molecular orientation and cell thickness because we can obtain the two indices at exactly the same position. This system can adapt to a wide frequency range and does not require any specific wavelength light source or laser. We demonstrate the determination of ordinary and extraordinary refractive index dispersions of a nematic liquid crystal in the visible and near-infrared regions. Furthermore, we quantitatively reproduce the measured spectrum by calculation using the measured refractive indices.

  5. Sensory experience of food and obesity: a positron emission tomography study of the brain regions affected by tasting a liquid meal after a prolonged fast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelParigi, Angelo; Chen, Kewei; Salbe, Arline D; Reiman, Eric M; Tataranni, P Antonio

    2005-01-15

    The sensory experience of food is a primary reinforcer of eating and overeating plays a major role in the development of human obesity. However, whether the sensory experience of a forthcoming meal and the associated physiological phenomena (cephalic phase response, expectation of reward), which prepare the organism for the ingestion of food play a role in the regulation of energy intake and contribute to the development of obesity remains largely unresolved. We used positron emission tomography (PET) and 15O-water to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and to assess the brain's response to the oral administration of 2 ml of a liquid meal (Ensure Plus, 1.5 kcal/ml) after a 36-h fast and shortly before consuming the same meal. Twenty-one obese (BMI > 35 kg/m2, 10M/11F, age 28 +/- 6 years, body fat 40 +/- 6%) and 20 lean individuals (BMI obese individuals had higher fasting plasma glucose (83.3 +/- 6.2 vs. 75.5 +/- 9.6 mg/dl; P = 0.0003) and insulin concentrations (6.1 +/- 3.5 vs. 2.5 +/- 1.7 microU/ml; P food, differences in rCBF were observed in several regions of the brain, including greater increases in the middle-dorsal insula and midbrain, and greater decreases in the posterior cingulate, temporal, and orbitofrontal cortices in obese compared to lean individuals (P obesity is associated with an abnormal brain response to the sensory aspects of a liquid meal after a prolonged fast especially in areas of the primary gustatory cortex. This is only partially explained by the elevated glycemia and high level of disinhibition which characterize individuals with increased adiposity. These results provide a new perspective on the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of abnormal eating behavior and their relationship with obesity in humans.

  6. Effect of plastic deformation on the supercooled austenite transformations of the Cr-Mo steel with Nb, Ti and B microadditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk, J.; Opiela, M.

    1998-01-01

    Effect of plastic deformation at austenizing temperature was investigated on phase transformations, structure and hardness of the supercooled austenite transformation products of the Cr-Mo constructional steel with Nb, Ti and B microadditions. Basing on the analysis of the phase transformation plots of the supercooled undeformed austenite and of the supercooled and plastically deformed one, it was found out that direct cooling of specimens after completing their plastic deformation in the above mentioned conditions, results in significant acceleration of the α→β, and ferritic and pearlitic transformations, and in the decrease of transformation products hardness. These phenomena are of great importance for working out of the thermo-mechanical treatment of products made from the heat-treated microalloyed steel. (author)

  7. The occurrence of ice production in slightly supercooled Arctic stratiform clouds as observed by ground-based remote sensors at the ARM NSA site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Luo, Tao; Yin, Yan; Flynn, Connor

    2017-03-01

    Ice particle formation in slightly supercooled stratiform clouds is not well documented or understood. In this study, 4 years of combined lidar depolarization and radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements are analyzed to distinguish between cold drizzle and ice crystal formations in slightly supercooled Arctic stratiform clouds over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility North Slope of Alaska Utqiaġvik ("Barrow") site. Ice particles are detected and statistically shown to be responsible for the strong precipitation in slightly supercooled Arctic stratiform clouds at cloud top temperatures as high as -4°C. For ice precipitating Arctic stratiform clouds, the lidar particulate linear depolarization ratio (δpar_lin) correlates well with radar Ze at each temperature range, but the δpar_lin-Ze relationship varies with temperature ranges. In addition, lidar depolarization and radar Ze observations of ice generation characteristics in Arctic stratiform clouds are consistent with laboratory-measured temperature-dependent ice growth habits.

  8. Can the scaling behavior of electric conductivity be used to probe the self-organizational changes in solution with respect to the ionic liquid structure? The case of [C8MIM][NTf2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, Marian; Wojnarowska, Zaneta; Goodrich, Peter; Jacquemin, Johan; Pionteck, Jürgen; Hensel-Bielowka, Stella

    2015-08-28

    Electrical conductivity of the supercooled ionic liquid [C8MIM][NTf2], determined as a function of temperature and pressure, highlights strong differences in its ionic transport behavior between low and high temperature regions. To date, the crossover effect which is very well known for low molecular van der Waals liquids has been rarely described for classical ionic liquids. This finding highlights that the thermal fluctuations could be dominant mechanisms driving the dramatic slowing down of ion motions near Tg. An alternative way to analyze separately low and high temperature dc-conductivity data using a density scaling approach was then proposed. Based on which a common value of the scaling exponent γ = 2.4 was obtained, indicating that the applied density scaling is insensitive to the crossover effect. By comparing the scaling exponent γ reported herein along with literature data for other ionic liquids, it appears that γ decreases by increasing the alkyl chain length on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids. This observation may be related to changes in the interaction between ions in solution driven by an increase in the van der Waals type interaction by increasing the alkyl chain length on the cation. This effect may be related to changes in the ionic liquid nanostructural organization with the alkyl chain length on the cation as previously reported in the literature based on molecular dynamic simulations. In other words, the calculated scaling exponent γ may be then used as a key parameter to probe the interaction and/or self-organizational changes in solution with respect to the ionic liquid structure.

  9. A Comprehensive and Comparative Study of Wolfiporia extensa Cultivation Regions by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Liu, Honggao

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, Wolfiporia extensa as a popular raw material in food and medicine industry has received increasing interests. Due to supply shortage, this species of edible and medicinal mushroom has been cultivated in some provinces of China. In the present study, cultivated W. extensa collected from six regions in Yunnan Province of China were analyzed by an integrated method based on Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with multivariate analysis including partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) in order to investigate the differences and similarities in different origins and parts. In the tested mushroom samples, characteristic FT-IR spectra were obtained for acquiring comprehensive fuzz chemical information and pachymic acid was determinated as a biomarker in the meantime. From the results, the comparison of samples was achieved successfully according to their geographical regions and different parts. All the samples displayed regional dependence and the inner parts showed better quality consistency. In addition, the chemical constituents of cultivated W. extensa could be also affected by the cultivation methods. Meanwhile, there was an interesting finding that the soil properties of cultivation regions may have a relationship with the chemical constituents of the epidermis of soil-cultured W. extensa, rather than the inner parts. Collectively, it demonstrated that the present study could provide comprehensive chemical evidence for the critical complement of quality evaluation on the cultivated W. extensa. Moreover, it may be available for the further researches of complicated mushrooms in practice. PMID:28036354

  10. A Comprehensive and Comparative Study of Wolfiporia extensa Cultivation Regions by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Wolfiporia extensa as a popular raw material in food and medicine industry has received increasing interests. Due to supply shortage, this species of edible and medicinal mushroom has been cultivated in some provinces of China. In the present study, cultivated W. extensa collected from six regions in Yunnan Province of China were analyzed by an integrated method based on Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC coupled with multivariate analysis including partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA in order to investigate the differences and similarities in different origins and parts. In the tested mushroom samples, characteristic FT-IR spectra were obtained for acquiring comprehensive fuzz chemical information and pachymic acid was determinated as a biomarker in the meantime. From the results, the comparison of samples was achieved successfully according to their geographical regions and different parts. All the samples displayed regional dependence and the inner parts showed better quality consistency. In addition, the chemical constituents of cultivated W. extensa could be also affected by the cultivation methods. Meanwhile, there was an interesting finding that the soil properties of cultivation regions may have a relationship with the chemical constituents of the epidermis of soil-cultured W. extensa, rather than the inner parts. Collectively, it demonstrated that the present study could provide comprehensive chemical evidence for the critical complement of quality evaluation on the cultivated W. extensa. Moreover, it may be available for the further researches of complicated mushrooms in practice.

  11. Experimental evidence of a liquid-liquid transition in interfacial water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, J.-M.; Bellissent-Funel, M.-C.; Chen, S.-H.

    2005-07-01

    At ambient pressure, bulk liquid water shows an anomalous increase of thermodynamic quantities and apparent divergences of dynamic properties on approaching a temperature Ts of 228 K. At normal pressure, supercooled water spontaneously freezes below the homogeneous nucleation temperature, TH = 235 K. Upon heating, the two forms of Amorphous Solid Water (ASW), LDA (Low Density Amorphous Ice) and HDA (High Density Amorphous Ice), crystallise above TX = 150 K. As a consequence, up to now no experiment has been able to explore the properties of liquid water in this very interesting temperature range between 150 and 235 K. We present nanosecond-time-scale measurements of local rotational and translational dynamics of interfacial, non-crystalline, water from 77 to 280 K. These experimental dynamic results are combined with calorimetric and diffraction data to show that after exhibiting a glass transition at 165 K, interfacial water experiences a first-order liquid-liquid transition at 240 K from a low-density to a high-density liquid. This is the first direct evidence of the existence of a liquid-liquid transition involving water.

  12. A glance on the glass-transition phenomenon from the viewpoint of devitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Inoue, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    The formation of a supercooled liquid region and devitrification behaviour of metallic glasses on heating are discussed in relation with the glass-transition phenomenon observed using differential scanning and isothermal calorimetries as well as X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). One of the most clear sequences of the glassy ↔ supercooled liquid phase transition is the change of the devitrification behaviour and the kinetics of the devitrification reaction in Al-based and some other alloys after the transition from the glassy to the supercooled liquid state. The significant variation in the devitrification behaviour and thermodynamic parameters indicate the difference between the glassy and the supercooled liquid phases

  13. Supercooling capacity and cold hardiness of band-winged grasshopper eggs (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bao-Ping; Li, Na; Zhou, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The band-winged grasshopper, Oedaleus asiaticus Bei-Bienko, is one of the most dominant and economically important grasshopper species in the steppe grasslands and farming-pastoral ecotone in northern China. It is a univoltine species and overwinters as eggs in soil. The cold hardiness of its eggs was examined in the laboratory. Water content in soil significantly affected the supercooling points (SCPs), water content and fat content of prediapause eggs. With the increase of water content in soil, the SCP, and water content of prediapause eggs rose whereas the fat content declined. There was a significant relationship between the SCP and water content or fat content of prediapause eggs. The SCPs of prediapause and diapause eggs varied from -7.6 to -28.4°C and the SCPs of eggs 30 d after oviposition could be divided into two groups. The means of high SCP group (-11.0 to -11.9°C) were much higher than those of low SCP group (-21.8 to -21.9°C), and the majority belonged to the latter (90.48-93.33%). The SCPs of prediapause eggs and early-diapause eggs 30 d after oviposition were significantly higher than those of deep-diapause eggs 60 d after oviposition. The survival rates of diapause eggs were significantly different among different temperature treatments. The survival rate was higher than 88% at greater than -20°C and declined significantly to 57% at -25°C, and suddenly dropped to zero at -30°C. The lower lethal temperature (Ltemp50) for 12 h exposure was -25.3°C and the lower lethal time (Ltime50) at -20°C was 32.8 d. As the mean SCPs of diapause eggs were similar to their Ltemp50, the SCP of eggs can be considered as a good indicator of cold hardiness for O. asiaticus and that this grasshopper is a freeze-intolerant insect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Optimization of experimental conditions for the monitoring of nucleation and growth of racemic Diprophylline from the supercooled melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemercier, Aurélien; Viel, Quentin; Brandel, Clément; Cartigny, Yohann; Dargent, Eric; Petit, Samuel; Coquerel, Gérard

    2017-08-01

    Since more and more pharmaceutical substances are developed as amorphous forms, it is nowadays of major relevance to get insights into the nucleation and growth mechanisms from supercooled melts (SCM). A step-by-step approach of recrystallization from a SCM is presented here, designed to elucidate the impact of various experimental parameters. Using the bronchodilator agent Diprophylline (DPL) as a model compound, it is shown that optimal conditions for informative observations of the crystallization behaviour from supercooled racemic DPL require to place samples between two cover slides with a maximum sample thickness of 20 μm, and to monitor recrystallization during an annealing step of 30 min at 70 °C, i.e. about 33 °C above the temperature of glass transition. In these optimized conditions, it could be established that DPL crystallization proceeds in two steps: spontaneous nucleation and growth of large and well-faceted particles of a new crystal form (primary crystals: PC) and subsequent crystallization of a previously known form (RII) that develops from specific surfaces of PC. The formation of PC particles therefore constitutes the key-step of the crystallization events and is shown to be favoured by at least 2.33 wt% of the major chemical impurity, Theophylline.

  15. Lipidome and metabolome analysis of fresh tobacco leaves in different geographical regions using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Lu, Xin; Zhao, Jieyu; Zhang, Junjie; Zhao, Yanni; Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Guowang

    2015-07-01

    The combination of the lipidome and the metabolome can provide much more information in plant metabolomics studies. A method for the simultaneous extraction of the lipidome and the metabolome of fresh tobacco leaves was developed. Method validation was performed on the basis of the optimal ratio of methanol to methyl tert-butyl ether to water (37:45:68) from the design of experiments. Good repeatability was obtained. We found that 92.2% and 91.6% of the peaks for the lipidome and the metabolome were within a relative standard deviation of 20%, accounting for 94.6% and 94.6% of the total abundance, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were also satisfactory. A total of 230 metabolites, including 129 lipids, were identified. Significant differences were found in lipidomic and metabolomic profiles of fresh tobacco leaves in different geographical regions. Highly unsaturated galactolipids, phosphatidylethanolamines, predominant phosphatidylcholines, most of the polyphenols, amino acids, and polyamines had a higher content in Yunnan province, and low-unsaturation-degree galactolipids, triacylglycerols, glucosylceramides with trihydroxy long-chain bases, acylated sterol glucosides, and some organic acids were more abundant in Henan province. Correlation analysis between differential metabolites and climatic factors indicated the vital importance of temperature. The fatty acid unsaturation degree of galactolipids could be influenced by temperature. Accumulation of polyphenols and decreases in the ratios of stigmasterols to sitosterols and glucosylstigmasterols to glucosylsitosterols were also correlated with lower temperature in Yunnan province. Furthermore, lipids were more sensitive to climatic variations than other metabolites.

  16. Molecular Beam Studies of Reactions between Stratospheric Gases and Supercooled Sulfuric Acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nathanson, Gilbert

    2000-01-01

    ..., which catalytically destroy ozone. The first step in these reactions is the transport of gas phase HCl and HBr molecules through the surface of the liquid aerosol and into the acid, where they dissolve and dissociate...

  17. Variable wide range of lens power and its improvement in a liquid-crystal lens using highly resistive films divided into two regions with different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Marenori; Sato, Susumu

    2018-05-01

    The variable range of lens power of a liquid-crystal (LC) lens driven by two voltages is discussed on the basis of calculated and experimental results. The LC lens has two electrodes, which are a circularly hole-patterned electrode and a circular electrode, in addition to a common electrode, and highly resistive transparent films. The variable range of lens power increases with increasing driving voltage applied across the circularly hole-patterned electrode and the common electrode, and with decreasing diameter of highly resistive films. However, the optical-phase retardation profile tends to deviate from a parabolic curve in these cases. As a method to improve the trade-off properties, the highly resistive film is divided into two regions with different diameters, where the sheet resistance of an outer film is larger than that of an inner one. The improved LC lens has a lens power that varies in a wide range, and it exhibits a good parabolic phase retardation profile.

  18. Calculation of spectral shifts in UV–visible region and photoresponsive behaviour of fluorinated liquid crystals: Effect of solvent and substituent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmi Praveen, P.; Ojha, Durga P.

    2012-01-01

    The photoresponsive behaviour of fluorinated liquid crystals p-phenylene-4-methoxy benzoate-4-trifluoromethylbenzoate (FLUORO1), and 4-propyloxyphenyl-4-(4-trifluoromethylbenzoyloxy) benzoate (FLUORO2) has been systematically investigated using the CNDO/S + CI and INDO/S + CI methods. These methods have been employed to calculate/analyze the spectral shifts, and absorbance measurements in UV–visible region of the systems. The electronic transitions, absorption wavelength, HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital), and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energies have been calculated. Further, ultraviolet (UV) stability of the molecules has been discussed in the light of absorption wavelength and electronic transition oscillator strength (f). The effect of different solvent media and substituents on transition energies, oscillator strength, and other absorption parameters have also been reported. The present article provides valuable information regarding enhancing the UV stability of molecules by marinating their conductivity. Highlights: ► The strongest bands of FLUORO molecules can be assigned as π → π ∗ transitions. ► A small red-shift indicates a weak exciton coupling of chromophores. ► No n → π ∗ transition occurs due to the rigidity of the ring system of the molecules. ► The HOMO, LUMO, and E g values have been found to be independent of solvent effect.

  19. Calculation of spectral shifts in UV-visible region and photoresponsive behaviour of fluorinated liquid crystals: Effect of solvent and substituent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi Praveen, P. [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory, Post-Graduate Department of Physics, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada 520 008, A.P. (India); Ojha, Durga P., E-mail: durga_ojha@hotmail.com [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory, Post-Graduate Department of Physics, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada 520 008, A.P. (India)

    2012-08-15

    The photoresponsive behaviour of fluorinated liquid crystals p-phenylene-4-methoxy benzoate-4-trifluoromethylbenzoate (FLUORO1), and 4-propyloxyphenyl-4-(4-trifluoromethylbenzoyloxy) benzoate (FLUORO2) has been systematically investigated using the CNDO/S + CI and INDO/S + CI methods. These methods have been employed to calculate/analyze the spectral shifts, and absorbance measurements in UV-visible region of the systems. The electronic transitions, absorption wavelength, HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital), and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energies have been calculated. Further, ultraviolet (UV) stability of the molecules has been discussed in the light of absorption wavelength and electronic transition oscillator strength (f). The effect of different solvent media and substituents on transition energies, oscillator strength, and other absorption parameters have also been reported. The present article provides valuable information regarding enhancing the UV stability of molecules by marinating their conductivity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strongest bands of FLUORO molecules can be assigned as {pi} {yields} {pi}{sup Asterisk-Operator} transitions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small red-shift indicates a weak exciton coupling of chromophores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No n {yields} {pi}{sup Asterisk-Operator} transition occurs due to the rigidity of the ring system of the molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HOMO, LUMO, and E{sub g} values have been found to be independent of solvent effect.

  20. Recovering volatile liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeat, J H

    1925-07-30

    The products of hydrogenation of alicyclic compounds, such as terpenes, for example, pinene or oil of turpentine, are used as washing liquids for absorbing vapours of volatile liquids from gases, such as natural gases from petroliferous regions, gases from the distillation of coal, lignite, schist, peat, etc. or from the cracking of heavy oils. Other liquids such as tar oils vaseline oils, cresols, etc. may be added.

  1. Mirror Symmetry Breaking by Chirality Synchronisation in Liquids and Liquid Crystals of Achiral Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschierske, Carsten; Ungar, Goran

    2016-01-04

    Spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking is an efficient way to obtain homogeneously chiral agents, pharmaceutical ingredients and materials. It is also in the focus of the discussion around the emergence of uniform chirality in biological systems. Tremendous progress has been made by symmetry breaking during crystallisation from supercooled melts or supersaturates solutions and by self-assembly on solid surfaces and in other highly ordered structures. However, recent observations of spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking in liquids and liquid crystals indicate that it is not limited to the well-ordered solid state. Herein, progress in the understanding of a new dynamic mode of symmetry breaking, based on chirality synchronisation of transiently chiral molecules in isotropic liquids and in bicontinuous cubic, columnar, smectic and nematic liquid crystalline phases is discussed. This process leads to spontaneous deracemisation in the liquid state under thermodynamic control, giving rise to long-term stable symmetry-broken fluids, even at high temperatures. These fluids form conglomerates that are capable of extraordinary strong chirality amplification, eventually leading to homochirality and providing a new view on the discussion of emergence of uniform chirality in prebiotic systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Theoretical prediction of crystallization kinetics of a supercooled Lennard-Jones fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, K. G. S. H.; Song, Xueyu

    2018-05-01

    The first order curvature correction to the crystal-liquid interfacial free energy is calculated using a theoretical model based on the interfacial excess thermodynamic properties. The correction parameter (δ), which is analogous to the Tolman length at a liquid-vapor interface, is found to be 0.48 ± 0.05 for a Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid. We show that this curvature correction is crucial in predicting the nucleation barrier when the size of the crystal nucleus is small. The thermodynamic driving force (Δμ) corresponding to available simulated nucleation conditions is also calculated by combining the simulated data with a classical density functional theory. In this paper, we show that the classical nucleation theory is capable of predicting the nucleation barrier with excellent agreement to the simulated results when the curvature correction to the interfacial free energy is accounted for.

