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Sample records for superconductor quantum interference

  1. Quantum interference in an interfacial superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Srijit; Mulazimoglu, Emre; Monteiro, Ana M. R. V. L.; Wölbing, Roman; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold; Blanter, Ya. M.; Vandersypen, Lieven M. K.; Caviglia, Andrea D.

    2016-10-01

    The two-dimensional superconductor that forms at the interface between the complex oxides lanthanum aluminate (LAO) and strontium titanate (STO) has several intriguing properties that set it apart from conventional superconductors. Most notably, an electric field can be used to tune its critical temperature (Tc; ref. 7), revealing a dome-shaped phase diagram reminiscent of high-Tc superconductors. So far, experiments with oxide interfaces have measured quantities that probe only the magnitude of the superconducting order parameter and are not sensitive to its phase. Here, we perform phase-sensitive measurements by realizing the first superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) at the LAO/STO interface. Furthermore, we develop a new paradigm for the creation of superconducting circuit elements, where local gates enable the in situ creation and control of Josephson junctions. These gate-defined SQUIDs are unique in that the entire device is made from a single superconductor with purely electrostatic interfaces between the superconducting reservoir and the weak link. We complement our experiments with numerical simulations and show that the low superfluid density of this interfacial superconductor results in a large, gate-controllable kinetic inductance of the SQUID. Our observation of robust quantum interference opens up a new pathway to understanding the nature of superconductivity at oxide interfaces.

  2. IETS and quantum interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob Lykkebo; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Destructive quantum interference in single molecule electronics is an intriguing phenomenon; however, distinguishing quantum interference effects from generically low transmission is not trivial. In this paper, we discuss how quantum interference effects in the transmission lead to either low...... suppressed when quantum interference effects dominate. That is, we expand the understanding of propensity rules in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to molecules with destructive quantum interference....

  3. Interference of Quantum Market Strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Piotrowski, E W; Syska, J

    2003-01-01

    Recent development in quantum computation and quantum information theory allows to extend the scope of game theory for the quantum world. The paper is devoted to the analysis of interference of quantum strategies in quantum market games.

  4. Quantum interference in polyenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yuta; Hoffmann, Roald; Movassagh, Ramis; Datta, Supriyo

    2014-12-01

    The explicit form of the zeroth Green's function in the Hückel model, approximated by the negative of the inverse of the Hückel matrix, has direct quantum interference consequences for molecular conductance. We derive a set of rules for transmission between two electrodes attached to a polyene, when the molecule is extended by an even number of carbons at either end (transmission unchanged) or by an odd number of carbons at both ends (transmission turned on or annihilated). These prescriptions for the occurrence of quantum interference lead to an unexpected consequence for switches which realize such extension through electrocyclic reactions: for some specific attachment modes the chemically closed ring will be the ON position of the switch. Normally the signs of the entries of the Green's function matrix are assumed to have no physical significance; however, we show that the signs may have observable consequences. In particular, in the case of multiple probe attachments - if coherence in probe connections can be arranged - in some cases new destructive interference results, while in others one may have constructive interference. One such case may already exist in the literature.

  5. Quantum interference in polyenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Yuta; Hoffmann, Roald, E-mail: rh34@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Baker Laboratory, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Movassagh, Ramis [Department of Mathematics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA and Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building E18, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States); Datta, Supriyo [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, Electrical Engineering Building, 465 Northwestern Ave., West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2035 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    The explicit form of the zeroth Green's function in the Hückel model, approximated by the negative of the inverse of the Hückel matrix, has direct quantum interference consequences for molecular conductance. We derive a set of rules for transmission between two electrodes attached to a polyene, when the molecule is extended by an even number of carbons at either end (transmission unchanged) or by an odd number of carbons at both ends (transmission turned on or annihilated). These prescriptions for the occurrence of quantum interference lead to an unexpected consequence for switches which realize such extension through electrocyclic reactions: for some specific attachment modes the chemically closed ring will be the ON position of the switch. Normally the signs of the entries of the Green's function matrix are assumed to have no physical significance; however, we show that the signs may have observable consequences. In particular, in the case of multiple probe attachments – if coherence in probe connections can be arranged – in some cases new destructive interference results, while in others one may have constructive interference. One such case may already exist in the literature.

  6. Graphene quantum interference photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahbub; Voss, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a graphene quantum interference (QI) photodetector was simulated in two regimes of operation. The structure consists of a graphene nanoribbon, Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), which exhibits a strongly resonant transmission of electrons of specific energies. In the first regime of operation (that of a linear photodetector), low intensity light couples two resonant energy levels, resulting in scattering and differential transmission of current with an external quantum efficiency of up to 5.2%. In the second regime of operation, full current switching is caused by the phase decoherence of the current due to a strong photon flux in one or both of the interferometer arms in the same MZI structure. Graphene QI photodetectors have several distinct advantages: they are of very small size, they do not require p- and n-doped regions, and they exhibit a high external quantum efficiency.

  7. Graphene quantum interference photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbub Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a graphene quantum interference (QI photodetector was simulated in two regimes of operation. The structure consists of a graphene nanoribbon, Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI, which exhibits a strongly resonant transmission of electrons of specific energies. In the first regime of operation (that of a linear photodetector, low intensity light couples two resonant energy levels, resulting in scattering and differential transmission of current with an external quantum efficiency of up to 5.2%. In the second regime of operation, full current switching is caused by the phase decoherence of the current due to a strong photon flux in one or both of the interferometer arms in the same MZI structure. Graphene QI photodetectors have several distinct advantages: they are of very small size, they do not require p- and n-doped regions, and they exhibit a high external quantum efficiency.

  8. Coherent quantum trasport in ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagnet graphene junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salehi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the coherent quantum transport in grapheme-based ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagent junctions within the framework of BCS theory using DBdG quasiparticles equation .The coherency with the finite size of superconductor region has two characteristic features subgap electron transport and oscillations of differential conductance. we show that periodic vanishing of the Andreev reflection at the energies called geometrical resonances above the superconducting gap is a striking consequence of quasiparticles interference. We suggest to make devices that produce polarized spin-current with possible applications in spintronics.

  9. Interference Phenomena in Quantum Information

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanak, Martin

    2010-01-01

    One of the key features of quantum mechanics is the interference of probability amplitudes. The reason for the appearance of interference is mathematically very simple. It is the linear structure of the Hilbert space which is used for the description of quantum systems. In terms of physics we usually talk about the superposition principle valid for individual and composed quantum objects. So, while the source of interference is understandable it leads in fact to many counter-intuitive physical phenomena which puzzle physicists for almost hundred years. The present thesis studies interference in two seemingly disjoint fields of physics. However, both have strong links to quantum information processing and hence are related. In the first part we study the intriguing properties of quantum walks. In the second part we analyze a sophisticated application of wave packet dynamics in atoms and molecules for factorization of integers. The main body of the thesis is based on the original contributions listed separately...

  10. Quantum Interference in Graphene Nanoconstrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Pascal; Sadeghi, Hatef; Sangtarash, Sara; Lau, Chit Siong; Liu, Junjie; Ardavan, Arzhang; Warner, Jamie H; Lambert, Colin J; Briggs, G Andrew D; Mol, Jan A

    2016-07-13

    We report quantum interference effects in the electrical conductance of chemical vapor deposited graphene nanoconstrictions fabricated using feedback controlled electroburning. The observed multimode Fabry-Pérot interferences can be attributed to reflections at potential steps inside the channel. Sharp antiresonance features with a Fano line shape are observed. Theoretical modeling reveals that these Fano resonances are due to localized states inside the constriction, which couple to the delocalized states that also give rise to the Fabry-Pérot interference patterns. This study provides new insight into the interplay between two fundamental forms of quantum interference in graphene nanoconstrictions.

  11. On n-quantum vortices in superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Marchenko, V I

    2002-01-01

    The conditions of the n-quantum vortices observation in the superconductors are discussed. It is established in the course of calculating the coefficient by the |psi| sup 6 (psi - the order parameter) in the Ginzburg-Landau theory for the BCS standard model that the sign of this coefficient is negative. This favours the possibility of observing the n-quantum vortices in the superconductors, wherein the vortex lattice with gravitation is formed. The existence of gravitation is manifested in the magnetization finite jump in the H sub 0 = H sub c sub sup 1 field. When by the temperature change the superconductor behavior changes in such a way, that its magnetization in the H sub 0 = H sub c field reduces to the zero, than the observation of the n-quantum vortices near this transition is possible

  12. Quantum Dots Coupled to a Superconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellinggaard, Anders Robert

    are tuned electrostatically. This includes tuning the odd occupation of the dot through a quantum phase transition, where it forms a singlet with excitations in the superconductor. We detail the fabrication of these bottom gated devices, which additionally feature ancillary sensor dots connected...

  13. "Quantum Interference with Slits" Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Rothman, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Marcella [arXiv:quant-ph/0703126] has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his calculation as if no approximations are employed. We show that he implicitly makes the same approximations found in classical treatments of interference and that no new physics has been introduced. At the same time, some of the quantum mechanical arguments Marcella gives are, at best, misleading.

  14. "Quantum Interference with Slits" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Tony; Boughn, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Marcella has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his…

  15. "Quantum Interference with Slits" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Tony; Boughn, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Marcella has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his…

  16. Silicon superconducting quantum interference device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvauchelle, J. E.; Francheteau, A.; Marcenat, C.; Lefloch, F., E-mail: francois.lefloch@cea.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, CEA - INAC - SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Chiodi, F.; Débarre, D. [Université Paris-sud, CNRS - IEF, F-91405 Orsay - France (France); Hasselbach, K. [Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS - Inst. Néel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Kirtley, J. R. [Center for probing at nanoscale, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94305-4045 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We have studied a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) made from a single layer thin film of superconducting silicon. The superconducting layer is obtained by heavily doping a silicon wafer with boron atoms using the gas immersion laser doping technique. The SQUID is composed of two nano-bridges (Dayem bridges) in a loop and shows magnetic flux modulation at low temperature and low magnetic field. The overall behavior shows very good agreement with numerical simulations based on the Ginzburg-Landau equations.

  17. Anomalous Fraunhofer interference in epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, H. J.; Danon, J.; Kjaergaard, M.; Flensberg, K.; Shabani, J.; Palmstrøm, C. J.; Nichele, F.; Marcus, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate patterns of critical current as a function of perpendicular and in-plane magnetic fields in superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor (SNS) junctions based on InAs/InGaAs heterostructures with an epitaxial Al layer. This material system is of interest due to its exceptionally good superconductor-semiconductor coupling, as well as large spin-orbit interaction and g factor in the semiconductor. Thin epitaxial Al allows the application of large in-plane field without destroying superconductivity. For fields perpendicular to the junction, flux focusing results in aperiodic node spacings in the pattern of critical currents known as Fraunhofer patterns by analogy to the related interference effect in optics. Adding an in-plane field yields two further anomalies in the pattern. First, higher-order nodes are systematically strengthened, indicating current flow along the edges of the device, as a result of confinement of Andreev states driven by an induced flux dipole; second, asymmetries in the interference appear that depend on the field direction and magnitude. A model is presented, showing good agreement with experiment, elucidating the roles of flux focusing, Zeeman and spin-orbit coupling, and disorder in producing these effects.

  18. ``Quantum'' interference with bouncing drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens

    2013-11-01

    In a series of recent papers (most recently) Yves Couder and collaborators have explored the dynamics of walking drops on the surface of a vibrated bath of silicon oil and have demonstrated a close analogy to quantum phenomena. The bouncing drop together with the surface wave that it excites seems to be very similar to the pilot wave envisaged by de Broglie for quantum particles. In particular, have studied a double slit experiment with walking drops, where an interference pattern identical to the quantum version is found even though it is possible to follow the orbits of the drops and unambigously determine which slit it goes through, something which in quantum mechanics would be ruled out by the Heisenberg uncertainly relations. We have repeated the experiment and present a somewhat more complicated picture. Theoretically, we study a Schrödinger equation with a source term originating from a localised ``particle'' being simultaneously guided by the wave. We present simple solutions to such a field theory and discuss the fundamental difficulties met by such a theory in order to comply with quantum mechanics.

  19. Proposed Aharonov-Casher interference measurement of non-Abelian vortices in chiral p-wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosfeld, Eytan; Seradjeh, Babak; Vishveshwara, Smitha

    2011-03-01

    We propose a two-path vortex interferometry experiment based on the Aharonov-Casher effect for detecting the non-Abelian nature of vortices in a chiral P-wave superconductor. The effect is based on observing vortex interference patterns upon enclosing a finite charge of externally controllable magnitude within the interference path. We predict that when the interfering vortices enclose an odd number of identical vortices in their path, the interference pattern disappears only for non-Abelian vortices. When pairing involves two distinct spin species, we derive the mutual statistics between half quantum and full quantum vortices and show that, remarkably, our predictions still hold for the situation of a full quantum vortex enclosing a half quantum vortex in its path. We discuss the experimentally relevant conditions under which these effects can be observed.

  20. Interference effect on pairing correlations in a metal-superconductor-metal layer with magnetic interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chi-Hoon

    2012-05-01

    We study the proximity effect in a multilayer composed of a normal metal and a superconductor with spin-active interfaces. The symmetry of the induced pair amplitude is analyzed while varying the interface distance and the direction of the interface spins. We apply the general Green's function formalism without making the quasiclassical approximation in order to study the interference effect from the surrounding interfaces of the superconducting layer. By utilizing the formalism developed by A. Millis et al., we compute the Keldysh Green's function while incorporating the general boundary condition for magnetic interfaces of a superconducting heterostructure. The interference can have a profound effect on the proximity phenomena in the ballistic limit when the interface distance becomes less than the superconducting coherence length. We also discuss the effect of the direction of the interface spins on the induction of the odd-frequency equal-spin pairing state, which is important for applications of ferromagnetic quantum devices.

  1. General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Gui-Lu

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of thesub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer,the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer,it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented:the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.

  2. Quantum resistor-capacitor circuit with Majorana fermion modes in a chiral topological superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minchul; Choi, Mahn-Soo

    2014-08-15

    We investigate the mesoscopic resistor-capacitor circuit consisting of a quantum dot coupled to spatially separated Majorana fermion modes in a chiral topological superconductor. We find substantially enhanced relaxation resistance due to the nature of Majorana fermions, which are their own antiparticles and are composed of particle and hole excitations in the same abundance. Further, if only a single Majorana mode is involved, the zero-frequency relaxation resistance is completely suppressed due to a destructive interference. As a result, the Majorana mode opens an exotic dissipative channel on a superconductor which is typically regarded as dissipationless due to its finite superconducting gap.

  3. On the critical temperatures of superconductors: a quantum gravity approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gregori, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We consider superconductivity in the light of the quantum gravity theoretical framework introduced in [1]. In this framework, the degree of quantum delocalization depends on the geometry of the energy distribution along space. This results in a dependence of the critical temperature characterizing the transition to the superconducting phase on the complexity of the structure of a superconductor. We consider concrete examples, ranging from low to high temperature superconductors, and discuss h...

  4. Gravitational and rotational effects in quantum interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandan, J.

    1977-03-15

    The phase shift due to gravitation and rotation in the quantum interference of two coherent beams is obtained relativistically and compared with the recent experiment of Colella, Overhauser, and Werner. A general expression relating the quantum phase shift to the transverse acceleration of a classical particle in the plane of interference for an arbitrary interaction with any external field is given. This can serve as a correspondence principle between quantum physics and classical physics. The phase shift due to the coupling of spin to curvature of space-time is deduced and written explicitly for the special case of a Schwarzschild field. The last result implies that a massless spinning particle can have at most two helicity states and its world line in a gravitational field is a null geodesic. Finally, new experiments are proposed to test the effect of rotation on quantum interference and to obtain direct evidence of the equivalence principle in quantum mechanics.

  5. Analytical Result on the Supercurrent Through a Superconductor/Quantum-Dot/Superconductor Junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; ZHU Yu; LIN Tsung-Han

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical result for the supercurrent across a superconductor/quantum-dot/superconductor junction. By converting the current integration into a special contour integral, we can express the current as a sum of the residues of poles. These poles are real and give a natural definition of the Andreev bound states. We also use the exact result to explain some features of the supercurrent transport behavior.

  6. Quantum interference from remotely trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, S; Rotter, D; Hennrich, M; Blatt, R [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rohde, F; Schuck, C; Almendros, M; Gehr, R; Dubin, F; Eschner, J [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Av del Canal OlImpic, E-08860 Castelldefels (Spain)], E-mail: francois.dubin@icfo.es

    2009-01-15

    We observe quantum interference of photons emitted by two continuously laser-excited single ions, independently trapped in distinct vacuum vessels. High contrast two-photon interference is observed in two experiments with different ion species, Ca{sup +} and Ba{sup +}. Our experimental findings are quantitatively reproduced by Bloch equation calculations. In particular, we show that the coherence of the individual resonance fluorescence light field is determined from the observed interference.

  7. Scattering Induced Quantum Interference of Multiple Quantum Optical States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    2011-01-01

    Using a discrete mode theory for propagation of quantum optical states, we investigate the consequences of multiple scattering on the degree of quadrature entanglement and quantum interference. We report that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering. We furthermore show that quantum...... interference induced by the transmission of quantized light through a multiple-scattering medium will persist even after averaging over an ensemble of scattering samples....

  8. On the critical temperatures of superconductors: a quantum gravity approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gregori, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We consider superconductivity in the light of the quantum gravity theoretical framework introduced in [1]. In this framework, the degree of quantum delocalization depends on the geometry of the energy distribution along space. This results in a dependence of the critical temperature characterizing the transition to the superconducting phase on the complexity of the structure of a superconductor. We consider concrete examples, ranging from low to high temperature superconductors, and discuss how the critical temperature can be predicted once the quantum gravity effects are taken into account.

  9. Quantum oscillations in organic metals and superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, N

    2000-12-01

    De Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations have been observed in the organic superconductor {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} at temperatures down to 30 mK, and the oscillations are found to suffer an additional attenuation, R{sub s}, in the mixed state. None of the theoretical models, coupled with the mean-field expression for the field-dependence of the superconducting energy gap, {delta}, offer a good fit to the data. By including the effects of thermal fluctuations in the field-dependence of {delta}, a reasonable fit to the data can be made at the lowest temperatures. However, the form of the damping does not change appreciably as the temperature is increased up to 560 mK, which is inconsistent with the thermal fluctuation model. Angle resolved dHvA measurements on {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} have allowed R{sub s} curves to be measured as a function of the orientation of the applied magnetic field. These R{sub s}({theta}) curves may be scaled onto one another by taking the components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the layers. The scale of the fluctuations is independent of angle within experimental errors. This, and an angle-independent normal state Dingle temperature, suggests that the quasiparticle orbits are confined to the two-dimensional layers for all angles of applied magnetic field. An angle resolved dHvA study has been performed on the organic metal {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(NCS){sub 4}. At low temperatures and low fields, the Fermi surface is reconstructed in this material, and the dHvA signal is dominated by an a frequency and its second harmonic, 2{alpha}. The amplitude of the 2{alpha} frequency is shown to deviate from the predictions of the Lifshitz-Kosevich expression, but is found to be consistent with a 'frequency doubling' mechanism. In this scheme, the 2{alpha} frequency arises from a new type of quantum oscillatory phenomenon, due to the susceptibility of the quasi one-dimensional sheets, driven by

  10. Coherent quantum transport in normal-metal/d-wave superconductor/normal-metal double tunnel junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Zhengchao; FU; Hao

    2004-01-01

    Taking into account the effects of quantum interference and interface scattering, combining the electron current with hole current contribution to tunnel current,we study the coherent quantum transport in normal-metal/d-wave superconductor/normal-metal (NM/d-wave SC/NM) double tunnel junctions by using extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) approach. It is shown that all quasiparticle transport coefficients and conductance spectrum exhibit oscillating behavior with the energy, in which periodic vanishing of Andreev reflection (AR) above superconducting gap is found.In tunnel limit for the interface scattering strength taken very large, there are a series of bound states of quasiparticles formed in SC.

  11. Quantum Radiation Reaction: From Interference to Incoherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Victor; Harvey, Chris; Ilderton, Anton; Marklund, Mattias; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2016-01-29

    We investigate quantum radiation reaction in laser-electron interactions across different energy and intensity regimes. Using a fully quantum approach which also accounts exactly for the effect of the strong laser pulse on the electron motion, we identify in particular a regime in which radiation reaction is dominated by quantum interference. We find signatures of quantum radiation reaction in the electron spectra which have no classical analogue and which cannot be captured by the incoherent approximations typically used in the high-intensity regime. These signatures are measurable with presently available laser and accelerator technology.

  12. Quantum radiation reaction: from interference to incoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Dinu, Victor; Ilderton, Anton; Marklund, Mattias; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2015-01-01

    We investigate quantum radiation reaction in laser-electron interactions across different energy and intensity regimes. Using a fully quantum approach which also accounts exactly for the effect of the strong laser pulse on the electron motion, we identify in particular a regime in which radiation reaction is dominated by quantum interference. We find signatures of quantum radiation reaction in the electron spectra which have no classical analogue and which cannot be captured by the incoherent approximations typically used in the high-intensity regime. These signatures are measurable with presently available laser and accelerator technology.

  13. Andreev Tunneling Through a Ferromagnet/Quantum-Dot/Superconductor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Hong-Hu; ZHU Yu; LIN Tsung-Han

    2002-01-01

    We study Andreev tunneling through a ferromagnet/quantum-dot (QD)/superconductor system. By usingnonequilibrum Green function method, the averaged occupation of electrons in QD and the Andreev tunneling currentare studied. Comparing to the norma-metal/quantum-dot/superconductor, the system shows significant changes: (i)The averaged occupations of spin-up and spin-down electrons are not equal. (ii) With the increase of the polarizationof ferromagnetic lead, the Andreev reflection current decreases. (iii) However, even the ferromagnetic lead reaches fullpolarization, the averaged occupation of spin-down electrons is not zero. The physics of these changes is discussed.

  14. Quantum interference between transverse spatial waveguide modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Aseema; Zhang, Mian; Dutt, Avik; Ramelow, Sven; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Lipson, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Integrated quantum optics has the potential to markedly reduce the footprint and resource requirements of quantum information processing systems, but its practical implementation demands broader utilization of the available degrees of freedom within the optical field. To date, integrated photonic quantum systems have primarily relied on path encoding. However, in the classical regime, the transverse spatial modes of a multi-mode waveguide have been easily manipulated using the waveguide geometry to densely encode information. Here, we demonstrate quantum interference between the transverse spatial modes within a single multi-mode waveguide using quantum circuit-building blocks. This work shows that spatial modes can be controlled to an unprecedented level and have the potential to enable practical and robust quantum information processing.

  15. Quantum interference between transverse spatial waveguide modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Aseema; Zhang, Mian; Dutt, Avik; Ramelow, Sven; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Lipson, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Integrated quantum optics has the potential to markedly reduce the footprint and resource requirements of quantum information processing systems, but its practical implementation demands broader utilization of the available degrees of freedom within the optical field. To date, integrated photonic quantum systems have primarily relied on path encoding. However, in the classical regime, the transverse spatial modes of a multi-mode waveguide have been easily manipulated using the waveguide geometry to densely encode information. Here, we demonstrate quantum interference between the transverse spatial modes within a single multi-mode waveguide using quantum circuit-building blocks. This work shows that spatial modes can be controlled to an unprecedented level and have the potential to enable practical and robust quantum information processing. PMID:28106036

  16. Understanding quantum interference in General Nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Wanng, Hai-Jhun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to give an understanding of quantum double-slit interference of fermions in the framework of General Nonlocality (GN) [J. Math. Phys. 49, 033513 (2008)] by studying the self-interaction of matter wave. From the metric of the GN, we derive a special formalism to interpret the interference contrast when the self-interaction is perturbative. According to the formalism, the characteristic of interference pattern is in agreement with experiment qualitatively. As examples, we apply the formalism to the cases governed by Schr\\"odinger current and Dirac current respectively, both of which are relevant to topology. The gap between these two cases corresponds to a spin-current effect, which is possible to test in the near future. In addition, a general interference formalism for both perturbative and non-perturbative self-interactions is presented. By analyzing the general formalism we predict that in the nonperturbative limit there is no interference at all.

  17. Nonclassical Paths in Quantum Interference Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Rahul; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Aninda; Sinha, Supurna; Sinha, Urbasi

    2014-09-01

    In a double slit interference experiment, the wave function at the screen with both slits open is not exactly equal to the sum of the wave functions with the slits individually open one at a time. The three scenarios represent three different boundary conditions and as such, the superposition principle should not be applicable. However, most well-known text books in quantum mechanics implicitly and/or explicitly use this assumption that is only approximately true. In our present study, we have used the Feynman path integral formalism to quantify contributions from nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments that provide a measurable deviation from a naive application of the superposition principle. A direct experimental demonstration for the existence of these nonclassical paths is difficult to present. We find that contributions from such paths can be significant and we propose simple three-slit interference experiments to directly confirm their existence.

  18. Heuristic explanation of quantum interference experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Guowen, W

    2005-01-01

    A particle is described as a non-spreading wave packet satisfying a linear equation within the framework of special relativity. Young's and other interference experiments are explained with a hypothesis that there is a coupling interaction between the peaked and non-peaked pieces of the wave packet. This explanation of the interference experiments provides a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. The interpretation implies that there is physical reality of particles and no wave function collapse. It also implies that neither classical mechanics nor current quantum mechanics is a complete theory for describing physical reality and the Bell inequalities are not the proper touchstones for reality and locality. The problems of the boundary between the macro-world and micro-world and the de-coherence in the transition region (meso-world) between the two are discussed. The present interpretation of quantum mechanics is consistent with the physical aspects of the Copenhagen interpretation, such as, the super...

  19. Many-body quantum interference on hypercubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittel, Christoph; Keil, Robert; Weihs, Gregor

    2017-03-01

    Beyond the regime of distinguishable particles, many-body quantum interferences influence quantum transport in an intricate manner. However, symmetries of the single-particle transformation matrix alleviate this complexity and even allow the analytic formulation of suppression laws, which predict final states to occur with a vanishing probability due to total destructive interference. Here we investigate the symmetries of hypercube graphs and their generalisations with arbitrary identical subgraphs on all vertices. We find that initial many-particle states, which are invariant under self-inverse symmetries of the hypercube, lead to a large number of suppressed final states. The condition for suppression is determined solely by the initial symmetry, while the fraction of suppressed states is given by the number of independent symmetries of the initial state. Our findings reveal new insights into particle statistics for ensembles of indistinguishable bosons and fermions and may represent a first step towards many-particle quantum protocols in higher-dimensional structures.

  20. Radio VLBI and the quantum interference paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    We address here the question of interference of radio signals from astronomical sources like distant quasars, in a very long baseline interferometer (VLBI), where two (or more) distantly located radio telescopes (apertures), receive simultaneous signal from the sky. In an equivalent optical two-slit experiment, it is generally argued that for the photons involved in the interference pattern on the screen, it is not possible, even in principle, to ascertain which of the two slits a particular photon went through. It is argued that any procedure to ascertain this destroys the interference pattern. But in the case of the modern radio VLBI, it is a routine matter to record the phase and amplitude of the voltage outputs from the two radio antennas on a recording media separately and then do the correlation between the two recorded signals later in an offline manner. Does this not violate the quantum interference principle? We provide a resolution of this problem here.

  1. Quantum Interference of Multiple Beams Induced by Multiple Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, N. Asger; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We report on quantum interference induced by the transmission of quantized light through a multiple-scattering medium. We show that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering and that quantum interference survives disorder averaging.......We report on quantum interference induced by the transmission of quantized light through a multiple-scattering medium. We show that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering and that quantum interference survives disorder averaging....

  2. Quantum creep in a highly crystalline two-dimensional superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yu; Kasahara, Yuichi; Ye, Jianting; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Nojima, Tsutomu

    Conventional studies on quantum phase transitions, especially on superconductor-insulator or superconductor-metal-insulator transitions have been performed in deposited metallic thin films such as Bismuth or MoGe. Although the techniques of thin films deposition have been considerably improved, unintentional disorder such as impurities and deficiencies, generating the pinning centers, seems to still exist in such systems. The mechanical exfoliated highly crystalline two-dimensional material can be a good candidate to realize a less-disordered 2D superconductor with extremely weak pinning, combined with transfer method or ionic-liquid gating. We report on the quantum metal, namely, magnetic-field-induced metallic state observed in an ion-gated two-dimensional superconductor based on an ultra-highly crystalline layered band insulator, ZrNCl. We found that the superconducting state is extremely fragile against external magnetic fields; that is, zero resistance state immediately disappears, once an external magnetic field switches on. This is because the present system is relatively clean and the pinning potential is extremely weak, which cause quantum tunneling and flux flow of vortices, resulting in metallic ground state.

  3. rf superconducting quantum interference device metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarides, N.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2007-04-01

    A rf superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) array in an alternating magnetic field is investigated with respect to its effective magnetic permeability, within the effective medium approximation. This system acts as an inherently nonlinear magnetic metamaterial, leading to negative magnetic response, and thus negative permeability above the resonance frequency of the individual SQUIDs. Moreover, the permeability exhibits oscillatory behavior at low field intensities, allowing its tuning by a slight change of the intensity of the applied field.

  4. Spiral holographic imaging through quantum interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Ming, Yang; Hu, Wei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2017-07-01

    Spiral holographic imaging in the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference scheme is introduced. Using spontaneous parametric down-conversion as a source of photon pairs, we analyze the joint orbital angular momentum spectrum of a reference photon and the photon encoding information of the object. The first-order interference of light beams in standard holographic imaging is replaced by the quantum interference of two-photon probability amplitudes. The difficulty in retrieving the amplitude and phase structure of an unknown photon is thereby avoided as classical interferometric techniques such as optical holography do not apply. Our results show that the full information of the object's transmission function can be recorded in the spiral hologram, which originates directly from the joint orbital angular momentum spectrum. This presents a lateral demonstration of compressive imaging and can potentially be used for remote sensing.

  5. Strong Correlation of Fluorescence Photons without Quantum Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiang-Ming; WANG Fei

    2007-01-01

    It has been predicted that a driven three-level V atom can emit strongly correlated fluorescence photons in the presence of quantum interference. Here we examine the effects of quantum interference on the intensity correlation of fluorescence photons emitted from a driven three-level A atom. Unexpectedly, strong correlation occurs without quantum interference. The quantum interference tends to reduce the correlation function to a normal level. The essential difference between these two cases is traced to the different effects of quantum interference on coherent population trapping (CPT). For the V atom, quantum interference and coherent excitation combine to lead to CPT. For the A atom, however, the quantum interference tends to spoil CPT while the coherent excitation induces the effect.

  6. Quantum search via superconducting quantum interference devices in a cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yan; Dong Ping; Xue Zheng-Yuan; Cao Zhuo-Liang

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for implementing the Grover search algorithm with two superconducing quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) in a cavity. Our scheme only requires single resonant interaction of the SQUID-cavity system and the required interaction time is very short. The simplicity of the process and the reduction of the interaction time are important for restraining decoherence.