  3. Supercooled interfacial water in fine-grained soils probed by dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lorek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water substantially affects nearly all physical, chemical and biological processes on the Earth. Recent Mars observations as well as laboratory investigations suggest that water is a key factor of current physical and chemical processes on the Martian surface, e.g. rheological phenomena. Therefore it is of particular interest to get information about the liquid-like state of water on Martian analogue soils for temperatures below 0 °C. To this end, a parallel plate capacitor has been developed to obtain isothermal dielectric spectra of fine-grained soils in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 1.1 MHz at Martian-like temperatures down to −70 °C. Two Martian analogue soils have been investigated: a Ca-bentonite (specific surface of 237 m2 g−1, up to 9.4% w / w gravimetric water content and JSC Mars 1, a volcanic ash (specific surface of 146 m2 g−1, up to 7.4% w / w. Three soil-specific relaxation processes are observed in the investigated frequency–temperature range: two weak high-frequency processes (bound or hydrated water as well as ice and a strong low-frequency process due to counter-ion relaxation and the Maxwell–Wagner effect. To characterize the dielectric relaxation behaviour, a generalized fractional dielectric relaxation model was applied assuming three active relaxation processes with relaxation time of the ith process modelled with an Eyring equation. The real part of effective complex soil permittivity at 350 kHz was used to determine ice and liquid-like water content by means of the Birchak or CRIM equation. There are evidence that bentonite down to −70 °C has a liquid-like water content of 1.17 monolayers and JSC Mars 1 a liquid-like water content of 1.96 monolayers.

  4. Static gas-liquid interfacial direct current discharge plasmas using ionic liquid cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, T.; Baba, K.; Hatakeyama, R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the unique properties of ionic liquids such as their extremely low vapor pressure and high heat capacity, we have succeeded in creating the static and stable gas (plasmas)-liquid (ionic liquids) interfacial field using a direct current discharge under a low gas pressure condition. It is clarified that the ionic liquid works as a nonmetal liquid electrode, and furthermore, a secondary electron emission coefficient of the ionic liquid is larger than that of conventional metal electrodes. The plasma potential structure of the gas-liquid interfacial region, and resultant interactions between the plasma and the ionic liquid are revealed by changing a polarity of the electrode in the ionic liquid. By utilizing the ionic liquid as a cathode electrode, the positive ions in the plasma region are found to be irradiated to the ionic liquid. This ion irradiation causes physical and chemical reactions at the gas-liquid interfacial region without the vaporization of the ionic liquid.

  5. Aerosol and Cloud Microphysical Properties in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisa, Duncan; Kucera, Paul; Burger, Roelof; Li, Runjun; Collins, Don; Freney, Evelyn; Posada, Rafael; Buseck, Peter

    2010-05-01

    In recent advertent and inadvertent weather modification studies, a considerable effort has been made to understand the impact of varying aerosol properties and concentration on cloud properties. Significant uncertainties exist with aerosol-cloud interactions for which complex microphysical processes link the aerosol and cloud properties. Under almost all environmental conditions, increased aerosol concentrations within polluted air masses will enhance cloud droplet concentration relative to that in unperturbed regions. The interaction between dust particles and clouds are significant, yet the conditions in which dust particles become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are uncertain. In order to quantify this aerosol effect on clouds and precipitation, a field campaign was launched in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia as part of a Precipitation Enhancement Feasibility Study. Ground measurements of aerosol size distributions, hygroscopic growth factor, CCN concentrations as well as aircraft measurements of cloud hydrometeor size distributions were done in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia in August 2009. Research aircraft operations focused primarily on conducting measurements in clouds that are targeted for cloud top-seeding, on their microphysical characterization, especially the preconditions necessary for precipitation; understanding the evolution of droplet coalescence, supercooled liquid water, cloud ice and precipitation hydrometeors is necessary if advances are to be made in the study of cloud modification by cloud seeding. Non-precipitating mixed-phase clouds less than 3km in diameter that developed on top of the stable inversion were characterized by flying at the convective cloud top just above the inversion. Aerosol measurements were also done during the climb to cloud base height. The presentation will include a summary of the analysis and results with a focus on the unique features of the Asir region in producing convective clouds, characterization of the

  6. Thermal expansion accompanying the glass-liquid transition and crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Q. Jiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the linear thermal expansion behaviors of a Zr-based (Vitreloy 1 bulk metallic glass in its as-cast, annealed and crystallized states. Accompanying the glass-liquid transition, the as-cast Vitreloy 1 shows a continuous decrease in the thermal expansivity, whereas the annealed glass shows a sudden increase. The crystallized Vitreloy 1 exhibits an almost unchanged thermal expansivity prior to its melting. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the nucleation of crystalline phases can induce a significant thermal shrinkage of the supercooled liquid, but with the growth of these nuclei, the thermal expansion again dominates. These results are explained in the framework of the potential energy landscape, advocating that the configurational and vibrational contributions to the thermal expansion of the glass depend on both, structure and temperature.

  7. On the Fluctuations that Order and Frustrate Liquid Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David Tyler

    At ambient conditions, water sits close to phase coexistence with its crystal. More so than in many other materials, this fact is manifested in the fluctuations that maintain a large degree of local order in the liquid. These fluctuations and how they result in long-ranged order, or its absence, are emergent features of many interacting molecules. Their study therefore requires using the tools of statistical mechanics for their their systematic understanding. In this dissertation we develop such an understanding. In particular, we focus on collective behavior that emerges in liquid and solid water. At room temperatures, the thermophysical properties of water are quantified and rationalized with simple molecular models. A key feature of these models is the correct characterization of the competition between entropic forces of packing and the energetic preference for tetrahedral order. At cold temperatures, the properties of ice surfaces are studied with statistical field theory. The theory we develop for the long wavelength features of ice interfaces allows us to explain the existence of a premelting layer on the surface of ice and the stability of ice in confinement. In between these extremes, the dynamics of supercooled water are considered. A detailed theory for the early stages of coarsening is developed and used to explain the peculiar observation of a transient second liquid state of water. When coarsening dynamics are arrested, the result is the formation of a glassy states of water. We show that out-of-equilibrium the phase diagram for supercooled water exhibits a rich amount of structure, including a triple point between two glass phases of water and the liquid. At the end, we explore possible technological implications for the interplay between ordering and frustration in studies of water at metal interfaces.

  8. Cooling rate and starvation affect supercooling point and cold tolerance of the Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts fourth instar larvae (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, M; Izadi, H

    2018-01-01

    Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) is an important insect pest of stored products. In this study, the survival strategies of T. granarium fourth instar larvae were investigated at different sub-zero temperatures following different cooling rates, acclimation to different relative humidity (RH) and different starvation times. Our results show that larvae of T. granarium are freeze-intolerant. There was a strong link between cooling rates and supercooling point, which means the slower the decrease in temperature, the lower the supercooling point. Trehalose content was greater in insects cooled at a rate of 0.5°C/min. According to results, the RH did not affect supercooling point. However, acclimation to an RH of 25% increased mortality following exposure to - 10°C/24h. The time necessary to reach 95% mortality was 1737h and 428h at - 5°C and - 10°C. The lowest lipid and trehalose content was detected in insects acclimated to 25% RH, although, the different RH treatments did not significantly affect glycogen content of T. granarium larvae. The supercooling point of larvae was gradually increased following starvation. By contrast, fed larvae had the greatest lipid, glycogen, and trehalose content, and insects starved for eight days had the lowest energy contents. There was a sharp decline in the survival of larvae between - 11 and - 18°C after 1h exposure. Our results indicate the effects of cooling rate and starvation on energy reserves and survival of T. granarium. We conclude that T. granarium may not survive under similar stress conditions of the stored products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The protective effect of rapid cold-hardening develops more quickly in frozen versus supercooled larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarasaki, Yuta; Teets, Nicholas M; Denlinger, David L; Lee, Richard E

    2013-10-15

    During the austral summer, larvae of the terrestrial midge Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae) experience highly variable and often unpredictable thermal conditions. In addition to remaining freeze tolerant year-round, larvae are capable of swiftly increasing their cold tolerance through the rapid cold-hardening (RCH) response. The present study compared the induction of RCH in frozen versus supercooled larvae. At the same induction temperature, RCH occurred more rapidly and conferred a greater level of cryoprotection in frozen versus supercooled larvae. Furthermore, RCH in frozen larvae could be induced at temperatures as low as -12°C, which is the lowest temperature reported to induce RCH. Remarkably, as little as 15 min at -5°C significantly enhanced larval cold tolerance. Not only is protection from RCH acquired swiftly, but it is also quickly lost after thawing for 2 h at 2°C. Because the primary difference between frozen and supercooled larvae is cellular dehydration caused by freeze concentration of body fluids, we also compared the effects of acclimation in dehydrated versus frozen larvae. Because slow dehydration without chilling significantly increased larval survival to a subsequent cold exposure, we hypothesize that cellular dehydration caused by freeze concentration promotes the rapid acquisition of cold tolerance in frozen larvae.

  10. Testing of Frank's hypothesis on a containerless packing of macroscopic soft spheres and comparison with mono-atomic metallic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, K.K.; Wessels, V.; Kelton, K.F.; Loeffler, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Testing of Frank's hypothesis for Centripetal Packing (CP) has been proposed. → It is shown that CP is an idealized model for Monatomic Supercooled Liquid (MSL). → The CP is fit for comparing with studies on MSL in a containerless environment. → We measure local orders in CP by HA and BOO methods for the first time. → It is shown that icosahedral order is greater in CP than MSL and reasons explored. - Abstract: It is well-known that metallic liquids can exist below their equilibrium melting temperature for a considerable time. To explain this, Frank proposed that icosahedral ordering, incompatible with crystalline long-range order, is prevalent in the atomic structure of these liquids, stabilizing them and enabling them to be supercooled. Some studies of the atomic structures of metallic liquids using Beam-line Electrostatic Levitation (BESL; containerless melting), and other techniques, support this hypothesis . Here we examine Frank's hypothesis in a system of macroscopic, monodisperse deformable spheres obtained by containerless packing under the influence of centripetal force. The local structure of this packing is analyzed and compared with atomic ensembles of liquid transition metals obtained by containerless melting using the BESL method.

  11. Extended Smoluchowski models for interpreting relaxation phenomena in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polimeno, A.; Frezzato, D.; Saielli, G.; Moro, G.J.; Nordio, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Interpretation of the dynamical behaviour of single molecules or collective modes in liquids has been increasingly centered, in the last decade, on complex liquid systems, including ionic solutions, polymeric liquids, supercooled fluids and liquid crystals. This has been made necessary by the need of interpreting dynamical data obtained by advanced experiments, like optical Kerr effect, time dependent fluorescence shift experiments, two-dimensional Fourier-transform and high field electron spin resonance and scattering experiments like quasi-elastic neutron scattering. This communication is centered on the definition, treatment and application of several extended stochastic models, which have proved to be very effective tools for interpreting and rationalizing complex relaxation phenomena in liquids structures. First, applications of standard Fokker-Planck equations for the orientational relaxation of molecules in isotropic and ordered liquid phase are reviewed. In particular attention will be focused on the interpretation of neutron scattering in nematics. Next, an extended stochastic model is used to interpret time-domain resolved fluorescence emission experiments. A two-body stochastic model allows the theoretical interpretation of dynamical Stokes shift effects in fluorescence emission spectra, performed on probes in isotropic and ordered polar phases. Finally, for the case of isotropic fluids made of small rigid molecules, a very detailed model is considered, which includes as basic ingredients a Fokker-Planck description of the molecular vibrational motion and the slow diffusive motion of a persistent cage structure together with the decay processes related to the changing structure of the cage. (author)

  12. Influence of pressure on the structural properties of liquid D{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellissent-Funel, M.C.

    1994-12-31

    Results about the structure of liquid water under pressure and using neutron diffraction are presented. The structural data are compared with that of low density amorphous ice (LDA) and of high density amorphous ice (HDA). The low density amorphous ice which is well accounted for a continuous random network model appears as the limit of deeply supercooled water while the high density amorphous ice which is a more disordered form of ice appears as the limit of water under high pressure and at high temperature. (author). 29 refs., 6 figs.

  13. The WeIzmann Supercooled Droplets Observation on a Microarray (WISDOM and application for ambient dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Reicher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The WeIzmann Supercooled Droplets Observation on Microarray (WISDOM is a new setup for studying ice nucleation in an array of monodisperse droplets for atmospheric implications. WISDOM combines microfluidics techniques for droplets production and a cryo-optic stage for observation and characterization of freezing events of individual droplets. This setup is designed to explore heterogeneous ice nucleation in the immersion freezing mode, down to the homogeneous freezing of water (235 K in various cooling rates (typically 0.1–10 K min−1. It can also be used for studying homogeneous freezing of aqueous solutions in colder temperatures. Frozen fraction, ice nucleation active surface site densities and freezing kinetics can be obtained from WISDOM measurements for hundreds of individual droplets in a single freezing experiment. Calibration experiments using eutectic solutions and previously studied materials are described. WISDOM also allows repeatable cycles of cooling and heating for the same array of droplets. This paper describes the WISDOM setup, its temperature calibration, validation experiments and measurement uncertainties. Finally, application of WISDOM to study the ice nucleating particle (INP properties of size-selected ambient Saharan dust particles is presented.

  14. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  15. Proteomic analysis of proteins expressing in regions of rat brain by a combination of SDS-PAGE with nano-liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maekawa Tsuyoshi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most biological functions controlled by the brain and their related disorders are closely associated with activation in specific regions of the brain. Neuroproteomics has been applied to the analysis of whole brain, and the general pattern of protein expression in all regions has been elucidated. However, the comprehensive proteome of each brain region remains unclear. Results In this study, we carried out comparative proteomics of six regions of the adult rat brain: thalamus, hippocampus, frontal cortex, parietal cortex, occipital cortex, and amygdala using semi-quantitative analysis by Mascot Score of the identified proteins. In order to identify efficiently the proteins that are present in the brain, the proteins were separated by a combination of SDS-PAGE on a C18 column-equipped nano-liquid chromatograph, and analyzed by quadrupole-time of flight-tandem-mass spectrometry. The proteomic data show 2,909 peptides in the rat brain, with more than 200 identified as region-abundant proteins by semi-quantitative analysis. The regions containing the identified proteins are membrane (20.0%, cytoplasm (19.5%, mitochondrion (17.1%, cytoskeleton (8.2%, nucleus (4.7%, extracellular region (3.3%, and other (18.0%. Of the identified proteins, the expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein, GABA transporter 3, Septin 5, heat shock protein 90, synaptotagmin, heat shock protein 70, and pyruvate kinase were confirmed by immunoblotting. We examined the distributions in rat brain of GABA transporter 3, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and heat shock protein 70 by immunohistochemistry, and found that the proteins are localized around the regions observed by proteomic analysis and immunoblotting. IPA analysis indicates that pathways closely related to the biological functions of each region may be activated in rat brain. Conclusions These observations indicate that proteomics in each region of adult rat brain may provide a novel way to

  16. Liquid Oxygen Propellant Densification Unit Ground Tested With a Large-Scale Flight-Weight Tank for the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    Propellant densification has been identified as a critical technology in the development of single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles. Technology to create supercooled high-density liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) is a key means to lowering launch vehicle costs. The densification of cryogenic propellants through subcooling allows 8 to 10 percent more propellant mass to be stored in a given unit volume, thereby improving the launch vehicle's overall performance. This allows for higher propellant mass fractions than would be possible with conventional normal boiling point cryogenic propellants, considering the normal boiling point of LO2 and LH2.

  17. Crossover integral equation theory for the liquid structure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Chen, H.C.

    1994-08-01

    The main purpose of this work is to report on a calculation that describes the role of the long-range bridge function [H. Iyetomi and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2434 (1982)] as applied to the study of structure of simple liquid metals. It was found here that this bridge function accounts pretty well for the major part of long-range interactions but is physically inadequate for describing the short-range part of liquid structure. To improve on the theory we have drawn attention to the crossover integral equation method which, in essence, amounts to adding to the above bridge function a short-range correction of bridge diagrams. The suggested crossover procedure has been tested for the case of liquid metal Cs. Remarkably good agreement with experiment was obtained confirming our conjecture that the crossover integral equation approach as stressed in this work is potentially an appropriate theory for an accurate study of liquid structure possibly for the supercooled liquid regime. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs

  18. Evolution of local atomic structure during solidification of Al2Au liquid: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, L.H.; Lou, H.B.; Wang, X.D.; Debela, T.T.; Cao, Q.P.; Zhang, D.X.; Wang, S.Y.; Wang, C.Z.; Jiang, J.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The local atomic structure evolution in Al 2 Au alloy during solidification from 2000 K to 400 K was studied by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and analyzed using the structure factor, pair correlation functions, bond angle distributions, the Honeycutt–Anderson (HA) index and Voronoi tessellation methods. It was found that the icosahedral-like clusters are negligible in the Al 2 Au stable liquid and supercooled liquid states, and the most abundant clusters are those having HA indices of 131 and 120 or Voronoi indices of 〈0, 4, 4, 0〉, 〈0, 3, 6, 0〉 and 〈0, 4, 4, 2〉 with coordination numbers of 8, 9 and 10, respectively. These clusters are similar to the local atomic structures in the CaF 2 -type Al 2 Au crystal, revealing the existence of structure heredity between liquid and crystalline phase in Al 2 Au alloy

  19. Evolution of local atomic structure during solidification of Al2Au liquid: An ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, L H; Lou, H B; Wang, X D; Debela, T T; Cao, Q P; Zhang, D X; Wang, S Y; Wang, C Z; Jiang, J Z

    2014-04-01

    The local atomic structure evolution in Al2Au alloy during solidification from 2000 K to 400 K was studied by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and analyzed using the structure factor, pair correlation functions, bond angle distributions, the Honeycutt-Anderson (HA) index and Voronoi tessellation methods. It was found that the icosahedral-like clusters are negligible in the Al2Au stable liquid and supercooled liquid states, and the most abundant clusters are those having HA indices of 131 and 120 or Voronoi indices of < 0,4,4,0 >, < 0,3, 6,0 > and < 0,4,4,2 > with coordination numbers of 8, 9 and 10, respectively. These clusters are similar to the local atomic structures in the CaF2-type Al2Au crystal, revealing the existence of structure heredity between liquid and crystalline phase in Al2Au alloy. (C) 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Linking structure to fragility in bulk metallic glass-forming liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Shuai; Stolpe, Moritz; Gross, Oliver; Gallino, Isabella; Hembree, William; Busch, Ralf; Evenson, Zach; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kruzic, Jamie J.

    2015-01-01

    Using in-situ synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that the structural evolution of various bulk metallic glass-forming liquids can be quantitatively connected to their viscosity behavior in the supercooled liquid near T g . The structural signature of fragility is identified as the temperature dependence of local dilatation on distinct key atomic length scales. A more fragile behavior results from a more pronounced thermally induced dilatation of the structure on a length scale of about 3 to 4 atomic diameters, coupled with shallower temperature dependence of structural changes in the nearest neighbor environment. These findings shed light on the structural origin of viscous slowdown during undercooling of bulk metallic glass-forming liquids and demonstrate the promise of predicting the properties of bulk metallic glasses from the atomic scale structure

  1. Linking structure to fragility in bulk metallic glass-forming liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shuai, E-mail: shuai.wei@asu.edu, E-mail: m.stolpe@mx.uni-saarland.de [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Saarland University, Campus C63, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Stolpe, Moritz, E-mail: shuai.wei@asu.edu, E-mail: m.stolpe@mx.uni-saarland.de; Gross, Oliver; Gallino, Isabella; Hembree, William; Busch, Ralf [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Saarland University, Campus C63, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Evenson, Zach [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Saarland University, Campus C63, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Institut für Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), 51170 Köln (Germany); Bednarcik, Jozef [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Kruzic, Jamie J. [Material Science, School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2015-05-04

    Using in-situ synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that the structural evolution of various bulk metallic glass-forming liquids can be quantitatively connected to their viscosity behavior in the supercooled liquid near T{sub g}. The structural signature of fragility is identified as the temperature dependence of local dilatation on distinct key atomic length scales. A more fragile behavior results from a more pronounced thermally induced dilatation of the structure on a length scale of about 3 to 4 atomic diameters, coupled with shallower temperature dependence of structural changes in the nearest neighbor environment. These findings shed light on the structural origin of viscous slowdown during undercooling of bulk metallic glass-forming liquids and demonstrate the promise of predicting the properties of bulk metallic glasses from the atomic scale structure.

  2. Crystal–liquid interfacial free energy and thermophysical properties of pure liquid Ti using electrostatic levitation: Hypercooling limit, specific heat, total hemispherical emissivity, density, and interfacial free energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geun Woo; Jeon, Sangho; Park, Cheolmin; Kang, Dong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermophysical properties of liquid Ti are obtained by electrostatic levitation. • How to measure the thermophysical properties is shown with non-contact method. • Hypercooling limit of liquid Ti guarantying homogeneous nucleation is 341 K. • Accurate ratio C p /ε T of the liquid Ti is obtained with weak temperature dependence. • Interfacial free energy of Ti is estimated with the thermophysical parameters. -- Abstract: Thermophysical properties of liquid Ti are measured by a newly developed electrostatic levitation. In this study, we measure a hypercooling limit (ΔT hyp ), specific heat (C p ), total hemispherical emissivity (ε T ), and density (ρ) of liquid Ti. The ΔT hyp of the liquid Ti is 341 K. The C p of the liquid Ti shows very weak temperature dependence during supercooling. The ε T and ρ of the liquid Ti are given by 0.329 and ρ(T) (g/cm 3 ) = (4.16 − 2.36) · 10 −4 (T − T m ). Finally, the interfacial free energy is estimated with the measured thermophysical parameters. The interfacial free energy is 0.164 J/m 2 , and Turnbull’s coefficient is 0.48

  3. Contribution of the Medical Radiology Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, to liquidation of radionuclide contamination aftereffects in the Kaluga Region that resulted from the Chernobyl power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, E.G.; Berdov, B.A.; Gorobets, V.F.; Tsyplyakovskaya, L.M.; Ivanov, V.K.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Pitkevich, V.A.; Omel'chenko, V.N.; Borovikova, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Specialists from the Medical Radiology Research Center, have been participating in liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident aftereffects since May-June, 1986. The basic trends of their work are mass dosimetric studies of the population of the contaminated areas, annual prophylactic check-ups of children and adolescents, pregnant and nursing women and other adults of high-risk groups (agricultural workers, patients with chronic diseases), development of recommendations for health and prophylactic measures in the districts under observation, treatment of patients from these regions, who are in need of a specialized care, at the clinic of the Center

  4. Time-resolved crystallization of deeply cooled liquid hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehnel, Matthias

    2014-02-15

    This thesis serves two main purposes: 1. The introduction of a novel experimental method to investigate phase change dynamics of supercooled liquids 2. First-time measurements for the crystallization behaviour for hydrogen isotopes under various conditions (1) The new method is established by the synergy of a liquid microjet of ∼ 5 μm diameter and a scattering technique with high spatial resolution, here linear Raman spectroscopy. Due to the high directional stability and the known velocity of the liquid filament, its traveling axis corresponds to a time axis static in space. Utilizing evaporative cooling in a vacuum environment, the propagating liquid cools down rapidly and eventually experiences a phase transition to the crystalline state. This temporal evolution is probed along the filament axis, ultimately resulting in a time resolution of 10 ns. The feasibility of this approach is proven successfully within the following experiments. (2) A main object of study are para-hydrogen liquid filaments. Raman spectra reveal a temperature gradient of the liquid across the filament. This behaviour can quantitatively be reconstructed by numerical simulations using a layered model and is rooted in the effectiveness of evaporative cooling on the surface and a finite thermal conductivity. The deepest supercoolings achieved are ∼ 30% below the melting point, at which the filament starts to solidify from the surface towards the core. With a crystal growth velocity extracted from the data the appropriate growth mechanism is identified. The crystal structure that initially forms is metastable and probably the result of Ostwald's rule of stages. Indications for a transition within the solid towards the stable equilibrium phase support this interpretation. The analog isotope ortho-deuterium is evidenced to behave qualitatively similar with quantitative differences being mass related. In further measurements, isotopic mixtures of para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium are

  5. Time-resolved crystallization of deeply cooled liquid hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnel, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    This thesis serves two main purposes: 1. The introduction of a novel experimental method to investigate phase change dynamics of supercooled liquids 2. First-time measurements for the crystallization behaviour for hydrogen isotopes under various conditions (1) The new method is established by the synergy of a liquid microjet of ∼ 5 μm diameter and a scattering technique with high spatial resolution, here linear Raman spectroscopy. Due to the high directional stability and the known velocity of the liquid filament, its traveling axis corresponds to a time axis static in space. Utilizing evaporative cooling in a vacuum environment, the propagating liquid cools down rapidly and eventually experiences a phase transition to the crystalline state. This temporal evolution is probed along the filament axis, ultimately resulting in a time resolution of 10 ns. The feasibility of this approach is proven successfully within the following experiments. (2) A main object of study are para-hydrogen liquid filaments. Raman spectra reveal a temperature gradient of the liquid across the filament. This behaviour can quantitatively be reconstructed by numerical simulations using a layered model and is rooted in the effectiveness of evaporative cooling on the surface and a finite thermal conductivity. The deepest supercoolings achieved are ∼ 30% below the melting point, at which the filament starts to solidify from the surface towards the core. With a crystal growth velocity extracted from the data the appropriate growth mechanism is identified. The crystal structure that initially forms is metastable and probably the result of Ostwald's rule of stages. Indications for a transition within the solid towards the stable equilibrium phase support this interpretation. The analog isotope ortho-deuterium is evidenced to behave qualitatively similar with quantitative differences being mass related. In further measurements, isotopic mixtures of para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium are

  6. Time-resolved crystallization of deeply cooled liquid hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehnel, Matthias

    2014-02-15

    This thesis serves two main purposes: 1. The introduction of a novel experimental method to investigate phase change dynamics of supercooled liquids 2. First-time measurements for the crystallization behaviour for hydrogen isotopes under various conditions (1) The new method is established by the synergy of a liquid microjet of ∼ 5 μm diameter and a scattering technique with high spatial resolution, here linear Raman spectroscopy. Due to the high directional stability and the known velocity of the liquid filament, its traveling axis corresponds to a time axis static in space. Utilizing evaporative cooling in a vacuum environment, the propagating liquid cools down rapidly and eventually experiences a phase transition to the crystalline state. This temporal evolution is probed along the filament axis, ultimately resulting in a time resolution of 10 ns. The feasibility of this approach is proven successfully within the following experiments. (2) A main object of study are para-hydrogen liquid filaments. Raman spectra reveal a temperature gradient of the liquid across the filament. This behaviour can quantitatively be reconstructed by numerical simulations using a layered model and is rooted in the effectiveness of evaporative cooling on the surface and a finite thermal conductivity. The deepest supercoolings achieved are ∼ 30% below the melting point, at which the filament starts to solidify from the surface towards the core. With a crystal growth velocity extracted from the data the appropriate growth mechanism is identified. The crystal structure that initially forms is metastable and probably the result of Ostwald's rule of stages. Indications for a transition within the solid towards the stable equilibrium phase support this interpretation. The analog isotope ortho-deuterium is evidenced to behave qualitatively similar with quantitative differences being mass related. In further measurements, isotopic mixtures of para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium are

  7. An integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to monitoring the effect of supercooling on lyophilization product and process parameters of model monoclonal antibody formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwe Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to control and monitor the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters of a lyophilization cycle. Two concentrations of a mAb formulation were used as models for lyophilization. ControLyo™ technology was applied to control the onset of ice nucleation, whereas tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was utilized as a noninvasive tool for the inline monitoring of the water vapor concentration and vapor flow velocity in the spool during primary drying. The instantaneous measurements were then used to determine the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters. Controlled nucleation resulted in uniform nucleation at lower degrees of supercooling for both formulations, higher sublimation rates, lower mass transfer resistance, lower product temperatures at the sublimation interface, and shorter primary drying times compared with the conventional shelf-ramped freezing. Controlled nucleation also resulted in lyophilized cakes with more elegant and porous structure with no visible collapse or shrinkage, lower specific surface area, and shorter reconstitution times compared with the uncontrolled nucleation. Uncontrolled nucleation however resulted in lyophilized cakes with relatively lower residual moisture contents compared with controlled nucleation. TDLAS proved to be an efficient tool to determine the endpoint of primary drying. There was good agreement between data obtained from TDLAS-based measurements and SMART™ technology. ControLyo™ technology and TDLAS showed great potential as PAT tools to achieve enhanced process monitoring and control during lyophilization cycles. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  9. Ice barriers promote supercooling and prevent frost injury in reproductive buds, flowers and fruits of alpine dwarf shrubs throughout the summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprian, Edith; Briceño, Verónica F; Wagner, Johanna; Neuner, Gilbert

    2014-10-01

    Over-wintering reproductive buds of many woody plants survive frost by supercooling. The bud tissues are isolated from acropetally advancing ice by the presence of ice barriers that restrict ice growth. Plants living in alpine environments also face the risk of ice formation in summer months. Little knowledge exists, how reproductive structures of woody alpine plants are protected from frost injury during episodic summer frosts. In order to address this question, frost resistance of three common dwarf shrubs, Calluna vulgaris , Empetrum hermaphroditum and Loiseleuria procumbens was measured and ice formation and propagation were monitored in twigs bearing reproductive shoots during various stages of reproductive development (bud, anthesis, and fruit) throughout the alpine summer. Results indicated that, in the investigated species, ice barriers were present at all reproductive stages, isolating the reproductive shoots from ice advancing from the subtending vegetative shoot. Additionally, in the reproductive stems ice nucleating agents that are active at warm, sub-zero temperatures, were absent. The ice barriers were 100% effective, with the exception of L. procumbens , where in 13% of the total observations, the ice barrier failed. The ice barriers were localized at the base of the pedicel, at the anatomical junction of the vegetative and reproductive shoot. There, structural aspects of the tissue impede or prevent ice from advancing from the frozen stem into the pedicel of the reproductive shoot. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, ice nucleation initially occurred in the stem of the vegetative shoot at species-specific mean temperatures in the range of -4.7 to -5.8 °C. Reproductive shoots, however, remained supercooled and ice free down to a range of -7.2 to -18.2 °C or even below -22 °C, the lowest temperature applied in the study. This level of supercooling is sufficient to prevent freezing of reproductive structures at the lowest air

  10. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  11. [Dynamics of pleural liquid in hydrothorax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Iwaskai, Y; Gotoh, T; Hiramori, N; Fujii, T; Sakai, M; Nakagaki, Y; Arimoto, T; Mizobuchi, K; Hashikura, H

    1994-12-01

    The basics of pleural liquid dynamics are summarized. The normal pleural cavity contains a small amount of pleural liquid (0.1-0.3 ml/kg). Its protein concentration is about 1.0 g/dl and its pH is 7.6. The normal flow of pleural liquid is gravity dependent, and pleural liquid flows from the costal to the mediastinal region. In experimental hydrothorax, the pleural liquid was removed mainly via lymphatics. The turnover of the pleural liquid is rapid, and it depends on the area of contact between pleural liquid and pleural and on the blood flow to the pleura.

  12. Subsidizing Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinova, Katya; Park, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    the breakdown of trading fees between liquidity demanders and suppliers matters. Posted quotes adjust after the change in fee composition, but the transaction costs for liquidity demanders remain unaffected once fees are taken into account. However, as posted bid-ask spreads decline, traders (particularly......Facing increased competition over the last decade, many stock exchanges changed their trading fees to maker-taker pricing, an incentive scheme that rewards liquidity suppliers and charges liquidity demanders. Using a change in trading fees on the Toronto Stock Exchange, we study whether and why...... retail) use aggressive orders more frequently, and adverse selection costs decrease....

  13. Liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, K.

    1981-01-01

    An improved liquid crystal display device is described which can display letters, numerals and other necessary patterns in the night time using a minimized amount of radioactive material. To achieve this a self-luminous light source is placed in a limited region corresponding to a specific display area. (U.K.)

  14. Evidence for radical anion formation during liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of oligonucleotides and synthetic oligomeric analogues: a deconvolution algorithm for molecular ion region clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, J A; Arbogast, B; Deinzer, M L

    1989-10-01

    It is shown that one-electron reduction is a common process that occurs in negative ion liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (LSIMS) of oligonucleotides and synthetic oligonucleosides and that this process is in competition with proton loss. Deconvolution of the molecular anion cluster reveals contributions from (M-2H).-, (M-H)-, M.-, and (M + H)-. A model based on these ionic species gives excellent agreement with the experimental data. A correlation between the concentration of species arising via one-electron reduction [M.- and (M + H)-] and the electron affinity of the matrix has been demonstrated. The relative intensity of M.- is mass-dependent; this is rationalized on the basis of base-stacking. Base sequence ion formation is theorized to arise from M.- radical anion among other possible pathways.

  15. Liquidity Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matta, R.; Perotti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Can the risk of losses upon premature liquidation produce bank runs? We show how a unique run equilibrium driven by asset liquidity risk arises even under minimal fundamental risk. To study the role of illiquidity we introduce realistic norms on bank default, such that mandatory stay is triggered

  16. Substrate and surfactant effects on the glass-liquid transition of thin water films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2006-09-07

    Temperature-programmed time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TP-TOF-SIMS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) have been used to perform a detailed investigation of the adsorption, desorption, and glass-liquid transition of water on the graphite and Ni(111) surfaces in the temperature range 13-200 K. Water wets the graphite surface at 100-120 K, and the hydrogen-bonded network is formed preferentially in the first monolayer to reduce the number of nonbonding hydrogens. The strongly chemisorbed water molecules at the Ni(111) surface do not form such a network and play a role in stabilizing the film morphology up to 160 K, where dewetting occurs abruptly irrespective of the film thickness. The surface structure of the water film formed on graphite is fluctuated considerably, resulting in deweting at 150-160 K depending on the film thickness. The dewetted patches of graphite are molecularly clean, whereas the chemisorbed water remains on the Ni(111) surface even after evaporation of the film. The abrupt drop in the desorption rate of water molecules at 160 K, which has been attributed to crystallization in the previous TPD studies, is found to disappear completely when a monolayer of methanol is present on the surface. This is because the morphology of supercooled liquid water is changed by the surface tension, and it is quenched by termination of the free OH groups on the surface. The surfactant methanol desorbs above 160 K since the hydrogen bonds of the water molecules are reconstructed. The drastic change in the properties of supercooled liquid water at 160 K should be ascribed to the liquid-liquid phase transition.

  17. Managing liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokutta, Sebastian; Schmaltz, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de......-)centralization. We provide an analytical solution for the 2-branch model and show that a liquidity center can be interpreted as an option on immediate liquidity. Therefore, its value can be interpreted as the price of information, i.e., the price of knowing the exact demand. Furthermore, we derive the threshold...... above which it is advantageous to open a liquidity center and show that it is a function of the volatility and the characteristic of the bank network. Finally, we discuss the n-branch model for real-world banking groups (10-60 branches) and show that it can be solved with high granularity (100 scenarios...

  18. Pressure gradient of a two-region solid-liquid flow in horizontal wells; Gradiente de presion de un flujo bifasico solido-liquido de dos regiones en pozos horizontales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar Mendoza, R.; Garcia Gutierrez, A. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (CENIDET), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Espinosa Paredes, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for the problem of cutting transport in a two-region, slurry-flow system in horizontal pipes, with a stationary bed of drill cuttings as a porous medium (w-region) below a two-phase dispersed flow (n-region). Volume averaging was applied to derive a rigorous mathematical model where each variable is precisely defined. The model includes volume-averaged transport equations for both the two-phase dispersed flow and the porous-medium regions, and terms from a macroscopic forces balance. The solution of the two-region model allowed evaluation of the behavior of the pressure gradient as a function of velocity, total volume fraction of cuttings, and the relationship between the height of the stationary bed and pipe diameter. It is based on a backward, finite-difference explicit scheme. The simulated physical system is a pipe diameter. It is based on a backward, finite-difference explicit scheme. The simulated physical system is a pipe of 4.135 m in horizontal length and 0.0508 m in diameter. A one dimensional, mesh-centered grid is used, consisting of 10 nodes. The numerical results were compared with experimental data on slurry flows and a good agreement was found. [Spanish] Se presenta un analisis teorico del problema de transporte de recortes de perforacion en pozos horizontales. Se estudia el flujo bifasico solido-liquido en dos regiones donde la region inferior es un lecho estacionario de recortes, considerado como medio poroso, mientras que la region superior es un flujo bifasico disperso solido-liquido. Se aplica el metodo de promediado en volumen para derivar de manera matematicamente rigurosa el modelo de dos regiones. El modelo incluye las ecuaciones de transporte promediadas en volumen para cada region y terminos que resultan de un balance de fuerzas macroscopico. La solucion del modelo permite evaluar el comportamiento del gradiente de presion como funcion de la velocidad, la fraccion de volumen de recortes total y la

  19. Growth of VO2 Nano wires from Supercooled Liquid Nano droplets and E-beam Irradiation for Ultra-sensitive sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Ji Won; Baik, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2011-01-01

    Vanadium dioxide is an interesting material on account of its easily accessible and sharp Mott metal-insulator transition at ∼ 68 .deg. C in the bulk, which is of great interest in sensing and catalytic applications. In this Paper, we describe the synthesis and properties of VO 2 nano wires as novel catalytic and gas sensor materials based on electron beam irradiation. High yields of single crystalline VO 2 nano wires are synthesized by atmospheric-pressure, physical vapor deposition using V 2 O 5 layer. Pd-decorated VO 2 nano wire sensors show extraordinary sensitivity towards hydrogen, an almost 3 order-of-magnitude increase in the current through the nano wire. By the Eb irradiation, the conductance of the nano wires significantly increased up to 5 times, reducing the response time by half and the operating temperature. The metal nanoparticles-VO 2 nano wire system will be very promising for high-sensitivity and high-selectivity under low temperature less than 100. deg. C

  20. Using Long-Term Satellite Observations to Identify Sensitive Regimes and Active Regions of Aerosol Indirect Effects for Liquid Clouds Over Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuepeng; Liu, Yangang; Yu, Fangquan; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2018-01-01

    Long-term (1981-2011) satellite climate data records of clouds and aerosols are used to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction of marine water cloud from a climatology perspective. Our focus is on identifying the regimes and regions where the aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) are evident in long-term averages over the global oceans through analyzing the correlation features between aerosol loading and the key cloud variables including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER), cloud optical depth (COD), cloud water path (CWP), cloud top height (CTH), and cloud top temperature (CTT). An aerosol optical thickness (AOT) range of 0.13 change of long-term averaged CDER appears only in limited oceanic regions. The signature of aerosol invigoration of water clouds as revealed by the increase of cloud cover fraction (CCF) and CTH with increasing AOT at the middle/high latitudes of both hemispheres is identified for a pristine atmosphere (AOT polluted marine atmosphere (AOT > 0.3) in the tropical convergence zones. The regions where the second AIE is likely to manifest in the CCF change are limited to several oceanic areas with high CCF of the warm water clouds near the western coasts of continents. The second AIE signature as represented by the reduction of the precipitation efficiency with increasing AOT is more likely to be observed in the AOT regime of 0.08 < AOT < 0.4. The corresponding AIE active regions manifested themselves as the decline of the precipitation efficiency are mainly limited to the oceanic areas downwind of continental aerosols. The sensitive regime of the conventional AIE identified in this observational study is likely associated with the transitional regime from the aerosol-limited regime to the updraft-limited regime identified for aerosol-cloud interaction in cloud model simulations.