  7. High critical temperature superconductor Josephson junctions for quantum circuit applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauch, T; Gustafsson, D; Cedergren, K; Nawaz, S; Mumtaz Virk, M; Lombardi, F [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Pettersson, H; Olsson, E [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: bauch@chalmers.se

    2009-12-15

    Recent findings of macroscopic quantum properties in high critical temperature superconductor (HTS) Josephson junctions (JJs) point toward the need to revise the role of zero energy quasi-particles in this novel superconductor. We will discuss the possibility of designing superconducting artificial atoms in a transmon configuration to study the low energy excitation spectra of HTS. We have engineered high quality grain boundary JJs on low dielectric constant substrates. By fabricating submicron junctions, we extract values of capacitance and Josephson critical current densities that satisfy the main transmon design requirements. Moreover, the measured critical current noise power extrapolated at 1 Hz gives a dephasing time of 25 ns, which indicates that the observation of macroscopic quantum coherent effects in HTS JJ is a feasible task.

  8. Quantum oscillations in superconductors in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdikov, Vladimir M.; Gvozdikova, Mariya V.

    2000-07-01

    The Aharonov-Bohm oscillations (ABO) of the free energy, the critical temperature, and the magnetic susceptibility in a stack of hollow mesoscopic cylinders are calculated. It is shown that sinusoidal (in flux) ABO crosses over to the parabolic Little-Parks oscillations (LPO) when the diameter of cylinders exceeds the coherence length. The exponential temperature behaviour of the magnetic susceptibility is like that found in Ag cylinders with thin Nb coating [Czech. J. Physics 46 (1996) 2317]. The formal analogy between oscillations of the free energy in the Aharonov-Bohm system in question and the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations (dHvAO) in layered superconductors is discussed.

  9. Quantum and Ionic Transport Across Superconductor-based Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, Osama; Dinh, Son; Taylor, Benjamin; de Andrade, Marcio; Swanson, Paul; Offord, Bruce; de Escobar, Anna Leese; Claussen, Stephanie; Kassegne, Sam

    2015-03-01

    We present analysis of quantum and ionic transport across superconductor/barrier/ionic/barrier/superconductor (SBIBS) heterostructures. Calculations for various ionic configurations demonstrate modification of the quantum transport coherence length and energy profile with moderate ionic transport away from the superconductor-barrier interface. The effect of electric field and cryogenic temperature on the stability of the ionic configurations for quantum information state storage is examined. Characterization and analysis of constructed Al and Nb-based device structures are presented. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge the support of the SSC Pacific In-house Laboratory Independent Research Science and Technology Program managed by Dr. Dave Rees, the Naval Innovative Science and Engineering Program managed by Mr. Robin Laird, and the ONR Summer Faculty Research Program. Interactions with Dr. Van Vechten (ONR) and Dr. Manheimer (IARPA) are appreciated. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of SPAWAR or the U.S. Government. Approved for Public Release; distribution is unlimited.

  10. Quantum Interference and Entanglement Induced by Multiple Scattering of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, Asger; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We report on the effects of quantum interference induced by the transmission of an arbitrary number of optical quantum states through a multiple-scattering medium. We identify the role of quantum interference on the photon correlations and the degree of continuous variable entanglement between tw...

  11. Quantum Fluctuations of a Superconductor Order Parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, K Yu; Lehtinen, J S

    2016-12-01

    Tunneling I-V characteristics between very narrow titanium nanowires and "massive" superconducting aluminum were measured. The clear trend was observed: the thinner the titanium electrode, the broader the singularity at eV = Δ1(Al) + Δ2(Ti). The phenomenon can be explained by broadening of the gap edge of the quasi-one-dimensional titanium channels due to quantum fluctuations of the order parameter modulus |Δ2|. The range of the nanowire diameters, where the effect is pronounced, correlates with dimensions where the phase fluctuations of the complex superconducting order parameter Δ = |Δ|e(iφ), the quantum phase slips, broadening the R(T) dependencies, have been observed.

  12. Time-domain quantum interference in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion-Gourdeau, François; Gagnon, Denis; Lefebvre, Catherine; MacLean, Steve

    2016-09-01

    The electron momentum density obtained from the Schwinger-like mechanism is evaluated for a graphene sample immersed in a homogeneous time-dependent electric field. Based on the analogy between graphene low-energy electrons and quantum electrodynamics (QED), numerical techniques borrowed from strong field QED are employed and compared to approximate analytical approaches. It is demonstrated that for some range of experimentally accessible parameters, the pair production proceeds by sequences of adiabatic evolutions followed by nonadiabatic Landau-Zener transitions, reminiscent of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism describing topological defect density in second order phase transitions. For some field configurations, this yields interference patterns in momentum space which are explained in terms of the adiabatic-impulse model and the Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interferometry.

  13. Fraunhofer regime of operation for superconducting quantum interference filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shadrin, A.V.; Constantinian, K.Y.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.;

    2008-01-01

    Series arrays of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with incommensurate loop areas, so-called superconducting quantum interference filters (SQIFs), are investigated in the kilohertz and the gigahertz frequency range. In SQIFs made of high-T-c bicrystal junctions the flux-to-vol...

  14. Classical and quantum interference in multiband optical Bloch oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, S

    2010-01-01

    Classical and quantum interference of light propagating in arrays of coupled waveguides and undergoing multiband optical Bloch oscillations (BOs) with negligible Zener tunneling is theoretically investigated. In particular, it is shown that Mach-Zehnder-like interference effects spontaneously arise in multiband BOs owing to beam splitting and subsequent beam recombination occurring in one BO cycle. As a noteworthy example of quantum interference, we discuss the doubling of interference fringes in photon counting rates for a correlated photon pair undergoing two-band BOs, a phenomenon analogous to the manifestation of the de Broglie wavelength of an entangled biphoton state observed in quantum Mach-Zehnder interferometry.

  15. Ruling Out Multi-Order Interference in Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Urbasi; Jennewein, Thomas; Laflamme, Raymond; Weihs, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics and gravitation are two pillars of modern physics. Despite their success in describing the physical world around us, they seem to be incompatible theories. There are suggestions that one of these theories must be generalized to achieve unification. For example, Born's rule, one of the axioms of quantum mechanics could be violated. Born's rule predicts that quantum interference, as shown by a double slit diffraction experiment, occurs from pairs of paths. A generalized version of quantum mechanics might allow multi-path, i.e. higher order interferences thus leading to a deviation from the theory. We performed a three slit experiment with photons and bounded the magnitude of three path interference to less than 10-2 of the expected two-path interference, thus ruling out third and higher order interference and providing a bound on the accuracy of Born's rule. Our experiment is consistent with the postulate both in semi-classical and quantum regimes.

  16. Ruling out multi-order interference in quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Urbasi; Couteau, Christophe; Jennewein, Thomas; Laflamme, Raymond; Weihs, Gregor

    2010-07-23

    Quantum mechanics and gravitation are two pillars of modern physics. Despite their success in describing the physical world around us, they seem to be incompatible theories. There are suggestions that one of these theories must be generalized to achieve unification. For example, Born's rule--one of the axioms of quantum mechanics--could be violated. Born's rule predicts that quantum interference, as shown by a double-slit diffraction experiment, occurs from pairs of paths. A generalized version of quantum mechanics might allow multipath (i.e., higher-order) interference, thus leading to a deviation from the theory. We performed a three-slit experiment with photons and bounded the magnitude of three-path interference to less than 10(-2) of the expected two-path interference, thus ruling out third- and higher-order interference and providing a bound on the accuracy of Born's rule. Our experiment is consistent with the postulate both in semiclassical and quantum regimes.

  17. General relativistic effects in quantum interference of "clocks"

    CERN Document Server

    Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav

    2016-01-01

    Quantum mechanics and general relativity have been each successfully tested in numerous experiments. However, the regime where both theories are jointly required to explain physical phenomena remains untested by laboratory experiments, and is also not fully understood by theory. This contribution reviews recent ideas for a new type of experiments: quantum interference of "clocks", which aim to test novel quantum effects that arise from time dilation. "Clock" interference experiments could be realised with atoms or photons in near future laboratory experiments.

  18. Universal Topological Quantum Computation from a Superconductor-Abelian Quantum Hall Heterostructure

    OpenAIRE

    Mong, Roger S. K.; Clarke, David J.; Alicea, Jason; Lindner, Netanel H.; Fendley, Paul; Nayak, Chetan; Oreg, Yuval; Stern, Ady; Berg, Erez; Shtengel, Kirill; Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-Abelian anyons promise to reveal spectacular features of quantum mechanics that could ultimately provide the foundation for a decoherence-free quantum computer. A key breakthrough in the pursuit of these exotic particles originated from Read and Green's observation that the Moore-Read quantum Hall state and a (relatively simple) two-dimensional p+ip superconductor both support so-called Ising non-Abelian anyons. Here we establish a similar correspondence between the Z_3 Read-Rezayi quantu...

  19. Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via quantum interference from spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadpour, S.H., E-mail: S.Hosein.Asadpour@gmail.com [Young Researchers Club, Bandar Anzali Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Anzali (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahrai, M. [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, A. [School of Engineering and Emerging Technologies, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamedi, H.R. [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-02

    A novel atom configuration is proposed for a giant Kerr nonlinearity in zero linear and nonlinear probe absorption. It is shown that without coherent control field and just by quantum interference of spontaneous emission, a giant Kerr nonlinearity can be obtained. -- Highlights: ► The quantum interference from spontaneous emission is considered in a four-level medium. ► The giant Kerr nonlinearity in the zero linear and nonlinear absorption is obtained. ► The quantum interference effect on group velocity is then investigated.

  20. Interference and interactions in open quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J P; Ferry, D K; Moura, A P S; Lai, Y C; Indlekofer, K M

    2003-01-01

    In this report, we review the results of our joint experimental and theoretical studies of electron-interference, and interaction, phenomena in open electron cavities known as quantum dots. The transport through these structures is shown to be heavily influenced by the remnants of their discrete density of states, elements of which remain resolved in spite of the strong coupling that exists between the cavity and its reservoirs. The experimental signatures of this density of states are discussed at length in this report, and are shown to be related to characteristic wavefunction scarring, involving a small number of classical orbits. A semiclassical analysis of this behaviour shows it to be related to the effect of dynamical tunnelling, in which electrons are injected into the dot tunnel through classically forbidden regions of phase space, to access isolated regular orbits. The dynamical tunnelling gives rise to the formation of long-lived quasi-bound states in the open dots, and the many-body implications a...

  1. Testing Loop Quantum Gravity and Electromagnetic Dark Energy in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Clovis Jacinto

    2008-01-01

    In 1989 Cabrera and Tate reported an anomalous excess of mass of the Cooper pairs in rotating thin Niobium rings. So far, this experimental result never received a proper theoretical explanation in the context of superconductor's physics. In the present work we argue that what Cabrera and Tate interpreted as an anomalous excess of mass can also be associated with a deviation from the classical gravitomagnetic Larmor theorem due to the presence of dark energy in the superconductor, as well as with the discrete structure of the area of the superconducting Niobium ring as predicted by Loop Quantum Gravity. From Cabrera and Tate measurements we deduce that the quantization of spacetime in superconducting circular rings occurs at the Planck-Einstein scale $l_{PE} = (\\hbar G/c^3 \\Lambda)^{1/4}\\sim 3.77\\times 10 ^{-5} m$, instead of the Planck scale $l_{P} =(\\hbar G / c^3)^{1/2}=1.61 \\times 10 ^{-35} m$, with an Immirzi parameter which depends on the specific critical temperature of the superconducting material and ...

  2. Quantum superconductor-insulator transition: implications of BKT critical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T; Weyeneth, S

    2013-07-31

    We explore the implications of Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) critical behavior on the two-dimensional (2D) quantum superconductor-insulator (QSI) transition driven by the tuning parameter x. Concentrating on the sheet resistance R(x,T) BKT behavior implies: an explicit quantum scaling function for R(x,T) along the superconducting branch ending at the nonuniversal critical value Rc = R(xc); a BKT-transition line T(c)(x) [proportionality] (x - x(c))(zν[overline]), where z is the dynamic exponent and ν[overline] the exponent of the zero-temperature correlation length; independent estimates of zν[overline], z and ν[overline] from the x dependence of the nonuniversal parameters entering the BKT expression for the sheet resistance. To illustrate the potential and the implications of this scenario we analyze the data of Bollinger et al (2011 Nature 472 458) taken on gate voltage tuned epitaxial films of La2-xSrxCuO4 that are one unit cell in thickness. The resulting estimates, z ~/= 3.1 and ν[overline] ~/= 0.52, indicate a clean 2D-QSI critical point where hyperscaling, the proportionality between d/λ(2)(0) and Tc, and the correspondence between the quantum phase transitions in D dimensions and the classical ones in (D + z) dimensions are violated.

  3. Interference and inequality in quantum decision theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Taksu, E-mail: taksu.cheon@kochi-tech.ac.j [Laboratory of Physics, Kochi University of Technology, Tosa Yamada, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Taiki, E-mail: ttakahashi@lynx.let.hokudai.ac.j [Laboratory of Social Psychology, Department of Behavioral Science, Faculty of Letters, Hokkaido University, N.10, W.7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2010-12-01

    The quantum decision theory is examined in its simplest form of two-condition two-choice setting. A set of inequalities to be satisfied by any quantum conditional probability describing the decision process is derived. Experimental data indicating the breakdown of classical explanations are critically examined with quantum theory using the full set of quantum phases.

  4. Quantum Interference between Transverse Spatial Waveguide Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Aseema; Dutt, Avik; Ramelow, Sven; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Lipson, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Integrated quantum optics has drastically reduced the size of table-top optical experiments to the chip-scale, allowing for demonstrations of large-scale quantum information processing and quantum simulation. However, despite these advances, practical implementations of quantum photonic circuits remain limited because they consist of large networks of waveguide interferometers that path encode information which do not easily scale. Increasing the dimensionality of current quantum systems using higher degrees of freedom such as transverse spatial field distribution, polarization, time, and frequency to encode more information per carrier will enable scalability by simplifying quantum computational architectures, increasing security and noise tolerance in quantum communication channels, and simulating richer quantum phenomena. Here we demonstrate a scalable platform for photonic quantum information processing using waveguide quantum circuit building blocks based on the transverse spatial mode degree of freedom:...

  5. Quantum Interference and Selectivity through Biological Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Vahid; Naeij, Hamidreza; Shafiee, Afshin

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of selectivity in ion channels is still an open question in biology for more than half a century. Here, we suggest that quantum interference can be a solution to explain the selectivity mechanism in ion channels since interference happens between similar ions through the same size of ion channels. In this paper, we simulate two neighboring ion channels on a cell membrane with the famous double-slit experiment in physics to investigate whether there is any possibility of matter-wave interference of ions via movement through ion channels. Our obtained decoherence timescales indicate that the quantum states of ions can only survive for short times, i.e. ≈100 picoseconds in each channel and ≈17–53 picoseconds outside the channels, giving the result that the quantum interference of ions seems unlikely due to environmental decoherence. However, we discuss our results and raise few points, which increase the possibility of interference. PMID:28134331

  6. Quantum interference of independently generated telecom-band single photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Monika [Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3112 (United States); Altepeter, Joseph B.; Huang, Yu-Ping; Oza, Neal N. [Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3118 (United States); Kumar, Prem [Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3112, USA and Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, Department of Electrical Engineering (United States)

    2014-12-04

    We report on high-visibility quantum interference of independently generated telecom O-band (1310 nm) single photons using standard single-mode fibers. The experimental data are shown to agree well with the results of simulations using a comprehensive quantum multimode theory without the need for any fitting parameter.

  7. Complementarity in temporal ghost interference and temporal quantum eraser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kiyoung; Noh, Jaewoo

    2015-06-01

    We present a theory for the complementarity in temporal interference and quantum erasure. We consider the case of entangled biphoton where we can get the information of single photon's arrival time without making a disturbing measurement. We find a mathematical equation for the complementary relation for a temporal double slit experiment. We also propose a quantum eraser scheme that will elucidate that the complementarity is originated from the quantum entanglement.

  8. An exact factorization perspective on quantum interferences in nonadiabatic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchod, Basile F. E.; Agostini, Federica; Gross, E. K. U.

    2016-07-01

    Nonadiabatic quantum interferences emerge whenever nuclear wavefunctions in different electronic states meet and interact in a nonadiabatic region. In this work, we analyze how nonadiabatic quantum interferences translate in the context of the exact factorization of the molecular wavefunction. In particular, we focus our attention on the shape of the time-dependent potential energy surface—the exact surface on which the nuclear dynamics takes place. We use a one-dimensional exactly solvable model to reproduce different conditions for quantum interferences, whose characteristic features already appear in one-dimension. The time-dependent potential energy surface develops complex features when strong interferences are present, in clear contrast to the observed behavior in simple nonadiabatic crossing cases. Nevertheless, independent classical trajectories propagated on the exact time-dependent potential energy surface reasonably conserve a distribution in configuration space that mimics one of the exact nuclear probability densities.

  9. An Exact Factorization Perspective on Quantum Interferences in Nonadiabatic Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Curchod, Basile F E; Gross, E K U

    2016-01-01

    Nonadiabatic quantum interferences emerge whenever nuclear wavefunctions in different electronic states meet and interact in a nonadiabatic region. In this work, we analyze how nonadiabatic quantum interferences translate in the context of the exact factorization of the molecular wavefunction. In particular, we focus our attention on the shape of the time-dependent potential energy surface - the exact surface on which the nuclear dynamics takes place - using an exactly-solvable model to reproduce different conditions for quantum interferences. The time-dependent potential energy surface develops complex features when strong interferences are present, in clear contrast to the observed behavior in simple nonadiabatic crossing cases. Nevertheless, independent classical trajectories propagated on the exact time-dependent potential energy surface reasonably conserve a distribution in configuration space that mimics the one of the exact nuclear probability density.

  10. General relativistic effects in quantum interference of “clocks”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, M.; Pikovski, I.; Costa, F.; Brukner, Č.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum mechanics and general relativity have been each successfully tested in numerous experiments. However, the regime where both theories are jointly required to explain physical phenomena remains untested by laboratory experiments, and is also not fully understood by theory. This contribution reviews recent ideas for a new type of experiments: quantum interference of “clocks”, which aim to test novel quantum effects that arise from time dilation. “Clock” interference experiments could be realised with atoms or photons in near future laboratory experiments.

  11. Nonmonotonic quantum-to-classical transition in multiparticle interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ra, Young-Sik; Tichy, Malte; Lim, Hyang-Tag

    2013-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical wave–particle duality implies that probability distributions for granular detection events exhibit wave-like interference. On the single-particle level, this leads to self-interference—e.g., on transit across a double slit—for photons as well as for large, massive particles...... that interference fades away monotonically with increasing distinguishability—in accord with available experimental evidence on the single- and on the many-particle level. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that such monotonicity of the quantum-to-classical transition is the exception rather than...... the rule whenever more than two particles interfere. As the distinguishability of the particles is continuously increased, different numbers of particles effectively interfere, which leads to interference signals that are, in general, nonmonotonic functions of the distinguishability of the particles...

  12. Two-photon interference between disparate sources for quantum networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, A. R.; Labonté, L.; Clark, A. S.; Bell, B.; Alibart, O.; Martin, A.; Wadsworth, W. J.; Tanzilli, S.; Rarity, J. G.

    2013-06-01

    Quantum networks involve entanglement sharing between multiple users. Ideally, any two users would be able to connect regardless of the type of photon source they employ, provided they fulfill the requirements for two-photon interference. From a theoretical perspective, photons coming from different origins can interfere with a perfect visibility, provided they are made indistinguishable in all degrees of freedom. Previous experimental demonstrations of such a scenario have been limited to photon wavelengths below 900 nm, unsuitable for long distance communication, and suffered from low interference visibility. We report two-photon interference using two disparate heralded single photon sources, which involve different nonlinear effects, operating in the telecom wavelength range. The measured visibility of the two-photon interference is 80 +/- 4%, which paves the way to hybrid universal quantum networks.

  13. Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, A V

    2014-01-01

    Superconductors is neither about basic aspects of superconductivity nor about its applications, but its mainstay is superconducting materials. Unusual and unconventional features of a large variety of novel superconductors are presented and their technological potential as practical superconductors assessed. The book begins with an introduction to basic aspects of superconductivity. The presentation is readily accessible to readers from a diverse range of scientific and technical disciplines, such as metallurgy, materials science, materials engineering, electronic and device engineering, and chemistry. The derivation of mathematical formulas and equations has been kept to a minimum and, wherever necessary, short appendices with essential mathematics have been added at the end of the text. The book is not meant to serve as an encyclopaedia, describing each and every superconductor that exists, but focuses on important milestones in their exciting development.

  14. Quantum Interference in Time-Delayed Nonsequential Double Ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, A S

    2015-01-01

    We perform a systematic analysis of quantum interference in nonsequential double ionization focusing on the recollision-excitation with subsequent ionization (RESI) mechanism, employing the strong-field approximation (SFA). We find that interference has a major influence on the shape, localization and symmetry of the correlated electron momentum distributions. In particular, the fourfold symmetry with regard to the parallel momentum components observed in previous SFA studies is broken. Two types of interference are observed and thoroughly analyzed, namely that caused by electron indistinguishability and intra-cycle events, and that stemming from different excitation channels. We find that interference is most prominent around the diagonal and anti-diagonal in the parallel-momentum plane and provide fully analytical expressions for most interference patterns encountered. We also show that this interference can be controlled by an appropriate choice of phase and excited-state geometry. This leads a to myriad o...

  15. Quantum magnetic excitations from stripes in copper oxide superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquada, J M; Woo, H; Perring, T G; Goka, H; Gu, G D; Xu, G; Fujita, M; Yamada, K

    2004-06-03

    In the copper oxide parent compounds of the high-transition-temperature superconductors the valence electrons are localized--one per copper site--by strong intra-atomic Coulomb repulsion. A symptom of this localization is antiferromagnetism, where the spins of localized electrons alternate between up and down. Superconductivity appears when mobile 'holes' are doped into this insulating state, and it coexists with antiferromagnetic fluctuations. In one approach to describing the coexistence, the holes are believed to self-organize into 'stripes' that alternate with antiferromagnetic (insulating) regions within copper oxide planes, which would necessitate an unconventional mechanism of superconductivity. There is an apparent problem with this picture, however: measurements of magnetic excitations in superconducting YBa2Cu3O6+x near optimum doping are incompatible with the naive expectations for a material with stripes. Here we report neutron scattering measurements on stripe-ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4. We show that the measured excitations are, surprisingly, quite similar to those in YBa2Cu3O6+x (refs 9, 10) (that is, the predicted spectrum of magnetic excitations is wrong). We find instead that the observed spectrum can be understood within a stripe model by taking account of quantum excitations. Our results support the concept that stripe correlations are essential to high-transition-temperature superconductivity.

  16. Quantum magnetic excitations from stripes in copper oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquada, J. M.; Woo, H.; Perring, T. G.; Goka, H.; Gu, G. D.; Xu, G.; Fujita, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-06-01

    In the copper oxide parent compounds of the high-transition-temperature superconductors the valence electrons are localized-one per copper site-by strong intra-atomic Coulomb repulsion. A symptom of this localization is antiferromagnetism, where the spins of localized electrons alternate between up and down. Superconductivity appears when mobile `holes' are doped into this insulating state, and it coexists with antiferromagnetic fluctuations. In one approach to describing the coexistence, the holes are believed to self-organize into `stripes' that alternate with antiferromagnetic (insulating) regions within copper oxide planes, which would necessitate an unconventional mechanism of superconductivity. There is an apparent problem with this picture, however: measurements of magnetic excitations in superconducting YBa2Cu3O6+x near optimum doping are incompatible with the naive expectations for a material with stripes. Here we report neutron scattering measurements on stripe-ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4. We show that the measured excitations are, surprisingly, quite similar to those in YBa2Cu3O6+x (refs 9, 10) (that is, the predicted spectrum of magnetic excitations is wrong). We find instead that the observed spectrum can be understood within a stripe model by taking account of quantum excitations. Our results support the concept that stripe correlations are essential to high-transition-temperature superconductivity.

  17. Oscillatory persistent currents in quantum rings: Semiconductors versus superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devreese, J.T., E-mail: jozef.devreese@ua.ac.b [TFVS, Universiteit Antwerpen, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); COBRA, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Fomin, V.M. [TFVS, Universiteit Antwerpen, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); COBRA, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dept. of Theoretical Physics, State Univ. of Moldova, MD-2009 Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Gladilin, V.N. [TFVS, Universiteit Antwerpen, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Dept. of Theoretical Physics, State Univ. of Moldova, MD-2009 Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Tempere, J. [TFVS, Universiteit Antwerpen, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Persistent currents are a hallmark of superconductivity in metals. To observe those dissipationless currents in a non-superconducting ring, the circumference of the ring must be short enough so that the phase coherence of the electronic wave functions is preserved around the loop. Recent progress in the fabrication of self-assembled semiconductor quantum rings (SAQRs), which can be filled with only a few (1-2) electrons, has offered the unique possibility to study the magnetic-field-induced oscillations in the persistent current carried by a single electron. In this paper, we discuss similarities and distinctions between the behavior of persistent currents in semiconductor and superconductor samples and give an overview of the recent results for oscillatory persistent currents in SAQRs. Although the real SAQR shape differs strongly from an idealized circular-symmetric open ring structure, the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the magnetization survive, as observed in low temperature magnetization measurements on In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As/GaAs SAQRs.

  18. Spying on photons with photons: quantum interference and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataman, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    The quest to have both which-path knowledge and interference fringes in a double-slit experiment dates back to the inception of quantum mechanics (QM) and to the famous Einstein-Bohr debates. In this paper we propose and discuss an experiment able to spy on one photon's path with another photon. We modify the quantum state inside the interferometer as opposed to the traditional physical modification of the "wave-like" or "particle-like" experimental setup. We are able to show that it is the ability to harvest or not which-path information that finally limits the visibility of the interference pattern and not the "wave-like" or "particle-like" experimental setups. Remarkably, a full "particle-like" experimental setup is able to show interference fringes with 100% visibility if the quantum state is carefully engineered.

  19. Spying on photons with photons: quantum interference and information

    CERN Document Server

    Ataman, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The quest to have both which-path knowledge and interference fringes in a double-slit experiment dates back to the inception of quantum mechanics (QM) and to the famous Einstein-Bohr debates. In this paper we propose and discuss an experiment able to spy on one photon's path with another photon. We modify the quantum state inside the interferometer as opposed to the traditional physical modification of the "wave-like" or "particle-like" experimental setup. We are able to show that it is the ability to harvest or not which-path information that finally limits the visibility of the interference pattern and not the "wave-like" or "particle-like" experimental setups. Remarkably, a full "particle-like" experimental setup is able to show interference fringes with 100 % visibility if the quantum state is carefully engineered.

  20. Quantum interference of molecules -- probing the wave nature of matter

    CERN Document Server

    Venugopalan, Anu

    2012-01-01

    The double slit interference experiment has been famously described by Richard Feynman as containing the "only mystery of quantum mechanics". The history of quantum mechanics is intimately linked with the discovery of the dual nature of matter and radiation. While the double slit experiment for light is easily undertsood in terms of its wave nature, the very same experiment for particles like the electron is somewhat more difficult to comprehend. By the 1920s it was firmly established that electrons have a wave nature. However, for a very long time, most discussions pertaining to interference experiments for particles were merely gedanken experiments. It took almost six decades after the establishment of its wave nature to carry out a 'double slit interference' experiment for electrons. This set the stage for interference experiments with larger particles. In the last decade there has been spectacular progress in matter-wave interefernce experiments. Today, molecules with over a hundred atoms can be made to i...

  1. Cross-conjugation and quantum interference: a general correlation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valkenier, Hennie; Guedon, Constant M.; Markussen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between the pi-conjugation pattern, molecular length, and charge transport properties of molecular wires, both from an experimental and a theoretical viewpoint. Specifically, we focus on the role of quantum interference in the conductance properties of cross-conjugated...... interference occurs can be tuned by the choice of side group. The latter provides an outlook for future devices in this fascinating field connecting chemistry and physics....

  2. Superluminal light propagation via quantum interference in decay channels

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, R.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the propagation of a weak probe light through a coherently driven $Y$-type system. Under the condition that the excited atomic levels decay via same vacuum modes, the effects of quantum interference in decay channels are considered. It is found that the interference in decay channels results in a lossless anomalous dispersion between two gain peaks. We demonstrate that the probe pulse propagation can in principle be switched from subluminal to superluminal due to the decay-induced ...

  3. Phases, quantum interferences and effective vector meson masses in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyeur, M.

    1996-12-31

    We discuss the prospects for observing the mass of {rho}- and {omega}-mesons around nuclear matter density by studying their coherent photoproduction in nuclear targets and subsequent in-medium decay into e{sup +}e{sup -}pairs. The quantum interference of {rho} and {omega}-mesons in the e{sup +}e{sup -}channel and the interference between Bethe-Heitler pairs and dielectrons from vector meson decays are of particular interest. (author). 21 refs.

  4. Oscillatory quantum interference effects in narrow-gap semiconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillianfeld, R. B.; Kallaher, R. L.; Heremans, J. J.; Chen, Hong; Goel, N.; Chung, S. J.; Santos, M. B.; Van Roy, W.; Borghs, G.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate quantum interference phenomena in narrow bandgap semiconductors under strong spin-orbit interaction, by measuring the magnetoresistance across mesoscopic closed-path structures fabricated in two-dimensional electron systems. We discuss our results in terms of four quantum interference effects brought about by geometric phases acquired by the electron wave functions: the Aharonov-Bohm phase, the Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak effect, the Berry's phase due to the evolution of the spin degree of freedom, and the Aharonov-Casher phase.

  5. Nonmonotonic quantum-to-classical transition in multiparticle interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ra, Young-Sik; Tichy, Malte; Lim, Hyang-Tag

    2013-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical wave–particle duality implies that probability distributions for granular detection events exhibit wave-like interference. On the single-particle level, this leads to self-interference—e.g., on transit across a double slit—for photons as well as for large, massive particles...... that interference fades away monotonically with increasing distinguishability—in accord with available experimental evidence on the single- and on the many-particle level. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that such monotonicity of the quantum-to-classical transition is the exception rather than...

  6. Observation of quantum interference between separated mechanical oscillator wavepackets

    CERN Document Server

    Kienzler, D; Negnevitsky, V; Lo, H -Y; Marinelli, M; Nadlinger, D; Home, J P

    2015-01-01

    The ability of matter to be superposed at two different locations while being intrinsically connected by a quantum phase is among the most counterintuitive predictions of quantum physics. While such superpositions have been created for a variety of systems, the in-situ observation of the phase coherence has remained out of reach. Using a heralding measurement on a spin-oscillator entangled state, we project a mechanical trapped-ion oscillator into a superposition of two spatially separated states, a situation analogous to Schr\\"odinger's cat. Quantum interference is clearly observed by extracting the occupations of the energy levels. For larger states, we encounter problems in measuring the energy distribution, which we overcome by performing the analogous measurement in a squeezed Fock basis with each basis element stretched along the separation axis. Using 8 dB of squeezing we observe quantum interference for cat states with phase space separations of $\\Delta \\alpha = 15.6$, corresponding to wavepackets wit...

  7. Quantum Physics A First Encounter Interference, Entanglement, and Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Scarani, Valerio

    2006-01-01

    The essential features of quantum physics, largely debated since its discovery, are presented in this book, through the description (without mathematics) of recent experiments. Putting the accent on physical phenomena, this book clarifies the historical issues (delocalisation, interferences) and reaches out to modern topics (quantum cryptography, non-locality and teleportation); the debate on interpretations is serenely reviewed. - ;Quantum physics is often perceived as a weird and abstract theory, which physicists must use in order to make correct predictions. But many recent experiments have shown that the weirdness of the theory simply mirrors the weirdness of phenomena: it is Nature itself, and not only our description of it, that behaves in an astonishing way. This book selects those, among these typical quantum phenomena, whose rigorous description requires neither the formalism, nor an important. background in physics. The first part of the book deals with the phenomenon of single-particle interference...

  8. Quantum Interference in Cognition: Structural Aspects of the Brain

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, Diederik

    2012-01-01

    We identify the presence of typically quantum effects, namely 'superposition' and 'interference', in what happens when human concepts are combined, and provide a quantum model in complex Hilbert space that represents faithfully experimental data measuring the situation of combining concepts. Our model shows how 'interference of concepts' explains the effects of underextension and overextension when two concepts combine to the disjunction of these two concepts. This result supports our earlier hypothesis that human thought has a superposed two-layered structure, one layer consisting of 'classical logical thought' and a superposed layer consisting of 'quantum conceptual thought'. Possible connections with recent findings of a 'grid-structure' for the brain are analyzed, and influences on the mind/brain relation, and consequences on applied disciplines, such as artificial intelligence and quantum computation, are considered.

  9. Collisional quantum interference on rotational energy transfer: physical interpretation of the differential interference angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong-Qing; Li Jian; Ma Feng-Cai

    2006-01-01

    Collisional quantum interference (CQI) on the intramolecular rotational energy transfer is observed in an experiment with a static cell, and the integral interference angles are measured. To obtain more accurate information, an experiment with a molecular beam is carried out, and thereby the relationship between the differential interference angle and the scattering angle is obtained. Based on the first-Born approximation of time-dependent perturbation theory,the theoretical model of CQI is developed in an atom-diatom system in the condition of the molecular beam, with the long-range interaction potential taken into account. The method of measuring correctly the differential interference angle is presented. The tendencies of the differential interference angle changing with the impact parameter and relative velocity are discussed. The theoretical model presented here is important for understanding or performing the experiment in the molecular beam.

  10. Quantum superposition counterintuitive consequences of coherence, entanglement, and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, M P

    2007-01-01

    Coherence, entanglement, and interference arise from quantum superposition, the most distinctive and puzzling feature of quantum physics. Silverman, whose extensive experimental and theoretical work has helped elucidate these processes, presents a clear and engaging discussion of the role of quantum superposition in diverse quantum phenomena such as the wavelike nature of particle propagation, indistinguishability of identical particles, nonlocal interactions of correlated particles, topological effects of magnetic fields, and chiral asymmetry in nature. He also examines how macroscopic quantum coherence may be able to extricate physics from its most challenging quandary, the collapse of a massive degenerate star to a singularity in space in which the laws of physics break down. Explained by a physicist with a concern for clarity and experimental achievability, the extraordinary nature of quantum superposition will fascinate the reader not only for its apparent strangeness, but also for its comprehensibility.

  11. Unruh effect and macroscopic quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the influence of Unruh radiation on matter-wave interferometry experiments using neutral objects modeled as dielectric spheres. The Unruh effect leads to a loss of coherence through momentum diffusion. This is a fundamental source of decoherence that affects all objects having electromagnetic interactions. However, the effect is not large enough to prevent the observation of interference for objects of any size, even when the path separation is larger than the size of the object. When the acceleration in the interferometer arms is large, inertial tidal forces will disrupt the material integrity of the interfering objects before the Unruh decoherence of the centre of mass motion is sufficient to prevent observable interference.

  12. Quantum interferences reconstruction with low homodyne detection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Martina; Randi, Francesco [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus; Benatti, Fabio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Kourousias, Georgios; Curri, Alessio [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); Floreanini, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Parmigiani, Fulvio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); University of Cologne, Institute of Physics II, Cologne (Germany); Fausti, Daniele [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Optical homodyne tomography consists in reconstructing the quantum state of an optical field from repeated measurements of its amplitude at different field phases (homodyne data). The experimental noise, which unavoidably affects the homodyne data, leads to a detection efficiency η<1. The problem of reconstructing quantum states from noisy homodyne data sets prompted an intense scientific debate about the presence or absence of a lower homodyne efficiency bound (η>0.5) below which quantum features, like quantum interferences, cannot be retrieved. Here, by numerical experiments, we demonstrate that quantum interferences can be effectively reconstructed also for low homodyne detection efficiency. In particular, we address the challenging case of a Schroedinger cat state and test the minimax and adaptive Wigner function reconstruction technique by processing homodyne data distributed according to the chosen state but with an efficiency η>0.5. By numerically reproducing the Schroedinger's cat interference pattern, we give evidence that quantum state reconstruction is actually possible in these conditions, and provide a guideline for handling optical tomography based on homodyne data collected by low efficiency detectors. (orig.)

  13. FFLO strange metal and quantum criticality in two dimensions: Theory and application to organic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Francesco; Zwerger, Wilhelm; Strack, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    Increasing the spin imbalance in superconductors can spatially modulate the gap by forming Cooper pairs with finite momentum. For large imbalances compared to the Fermi energy, the inhomogeneous FFLO superconductor ultimately becomes a normal metal. There is mounting experimental evidence for this scenario in two-dimensional (2D) organic superconductors in large in-plane magnetic fields; this is complemented by ongoing efforts to realize this scenario in coupled tubes of atomic Fermi gases with spin imbalance. Yet, a theory for the phase transition from a metal to an FFLO superconductor has not been developed so far and the universality class has remained unknown. Here we propose and analyze a spin imbalance driven quantum critical point between a 2D metal and an FFLO phase in anisotropic electron systems. We derive the effective action for electrons and bosonic FFLO pairs at this quantum phase transition. Using this action, we predict non-Fermi-liquid behavior and the absence of quasiparticles at a discrete set of hot spots on the Fermi surfaces. This results in strange power laws in thermodynamics and response functions, which are testable with existing experimental setups on 2D organic superconductors and may also serve as signatures of the elusive FFLO phase itself. The proposed universality class is distinct from previously known quantum critical metals and, because its critical fluctuations appear already in the pairing channel, a promising candidate for naked metallic quantum criticality over extended temperature ranges.

  14. Quantum magnetic excitations from stripes in copper-oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquada, John

    2005-03-01

    Recent inelastic neutron scattering studies show that the magnetic excitation spectra of two well-studied families of cuprate superconductors are much more similar than previously believed. In particular, I will present results we have obtained on La2-xBaxCuO4 (LBCO) with x = 0.125 [1,2]. Using very large single crystals grown at Brookhaven, we were able to measure the magnetic excitations up to 200 meV using the MAPS time-of-flight spectrometer at the ISIS spallation source. While the lowest energy excitations are split incommensurately, these disperse inwards towards the antiferromagnetic wave vector with increasing energy, merging at ˜50 meV. At higher energies the excitations disperse outwards again. There is a significant enhancement of the Q-integrated magnetic scattering near ˜50 meV compared to lower energies, suggestive of quantum correlations and distinct from spin-wave predictions. Many features of the spectrum are quite similar to those found in YBa2Cu3O6.6 [3]. One can qualitatively characterize the results with a universal excitation spectrum, together with a material-dependent spin gap in the superconducting state. It is important to note that the LBCO sample exhibits static stripe order [2], as this has significant implications for the origin of the magnetic excitations in superconducting cuprates. *J. M. Tranquada, H. Woo, T. G. Perring, H. Goka, G. D. Gu, G. Xu, M. Fujita, and K. Yamada, Nature 429, 534 (2004). *M. Fujita, H. Goka, K. Yamada, J. M. Tranquada, and L.-P. Regnault, Phys. Rev. B 70, 104517 (2004). *S. M. Hayden, H. A. Mook, P. C. Dai, T. G. Perring, and F. Dogan, Nature 429, 531 (2004).

  15. Observation of quantum interference in molecular charge transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedon, Constant M.; Valkenier, Hennie; Markussen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    , phenomena such as giant magnetoresistance(5), Kondo effects(6) and conductance switching(7-11) have been observed in single molecules, and theorists have predicted that it should also be possible to observe quantum interference in molecular conductors(12-18), but until now all the evidence...

  16. High sensitivity double relaxation oscillation superconducting quantum interference devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelerhof, Derk Jan; Adelerhof, Derk Jan; Kawai, Jun; Uehara, Gen; Kado, Hisashi

    1994-01-01

    Double relaxation oscillationsuperconducting quantum interference devices(SQUIDs) (DROSs) have been fabricated with estimated relaxation frequencies up to 14 GHz. Both the intrinsic flux noise and the performance in a flux locked loop with direct voltage readout have been studied. In flux locked

  17. Exploration of Quantum Interference in Document Relevance Judgement Discrepancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyou Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum theory has been applied in a number of fields outside physics, e.g., cognitive science and information retrieval (IR. Recently, it has been shown that quantum theory can subsume various key IR models into a single mathematical formalism of Hilbert vector spaces. While a series of quantum-inspired IR models has been proposed, limited effort has been devoted to verify the existence of the quantum-like phenomenon in real users’ information retrieval processes, from a real user study perspective. In this paper, we aim to explore and model the quantum interference in users’ relevance judgement about documents, caused by the presentation order of documents. A user study in the context of IR tasks have been carried out. The existence of the quantum interference is tested by the violation of the law of total probability and the validity of the order effect. Our main findings are: (1 there is an apparent judging discrepancy across different users and document presentation orders, and empirical data have violated the law of total probability; (2 most search trials recorded in the user study show the existence of the order effect, and the incompatible decision perspectives in the quantum question (QQ model are valid in some trials. We further explain the judgement discrepancy in more depth, in terms of four effects (comparison, unfamiliarity, attraction and repulsion and also analyse the dynamics of document relevance judgement in terms of the evolution of the information need subspace.

  18. Eight-fold quantum states blossom in a high-temperature superconductor

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Researchers based at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California at Berkeley have used a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to reveal eight-fold patterns of quasiparticle interference in the high-temperature superconductor Bi-2212 (bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide)" (2 pages).

  19. Dimerous Electron and Quantum Interference beyond the Probability Amplitude Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Kassandrov, Vladimir V

    2011-01-01

    We generalize the formerly proposed relationship between a special complex geometry (originating from the structure of biquaternion algebra) and induced real geometry of (extended) space-time. The primordial dynamics in complex space allows for a new realization of the "one electron Universe" of Wheeler-Feynman (the so called "ensemble of duplicons") and leads to a radical concept of "dimerous" (consisting of two identical matter pre-elements, "duplicons") electron. Using this concept, together with an additional phase-like invariant (arising from the complex pre-geometry), we manage to give a visual classical explanation for quantum interference phenomena and, in particular, for the canonical two-slit experiment. Fundamental relativistic condition of quantum interference generalizing the de Broglie relationship is obtained, and an experimentally verifiable distinction in predictions of quantum theory and presented algebrodynamical scheme is established.

  20. Two-photon interference from two blinking quantum emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöns, Klaus D.; Stensson, Katarina; Reindl, Marcus; Swillo, Marcin; Huo, Yongheng; Zwiller, Val; Rastelli, Armando; Trotta, Rinaldo; Björk, Gunnar

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the effect of blinking on the two-photon interference measurement from two independent quantum emitters. We find that blinking significantly alters the statistics in the Hong-Ou-Mandel second-order intensity correlation function g(2 )(τ ) and the outcome of two-photon interference measurements performed with independent quantum emitters. We theoretically demonstrate that the presence of blinking can be experimentally recognized by a deviation from the gD(2 )(0 ) =0.5 value when distinguishable photons from two emitters impinge on a beam splitter. Our findings explain the significant differences between linear losses and blinking for correlation measurements between independent sources and are experimentally verified using a parametric down-conversion photon-pair source. We show that blinking imposes a mandatory cross-check measurement to correctly estimate the degree of indistinguishability of photons emitted by independent quantum emitters.

  1. Quantum interference in a thermal bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimov, Alexey [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Buchmueller, Wilfried; Mendizabal, Sebastian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Drewes, Marco [Inst. de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    Thermal leptogenesis explains the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe in terms of neutrino masses, consistent with neutrino oscillation experiments. We present a full quantum mechanical calculation of the generated lepton asymmetry based on Kadanoff-Baym equations. Origin of the asymmetry is the departure of the statistical propagator of the heavy Majorana neutrino from the equilibrium propagator, together with CP violating couplings. The lepton asymmetry is calculated directly in terms of Green's functions without referring to 'number densities'. A detailed comparison with Boltzmann equations shows that conventional leptogenesis calculations have an uncertainty of at least one order of magnitude. (orig.)

  2. Measurement of low bit-error-rates of adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron logic using a superconductor voltage driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Suzuki, Hideo; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2017-05-01

    Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) is an energy-efficient superconductor logic. The advantage of AQFP is that the switching energy can be reduced by lowering operation frequencies or by increasing the quality factors of Josephson junctions, while keeping the energy barrier height much larger than thermal energy. In other words, both low energy dissipation and low bit error rates (BERs) can be achieved. In this paper, we report the first measurement results of the low BERs of AQFP logic. We used a superconductor voltage driver with a stack of dc superconducting-quantum-interference-devices to amplify the logic signals of AQFP gates into mV-range voltage signals for the BER measurement. Our measurement results showed 3.3 dB and 2.6 dB operation margins, in which BERs were less than 10-20, for 1 Gbps and 2 Gbps data rates, respectively. While the observed BERs were very low, the estimated switching energy for the 1-Gbps operation was only 2 zJ or 30kBT, where kB is the Boltzmann's constant and T is the temperature. Unlike conventional non-adiabatic logic, BERs are not directly associated with switching energy in AQFP.

  3. Dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory: Quantum interference and phonon induced decoherence dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu, E-mail: zhy@yangtze.hku.hk; Chen, GuanHua, E-mail: ghc@everest.hku.hk [Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Yam, ChiYung [Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-04-28

    A time-dependent inelastic electron transport theory for strong electron-phonon interaction is established via the equations of motion method combined with the small polaron transformation. In this work, the dissipation via electron-phonon coupling is taken into account in the strong coupling regime, which validates the small polaron transformation. The corresponding equations of motion are developed, which are used to study the quantum interference effect and phonon-induced decoherence dynamics in molecular junctions. Numerical studies show clearly quantum interference effect of the transport electrons through two quasi-degenerate states with different couplings to the leads. We also found that the quantum interference can be suppressed by the electron-phonon interaction where the phase coherence is destroyed by phonon scattering. This indicates the importance of electron-phonon interaction in systems with prominent quantum interference effect.

  4. Dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory: Quantum interference and phonon induced decoherence dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung; Chen, GuanHua

    2015-04-28

    A time-dependent inelastic electron transport theory for strong electron-phonon interaction is established via the equations of motion method combined with the small polaron transformation. In this work, the dissipation via electron-phonon coupling is taken into account in the strong coupling regime, which validates the small polaron transformation. The corresponding equations of motion are developed, which are used to study the quantum interference effect and phonon-induced decoherence dynamics in molecular junctions. Numerical studies show clearly quantum interference effect of the transport electrons through two quasi-degenerate states with different couplings to the leads. We also found that the quantum interference can be suppressed by the electron-phonon interaction where the phase coherence is destroyed by phonon scattering. This indicates the importance of electron-phonon interaction in systems with prominent quantum interference effect.

  5. The differential interference angle in collisional quantum interference on rotational energy transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei-Li; Miao Gang; Chen Yue-Hui; Tang Dan; Ma Feng-Cai

    2008-01-01

    Collisional quantum interference (CQI) in the intramolecular rotational energy transfer was observed in experiment by Sha and co-workers.[1] The interference angle, which measuring the degree of the coherence, were measured in the experiment of the static cell. Based on the first Born approximation of time dependent perturbation theory, taking into accounts the anisotropic Lennard-Jones interaction potentials, this paper describes the theoretical model of CQI in intramolecular rotational energy transfer in an atom-diatom collision system. In the model, the differential interference angle for the experiment of the molecular beam is calculated, the changing tendencies of the differential interference angle with the impact parameter and collision partners are obtained. This theoretical model is important for understanding or performing this kind of experiments.

  6. Manifestation of New Interference Effects in a Superconductor-Ferromagnet Spin Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksin, P. V.; Garif'Yanov, N. N.; Garifullin, I. A.; Schumann, J.; Kataev, V.; Schmidt, O. G.; Büchner, B.

    2011-02-01

    Superconductor-ferromagnet (S/F) spin valve effect theories based on the S/F proximity phenomenon assume that the superconducting transition temperature Tc of F1/F2/S or F1/S/F2 trilayers for parallel magnetizations of the F1 and F2 layers (TcP) are smaller than for the antiparallel orientations (TcAP). Here, we report for CoOx/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/In multilayers with varying Fe2-layer thickness the sign-changing oscillating behavior of the spin valve effect ΔTc=TcAP-TcP. We observe the full direct effect with TcAP>TcP for Fe2-layer thickness dFe2<1nm and the full inverse (TcAPInterference of Cooper pair wave functions reflected from both surfaces of the Fe2 layer appear as the most probable reason for the observed behavior of ΔTc.

  7. Signatures of Majorana Kramers pairs in superconductor-Luttinger liquid and superconductor-quantum dot-normal lead junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghyun; Liu, Dong E.; Gaidamauskas, Erikas; Paaske, Jens; Flensberg, Karsten; Lutchyn, Roman M.

    2016-08-01

    Time-reversal invariant topological superconductors are characterized by the presence of Majorana Kramers pairs localized at defects. One of the transport signatures of Majorana Kramers pairs is the quantized differential conductance of 4 e2/h when such a one-dimensional superconductor is coupled to a normal-metal lead. The resonant Andreev reflection, responsible for this phenomenon, can be understood as the boundary condition change for lead electrons at low energies. In this paper, we study the stability of the Andreev reflection fixed point with respect to electron-electron interactions in the Luttinger liquid. We first calculate the phase diagram for the Luttinger liquid-Majorana Kramers pair junction and show that its low-energy properties are determined by Andreev reflection scattering processes in the spin-triplet channel, i.e., the corresponding Andreev boundary conditions are similar to that in a spin-triplet superconductor-normal lead junction. We also study here a quantum dot coupled to a normal lead and a Majorana Kramers pair and investigate the effect of local repulsive interactions leading to an interplay between Kondo and Majorana correlations. Using a combination of renormalization group analysis and slave-boson mean-field theory, we show that the system flows to a new fixed point which is controlled by the Majorana interaction rather than the Kondo coupling. This Majorana fixed point is characterized by correlations between the localized spin and the fermion parity of each spin sector of the topological superconductor. We investigate the stability of the Majorana phase with respect to Gaussian fluctuations.

  8. Conductance enhancement in quantum-point-contact semiconductor-superconductor devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flensberg, Karsten;

    1999-01-01

    We present numerical calculations of the conductance of an interface between a phase-coherent two-dimensional electron gas and a superconductor with a quantum point contact in the normal region. Using a scattering matrix approach we reconsider the geometry of De Raedt, Michielsen, and Klapwijk [P...

  9. On Mean-Field Theory of Quantum Phase Transition in Granular Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Simkin, M V

    1996-01-01

    In previous work on quantum phase transition in granular superconductors, where mean-field theory was used, an assumption was made that the order parameter as a function of the mean field is a convex up function. Though this is not always the case in phase transitions, this assumption must be verified, what is done in this article.

  10. Two-photon quantum interference in plasmonics: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S Dutta; Agarwal, G S

    2014-01-15

    We report perfect two-photon quantum interference with near-unity visibility in a resonant tunneling plasmonic structure in folded Kretschmann geometry. This is despite absorption-induced loss of unitarity in plasmonic systems. The effect is traced to perfect destructive interference between the squares of amplitude reflection and transmission coefficients. We further highlight yet another remarkable potential of coincidence measurements as a probe with better resolution as compared to standard spectroscopic techniques. The finer features show up in both angle resolved and frequency resolved studies.

  11. Cooling atomic motion with quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Morigi, G

    2002-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the quantum dynamics of the center of mass of trapped atoms, whose internal degrees of freedom are driven in a $\\Lambda$-shaped configuration with the lasers tuned at two-photon resonance. In the Lamb-Dicke regime, when the motional wave packet is well localized over the laser wavelenght, transient coherent population trapping occurs, cancelling transitions at the laser frequency. In this limit the motion can be efficiently cooled to the ground state of the trapping potential. We derive an equation for the center-of-mass motion by adiabatically eliminating the internal degrees of freedom. This treatment provides the theoretical background of the scheme presented in [G. Morigi {\\it et al}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 85}, 4458 (2000)] and implemented in [C.F. Roos {\\it et al}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 85}, 5547 (2000)]. We discuss the physical mechanisms determining the dynamics and identify new parameters regimes, where cooling is efficient. We discuss implementations of the scheme to case...

  12. Magnetic field-induced quantum superconductor-insulator transition in $Nb_{0.15}Si_{0.85}$

    OpenAIRE

    Aubin, H.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C. A.; Pourret, A.; Behnia, K.; Berge, L.; Dumoulin, L.; Lesueur, J.

    2006-01-01

    A study of magnetic-field tuned superconductor-insulator transitions in amorphous $Nb_{0.15}Si_{0.85}$ thin films shows that quantum superconductor-insulator transitions are characterized by an unambiguous signature -- a kink in the temperature profile of the critical magnetic field. Using this criterion, we show that the nature of the magnetic-field tuned superconductor-insulator transition depends on the orientation of the field with respect to the film. For perpendicular magnetic field, th...

  13. Theory of quantum metal to superconductor transitions in highly conducting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, B.

    2010-04-06

    We derive the theory of the quantum (zero temperature) superconductor to metal transition in disordered materials when the resistance of the normal metal near criticality is small compared to the quantum of resistivity. This can occur most readily in situations in which 'Anderson's theorem' does not apply. We explicitly study the transition in superconductor-metal composites, in an swave superconducting film in the presence of a magnetic field, and in a low temperature disordered d-wave superconductor. Near the point of the transition, the distribution of the superconducting order parameter is highly inhomogeneous. To describe this situation we employ a procedure which is similar to that introduced by Mott for description of the temperature dependence of the variable range hopping conduction. As the system approaches the point of the transition from the metal to the superconductor, the conductivity of the system diverges, and the Wiedemann-Franz law is violated. In the case of d-wave (or other exotic) superconductors we predict the existence of (at least) two sequential transitions as a function of increasing disorder: a d-wave to s-wave, and then an s-wave to metal transition.

  14. Tunneling Conductance in Quantum-Wire/Ferromagnetic-Insulator/d-Wave Superconductor Junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Wei

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the quasiparticle transport in quantum-wire /ferromagnetic-insulator/d wave super-conductor Junction (q/FI/d) in the framework of the Blonder Tinkham-Klapwijk model We calculate the tunneling conductance in q/FI/d as a function of the bias voltage at zero temperature and finite temperature based on Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. Different from the case in normal-metal/insulator/d wave superconductor Junctions, the zero-bias conductance peaks vanish for the single-mode case. The tunneling conductance spectra depend on the magnitude of the exchange interaction at the ferromagnetic-insulator.

  15. Quantum Griffiths singularity of superconductor-metal transition in Ga thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ying; Zhang, Hui-Min; Fu, Hai-Long; Liu, Haiwen; Sun, Yi; Peng, Jun-Ping; Wang, Fa; Lin, Xi; Ma, Xu-Cun; Xue, Qi-Kun; Wang, Jian; Xie, X C

    2015-10-30

    The Griffiths singularity in a phase transition, caused by disorder effects, was predicted more than 40 years ago. Its signature, the divergence of the dynamical critical exponent, is challenging to observe experimentally. We report the experimental observation of the quantum Griffiths singularity in a two-dimensional superconducting system. We measured the transport properties of atomically thin gallium films and found that the films undergo superconductor-metal transitions with increasing magnetic field. Approaching the zero-temperature quantum critical point, we observed divergence of the dynamical critical exponent, which is consistent with the Griffiths singularity behavior. We interpret the observed superconductor-metal quantum phase transition as the infinite-randomness critical point, where the properties of the system are controlled by rare large superconducting regions.

  16. Directly Measuring the Degree of Quantum Coherence using Interference Fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wei, Zhi-Yuan; Yu, Shang; Ke, Zhi-Jin; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    Quantum coherence is the most distinguished feature of quantum mechanics. It lies at the heart of the quantum-information technologies as the fundamental resource and is also related to other quantum resources, including entanglement. It plays a critical role in various fields, even in biology. Nevertheless, the rigorous and systematic resource-theoretic framework of coherence has just been developed recently, and several coherence measures are proposed. Experimentally, the usual method to measure coherence is to perform state tomography and use mathematical expressions. Here, we alternatively develop a method to measure coherence directly using its most essential behavior—the interference fringes. The ancilla states are mixed into the target state with various ratios, and the minimal ratio that makes the interference fringes of the "mixed state" vanish is taken as the quantity of coherence. We also use the witness observable to witness coherence, and the optimal witness constitutes another direct method to measure coherence. For comparison, we perform tomography and calculate l1 norm of coherence, which coincides with the results of the other two methods in our situation. Our methods are explicit and robust, providing a nice alternative to the tomographic technique.

  17. Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfi, J; Mol, J A; Rahman, R; Klimeck, G; Simmons, M Y; Hollenberg, L C L; Rogge, S

    2014-06-01

    Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization.

  18. Tunable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaboyer, Zachary; Meany, Thomas; Helt, L G; Withford, Michael J; Steel, M J

    2015-04-27

    Integrated photonics promises solutions to questions of stability, complexity, and size in quantum optics. Advances in tunable and non-planar integrated platforms, such as laser-inscribed photonics, continue to bring the realisation of quantum advantages in computation and metrology ever closer, perhaps most easily seen in multi-path interferometry. Here we demonstrate control of two-photon interference in a chip-scale 3D multi-path interferometer, showing a reduced periodicity and enhanced visibility compared to single photon measurements. Observed non-classical visibilities are widely tunable, and explained well by theoretical predictions based on classical measurements. With these predictions we extract Fisher information approaching a theoretical maximum. Our results open a path to quantum enhanced phase measurements.

  19. Zeeman effects on the tunneling spectra of a ferromagnetic d-wave superconductor in contact with a quantum wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emamipour, Hamidreza, E-mail: h_emamipour@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Ilam University, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrabzad, Narges [Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    We study tunneling conductance in a quantum wire–insulator–ferromagnetic d-wave superconductor junction. The results show that exchange field of superconductor has a strong impact on tunneling spectra depending on the junction parameters. We have found a gap like structure in the tunneling limit when we have an interface normal to the (100) axis of superconductor. In the case of (110) axis of superconductor, there is not any zero- bias conductance peaks in tunneling spectra. For a metallic junction the dips disappear.

  20. Quantum nucleation of Minkowski spacetime from nothing in hyperbolic metamaterials based on high Tc superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that high Tc superconductors exhibit hyperbolic metamaterial behavior in the far infrared and THz frequency ranges. In the THz range the hyperbolic behavior occurs only in the normal state, while no propagating modes exist in the superconducting state. Wave equation, which describes propagation of extraordinary light inside a hyperbolic metamaterial exhibits 2+1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective 3D Minkowski spacetime is played by the spatial coordinate aligned perpendicular to the copper oxide layers. Such superconductor-based hyperbolic metamaterials exhibit a quantum phase transition at T=0, in which the effective Minkowski spacetime arise in the mixed state of the superconductor at some critical value of external magnetic field. Nucleation of Minkowski spacetime occurs via formation of quantized Abrikosov vortices, so that these vortices play the role of Minkowski spacetime quanta. Thus, the described system may be used as an experimental model of...

  1. Quantum criticality at the superconductor-insulator transition revealed by specific heat measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, S; Nguyen-Duc, T; Auerbach, A; Dupuis, N; Frydman, A; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2017-02-22

    The superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) is considered an excellent example of a quantum phase transition that is driven by quantum fluctuations at zero temperature. The quantum critical point is characterized by a diverging correlation length and a vanishing energy scale. Low-energy fluctuations near quantum criticality may be experimentally detected by specific heat, cp, measurements. Here we use a unique highly sensitive experiment to measure cp of two-dimensional granular Pb films through the SIT. The specific heat shows the usual jump at the mean field superconducting transition temperature marking the onset of Cooper pairs formation. As the film thickness is tuned towards the SIT, is relatively unchanged, while the magnitude of the jump and low-temperature specific heat increase significantly. This behaviour is taken as the thermodynamic fingerprint of quantum criticality in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition.

  2. Quantum Magnetic Excitations from Stripes in Copper-Oxide Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Tranquada, J. M.; Woo, H.; Perring, T. G.; Goka, H; Gu, G. D.; Xu, G; Fujita, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-01-01

    In the copper-oxide parent compounds of the high-transition-temperature superconductors, the valence electrons are localized, one per copper site, due to strong intraatomic Coulomb repulsion. A symptom of the localization is antiferromagnetism, where the spins of localized electrons alternate between up and down. The superconductivity appears when mobile 'holes' are doped into this insulating state, and it coexists with antiferromagnetic fluctuations. In one approach to the coexistence, the h...

  3. Investigation of Properties of Motion of Superconductive Electrons in Superconductors by Nonlinear Quantum Mechanical Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Pang

    2008-01-01

    The properties and rules of motion of superconductive electrons in steady and time-dependent non-equilibrium states of superconductors are studied by using the Ginzberg-Landau (GL) equations and nonlinear quantum theory. In the absence of external fields, the superconductive electrons move in the solitons with certain energy and velocity in a uniform system, The superconductive electron is still a soliton under action of an electromagnetic field, but its amplitude, phase and shape are changed. Thus we conclude that super- conductivity is a result of motion of soliton of superconductive electrons. Since soliton has the feature of motion for retaining its energy and form, thus a permanent current occurs in superconductor. From these solutions of GL equations under action of an electromagnetic field, we gain the structure of vortex lines-magnetic flux lines observed experimentally in type-II superconductors. In the time-dependent non- equilibrium states of superconductor, the motions of superconductive electrons exhibit still the soliton features, but the shape and amplitude have changed. In an invariant electric-field, it moves in a constant acceleration. In the medium with dissipation, the superconductive electron behaves still like a soliton, although its form, amplitude, and velocity are altered. Thus we have to convince that the superconductive electron is essentially a soliton in both non-equilibrium and equilibrium superconductors.

  4. Combining Topological Hardware and Topological Software: Color-Code Quantum Computing with Topological Superconductor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Litinski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a scalable architecture for fault-tolerant topological quantum computation using networks of voltage-controlled Majorana Cooper pair boxes and topological color codes for error correction. Color codes have a set of transversal gates which coincides with the set of topologically protected gates in Majorana-based systems, namely, the Clifford gates. In this way, we establish color codes as providing a natural setting in which advantages offered by topological hardware can be combined with those arising from topological error-correcting software for full-fledged fault-tolerant quantum computing. We provide a complete description of our architecture, including the underlying physical ingredients. We start by showing that in topological superconductor networks, hexagonal cells can be employed to serve as physical qubits for universal quantum computation, and we present protocols for realizing topologically protected Clifford gates. These hexagonal-cell qubits allow for a direct implementation of open-boundary color codes with ancilla-free syndrome read-out and logical T gates via magic-state distillation. For concreteness, we describe how the necessary operations can be implemented using networks of Majorana Cooper pair boxes, and we give a feasibility estimate for error correction in this architecture. Our approach is motivated by nanowire-based networks of topological superconductors, but it could also be realized in alternative settings such as quantum-Hall–superconductor hybrids.