  1. Structural features and the microscopic dynamics of the three-component Zr{sub 47}Cu{sub 46}Al{sub 7} system: Equilibrium melt, supercooled melt, and amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khusnutdinoff, R. M., E-mail: khrm@mail.ru; Mokshin, A. V., E-mail: anatolii.mokshin@mail.ru [Kazan Federal University (Russian Federation); Klumov, B. A.; Ryltsev, R. E.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The structural and dynamic properties of the three-component Zr{sub 47}Cu{sub 46}Al{sub 7} system are subjected to a molecular dynamics simulation in the temperature range T = 250–3000 K at a pressure p = 1.0 bar. The temperature dependences of the Wendt–Abraham parameter and the translation order parameter are used to determine the glass transition temperature in the Zr{sub 47}Cu{sub 46}Al{sub 7} system, which is found to be T{sub c} ≈ 750 K. It is found that the bulk amorphous Zr{sub 47}Cu{sub 46}Al{sub 7} alloy contains localized regions with an ordered atomic structures. Cluster analysis of configuration simulation data reveals the existence of quasi-icosahedral clusters in amorphous metallic Zr–Cu–Al alloys. The spectral densities of time radial distribution functions of the longitudinal (C̃{sub L}(k, ω)) and transverse (C̃{sub T}(k, ω)) fluxes are calculated in a wide wavenumber range in order to study the mechanisms of formation of atomic collective excitations in the Zr{sub 47}Cu{sub 46}Al{sub 7} system. It was found that a linear combination of three Gaussian functions is sufficient to reproduce the (C̃{sub L}(k, ω)) spectra, whereas at least four Gaussian contributions are necessary to exactly describe the (C̃{sub T}(k, ω)) spectra of the supercooled melt and the amorphous metallic alloy. It is shown that the collective atomic excitations in the equilibrium melt at T = 3000 K and in the amorphous metallic alloy at T = 250 K are characterized by two dispersion acoustic-like branches related with longitudinal and transverse polarizations.

  2. Effect of realgar on extracellular amino acid neurotransmitters in hippocampal CA1 region determined by online microdialysis–dansyl chloride derivatization–high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Taoguang; Zhang, Yinghua; Li, Weikai; Yang, Huilei; Jiang, Hong; Sun, Guifan

    2014-09-01

    An online microdialysis (MD)–dansyl chloride (Dns) derivatization–high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence detection (FD) system was developed for simultaneous determination of eight extracellular amino acid neurotransmitters in hippocampus. The MD probe was implanted in hippocampal CA1 region. Dialysate and Dns were online mixed and derivatized. The derivatives were separated on an ODS column and detected by FD. The developed online system showed good linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery. This online MD-HPLC system was applied to monitor amino acid neurotransmitters levels in rats exposed to realgar (0.3, 0.9 and 2.7 g/kg body weight). The result shows that glutamate concentrations were significantly increased (p<0.05) in hippocampal CA1 region of rats exposed to three doses of realgar. A decrease in γ-aminobutyric acid concentrations was found in rats exposed to medium and high doses of realgar (p<0.05). Elevation of excitotoxic index (EI) values in hippocampal CA1 region of realgar-exposed rats was observed (p<0.05). Positive correlation was found between EI values and arsenic contents in hippocampus of realgar-exposed rats, which indicates that the change in extracellular EI values is associated with arsenic accumulation in hippocampus. The developed online MD–Dns derivatization–HPLC–FD system provides a new experimental method for studying the effect of toxic Chinese medicines on amino acid neurotransmitters.

  3. Bond particle model for semiconductor melts and its application to liquid structure germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, A.; Tosi, M.P.

    1988-08-01

    A simple type of liquid state model is proposed to describe on a primitive level the melt of an elemental group IV semiconductor as a mixture of atoms and bond particles. The latter, on increase of a coupling strength parameter becomes increasingly localized between pairs of atoms up to local tetrahedral coordination of atoms by bond particles. Angular interatomic correlations are built into the model as bond particle localization grows, even though the bare interactions between the components of the liquid are formally described solely in terms of central pair potentials. The model is solved for liquid structure by standard integral equation techniques of liquid state theory and by Monte Carlo simulation, for values of the parameters which are appropriate to liquid germanium down to strongly supercooled states. The calculated liquid structure is compared with the results of diffraction experiments on liquid germanium near freezing and discussed in relation to diffraction data on amorphous germanium. The model suggests simple melting criteria for elemental and polar semiconductors, which are empirically verified. (author). 25 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Simultaneous Synchrotron WAXD and Fast Scanning (Chip) Calorimetry: On the (Isothermal) Crystallization of HDPE and PA11 at High Supercoolings and Cooling Rates up to 200 °C s(-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Dorien; Mathot, Vincent B F; Pijpers, Thijs F J; Verkinderen, Olivier; Portale, Giuseppe; Van Puyvelde, Peter; Goderis, Bart

    2015-06-01

    An experimental setup, making use of a Flash DSC 1 prototype, is presented in which materials can be studied simultaneously by fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) and synchrotron wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Accumulation of multiple, identical measurements results in high quality, millisecond WAXD patterns. Patterns at every degree during the crystallization and melting of high density polyethylene at FSC typical scanning rates from 20 up to 200 °C s(-1) are discussed in terms of the temperature and scanning rate dependent material crystallinities and crystal densities. Interestingly, the combined approach reveals FSC thermal lag issues, for which can be corrected. For polyamide 11, isothermal solidification at high supercooling yields a mesomorphic phase in less than a second, whereas at very low supercooling crystals are obtained. At intermediate supercooling, mixtures of mesomorphic and crystalline material are generated at a ratio proportional to the supercooling. This ratio is constant over the isothermal solidification time. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  6. Collective excitations in liquid and glassy 3-methylpentane

    KAUST Repository

    Benassi, Paola

    2015-09-28

    We present a detailed investigation of the terahertz vibrational dynamics of 3-methylpentane performed by means of high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS). We probe the dynamics in a large temperature range, which includes the glass, the supercooled liquid, and the liquid phases. The characteristic frequency of the excitations follows a well-defined dispersion curve extending beyond 8nm−1 at all the investigated temperatures, indicating the persistence of a solidlike behavior also in the liquid phase. This implies the existence of a pseudo-Brillouin zone whose size compares surprisingly well with the periodicity inferred from the first sharp diffraction peak in the static structure factor. We show that, in the investigated temperature range, both sizes undergo a variation of about 15%–20%, comparable to that of the average intermolecular distance. We finally show that the IXS sound velocity coincides with the infinite frequency sound velocity previously inferred from visible and ultraviolet Brillouin spectroscopy data. This analysis confirms the role of the shear relaxation processes in determining the variation with frequency of the apparent sound velocity.

  7. Collective excitations in liquid and glassy 3-methylpentane

    KAUST Repository

    Benassi, Paola; Nardone, Michele; Giugni, Andrea; Baldi, Giacomo; Fontana, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the terahertz vibrational dynamics of 3-methylpentane performed by means of high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS). We probe the dynamics in a large temperature range, which includes the glass, the supercooled liquid, and the liquid phases. The characteristic frequency of the excitations follows a well-defined dispersion curve extending beyond 8nm−1 at all the investigated temperatures, indicating the persistence of a solidlike behavior also in the liquid phase. This implies the existence of a pseudo-Brillouin zone whose size compares surprisingly well with the periodicity inferred from the first sharp diffraction peak in the static structure factor. We show that, in the investigated temperature range, both sizes undergo a variation of about 15%–20%, comparable to that of the average intermolecular distance. We finally show that the IXS sound velocity coincides with the infinite frequency sound velocity previously inferred from visible and ultraviolet Brillouin spectroscopy data. This analysis confirms the role of the shear relaxation processes in determining the variation with frequency of the apparent sound velocity.

  8. Optimal Liquidation under Stochastic Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Becherer, Dirk; Bilarev, Todor; Frentrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We solve explicitly a two-dimensional singular control problem of finite fuel type for infinite time horizon. The problem stems from the optimal liquidation of an asset position in a financial market with multiplicative and transient price impact. Liquidity is stochastic in that the volume effect process, which determines the inter-temporal resilience of the market in spirit of Predoiu, Shaikhet and Shreve (2011), is taken to be stochastic, being driven by own random noise. The optimal contro...

  9. 40Ar/39Ar age of the Rotoiti Breccia and Rotoehu Ash, Okataina Volcanic Complex, New Zealand, and identification of heterogeneously distributed excess 40Ar in supercooled crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flude, Stephanie; Storey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Co-magmatic granitoid clasts erupted as part of the Rotoiti Ignimbrite (Rotoehu Tephra) contain euhedral K-feldspar and biotite crystals that protrude into miarolytic cavities and show textural evidence for growth in super-cooled conditions and are thus interpreted as growing during eruption. 40Ar...... that appear to be largely unaffected by excess 40Ar. This population gives a statistically robust weighted mean age of 47.4 ± 1.5 ka (1σ, n = 13) and an indistinguishable inverse isochron age of 50 ± 3 ka for this historically difficult to date eruption. The weighted mean age is significantly younger than...... previous age estimates of the Rotoiti eruption obtained by K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating of bracketing lavas, but is indistinguishable from recent 14C and (U–Th)/He dates and estimates based on orbital tuning and sedimentation rates constrained by 14C ages....

  10. Orientation disruption of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera in maize by a liquid MCA formulation released from paper squares in the Banat region of Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Baca, F I; Erski, P

    2003-01-01

    Serbia-Montenegro, formerly the Republic of Yugoslavia, is the first European Country where Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte (Col.: Chrysomelidae) (D.v.v.) was reported in 1992 as an invasive alien pest species, Baca (1993), Camprag and Baca, (1995): From a focal point near Belgrade airport, the maize pest quickly spread in all directions reaching the economic threshold in a number of surrounding countries around 1995. The field experiments described took place in the Banat region east of Belgrade in July of 2002. The plant kairomone mimic 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde (MCA) dissolved in acetone was slowly volatilized from paper squares. It permeated a maize field of known D.v.v. history of 0.5 ha size 3 km north of the village of Crepaja. With release rates of 266 g/ha, max. orientation disruption levels of 55% were achieved. The total amount of MCA was distributed in two manual applications. Readings of orientation levels were continued for eleven days during the latter part of July and into early August of 2002.

  11. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  12. Liquidity risk and contagion for liquid funds

    OpenAIRE

    Darolles , Serge; Dudek , Jeremy; Le Fol , Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    Fund managers face liquidity problems but they have to distinguish the market liquidity risk implied by their assets and the funding liquidity risk. This latter is due to both the liquidity mismatch between assets and liabilities and the redemption risk due to the possible outflows from clients. The main contribution of this paper is the analysis of contagion looking at common market liquidity problems to detect funding liquidity problems. Using the CDS Bond Spread basis as a liquidity indica...

  13. Hidden Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Cebiroglu, Gökhan; Horst, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stock’s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, hi...

  14. Liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported.

  15. Liquid Marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Kareem

    2012-12-01

    Granulation, the process of formation of granules from a combination of base powders and binder liquids, has been a subject of research for almost 50 years, studied extensively for its vast applications, primarily to the pharmaceutical industry sector. The principal aim of granulation is to form granules comprised of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API’s), which have more desirable handling and flowability properties than raw powders. It is also essential to ensure an even distribution of active ingredients within a tablet with the goal of achieving time‐controlled release of drugs. Due to the product‐specific nature of the industry, however, data is largely empirical [1]. For example, the raw powders used can vary in size by two orders of magnitude with narrow or broad size distributions. The physical properties of the binder liquids can also vary significantly depending on the powder properties and required granule size. Some significant progress has been made to better our understanding of the overall granulation process [1] and it is widely accepted that the initial nucleation / wetting stage, when the binder liquid first wets the powders, is key to the whole process. As such, many experimental studies have been conducted in attempt to elucidate the physics of this first stage [1], with two main mechanisms being observed – classified by Ivenson [1] as the “Traditional description” and the “Modern Approach”. See Figure 1 for a graphical definition of these two mechanisms. Recent studies have focused on the latter approach [1] and a new, exciting development in this field is the Liquid Marble. This interesting formation occurs when a liquid droplet interacts with a hydrophobic (or superhydrophobic) powder. The droplet can become encased in the powder, which essentially provides a protective “shell” or “jacket” for the liquid inside [2]. The liquid inside is then isolated from contact with other solids or liquids and has some

  16. Determination of Fragility in Organic Small Molecular Glass Forming Liquids: Comparison of Calorimetric and Spectroscopic Data and Commentary on Pharmaceutical Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Paroma; Pandya, Keyur; Nagapudi, Karthik

    2018-03-05

    The fragility index ( m) and conversely the strength parameter ( D) are widely used to categorize glass forming liquids and are used to characterize temperature dependency of viscosity and relaxation time as the supercooled liquid approaches glass transition. The currently used calorimetric methods in pharmaceutical literature lead to wide variability in measured values of m. In this work, a modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method is introduced that can directly determine m with minimal variability. Although calorimetric fragility is easy to measure due to availability and ease of use of DSC, there is no correlation between calorimetric and dielectric fragility (calculated spectroscopically from relaxation times). In addition, there is also no correlation between calorimetric fragility and the so-called "thermodynamic fragility" that can be calculated using only thermodynamic parameters. No relationship can be found between the crystallization propensity in the supercooled liquid state and D. However, the crystallization propensity shows a reasonable correlation with the Kohlrausch distribution parameter β k , which defines the breadth of the relaxation time distribution.

  17. Liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, K R

    1959-01-01

    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  18. Evolution of short range order in Ar: Liquid to glass and solid transitions-A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Stanislav; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy

    2018-04-01

    The evolution of the short range order (SRO) as a function of temperature in a Lennard-Jones model liquid with Ar parameters was determined and juxtaposed with thermodynamic and kinetic properties obtained as the liquid was cooled (heated) and transformed between crystalline solid or glassy states and an undercooled liquid. The Lennard-Jones system was studied by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of large supercells (approximately 20000 atoms) rapidly cooled or heated at selected quenching rates and at constant pressure. The liquid to solid transition was identified by discontinuities in the atomic volume and molar enthalpy; the glass transition temperature range was identified from the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion. The SRO was studied within the quasi-crystalline model (QCM) framework and compared with the Steinhardt bond order parameters. Within the QCM it was found that the SRO evolves from a bcc-like order in the liquid through a bct-like short range order (c/a=1.2) in the supercooled liquid which persists into the glass and finally to a fcc-like ordering in the crystalline solid. The variation of the SRO that results from the QCM compares well with that obtained with Steinhardt's bond order parameters. The hypothesis of icosahedral order in liquids and glasses is not supported by our results.

  19. Temperature-induced structural changes in fluorozirconate glasses and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Youngman, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The atomic structure and its temperature dependence in fluorozirconate glasses and supercooled liquids have been studied with high-resolution and high-temperature 19 F and 23 Na nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The 19 F NMR spectra in these glasses show the presence of multiple F environments. Temperature dependence of the 19 F magic-angle-spinning NMR spectra indicates a progressive change in the average F coordination environment in the glass structure, besides motional narrowing due to substantial mobility of F - ions. The observed change in the average 19 F NMR chemical shift is consistent with progressive breaking of the Zr-F-Zr linkages in the glass structure with increasing temperature. The onset of such a change in F speciation is observed at temperatures well below T g . This result is evidence of changes in the average equilibrium structure in an inorganic glass-forming liquid at T g , albeit on a local scale. The 23 Na NMR spectra indicate that the cations in these glasses become significantly mobile only at temperatures T≥T g , which allows for the onset of global structural relaxation and viscous flow

  20. Acoustic levitator for containerless measurements on low temperature liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benmore, Chris J [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Weber, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Rey, Charles A A [Charles Ray, Inc.

    2009-01-01

    A single-axis acoustic levitator was constructed and used to levitate liquid and solid drops at temperatures from -40 to +40 C. The levitator consisted of: (i) two acoustic transducers mounted on a rigid vertical support that was bolted to an optical breadboard, (ii) a acoustic power supply that controlled acoustic intensity, relative phase of the drive to the transducers, and could modulate the acoustic forces at frequencies up to 1kHz, (iii) a video camera, and (iv) a system for providing a stream of controlled temperature gas flow over the sample. The acoustic transducers were operated at their resonant frequency of ~ 22 kHz and could produce sound pressure levels up to 160 dB. The force applied by the acoustic field could be modulated using a frequency generator to excite oscillations in the sample. Sample temperature was controlled using a modified Cryostream Plus and measured using thermocouples and an infrared thermal imager. The levitator was installed at x-ray beamline 11 ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source and used to investigate the structure of supercooled liquids.

  1. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  2. In search of invariants for viscous liquids in the density scaling regime: investigations of dynamic and thermodynamic moduli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejowska, Agnieszka; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Paluch, Marian

    2017-07-19

    In this paper, we report the nontrivial results of our investigations of dynamic and thermodynamic moduli in search of invariants for viscous liquids in the density scaling regime by using selected supercooled van der Waals liquids as representative materials. Previously, the dynamic modulus M p-T (defined in the pressure-temperature representation by the ratio of isobaric activation energy and activation volume) as well as the ratio B T /M p-T (where B T is the thermodynamic modulus defined as the inverse isothermal compressibility) have been suggested as some kinds of material constants. We have established that they are not valid in the explored wide range of temperatures T over a dozen decades of structural relaxation times τ. The temperature dependences of M p-T and B T /M p-T have been elucidated by comparison with the well-known measure of the relative contribution of temperature and density fluctuations to molecular dynamics near the glass transition, i.e., the ratio of isochoric and isobaric activation energies. Then, we have implemented an idea to transform the definition of the dynamic modulus M p-T from the p-T representation to the V-T one. This idea relied on the disentanglement of combined temperature and density fluctuations involved in isobaric parameters and has resulted in finding an invariant for viscous liquids in the density scaling regime, which is the ratio of thermodynamic and dynamic moduli, B T /M V-T . In this way, we have constituted a characteristic of thermodynamics and molecular dynamics, which remains unchanged in the supercooled liquid state for a given material, the molecular dynamics of which obeys the power density scaling law.

  3. The potential influence of Asian and African mineral dust on ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiacek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This modelling study explores the availability of mineral dust particles as ice nuclei for interactions with ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds, also tracking the particles' history of cloud-processing. We performed 61 320 one-week forward trajectory calculations originating near the surface of major dust emitting regions in Africa and Asia using high-resolution meteorological analysis fields for the year 2007. Dust-bearing trajectories were assumed to be those coinciding with known dust emission seasons, without explicitly modelling dust emission and deposition processes. We found that dust emissions from Asian deserts lead to a higher potential for interactions with high ice clouds, despite being the climatologically much smaller dust emission source. This is due to Asian regions experiencing significantly more ascent than African regions, with strongest ascent in the Asian Taklimakan desert at ~25%, ~40% and 10% of trajectories ascending to 300 hPa in spring, summer and fall, respectively. The specific humidity at each trajectory's starting point was transported in a Lagrangian manner and relative humidities with respect to water and ice were calculated in 6-h steps downstream, allowing us to estimate the formation of liquid, mixed-phase and ice clouds. Downstream of the investigated dust sources, practically none of the simulated air parcels reached conditions of homogeneous ice nucleation (T≲−40 °C along trajectories that have not experienced water saturation first. By far the largest fraction of cloud forming trajectories entered conditions of mixed-phase clouds, where mineral dust will potentially exert the biggest influence. The majority of trajectories also passed through atmospheric regions supersaturated with respect to ice but subsaturated with respect to water, where so-called "warm ice clouds" (T≳−40 °C theoretically may form prior to supercooled water or mixed-phase clouds. The importance of "warm ice

  4. Liquid electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  5. Liquid diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The liquid diode is designed for a flowmeter chamber which has an inlet and an outlet duct, and a flow chamber with a cross-section which is greater than inlet. In the space between the inlet and outlet are two screens with a number of spheres, which may be of different sizes and weights. The screen on the inlet side is smaller than that at the outlet, so that the spheres are able to block the inlet under reverse flow conditions, but do not block the outlet. The system functions as a non-return valve. (G.C.)

  6. From Funding Liquidity to Market Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Lund, Jesper; Gyntelberg, Jacob

    This paper shows empirically that funding liquidity drives market liquidity. As it becomes harder to secure term funding in the money markets, liquidity deteriorates in the Danish bond market. We show that the first principal component of bond market liquidity is driven by the market makers...... for other European government bonds using MTS data. The findings suggest that regulatory bond based liquidity buffers for banks will have limited effectiveness....