  5. Spectral density of Cooper pairs in two level quantum dot–superconductors Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhyani, A., E-mail: archana.d2003@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007, Uttarakhand (India); Rawat, P.S. [Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007, Uttarakhand (India); Tewari, B.S., E-mail: bstewari@ddn.upes.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007, Uttarakhand (India)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • The present work deals with the study of the electronic spectral density of electron pairs and its effect in charge transport in superconductor-quantum dot-superconductor junctions. • The charge transfer across such junctions can be controlled by changing the positions of the dot level. • The Josephson supercurrent can also be tuned by controlling the position of quantum dot energy levels. - Abstract: In the present paper, we report the role of quantum dot energy levels on the electronic spectral density for a two level quantum dot coupled to s-wave superconducting leads. The theoretical arguments in this work are based on the Anderson model so that it necessarily includes dot energies, single particle tunneling and superconducting order parameter for BCS superconductors. The expression for single particle spectral function is obtained by using the Green's function equation of motion technique. On the basis of numerical computation of spectral function of superconducting leads, it has been found that the charge transfer across such junctions can be controlled by the positions and availability of the dot levels.

  6. Probing quantum interference effects in the work distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas, P.; Gasparinetti, S.

    2016-11-01

    What is the role of coherence in determining the distribution of work done on a quantum system? We approach this question from an operational perspective and consider a setup in which the internal energy of a closed system is recorded by a quantum detector before and after the system is acted upon by an external drive. We find that the resulting work distribution depends on the initial state of the detector as well as on the choice of the final measurement. We consider two complementary measurement schemes, both of which show clear signatures of quantum interference. We specifically discuss how to implement these schemes in the circuit QED architecture, using an artificial atom as the system and a quantized mode of the electromagnetic field as the detector. Different measurement schemes can be realized by preparing the field either in a superposition of Fock states or in a coherent state and exploiting state-of-the art techniques for the characterization of microwave radiation at the quantum level. More generally, the single bosonic mode we utilize is arguably the minimal quantum detector capable of capturing the complementary aspects of the work distribution discussed here.

  7. Quantum interference in an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, A.; Borghi, M.; Mancinelli, M.; Price, H. M.; Fontana, G.; Pavesi, L.

    2016-08-01

    A re-visitation of the well known free space Mach-Zehnder interferometer is reported here. The coexistence between one-photon and two-photons interference from collinear color entangled photon pairs is investigated. Thisarises from an arbitrarily small unbalance in the arm transmittance. The tuning of such asymmetry is reflected in dramatic changes in the coincidence detection, revealing beatings between one particle and two particle interference patterns. In particular, the role of the losses and of the intrinsic phase imperfectness of the lossy beamsplitter are explored in a single-port excited Mach-Zehnder interferometer. This configuration is especially useful for quantum optics on a chip, where the guiding geometry forces photons to travel in the same spatial mode.

  8. Superconductor-insulator quantum phase transition in disordered FeSe thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, R; Zaitsev, A G; Fuchs, D; V Löhneysen, H

    2012-06-22

    The evolution of two-dimensional electronic transport with increasing disorder in epitaxial FeSe thin films is studied. Disorder is generated by reducing the film thickness. The extreme sensitivity of the films to disorder results in a superconductor-insulator transition. The finite-size scaling analysis in the critical regime based on the Bose-glass model strongly supports the idea of a continuous quantum phase transition. The obtained value for the critical-exponent product of approximately 7/3 suggests that the transition is governed by quantum percolation. Finite-size scaling with the same critical-exponent product is also substantiated when the superconductor-insulator transition is tuned with an applied magnetic field.

  9. Quantum criticality and nodal superconductivity in the FeAs-based superconductor KFe2As2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J K; Zhou, S Y; Guan, T Y; Zhang, H; Dai, Y F; Qiu, X; Wang, X F; He, Y; Chen, X H; Li, S Y

    2010-02-26

    The in-plane resistivity rho and thermal conductivity kappa of the FeAs-based superconductor KFe2As2 single crystal were measured down to 50 mK. We observe non-Fermi-liquid behavior rho(T) approximately T{1.5} at H{c{2}}=5 T, and the development of a Fermi liquid state with rho(T) approximately T{2} when further increasing the field. This suggests a field-induced quantum critical point, occurring at the superconducting upper critical field H{c{2}}. In zero field, there is a large residual linear term kappa{0}/T, and the field dependence of kappa_{0}/T mimics that in d-wave cuprate superconductors. This indicates that the superconducting gaps in KFe2As2 have nodes, likely d-wave symmetry. Such a nodal superconductivity is attributed to the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations near the quantum critical point.

  10. Improved superconducting quantum interference devices by resistance asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, G.; Pagano, S.; Sarnelli, E.; Calidonna, C. R.; Furnari, M. Mango

    2001-10-01

    Direct current superconducting quantum interference devices made by Josephson junctions with asymmetric shunt resistances have been numerically investigated in the low temperature regime. When combined with a damping resistance, the asymmetry leads to a flux to voltage transfer coefficient several times larger than the one typical of symmetric devices, together with a lower magnetic flux noise. These results show that this type of asymmetric device may replace the standard ones in a large number of magnetometric applications, improving the sensitivity performance. The large transfer coefficient may also simplify the readout electronics allowing a direct coupling of asymmetric devices to an external preamplifier, without the need of an impedance matching flux transformer.

  11. The topological structure of the integral quantum Hall effect in magnetic semiconductor-superconductor hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Ji-Rong; Zhu Hui

    2009-01-01

    An unconventional integer quantum Hall regime was found in magnetic semiconductor-superconductor hybrids.By making use of the decomposition of the gauge potential on a U(1) principal fibre bundle over k-space, we study the topological structure of the integral Hall conductance. It is labeled by the Hopf index β and the Brouwer degree η. The Hall conductance topological current and its evolution is discussed.

  12. Quantum localization through interference on homoclinic and heteroclinic circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    III, E L Sibert; Borondo, F [Departamento de Quimica C-IX and Instituto Mixto de Ciencias Matematicas CSIC-UAM-UC3M-UCM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vergini, E; Benito, R M [Grupo de Sistemas Complejos and Departamento de FIsica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: sibert@chem.wisc.edu, E-mail: eduardogerman.vergini@upm.es, E-mail: rosamaria.benito@upm.es, E-mail: f.borondo@uam.es

    2008-05-15

    Localization effects due to scarring constitute one of the clearest indications of the relevance of interference in the transport of quantum probability density along quantized closed circuits in phase space. The corresponding path can be obvious, such as the scarring periodic orbit (PO) itself which produces time recurrences at multiples of the period. However, there are others more elaborate which only close asymptotically, for example, those associated with homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits. In this paper, we demonstrate that these circuits are also able to produce recurrences but at (semiclassically) longer times, of the order of the Ehrenfest time. The most striking manifestation of this phenomenon is the accumulation of quantum probability density along the corresponding circuits. The discussion is illustrated with an example corresponding to a typical PO of the quartic two-dimensional oscillator.

  13. 0 -π phase transition in hybrid superconductor-InSb nanowire quantum dot devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen; Kang, N.; Caroff, P.; Xu, H. Q.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor-semiconducting nanowire devices provide an ideal platform to investigating interesting intragap bound states, such as the Andreev bound states (ABSs), Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states, and the Majorana bound states. The competition between Kondo correlations and superconductivity in Josephson quantum dot (QD) devices results in two different ground states and the occurrence of a 0 -π quantum phase transition. Here we report on transport measurements on hybrid superconductor-InSb nanowire QD devices with different device geometries. We demonstrate a realization of continuous gate-tunable ABSs with both 0-type levels and π -type levels. This allow us to manipulate the transition between the 0 and π junction and explore charge transport and spectrum in the vicinity of the quantum phase transition regime. Furthermore, we find a coexistence of 0-type ABS and π -type ABS in the same charge state. By measuring temperature and magnetic field evolution of the ABSs, the different natures of the two sets of ABSs are verified, being consistent with the scenario of phase transition between the singlet and doublet ground state. Our study provides insight into Andreev transport properties of hybrid superconductor-QD devices and sheds light on the crossover behavior of the subgap spectrum in the vicinity of the 0 -π transition.

  14. Theory of the nematic quantum critical point in a nodal superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ah

    2008-03-01

    In the last several years, experimental evidence has accumulated in a variety of highly correlated electronic systems of new quantum phases which (for purely electronic reasons) spontaneously break the rotational (point group) symmetry of the underlying crystal. Such electron ``nematic'' phases have been seen in quantum Hall systems[1], in the metamagnetic metal Sr3Ru2O7[2], and more recently in magnetic neutron scattering studies of the high temperature superconductor, YBCO[3]. In the case of a high Tc superconductor, the quantum dynamics of nematic order parameter naturally couples strongly to quasiparticle (qp) excitations. In this talk, I will discuss our recent results on the effects of the coupling between quantum critical nematic fluctuations and the nodal qp's of a d-wave superconductor in the vicinity of a putative quantum critical point inside the superconducting phase. We solve a model system with N flavors of quasiparticles in the large N limit[4]. To leading order in 1/N, quantum fluctuations enhance the dispersion anisotropy of the nodal excitations, and cause strong scattering which critically broadens the quasiparticle peaks in the spectral function, except in the vicinity of ``the tips of the banana,'' where the qp's remain sharp. We will discuss the possible implications of our results to ARPES and STM experiments. [1] M.P. Lilly, K.B. Cooper, J.P. Eisenstein, L.N. Pfeiffer, and K.W. West, PRL 83, 824 (1999). [2] R. A. Borzi and S. A. Grigera and J. Farrell and R. S. Perry and S. J. S. Lister and S. L. Lee and D. A. Tennant and Y. Maeno and A. P. Mackenzie, Science 315, 214 (2007). [3] V. Hinkov, D. Haug, B. Fauqu'e, P. Bourges, Y. Sidis, A. Ivanov, C. Bernhard, C. T. Lin, B. Keimer, unpublished. [4] E.-A. Kim, M. Lawler, P. Oreto, E. Fradkin, S. Kivelson, cond-mat/0705.4099.

  15. Parameter scaling in the decoherent quantum-classical transition for chaotic rf superconducting quantum interference devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ting; Yu, Yang

    2010-01-01

    We numerically investigated the quantum-classical transition in rf-superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) systems coupled to a dissipative environment. It is found that chaos emerges and the degree of chaos, the maximal Lyapunov exponent lambda(m), exhibits nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the coupling strength D. By measuring the proximity of quantum and classical evolution with the uncertainty of dynamics, we show that the uncertainty is a monotonic function of lambda(m)/D. In addition, the scaling holds in SQUID systems to a relatively smaller variant Planck's over [symbol: see text], suggesting the universality for this scaling.

  16. Spectral density of Cooper pairs in two level quantum dot-superconductors Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, A.; Rawat, P. S.; Tewari, B. S.

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper, we report the role of quantum dot energy levels on the electronic spectral density for a two level quantum dot coupled to s-wave superconducting leads. The theoretical arguments in this work are based on the Anderson model so that it necessarily includes dot energies, single particle tunneling and superconducting order parameter for BCS superconductors. The expression for single particle spectral function is obtained by using the Green's function equation of motion technique. On the basis of numerical computation of spectral function of superconducting leads, it has been found that the charge transfer across such junctions can be controlled by the positions and availability of the dot levels.

  17. Multilayer MgB2 superconducting quantum interference filter magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, Elias; Melbourne, Thomas; Davidson, Bruce A.; Xi, X. X.; Chen, Ke

    2016-04-01

    We report two types of all-MgB2 superconductive quantum interference filter (SQIF) magnetometers that can measure absolute magnetic fields with high sensitivity. In one configuration, the SQIFs were made of 20 multilayer nonplanar all-MgB2 superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) connected in parallel with loop areas ranging in size from 0.4 to 3.6 μm2. These devices are sensitive to magnetic fields parallel to the substrate and show a single antipeak from 3 to 16 K with a maximum transfer function of ˜16 V/T at 3 K and a field noise of ˜110 pT/Hz1/2 above 100 Hz at 10 K. In a second configuration, the SQIFs were made with 16 planar SQUIDs connected in parallel with loop areas ranging in size from 4 μm2 to 25 μm2 and are sensitive to the magnetic fields perpendicular to the substrate. The planar SQIF shows a single antipeak from 10 to 22 K with a maximum transfer function of 7800 V/T at 10 K and a field noise of ˜70 pT/Hz1/2 above 100 Hz at 20 K.

  18. Real-time single-molecule imaging of quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Juffmann, Thomas; Müllneritsch, Michael; Asenbaum, Peter; Tsukernik, Alexander; Tüxen, Jens; Mayor, Marcel; Cheshnovsky, Ori; Arndt, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The observation of interference patterns in double-slit experiments with massive particles is generally regarded as the ultimate demonstration of the quantum nature of these objects. Such matter-wave interference has been observed for electrons, neutrons, atoms and molecules and it differs from classical wave-physics in that it can even be observed when single particles arrive at the detector one by one. The build-up of such patterns in experiments with electrons has been described as the "most beautiful experiment in physics". Here we show how a combination of nanofabrication and nanoimaging methods allows us to record the full two-dimensional build-up of quantum diffraction patterns in real-time for phthalocyanine molecules PcH2 and their tailored derivatives F24PcH2 with a mass of 1298 amu. A laser-controlled micro-evaporation source was used to produce a beam of molecules with the required intensity and coherence and the gratings were machined in 10 nm thick silicon nitride membranes to reduce the effect ...

  19. Photocurrent Control in a Magnetic Field through Quantum Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran Murti

    Quantum-mechanical interference between excitation pathways can be used to inject photocurrents optically in semiconductors, the properties of which can be coherently controlled through the phases and polarizations of the optical pulses. In this thesis, coherent photocurrent control is investigated theoretically for two-dimensional semiconductor systems in a perpendicular magnetic field. The semiconductor systems are subjected to optical pulses with centre frequencies o 0 and 2o0, which excite interband transitions through one- and two-photon processes, selection rules for which are determined from envelope wave functions. It is shown using time-dependent perturbation theory that the interference between one- and two-photon pathways connecting a particular valence Landau level to two different but adjacent conduction Landau levels manifests itself as electron currents that rotate counterclockwise, while interference between pathways connecting two adjacent valence Landau levels to a particular conduction Landau level manifests itself as hole currents that rotate clockwise. The initial directions of the currents can be controlled by adjusting the polarizations and a relative phase parameter of the pulses. The analysis is performed for a GaAs quantum well, monolayer graphene and bilayer graphene. For GaAs, the equally spaced Landau levels in each band lead to electron currents rotating at a single frequency and hole currents rotating at a different frequency. Monolayer and bilayer graphene allow currents with multiple frequency components as well as other peculiarities resulting from additional interference processes not present for GaAs. The photocurrents in all of these systems radiate in the terahertz regime. This radiation is calculated for realistic experimental conditions, with scattering and relaxation processes accounted for phenomenologically. Finally, the effect of Coulomb interactions on the coherent control process is considered for an undoped Ga

  20. Quantum simulation of superconductors on quantum computers. Toward the first applications of quantum processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallaire-Demers, Pierre-Luc

    2016-10-07

    Quantum computers are the ideal platform for quantum simulations. Given enough coherent operations and qubits, such machines can be leveraged to simulate strongly correlated materials, where intricate quantum effects give rise to counter-intuitive macroscopic phenomena such as high-temperature superconductivity. Many phenomena of strongly correlated materials are encapsulated in the Fermi-Hubbard model. In general, no closed-form solution is known for lattices of more than one spatial dimension, but they can be numerically approximated using cluster methods. To model long-range effects such as order parameters, a powerful method to compute the cluster's Green's function consists in finding its self-energy through a variational principle. As is shown in this thesis, this allows the possibility of studying various phase transitions at finite temperature in the Fermi-Hubbard model. However, a classical cluster solver quickly hits an exponential wall in the memory (or computation time) required to store the computation variables. We show theoretically that the cluster solver can be mapped to a subroutine on a quantum computer whose quantum memory usage scales linearly with the number of orbitals in the simulated cluster and the number of measurements scales quadratically. We also provide a gate decomposition of the cluster Hamiltonian and a simple planar architecture for a quantum simulator that can also be used to simulate more general fermionic systems. We briefly analyze the Trotter-Suzuki errors and estimate the scaling properties of the algorithm for more complex applications. A quantum computer with a few tens of qubits could therefore simulate the thermodynamic properties of complex fermionic lattices inaccessible to classical supercomputers.

  1. Real Space Renormalization of Majorana Fermions in Quantum Nano-Wire Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, R.; Langari, A.; Akbari, Alireza; Kim, Ki-Seok

    2017-02-01

    We develop the real space quantum renormalization group (QRG) approach for majorana fermions. As an example we focus on the Kitaev chain to investigate the topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) in the one-dimensional spinless p-wave superconductor. Studying the behaviour of local compressibility and ground-state fidelity, show that the TQPT is signalled by the maximum of local compressibility at the quantum critical point tuned by the chemical potential. Moreover, a sudden drop of the ground-state fidelity and the divergence of fidelity susceptibility at the topological quantum critical point are used as proper indicators for the TQPT, which signals the appearance of Majorana fermions. Finally, we present the scaling analysis of ground-state fidelity near the critical point that manifests the universal information about the TQPT, which reveals two different scaling behaviors as we approach the critical point and thermodynamic limit.

  2. Field-induced quantum critical route to a Fermi liquid in high-temperature superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibauchi, Takasada; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia; Hasegawa, Masashi; Kasahara, Yuichi; Okazaki, Ryuji; Matsuda, Yuji

    2008-05-20

    In high-transition-temperature (T(c)) superconductivity, charge doping is a natural tuning parameter that takes copper oxides from the antiferromagnet to the superconducting region. In the metallic state above T(c), the standard Landau's Fermi-liquid theory of metals as typified by the temperature squared (T(2)) dependence of resistivity appears to break down. Whether the origin of the non-Fermi-liquid behavior is related to physics specific to the cuprates is a fundamental question still under debate. We uncover a transformation from the non-Fermi-liquid state to a standard Fermi-liquid state driven not by doping but by magnetic field in the overdoped high-T(c) superconductor Tl(2)Ba(2)CuO(6+x). From the c-axis resistivity measured up to 45 T, we show that the Fermi-liquid features appear above a sufficiently high field that decreases linearly with temperature and lands at a quantum critical point near the superconductivity's upper critical field-with the Fermi-liquid coefficient of the T(2) dependence showing a power-law diverging behavior on the approach to the critical point. This field-induced quantum criticality bears a striking resemblance to that in quasi-two-dimensional heavy-Fermion superconductors, suggesting a common underlying spin-related physics in these superconductors with strong electron correlations.

  3. High temperature radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device system for detection of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretzell, Alf

    2012-07-01

    This doctoral thesis was aimed at establishing a set-up with high-temperature superconductor (HTS) radio-frequency (rf) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) technology for the detection of magnetic nanoparticles and in particular for testing applications of magnetic nanoparticle immunoassays. It was part of the EU-project ''Biodiagnostics'' running from 2005 to 2008. The method of magnetic binding assays was developed as an alternative to other methods of concentration determination like enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or fluorescent immunoassay. The ELISA has sensitivities down to analyte-concentrations of pg/ml. Multiple incubation and washing steps have to be performed for these techniques, the analyte has to diffuse to the site of binding. The magnetic assay uses magnetic nanoparticles as markers for the substance to be detected. It is being explored by current research and shows similar sensitivity compared to ELISA but in contrast - does not need any washing and can be read out directly after binding - can be applied in solution with opaque media, e.g. blood or muddy water - additionally allows magnetic separation or concentration - in combination with small magnetoresistive or Hall sensors, allows detection of only a few particles or even single beads. For medical or environmental samples, maybe opaque and containing a multitude of substances, it would be advantageous to devise an instrument, which allows to be read out quickly and with high sensitivity. Due to the mentioned items the magnetic assay might be a possibility here.

  4. Step edge Josephson junctions and high temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) gradiometers

    CERN Document Server

    Millar, A J

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) gradiometers based on the high temperature superconductor YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - subdelta (YBCO). A step-edge Josephson junction fabrication process was developed to produce sufficiently steep (>60 deg) step-edges such that junctions exhibited RSJ-like current-voltage characteristics. The mean I sub C R sub N product of a sample of twenty step-edge junctions was 130 mu V. Step-edge dc SQUIDs with inductances between 67pH and 114pH were fabricated. Generally the SQUIDs had an intrinsic white flux noise in the 10-30 mu PHI sub 0 /sq root Hz range, with the best device, a 70pH SQUID, exhibiting a white flux noise of 5 mu PHI sub 0 /sq root Hz. Different first-order SQUID gradiometer designs were fabricated from single layers of YBCO. Two single-layer gradiometer (SLG) designs were fabricated on 10x10mm sup 2 substrates. The best balance and lowest gradient sensitivity measured for these devices were 1/3...

  5. Quantum topological transition in hyperbolic metamaterials based on high Tc superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2014-07-30

    Hyperbolic metamaterials are known to exhibit a transition in the topology of the photon iso-frequency surface from a closed ellipsoid to an open hyperboloid, resulting in a considerable increase of the photonic density of states. This topological transition may also be described as a change of metric signature of the effective optical space. Here we demonstrate that high Tc superconductors exhibit hyperbolic metamaterial behavior in the far infrared and THz frequency ranges. In the THz range the hyperbolic behavior occurs only in the normal state, while no propagating photon modes exist in the superconducting state. Thus, a quantum topological transition may be observed for THz photons at zero temperature as a function of the external magnetic field, in which the effective Minkowski spacetime arises in the mixed state of the superconductor at some critical value of the external magnetic field. Nucleation of effective Minkowski spacetime occurs via the formation of quantized Abrikosov vortices.

  6. 1D Josephson quantum interference grids: diffraction patterns and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, M.; Badoni, D.; Corato, V.; Merlo, V.; Ottaviani, I.; Salina, G.; Cirillo, M.; Ustinov, A. V.; Winkler, D.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the magnetic response of transmission lines with embedded Josephson junctions and thus generating a 1D underdamped array. The measured multi-junction interference patterns are compared with the theoretical predictions for Josephson supercurrent modulations when an external magnetic field couples both to the inter-junction loops and to the junctions themselves. The results provide a striking example of the analogy between Josephson phase modulation and 1D optical diffraction grid. The Fiske resonances in the current-voltage characteristics with voltage spacing {Φ0}≤ft(\\frac{{\\bar{c}}}{2L}\\right) , where L is the total physical length of the array, {Φ0} the magnetic flux quantum and \\bar{c} the speed of light in the transmission line, demonstrate that the discrete line supports stable dynamic patterns generated by the ac Josephson effect interacting with the cavity modes of the line.

  7. Phase sensitive quantum interference on forbidden transition in ladder scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Koganov, Gennady A

    2014-01-01

    A three level ladder system is analyzed and the coherence of initially electric-dipole forbidden transition is calculated. Due to the presence of two laser fields the initially dipole forbidden transition becomes dynamically permitted due to ac Stark effect. It is shown that such transitions exhibit quantum-interference-related phenomena, such as electromagnetically induced transparency, gain without inversion and enhanced refractive index. Gain and dispersion characteristics of such transitions strongly depend upon the relative phase between the driving and the probe fields. Unlike allowed transitions, gain/absorption behavior of ac-Stark allowed transitions exhibit antisymmetric feature on the Rabi sidebands. It is found that absorption/gain spectra possess extremely narrow sub-natural resonances on these ac Stark allowed forbidden transitions. An interesting finding is simultaneous existence of gain and negative dispersion at Autler-Townes transition which may lead to both reduction of the group velocity a...

  8. An electro-optic waveform interconnect based on quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Li-Guo; Gong, Shang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The ability to modulate an optical field via an electric field is regarded as a key function of electro-optic interconnects, which are used in optical communications and information processing systems. One of the main required devices for such interconnects is the electro-optic modulator (EOM). Current EOM based on the electro-optic effect and the electro-absorption effect often is bulky and power inefficient due to the weak electro-optic properties of its constituent materials. Here we propose a new mechanism to produce an arbitrary-waveform EOM based on the quantum interference, in which both the real and imaginary parts of the susceptibility are engineered coherently with the superhigh efficiency. Based on this EOM, a waveform interconnect from the voltage to the modulated optical absorption is realised. We expect that such a new type of electro-optic interconnect will have a broad range of applications including the optical communications and network.

  9. Micron size superconducting quantum interference devices of lead (Pb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sagar; Biswas, Sourav; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2017-02-01

    Micron size superconducting quantum interference devices (μ-SQUID) of lead (Pb), for probing nano-magnetism, were fabricated and characterized. In order to get continuous Pb films with small grain size, Pb was thermally evaporated on a liquid nitrogen cooled Si substrate. Pb was sandwiched between two thin Cr layers for improved adhesion and protection. The SQUID pattern was made by e-beam lithography with Pb lift-off after deposition. The current-voltage characteristics of these devices show a critical current, which exhibits the expected SQUID oscillations with magnetic field, and two re-trapping currents. As a result these devices have hysteresis at low temperatures, which disappears just below the critical temperature.

  10. Nano-superconducting quantum interference devices with suspended junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, D.; Hasselbach, K. [Institut Néel, CNRS and Université Joseph Fourier, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble (France); Kirtley, J. R. [Center for Probing the Nanoscale, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94305-4045 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    Nano-Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (nano-SQUIDs) are usually fabricated from a single layer of either Nb or Al. We describe here a simple method for fabricating suspended nano-bridges in Nb/Al thin-film bilayers. We use these suspended bridges, which act as Josephson weak links, to fabricate nano-SQUIDs which show critical current oscillations at temperatures up to 1.5 K and magnetic flux densities up to over 20 mT. These nano-SQUIDs exhibit flux modulation depths intermediate between all-Al and all-Nb devices, with some of the desirable characteristics of both. The suspended geometry is attractive for magnetic single nanoparticle measurements.

  11. Molecular spintronics: destructive quantum interference controlled by a gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva-Souza, Aldilene; Smeu, Manuel; Zhang, Lei; Souza Filho, Antonio Gomes; Guo, Hong; Ratner, Mark A

    2014-10-22

    The ability to control the spin-transport properties of a molecule bridging conducting electrodes is of paramount importance to molecular spintronics. Quantum interference can play an important role in allowing or forbidding electrons from passing through a system. In this work, the spin-transport properties of a polyacetylene chain bridging zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) are studied with nonequilibrium Green's function calculations performed within the density functional theory framework (NEGF-DFT). ZGNR electrodes have inherent spin polarization along their edges, which causes a splitting between the properties of spin-up and spin-down electrons in these systems. Upon adding an imidazole donor group and a pyridine acceptor group to the polyacetylene chain, this causes destructive interference features in the electron transmission spectrum. Particularly, the donor group causes a large antiresonance dip in transmission at the Fermi energy EF of the electrodes. The application of a gate is investigated and found to provide control over the energy position of this feature making it possible to turn this phenomenon on and off. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of this system are also calculated, showing near ohmic scaling for spin-up but negative differential resistance (NDR) for spin-down.

  12. Hybrid Quantum Point Contact-Superconductor Devices Using InSb Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Stephen; Damasco, John Jeffrey; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Mason, Nadya

    Recent experiments using hybrid nanowire (NW)-superconductor (SC) devices have provided evidence for Majorana quasiparticles in tunneling experiments. However, these tunneling experiments are marked by a soft superconducting gap, which likely originates from disorder at the NW-SC interface. Hence, clean NW-SC interfaces are important for future Majorana studies. By carefully processing the NW-SC interface, we have realized quantized conductance steps in quantum point contacts fabricated from InSb NWs and superconducting contacts. We study the length dependence of ballistic behavior and the induced superconductivity in InSb NWs by quantum point contact spectroscopy. Additionally, we discuss how the transport in InSb NW-SC quantum point contacts evolves in magnetic field.

  13. Phase Interference in a Multi-level Quantum-Dot System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu-Ming; CHEN Xiao-Shuang; LU Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ Considering phase interference, we investigate coherent transport in a quantum dot by using a thermopower. In the single process of the electronic transport through the quantum dot, it is shown that the phase interference between the levels of a quantum dot is like the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The result indicates that the thermopower is very sensitive to phase interference. It is also found that the phase-difference change of the different levels of the quantum dot can determine the shape of the thermopower.

  14. Quantum Resistive Transition in Type II Superconductors under Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, R

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that, within a Ginzburg-Landau (GL) formalism, the superconducting fluctuation is insulating at zero temperature even if the fluctuation dynamics is metallic (dissipative). Based on this fact, the low temperature behavior of the $H_{c2}$-line and the resistivity curves near a zero temperature transition are discussed. In particular, it is pointed out that the neglect of quantum fluctuations in data analysis of the dc resistivity may lead to an under-estimation of the $H_{c2}$ values near zero temperature.

  15. Pair correlation functions of FeAs-based superconductors: Quantum Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashurnikov, V. A.; Krasavin, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The new generalized quantum continuous time world line Monte Carlo algorithm was developed to calculate pair correlation functions for two-dimensional FeAs-clusters modeling of iron-based superconductors within the framework of the two-orbital model. The analysis of pair correlations depending on the cluster size, temperature, interaction, and the type of symmetry of the order parameter is carried out. The data obtained for clusters with sizes up to 1 0x1 0 FeAs-cells favor the possibility of an effective charge carrier's attraction that is corresponding the A1g-symmetry, at some parameters of interaction.

  16. Infinite randomness fixed point of the superconductor-metal quantum phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Maestro, Adrian; Rosenow, Bernd; Müller, Markus; Sachdev, Subir

    2008-07-18

    We examine the influence of quenched disorder on the superconductor-metal transition, as described by a theory of overdamped Cooper pairs which repel each other. The self-consistent pairing eigenmodes of a quasi-one-dimensional wire are determined numerically. Our results support the recent proposal by Hoyos et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 230601 (2007)10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.230601] that the transition is characterized by the same strong-disorder fixed point describing the onset of ferromagnetism in the random quantum Ising chain in a transverse field.

  17. Nematic quantum critical point without magnetism in FeSe1-xSx superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Suguru; Matsuura, Kohei; Ishida, Kousuke; Wang, Hao; Mizukami, Yuta; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada

    2016-07-01

    In most unconventional superconductors, the importance of antiferromagnetic fluctuations is widely acknowledged. In addition, cuprate and iron-pnictide high-temperature superconductors often exhibit unidirectional (nematic) electronic correlations, including stripe and orbital orders, whose fluctuations may also play a key role for electron pairing. In these materials, however, such nematic correlations are intertwined with antiferromagnetic or charge orders, preventing the identification of the essential role of nematic fluctuations. This calls for new materials having only nematicity without competing or coexisting orders. Here we report systematic elastoresistance measurements in FeSe1-xSx superconductors, which, unlike other iron-based families, exhibit an electronic nematic order without accompanying antiferromagnetic order. We find that the nematic transition temperature decreases with sulfur content x; whereas, the nematic fluctuations are strongly enhanced. Near ≈0.17, the nematic susceptibility diverges toward absolute zero, revealing a nematic quantum critical point. The obtained phase diagram for the nematic and superconducting states highlights FeSe1-xSx as a unique nonmagnetic system suitable for studying the impact of nematicity on superconductivity.

  18. Electrical transport through a quantum dot side-coupled to a topological superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Li

    2014-11-12

    We propose to measure the differential conductance G as a function of the bias V for a quantum dot side-coupled to a topological superconductor to detect the existence of the chiral Majorana edge states. It turns out that G for the spinless dot is an oscillatory (but not periodic) function of eV due to the coupling to the chiral Majorana edge states, where -e is the charge carried by the electron. The behaviour of G versus eV is distinguished from that of a multi-level dot in three respects. First of all, due to the coupling to the topological superconductor, the value of G will shift upon adding or removing a vortex in the topological superconductor. Next, for an off-resonance dot, the conductance peak in the present case takes a universal value e(2)/(2h) when the two leads are symmetrically coupled to the dot. Finally, for a symmetric setup and an on-resonance dot, the conductance peak will approach the same universal value e(2)/(2h) at a large bias.

  19. Nematic quantum critical point without magnetism in FeSe1-xSx superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Suguru; Matsuura, Kohei; Ishida, Kousuke; Wang, Hao; Mizukami, Yuta; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada

    2016-07-19

    In most unconventional superconductors, the importance of antiferromagnetic fluctuations is widely acknowledged. In addition, cuprate and iron-pnictide high-temperature superconductors often exhibit unidirectional (nematic) electronic correlations, including stripe and orbital orders, whose fluctuations may also play a key role for electron pairing. In these materials, however, such nematic correlations are intertwined with antiferromagnetic or charge orders, preventing the identification of the essential role of nematic fluctuations. This calls for new materials having only nematicity without competing or coexisting orders. Here we report systematic elastoresistance measurements in FeSe1-xSx superconductors, which, unlike other iron-based families, exhibit an electronic nematic order without accompanying antiferromagnetic order. We find that the nematic transition temperature decreases with sulfur content x; whereas, the nematic fluctuations are strongly enhanced. Near [Formula: see text], the nematic susceptibility diverges toward absolute zero, revealing a nematic quantum critical point. The obtained phase diagram for the nematic and superconducting states highlights FeSe1-xSx as a unique nonmagnetic system suitable for studying the impact of nematicity on superconductivity.

  20. The Study of Quantum Interference in Metallic Photonic Crystals Doped with Four-Level Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatef Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, the absorption coefficient of a metallic photonic crystal doped with nanoparticles has been obtained using numerical simulation techniques. The effects of quantum interference and the concentration of doped particles on the absorption coefficient of the system have been investigated. The nanoparticles have been considered as semiconductor quantum dots which behave as a four-level quantum system and are driven by a single coherent laser field. The results show that changing the position of the photonic band gap about the resonant energy of the two lower levels directly affects the decay rate, and the system can be switched between transparent and opaque states if the probe laser field is tuned to the resonance frequency. These results provide an application for metallic nanostructures in the fabrication of new optical switches and photonic devices.

  1. Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jing; Xu, Xiulai

    2015-01-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay $g^{(2)}(0)$ in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum in...

  2. Superconductor to Quantum Metal Transitions in Ultra Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Hsiang; Goldman, Allen M.

    2009-03-01

    Homogeneous films of amorphous bismuth have been continuously tuned from the superconducting state by increasing a perpendicular magnetic field. Electrical transport and Hall measurements show that the non-superconducting states of the films are quantum-corrected metals. In the vicinity of transition field, the resistance can be fit by an Arrhenius type of conduction at high temperatures but this form fails at lower temperatures where the resistance is a non-monotonic function of temperature. This suggests that a two-phase regime develops near criticality. Theories suggest that this is in the form of superconducting puddles embedded in a normal matrix^1,2. ^1B. Spivak, P. Oreto, and S. A. Kivelson, Phys. Rev. B 77, 214523 (2008) ^2Y. Dubi, Y. Meir, and Y. Avishai, Nature 449, 876-880 (2007)

  3. Quantum oscillations in non-Fermi liquids: Implications for high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpelz, Peter; He, Yan; Levin, K.

    2013-12-01

    We address quantum oscillation experiments in high-Tc superconductors and the evidence from these experiments for a pseudogap versus a Fermi liquid phase at high magnetic fields. As a concrete alternative to a Fermi liquid phase, the pseudogap state we consider derives from earlier work within a Gor'kov-based Landau level approach. Here the normal state pairing gap in the presence of high fields is spatially nonuniform, incorporating small gap values. These, in addition to d-wave gap nodes, are responsible for the persistence of quantum oscillations. Important here are methodologies for distinguishing different scenarios. To this end we examine the temperature dependence of the oscillations. Detailed quantitative analysis of this temperature dependence demonstrates that a high-field pseudogap state in the cuprates may well "masquerade" as a Fermi liquid.

  4. Quantum metallicity on the high-field side of the superconductor-insulator transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturina, T I; Strunk, C; Baklanov, M R; Satta, A

    2007-03-23

    We investigate ultrathin superconducting TiN films, which are very close to the localization threshold. Perpendicular magnetic field drives the films from the superconducting to an insulating state, with very high resistance. Further increase of the magnetic field leads to an exponential decay of the resistance towards a finite value. In the limit of low temperatures, the saturation value can be very accurately extrapolated to the universal quantum resistance h/e2. Our analysis suggests that at high magnetic fields a new ground state, distinct from the normal metallic state occurring above the superconducting transition temperature, is formed. A comparison with other studies on different materials indicates that the quantum metallic phase following the magnetic-field-induced insulating phase is a generic property of systems close to the disorder-driven superconductor-insulator transition.

  5. Dissipation-driven quantum phase transition in superconductor-graphene systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchyn, Roman M; Galitski, Victor; Refael, Gil; Das Sarma, S

    2008-09-05

    We show that a system of Josephson junctions coupled via low-resistance tunneling contacts to graphene substrate(s) may effectively operate as a current switching device. The effect is based on the dissipation-driven superconductor-to-insulator quantum phase transition, which happens due to the interplay of the Josephson effect and Coulomb blockade. Coupling to a graphene substrate with gapless excitations further enhances charge fluctuations favoring superconductivity. The effect is shown to scale exponentially with the Fermi energy in graphene, which can be controlled by the gate voltage. We develop a theory that quantitatively describes the quantum phase transition in a two-dimensional Josephson junction array, but it is expected to provide a reliable qualitative description for one-dimensional systems as well.

  6. Pair correlations in iron-based superconductors: Quantum Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashurnikov, V.A.; Krasavin, A.V., E-mail: avkrasavin@gmail.com

    2014-08-01

    The new generalized quantum continuous time world line Monte Carlo algorithm was developed to calculate pair correlation functions for two-dimensional FeAs-clusters modeling of iron-based superconductors using a two-orbital model. The data obtained for clusters with sizes up to 10×10 FeAs-cells favor the possibility of an effective charge carrier's attraction that is corresponding the A{sub 1g}-symmetry, at some parameters of interaction. The analysis of pair correlations depending on the cluster size, temperature, interaction, and the type of symmetry of the order parameter is carried out. - Highlights: • New generalized quantum continuous time world line Monte Carlo algorithm is developed. • Pair correlation functions for two-dimensional FeAs-clusters are calculated. • Parameters of two-orbital model corresponding to attraction of carriers are defined.

  7. On-chip interference of single photons from an embedded quantum dot and an external laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prtljaga, N., E-mail: n.prtljaga@sheffield.ac.uk; Bentham, C.; O' Hara, J.; Royall, B.; Wilson, L. R.; Skolnick, M. S.; Fox, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Clarke, E. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-20

    In this work, we demonstrate the on-chip two-photon interference between single photons emitted by a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot and an external laser. The quantum dot is embedded within one arm of an air-clad directional coupler which acts as a beam-splitter for incoming light. Photons originating from an attenuated external laser are coupled to the second arm of the beam-splitter and then combined with the quantum dot photons, giving rise to two-photon quantum interference between dissimilar sources. We verify the occurrence of on-chip Hong-Ou-Mandel interference by cross-correlating the optical signal from the separate output ports of the directional coupler. This experimental approach allows us to use a classical light source (laser) to assess in a single step the overall device performance in the quantum regime and probe quantum dot photon indistinguishability on application realistic time scales.

  8. High-Efficiency Cooper-Pair Splitter in Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator Proximity-Coupled with Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Tao; Deng, Xinzhou; Sun, Qing-Feng; Qiao, Zhenhua

    2015-01-01

    The quantum entanglement between two qubits is crucial for applications in the quantum communication. After the entanglement of photons was experimentally realized, much effort has been taken to exploit the entangled electrons in solid-state systems. Here, we propose a Cooper-pair splitter, which can generate spatially-separated but entangled electrons, in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator proximity-coupled with a superconductor. After coupling with a superconductor, the chiral edge states of the quantum anomalous Hall insulator can still survive, making the backscattering impossible. Thus, the local Andreev reflection becomes vanishing, while the crossed Andreev reflection becomes dominant in the scattering process. This indicates that our device can serve as an extremely high-efficiency Cooper-pair splitter. Furthermore, because of the chiral characteristic, our Cooper-pair splitter is robust against disorders and can work in a wide range of system parameters. Particularly, it can still function even if the system length exceeds the superconducting coherence length.

  9. Quantum tunneling of vortices in the Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, J.; Chudnovsky, E. M.; García, A.

    1993-05-01

    Magnetic-relaxation measurements of a Tl-based high-Tc superconductor show temperature-independent flux creep below 6 K. The effect is analyzed in terms of the overdamped quantum diffusion of two-dimensional vortices. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  10. Josephson effects in the junction formed by DIII-class topological and s-wave superconductors with an embedded quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Shan, Wan-Fei; Wu, Hai-Na; Gong, Wei-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the Josephson effects in the junction formed by the indirect coupling between DIII-class topological and s-wave superconductors via an embedded quantum dot. Due to the presence of two kinds of superconductors, three dot-superconductor coupling manners are considered, respectively. As a result, the Josephson current is found to oscillate in period 2π. More importantly, the presence of Majorana doublet in the DIII-class superconductor renders the current finite at the case of zero phase difference, with its sign determined by the fermion parity of such a junction. In addition, the dot-superconductor coupling plays a nontrivial role in adjusting the Josephson current. When the s-wave superconductor couples to the dot in the weak limit, the current direction will have an opportunity to reverse. It is believed that these results will be helpful for understanding the transport properties of the DIII-class superconductor. PMID:27324426

  11. Quantum-ring spin interference device tuned by quantum point contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diago-Cisneros, Leo [Facultad de Física, Universidad de La Habana, C.P.10400, La Habana (Cuba); Mireles, Francisco [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P. 22800 Ensenada, Baja California, México (Mexico)

    2013-11-21

    We introduce a spin-interference device that comprises a quantum ring (QR) with three embedded quantum point contacts (QPCs) and study theoretically its spin transport properties in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Two of the QPCs conform the lead-to-ring junctions while a third one is placed symmetrically in the upper arm of the QR. Using an appropriate scattering model for the QPCs and the S-matrix scattering approach, we analyze the role of the QPCs on the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) and Aharonov-Casher (AC) conductance oscillations of the QR-device. Exact formulas are obtained for the spin-resolved conductances of the QR-device as a function of the confinement of the QPCs and the AB/AC phases. Conditions for the appearance of resonances and anti-resonances in the spin-conductance are derived and discussed. We predict very distinctive variations of the QR-conductance oscillations not seen in previous QR proposals. In particular, we find that the interference pattern in the QR can be manipulated to a large extend by varying electrically the lead-to-ring topological parameters. The latter can be used to modulate the AB and AC phases by applying gate voltage only. We have shown also that the conductance oscillations exhibits a crossover to well-defined resonances as the lateral QPC confinement strength is increased, mapping the eigenenergies of the QR. In addition, unique features of the conductance arise by varying the aperture of the upper-arm QPC and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Our results may be of relevance for promising spin-orbitronics devices based on quantum interference mechanisms.

  12. Interference with a quantum dot single-photon source and a laser at telecom wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felle, M. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Huwer, J., E-mail: jan.huwer@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Stevenson, R. M.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Ward, M. B.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Penty, R. V. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-28

    The interference of photons emitted by dissimilar sources is an essential requirement for a wide range of photonic quantum information applications. Many of these applications are in quantum communications and need to operate at standard telecommunication wavelengths to minimize the impact of photon losses and be compatible with existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the quantum interference of telecom-wavelength photons from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-photon source and a laser; an important step towards such applications. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model, indicating a high degree of indistinguishability for the interfering photons.

  13. Bosonic Operator Realization of Hamiltonian for a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi

    2004-01-01

    Based on the appropriate bosonic phase operator diagonalized in the entangled state representation we construct the Hamiltonian operator model for a superconducting quantum interference device. The current operator and voltage operator equations are derived.

  14. Programmable two-photon quantum interference in $10^3$ channels in opaque scattering media

    CERN Document Server

    Wolterink, Tom A W; Ctistis, Georgios; Vos, Willem L; Boller, Klaus -J; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2015-01-01

    We investigate two-photon quantum interference in an opaque scattering medium that intrinsically supports $10^6$ transmission channels. By adaptive spatial phase-modulation of the incident wavefronts, the photons are directed at targeted speckle spots or output channels. From $10^3$ experimentally available coupled channels, we select two channels and enhance their transmission, to realize the equivalent of a fully programmable $2\\times2$ beam splitter. By sending pairs of single photons from a parametric down-conversion source through the opaque scattering medium, we observe two-photon quantum interference. The programmed beam splitter need not fulfill energy conservation over the two selected output channels and hence could be non-unitary. Consequently, we have the freedom to tune the quantum interference from bunching (Hong-Ou-Mandel-like) to antibunching. Our results establish opaque scattering media as a platform for high-dimensional quantum interference that is notably relevant for boson sampling and ph...

  15. Programmable two-photon quantum interference in 103 channels in opaque scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolterink, Tom A. W.; Uppu, Ravitej; Ctistis, Georgios; Vos, Willem L.; Boller, Klaus-J.; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate two-photon quantum interference in an opaque scattering medium that intrinsically supports a large number of transmission channels. By adaptive spatial phase modulation of the incident wave fronts, the photons are directed at targeted speckle spots or output channels. From 103 experimentally available coupled channels, we select two channels and enhance their transmission to realize the equivalent of a fully programmable 2 ×2 beam splitter. By sending pairs of single photons from a parametric down-conversion source through the opaque scattering medium, we observe two-photon quantum interference. The programed beam splitter need not fulfill energy conservation over the two selected output channels and hence could be nonunitary. Consequently, we have the freedom to tune the quantum interference from bunching (Hong-Ou-Mandel-like) to antibunching. Our results establish opaque scattering media as a platform for high-dimensional quantum interference that is notably relevant for boson sampling and physical-key-based authentication.

  16. SQUID detected NMR and NQR. Superconducting Quantum Interference Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, M P; TonThat, D M; Clarke, J

    1998-03-01

    The dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) is a sensitive detector of magnetic flux, with a typical flux noise of the order 1 muphi0 Hz(-1/2) at liquid helium temperatures. Here phi0 = h/2e is the flux quantum. In our NMR or NQR spectrometer, a niobium wire coil wrapped around the sample is coupled to a thin film superconducting coil deposited on the SQUID to form a flux transformer. With this untuned input circuit the SQUID measures the flux, rather than the rate of change of flux, and thus retains its high sensitivity down to arbitrarily low frequencies. This feature is exploited in a cw spectrometer that monitors the change in the static magnetization of a sample induced by radio frequency irradiation. Examples of this technique are the detection of NQR in 27Al in sapphire and 11B in boron nitride, and a level crossing technique to enhance the signal of 14N in peptides. Research is now focused on a SQUID-based spectrometer for pulsed NQR and NMR, which has a bandwidth of 0-5 MHz. This spectrometer is used with spin-echo techniques to measure the NQR longitudinal and transverse relaxation times of 14N in NH4ClO4, 63+/-6 ms and 22+/-2 ms, respectively. With the aid of two-frequency pulses to excite the 359 kHz and 714 kHz resonances in ruby simultaneously, it is possible to obtain a two-dimensional NQR spectrum. As a third example, the pulsed spectrometer is used to study NMR spectrum of 129Xe after polariza-tion with optically pumped Rb. The NMR line can be detected at frequencies as low as 200 Hz. At fields below about 2 mT the longitudinal relaxation time saturates at about 2000 s. Two recent experiments in other laboratories have extended these pulsed NMR techniques to higher temperatures and smaller samples. In the first, images were obtained of mineral oil floating on water at room temperature. In the second, a SQUID configured as a thin film gradiometer was used to detect NMR in a 50 microm particle of 195Pt at 6 mT and 4.2 K.

  17. A quantum dynamic belief model to explain the interference effects of categorization on decision making

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zichang; Jiang, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Categorization is necessary for many decision making tasks. However, the categorization process may interfere the decision making result and the law of total probability can be violated in some situations. To predict the interference effect of categorization, some model based on quantum probability has been proposed. In this paper, a new quantum dynamic belief (QDB) model is proposed. Considering the precise decision may not be made during the process, the concept of uncertainty is introduced...

  18. Quantum random walks with multiphoton interference and high order correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gard, Bryan T; Anisimov, Petr M; Lee, Hwang; Dowling, Jonathan P

    2011-01-01

    We show a simulation of quantum random walks with multiple photons using a staggered array of 50/50 beam splitters with a bank of detectors at any desired level. We discuss the multiphoton interference effects that are inherent to this setup, and introduce one, two, and threefold coincidence detection schemes. The use of Feynman diagrams are used to intuitively explain the unique multiphoton interference effects of these quantum random walks.

  19. Quantum interference between two single photons emitted by independently trapped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Beugnon, J; Dingjan, J; Darquié, B; Messin, G; Browaeys, A; Grangier, P; Beugnon, Jerome; Jones, Matthew; Dingjan, Jos; Darqui\\'{e}, Benoit; Messin, Gaetan; Browaeys, Antoine; Grangier, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    When two indistinguishable single photons are fed into the two input ports of a beam splitter, the photons will coalesce and leave together from the same output port. This is a quantum interference effect, which occurs because the two possible paths where the photons leave in different output ports interfere destructively. This effect was first observed in parametric downconversion by Hong, Ou and Mandel, and then with single photons produced one after the other by the same quantum emitter. With the recent development of quantum information, a lot of attention has been devoted to this coalescence effect as a resource for quantum data processing using linear optics techniques. To ensure the scalability of schemes based on these ideas, it is crucial that indistinguishable photons are emitted by a collection of synchronized, but otherwise independent sources. In this paper, we demonstrate the quantum interference of two single photons emitted by two independently trapped single atoms, bridging the gap towards th...

  20. Quantum interference effects at room temperature in OPV-based single-molecule junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arroyo, Carlos R.; Frisenda, Riccardo; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper;

    2013-01-01

    Interference effects on charge transport through an individual molecule can lead to a notable modulation and suppression on its conductance. In this letter, we report the observation of quantum interference effects occurring at room temperature in single-molecule junctions based on oligo(3...

  1. Epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor two-dimensional systems: platforms for quantum circuits (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Javad

    2016-10-01

    Theory suggests that the interface between a one-dimensional semiconductor (Sm) with strong spin-orbit coupling and a superconductor (S) hosts Majorana modes with nontrivial topological properties. A key challenge in fabrication of such hybrid devices is forming highly transparent contacts between the active electrons in the semiconductor and the superconducting metal. Recently, it has been shown that a near perfect interface and a highly transparent contact can be achieved using epitaxial growth of aluminum on InAs nanowires. In this work, we present the first two-dimensional epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor material system that can serve as a platform for topological superconductivity. We show that our material system, Al-InAs, satisfies all the requirements necessary to reach into the topological superconducting regime by individual characterization of the semiconductor two dimensional electron system, superconductivity of Al and performance of S-Sm-S junctions. This exciting development might lead to a number of useful applications ranging from spintronics to quantum computing.

  2. Molecular internal dynamics studied by quantum path interferences in high order harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaïr, Amelle, E-mail: azair@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory Laser Consortium, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Siegel, Thomas; Sukiasyan, Suren; Risoud, Francois; Brugnera, Leonardo; Hutchison, Christopher [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory Laser Consortium, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Diveki, Zsolt; Auguste, Thierry [Service des Photons, Atomes et Molécules, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tisch, John W.G. [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory Laser Consortium, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Salières, Pascal [Service des Photons, Atomes et Molécules, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ivanov, Misha Y.; Marangos, Jonathan P. [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory Laser Consortium, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-12

    Highlights: ► Electronic trajectories in high order harmonic generation encodes attosecond and femtosecond molecular dynamical information. ► The observation of these quantum paths allows us to follow nuclear motion after ionization. ► Quantum paths interference encodes a signature of superposition of ionization channels. ► Quantum paths interference encodes a signature of transfer of population between channels due to laser coupling. ► Quantum paths interference is a promising technique to resolve ultra-fast dynamical processes after ionization. - Abstract: We investigate how short and long electron trajectory contributions to high harmonic emission and their interferences give access to information about intra-molecular dynamics. In the case of unaligned molecules, we show experimental evidence that the long trajectory contribution is more dependent upon the molecular species than the short one, providing a high sensitivity to cation nuclear dynamics from 100’s of as to a few fs after ionisation. Using theoretical approaches based on the strong field approximation and numerical integration of the time dependent Schrödinger equation, we examine how quantum path interferences encode electronic motion when the molecules are aligned. We show that the interferences are dependent upon which ionisation channels are involved and any superposition between them. In particular, quantum path interferences can encode signatures of electron dynamics if the laser field drives a coupling between the channels. Hence, molecular quantum path interferences are a promising method for attosecond spectroscopy, allowing the resolution of ultra-fast charge migration in molecules after ionisation in a self-referenced manner.

  3. Spin Seebeck effect in quantum dot side-coupled to topological superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, Ireneusz

    2017-03-01

    The spin-resolved thermoelectric transport properties of a quantum dot coupled to ferromagnetic leads and side-coupled to a topological superconductor wire hosting Majorana zero-energy modes are studied theoretically. The calculations are performed in the linear response regime by using the numerical renormalization group method. It is shown that transport characteristics are determined by the interplay of Kondo correlations, exchange field due to the presence of ferromagnets and the strength of coupling to Majorana wire. These different energy scales are revealed in the behavior of the Seebeck and spin Seebeck coefficients, which exhibit an enhancement for temperatures of the order of the coupling strength to topological wire. Moreover, it is demonstrated that additional sign changes of the thermopower can occur due to the presence of Majorana zero-energy modes. These findings may provide additional fingerprints of the presence of Majorana fermions.

  4. Multifarious topological quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional topological superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yi-Fei; Gong, Chang-De

    2016-06-01

    We study the two-dimensional topological superconductors of spinless fermions in a checkerboard-lattice Chern-insulator model. With the short-range p-wave superconducting pairing, multifarious topological quantum phase transitions have been found and several phases with high Chern numbers have been observed. We have established a rich phase diagram for these topological superconducting states. A finite-size checkerboard-lattice cylinder with a harmonic trap potential has been further investigated. Based upon the self-consistent numerical calculations of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, various phase transitions have also been identified at different regions of the system. Multiple pairs of Majorana fermions are found to be well-separated and localized at the phase boundaries between the phases characterized by different Chern numbers.

  5. Effects of domain walls in quantum anomalous Hall insulator/superconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chui-Zhen; He, James Jun; Xu, Dong-Hui; Law, K. T.

    2017-07-01

    In a recent experiment, half-quantized longitudinal conductance plateaus (HQCPs) of height e/22 h have been observed in quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulator/superconductor heterostructure transport measurements. However, there are debates about whether these HQCPs are caused by Majorana edge modes or other trivial reasons. It was predicted that HQCPs can only appear when the Hall conductance σx y is quantized. Surprisingly, HQCPs appear when the Hall conductance σx y is only 80% of the quantized value at which extra conducting channels in the bulk should ruin the HQCPs. In this Rapid Communication, we explain how domain walls can cause σx y to deviate from its quantized value and at the same time maintain the quantization of HQCPs. Importantly, our study also explains a long standing puzzle of why ρx x can be finite when ρx y is quantized in QAH systems.

  6. Multifarious topological quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional topological superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yi-Fei; Gong, Chang-De

    2016-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional topological superconductors of spinless fermions in a checkerboard-lattice Chern-insulator model. With the short-range p-wave superconducting pairing, multifarious topological quantum phase transitions have been found and several phases with high Chern numbers have been observed. We have established a rich phase diagram for these topological superconducting states. A finite-size checkerboard-lattice cylinder with a harmonic trap potential has been further investigated. Based upon the self-consistent numerical calculations of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, various phase transitions have also been identified at different regions of the system. Multiple pairs of Majorana fermions are found to be well-separated and localized at the phase boundaries between the phases characterized by different Chern numbers. PMID:27329219

  7. Fermi points and topological quantum phase transitions in a multi-band superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puel, T O; Sacramento, P D; Continentino, M A

    2015-10-28

    The importance of models with an exact solution for the study of materials with non-trivial topological properties has been extensively demonstrated. The Kitaev model plays a guiding role in the search for Majorana modes in condensed matter systems. Also, the sp-chain with an anti-symmetric mixing among the s and p bands is a paradigmatic example of a topological insulator with well understood properties. Interestingly, these models share the same universality class for their topological quantum phase transitions. In this work we study a two-band model of spinless fermions with attractive inter-band interactions. We obtain its zero temperature phase diagram, which presents a rich variety of phases including a Weyl superconductor and a topological insulator. The transition from the topological to the trivial superconducting phase has critical exponents different from those of Kitaev's model.

  8. Electron density of states of Fe-based superconductors: Quantum trajectory Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashurnikov, V. A.; Krasavin, A. V.; Zhumagulov, Ya. V.

    2016-03-01

    The spectral and total electron densities of states in two-dimensional FeAs clusters, which simulate iron-based superconductors, have been calculated using the generalized quantum Monte Carlo algorithm within the full two-orbital model. Spectra have been reconstructed by solving the integral equation relating the Matsubara Green's function and spectral density by the method combining the gradient descent and Monte Carlo algorithms. The calculations have been performed for clusters with dimensions up to 10 × 10 FeAs cells. The profiles of the Fermi surface for the entire Brillouin zone have been presented in the quasiparticle approximation. Data for the total density of states near the Fermi level have been obtained. The effect of the interaction parameter, size of the cluster, and temperature on the spectrum of excitations has been studied.

  9. The string universe high T$_{c}$ superconductor or quantum Hall conductor?

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    1992-01-01

    Our answer is the latter. Space-time singularities, including the initial one, are described by world-sheet topological Abelian gauge theories with a Chern-Simons term. Their effective $N=2$ supersymmetry provides an initial fixed point where the Bogomolny bound is saturated on the world-sheet, corresponding to an extreme Reissner-Nordstrom solution in space-time. Away from the singularity the gauge theory has world-sheet matter fields, bosons and fermions, associated with the generation of target space-time. Because the fermions are complex (cf the Quantum Hall Effect) rather than real (cf high-$T_c$ superconductors) the energetically-preferred vacuum is not parity or time-reversal invariant, and the associated renormalization group flow explains the cosmological arrow of time, as well as the decay of real or virtual black holes, with a monotonic increase in entropy.

  10. Flux-driven quantum phase transitions in two-leg Kitaev ladder topological superconductor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. Q.; Shao, L. B.; Pan, Y. M.; Shen, R.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate a two-leg ladder topological superconductor system consisting of two parallel Kitaev chains with interchain coupling. It is found that either uniform or staggered fluxes threading through the ladder holes may change the ladder system from the BDI class in the Altland-Zirnbauer (AZ) classification to the D class. After explicitly calculating the topological Z and/or Z2 indices and from the evolution of Majorana zero energy states (MZES), we obtain the flux-dependent phase diagrams, and find that quantum phase transitions between topologically distinct phases characterized by different number of MZES may happen by simply tuning the flux, which could be realized experimentally in ultracold systems.

  11. Heat Generation by Electric Current in Normal-Metal-Molecular Quantum Dot-Superconductor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桥; 邓永和

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the heat generation induced by electrical current in a normal-metal-molecular quantum dot-superconductor (NDS) system. By using nonequilibrium Green's function method, the heat generation Q is derived and studied in detail. The superconducting lead influences the heat generation significantly. An obvious step appears in Q - eV characteristics and the iocation of this step is related with the phonon frequency ωo. The heat generations exhibit very different behaviour in the condition eV 〈 △ and eV 〉 △ due to different tunneling mechanism. From the study of Q - eVg curves, there is an extra peak as eV 〉 △. The difference in this two cases is also shown in Q - ωo curve, an extra peak emerges as eV 〉 △.

  12. Investigating and Improving Student Understanding of Quantum Mechanics in the Context of Single Photon Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer can illustrate the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, e.g., the wave-particle duality of a single photon, single photon interference, and the probabilistic nature of quantum measurement involving single photons. These experiments explicitly make the connection between the…

  13. Quantum interference and diffraction of parametric down-converted biphotons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ryosuke Shimizu; Keiichi Edamatsu; Tadashi Itoh

    2002-08-01

    We present two-photon diffraction and interference experiments utilizing parametric down-converted photon pairs (biphotons) and a transmission grating. The biphoton exhibits a diffraction-interference pattern equivalent to an effective single particle with half wavelength of the constituent photons.

  14. Terahertz Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors: spectrum, generation, nonlinear and quantum phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savel' ev, Sergey; Yampol' skii, V A; Rakhmanov, A L; Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    The recent growing interest in terahertz (THz) and sub-THz science and technology is due to its many important applications in physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology and medicine, including THz imaging, spectroscopy, tomography, medical diagnosis, health monitoring, environmental control, as well as chemical and biological identification. We review the problem of linear and nonlinear THz and sub-THz Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors and their excitations produced by moving Josephson vortices. We start by discussing the coupled sine-Gordon equations for the gauge-invariant phase difference of the order parameter in the junctions, taking into account the effect of breaking the charge neutrality, and deriving the spectrum of Josephson plasma waves. We also review surface and waveguide Josephson plasma waves. The spectrum of these waves is presented, and their excitation is discussed. We review the propagation of weakly nonlinear Josephson plasma waves below the plasma frequency, {omega}{sub J}, which is very unusual for plasma-like excitations. In close analogy to nonlinear optics, these waves exhibit numerous remarkable features, including a self-focusing effect and the pumping of weaker waves by a stronger one. In addition, an unusual stop-light phenomenon, when {partial_derivative}{omega}/{partial_derivative}k {approx} 0, caused by both nonlinearity and dissipation, can be observed in the Josephson plasma waves. At frequencies above {omega}{sub J}, the current-phase nonlinearity can be used for transforming continuous sub-THz radiation into short, strongly amplified, pulses. We also present quantum effects in layered superconductors, specifically, the problem of quantum tunneling of fluxons through stacks of Josephson junctions. Moreover, the nonlocal sine-Gordon equation for Josephson vortices is reviewed. We discuss the Cherenkov and transition radiations of the Josephson plasma waves produced by moving Josephson vortices, either in a single

  15. Computational design of donor-bridge-acceptor systems exhibiting pronounced quantum interference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczak, Natalie; Renaud, Nicolas; Galan, Elena; Eelkema, Rienk; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; Grozema, Ferdinand C

    2016-03-01

    Quantum interference is a well-known phenomenon that dictates charge transport properties of single molecule junctions. However, reports on quantum interference in donor-bridge-acceptor molecules are scarce. This might be due to the difficulties in meeting the conditions for the presence of quantum interference in a donor-bridge-acceptor system. The electronic coupling between the donor, bridge, and acceptor moieties must be weak in order to ensure localised initial and final states for charge transfer. Yet, it must be strong enough to allow all bridge orbitals to mediate charge transfer. We present the computational route to the design of a donor-bridge-acceptor molecule that features the right balance between these contradicting requirements and exhibits pronounced interference effects.