  7. Levitation in paramagnetic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, P.A. [School of Physics and CRANN, Trinity Collge, Dublin 2 (Ireland)]. E-mail: pdunne2@tcd.ie; Hilton, J. [School of Physics and CRANN, Trinity Collge, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Coey, J.M.D. [School of Physics and CRANN, Trinity Collge, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2007-09-15

    Magnetic levitation of diamagnetic and paramagnetic substances in a paramagnetic liquid is explored. Materials ranging from graphite to tin and copper can be made to float at ambient temperature in concentrated solutions of dysprosium nitrate, when an electromagnet or four-block permanent magnet array is used to produce a gradient field. Simulations illustrate the stable regions for levitation above the permanent magnets; and a novel eight-block configuration is proposed, which allows denser materials such as gold or lead to be levitated.

  8. Levitation in paramagnetic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, P.A.; Hilton, J.; Coey, J.M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic levitation of diamagnetic and paramagnetic substances in a paramagnetic liquid is explored. Materials ranging from graphite to tin and copper can be made to float at ambient temperature in concentrated solutions of dysprosium nitrate, when an electromagnet or four-block permanent magnet array is used to produce a gradient field. Simulations illustrate the stable regions for levitation above the permanent magnets; and a novel eight-block configuration is proposed, which allows denser materials such as gold or lead to be levitated

  9. Design and functionality of a segmented heat-storage prototype utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate in a solar heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englmair, Gerald; Moser, Christoph; Furbo, Simon

    2018-01-01

    acetate trihydrate composites to conserve the latent heat of fusion for long-term heat storage. A control strategy directed heat from a solar collector array to either the PCM storage or a water buffer storage. Several PCM units had to be charged in parallel when the solar collector output peaked at 16 k......A solar heating system with 22.4m2 of solar collectors, a heat storage prototype consisting of four 200 kg phase-change material (PCM) storage units, and a 735 L water tank was designed to improve solar heat supply in single-family houses. The PCM storage utilized stable supercooling of sodium......W. A single unit was charged with 27.4 kWh of heat within four hours on a sunny day, and the PCM temperature increased from 20 °C to 80 °C. The sensible heat from a single PCM unit was transferred to the water tank starting with about 32 kW of thermal power after it had fully melted at 80 °C. A mechanical...

  10. Disappearance of squeezed back-to-back correlations: a new signal of hadron freeze-out from a supercooled quark gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csoergo, T. [MTA KFKI RMKI, Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: csorgo@sunserv.kfki.hu; Padula, Sandra S. [UNESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Teorica]. E-mail: padula@oft.unesp.br

    2007-09-15

    We briefly discuss four different possible types of transitions from quark to hadronic matter and their characteristic signatures in terms of correlations. We also highlight the effects arising from mass modification of hadrons in hot and dense hadronic matter, as well as their quantum statistical consequences: the appearance of squeezed quantum states and the associated experimental signatures, i.e., the back-to-back correlations of particle-antiparticle pairs. We briefly review the theoretical results of these squeezed quanta, generated by in-medium modified masses, starting from the first indication of the existence of surprising particle-antiparticle correlations, and ending by considering the effects of chiral dynamics on these correlation patterns. Nevertheless, a prerequisite for such a signature is the experimental verification of its observability. Therefore, the experimental observation of back-to-back correlations in high energy heavy ion reactions would be a unique signature, proving the existence of in-medium mass modification of hadronic states. On the other hand, their disappearance at some threshold centrality or collision energy would indicate that the hadron formation mechanism would have qualitatively changed: asymptotic hadrons above such a threshold are not formed from medium modified hadrons anymore, but rather by new degrees of freedom characterizing the medium. Furthermore, the disappearance of the squeezed BBC could also serve as a signature of a sudden, non-equilibrium hadronization scenario from a supercooled quark-gluon plasma phase. (author)

  11. Disappearance of squeezed back-to-back correlations: a new signal of hadron freeze-out from a supercooled quark gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoergo, T.; Padula, Sandra S.

    2007-01-01

    We briefly discuss four different possible types of transitions from quark to hadronic matter and their characteristic signatures in terms of correlations. We also highlight the effects arising from mass modification of hadrons in hot and dense hadronic matter, as well as their quantum statistical consequences: the appearance of squeezed quantum states and the associated experimental signatures, i.e., the back-to-back correlations of particle-antiparticle pairs. We briefly review the theoretical results of these squeezed quanta, generated by in-medium modified masses, starting from the first indication of the existence of surprising particle-antiparticle correlations, and ending by considering the effects of chiral dynamics on these correlation patterns. Nevertheless, a prerequisite for such a signature is the experimental verification of its observability. Therefore, the experimental observation of back-to-back correlations in high energy heavy ion reactions would be a unique signature, proving the existence of in-medium mass modification of hadronic states. On the other hand, their disappearance at some threshold centrality or collision energy would indicate that the hadron formation mechanism would have qualitatively changed: asymptotic hadrons above such a threshold are not formed from medium modified hadrons anymore, but rather by new degrees of freedom characterizing the medium. Furthermore, the disappearance of the squeezed BBC could also serve as a signature of a sudden, non-equilibrium hadronization scenario from a supercooled quark-gluon plasma phase. (author)

  12. Financial integration and liquidity crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castiglionesi, Fabio; Feriozzi, F.; Lorenzoni, G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of financial integration on the stability of the banking system. Financial integration allows banks in different regions to smooth local liquidity shocks by borrowing and lending on a common interbank market. We show under which conditions financial integration

  13. Aging of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation in the glass-forming liquids sorbitol and xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Leheny, Robert L.

    2006-06-01

    Employing frequency-dependent dielectric susceptibility we characterize the aging in two supercooled liquids, sorbitol and xylitol, below their calorimetric glass transition temperatures. In addition to the alpha relaxation that tracks the structural dynamics, the susceptibility of both liquids possesses a secondary Johari-Goldstein relaxation at higher frequencies. Following a quench through the glass transition, the susceptibility slowly approaches the equilibrium behavior. For both liquids, the magnitude of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation displays a dependence on the time since the quench, or aging time, that is quantitatively very similar to the age dependence of the alpha peak frequency. The Johari-Goldstein relaxation time remains constant during aging for sorbitol while it decreases slightly with age for xylitol. Hence, one cannot sensibly assign a fictive temperature to the Johari-Goldstein relaxation. This behavior contrasts with that of liquids lacking distinct Johari-Goldstein peaks for which the excess wing of the alpha peak tracks the main part of the peak during aging, enabling the assignment of a single fictive temperature to the entire spectrum. The aging behavior of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation time further calls into question the possibility that the relaxation time possesses stronger temperature dependence in equilibrium than is observed in the out-of-equilibrium state below the glass transition.

  14. Nonuniformities in organic liquid ionization calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    Hermeticity and uniformity in SSC calorimeter designs are compromised by structure and modularity. Some of the consequences of the cryogenic needs of liquid argon calorimetry are relatively well known. If the active medium is an organic liquid (TMP, TMS, etc.), a large number of independent liquid volumes is needed for safety and for rapid liquid exchange to eliminate local contamination. Modular construction ordinarily simplifies fabrication, assembly, handling and preliminary testing at the price of additional walls, other dead regions and many nonuniformities. Here we examine ways of minimizing the impact of some generic nonuniformities on the quality of calorimeter performance. 6 refs., 7 figs

  15. The Liquid State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    like iron, aluminium, lead, zinc, etc .. Metals are cast ... dropping molten liquid of the alloys on a rapidly spinning copper wheel. ... Ed. Computer simulation studies in ... liquids, modelling ofliquids and study of the dynamic behaviour of liquids ...

  16. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Cha, Dong Kyu; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a

  17. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy; Son, Leonid; Sabirzjanov, Alexandre

    2007-06-01

    and new materials; I) Quasicrystals; J) Industrial applications. The most representative sessions were E (53 reports), C (47), D (43) and F (40). All posters were exhibited during the first (sections A-E) or the last (sections F-J) three days of the conference. All the sessions took place in the Government House of Sverdlovsk Region where, in addition, everyone was able to enjoy dishes of Russian cuisine during lunches and coffee breaks. As usual, each oral session started from an invited talk. Therefore, 10 invited lecturers presented their reports. In accordance with contemporary tendency the first invited talk of M Yao (Kyoto University) was devoted to interrelations between liquid metal studies and nano-science. He pointed out that physics of disordered matter, especially liquid metals, has provided nano-science with basic ideas and theoretical tools such as ab initio MD simulation. K Tamura (Kyoto University) reported results of experimental investigation of expanded liquid rubidium showing that observed structural features originate from the instability of the low-density electron gas. Modern theory has predicted that interacting electron gas suffers a negative compressibility and the static dielectric-function (DF) becomes negative when electron density is sufficiently reduced. The negative DF is of special interest in connection with the possibility of a new type of superconductor. In the invited lecture of M I Mendelev and J R Morris (USA) MD simulations were performed to study phase transformations in supercooled liquid Al. The authors found that widely used EAM potential for Al provides vitrification for the cooling rates achievable in classical MD simulation, while other Al potentials provide crystallization under the same conditions. The reason for this difference, as well as features of the vitrification in the EA Al, were discussed. P Häussler (Chemnitz University) spoke about fundamental structure-forming processes in liquid and amorphous materials

  18. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of perfluorocarbons with fluorinated ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, S.; Araújo, J.M.M.; Rebelo, L.P.N.; Pereiro, A.B.; Marrucho, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • (Liquid + liquid) equilibria perfluorocarbons and fluorinated ionic liquids. • Non-Random Two Liquid model was successfully applied. • Thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated. -- Abstract: In order to evaluate the feasibility of partially replace perfluorocarbons (PFCs) with fluorinated ionic liquids (FILs) in PFCs-in-water emulsions, usually used for biomedical purposes, herein the (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of FILs containing fluorinated chains longer than four carbons with PFCs were carried out in a wide range of temperatures. With this goal in mind, two PFCs (perfluorooctane and perfluorodecalin) were selected and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the binary mixtures of these PFCs and FILs were studied at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range from T (293.15 to 343.15) K. For these studies, FILs containing ammonium, pyridinium and imidazolium cations and different anions with fluorocarbon alkyl chains between 4 and 8 were included. Additionally, Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) thermodynamic model was successfully applied to correlate the behaviour of the PFCs + FILs binary mixtures. Moreover, thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated from the experimental data

  19. Terahertz reflection spectroscopy of Debye relaxation in polar liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Cooke, David; Tanaka, Koichiro

    2009-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation interacts strongly with the intermolecular hydrogen-bond network in aqueous liquids. The dielectric properties of liquid water and aqueous solutions in the THz spectral region are closely linked to the microscopic dynamics of the liquid solution, and hence THz spectrosco...

  20. Simulations of the flipping images and microparameters of molecular orientations in liquids according to the molecule string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li-Na; Zhao Xing-Yu; Zhang Li-Li; Huang Yi-Neng

    2012-01-01

    The relaxation dynamics of liquids is one of the fundamental problems in liquid physics, and it is also one of the key issues to understand the glass transition mechanism. It will undoubtedly provide enlightenment on understanding and calculating the relaxation dynamics if the molecular orientation flipping images and relevant microparameters of liquids are studied. In this paper, we first give five microparameters to describe the individual molecular string (MS) relaxation based on the dynamical Hamiltonian of the MS model, and then simulate the images of individual MS ensemble, and at the same time calculate the parameters of the equilibrium state. The results show that the main molecular orientation flipping image in liquids (including supercooled liquid) is similar to the random walk. In addition, two pairs of the parameters are equal, and one can be ignored compared with the other. This conclusion will effectively reduce the difficulties in calculating the individual MS relaxation based on the single-molecule orientation flipping rate of the general Glauber type, and the computer simulation time of interaction MS relaxation. Moreover, the conclusion is of reference significance for solving and simulating the multi-state MS model. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  1. CASH AND LIQUIDITY/LIQUIDITY AND LIQUIDITY RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the correlation as well as the differences between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratio in terms of economic entities. Researches on this topic are based on the opinions of some specialists in accounting and in the economic-financial analysis, as well as on the national legal stipulations and the ones set out in the International Accounting Standards, the Financial report, respectively. The object of this paper is represented by the correlation between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratios representing the liquidity as current assets, assets implied in the determination of liquidity ratios. The end of the paper consists of the conclusions drawn from the issues presented in the paper but also our views on this research topic.

  2. Preparation of a liquid nitrogen target for measurement of γ-ray in the 14N(n,γ)15N reaction as an intensity standard in energy region up to 11 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, M.; Obayashi, H.; Sakane, H.; Shibata, M.; Kawade, K.; Taniguchi, A.

    2001-01-01

    For determination of relative γ-ray intensities up to 11 MeV in the 14 N(n,γ) 15 N reaction, we have developed a liquid nitrogen (N 2 ) target which contain no hydrogen (H) to improve the accuracy of γ-ray intensities. The ratio of the relative uncertainties for the liquid nitrogen to that for the melamine (C 3 H 6 N 6 ) widely used was improved by a factor of 2 above 2.2 MeV and a factor of 3 - 6 below 2.2 MeV. It has been shown that the liquid nitrogen target is useful for reduction of the 2.2 MeV γ-ray from the 1 H(n,γ) 2 H reaction and improvement of statistics. (author)

  3. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion

  4. Kinetics of iron redox reactions in silicate liquids: A high-temperature X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, V. [Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, CNRS-IPGP, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); CEA VALRHO Marcoule, SCDV, LEBV, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France); Neuville, D.R. [Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, CNRS-IPGP, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)]. E-mail: neuville@ipgp.jussieu.fr; Cormier, L. [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Universites Paris 6 and 7 and IPGP, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Roux, J. [Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, CNRS-IPGP, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Hazemann, J.-L. [Laboratoire de cristallographie, UPR 5031, CNRS, 38043 Grenoble (France); Pinet, O. [CEA VALRHO Marcoule, SCDV, LEBV, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France); Richet, P. [Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, CNRS-IPGP, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2006-06-30

    The oxidation kinetics of a Fe-bearing supercooled liquid of the system SiO{sub 2}-CaO-MgO-Na{sub 2}O-FeO has been determined near the glass transition range by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and Raman spectroscopies. Both techniques yield room-temperature iron redox ratios in accord with wet chemical, Moessbauer and electron microprobe analyses. Similar oxidation kinetics have also been observed with both methods. At constant temperature, the kinetics obey an exponential law with a characteristic time that follows an Arrhenian temperature dependence. As redox changes are too fast to be accounted for in terms of diffusion of either ionic or molecular oxygen, these results lend further support to the idea that the rate-limiting factor for oxidation near the glass transition is diffusion of network-modifying cations along with a flux of electron holes.

  5. Implied liquidity : towards stochastic liquidity modeling and liquidity trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corcuera, J.M.; Guillaume, F.M.Y.; Madan, D.B.; Schoutens, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implied (il)liquidity of vanilla options. Implied liquidity is based on the fundamental theory of conic finance, in which the one-price model is abandoned and replaced by a two-price model giving bid and ask prices for traded assets. The pricing is done by

  6. Accuracy and precision of polar lower stratospheric temperatures from reanalyses evaluated from A-Train CALIOP and MLS, COSMIC GPS RO, and the equilibrium thermodynamics of supercooled ternary solutions and ice clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Alyn; Santee, Michelle L.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the accuracy and precision of polar lower stratospheric temperatures (100-10 hPa during 2008-2013) reported in several contemporary reanalysis datasets comprising two versions of the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA and MERRA-2), the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-I), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (NCEP-CFSR). We also include the Goddard Earth Observing System model version 5.9.1 near-real-time analysis (GEOS-5.9.1). Comparisons of these datasets are made with respect to retrieved temperatures from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) temperatures, and independent absolute temperature references defined by the equilibrium thermodynamics of supercooled ternary solutions (STSs) and ice clouds. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations of polar stratospheric clouds are used to determine the cloud particle types within the Aura MLS geometric field of view. The thermodynamic calculations for STS and the ice frost point use the colocated MLS gas-phase measurements of HNO3 and H2O. The estimated bias and precision for the STS temperature reference, over the 68 to 21 hPa pressure range, are 0.6-1.5 and 0.3-0.6 K, respectively; for the ice temperature reference, they are 0.4 and 0.3 K, respectively. These uncertainties are smaller than those estimated for the retrieved MLS temperatures and also comparable to GPS RO uncertainties (bias 0.7 K) in the same pressure range. We examine a case study of the time-varying temperature structure associated with layered ice clouds formed by orographic gravity waves forced by flow over the Palmer Peninsula and

  7. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, D.D.

    A chromatographic system is described that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a nontransparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extreme low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  8. Correlation between relaxations and plastic deformation, and elastic model of flow in metallic glasses and glass-forming liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weihua

    2011-01-01

    We study the similarity and correlations between relaxations and plastic deformation in metallic glasses (MGs) and MG-forming liquids. It is shown that the microscope plastic events, the initiation and formation of shear bands, and the mechanical yield in MGs where the atomic sites are topologically unstable induced by applied stress, can be treated as the glass to supercooled liquid state transition induced by external shear stress. On the other hand, the glass transition, the primary and secondary relaxations, plastic deformation and yield can be attributed to the free volume increase induced flow, and the flow can be modeled as the activated hopping between the inherent states in the potential energy landscape. We then propose an extended elastic model to describe the flow based on the energy landscape theory. That is, the flow activation energy density is linear proportional to the instantaneous elastic moduli, and the activation energy density ρ E is determined to be a simple expression of ρ E =(10/11)G+(1/11)K. The model indicates that both shear and bulk moduli are critical parameters accounting for both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows in MGs and MG-forming liquids. The elastic model is experimentally certified. We show that the elastic perspectives offers a simple scenario for the flow in MGs and MG-forming liquids and are suggestive for understanding the glass transition, plastic deformation, and nature and characteristics of MGs

  9. Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacement of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely

  10. Liquid waste sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuge, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    A liquid pumping pressure regulator is disposed on the midway of a pressure control tube which connects the upper portion of a sampling pot and the upper portion of a liquid waste storage vessel. With such a constitution, when the pressure in the sampling pot is made negative, and liquid wastes are sucked to the liquid pumping tube passing through the sampling pot, the difference between the pressure on the entrance of the liquid pumping pressure regulator of the pressure regulating tube and the pressure at the bottom of the liquid waste storage vessel is made constant. An opening degree controlling meter is disposed to control the degree of opening of a pressure regulating valve for sending actuation pressurized air to the liquid pumping pressure regulator. Accordingly, even if the liquid level of liquid wastes in the liquid waste storage vessel is changed, the height for the suction of the liquid wastes in the liquid pumping tube can be kept constant. With such procedures, sampling can be conducted correctly, and the discharge of the liquid wastes to the outside can be prevented. (T.M.)

  11. Erasing no-man's land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallenburg, Frank; Filion, Laura; Sciortino, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    One of the most controversial hypotheses for explaining the origin of the thermodynamic anomalies characterizing liquid water postulates the presence of a metastable second-order liquid-liquid critical point [1] located in the "no-man's land" [2]. In this scenario, two liquids with distinct local structure emerge near the critical temperature. Unfortunately, since spontaneous crystallization is rapid in this region, experimental support for this hypothesis relies on significant extrapolations, either from the metastable liquid or from amorphous solid water [3, 4]. Although the liquid-liquid transition is expected to feature in many tetrahedrally coordinated liquids, including silicon [5], carbon [6] and silica, even numerical studies of atomic and molecular models have been unable to conclusively prove the existence of this transition. Here we provide such evidence for a model in which it is possible to continuously tune the softness of the interparticle interaction and the flexibility of the bonds, the key ingredients controlling the existence of the critical point. We show that conditions exist where the full coexistence is thermodynamically stable with respect to crystallization. Our work offers a basis for designing colloidal analogues of water exhibiting liquid-liquid transitions in equilibrium, opening the way for experimental confirmation of the original hypothesis.

  12. CASH AND LIQUIDITY/LIQUIDITY AND LIQUIDITY RATIO

    OpenAIRE

    ADELA BREUER; MIHAELA LESCONI FRUMUSANU; BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER; ANDRA MANCIU

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims to present the correlation as well as the differences between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratio in terms of economic entities. Researches on this topic are based on the opinions of some specialists in accounting and in the economic-financial analysis, as well as on the national legal stipulations and the ones set out in the International Accounting Standards, the Financial report, respectively. The object of this paper is represented by the correlation between liquidit...