  16. The superconductor-metal quantum phase transition in ultra-narrow wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Maestro, Adrian Giuseppe

    We present a complete description of a zero temperature phase transition between superconducting and diffusive metallic states in very thin wires due to a Cooper pair breaking mechanism originating from a number of possible sources. These include impurities localized to the surface of the wire, a magnetic field orientated parallel to the wire or, disorder in an unconventional superconductor. The order parameter describing pairing is strongly overdamped by its coupling to an effectively infinite bath of unpaired electrons imagined to reside in the transverse conduction channels of the wire. The dissipative critical theory thus contains current reducing fluctuations in the guise of both quantum and thermally activated phase slips. A full cross-over phase diagram is computed via an expansion in the inverse number of complex components of the superconducting order parameter (equal to one in the physical case). The fluctuation corrections to the electrical and thermal conductivities are determined, and we find that the zero frequency electrical transport has a non-monotonic temperature dependence when moving from the quantum critical to low temperature metallic phase, which may be consistent with recent experimental results on ultra-narrow MoGe wires. Near criticality, the ratio of the thermal to electrical conductivity displays a linear temperature dependence and thus the Wiedemann-Franz law is obeyed. We compute the constant of proportionality in a systematic expansion and find a universal and experimentally verifiable fluctuation correction to the Lorenz number. In the presence of quenched disorder, a novel algorithm is developed to solve the self-consistency condition arising when the number of complex order parameter components is taken to be large. In this limit, we find striking evidence for the flow to infinite randomness, and observe dynamically activated scaling consistent with predictions from the strong disorder renormalization group. Moreover, the infinite

  17. Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip

    CERN Document Server

    Schuck, Carsten; Fan, Linran; Ma, Xiao-Song; Poot, Menno; Tang, Hong X

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standa...

  18. Quantum interferences and their classical limit in laser driven coherent control scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Ignacio, E-mail: ifranco@chem.northwestern.edu [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Spanner, Michael; Brumer, Paul [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2010-05-12

    Graphical abstract: The analogy between Young's double-slit experiment with matter and laser driven coherent control schemes is investigated, and shown to be limited. To do so, a general decomposition of observables in the Heisenberg picture into direct terms and interference contributions is introduced, and formal quantum-classical correspondence arguments in the Heisenberg picture are employed to define classical analogs of quantum interference terms. While the classical interference contributions in the double-slit experiment are shown to be zero, they can be nonzero in laser driven coherent control schemes and lead to laser control in the classical limit. This classical limit is interpreted in terms of nonlinear response theory arguments. - Abstract: The analogy between Young's double-slit experiment with matter and laser driven coherent control schemes is investigated, and shown to be limited. To do so, a general decomposition of observables in the Heisenberg picture into direct terms and interference contributions is introduced, and formal quantum-classical correspondence arguments in the Heisenberg picture are employed to define classical analogs of quantum interference terms. While the classical interference contributions in the double-slit experiment are shown to be zero, they can be nonzero in laser driven coherent control schemes and lead to laser control in the classical limit. This classical limit is interpreted in terms of nonlinear response theory arguments.

  19. Using charged defects in BN to create rewritable graphene quantum dots and visualize quantum interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Jairo, Jr.

    Heterostructures of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (BN) are highly tunable platforms that enable the study of novel physical phenomena and technologically promising nanoelectronic devices. Common control schemes employed in these studies are electrostatic gating and chemical doping. However, these methods have significant drawbacks, such as complicated fabrication processes that introduce contamination and irreversible changes to material properties, as well as a lack of flexible control. To address these problems we have developed a new method that employs light and/or electric field excitation to control defect charge (from the single impurity level to ensembles) in the underlying BN. We have used optoelectronic and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements to characterize these BN defects. We find that by manipulating defect charge in BN it is possible to create rewritable tip-induced doping patterns such as gate-tunable graphene pn junctions and quantum dots. This creates new opportunities for mapping the electronic states of confined electrons in graphene and to visualize their quantum interference behavior.

  20. ∧-related Quantum Interference of 2Π [Case(a)] Diatom on Rotational Energy Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Li; Yan-qing Ni; Yong-qing Li; Wei-li Wang; Feng-cai Ma

    2009-01-01

    To study theoretically the relationship between the integral interference angle and the scat-tering angle in collisional quantum interference, the integral interference angle of atom-2Π[case(a)] diatomic molecules system is described. To simulate the experiment theoret-ically, the theoretical model on collision-induced rotational energy transfer in an atom-2Π[case(a)]diatom system is presented based on .the first order Born approximation tak-ing into account of the long-range interaction potential. For the 2Π electronic state in the Hund's case(a) diatom, the degree of the interference is discussed. The interference angles of collision-induced rotational energy transfer of CN(A2Π) in Hund's case(a) with He, Ne, and Ar are calculated quantitatively. The key parameters in the determination of integral interference angles are obtained.

  1. Electrochemical control of quantum interference in anthraquinone-based molecular switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Schiøtz, Jakob; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2010-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations we analyze the electronic transport properties of a recently proposed anthraquinone-based electrochemical switch. Robust conductance on/off ratios of several orders of magnitude are observed due to destructive quantum interference present in the anthraquinone b...... of hopping via the localized orbitals. The topology of the tight-binding model, which is dictated by the symmetries of the molecular orbitals, determines the amount of quantum interference.......Using first-principles calculations we analyze the electronic transport properties of a recently proposed anthraquinone-based electrochemical switch. Robust conductance on/off ratios of several orders of magnitude are observed due to destructive quantum interference present in the anthraquinone...

  2. Direct observation of large quantum interference effect in anthraquinone solid-state junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabache, Vincent; Chaste, Julien; Petit, Philippe; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Martin, Pascal; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe; McCreery, Richard L; Lafarge, Philippe

    2013-07-17

    Quantum interference in cross-conjugated molecules embedded in solid-state devices was investigated by direct current-voltage and differential conductance transport measurements of anthraquinone (AQ)-based large area planar junctions. A thin film of AQ was grafted covalently on the junction base electrode by diazonium electroreduction, while the counter electrode was directly evaporated on top of the molecular layer. Our technique provides direct evidence of a large quantum interference effect in multiple CMOS compatible planar junctions. The quantum interference is manifested by a pronounced dip in the differential conductance close to zero voltage bias. The experimental signature is well developed at low temperature (4 K), showing a large amplitude dip with a minimum >2 orders of magnitude lower than the conductance at higher bias and is still clearly evident at room temperature. A temperature analysis of the conductance curves revealed that electron-phonon coupling is the principal decoherence mechanism causing large conductance oscillations at low temperature.

  3. Radio-Frequency Field-Induced Quantum Interference Effects in Cold Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙全; 周蜀渝; 周善钰; 王育竹

    2001-01-01

    We propose constructing a quantum interference configuration for cold atoms in a magneto-optical trap by applying a radio frequency field, which coherently couples adjacent Zeeman sublevels, in combination with a repumping laser field. One effect of this interference is that a dip exists in the absorption of the repumping light when the radio frequency is scanned. Our prediction has been indirectly detected through the fluorescence of cold atoms in a preliminary experiment.

  4. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of Heterostructures to Study Quantum Interference Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    MBE growth and regrowth of heterostructures for quantum interference transistors and a detailed study of the physical mechanisms and the limitations imposed by them in such devices. We have investigated in detail the suitability of the MBE regrowth process for such applications. Very encouraging progress has been made. The performance characteristics of dual-channel quantum interference devices grown in our laboratory and defined by e-beam lithography have been measured and reported. From this work it is clear that to achieve enhanced performance and to demonstrate a large

  5. Interference control of nonlinear excitation in a multi-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guoqing; Tan, Zheng; Zou, Bichen; Zhu, Yifu

    2014-12-01

    We show that by manipulating quantum interference in a multi-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) system, the nonlinear excitation of the cavity-atom polariton can be resonantly enhanced while the linear excitation is suppressed. Under the appropriate conditions, it is possible to selectively enhance or suppress the polariton excitation with two free-pace laser fields. We report on an experiment with cold Rb atoms in an optical cavity and present experimental results that demonstrate such interference control of the CQED excitation and its direct application to studies of all-optical switching and cross-phase modulation of the cavity-transmitted light.

  6. Quantum interference between two single photons emitted by independently trapped atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnon, J; Jones, M P A; Dingjan, J; Darquié, B; Messin, G; Browaeys, A; Grangier, P

    2006-04-06

    When two indistinguishable single photons are fed into the two input ports of a beam splitter, the photons will coalesce and leave together from the same output port. This is a quantum interference effect, which occurs because two possible paths-in which the photons leave by different output ports-interfere destructively. This effect was first observed in parametric downconversion (in which a nonlinear crystal splits a single photon into two photons of lower energy), then from two separate downconversion crystals, as well as with single photons produced one after the other by the same quantum emitter. With the recent developments in quantum information research, much attention has been devoted to this interference effect as a resource for quantum data processing using linear optics techniques. To ensure the scalability of schemes based on these ideas, it is crucial that indistinguishable photons are emitted by a collection of synchronized, but otherwise independent sources. Here we demonstrate the quantum interference of two single photons emitted by two independently trapped single atoms, bridging the gap towards the simultaneous emission of many indistinguishable single photons by different emitters. Our data analysis shows that the observed coalescence is mainly limited by wavefront matching of the light emitted by the two atoms, and to a lesser extent by the motion of each atom in its own trap.

  7. A parabolic model to control quantum interference in T-shaped molecular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Daijiro; Sevinçli, Hâldun; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M; Gutierrez, Rafael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2013-09-07

    Quantum interference (QI) effects in molecular devices have drawn increasing attention over the past years due to their unique features observed in the conductance spectrum. For the further development of single molecular devices exploiting QI effects, it is of great theoretical and practical interest to develop simple methods controlling the emergence and the positions of QI effects like anti-resonances or Fano line shapes in conductance spectra. In this work, starting from a well-known generic molecular junction with a side group (T-shaped molecule), we propose a simple graphical method to visualize the conditions for the appearance of quantum interference, Fano resonances or anti-resonances, in the conductance spectrum. By introducing a simple graphical representation (parabolic diagram), we can easily visualize the relation between the electronic parameters and the positions of normal resonant peaks and anti-resonant peaks induced by quantum interference in the conductance spectrum. This parabolic model not only can predict the emergence and energetic position of quantum interference from a few electronic parameters but also can enable one to know the coupling between the side group and the main conduction channel from measurements in the case of orthogonal basis. The results obtained within the parabolic model are validated using density-functional based quantum transport calculations in realistic T-shaped molecular junctions.

  8. Tunneling conductance in quantum wire/insulator/d_(x~2-y~2)+id_(xy) mixed wave superconductor junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jian-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Using the extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk(BTK)theory, this paper calculates the tunnelling conductance in quantum wire/insulator/d_(x~2-y~2)+id_(xy) mixed wave superconductor(q/I/d_(x~2-y~2)+id_(xy))junctions That is different from the case in d-and p-wave superconductor junctions. When the angle α between a-axis of the d_(x~2-y~2) wave superconductor and the interface normal is π/4, there follows a rather distinctive tunnelling conductance. The zero-bias conductance peak(ZBCP)may or may not appear in the tunnelling conductance. Both the interface potential z and the quasi-particle lifetime factor [F]are smaller, there is no ZBCP. Otherwise, the ZBCP will appear. The position otbias conductance peak(BCP)depends strongly on the amplitude ratio of two components for d_(x~2-y~2)+id_(xy) mixed wave. The low and narrow ZBCP may coexist with the BCP in the tunnelling conductance. Using those features in the tunnelling conductance of q/I/d_(x~2-y~2)+id_(xy) junctions, it can distinguish d_(x~2-y~2)+id_(xy) mixed wave superconductor from d-and p-wave one.

  9. Implementation of Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm with Superconducting Quantum-Interference Devices via Raman Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Zhi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical scheme is proposed to implement the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with SQUIDs (superconducting quantum-interference devices) in cavity via Raman transition. The scheme only requires a quantized cavity field and classical microwave pulses. In this scheme, no transfer of quantum information between the SQUIDs and the cavity is required, the cavity field is only virtually excited and thus the cavity decay is suppressed.

  10. Generation of an Entangled State of Two Three-Level Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices in Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We propose a scheme for generating a maximally entangled state of two three-level superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) by using a quantized cavity field and classical microwave pluses in cavity. In this scheme, no quantum information will be transferred from the SQUIDs to the cavity since the cavity field is only virtually excited. Thus, the cavity decay is suppressed during the entanglement generation.

  11. A parabolic model to control quantum interference in T-shaped molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nozaki, Daijiro; Sevincli, Haldun; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M.;

    2013-01-01

    Quantum interference (QI) effects in molecular devices have drawn increasing attention over the past years due to their unique features observed in the conductance spectrum. For the further development of single molecular devices exploiting QI effects, it is of great theoretical and practical int...... and the main conduction channel from measurements in the case of orthogonal basis. The results obtained within the parabolic model are validated using density-functional based quantum transport calculations in realistic T-shaped molecular junctions....

  12. Quantum Interference: How to Measure the Wavelength of a Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of wave-particle duality in quantum theory is difficult to grasp because it attributes particle-like properties to classical waves and wave-like properties to classical particles. There seems to be an inconsistency involved with the notion that particle-like or wave-like attributes depend on how you look at an entity. The concept comes…

  13. Phonon-Assisted Two-Photon Interference from Remote Quantum Emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Marcus; Jöns, Klaus D; Huber, Daniel; Schimpf, Christian; Huo, Yongheng; Zwiller, Val; Rastelli, Armando; Trotta, Rinaldo

    2017-07-12

    Photonic quantum technologies are on the verge of finding applications in everyday life with quantum cryptography and quantum simulators on the horizon. Extensive research has been carried out to identify suitable quantum emitters and single epitaxial quantum dots have emerged as near-optimal sources of bright, on-demand, highly indistinguishable single photons and entangled photon-pairs. In order to build up quantum networks, it is essential to interface remote quantum emitters. However, this is still an outstanding challenge, as the quantum states of dissimilar "artificial atoms" have to be prepared on-demand with high fidelity and the generated photons have to be made indistinguishable in all possible degrees of freedom. Here, we overcome this major obstacle and show an unprecedented two-photon interference (visibility of 51 ± 5%) from remote strain-tunable GaAs quantum dots emitting on-demand photon-pairs. We achieve this result by exploiting for the first time the full potential of a novel phonon-assisted two-photon excitation scheme, which allows for the generation of highly indistinguishable (visibility of 71 ± 9%) entangled photon-pairs (fidelity of 90 ± 2%), enables push-button biexciton state preparation (fidelity of 80 ± 2%) and outperforms conventional resonant two-photon excitation schemes in terms of robustness against environmental decoherence. Our results mark an important milestone for the practical realization of quantum repeaters and complex multiphoton entanglement experiments involving dissimilar artificial atoms.

  14. Genuine quantum interference in interacting bosonic fields: The semiclassical propagator in Fock space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbina, Juan Diego; Engl, Thomas; Richter, Klaus [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Arguelles, Arturo [Department of Physics, University of Liege (Belgium); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Dujardin, Julien; Schlagheck, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Liege (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    We present a semiclassical theory of quantum interference effects in interacting bosonic fields. We make special emphasis on the difference between genuine quantum interference (due to the superposition principle in the many-body Hilbert space), and classical interference effects due to the wave character of the classical limit. First, we discuss how the usual approaches to this problem are unable to provide the characteristic sum of oscillatory terms, each asociated with a solution of the classical equations of motion, required to semiclassically address interference effects. We show then how to solve this problems by a formal construction of the van Vleck-Gutzwiller propagator for bosonic fields as a sum over paths in the associated Fock space and we identify the classical limit as a Gross-Pitaevskii equation with boundary conditions and multiple solutions. The theory predicts effects akin to weak localization to take place in Fock space, and in particular the enhancement of quantum probability of return due to interference between time-reversed paths there. We support our claims with extensive numerical calculations for a discrete version of an interacting bosonic field.

  15. Note: A hand-held high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device operating without shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D F

    2011-02-01

    By improving the compensation circuit, a hand-held high-Tc rf superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID) system was developed. It could operate well when moving in unshielded environment. To check the operation, it was used to do eddy-current testing by hand moving the SQUID, and the artificial defect under 6 mm aluminum plate could be successfully detected in shielded environment.

  16. Generation of Entangled States of Multiple Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices in Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We propose a scheme for generating the maximally entangled states of many superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) by using a quantized cavity field and classicalmicrowave pulses in cavity. In the scheme,the maximally entangled states can be generated without requiring the measurement and individual addressing of the SQUIDs.

  17. Probing Electron-Phonon Interaction through Two-Photon Interference in Resonantly Driven Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigue, Antoine; Iles-Smith, Jake; Lux, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of photon coherence properties through two-photon interference (TPI) measurements from a single quantum dot (QD) under resonant excitation. We show that the loss of indistinguishability is related only to the electron-phonon coupling and is not affected...

  18. Engineering two-photon high-dimensional states through quantum interference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhang, YI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available the storage and processing potential of quantum information systems. We demonstrate the controlled engineering of two-photon high-dimensional states entangled in their orbital angular momentum through Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. We prepare a large range...

  19. Nonlinear optical effects and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Imran M.; van Enk, Steven J.

    Pure quantum interference among single photons is one of the key ingredients to perform linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference (HOMI) [C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, (18), 2044-2046 (1987)] i.e. complete destructive interference between two identical and indistinguishable photons simultaneously entering input ports of a 50/50 beam splitter, is a well-known example in this context. In this talk, I'll present our theoretical study of HOMI in a coupled Jaynes-Cummings array. In particular and by applying quantum jump/trajectory formalism, I'll focus on how partial quantum interference between two photons survive both non-linearities produced by two-level emitter and spectral filtering due to optical cavities in our coupled cavity array setup [Imran M. Mirza and Steven J. van Enk, Opt. Comm. 343, 172-177 (2015)]. Along with LOQC, this work is crucial from the perspective of exploiting coupled cavity arrays to store single photons reliably (without altering their temporal and spectral traits) [Imran M. Mirza, Steven J. van Enk and Jeff Kimble, JOSA B, 10, 2640-2649, (2013)].

  20. The roles of antiferromagnetic and nematic fluctuations in cuprate superconductors: a sign-free quantum Monte-Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zixiang; Yao, Hong; Wang, Fa; Lee, Dung-Hai

    Superconductivity is an emergent phenomena in the sense that the energy scale at which Cooper pairs form is generically much lower than the bare energy scale, namely the electron kinetic energy bandwidth. Addressing the mechanism of Cooper pairing amounts to finding out the effective interaction (or the renormalized interaction) that operates at the low energies. Finding such interaction from the bare microscopic Hamiltonian has not been possible for strong correlated superconductors such as the copper-oxide high temperature superconductor. In fact even one is given the effective interaction, determining its implied electronic instabilities without making any approximation has been a formidable task. Here, we perform sign-free quantum Monte-Carlo simulations to study the antiferromagnetic, superconducting, and the charge density wave instabilities which are ubiquitous in both electron and hole doped cuprates. Our result suggests only after including both the nematic and antiferromagnetic fluctuation, are the observed properties associated with these instabilities reproduced by the theory.

  1. Quantum Interference and Superposition in Cognition: Development of a Theory for the Disjunction of Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, Diederik

    2007-01-01

    We elaborate a theory for the modeling of concepts using the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics. Items and concepts are represented by vectors in the complex Hilbert space of quantum mechanics and membership weights of items are modeled by quantum weights calculated following the quantum rules. We apply this theory to model the disjunction of concepts and show that the predictions of our theory for the membership weights of items with respect to the disjunction of concepts match with great accuracy the results of an experiment conducted by Hampton (1988b). It is the quantum effects of interference and superposition that are at the origin of the effects of overextension and underextension observed by Hampton as deviations from a classical use of the disjunction. We show that the complex numbers of the Hilbert space are essential to obtaining the experimental predictions, i.e. vector space models over real numbers do not provide predictions matching the experimental data. We put forward an explanation ...

  2. Multiple-path Quantum Interference Effects in a Double-Aharonov-Bohm Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang XF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate quantum interference effects in a double-Aharonov-Bohm (AB interferometer consisting of five quantum dots sandwiched between two metallic electrodes in the case of symmetric dot-electrode couplings by the use of the Green’s function equation of motion method. The analytical expression for the linear conductance at zero temperature is derived to interpret numerical results. A three-peak structure in the linear conductance spectrum may evolve into a double-peak structure, and two Fano dips (zero conductance points may appear in the quantum system when the energy levels of quantum dots in arms are not aligned with one another. The AB oscillation for the magnetic flux threading the double-AB interferometer is also investigated in this paper. Our results show the period of AB oscillation can be converted from 2π to π by controlling the difference of the magnetic fluxes threading the two quantum rings.

  3. Quantum interference between H + D2 quasiclassical reaction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambrina, Pablo G; Herráez-Aguilar, Diego; Aoiz, F Javier; Sneha, Mahima; Jankunas, Justinas; Zare, Richard N

    2015-08-01

    Interferences are genuine quantum phenomena that appear whenever two seemingly distinct classical trajectories lead to the same outcome. They are common in elastic scattering but are seldom observable in chemical reactions. Here we report experimental measurements of the state-to-state angular distribution for the H + D2 reaction using the 'photoloc' technique. For products in low rotational and vibrational states, a characteristic oscillation pattern governs backward scattering. The comparison between the experiments, rigorous quantum calculations and classical trajectories on an accurate potential energy surface allows us to trace the origin of that structure to the quantum interference between different quasiclassical mechanisms, a phenomenon analogous to that observed in the double-slit experiment.

  4. Exploiting quantum interference in dye sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggio, Emanuele; Solomon, Gemma C.; Troisi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    A strategy to hinder the charge recombination process in dye sensitized solar cells is developed in analogy with similar approaches to modulate charge transport across nanostructures. The system studied is a TiO2 (anatase)-chromophore interface, with an unsaturated carbon bridge connecting the two...... subunits. A theory for nonadiabatic electron transfer is employed in order to take explicitly into account the contribution from the bridge states mediating the process. If a cross-conjugated fragment is present in the bridge, it is possible to suppress the charge recombination by negative interference...... of the possible tunnelling path. Calculations carried out on realistic molecules at the DFT level of theory show how the recombination lifetime can be modulated by changes in the electron-withdrawing (donating) character of the groups connected to the cross-conjugated bridge. Tight binding calculations...

  5. Control of optical bistability and third-order nonlinearity via tunneling induced quantum interference in triangular quantum dot molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Si-Cong, E-mail: tiansicong@ciomp.ac.cn; Tong, Cun-Zhu, E-mail: tongcz@ciomp.ac.cn; Zhang, Jin-Long; Shan, Xiao-Nan; Fu, Xi-Hong; Zeng, Yu-Gang; Qin, Li; Ning, Yong-Qiang [State Key laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Wan, Ren-Gang [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The optical bistability of a triangular quantum dot molecules embedded inside a unidirectional ring cavity is studied. The type, the threshold and the hysteresis loop of the optical bistability curves can be modified by the tunneling parameters, as well as the probe laser field. The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of the medium are also studied to interpret the corresponding results. The physical interpretation is that the tunneling can induce the quantum interference, which modifies the linear and the nonlinear response of the medium. As a consequence, the characteristics of the optical bistability are changed. The scheme proposed here can be utilized for optimizing and controlling the optical switching process.

  6. Novel π-type vortex in a nanoscale extreme type-II superconductor: Induced by quantum-size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wenhui; Chen, Yajiang

    2016-11-01

    By numerically solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, we report a novel π-type vortex state whose order parameter near the core undergoes an extraordinary π-phase change for a quantum-confined extreme type-II s-wave superconductor. Its supercurrent behaves as the cube of the radial coordinate near the core, and its local density of states spectrum exhibits a significant negative-shifted zero-bias peak. Such π-type vortex state is induced by quantum-size effect, and can survive thermal smearing at temperatures up to a critical value Tτ. The Anderson's approximation indicates that the π-type vortex may remain stable under sufficiently week magnetic field in the case less deep in the type-II limit. Moreover, we find that its appearance is governed by the sample size and kFξ0 with kF the Fermi wave number and ξ0 the zero-temperature coherence length. Similar effects may be expected in quantum-confined ultracold superfluid Fermi gasses, or even high-Tc superconductors with proper kFξ0 value.

  7. Interference of Light in Michelson-Morley Interferometer: A Quantum Optical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Langangen, O; Vaskinn, A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how the temporal coherence interference properties of light in a Michelson-Morley interferometer (MMI), using only a single-photon detector, can be understood in a quantum-optics framework in a straightforward and pedagogical manner. For this purpose we make use of elementary quantum field theory and Glaubers theory for photon detection in order to calculate the expected interference pattern in the MMI. If a thermal reference source is used in the MMI local oscillator port in combination with a thermal source in the signal port, the interference pattern revealed by such an intensity measurement shows a distinctive dependence on the differences in the temperature of the two sources. The MMI can therefore be used in order to perform temperature measurements. A related method was actually used to carry out high precision measurements of the cosmic micro-wave background radiation on board of the COBE satellite. The theoretical framework allows us to consider any initial quantum state. The interfere...

  8. Low-Energy Quasiparticle States near Extended Scatterers in d -Wave Superconductors and Their Connection with SUSY Quantum Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adagideli, Inanc; Goldbart, Paul M.; Shnirman, Alexander; Yazdani, Ali

    1999-12-27

    Low-energy quasiparticle states, arising from scattering by single-particle potentials in d -wave superconductors, are addressed. Via a natural extension of the Andreev approximation, the idea that sign variations in the superconducting pair potential lead to such states is extended beyond its original setting of boundary scattering to the broader context of scattering by general single-particle potentials, such as those due to impurities. The index-theoretic origin of these states is exhibited via a simple connection with Witten's supersymmetric quantum-mechanical model. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  9. Interference of Light in a Michelson-Morley Interferometer: A Quantum Optical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Langangen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal coherence interference properties of light as revealed by single detector intensity measurements in a Michelson-Morley interferometer (MMI is often described in terms of classical optics. We show, in a pedagogical manner, how such features of light also can be understood in terms of a more general quantum-optics framework. If a thermal reference source is used in the MMI local oscillator port in combination with a thermal source in the signal port, the interference pattern revealed by single detector intensity measurements shows a distinctive dependence on the differences in the temperature of the two sources. A related method has actually been used to perform high-precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The general quantum-optics framework allows us to consider any initial quantum state. As an example, we consider the interference of single photons as a tool to determine the peak angular-frequency of a single-photon pulse interfering with a single-photon reference pulse. A similar consideration for laser pulses, in terms of coherent states, leads to a different response in the detector. The MMI experimental setup is therefore an example of an optical device where one, in terms of intensity measurements, can exhibit the difference between classical and quantum-mechanical light.

  10. Coherence Factors and Quantum Interferences in Excitonic Condensation of Ta2NiSe5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Koudai; Kaneko, Tatsuya; Ohta, Yukinori

    2017-04-01

    In order to elucidate whether Ta2NiSe5 is in an excitonic condensation state or not, we study macroscopic quantum interferences in ultrasonic attenuation rate and nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation rate. Using the three-chain model describing the excitonic condensation of Ta2NiSe5, we demonstrate analytically that the ultrasonic attenuation rate shows a characteristic peak just below the transition temperature of the excitonic condensation, while the nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation rate shows a rapid drop. In particular, we find that the constructive interference originates from the hybridization between the conduction and valence bands induced by an external field.

  11. Control of quantum interference of an excitonic wave in a chlorophyll chain with a chlorophyll ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Suc-Kyoung; Nam, Seog-Woo [Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Yeon, Kyu-Hwang [Chungbuk National University, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The quantum interference of an excitonic wave and its coherent control in a nanochain with a nanoring are studied. The nanochain is comprised of six chlorophylls, where four chlorophylls compose the nanoring and two chlorophylls are attached at two opposite sites on the nanoring. The exciton dynamics and the correlation of the excitation between chlorophylls are analyzed for a given configurational arrangement and dipolar orientation of the chlorophylls. The results of this study show that the excitation at specified chlorophylls is suppressed or enhanced by destructive or constructive interference of the excitonic wave in the chlorophyll nanochain.

  12. Interference control of perfect photon absorption in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liyong; Zhu, Yifu; Agarwal, G S

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze a scheme for controlling coherent photon transmission and reflection in a cavity-quantum-electrodynamics (CQED) system consisting of an optical resonator coupled with three-level atoms coherently prepared by a control laser from free space. When the control laser is off and the cavity is excited by two identical light fields from two ends of the cavity, the two input light fields can be completely absorbed by the CQED system and the light energy is converted into the excitation of the polariton states, but no light can escape from the cavity. Two distinct cases of controlling the perfect photon absorption are analyzed: (a) when the control laser is tuned to the atomic resonance and creates electromagnetically induced transparency, the prefect photon absorption is suppressed and the input light fields are nearly completely transmitted through the cavity; (b) when the control laser is tuned to the polariton state resonance and inhibits the polariton state excitation, the perfect photon ab...

  13. Quantum interference of highly-dispersive surface plasmons (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokpanov, Yury S.; Fakonas, James S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-09-01

    Previous experiments have shown that surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) preserve their entangled state and do not cause measurable decoherence. However, essentially all of them were done using SPPs whose dispersion was in the linear "photon-like" regime. We report in this presentation on experiments showing how transition to "true-plasmon" non-linear dispersion regime, which occurs near SPP resonance frequency, will affect quantum coherent properties of light. To generate a polarization-entangled state we utilize type-I parametric down-conversion, occurring in a pair of non-linear crystals (BiBO), glued together and rotated by 90 degrees with respect to each other. For state projection measurements, we use a pair of polarizers and single-photon avalanche diode coincidence count detectors. We interpose a plasmonic hole array in the path of down-converted light before the polarizer. Without the hole array, we measure visibility V=99-100% and Bell's number S=2.81±0.03. To study geometrical effects we fabricated plasmonic hole arrays (gold on optically polished glass) with elliptical holes (axes are 190nm and 240nm) using focused ion beam. When we put this sample in our system we measured the reduction of visibility V=86±5% using entangled light. However, measurement using classical light gave exactly the same visibility; hence, this reduction is caused only by the difference in transmission coefficients of different polarizations. As samples with non-linear dispersion we fabricated two-layer (a-Si - Au) and three-layer (a-Si - Au - a-Si) structures on optically polished glass with different pitches and circular holes. The results of measurements with these samples will be discussed along with the theoretical investigations.

  14. Electron transport through a linear tri-quantum-dot molecule Aharonov-Bohm interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jiyuan; He, Zelong; Li, Li; Ye, Shujiang; Sun, Weimin

    2017-09-01

    Using the non-equilibrium Keldysh Green's function technique, electron transport properties through a two-terminal linear tri-quantum-dot molecule Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) interference are investigated. The conductance as a function of electron energy is numerically calculated. The influence of magnetic flux and interdot coupling strength on the conductance is researched. Fano resonances emerge in the conductance spectrum, and two bound states in the continuum form simultaneously when the interdot couplings take appropriate values. A conductance dip is observed and evolves into an antiresonance band with increasing magnetic flux. The system can be designed as a quantum switch by adjusting the intramolecular couplings.

  15. Beyond Quantum interference and Optical pumping: invoking a Closed-loop phase

    CERN Document Server

    Kani, A

    2016-01-01

    Atomic coherence effects arising from coherent light-atom interaction are conventionally known to be governed by quantum interference and optical pumping mechanisms. However, anisotropic nonlinear response driven by optical field involves another fundamental effect arising from closed-loop multiphoton transitions. This closed-loop phase dictates the tensorial structure of the nonlinear susceptibility as it governs the principal coordinate system in determining, whether the light field will either compete or cooperate with the external magnetic field stimulus. Such a treatment provides deeper understanding of all magneto-optical anisotropic response. The magneto-optical response in all atomic systems is classified using closed-loop phase. The role of quantum interference in obtaining electromagnetically induced transparency or electromagnetically induced absorption in multi-level systems is identified.

  16. Constructive quantum interference in a bis-copper six-porphyrin nanoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Sabine; Cremers, Jonathan; Kuprov, Ilya; Peeks, Martin D.; Anderson, Harry L.; Timmel, Christiane R.