  13. Buckling of liquid columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibi, M.; Rahmani, Y.; Bonn, D.; Ribe, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions, a column of viscous liquid falling onto a rigid surface undergoes a buckling instability. Here we show experimentally and theoretically that liquid buckling exhibits a hitherto unsuspected complexity involving three different modes—viscous, gravitational, and

  14. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  15. The interplay between dynamic heterogeneities and structure of bulk liquid water: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demontis, Pierfranco; Suffritti, Giuseppe B. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli studi di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Unità di ricerca di Sassari, Via Vienna, 2, I-07100 Sassari (Italy); Gulín-González, Jorge [Grupo de Matemática y Física Computacionales, Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas (UCI), Carretera a San Antonio de los Baños, Km 21/2, La Lisa, La Habana (Cuba); Masia, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli studi di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Unità di ricerca di Sassari, Via Vienna, 2, I-07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR, UOS SLACS, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Sant, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli studi di Sassari, Sassari (Italy)

    2015-06-28

    In order to study the interplay between dynamical heterogeneities and structural properties of bulk liquid water in the temperature range 130–350 K, thus including the supercooled regime, we use the explicit trend of the distribution functions of some molecular properties, namely, the rotational relaxation constants, the atomic mean-square displacements, the relaxation of the cross correlation functions between the linear and squared displacements of H and O atoms of each molecule, the tetrahedral order parameter q and, finally, the number of nearest neighbors (NNs) and of hydrogen bonds (HBs) per molecule. Two different potentials are considered: TIP4P-Ew and a model developed in this laboratory for the study of nanoconfined water. The results are similar for the dynamical properties, but are markedly different for the structural characteristics. In particular, for temperatures higher than that of the dynamic crossover between “fragile” (at higher temperatures) and “strong” (at lower temperatures) liquid behaviors detected around 207 K, the rotational relaxation of supercooled water appears to be remarkably homogeneous. However, the structural parameters (number of NNs and of HBs, as well as q) do not show homogeneous distributions, and these distributions are different for the two water models. Another dynamic crossover between “fragile” (at lower temperatures) and “strong” (at higher temperatures) liquid behaviors, corresponding to the one found experimentally at T{sup ∗} ∼ 315 ± 5 K, was spotted at T{sup ∗} ∼ 283 K and T{sup ∗} ∼ 276 K for the TIP4P-Ew and the model developed in this laboratory, respectively. It was detected from the trend of Arrhenius plots of dynamic quantities and from the onset of a further heterogeneity in the rotational relaxation. To our best knowledge, it is the first time that this dynamical crossover is detected in computer simulations of bulk water. On the basis of the simulation results, the possible

  16. Revisiting a many-body model for water based on a single polarizable site: from gas phase clusters to liquid and air/liquid water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réal, Florent; Vallet, Valérie; Flament, Jean-Pierre; Masella, Michel

    2013-09-21

    We present a revised version of the water many-body model TCPE [M. Masella and J.-P. Flament, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9105 (1997)], which is based on a static three charge sites and a single polarizable site to model the molecular electrostatic properties of water, and on an anisotropic short range many-body energy term specially designed to accurately model hydrogen bonding in water. The parameters of the revised model, denoted TCPE/2013, are here developed to reproduce the ab initio energetic and geometrical properties of small water clusters (up to hexamers) and the repulsive water interactions occurring in cation first hydration shells. The model parameters have also been refined to reproduce two liquid water properties at ambient conditions, the density and the vaporization enthalpy. Thanks to its computational efficiency, the new model range of applicability was validated by performing simulations of liquid water over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, as well as by investigating water liquid/vapor interfaces over a large range of temperatures. It is shown to reproduce several important water properties at an accurate enough level of precision, such as the existence liquid water density maxima up to a pressure of 1000 atm, the water boiling temperature, the properties of the water critical point (temperature, pressure, and density), and the existence of a "singularity" temperature at about 225 K in the supercooled regime. This model appears thus to be particularly well-suited for characterizing ion hydration properties under different temperature and pressure conditions, as well as in different phases and interfaces.

  17. Liquid helium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  18. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  19. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  20. Pleural liquid and its exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Emilio; Zocchi, Luciano

    2007-12-15

    After an account on morphological features of visceral and parietal pleura, mechanical coupling between lung and chest wall is outlined. Volume of pleural liquid is considered along with its thickness in various regions, and its composition. Pleural liquid pressure (P(liq)) and pressure exerted by lung recoil in various species and postures are then compared, and the vertical gradient of P(liq) considered. Implications of lower P(liq) in the lung zone than in the costo-phrenic sinus at iso-height are pointed out. Mesothelial permeability to H(2)O, Cl(-), Na(+), mannitol, sucrose, inulin, albumin, and various size dextrans is provided, along with paracellular "pore" radius of mesothelium. Pleural liquid is produced by filtration from parietal pleura capillaries according to Starling forces. It is removed by absorption in visceral pleura capillaries according to Starling forces (at least in some species), lymphatic drainage through stomata of parietal mesothelium (essential to remove cells, particles, and large macromolecules), solute-coupled liquid absorption, and transcytosis through mesothelium.

  1. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  2. Ra-226 and Rn-222 in saline water compartments of the Aral Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettler, Georg; Oberhänsli, Hedi; Hahne, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 222 Rn and 226 Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Aral Sea region. • 226 Ra-analysis based on 222 Rn-ingrowth versus MS-analysis after solid-phase extraction. • 226 Ra in different groundwater types of the Aral Sea Basin. • 222 Rn distribution in the Aral Sea, western basin. - Abstract: The Aral Sea has been shrinking since 1963 due to extensive irrigation and the corresponding decline in the river water inflow. Understanding of the current hydrological situation demands an improved understanding of the surface water/groundwater dynamics in the region. 222 Rn and 226 Ra measurements can be used to trace groundwater discharge into surface waters. Data of these radiometric parameters were not previously available for the study region. We determined 222 Rn activities after liquid phase extraction using Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) with peak-length discrimination and analyzed 226 Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Amu Darya Delta (surface waters, unconfined groundwater, artesian water, and water profiles from the closed Large Aral Sea (western basin). The water samples comprise a salinity range between 1 and 263 g/l. The seasonal dynamics of solid/water interaction under an arid climate regime force the hydrochemical evolution of the unconfined groundwater in the Amu Darya Delta to high-salinity Na(Mg)Cl(SO 4 ) water types. The dissolved radium concentrations in the waters were mostly very low due to mineral over-saturation, extensive co-precipitation of radium and adsorption of radium on coexisting solid substrates. The analysis of very low 226 Ra concentrations (<10 ppq) at remote study sites is a challenge. We used the water samples to test and improve different analytical methods. In particular, we modified a procedure developed for the α-spectrometric determination of 226 Ra after solid phase extraction of radium using 3M Empore™ High Performance Extraction Disks (Purkl, 2002) for the

  3. (Liquid + liquid) phase behavior for systems containing (aromatic + TBA + methylcyclohexane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadzadeh, H.; Ghanadzadeh, A.

    2004-01-01

    The determination region of solubility of TBA (tert-butanol) with representative compounds of the gasoline was investigated experimentally at temperature of 298.2 K. Type 1 (liquid + liquid) phase diagrams were obtained for (methylcyclohexane + TBA + aromatic compounds). These results were correlated simultaneously by the UNIQUAC model. The values of the interaction parameters between each pair of components in the systems were obtained for the UNIQUAC model using the experimental result. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the observed and calculated mole percents was 1.88 for (methylcyclohexane + TBA + benzene), 2.45 for (methylcyclohexane + TBA + toluene) and 2.86 for (methylcyclohexane + TBA + ethylbenzene). The mutual solubility of methylcyclohexane and aromatic compounds (e.g., benzene toluene and ethylbenzene (BTE)) was also investigated by the addition of TBA at temperature of 298.2 K

  4. Surface induced smectic order in ionic liquids - an X-ray reflectivity study of [C22C1im]+[NTf2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Julian; Hou, Binyang; Weiss, Henning; Li, Hailong; Konovalov, Oleg; Festersen, Sven; Murphy, Bridget M; Rütt, Uta; Bier, Markus; Mezger, Markus

    2017-10-11

    Surface induced smectic order was found for the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-docosylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethlysulfonyl)imide by X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence scattering experiments. Near the free liquid surface, an ordered structure of alternating layers composed of polar and non-polar moieties is observed. This leads to an oscillatory interfacial profile perpendicular to the liquid surface with a periodicity of 3.7 nm. Small angle X-ray scattering and polarized light microscopy measurements suggest that the observed surface structure is related to fluctuations into a metastable liquid crystalline SmA 2 phase that was found by supercooling the bulk liquid. The observed surface ordering persists up to 157 °C, i.e. more than 88 K above the bulk melting temperature of 68.1 °C. Close to the bulk melting point, we find a thickness of the ordered layer of L = 30 nm. The dependency of L(τ) = Λ ln(τ/τ 1 ) vs. reduced temperature τ follows a logarithmic growth law. In agreement with theory, the pre-factor Λ is governed by the correlation length of the isotropic bulk phase.

  5. Visual observation of gas hydrates nucleation and growth at a water - organic liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoporev, Andrey S.; Semenov, Anton P.; Medvedev, Vladimir I.; Sizikov, Artem A.; Gushchin, Pavel A.; Vinokurov, Vladimir A.; Manakov, Andrey Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Visual observation of nucleation sites of methane and methane-ethane-propane hydrates and their further growth in water - organic liquid - gas systems with/without surfactants was carried out. Sapphire Rocking Cell RCS6 with transparent sapphire cells was used. The experiments were conducted at the supercooling ΔTsub = 20.2 °C. Decane, toluene and crude oils were used as organics. Gas hydrate nucleation occurred on water - metal - gas and water - sapphire - organic liquid three-phase contact lines. At the initial stage of growth hydrate crystals rapidly covered the water - gas or water - organics interfaces (depending on the nucleation site). Further hydrate phase accrete on cell walls (sapphire surface) and into the organics volume. At this stage, growth was accompanied by water «drawing out» from under initial hydrate film formed at water - organic interface. Apparently, it takes place due to water capillary inflow in the reaction zone. It was shown that the hydrate crystal morphology depends on the organic phase composition. In the case of water-in-decane emulsion relay hydrate crystallization was observed in the whole sample, originating most likely due to the hydrate crystal intergrowth through decane. Contacts of such crystals with adjacent water droplets result in rapid hydrate crystallization on this droplet.

  6. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Ginseng Roots and Rhizomes from Different Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Ping; Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Yang, Xin-Bao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Feng; Cai, Shao-Qing; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2016-05-09

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, is an industrial crop in China and Korea. The functional components in ginseng roots and rhizomes are characteristic ginsenosides. This work developed a new high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)) method to identify the triterpenoids. Sixty compounds (1-60) including 58 triterpenoids were identified from the ginseng cultivated in China. Substances 1, 2, 7, 15-20, 35, 39, 45-47, 49, 55-57, 59, and 60 were identified for the first time. To evaluate the quality of ginseng cultivated in Northeast China, this paper developed a practical liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD) method to simultaneously quantify 14 interesting ginsenosides in ginseng collected from 66 different producing areas for the first time. The results showed the quality of ginseng roots and rhizomes from different sources was different due to growing environment, cultivation technology, and so on. The developed LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n) method can be used to identify many more ginsenosides and the LC-DAD method can be used not only to assess the quality of ginseng, but also to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of ginsenosides.

  7. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  8. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  9. Liquid-liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials

  10. Heat transfer on liquid-liquid interface of molten-metal and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Saito, Yasushi; Mishima, Kaichiro

    2001-01-01

    Molten-core pool had been formed in the lower-head of TMI-2 pressure vessel at the severe accident. The lower head, however, didn't receive any damage by reactor core cooling. Heat transfer at outside of the lower head and boiling heat transfer at liquid-liquid interface of molten-metal and water, however, are important for initial cooling process of the molten-core pool. The heat transfer experiments for the liquid-liquid interface of molten-metal and water are carried out over the range of natural convection to film boiling region. Phenomenon on the heat transfer experiments are visualized by using of high speed video camera. Wood's metal and U-alloy 78 are used as molten-metal. The test section of the experiments consists of a copper block with heater, wood's metal, and water. Three thermocouple probes are used for temperature measurement of water side and the molten-metal side. Stability of the liquid-liquid interface is depended on the wetness of container wall for molten metal and the temperature distribution of the interface. Entrainment phenomena of molten-metal occurs by a fluctuation of the interface after boiling on the container wall surface. The boiling curves obtained from the liquid-liquid interface experiments are agree with the nucleate boiling and the film boiling correlations of solid-liquid system. (Suetake, M.)

  11. Hybrid Multiphase CFD Solver for Coupled Dispersed/Segregated Flows in Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent E. Wardle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flows in stage-wise liquid-liquid extraction devices include both phase segregated and dispersed flow regimes. As a additional layer of complexity, for extraction equipment such as the annular centrifugal contactor, free-surface flows also play a critical role in both the mixing and separation regions of the device and cannot be neglected. Traditionally, computional fluid dynamics (CFD of multiphase systems is regime dependent—different methods are used for segregated and dispersed flows. A hybrid multiphase method based on the combination of an Eulerian multifluid solution framework (per-phase momentum equations and sharp interface capturing using Volume of Fluid (VOF on selected phase pairs has been developed using the open-source CFD toolkit OpenFOAM. Demonstration of the solver capability is presented through various examples relevant to liquid-liquid extraction device flows including three-phase, liquid-liquid-air simulations in which a sharp interface is maintained between each liquid and air, but dispersed phase modeling is used for the liquid-liquid interactions.

  12. The liquid–liquid coexistence curves of {x dimethyl adipate + (1 − x) n-hexane} and {x dimethyl adipate + (1 − x) n-heptane} in the critical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiyun; Cai Li; Huang Meijun; Yin Tianxiang; An Xueqin; Shen Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Coexistence curves of (dimethyl adipate + n-hexane) (+n-heptane) were measured. ► The critical exponent β are consistent with the 3D-Ising value. ► The asymmetry of the coexistence curves were discussed by complete scaling theory. - Abstract: The liquid–liquid coexistence curves for (dimethyl adipate + n-hexane), (dimethyl adipate + n-heptane) have been measured, from which the critical amplitudes and the critical exponents are deduced. The critical exponent β corresponding to the coexistence curves are consistent with the 3D-Ising value. The experimental results have also been analyzed to determine the critical amplitudes of Wegner-correction terms when β and Δ are fixed at their theoretical values, and to examine the asymmetry of the diameters for the coexistence curves.

  13. Ionic liquids as electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Stepniak, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    Salts having a low melting point are liquid at room temperature, or even below, and form a new class of liquids usually called room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). Information about RTILs can be found in the literature with such key words as: room temperature molten salt, low-temperature molten salt, ambient-temperature molten salt, liquid organic salt or simply ionic liquid. Their physicochemical properties are the same as high temperature ionic liquids, but the practical aspects of their maintenance or handling are different enough to merit a distinction. The class of ionic liquids, based on tetraalkylammonium cation and chloroaluminate anion, has been extensively studied since late 1970s of the XX century, following the works of Osteryoung. Systematic research on the application of chloroaluminate ionic liquids as solvents was performed in 1980s. However, ionic liquids based on aluminium halides are moisture sensitive. During the last decade an increasing number of new ionic liquids have been prepared and used as solvents. The general aim of this paper was to review the physical and chemical properties of RTILs from the point of view of their possible application as electrolytes in electrochemical processes and devices. The following points are discussed: melting and freezing, conductivity, viscosity, temperature dependence of conductivity, transport and transference numbers, electrochemical stability, possible application in aluminium electroplating, lithium batteries and in electrochemical capacitors

  14. PREFACE: The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellago, Christoph; Kahl, Gerhard; Likos, Christos N.

    2012-07-01

    The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference (LMC8) was held at the Universität Wien from 6-10 September 2011. Initiated in 1990, the conferences of this series cover a broad range of highly interdisciplinary topics, ranging from simple liquids to soft matter and biophysical systems. The vast spectrum of scientific subjects presented and discussed at the LMC8 is reflected in the themes of the ten symposia: Ionic and quantum liquids, liquid metals Water, solutions and reaction dynamics Liquid crystals Polymers, polyelectrolytes, biopolymers Colloids Films, foams, surfactants, emulsions, aerosols Confined fluids, interfacial phenomena Supercooled liquids, glasses, gels Non-equilibrium systems, rheology, nanofluids Biofluids, active matter This special issue contains scientific papers, authored by participants of the LMC8, which provide a cross-section of the scientific activities in current liquid matter science, as discussed at the conference, and demonstrate the scientific as well as methodological progress made in this field over the past couple of years. The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference contents The Eighth Liquid Matter ConferenceChristoph Dellago, Gerhard Kahl and Christos N Likos Comparing light-induced colloidal quasicrystals with different rotational symmetriesMichael Schmiedeberg and Holger Stark Hydrogen bond network relaxation in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions: the effect of temperatureS Sarti, D Truzzolillo and F Bordi Equilibrium concentration profiles and sedimentation kinetics of colloidal gels under gravitational stressS Buzzaccaro, E Secchi, G Brambilla, R Piazza and L Cipelletti The capillary interaction between two vertical cylindersHimantha Cooray, Pietro Cicuta and Dominic Vella Hydrodynamic and viscoelastic effects in polymer diffusionJ Farago, H Meyer, J Baschnagel and A N Semenov A density-functional theory study of microphase formation in binary Gaussian mixturesM Carta, D Pini, A Parola and L Reatto Microcanonical determination of the

  15. Effects of gas liquid ratio on the atomization characteristics of gas-liquid swirl coaxial injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhongtao; Li, Qinglian; Zhang, Jiaqi; Cheng, Peng

    2018-05-01

    To understand the atomization characteristics and atomization mechanism of the gas-liquid swirl coaxial (GLSC) injector, a back-lighting photography technique has been employed to capture the instantaneous spray images with a high speed camera. The diameter and velocity of the droplets in the spray have been characterized with a Dantec Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) system. The effects of gas liquid ratio (GLR) on the spray pattern, Sauter mean diameter (SMD), diameter-velocity distribution and mass flow rate distribution were analyzed and discussed. The results show that the atomization of the GLSC injector is dominated by the film breakup when the GLR is small, and violent gas-liquid interaction when the GLR is large enough. The film breakup dominated spray can be divided into gas acceleration region and film breakup region while the violent gas-liquid interaction dominated spray can be divided into the gas acceleration region, violent gas-liquid interaction region and big droplets breakup region. The atomization characteristics of the GLSC injector is significantly influenced by the GLR. From the point of atomization performance, the increase of GLR has positive effects. It decreases the global Sauter mean diameter (GSMD) and varies the SMD distribution from a hollow cone shape (GLR = 0) to an inverted V shape, and finally slanted N shape. However, from the point of spatial distribution, the increase of GLR has negative effects, because the mass flow rate distribution becomes more nonuniform.

  16. Liquid Sloshing Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raouf A.

    2005-06-01

    The problem of liquid sloshing in moving or stationary containers remains of great concern to aerospace, civil, and nuclear engineers; physicists; designers of road tankers and ship tankers; and mathematicians. Beginning with the fundamentals of liquid sloshing theory, this book takes the reader systematically from basic theory to advanced analytical and experimental results in a self-contained and coherent format. The book is divided into four sections. Part I deals with the theory of linear liquid sloshing dynamics; Part II addresses the nonlinear theory of liquid sloshing dynamics, Faraday waves, and sloshing impacts; Part III presents the problem of linear and nonlinear interaction of liquid sloshing dynamics with elastic containers and supported structures; and Part IV considers the fluid dynamics in spinning containers and microgravity sloshing. This book will be invaluable to researchers and graduate students in mechanical and aeronautical engineering, designers of liquid containers, and applied mathematicians.

  17. Liquid metal steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal heated steam generator is described which in the event of a tube failure quickly exhausts out of the steam generator the products of the reaction between the water and the liquid metal. The steam is generated in a plurality of bayonet tubes which are heated by liquid metal flowing over them between an inner cylinder and an outer cylinder. The inner cylinder extends above the level of liquid metal but below the main tube sheet. A central pipe extends down into the inner cylinder with a centrifugal separator between it and the inner cylinder at its lower end and an involute deflector plate above the separator so that the products of a reaction between the liquid metal and the water will be deflected downwardly by the deflector plate and through the separator so that the liquid metal will flow outwardly and away from the central pipe through which the steam and gaseous reaction products are exhausted. (U.S.)

  18. Ionic liquid marbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2007-10-09

    Liquid marbles have been reported during this decade and have been argued to be potentially useful for microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip applications. The liquid marbles described to date have been composed of either water or glycerol as the liquid and hydrophobized lycopodium or silica as the stabilizing particles. Both of these components are potentially reactive and do not permit the use of organic chemistry; the liquids are volatile. We report the use of perfluoroalkyl particles (oligomeric (OTFE) and polymeric (PTFE) tetrafluoroethylene, which are unreactive) to support/stabilize a range of ionic liquid marbles. Ionic liquids are not volatile and have been demonstrated to be versatile solvents for chemical transformations. Water marbles prepared with OTFE are much more robust than those prepared with hydrophobized lycopodium or silica.

  19. Quantum liquids get thin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    A liquid exists when interactions that attract its constituent particles to each other are counterbalanced by a repulsion acting at higher densities. Other characteristics of liquids are short-range correlations and the existence of surface tension (1). Ultracold atom experiments provide a privileged platform with which to observe exotic states of matter, but the densities are far too low to obtain a conventional liquid because the atoms are too far apart to create repulsive forces arising from the Pauli exclusion principle of the atoms' internal electrons. The observation of quantum liquid droplets in an ultracold mixture of two quantum fluids is now reported on page 301 of this issue by Cabrera et al. (2) and a recent preprint by Semeghini et al. (3). Unlike conventional liquids, these liquids arise from a weak attraction and repulsive many-body correlations in the mixtures.

  20. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  1. Density of liquid Ytterbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankus, S.V.; Basin, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented for measurements of the density of metallic ytterbium in the liquid state and at the liquid-solid phase transition. Based on the numerical data obtained, the coefficient of thermal expansion βZ of the liquid and the density discontinuity on melting deltarho/sub m/ are calculated. The magnitudes of βZ and deltarho/sub m/ for the heavy lanthanides are compared

  2. Liquid Metal Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series...

  3. Liquidity and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework to study the links between the supply of liquid assets for the financial market and the international allocation of economic activity. Private assets’ liquidity properties - their usefulness as collateral or media of exchange in financial transactions - affect assets’ values and interest rates, with consequences on firm entry, production, aggregate productivity, and total market capitalization. In a closed economy, the liquidity market increases the size and ...

  4. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  5. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  6. Viscous effects in liquid encapsulated liquid bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Duane T.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical derivation of the surface deflections and the streamfunctions for the flow inside a liquid encapsulated liquid bridge has been derived using an asymptotic expansion about a small capillary number. The model assumes an initially flat and cylindrical interface under the assumption that the densities of both fluids are equal. To simplify the analysis, the top and bottom walls are assumed to be stress-free and the Reynolds number is assumed to be negligible. Flow is generated either by a moving outer wall (shear-driven flow) or by applying a temperature difference across the top and bottom walls (Marangoni-driven flow). The resulting equations show that for the shear-driven flow, as the viscosity ratio increases, the surface deflections increase monotonically. For the Marangoni-driven flow there exist values of the viscosity ratio where the surface deflections reach a minimum and then switch signs. This investigation shows that it may be possible in more realistic systems to use an outer encapsulating liquid of the proper viscosity ratio to stabilize the liquid-liquid interface during float zone crystal growth

  7. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  8. PEP liquid level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1981-03-01

    A liquid level system has been installed in the accelerator housing of the PEP storage ring. This instrument spans the entire 2.2 km circumference of the PEP project, and over one hundred readouts provide reference elevations which are used for the accurate alignment of accelerator components. The liquid level has proven to be extremely precise (+-0.10 mm) and quick to use, and it has contributed to the accurate alignment of PEP before beam turn-on. Since the liquid level readouts are rigidly attached to the accelerator housing, the liquid level has been a convenient means to monitor the settling of the accelerator housing

  9. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2012-07-26

    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a responsive block copolymer-grafted mesoporous silica shell and magnetite core (see figure; P2VP-b-PDMS: poly(2-vinylpyridine-b- dimethylsiloxane)). Desirable properties of the liquid marbles include that they rupture upon ultraviolet illumination and can be remotely manipulated by an external magnetic field. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Design Constraints for Liquid-Protected Divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, S.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Yoda, M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work on liquid-surface-protected plasma facing components has resulted in the establishment of operating windows for candidate liquids, as well as limits on the maximum allowable liquid surface temperature in order to limit plasma impurities from liquid evaporation. In this study, an additional constraint on the maximum allowable surface temperature gradient (i.e., heat flux gradient) has been quantified. Spatial variations in the wall and liquid surface temperatures are expected due to variations in the incident radiation and particle fluxes. Thermocapillary forces created by such temperature gradients can lead to film rupture and dry spot formation in regions of elevated local temperatures. Here, attention has been focused on ''non-flowing'' thin liquid films similar to those formed on the surface of porous wettedwall components. Future analyses will include the effects of macroscopic fluid motion, and MHD forces.A numerical model using the level contour reconstruction method was used to follow the evolution of the liquid free surface above a non-isothermal solid surface. The model was used to develop generalized charts for the maximum allowable spatial temperature gradients (i.e., the critical Marangoni number) as a function of the governing non-dimensional variables, viz. the Weber, Froude, and Prandtl numbers, and aspect ratio. Attention was focused on the asymptotic limit for thin liquid films (i.e., low aspect ratio) which provides a lower bound for the maximum allowable temperature gradients. Specific examples for lithium, Flibe, lithium-lead, tin, and gallium are presented. The generalized charts developed in this investigation will allow reactor designers to identify design windows for successful operation of liquid-protected plasma facing components for various coolants, film thicknesses, and operating conditions

  11. Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2008-05-01

    This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

  12. Ultraviolet spectra of Mg in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Y.; Morita, N.

    1999-01-01

    Emission and absorption spectra of Mg atoms implanted in liquid helium have been observed in the ultraviolet region. We have presented a model of exciplex formation of Mg-He 10 and found that this model is more suitable for understanding the dynamics in the 3s3p 1 P→3s 21 S transition than the bubble model. (orig.)

  13. Liquid-liquid displacement in slippery liquid-infused membranes (SLIMs)

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyar, Hanieh; Lv, Pengyu; Wood, Jeffery A.; Porada, Slawomir; Lohse, Detlef; Lammertink, Rob G. H.

    2018-01-01

    Liquid-infused membranes inspired by slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) have been recently introduced to membrane technology. The gating mechanism of these membranes is expected to give rise to anti-fouling properties and multi-phase transport capabilities. However, the long-term retention of the infusion liquid has not yet been explored. To address this issue, we investigate the retention of the infusion liquid in slippery liquid-infused membranes (SLIMs) via liquid-liquid displ...

  14. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov, Kirill V.; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed. PMID:28879986

  15. Enantioseparation with liquid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössi, Angelo; Riedl, Wolfgang; Schuur, Boelo

    Chiral resolution of racemic products is a challenging and important task in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, flavor, polymer and fragrances industries. One of the options for these challenging separations is to use liquid membranes. Although liquid membranes have been known for almost four decades

  16. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov, Kirill V; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-14

    The last five years' achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  17. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Axenov, Kirill V.; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  18. The TIPS Liquidity Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller; Christensen, Jens H.E.; Simon Riddell, Simon

    We introduce an arbitrage-free term structure model of nominal and real yields that accounts for liquidity risk in Treasury inflation-protected securities (TIPS). The novel feature of our model is to identify liquidity risk from individual TIPS prices by accounting for the tendency that TIPS, lik...

  19. The Liquid Vapour Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid-vapour interface, i.e. from the bulk density of the liquid to the essentially zero density of the vapour phase. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from...

  20. Liquid metals pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pumps used to pump liquid metals depend on the liquid metal and on the type of application concerned. One deals more particularly with electromagnetic pumps, the main pumps used with mechanical pumps. To pump sodium in the nuclear field, these two types of pumps are used; the pumps of different circuits of Super Phenix are presented and described [fr

  1. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  2. Liquid metal monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell-Nichols, C.J.; Roach, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal monitor of the by-pass plugging meter kind described in British Patent 1,308,466, is further provided with a pump arranged to oppose flow through a by-pass thereby to provide a constant pressure difference across an orifice and improve the sensitivity of the instrument. The monitor estimates the impurity content in a liquid metal stream. (author)

  3. Ionic and Molecular Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    applications of RTILs in combination with molecular liquids, concentrating on three significant areas: (1) the use of molecular liquids to decrease the viscosity of RTILs; (2) the role of RTIL micelle formation in water and organic solvents; and (3) the ability of RTILs to adsorb pollutant gases. Current...

  4. Liquid Chromatography in 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews trends in liquid chromatography including apparatus, factors affecting efficient separation of a mixture (peak sharpness and speed), simplified problem-solving, adsorption, bonded phase chromatography, ion selectivity, and size exclusion. The current trend is to control chemical selectivity by the liquid phase. (Author/JN)

  5. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  6. Structure of simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [fr

  7. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2017-08-21

    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  8. Microorganism mediated liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troiano, Richard

    2018-03-20

    Herein disclosed is a method for producing liquid hydrocarbon product, the method comprising disintegrating a hydrocarbon source; pretreating the disintegrated hydrocarbon source; solubilizing the disintegrated hydrocarbon source to form a slurry comprising a reactant molecule of the hydrocarbon source; admixing a biochemical liquor into the slurry, wherein the biochemical liquor comprises at least one conversion enzyme configured to facilitate bond selective photo-fragmentation of said reactant molecule of the hydrocarbon source, to form liquid hydrocarbons via enzyme assisted bond selective photo-fragmentation, wherein said conversion enzyme comprises reactive sites configured to restrict said reactant molecule such that photo-fragmentation favorably targets a preselected internal bond of said reactant molecule; separating the liquid hydrocarbons from the slurry, wherein contaminants remain in the slurry; and enriching the liquid hydrocarbons to form a liquid hydrocarbon product. Various aspects of such method/process are also discussed.

  9. Liquidity constraints, risk premia, and themacroeconomic effects of liquidity shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Jaccard, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    We study the transmission of liquidity shocks in a dynamic general equilibrium model where firms and households are subject to liquidity risk. The provision of liquidity services is undertaken by financial intermediaries that allocate the stock of liquid asset between the different sectors of the economy. We find that the macroeconomic effects of liquidity shocks are considerably larger in the model economy that generates a realistic equity premium. Liquidity constraints amplify business cycl...

  10. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  11. A parallel chiral-achiral liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the stereoisomers of ketamine and ketamine metabolites in the plasma and urine of patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Moaddel, Ruin; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vattem; Tanga, Mary J.; Bupp, James E.; Green, Carol E.; Iyer, Lalitha; Furimsky, Anna; Goldberg, Michael E.; Torjman, Marc C.; Wainer, Irving W.

    2010-01-01

    A parallel chiral/achiral LC-MS/MS assay has been developed and validated to measure the plasma and urine concentrations of the enantiomers of ketamine, (R)- and (S)-Ket, in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) patients receiving a 5-day continuous infusion of a sub-anesthetic dose of (R,S)-Ket. The method was also validated for the determination of the enantiomers of the Ket metabolites norketamine, (R)-and (S)-norKet and dehydronorketamine, (R)- and (S)-DHNK, as well as the diastereomeric ...

  12. Electrostatic levitation facility optimized for neutron diffraction studies of high temperature liquids at a spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, N. A., E-mail: namauro@noctrl.edu [Department of Physics, North Central College, Naperville, Illinois 60540 (United States); Vogt, A. J. [Instrument and Source Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Derendorf, K. S. [Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Johnson, M. L.; Kelton, K. F. [Department of Physics and Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Washington University, 1 Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Rustan, G. E.; Quirinale, D. G.; Goldman, A. I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Kreyssig, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Lokshin, K. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Neuefeind, J. C.; An, Ke [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Wang, Xun-Li [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Ave., Kowloon (Hong Kong); Egami, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Neutron diffraction studies of metallic liquids provide valuable information about inherent topological and chemical ordering on multiple length scales as well as insight into dynamical processes at the level of a few atoms. However, there exist very few facilities in the world that allow such studies to be made of reactive metallic liquids in a containerless environment, and these are designed for use at reactor-based neutron sources. We present an electrostatic levitation facility, NESL (for Neutron ElectroStatic Levitator), which takes advantage of the enhanced capabilities and increased neutron flux available at spallation neutron sources (SNSs). NESL enables high quality elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments to be made of reactive metallic and other liquids in the equilibrium and supercooled temperature regime. The apparatus is comprised of a high vacuum chamber, external and internal neutron collimation optics, and a sample exchange mechanism that allows up to 30 samples to be processed between chamber openings. Two heating lasers allow excellent sample temperature homogeneity, even for samples approaching 500 mg, and an automated temperature control system allows isothermal measurements to be conducted for times approaching 2 h in the liquid state, with variations in the average sample temperature of less than 0.5%. To demonstrate the capabilities of the facility for elastic scattering studies of liquids, a high quality total structure factor for Zr{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} measured slightly above the liquidus temperature is presented from experiments conducted on the nanoscale-ordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) beam line at the SNS after only 30 min of acquisition time for a small sample (∼100 mg)

  13. The risk components of liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Chollete, Lorán; Næs, Randi; Skjeltorp, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Does liquidity risk differ depending on our choice of liquidity proxy? Unlike literature that considers common liquidity variation, we focus on identifying different components of liquidity, statistically and economically, using more than a decade of US transaction data. We identify three main statistical liquidity factors which are utilized in a linear asset pricing framework. We motivate a correspondence of the statistical factors to traditional dimensions of liquidity as well as the notion...

  14. Illiquidity Contagion and Liquidity Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Cespa; Thierry Foucault

    2014-01-01

    Liquidity providers often learn information about an asset from prices of other assets. We show that this generates a self-reinforcing positive relationship between price informativeness and liquidity. This relationship causes liquidity spillovers and is a source of fragility: a small drop in the liquidity of one asset can, through a feedback loop, result in a very large drop in market liquidity and price informativeness (a liquidity crash). This feedback loop provides a new explanation for c...

  15. Liquid sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    The pump for use in a nuclear reactor cooling system comprises a booster stage impeller for drawing the liquid through the inlet. A diffuser is affixedly disposed within the pump housing to convert the kinetic pressure imparted to the liquid into increased static pressure. A main stage impeller is rotatively driven by a pump motor at a relatively high speed to impart a relatively high static pressure to the liquid and for discharging the liquid at a relatively high static pressure. A hydraulic coupling is disposed remotely from the liquid path for hydraulically coupling the main stage impeller and the booster stage impeller to rotate the booster stage impeller at a relatively low speed to maintain the low net positive suction pressure applied to the liquid at the inlet greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid and to ensure that the low net positive suction heat, as established by the main stage impeller exceeds the vapor pressure. The coupling comprises a grooved drum which rotates between inner and outer drag coupling members. In a modification the coupling comprises a torque converter. (author)

  16. Liquid ionizing radiaion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGaston, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A normally nonconducting liquid such as liquid hydrocarbon is encased between a pair of electrodes in an enclosure so that when the liquid is subjected to ionizing radiation, the ion pairs so created measurably increase the conductivity of the fluid. The reduced impedance between the electrodes is detectable with a sensitive ohm-meter and indicates the amount of ionizing radiation. The enclosure, the electrodes and the fluid can be constructed of materials that make the response of the detector suitable for calibrating a large range of radiation energy levels. The detector is especially useful in medical applications where tissue equivalent X ray detectors are desired

  17. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid metal pump comprising a shaft support structure which is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft carries an impeller and the support structure carries an impeller cage which is slidably disposed in a diffuser so as to allow complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair. The diffuser is concentrically supported in the pump housing which also takes up all reaction forces generated by the discharge of the liquid metal from the diffuser, with floating seals arranged between impeller cage and the diffuser. The space between the diffuser and the pump housing permits the incoming liquid to essentially surround the diffuser. (author)

  18. Ionic and Molecular Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Because of their outstanding versatility, room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are utilized in an ever increasing number of novel and fascinating applications, making them the Holy Grail of modern materials science. In this Perspective, we address the fundamental research and prospective...... applications of RTILs in combination with molecular liquids, concentrating on three significant areas: (1) the use of molecular liquids to decrease the viscosity of RTILs; (2) the role of RTIL micelle formation in water and organic solvents; and (3) the ability of RTILs to adsorb pollutant gases. Current...

  19. Plate performance in liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of perforated, nozzle, and burred plates from a capacity and extraction standpoint were studied in a pulsed liquid-liquid extraction system. The experiments were conducted in a 3.8 x 10 -2 m diameter column using a mixture of aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate as the aqueous phase, and tributyl phosphate dissolved in AMSCO 125-90 W as the organic phase. The uranium was extracted from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. A standard cartridge was made for each type of plate and consisted of an assembly of plates spaced 5.08 x 10 -2 m apart. Each plate had 3.2 x 10 -3 m holes spaced on 6.1 x 10 -3 -m centers, and contained 23% free area. 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  20. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  1. Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Systems Containing Butanol and Ionic Liquids – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kubiczek Artur; Kamiński Władysław

    2017-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a moderately new class of liquid substances that are characterized by a great variety of possible anion-cation combinations giving each of them different properties. For this reason, they have been termed as designer solvents and, as such, they are particularly promising for liquid-liquid extraction, which has been quite intensely studied over the last decade. This paper concentrates on the recent liquid-liquid extraction studies involving ionic liqu...

  2. Liquid filter for liquids containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohleder, N.; Schwarz, F.

    1986-01-01

    A device for filtering radioactive liquids loaded with solids is described, which has a pressure-resistant housing with a lid and an incomer for the turbid liquid and a collecting space and drain for the filtrate at the bottom of the housing. A filter cartridge is present in this housing. Such a filtering device must be suitable for use in nuclear plants, must be easy to replace by remote control and must minimise the carrying over of radioactive particles. This problem should be solved by the filter cartridge consisting of a large number of horizontal filter plates stacked above one another, which carry a deep layer filter material acting in the sub-micron range. The turbid liquid runs into the centre of the stack of filter plates via a vertical central duct. The intermediate spaces between the filter places are connected to this central duct via the layer of filter material. The filter plates are sealed against one another on the outer circumference and have radial drain openings for the filtrate on the outside. The central duct is sealed at the lower end by a plate. When the filter cartridge is replaced, the radioactive waste in the filter cartridge remains safely enclosed and can be conditioned in suitable containers. (orig.) [de

  3. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  4. Improved prediction of octanol-water partition coefficients from liquid-solute water solubilities and molar volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Schmedding, D.W.; Manes, M.

    2005-01-01

    A volume-fraction-based solvent-water partition model for dilute solutes, in which the partition coefficient shows a dependence on solute molar volume (V??), is adapted to predict the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow) from the liquid or supercooled-liquid solute water solubility (Sw), or vice versa. The established correlation is tested for a wide range of industrial compounds and pesticides (e.g., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, halogenated benzenes, ethers, esters, PAHs, PCBs, organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, and amidesureas-triazines), which comprise a total of 215 test compounds spanning about 10 orders of magnitude in Sw and 8.5 orders of magnitude in Kow. Except for phenols and alcohols, which require special considerations of the Kow data, the correlation predicts the Kow within 0.1 log units for most compounds, much independent of the compound type or the magnitude in K ow. With reliable Sw and V data for compounds of interest, the correlation provides an effective means for either predicting the unavailable log Kow values or verifying the reliability of the reported log Kow data. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  5. Ionic Liquids in Tribology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Minami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Current research on room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants is described. Ionic liquids possess excellent properties such as non-volatility, non-flammability, and thermo-oxidative stability. The potential use of ionic liquids as lubricants was first proposed in 2001 and approximately 70 articles pertaining to fundamental research on ionic liquids have been published through May 2009. A large majority of the cations examined in this area are derived from 1,3-dialkylimidazolium, with a higher alkyl group on the imidazolium cation being beneficial for good lubrication, while it reduces the thermo-oxidative stability. Hydrophobic anions provide both good lubricity and significant thermo-oxidative stability. The anions decompose through a tribochemical reaction to generate metal fluoride on the rubbed surface. Additive technology to improve lubricity is also explained. An introduction to tribology as an interdisciplinary field of lubrication is also provided.