    2017-03-01

    The exchange interaction, J, between two spin centres is a convenient measure of through bond electronic communication. Here, we investigate quantum interference phenomena in a bis-copper six-porphyrin nanoring by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy via measurement of the exchange coupling between the copper centres. Using an analytical expression accounting for both dipolar and exchange coupling to simulate the time traces obtained in a double electron electron resonance experiment, we demonstrate that J can be quantified to high precision even in the presence of significant through-space coupling. We show that the exchange coupling between two spin centres is increased by a factor of 4.5 in the ring structure with two parallel coupling paths as compared to an otherwise identical system with just one coupling path, which is a clear signature of constructive quantum interference.

  17. Vacuum-Induced Quantum Interference in a Trapped ∧-Configuration Three-Level System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-Ling; YIN Jian-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ In consideration of quantization of centre-of-mass motion, we derive the second-order solution of the dynamic equation of a ∧-configuration three-level atom confined in an approximately harmonic trap by using the timedependent perturbation theory. It is found that there are a series of dark lines in the second-order probability spectrum with multi-peak structures, which is the result of the quantum interference from the same vacuum mode in the spontaneous decay process of the trapped atom from the upper level to the two nearby lower levels. Our study shows that the second-order spectrum may be modified by the oscillation frequency Ω of the trap and the frequency difference △ between two lower levels of the three-level atom, and the depth of the dark lines from the vacuum-induced quantum interference effect is strongly dependent on the above two parameters (Ω and △).

  18. Probing electron-phonon excitations in molecular junctions by quantum interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessis, C; Della Rocca, M L; Barraud, C; Martin, P; Lacroix, J C; Markussen, T; Lafarge, P

    2016-02-11

    Electron-phonon coupling is a fundamental inelastic interaction in condensed matter and in molecules. Here we probe phonon excitations using quantum interference in electron transport occurring in short chains of anthraquinone based molecular junctions. By studying the dependence of molecular junction's conductance as a function of bias voltage and temperature, we show that inelastic scattering of electrons by phonons can be detected as features in conductance resulting from quenching of quantum interference. Our results are in agreement with density functional theory calculations and are well described by a generic two-site model in the framework of non-equilibrium Green's functions formalism. The importance of the observed inelastic contribution to the current opens up new ways for exploring coherent electron transport through molecular devices.

  19. Retrieval of original signals for superconducting quantum interference device operating in flux locked mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘当婷; 田野; 赵士平; 任育峰; 陈赓华

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a simple relation between the input and output signals of a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer operating in flux locked mode in a cosine curve approximation. According to this relation, an original fast input signal can be easily retrieved from its distorted output response. This technique can be used in some areas such as sensitive and fast detection of magnetic or metallic grains in medicine and food security checking.

  20. Effects of Quantum Interference on the Profile of Excitation Spectra in the Atomic Sodium D1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yongfang; ZHANG Xiangyang; SUN Jianfeng; ZHAO Yongmei; WANG Yongchang; ZHANG Yanliang; DING Liang’en; WANG Zugeng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an experiment in a sodium vapor cell with cw laser pumping is reported. Two dips in the excitation spectrum profile of the sodium \\$D1\\$ line are observed. Theoretically excitation spectra in the three-level system are calculated in detail and results are identical with experiments. It is demonstrated that the appearance of the two dips in the excitation spectrum is close connected with quantum interference effect.

  1. Effects of quantum interference in spectra of cascade spontaneous emission from multilevel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, A. A.; Yudson, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    A general expression for the spectrum of cascade spontaneous emission from an arbitrary multilevel system is presented. Effects of the quantum interference of photons emitted in different transitions are analyzed. These effects are especially essential when the transition frequencies are close. Several examples are considered: (i) Three-level system; (ii) Harmonic oscillator; (iii) System with equidistant levels and equal rates of the spontaneous decay for all the transitions; (iv) Dicke superradiance model.

  2. Fast scheme for generating quantum-interference states and G HZ state of N trapped ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiao-Juan; Fang Mao-Fa; Liao Xiang-Ping; Cai Jian-Wu; Cao Shuai

    2007-01-01

    We propose a fast scheme to generate the quantum-interference states of N trapped ions. In the scheme the ions are driven by a standing-wave laser beam whose carrier frequency is tuned such that the ion transition can take place.We also propose a simple and fast scheme to produce the GHZ state of N hot trapped ions and this scheme is insensitive to the heating of vibrational motion, which is important from the viewpoint of decoherence.

  3. Quantum tunneling of vortices in single crystal Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, F.; Shi, A. C.; Berlinsky, A. J.; Duan, H. M.; Hermann, A. M.

    1994-12-01

    Data are presented on the temperature-dependent time-logarithmic magnetic relaxation rate S(T) = ¦dM/din t¦ of the high-Tc superconductor Tl2CaBa2 Cu2O8. It is found that at low temperatures the relaxation rate has the form S(T) = A(H) exp[(T/T*)2], which does not extrapolate to zero at T = 0, thus excluding conventional thermally activated flux creep and providing evidence of quantum vortex tunneling. From a quantum flux tunneling theory, it is shown that S(T) ∝ I/ηer{p/2}. The measurements of the relaxation rate thus provide information about the effective viscosity ηe of fluxons.

  4. Quantum interference by localized scattering waves of gapless helical modes in narrow strips of topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Quantum interference in scattering from a potential offset is investigated in narrow strips of two-dimensional systems described by the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang Hamiltonian. Attention is focused on the situations where the transmission in the scattering region takes place around the Dirac point of topological insulators when the hybridization energy gap is eliminated by utilizing transverse interference. Apart from conventional periodic transmission modulation that takes place when the length of the potential offset region is varied, resonant disappearances of reflection occur for short potential offsets. The anomalous resonance appears not only for the four-band Hamiltonian but also for the two-band Hamiltonian, manifesting the generality of the phenomenon. Evanescent-like waves excited around the potential steps are indicated to be responsible for the anomalous behavior. The interference states can couple with each other and generic reduction in the amplitude of transmission modulation occurs upon coupling with the periodic modulation.

  5. Superconductor-insulator transition in La2 - xSrxCuO4 at the pair quantum resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, A T; Dubuis, G; Yoon, J; Pavuna, D; Misewich, J; Božović, I

    2011-04-28

    High-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides arises when a parent insulator compound is doped beyond some critical concentration; what exactly happens at this superconductor-insulator transition is a key open question. The cleanest approach is to tune the carrier density using the electric field effect; for example, it was learned in this way that weak electron localization transforms superconducting SrTiO(3) into a Fermi-glass insulator. But in the copper oxides this has been a long-standing technical challenge, because perfect ultrathin films and huge local fields (>10(9) V m(-1)) are needed. Recently, such fields have been obtained using electrolytes or ionic liquids in the electric double-layer transistor configuration. Here we report synthesis of epitaxial films of La(2- x)Sr(x)CuO(4) that are one unit cell thick, and fabrication of double-layer transistors. Very large fields and induced changes in surface carrier density enable shifts in the critical temperature by up to 30 K. Hundreds of resistance versus temperature and carrier density curves were recorded and shown to collapse onto a single function, as predicted for a two-dimensional superconductor-insulator transition. The observed critical resistance is precisely the quantum resistance for pairs, R(Q) = h/(2e) = 6.45 kΩ, suggestive of a phase transition driven by quantum phase fluctuations, and Cooper pair (de)localization.

  6. Parity independence of the zero-bias conductance peak in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot hybrid device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M. T.; Yu, C. L.; Huang, G. Y.; Larsson, M.; Caroff, P.; Xu, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the signatures of Majorana fermions in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor hybrid device by charge transport measurements. At zero magnetic field, well-defined Coulomb diamonds and the Kondo effect are observed. Under the application of a finite, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a zero-bias conductance peak structure is observed. It is found that the zero-bias conductance peak is present in many consecutive Coulomb diamonds, irrespective of the even-odd parity of the quasi-particle occupation number in the quantum dot. In addition, we find that the zero-bias conductance peak is in most cases accompanied by two differential conductance peaks, forming a triple-peak structure, and the separation between the two side peaks in bias voltage shows oscillations closely correlated to the background Coulomb conductance oscillations of the device. The observed zero-bias conductance peak and the associated triple-peak structure are in line with Majorana fermion physics in such a hybrid topological system. PMID:25434375

  7. Parity independence of the zero-bias conductance peak in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot hybrid device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M T; Yu, C L; Huang, G Y; Larsson, M; Caroff, P; Xu, H Q

    2014-01-01

    We explore the signatures of Majorana fermions in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor hybrid device by charge transport measurements. At zero magnetic field, well-defined Coulomb diamonds and the Kondo effect are observed. Under the application of a finite, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a zero-bias conductance peak structure is observed. It is found that the zero-bias conductance peak is present in many consecutive Coulomb diamonds, irrespective of the even-odd parity of the quasi-particle occupation number in the quantum dot. In addition, we find that the zero-bias conductance peak is in most cases accompanied by two differential conductance peaks, forming a triple-peak structure, and the separation between the two side peaks in bias voltage shows oscillations closely correlated to the background Coulomb conductance oscillations of the device. The observed zero-bias conductance peak and the associated triple-peak structure are in line with Majorana fermion physics in such a hybrid topological system.

  8. Superconductor-insulator Transition in La2-xSrxCuO4 at the Pair Quantum Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, A.T.; Dubuis, G.; Yoon, J.; Pavuna, D.; Misewich, J.; Bozovic, I.

    2011-04-28

    High-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides arises when a parent insulator compound is doped beyond some critical concentration; what exactly happens at this superconductor-insulator transition is a key open question. The cleanest approach is to tune the carrier density using the electric field effect; for example, it was learned in this way that weak electron localization transforms superconducting SrTiO{sub 3} into a Fermi-glass insulator. But in the copper oxides this has been a long-standing technical challenge, because perfect ultrathin films and huge local fields (>10{sup 9} Vm{sup -1}) are needed. Recently, such fields have been obtained using electrolytes or ionic liquids in the electric double-layer transistor configuration. Here we report synthesis of epitaxial films of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} that are one unit cell thick, and fabrication of double-layer transistors. Very large fields and induced changes in surface carrier density enable shifts in the critical temperature by up to 30 K. Hundreds of resistance versus temperature and carrier density curves were recorded and shown to collapse onto a single function, as predicted for a two-dimensional superconductor-insulator transition. The observed critical resistance is precisely the quantum resistance for pairs, R{sub Q} = h/(2e) = 6.45 k{Omega}, suggestive of a phase transition driven by quantum phase fluctuations, and Cooper pair (de)localization.

  9. Multiphoton Interference in Quantum Fourier Transform Circuits and Applications to Quantum Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zu-En; Li, Yuan; Rohde, Peter P.; Huang, He-Liang; Wang, Xi-Lin; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-08-01

    Quantum Fourier transforms (QFTs) have gained increased attention with the rise of quantum walks, boson sampling, and quantum metrology. Here, we present and demonstrate a general technique that simplifies the construction of QFT interferometers using both path and polarization modes. On that basis, we first observe the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with up to four photons. Furthermore, we directly exploit number-path entanglement generated in these QFT interferometers and demonstrate optical phase supersensitivities deterministically.

  10. Controllable Andreev retroreflection and specular Andreev reflection in a four-terminal graphene-superconductor hybrid system

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, SG; Sun, QF; Xing, Y; Wang, J

    2009-01-01

    We report the investigation of electron transport through a four-terminal graphene-superconductor hybrid system. Due to the quantum interference of the reflected holes from two graphene-superconductor interfaces with phase difference $\\theta$, it is found that the specular Andreev reflection vanishes at $\\theta=0$ while the Andreev retroreflection disappears at $\\theta=\\pi$. This means that the retroreflection and specular reflection can be easily controlled and separated in this device. In a...

  11. In-situ spectroscopy and nanoscale electronics in superconductor-topological insulator hybrid devices: a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngabonziza, Prosper

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, we presented a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study on superconductor topological insulator hybrid devices. Understanding of the electronic properties of topological insulators (TIs), their preparation in high quality thin film form and their interaction with o

  12. Note: Increasing dynamic range of digital-to-analog converter using a superconducting quantum interference device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Masakazu, E-mail: m.nakanishi@aist.go.jp [Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Central-3, 1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Responses of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) are periodically dependent on magnetic flux coupling to its superconducting ring and the period is a flux quantum (Φ{sub o} = h/2e, where h and e, respectively, express Planck's constant and elementary charge). Using this periodicity, we had proposed a digital to analog converter using a SQUID (SQUID DAC) of first generation with linear current output, interval of which corresponded to Φ{sub o}. Modification for increasing dynamic range by interpolating within each interval is reported. Linearity of the interpolation was also based on the quantum periodicity. A SQUID DAC with dynamic range of about 1.4 × 10{sup 7} was created as a demonstration.

  13. Two-photon interference of weak coherent laser pulses recalled from separate solid-state quantum memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jeongwan; Slater, Joshua A.; Saglamyurek, Erhan; Sinclair, Neil; George, Mathew; Ricken, Raimund; Oblak, Daniel; Sohler, Wolfgang; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    Quantum memories allowing reversible transfer of quantum states between light and matter are central to quantum repeaters, quantum networks and linear optics quantum computing. Significant progress regarding the faithful transfer of quantum information has been reported in recent years. However, none of these demonstrations confirm that the re-emitted photons remain suitable for two-photon interference measurements, such as C-NOT gates and Bell-state measurements, which constitute another key ingredient for all aforementioned applications. Here, using pairs of laser pulses at the single-photon level, we demonstrate two-photon interference and Bell-state measurements after either none, one or both pulses have been reversibly mapped to separate thulium-doped lithium niobate waveguides. As the interference is always near the theoretical maximum, we conclude that our solid-state quantum memories, in addition to faithfully mapping quantum information, also preserve the entire photonic wavefunction. Hence, our memories are generally suitable for future applications of quantum information processing that require two-photon interference.

  14. Ubiquitous signatures of nematic quantum criticality in optimally doped Fe-based superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsueh-Hui; Chu, Jiun-Haw; Palmstrom, Johanna C; Kivelson, Steven A; Fisher, Ian R

    2016-05-20

    A key actor in the conventional theory of superconductivity is the induced interaction between electrons mediated by the exchange of virtual collective fluctuations (phonons in the case of conventional s-wave superconductors). Other collective modes that can play the same role, especially spin fluctuations, have been widely discussed in the context of high-temperature and heavy Fermion superconductors. The strength of such collective fluctuations is measured by the associated susceptibility. Here we use differential elastoresistance measurements from five optimally doped iron-based superconductors to show that divergent nematic susceptibility appears to be a generic feature in the optimal doping regime of these materials. This observation motivates consideration of the effects of nematic fluctuations on the superconducting pairing interaction in this family of compounds and possibly beyond.

  15. Ubiquitous signatures of nematic quantum criticality in optimally doped Fe-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsueh-Hui; Chu, Jiun-Haw; Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Kivelson, Steven A.; Fisher, Ian R.

    2016-05-01

    A key actor in the conventional theory of superconductivity is the induced interaction between electrons mediated by the exchange of virtual collective fluctuations (phonons in the case of conventional s-wave superconductors). Other collective modes that can play the same role, especially spin fluctuations, have been widely discussed in the context of high-temperature and heavy Fermion superconductors. The strength of such collective fluctuations is measured by the associated susceptibility. Here we use differential elastoresistance measurements from five optimally doped iron-based superconductors to show that divergent nematic susceptibility appears to be a generic feature in the optimal doping regime of these materials. This observation motivates consideration of the effects of nematic fluctuations on the superconducting pairing interaction in this family of compounds and possibly beyond.

  16. Quantum interference and control of the optical response in quantum dot molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, H. S.; Sanz, L.; Villas-Boas, J. M.; Alcalde, A. M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia-MG (Brazil)

    2013-11-25

    We discuss the optical response of a quantum molecule under the action of two lasers fields. Using a realistic model and parameters, we map the physical conditions to find three different phenomena reported in the literature: the tunneling induced transparency, the formation of Autler-Townes doublets, and the creation of a Mollow-like triplet. We found that the electron tunneling between quantum dots is responsible for the different optical regime. Our results not only explain the experimental results in the literature but also give insights for future experiments and applications in optics using quantum dots molecules.

  17. Quantum interferences of a single quantum dot in the case of detuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Stufler, Stefan; Wegner, Sven-Ake; Ester, Patrick; Zrenner, Artur [Universitaet Paderborn, Warburger Strasse 100, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Bichler, Max [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    We report on highly phase sensitive measurements with a slightly detuned excitation of a quantum mechanical two-level system. It is formed by the single exciton ground state of a single quantum dot, which is incorporated in a n-i-Schottky diode. We excited the two-level system by two partly overlapping laser pulses with variable phase shift. To investigate the properties of the quantum system we determine its occupancy by measuring the photocurrent. The experimental data is compared to a numerical simulation of the system. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Hybrid superconductor-quantum point contact devices using InSb nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S. T.; Damasco, J.; Car, D.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Mason, N.

    2016-12-01

    Proposals for studying topological superconductivity and Majorana bound states in a nanowire proximity coupled to superconductors require that transport in the nanowire is ballistic. Previous works on hybrid nanowire-superconductor systems have shown evidence for Majorana bound states, but these experiments were also marked by disorder, which disrupts ballistic transport. In this paper, we demonstrate ballistic transport in the InSb nanowires interfaced directly with superconducting Al by observing quantized conductance at zero-magnetic field. Additionally, we demonstrate that the nanowire is proximity coupled to the superconducting contacts by observing Andreev reflection. These results are important steps for robustly establishing topological superconductivity in the InSb nanowires.

  19. Observing quantum interference in 3D integrated-photonic symmetric multiports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Ramponi, Roberta; Bentivegna, Marco; Flamini, Fulvio; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Viggianiello, Niko; Innocenti, Luca; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    The investigation of multi-photon quantum interference in symmetric multi-port splitters has both fundamental and applicative interest. Destructive quantum interference in devices with specific symmetry leads to the suppression of a large number of possible output states, generalizing the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect; simple suppression laws have been developed for interferometers implementing the Fourier or the Hadamard transform over the modes. In fact, these enhanced interference features in the output distribution can be used to assess the indistinguishability of single-photon sources, and symmetric interferometers have been envisaged as benchmark or validation devices for Boson-Sampling machines. In this work we devise an innovative approach to implement symmetric multi-mode interferometers that realize the Fourier and Hadamard transform over the optical modes, exploiting integrated waveguide circuits. Our design is based on the optical implementations of the Fast-Fourier and Fast-Hadamard transform algorithms, and exploits a novel three-dimensional layout which is made possible by the unique capabilities of femtosecond laser waveguide writing. We fabricate devices with m = 4 and m = 8 modes and we let two identical photons evolve in the circuit. By characterizing the coincidence output distribution we are able to observe experimentally the known suppression laws for the output states. In particular, we characterize the robustness of this approach to assess the photons' indistinguishability and to rule out alternative non-quantum states of light. The reported results pave the way to the adoption of symmetric multiport interferometers as pivotal tools in the diagnostics and certification of quantum photonic platforms.

  20. Effect of Intra-Dot Coulomb Interaction on Andreev Reflection in Normal-Metal/Quantum-Dot/Superconductor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yu; SUN Qing-Feng; LIN Tsung-Han

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the effect of intra-dot Coulomb interaction on the Andreev reflection in a normalmetal/quantum-dot/superconductor (N-QD-S) system with multiple levels in the quantum dot, in the regime where the intra-dot interacting constant is comparable to the energy gap of superconducting lead. By using nonequilibrium Green function method, the averaged occupation of electrons in the quantum dot and the Andreev reflection (AR) current are studied. Comparing to the case of non-interacting quantum dot, the system shows significant changes for the a two-step-like behavior; and the I-Vg shows two groups of peaks, separated by U and with equal heights, where Vg is the gate voltage and U denotes the intra-dot Coulomb interaction constant. (ii) For finite bias voltage, dips, superposed V ≥ U/2, extra AR current peaks occur between the two groups of the peaks. Besides, the properties of the heights of the AR current peaks are more complicated.``

  1. Ultrafast universal quantum control of a quantum-dot charge qubit using Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Tu, Tao; Wang, Li; Zhou, Cheng; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    A basic requirement for quantum information processing is the ability to universally control the state of a single qubit on timescales much shorter than the coherence time. Although ultrafast optical control of a single spin has been achieved in quantum dots, scaling up such methods remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate complete control of the quantum-dot charge qubit on the picosecond scale [corrected], orders of magnitude faster than the previously measured electrically controlled charge- or spin-based qubits. We observe tunable qubit dynamics in a charge-stability diagram, in a time domain, and in a pulse amplitude space of the driven pulse. The observations are well described by Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference. These results establish the feasibility of a full set of all-electrical single-qubit operations. Although our experiment is carried out in a solid-state architecture, the technique is independent of the physical encoding of the quantum information and has the potential for wider applications.

  2. Ultrafast universal quantum control of a quantum-dot charge qubit using Landau–Zener–Stückelberg interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Tu, Tao; Wang, Li; Zhou, Cheng; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    A basic requirement for quantum information processing is the ability to universally control the state of a single qubit on timescales much shorter than the coherence time. Although ultrafast optical control of a single spin has been achieved in quantum dots, scaling up such methods remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate complete control of the quantum-dot charge qubit on the picosecond scale, orders of magnitude faster than the previously measured electrically controlled charge- or spin-based qubits. We observe tunable qubit dynamics in a charge-stability diagram, in a time domain, and in a pulse amplitude space of the driven pulse. The observations are well described by Landau–Zener–Stückelberg interference. These results establish the feasibility of a full set of all-electrical single-qubit operations. Although our experiment is carried out in a solid-state architecture, the technique is independent of the physical encoding of the quantum information and has the potential for wider applications. PMID:23360992

  3. Quantum Interference Phenomena and Novel Switching in Split Gate High Electron Mobility Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jong-Ching

    Nanometer scales electronic channels with and without a discontinuity were made in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunctions using a split-gate technique. Quantum interference phenomena in an electron cavity, and fast switching behavior due to hot electron effects in a lateral double potential barrier structure were explored. First, one-dimensional channels with a double bend discontinuity were examined in the mK temperature range. Low-field ac-conductance measurements have evidenced quantum wave guide effects: resonant features were observed in the one-dimensional conductance plateaus in which the number of peaks was directly related to the geometry of the double bend. Temperature and magnetic field studies, along with a standing wave model have provided a better understanding of quantum interference phenomena in electron wave guide and cavity structures. Secondly, a structure containing two cascaded double bend discontinuities was studied. The structure behaves as a constricted cavity coupling two point-contacts, in which the depletion by the split gate was used to form and control the lateral double potential barriers. The low temperature source-drain characteristics exhibited a pronounced S-shaped negative differential conductance that can be attributed to a nonlinear electron temperature effect along the conducting path. The data presented show two types of conducting state: electron tunneling in the off state and hot electron conduction (thermionic emission) in the on state. The estimated switching speed of the device could be as fast as 5 ps due to short transit time.

  4. Dissecting contact mechanics from quantum interference in single-molecule junctions of stilbene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Sriharsha V; Meisner, Jeffrey S; Krikorian, Markrete; Ahn, Seokhoon; Parameswaran, Radha; Steigerwald, Michael L; Nuckolls, Colin; Venkataraman, Latha

    2012-03-14

    Electronic factors in molecules such as quantum interference and cross-conjugation can lead to dramatic modulation and suppression of conductance in single-molecule junctions. Probing such effects at the single-molecule level requires simultaneous measurements of independent junction properties, as conductance alone cannot provide conclusive evidence of junction formation for molecules with low conductivity. Here, we compare the mechanics of the conducting para-terminated 4,4'-di(methylthio)stilbene and moderately conducting 1,2-bis(4-(methylthio)phenyl)ethane to that of insulating meta-terminated 3,3'-di(methylthio)stilbene single-molecule junctions. We simultaneously measure force and conductance across single-molecule junctions and use force signatures to obtain independent evidence of junction formation and rupture in the meta-linked cross-conjugated molecule even when no clear low-bias conductance is measured. By separately quantifying conductance and mechanics, we identify the formation of atypical 3,3'-di(methylthio)stilbene molecular junctions that are mechanically stable but electronically decoupled. While theoretical studies have envisaged many plausible systems where quantum interference might be observed, our experiments provide the first direct quantitative study of the interplay between contact mechanics and the distinctively quantum mechanical nature of electronic transport in single-molecule junctions.

  5. Chiral superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallin, Catherine; Berlinsky, John

    2016-05-01

    Chiral superconductivity is a striking quantum phenomenon in which an unconventional superconductor spontaneously develops an angular momentum and lowers its free energy by eliminating nodes in the gap. It is a topologically non-trivial state and, as such, exhibits distinctive topological modes at surfaces and defects. In this paper we discuss the current theory and experimental results on chiral superconductors, focusing on two of the best-studied systems, Sr2RuO4, which is thought to be a chiral triplet p-wave superconductor, and UPt3, which has two low-temperature superconducting phases (in zero magnetic field), the lower of which is believed to be chiral triplet f-wave. Other systems that may exhibit chiral superconductivity are also discussed. Key signatures of chiral superconductivity are surface currents and chiral Majorana modes, Majorana states in vortex cores, and the possibility of half-flux quantum vortices in the case of triplet pairing. Experimental evidence for chiral superconductivity from μSR, NMR, strain, polar Kerr effect and Josephson tunneling experiments are discussed.

  6. 0.54 {\\mu}m resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Okano, Masayuki; Okamoto, Ryo; Nishizawa, Norihiko; Kurimura, Sunao; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information technologies harness the intrinsic nature of quantum theory to beat the limitations of the classical methods for information processing and communication. Recently, the application of quantum features to metrology has attracted much attention. Quantum optical coherence tomography (QOCT), which utilizes two-photon interference between entangled photon pairs, is a promising approach to overcome the problem with optical coherence tomography (OCT): As the resolution of OCT becomes higher, degradation of the resolution due to dispersion within the medium becomes more critical. Here we report on the realization of 0.54 $\\mu$m resolution two-photon interference, which surpasses the current record resolution 0.75 $\\mu$m of low-coherence interference for OCT. In addition, the resolution for QOCT showed almost no change against the dispersion of a 1 mm thickness of water inserted in the optical path, whereas the resolution for OCT dramatically degrades. For this experiment, a highly-efficient chirpe...

  7. Analysis of physical requirements for simple three-qubit and nine-qubit quantum error correction on quantum-dot and superconductor qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, IlKwon; Tarucha, Seigo; Choi, Byung-Soo

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of a scalable quantum computer requires quantum error correction (QEC). An important step toward this goal is to demonstrate the effectiveness of QEC where the fidelity of an encoded qubit is higher than that of the physical qubits. Therefore, it is important to know the conditions under which QEC code is effective. In this study, we analyze the simple three-qubit and nine-qubit QEC codes for quantum-dot and superconductor qubit implementations. First, we carefully analyze QEC codes and find the specific range of memory time to show the effectiveness of QEC and the best QEC cycle time. Second, we run a detailed error simulation of the chosen error-correction codes in the amplitude damping channel and confirm that the simulation data agreed well with the theoretically predicted accuracy and minimum QEC cycle time. We also realize that since the swap gate worked rapidly on the quantum-dot qubit, it did not affect the performance in terms of the spatial layout.

  8. Quantum interference of virtual and real amplitudes in a semiconductor exciton system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Y H; Choe, S B; Woo, J C; Kim, D S; Cundiff, S T; Shacklette, J M; Lim, Y S

    2002-12-02

    By two-color pulse shaping, we simultaneously create virtual and real amplitudes for excitons in GaAs quantum wells, and monitor population and amplitude by pump-probe and four-wave mixing spectroscopies. Excited-state probability amplitude can be induced by the off-resonant, virtual excitations as well as by the resonant, real excitations. Population modulation in time-domain results from the interference between the virtual and real amplitudes, and the modulation depth reveals the relative contributions of these two amplitudes. The fact that virtual and real amplitudes have a phase difference of 90 degrees is demonstrated directly in time-domain.

  9. Modulation Voltage of High T c DC Superconducting Quantum Interference Device with Damping Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enpuku, Keiji; Doi, Hideki; Tokita, Go; Maruo, Taku

    1994-05-01

    The effect of damping resistance on the voltage versus flux (V -Φ) relation of the high T c dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is studied experimentally. Dc SQUID using YBaCuO step-edge junction and damping resistance in parallel with SQUID inductance is fabricated. Measured values of modulation voltage in the V -Φ relation are compared with those of the conventional SQUID without damping resistance. It is shown that modulation voltage is much improved by using damping resistance. The obtained experimental results agree reasonably with theoretical predictions reported previously.

  10. The Relation between Structure and Quantum Interference in Single Molecule Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Stadler, Robert; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2010-01-01

    Quantum interference (QI) of electron pathways has recently attracted increased interest as an enabling tool for single-molecule electronic devices. Although various molecular systems have been shown to exhibit QI effects and a number of methods have been proposed for its analysis, simple...... the existence of QI-induced transmission antiresonances. The generality of the scheme, which is exact for a certain class of tight-binding models, is proved by a comparison to first-principles transport calculations for 10 different configurations of anthraquinone as well as a set of cross-conjugated molecular...

  11. Broadband calibrated scattering parameters characterization of a superconducting quantum interference device amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranzani, Leonardo [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Spietz, Lafe; Aumentado, Jose [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2013-07-08

    In this work, we characterize the 2-port scattering parameters of a superconducting quantum interference device amplifier at {approx}20 mK over several gigahertz of bandwidth. The measurement reference plane is positioned on a 6.25 {Omega} microstrip line situated directly at the input and output of the device by means of a thru-reflect-line cryogenic calibration procedure. From the scattering parameters, we derive the device available power gain, isolation, and input impedance over the 2-8 GHz range. This measurement methodology provides a path towards designing wide-band matching circuits for low impedance superconducting amplifiers operating at dilution refrigerator temperatures.

  12. Superconducting multiturn flux transformers for radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, H. R.; Zhang, Y; Schubert, J.; Zander, W.; Zeng, X. H.; Klein, N

    2000-01-01

    This article describes three planar layouts of superconducting multiturn flux transformers integrated with a coplanar resonator for radio frequency (rf) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. The best magnetic field noise values of 22 and 11.5 fT/Hz(1/2) in the white noise regime were obtained for the layout with two input coils and the layout with the labyrinth resonator, respectively. Excess low-frequency noise (about 200 fT/Hz(1/2) at 10 Hz) was present. Compute...

  13. Anisotropic Magnetoresistance and Anisotropic Tunneling Magnetoresistance due to Quantum Interference in Ferromagnetic Metal Break Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolotin, Kirill; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Ralph, D

    2006-01-01

    We measure the low-temperature resistance of permalloy break junctions as a function of contact size and the magnetic field angle in applied fields large enough to saturate the magnetization. For both nanometer-scale metallic contacts and tunneling devices we observe large changes in resistance...... with the angle, as large as 25% in the tunneling regime. The pattern of magnetoresistance is sensitive to changes in bias on a scale of a few mV. We interpret the effect as a consequence of conductance fluctuations due to quantum interference....