  6. Ionic liquids in tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Ichiro

    2009-06-24

    Current research on room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants is described. Ionic liquids possess excellent properties such as non-volatility, non-flammability, and thermo-oxidative stability. The potential use of ionic liquids as lubricants was first proposed in 2001 and approximately 70 articles pertaining to fundamental research on ionic liquids have been published through May 2009. A large majority of the cations examined in this area are derived from 1,3-dialkylimidazolium, with a higher alkyl group on the imidazolium cation being beneficial for good lubrication, while it reduces the thermo-oxidative stability. Hydrophobic anions provide both good lubricity and significant thermo-oxidative stability. The anions decompose through a tribochemical reaction to generate metal fluoride on the rubbed surface. Additive technology to improve lubricity is also explained. An introduction to tribology as an interdisciplinary field of lubrication is also provided.

  7. What is Liquid? Foreword

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henderson, D.; Holovko, M.; Nezbeda, Ivo; Trokhymchuk, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2015), 10101-1-10101-4 ISSN 1607-324X Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fluid * liquid * physics modelling Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.621, year: 2015

  8. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  9. Diet - clear liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group. Clear liquid diet. In: Morrison. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/2/9/2/12924787/manual_of_clinical_nutrition2013.pdf . Accessed August 20, 2016. Schattner MA, ...

  10. Radioactive liquid containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Hironobu.

    1993-01-01

    Cooling jackets are coiled around the outer circumference of a container vessel, and the outer circumference thereof is covered with a surrounding plate. A liquid of good conductivity (for example, water) is filled between the cooling jackets and the surrounding plate. A radioactive liquid is supplied to the container vessel passing through a supply pipe and discharged passing through a discharge pipe. Cooling water at high pressure is passed through the cooling water jackets in order to remove the heat generated from the radioactive liquid. Since cooling water at high pressure is thus passed through the coiled pipes, the wall thickness of the container vessel and the cooling water jackets can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost. Further, even if the radioactive liquid is leaked, there is no worry of contaminating cooling water, to prevent contamination. (I.N.)

  11. Liquid Food Concentration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. For ease of transport & storage. For ease of transport & storage. Heat labile liquids. Natural Colors; Fruit Juices. Thermal Evaporation. Thermal deterioration; Loss of volatiles; High energy consumption.

  12. Liquid Crystal Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2018-03-01

    Colloids are abundant in nature, science, and technology, with examples ranging from milk to quantum dots and the colloidal atom paradigm. Similarly, liquid crystal ordering is important in contexts ranging from biological membranes to laboratory models of cosmic strings and liquid crystal displays in consumer devices. Some of the most exciting recent developments in both of these soft matter fields emerge at their interface, in the fast-growing research arena of liquid crystal colloids. Mesoscale self-assembly in such systems may lead to artificial materials and to structures with emergent physical behavior arising from patterning of molecular order and nano- or microparticles into precisely controlled configurations. Liquid crystal colloids show exceptional promise for new discovery that may impinge on composite material fabrication, low-dimensional topology, photonics, and so on. Starting from physical underpinnings, I review the state of the art in this fast-growing field, with a focus on its scientific and technological potential.

  13. Liquid level controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies

  14. On the dynamics of liquids in their viscous regime approaching the glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Angell, C A; Richert, R

    2012-07-01

    Recently, Mallamace et al. (Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 94 (2011)) proposed a crossover temperature, T(×), and claimed that the dynamics of many supercooled liquids follow an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence between T(×) and the glass transition temperature T(g). The opposite, namely super-Arrhenius behavior in this viscous regime, has been demonstrated repeatedly for molecular glass-former, for polymers, and for the majority of the exhaustively studied inorganic glasses of technological interest. Therefore, we subject the molecular systems of the Mallamace et al. study to a "residuals" analysis and include not only viscosity data but also the more precise data available from dielectric relaxation experiments over the same temperature range. Although many viscosity data sets are inconclusive due to their noise level, we find that Arrhenius behavior is not a general feature of viscosity in the T(g) to T(×) range. Moreover, the residuals of dielectric relaxation times with respect to an Arrhenius law clearly reveal systematic curvature consistent with super-Arrhenius behavior being an endemic feature of transport properties in this viscous regime. We also observe a common pattern of how dielectric relaxation times decouple slightly from viscosity.

  15. Quantized Self-Assembly of Discotic Rings in a Liquid Crystal Confined in Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentker, Kathrin; Zantop, Arne W.; Lippmann, Milena; Hofmann, Tommy; Seeck, Oliver H.; Kityk, Andriy V.; Yildirim, Arda; Schönhals, Andreas; Mazza, Marco G.; Huber, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Disklike molecules with aromatic cores spontaneously stack up in linear columns with high, one-dimensional charge carrier mobilities along the columnar axes, making them prominent model systems for functional, self-organized matter. We show by high-resolution optical birefringence and synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction that confining a thermotropic discotic liquid crystal in cylindrical nanopores induces a quantized formation of annular layers consisting of concentric circular bent columns, unknown in the bulk state. Starting from the walls this ring self-assembly propagates layer by layer towards the pore center in the supercooled domain of the bulk isotropic-columnar transition and thus allows one to switch on and off reversibly single, nanosized rings through small temperature variations. By establishing a Gibbs free energy phase diagram we trace the phase transition quantization to the discreteness of the layers' excess bend deformation energies in comparison to the thermal energy, even for this near room-temperature system. Monte Carlo simulations yielding spatially resolved nematic order parameters, density maps, and bond-orientational order parameters corroborate the universality and robustness of the confinement-induced columnar ring formation as well as its quantized nature.

  16. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Laschat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  17. Liquid Level Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  18. Nanoscale Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Technical Report 11 December 2005 - 30 November 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Nanoscale Ionic Liquids 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-06-1-0012...Title: Nanoscale Ionic Liquids Principal Investigator: Emmanuel P. Giannelis Address: Materials Science and Engineering, Bard Hall, Cornell University...based fluids exhibit high ionic conductivity. The NFs are typically synthesized by grafting a charged, oligomeric corona onto the nanoparticle cores

  19. Liquid xenon detector engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, E.; Chen, M.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Montgomery, D.B.; Pelly, J.D.; Shotkin, S.; Sullivan, J.D.; Sumorok, K.; Yan, X.; Zhang, X.; Lebedenko, V.

    1991-01-01

    The design, engineering constraints and R and D status of a 15 m 3 precision liquid xenon, electromagnetic calorimeter for the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this paper. Several prototype liquid xenon detectors have been built, and preliminary results are described. The design of a conical 7 cell by 7 cell detector capable of measuring fully contained high energy electron showers is described in detail

  20. Liquid scintillation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    The liquid scintillation solution described includes a mixture of: a liquid scintillation solvent, a primary scintillation solute, a secondary scintillation solute, a variety of appreciably different surfactants, and a dissolving and transparency agent. The dissolving and transparency agent is tetrahydrofuran, a cyclic ether. The scintillation solvent is toluene. The primary scintillation solute is PPO, and the secondary scintillation solute is dimethyl POPOP. The variety of appreciably different surfactants is composed of isooctylphenol-polyethoxyethanol and sodium dihexyl sulphosuccinate [fr

  1. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  2. Liquidity and Shareholder Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Norli, Øyvind; Ostergaard, Charlotte; Schindele, Ibolya

    2009-01-01

    This is the authors’ accepted, refereed and final manuscript to the article Blockholders' incentives to intervene in corporate governance are weakened by free-rider problems and high costs of activism. Theory suggests activists may recoup expenses through informed trading of target rms' stock when stocks are liquid. We show that stock liquidity increases the probability of activism but does less so for potentially overvalued rms for which privately informed blockholders may h...

  3. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  4. Erasing no-man’s land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallenburg, Frank; Filion, Laura; Sciortino, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    One of the most controversial hypotheses for explaining the origin of the thermodynamic anomalies characterizing liquid water postulates the presence of a metastable second-order liquid-liquid critical point located in the `no-man’s land’. In this scenario, two liquids with distinct local structure emerge near the critical temperature. Unfortunately, as spontaneous crystallization is rapid in this region, experimental support for this hypothesis relies on significant extrapolations, either from the metastable liquid or from amorphous solid water. Although the liquid-liquid transition is expected to feature in many tetrahedrally coordinated liquids, including silicon, carbon and silica, even numerical studies of atomic and molecular models have been unable to conclusively prove the existence of this transition. Here we provide such evidence for a model in which it is possible to continuously tune the softness of the interparticle interaction and the flexibility of the bonds, the key ingredients controlling the existence of the critical point. We show that conditions exist where the full coexistence is thermodynamically stable with respect to crystallization. Our work offers a basis for designing colloidal analogues of water exhibiting liquid-liquid transitions in equilibrium, opening the way for experimental confirmation of the original hypothesis.

  5. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  6. Liquid dynamics and inelastic scattering of neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gennes, P. G. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEN de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    1960-07-01

    The energy transfers in one collision between a neutron and a liquid are computed by a method of moments. It is shown that for large momentum transfers a perfect gas model is correct. For small momentum transfers a macroscopic description of the density fluctuations in the liquid is applicable. It is in the intermediate region (where diffraction peaks are observed) that the method of moments is most useful. These different experimental situations are discussed for liquids where recoil and quantum effects are negligible, and numerical results are given for argon. An approximation for the so called autocorrelation function, valid for both long and short time scales and all distances, is also presented. Reprint of a paper published in Physica 25, 1959, p. 825-839.

  7. Vitrification and levitation of a liquid droplet on liquid nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Young S.; Adler, Douglas; Xu, Feng; Kayaalp, Emre; Nureddin, Aida; Anchan, Raymond M.; Maas, Richard L.; Demirci, Utkan

    2010-01-01

    The vitrification of a liquid occurs when ice crystal formation is prevented in the cryogenic environment through ultrarapid cooling. In general, vitrification entails a large temperature difference between the liquid and its surrounding medium. In our droplet vitrification experiments, we observed that such vitrification events are accompanied by a Leidenfrost phenomenon, which impedes the heat transfer to cool the liquid, when the liquid droplet comes into direct contact with liquid nitroge...

  8. Banks’ liquidity buffers and the role of liquidity regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zymek, Robert; van Lelyveld, Iman; Bonner, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    We assess the determinants of banks' liquidity holdings using balance sheet data for nearly 7000 banks from 30 OECD countries over a ten-year period. We highlight the role of several bank-specific, institutional and policy variables in shaping banks' liquidity risk management. Our main question is whether the presence of liquidity regulation substitutes or complements banks' incentives to hold liquid assets. Our results reveal that in the absence of liquidity regulation, the determinants of b...

  9. Numerical investigation on liquid sheets interaction characteristics of liquid-liquid coaxial swirling jets in bipropellant thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Jia-Wei; Li, Guo-Xiu; Yu, Yu-Song

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A LES-VOF model is conducted to simulate atomization of coaxial swirling jets. • Structure and flow field of coaxial swirling jets are investigated. • Merging process occurs at the nozzle exit and generates additional perturbation. • The Rayleigh mode instability dominates the breakup of ligaments. - Abstract: Spray atomization process of a liquid-liquid coaxial swirl injector in bipropellant thruster has been investigated using volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with large eddy simulation methodology. With fine grid resolution, detailed flow field of interacted liquid sheet has been captured and analyzed. For coaxial swirling jet, static pressure drop in the region between the liquid sheets makes two liquid sheets to approach each other and merge. A strong pressure, velocity and turbulent fluctuations are calculated near the contact position of two coaxial jets. Simulation results indicate that additional perturbations are generated due to strong radial and axial shear effects between coaxial jets. Observation of droplet formation process reveals that the Rayleigh mode instability dominates the breakup of the ligament. Droplet diameter and distribution have been investigated quantitatively. The mean diameter of the coaxial jets is between that of the inner and the outer jets. Compared with the individual swirling jets, wider size distributions of droplets are produced in the coaxial jets.

  10. A parallel chiral-achiral liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the stereoisomers of ketamine and ketamine metabolites in the plasma and urine of patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddel, Ruin; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vattem; Tanga, Mary J; Bupp, James E; Green, Carol E; Iyer, Lalitha; Furimsky, Anna; Goldberg, Michael E; Torjman, Marc C; Wainer, Irving W

    2010-10-15

    A parallel chiral/achiral LC-MS/MS assay has been developed and validated to measure the plasma and urine concentrations of the enantiomers of ketamine, (R)- and (S)-Ket, in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients receiving a 5-day continuous infusion of a sub-anesthetic dose of (R,S)-Ket. The method was also validated for the determination of the enantiomers of the Ket metabolites norketamine, (R)- and (S)-norKet and dehydronorketamine, (R)- and (S)-DHNK, as well as the diastereomeric metabolites hydroxynorketamine, (2S,6S)-/(2R,6R)-HNK and two hydroxyketamines, (2S,6S)-HKet and (2S,6R)-Hket. In this method, (R,S)-Ket, (R,S)-norKet and (R,S)-DHNK and the diastereomeric hydroxyl-metabolites were separated and quantified using a C(18) stationary phase and the relative enantiomeric concentrations of (R,S)-Ket, (R,S)-norKet and (R,S)-DHNK were determined using an AGP-CSP. The analysis of the results of microsomal incubations of (R)- and (S)-Ket and a plasma and urine sample from a CRPS patient indicated the presence of 10 additional compounds and glucuronides. The data from the analysis of the patient sample also demonstrated that a series of HNK metabolites were the primary metabolites in plasma and (R)- and (S)-DHNK were the major metabolites found in urine. The results suggest that norKet is the initial, but not the primary metabolite and that downstream norKet metabolites play a role in (R,S)-Ket-related pain relief in CRPS patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Molecular dynamics beyonds the limits: Massive scaling on 72 racks of a BlueGene/P and supercooled glass dynamics of a 1 billion particles system

    KAUST Repository

    Allsopp, Nicholas

    2012-04-01

    We report scaling results on the world\\'s largest supercomputer of our recently developed Billions-Body Molecular Dynamics (BBMD) package, which was especially designed for massively parallel simulations of the short-range atomic dynamics in structural glasses and amorphous materials. The code was able to scale up to 72 racks of an IBM BlueGene/P, with a measured 89% efficiency for a system with 100 billion particles. The code speed, with 0.13. s per iteration in the case of 1 billion particles, paves the way to the study of billion-body structural glasses with a resolution increase of two orders of magnitude with respect to the largest simulation ever reported. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our code by studying the liquid-glass transition of an exceptionally large system made by a binary mixture of 1 billion particles. © 2012.

  12. Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering Studies of the Liquid-Glass Transition: on the Experimental Verification of Mode-Coupling Theory Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halalay, Ion C.

    A study of the structural glass transition trough impulsive stimulated light scattering experiments has been carried out in concentrated aqueous lithium chloride solutions, at temperatures ranging from ambient to cryogenic. A specially designed sample cell made it possible to cover the whole temperature interval from simple liquid, to viscoelastic supercooled liquid, to glass. It is shown that a phenomenological description of the results of these experiments in terms of a spectrum of relaxation times through the use of a Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts relaxation function is inadequate. Based on predictions of mode-coupling theory of the liquid-glass transition, an alternative approach to data interpretation is proposed. It is shown that for an aqueous lithium chloride solution, the prediction of simple scaling and identical scaling for mechanical and electrical susceptibilities seems to be valid. However, another prediction of theory is called into question: instead of a power-law behavior on temperature difference, it is found experimentally that the behavior of the susceptibility spectrum minimum is exponential. Similar disagreements are found for other two materials, triphenyl phosphite and polypropylene oxide. The causes for these discrepancies are discussed and it is concluded that additional experimentation is necessary to verify theoretical claims. Experiments are proposed which can test these predictions and serve as guide for the construction of theoretical models for the glass transition in real systems. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617 -253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  13. Liquidity Risk and Syndicate Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Evan Gatev; Philip Strahan

    2008-01-01

    We offer a new explanation of loan syndicate structure based on banks' comparative advantage in managing systematic liquidity risk. When a syndicated loan to a rated borrower has systematic liquidity risk, the fraction of passive participant lenders that are banks is about 8% higher than for loans without liquidity risk. In contrast, liquidity risk does not explain the share of banks as lead lenders. Using a new measure of ex-ante liquidity risk exposure, we find further evidence that syndica...

  14. Ionizable polyethers as specific metal ion carriers in liquid-liquid extraction and liquid membrane separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowiak, W.; Charewicz, W.A.; Bartsch, R.A.; Ndip, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigations into competitive extraction and penetration through a liquid membrane of alkali and alkaline earth cations from aqueous solutions by a series of lipophilic and ionizable acyclic polyethers of various molecular structure. It is shown that specificity and selectiviy of cation carriers in liquid-liquid extraction and liquid membrane separation depend on molecular structure of acyclic polyethers

  15. Experimental (solid + liquid) or (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of (amine + nitrile) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Marciniak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (hexylamine, or octylamine, or 1,3-diaminopropane + acetonitrile) mixtures. Simple eutectic systems have been observed in these mixtures. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (octylamine, or decylamine + propanenitrile, or + butanenitrile) mixtures. Mixtures with propanenitrile and butanenitrile show immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature, UCST. (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL, NRTL 1, Wilson and UNIQUAC equations. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL equation

  16. Numerical simulation of the gas-liquid interaction of a liquid jet in supersonic crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peibo; Wang, Zhenguo; Sun, Mingbo; Wang, Hongbo

    2017-05-01

    The gas-liquid interaction process of a liquid jet in supersonic crossflow with a Mach number of 1.94 was investigated numerically using the Eulerian-Lagrangian method. The KH (Kelvin-Helmholtz) breakup model was used to calculate the droplet stripping process, and the secondary breakup process was simulated by the competition of RT (Rayleigh-Taylor) breakup model and TAB (Taylor Analogy Breakup) model. A correction of drag coefficient was proposed by considering the compressible effects and the deformation of droplets. The location and velocity models of child droplets after breakup were improved according to droplet deformation. It was found that the calculated spray features, including spray penetration, droplet size distribution and droplet velocity profile agree reasonably well with the experiment. Numerical results revealed that the streamlines of air flow could intersect with the trajectory of droplets and are deflected towards the near-wall region after they enter into spray zone around the central plane. The analysis of gas-liquid relative velocity and droplet deformation suggested that the breakup of droplets mainly occurs around the front region of the spray where gathered a large number of droplets with different sizes. The liquid trailing phenomenon of jet spray which has been discovered by the previous experiment was successfully captured, and a reasonable explanation was given based on the analysis of gas-liquid interaction process.

  17. Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladiev, I.T.; Dzhamardzhashvili, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the generation of electrical energy by direct conversion from thermal or electrical energy and notably to liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertors. The convertor described in this invention can be successfully used as a source of electrical energy for space vessels, for underwater vessels, for aeronautics and for the generation of electrical energy in thermal or atomic power plants. This liquid metal convertor consists of a heat source, a two phase nozzle, a separator, a steam diffuser and a condenser. These elements are connected together hydraulically in series. The condenser is connected hydraulically to a heat source, a liquid diffuser and a magnetohydrodynamic generator. These elements are interconnected hydraulically to the separator and heat source [fr

  18. Liquid crystals in tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Francisco-José; Martínez-Nicolás, Ginés; Iglesias, Patricia; Sanes, José; Bermúdez, María-Dolores

    2009-09-18

    Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs), only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs). Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered.

  19. Magnetostriction of Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandia, Rishi; Cooley, Jason C.; Imhoff, Seth D.

    The study of magnetic field-driven microstructural effects is in its infancy, but results have been promising. Previous work showed that these effects are easily observable in some systems, suggesting that magnetic fields could be used to control and engineer various micro-structural properties. The energy scales for crystallite rotation in the liquid and on the viscosity of the melt are known. However, the fundamental energy scale of the magnetic field interaction with the liquid and solid near the melting point is not. In this talk, we present magnetostriction data on liquid elements and alloys that will help us understand the energy scale of these processes and develop a theoretical understanding of solidification in magnetic fields.

  20. Liquid crystalline dihydroazulene photoswitches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ugleholdt; Jevric, Martyn; Mandle, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    A large selection of photochromic dihydroazulene (DHA) molecules incorporating various substituents at position 2 of the DHA core was prepared and investigated for their ability to form liquid crystalline phases. Incorporation of an octyloxy-substituted biphenyl substituent resulted in nematic...... phase behavior and it was possible to convert one such compound partly into its vinylheptafulvene (VHF) isomer upon irradiation with light when in the liquid crystalline phase. This conversion resulted in an increase in the molecular alignment of the phase. In time, the meta-stable VHF returns...... to the DHA where the alignment is maintained. The systematic structural variation has revealed that a biaryl spacer between the DHA and the alkyl chain is needed for liquid crystallinity and that the one aromatic ring in the spacer cannot be substituted by a triazole. This work presents an important step...