  14. Quantum-limit linkage of ‘strange’ and conventional metal states of high-T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusin-Elbaum, L., E-mail: krusin@sci.ccny.cuny.edu [Department of Physics, The City College of New York, NY 10031 (United States); Shibauchi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kasahara, Y. [Quantum-Phase Electronics Center, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Okazaki, R.; Matsuda, Y. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); McDonald, R.D.; Mielke, C.H. [NHMFL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hasegawa, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • High magnetic field transport in high-Tc cuprate superconductors. • Field-temperature-doping map of the pseudogap state. • Crossover from non-Fermi-liquid to the conventional Fermi liquid in the overdoped regime. • Strange metal regime and magnetic field dependent quantum critical point. -- Abstract: The key to the nature of superconducting pairing in high-T{sub c} cuprates lies in understanding the transition to a conventional behavior when they are heavily doped. By using high magnetic fields, we show that the pseudogapped Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 6+x} becomes a conventional metal at heavy doping in a quantum phase transition, where the pseudogap boundary develops a thermodynamic divergence corresponding to a zero entropy jump. The critical doping point downshifts with magnetic field in unison with the suppression of T{sub c}. This implies that quantum critical fluctuations and magnetic degrees that destabilize the pseudogap are linked to the superconductivity with high T{sub c}.

  15. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with quantum interference in a three-level atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amitabh; Serna, Juan D.

    2017-06-01

    Spontaneously generated coherence and enhanced dispersion in a V-type, three-level atomic system interacting with a single mode field can considerably reduce the radiative and cavity decay rates. This may eliminate the use of high finesse, miniaturized cavities in optical cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments under strong atom-field coupling conditions.

  16. Fast preparation of W states with superconducting quantum interference devices by using dressed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a protocol to prepare W states with superconducting quantum interference devices by using dressed states. Through choosing a set of dressed states suitably, the protocol can be used to accelerate the adiabatic passages while additional couplings are unnecessary. Moreover, we can optimize the evolution of the system with the restraint to the populations of the intermediate states by choosing suitable control parameters. Numerical simulations show that the protocol is robust against the parameter variations and decoherence mechanisms. Furthermore, the protocol is faster and more robust against the dephasing compared with that by the adiabatic passages. As for the Rabi frequencies of pulses designed by the method, they can be expressed by the linear superpositions of Gaussian functions, which does not increase difficulty in the experiments. In addition, the protocol could be controlled and manipulated easily in experiments with a circuit quantum electrodynamics system.

  17. Accurate periodicity measurement of superconducting quantum interference device magnetic flux response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Masakazu

    2010-09-01

    It is theoretically explained that a response of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is periodically dependent on total magnetic flux coupling to the SQUID ring (Φ) and its period is a flux quantum (Φ(o)=h/2e, where h and e, respectively, express Planck's constant and elementary charge). For example, the voltage of an electromagnetically oscillated rf-SQUID or a current biased dc-SQUID is thought to be periodically dependent on Φ with a period of Φ(o). In this paper, we propose an accurate method to check the periodicity of a SQUID response by using a set of sensing coils covered with a superconducting sheath. As a demonstration, we measured periodicity of a commercially available thin-film type rf-SQUID response in magnetic flux ranging up to approximately 4300Φ(o). Its flux dependence was periodic below about 3400Φ(o).

  18. Holographic quantum imaging: reconstructing spatial properties via two-particle interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Nils; Ferenczi, Gergely; Croke, Sarah; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2017-05-01

    Two particle interference phenomena, such as the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect, are a direct manifestation of the nature of the symmetry properties of indistinguishable particles as described by quantum mechanics. The HOM effect has recently been applied as a tool for pure state tomography of a single photon. In this article, we generalize the method to extract additional information for a pure state and extend this to the full tomography of mixed states as well. The formalism is kept general enough to apply to both boson and fermion based interferometry. Our theoretical discussion is accompanied by two proposals of interferometric setups that allow the measurement of a tomographically complete set of observables for single photon quantum states.

  19. The impact of quantum interferences between different J-levels on scattering polarization in spectral lines

    CERN Document Server

    Belluzzi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    The spectral line polarization produced by optically pumped atoms contains a wealth of information on the thermal and magnetic structure of a variety of astrophysical plasmas, including that of the solar atmosphere. A correct decoding of such information from the observed Stokes profiles requires a clear understanding of the effects that radiatively induced quantum interferences (or coherences) between pairs of magnetic sublevels produce on these observables, in the absence and in the presence of magnetic fields of arbitrary strength. Here we present a detailed theoretical investigation on the role of coherences between pairs of sublevels pertaining to different fine-structure J-levels, clarifying when they can be neglected for facilitating the modeling of the linear polarization produced by scattering processes in spectral lines. To this end, we apply the quantum theory of spectral line polarization and calculate the linear polarization patterns of the radiation scattered at 90 degrees by a slab of stellar a...

  20. Role of inter-tube coupling and quantum interference on electrical transport in carbon nanotube junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Srijeet; Bhattacharyya, Tarun Kanti

    2016-09-01

    Due to excellent transport properties, Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) show a lot of promise in sensor and interconnect technology. However, recent studies indicate that the conductance in CNT/CNT junctions are strongly affected by the morphology and orientation between the tubes. For proper utilization of such junctions in the development of CNT based technology, it is essential to study the electronic properties of such junctions. This work presents a theoretical study of the electrical transport properties of metallic Carbon nanotube homo-junctions. The study focuses on discerning the role of inter-tube interactions, quantum interference and scattering on the transport properties on junctions between identical tubes. The electronic structure and transport calculations are conducted with an Extended Hückel Theory-Non Equilibrium Green's Function based model. The calculations indicate conductance to be varying with a changing crossing angle, with maximum conductance corresponding to lattice registry, i.e. parallel configuration between the two tubes. Further calculations for such parallel configurations indicate onset of short and long range oscillations in conductance with respect to changing overlap length. These oscillations are attributed to inter-tube coupling effects owing to changing π orbital overlap, carrier scattering and quantum interference of the incident, transmitted and reflected waves at the inter-tube junction.

  1. Minimal Models for a Superconductor-Insulator Conformal Quantum Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Conformal field theories do not only classify 2D classical critical behavior but they also govern a certain class of 2D quantum critical behavior. In this latter case it is the ground state wave functional of the quantum theory that is conformally invariant, rather than the classical action. We show that the superconducting-insulating (SI) quantum phase transition in 2D Josephson junction arrays (JJAs) is a (doubled) $c=1$ Gaussian conformal quantum critical point. The quantum action describing this system is a doubled Maxwell-Chern-Simons model in the strong coupling limit. We also argue that the SI quantum transitions in frustrated JJAs realize the other possible universality classes of conformal quantum critical behavior, corresponding to the unitary minimal models at central charge $c=1-6/m(m+1)$.

  2. Interference features in scanning gate conductance maps of quantum point contacts with disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasiński, K.; Szafran, B.; Brun, B.; Sellier, H.

    2016-08-01

    We consider quantum point contact (QPC) defined within a disordered two-dimensional electron gas as studied by scanning gate microscopy. We evaluate the conductance maps in the Landauer approach with a wave-function picture of electron transport for samples with both low and high electron mobility at finite temperatures. We discuss the spatial distribution of the impurities in the context of the branched electron flow. We reproduce the surprising temperature stability of the experimental interference fringes far from the QPC. Next, we discuss funnel-shaped features that accompany splitting of the branches visible in previous experiments. Finally, we study elliptical interference fringes formed by an interplay of scattering by the pointlike impurities and by the scanning probe. We discuss the details of the elliptical features as functions of the tip voltage and the temperature, showing that the first interference fringe is very robust against the thermal widening of the Fermi level. We present a simple analytical model that allows for extraction of the impurity positions and the electron-gas depletion radius induced by the negatively charged tip of the atomic force microscope, and apply this model on experimental scanning gate images showing such elliptical fringes.

  3. Quantum criticality at the superconductor-insulator transition revealed by specific heat measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, S.; Nguyen-Duc, T.; Auerbach, A.; Dupuis, N.; Frydman, A.; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    The superconductor–insulator transition (SIT) is considered an excellent example of a quantum phase transition that is driven by quantum fluctuations at zero temperature. The quantum critical point is characterized by a diverging correlation length and a vanishing energy scale. Low-energy fluctuations near quantum criticality may be experimentally detected by specific heat, cp, measurements. Here we use a unique highly sensitive experiment to measure cp of two-dimensional granular Pb films through the SIT. The specific heat shows the usual jump at the mean field superconducting transition temperature marking the onset of Cooper pairs formation. As the film thickness is tuned towards the SIT, is relatively unchanged, while the magnitude of the jump and low-temperature specific heat increase significantly. This behaviour is taken as the thermodynamic fingerprint of quantum criticality in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition. PMID:28224994

  4. Temporal Purity and Quantum Interference of Single Photons from Two Independent Cold Atomic Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Peng; Gu, Zhenjie; Cao, Rong; Wen, Rong; Ou, Z. Y.; Chen, J. F.; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    The temporal purity of single photons is crucial to the indistinguishability of independent photon sources for the fundamental study of the quantum nature of light and the development of photonic technologies. Currently, the technique for single photons heralded from time-frequency entangled biphotons created in nonlinear crystals does not guarantee the temporal-quantum purity, except using spectral filtering. Nevertheless, an entirely different situation is anticipated for narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time far longer than the time resolution of a single-photon detector. Here we demonstrate temporally pure single photons with a coherence time of 100 ns, directly heralded from the time-frequency entangled biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atomic ensembles, without any supplemented filters or cavities. A near-perfect purity and indistinguishability are both verified through Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference using single photons from two independent cold atomic ensembles. The time-frequency entanglement provides a route to manipulate the pure temporal state of the single-photon source.

  5. Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena and Topological Phase Interference Effects in Single-Domain Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Rong; ZHU Jialin

    2001-01-01

    The tunneling of macroscopic object is one of the most fascinating phenomena in condensed matter physics.During the last decade,the problem of quantum tunneling of magnetization in nanometer-scale magnets has attracted a great deal of theoretical and experimental interest.A review of recent theoretical research of the macroscopic quantum phenomena in nanometer-scale single-domain magnets is presented in this paper.It includes macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) and coherence (MQC) in single-domain magnetic particles,the topological phase interference or spin-parity effects,and tunneling of magnetization in an arbitrarily directed magnetic field.The general formulas are shown to evaluate the tunneling rate and the tunneling level splitting for single-domain AFM particles.A nontrivial generalization of Kramers degeneracy for double-well system is provided to coherently spin tunneling for spin systems with m-fold rotational symmetry.The effects induced by the external magnetic field have been studied,where the field is along the easy,medium,hard axis,or arbitrary direction.

  6. Anomalous Quantum Interference Induced by Landau-Zener Transitions in a Strongly Driven rf-SQUID Qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yiwen; Wen, Xueda; Pan, Cheng; Sun, Guozhu; Chen, Jian; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng

    2009-01-01

    We irradiated an rf-SQUID qubit with large-amplitude and high frequency electromagnetic field. Population transitions between macroscopic distinctive quantum states due to Landau-Zener transitions at energy-level avoided crossings were observed. The qubit population on the excited states as a function of flux detuning and microwave power exhibits interference patterns. Some novel features are found in the interference and a model based on rate equations can well address the features.

  7. Effect of Quantum Interference from Incoherent Pumping Field and Spontaneous Emission on Controlling the Optical Bistability and Multi-Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.R.Hamedi; Ali Sari; M.Sahrai; S.H.Asadpour

    2013-01-01

    Optical bistability (OB) and optical multi-stability (OM) of a four-level A-type atomic system with two fold lower levels inside a unidirectional ring cavity is investigated.The effect of quantum interference arising from spontaneous emission and incoherent pumping on OB and OM is discussed.It is found that the threshold of OB and OM can be controlled by quantum interference mechanisms.In addition intensity of coupling field and the rate of an incoherent pumping field on behavior of OB and OM are then discussed.

  8. Prediction of quantum interference in molecular junctions using a parabolic diagram: Understanding the origin of Fano and anti-resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nozaki, Daijiro; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M.; Sevincli, Haldun;

    2013-01-01

    to predict the appearance of quantum interference, Fano resonances or anti- resonances, and its position in the conductance spectrum by introducing a simple graphical representation (parabolic model). Using it we can easily visualize the relation between the key electronic parameters and the positions...... of normal resonant peaks and anti-resonant peaks induced by quantum interference in the conductance spectrum. We also demonstrate Fano and anti-resonance in T-shaped molecular junctions using a simple tight-binding model. This parabolic model enables one to infer on-site energies of T-shaped molecules...

  9. Quantum critical points in tunneling junction of topological superconductor and topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Zheng-Wei, E-mail: zuozw@163.com [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Kang, Da-wei [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); Wang, Zhao-Wu [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Liben [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

    2016-08-26

    The tunneling junction between one-dimensional topological superconductor and integer (fractional) topological insulator (TI), realized via point contact, is investigated theoretically with bosonization technology and renormalization group methods. For the integer TI case, in a finite range of edge interaction parameter, there is a non-trivial stable fixed point which corresponds to the physical picture that the edge of TI breaks up into two sections at the junction, with one side coupling strongly to the Majorana fermion and exhibiting perfect Andreev reflection, while the other side decouples, exhibiting perfect normal reflection at low energies. This fixed point can be used as a signature of the Majorana fermion and tested by nowadays experiment techniques. For the fractional TI case, the universal low-energy transport properties are described by perfect normal reflection, perfect Andreev reflection, or perfect insulating fixed points dependent on the filling fraction and edge interaction parameter of fractional TI. - Highlights: • Tunneling junctions between topological superconductor and topological insulator are investigated. • There is a non-trivial stable fixed point in integer topological insulator case at low energies. • The edge of topological insulator breaks up into two sections at the junction. • One side couples strongly to the Majorana fermion and exhibits perfect Andreev reflection. • The other side decouples and exhibits perfect normal reflection.

  10. Polarization-Dependent Interference of Coherent Scattering from Orthogonal Dipole Moments of a Resonantly Excited Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Disheng; Lander, Gary R.; Solomon, Glenn S.; Flagg, Edward B.

    2017-01-01

    Resonant photoluminescence excitation (RPLE) spectra of a neutral InGaAs quantum dot show unconventional line shapes that depend on the detection polarization. We characterize this phenomenon by performing polarization-dependent RPLE measurements and simulating the measured spectra with a three-level quantum model. The spectra are explained by interference between fields coherently scattered from the two fine structure split exciton states, and the measurements enable extraction of the steady-state coherence between the two exciton states.

  11. Nuclear wave packet quantum interference in the intense laser dissociation of the $\\mathrm{D}_{2}^{+}$ molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Halász, Gábor J; Moiseyev, Nimrod; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2013-01-01

    Recently it has been recognized that electronic conical intersections in molecular systems can be induced by laser light even in diatomics. As is known a direct consequence of these accidental degeneracies is the appearence of nonadiabatic effects which has a strong impact on the nuclear quantum dynamics. Studying the photodissociation process of the $\\mathrm{D}_{2}^{+}$ molecule, we report here some novel and observable quantum interference phenomena that arise from the topological singularity induced by a strong laser field.

  12. Microscopic quantum interference in excitonic condensation of Ta2NiSe5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Koudai; Kaneko, Tatsuya; Ohta, Yukinori

    2016-01-01

    The microscopic quantum interference associated with excitonic condensation in Ta2NiSe5 is studied in a BCS-type mean-field approximation. We show that in ultrasonic attenuation the coherence peak appears just below the transition temperature Tc, whereas in NMR spin-lattice relaxation the rate rapidly decreases below Tc; these observations can offer a crucial experimental test for the validity of the excitonic condensation scenario in Ta2NiSe5 . We also show that excitonic condensation manifests itself in a jump of the heat capacity at Tc as well as in a softening of the elastic shear constant, in accordance with the second-order phase transition observed in Ta2NiSe5 .

  13. Non-linear behaviour of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device coupled to a radio frequency oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Murrell, J K J

    2001-01-01

    previously unexplored regions of parameter space. We show that these calculations predict a range of previously unreported dynamical I-V characterises for SQUID rings in the strongly hysteretic regime. Finally, we present the successful realisation of a novel experimental technique that permits the weak link of a SQUID to be probed independently of the associated ring structure by mechanically opening and closing the ring. We demonstrate that this process can be completed during the same experimental run without the need for warming and re-cooling of the sample. This thesis is concerned with the investigation of the non-linear behaviour of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) coupled to a RF tank circuit. We consider two regimes, one where the underlying SQUID behaviour is non-hysteretic with respect to an externally applied magnetic flux, and the other where hysteretic (dissipative) behaviour is observed. We show that, by following non-linearities induced in the tank circuit response, the un...

  14. External driving synchronization in a superconducting quantum interference device based oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Zhao, Peng; Yu, Haifeng; Yu, Yang

    2016-11-01

    We propose an external driving, self-sustained oscillator based on superconducting resonators. The dynamics of the self-sustained oscillator can be described by a Duffing-van der Pol like equation. Under external driving, the self-sustained oscillator presents synchronization phenomena. We analytically and numerically investigate the synchronization regions, and the results show that the synchronization bandwidth can be quickly adjusted in situ by the external weak magnetic field in sub-nano seconds. Moreover, the system can re-stabilize in about 10 ns with a certain sudden change of driving frequency or the critical current of the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). These advantages allow the potential applications of self-sustained oscillators in timing reference, microwave communication and electromagnetic sensing.

  15. Superconducting quantum interference device microsusceptometer balanced over a wide bandwidth for nuclear magnetic resonance applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinante, A., E-mail: anvinante@fbk.eu; Falferi, P. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR - Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Mezzena, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometers have been widely used to study magnetic properties of materials at microscale. As intrinsically balanced devices, they could also be exploited for direct SQUID-detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from micron sized samples, or for SQUID readout of mechanically detected NMR from submicron sized samples. Here, we demonstrate a double balancing technique that enables achievement of very low residual imbalance of a SQUID microsusceptometer over a wide bandwidth. In particular, we can generate ac magnetic fields within the SQUID loop as large as 1 mT, for frequencies ranging from dc up to a few MHz. As an application, we demonstrate direct detection of NMR from {sup 1}H spins in a glycerol droplet placed directly on top of the 20 μm SQUID loops.

  16. Principle and experimental investigation of current-driven negative-inductance superconducting quantum interference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Jianshe; Zhang, Yingshan; Cai, Han; Li, Gang; Liu, Qichun; Han, Siyuan; Chen, Wei

    2017-03-01

    A negative-inductance superconducting quantum interference device (nSQUID) is an adiabatic superconducting logic device with high energy efficiency, and therefore a promising building block for large-scale low-power superconducting computing. However, the principle of the nSQUID is not that straightforward and an nSQUID driven by voltage is vulnerable to common mode noise. We investigate a single nSQUID driven by current instead of voltage, and clarify the principle of the adiabatic transition of the current-driven nSQUID between different states. The basic logic operations of the current-driven nSQUID with proper parameters are simulated by WRspice. The corresponding circuit is fabricated with a 100 A cm‑2 Nb-based lift-off process, and the experimental results at low temperature confirm the basic logic operations as a gated buffer.

  17. Exploring quantum interference in heteroatom-substituted graphene-like molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangtarash, Sara; Sadeghi, Hatef; Lambert, Colin J.

    2016-07-01

    If design principles for controlling quantum interference in single molecules could be elucidated and verified, then this will lay the foundations for exploiting such effects in nanoscale devices and thin-film materials. When the core of a graphene-like polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) is weakly coupled to external electrodes by atoms i and j, the single-molecule electrical conductance σij depends on the choice of connecting atoms i,j. Furthermore, provided the Fermi energy is located between the HOMO and LUMO, conductance ratios σij/σlm corresponding to different connectivities i,j and l,m are determined by quantum interference within the PAH core. In this paper, we examine how such conductance ratios change when one of the carbon atoms within the `parent' PAH core is replaced by a heteroatom to yield a `daughter' molecule. For bipartite parental cores, in which odd-numbered sites are connected to even-numbered sites only, the effect of heteroatom substitution onto an odd-numbered site is summarized by the following qualitative rules: (a) when i and j are odd, both parent and daughter have low conductances, (b) when i is odd and j is even, or vice versa both parent and daughter have high conductances and (c) when i,j are both even, the parent has a low conductance and the daughter a high conductance. These rules are verified by comparison with density-functional calculations on naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene and anthanthrene cores connected via two different anchor groups to gold electrodes.If design principles for controlling quantum interference in single molecules could be elucidated and verified, then this will lay the foundations for exploiting such effects in nanoscale devices and thin-film materials. When the core of a graphene-like polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) is weakly coupled to external electrodes by atoms i and j, the single-molecule electrical conductance σij depends on the choice of connecting atoms i,j. Furthermore, provided the Fermi energy is

  18. Constructive interference between disordered couplings enhances multiparty entanglement in quantum Heisenberg spin glass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Utkarsh; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R.; Sen(De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-08-01

    Disordered systems form one of the centrestages of research in many body sciences and lead to a plethora of interesting phenomena and applications. A paradigmatic disordered system consists of a one-dimensional array of quantum spin-1/2 particles, governed by the Heisenberg spin glass Hamiltonian with natural or engineered quenched disordered couplings in an external magnetic field. These systems allow disorder-induced enhancement for bipartite and multipartite observables. Here we show that simultaneous application of independent quenched disorders results in disorder-induced enhancement, while the same is absent with individual application of the same disorders. We term the phenomenon as constructive interference and the corresponding parameter stretches as the Venus regions. Interestingly, it has only been observed for multiparty entanglement and is absent for the single- and two-party physical quantities.

  19. Realization and Modeling of Metamaterials Made of rf Superconducting Quantum-Interference Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trepanier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared meta-atoms based on radio-frequency superconducting quantum-interference devices (rf SQUIDs and examined their tunability with dc magnetic field, rf current, and temperature. rf SQUIDs are superconducting split-ring resonators in which the usual capacitance is supplemented with a Josephson junction, which introduces strong nonlinearity in the rf properties. We find excellent agreement between the data and a model that regards the Josephson junction as the resistively and capacitively shunted junction. A magnetic field tunability of 80  THz/G at 12 GHz is observed, a total tunability of 56% is achieved, and a unique electromagnetically induced transparency feature at intermediate excitation powers is demonstrated for the first time. An rf SQUID metamaterial is shown to have qualitatively the same behavior as a single rf SQUID with regard to dc flux and temperature tuning.

  20. Experimental validation of superconducting quantum interference device sensors for electromagnetic scattering in geologic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.H. Jr.; Flynn, E.; Ruminer, P. [and others

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has supported the collaborative development with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) of two critical components for a hand-held low-field magnetic sensor based on superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensor technology. The two components are a digital signal processing (DSP) algorithm for background noise rejection and a small hand-held dewar cooled by a cryocooler. A hand-held sensor has been designed and fabricated for detection of extremely weak magnetic fields in unshielded environments. The sensor is capable of measuring weak magnetic fields in unshielded environments and has multiple applications. We have chosen to pursue battlefield medicine as the highest probability near-term application because of stated needs of several agencies.

  1. A cryogen-free ultralow-field superconducting quantum interference device magnetic resonance imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob, E-mail: ihahn@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microtesla fields using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection has previously been demonstrated, and advantages have been noted. Although the ultralow-field SQUID MRI technique would not need the heavy superconducting magnet of conventional MRI systems, liquid helium required to cool the low-temperature detector still places a significant burden on its operation. We have built a prototype cryocooler-based SQUID MRI system that does not require a cryogen. The SQUID detector and the superconducting gradiometer were cooled down to 3.7 K and 4.3 K, respectively. We describe the prototype design, characterization, a phantom image, and areas of further improvements needed to bring the imaging performance to parity with conventional MRI systems.

  2. A cryogen-free ultralow-field superconducting quantum interference device magnetic resonance imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microtesla fields using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection has previously been demonstrated, and advantages have been noted. Although the ultralow-field SQUID MRI technique would not need the heavy superconducting magnet of conventional MRI systems, liquid helium required to cool the low-temperature detector still places a significant burden on its operation. We have built a prototype cryocooler-based SQUID MRI system that does not require a cryogen. The SQUID detector and the superconducting gradiometer were cooled down to 3.7 K and 4.3 K, respectively. We describe the prototype design, characterization, a phantom image, and areas of further improvements needed to bring the imaging performance to parity with conventional MRI systems.

  3. Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Mok, E-mail: jmkim@kriss.re.kr; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong [Brain Cognition Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.

  4. Manipulation of Spontaneous Emission via Quantum Interference in an Elliptically Polarized Laser Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Chun-Ling; LI Jia-Hua; YU Rong; ZHANG Duo; YANG Xiao-Xue

    2013-01-01

    Manipulation of spontaneous emission from an atom confined in three kinds of modified reservoirs has been investigated by means of an elliptically polarized laser field.Some interesting phenomena such as the multi-peak structure,extreme spectral narrowing,and cancellation of spontaneous emission can be observed by adjusting controllable system parameters.Moreover,these phenomena depend on the constructive or destructive quantum interference between multiple decay channels and which can be changed appreciably by varying the phase difference between the two circularly polarized components of the probe field.These results demonstrate the importance of an elliptically polarized laser field in controlling the spontaneous emission and its potential applications in high-precision spectroscopy.

  5. Generation of continuous-wave THz radiation by use of quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Korsunsky, E A

    1999-01-01

    We propose a scheme for generation of continuous-wave THz radiation. The scheme requires a medium where three discrete states in a $\\Lambda $ configuration can be selected, with the THz-frequency transition between the two lower metastable states. We consider the propagation of three-frequency continuous-wave electromagnetic (e.m.) radiation through a $\\Lambda $ medium. Under resonant excitation, the medium absorption can be strongly reduced due to quantum interference of transitions, while the nonlinear susceptibility is enhanced. This leads to very efficient energy transfer between the e.m. waves providing a possibility for THz generation. We demonstrate that the photon conversion efficiency is approaching unity in this technique.

  6. Phase-dependent quantum interference between different pathways in bichromatic harmonic generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jun; Wang Li-Ming; Qiao Hao-Xue

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the harmonic generation of the hydrogen atom subjected to a collinear bichromatic laser field by numerically solving the time-dependent Schr(o)dinger equation using the split-operator pseudo-spectral method.By adding a frequency variation to the additional field,the contributions of different pathways to particular order harmonic generation can be isolated.The quantum interference pattern between harmonic pathways,which influences the harmonic intensity,is found to be either constructive or destructive with respect to different relative phase of the two field components.Detailed description of up to the 35th-order harmonics and the harmonic pathways for a wide range of field parameters is presented.

  7. Superconductive quantum interference magnetometer with high sensitivity achieved by an induced resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoliere, A; Granata, C

    2014-08-01

    A fully integrated low noise superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in a magnetometer configuration is presented. An intrinsic high voltage responsivity as high as 500 μV/Φ0 has been obtained by introducing a resonance in the voltage - magnetic flux characteristic. This resonance is induced by an integrated superconducting coil surrounding the pick-up coil and connected to one end of the SQUID output. The SQUID magnetometer exhibits a spectral density of magnetic field noise as low as 3 fT/Hz(1/2). In order to verify the suitability of the magnetometer, measurements of bandwidth and slew rate have been performed and compared with those of the same device without the resonance and with additional positive feedback. Due to their good characteristics such devices can be employed in a large number of applications including biomagnetism.

  8. Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

    2013-12-01

    We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.

  9. Single-Molecule Electronics with Cross- Conjugated Molecules: Quantum Interference, IETS and Non-Equilibrium "Temperatures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob Lykkebo

    , which is characterised by destructive quantum interference. The molecules are cross-conjugated, which means that the two parts of the molecules are conjugated to a third part, but not to each other. This gives rise to an anti-resonance in the trans- mission. In the low bias and low temperature regime......, the electrons can tunnel in- elastically from the left to the right electrode. This is the process behind inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy (IETS), which is a single-molecule spectroscopic method, where the vibrational ngerprint of a molecule is di- rectly observed by the tunnelling current......-conjugated molecules. We nd that the vibrational modes that would be expected to dominate, following the propensity, rules are very weak. Instead, other modes are found to be the dominant ones. We study this phenomenon for a number of cross-conjugated molecules, and link these ndings to the anti...

  10. Cosmic Structure as the Quantum Interference of a Coherent Dark Wave

    CERN Document Server

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Broadhurst, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The conventional cold, particle interpretation of dark matter (CDM) still lacks laboratory support and struggles with the basic properties of common dwarf galaxies, which have surprisingly uniform central masses and shallow density profiles. In contrast, galaxies predicted by CDM extend to much lower masses, with steeper, singular profiles. This tension motivates cold, wavelike dark matter ($\\psi$DM) composed of a non-relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate, so the uncertainty principle counters gravity below a Jeans scale. Here we achieve the first cosmological simulations of this quantum state at unprecedentedly high resolution capable of resolving dwarf galaxies, with only one free parameter, $\\bf{m_B}$, the boson mass. We demonstrate the large scale structure of this $\\psi$DM simulation is indistinguishable from CDM, as desired, but differs radically inside galaxies. Connected filaments and collapsed haloes form a large interference network, with gravitationally self-bound solitonic cores inside every galax...

  11. Self-heterodyne detection of the in situ phase of an atomic superconducting quantum interference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, R.; Kumar, A.; Eckel, S.; Jendrzejewski, F.; Campbell, G. K.; Edwards, Mark; Tiesinga, E.

    2015-09-01

    We present theoretical and experimental analysis of an interferometric measurement of the in situ phase drop across and current flow through a rotating barrier in a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). This experiment is the atomic analog of the rf-superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The phase drop is extracted from a spiral-shaped density profile created by the spatial interference of the expanding toroidal BEC and a reference BEC after release from all trapping potentials. We characterize the interferometer when it contains a single particle, which is initially in a coherent superposition of a torus and reference state, as well as when it contains a many-body state in the mean-field approximation. The single-particle picture is sufficient to explain the origin of the spirals, to relate the phase-drop across the barrier to the geometry of a spiral, and to bound the expansion times for which the in situ phase can be accurately determined. Mean-field estimates and numerical simulations show that the interatomic interactions shorten the expansion time scales compared to the single-particle case. Finally, we compare the mean-field simulations with our experimental data and confirm that the interferometer indeed accurately measures the in situ phase drop.

  12. Color-tuned and transparent colloidal quantum dot solar cells via optimized multilayer interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinze, Ebuka S; Qiu, Botong; Palmquist, Nathan; Cheng, Yan; Lin, Yida; Nyirjesy, Gabrielle; Qian, Gary; Thon, Susanna M

    2017-02-20

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), are a promising candidate material for realizing colored and semitransparent solar cells, due to their band gap tunability, near infrared responsivity and solution-based processing flexibility. CQD solar cells are typically comprised of several optically thin active and electrode layers that are optimized for their electrical properties; however, their spectral tunability beyond the absorption onset of the CQD layer itself has been relatively unexplored. In this study, we design, optimize and fabricate multicolored and transparent CQD devices by means of thin film interference engineering. We develop an optimization algorithm to produce devices with controlled color characteristics. We quantify the tradeoffs between attainable color or transparency and available photocurrent, calculate the effects of non-ideal interference patterns on apparent device color, and apply our optimization method to tandem solar cell design. Experimentally, we fabricate blue, green, yellow, red and semitransparent devices and achieve photocurrents ranging from 10 to 15.2 mA/cm2 for the colored devices. We demonstrate semitransparent devices with average visible transparencies ranging from 27% to 32%, which match our design simulation results. We discuss how our optimization method provides a general platform for custom-design of optoelectronic devices with arbitrary spectral profiles.

  13. The quantum interference effects in the Sc II 4247 $\\AA$ line of the Second Solar Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Smitha, H N; Stenflo, J O; Bianda, M; Ramelli, R

    2014-01-01

    The Sc II 4247 $\\AA$ line formed in the chromosphere is one of the lines well known, like the Na I D$_2$ and Ba II D$_2$, for its prominent triple peak structure in $Q/I$ and the underlying quantum interference effects governing it. In this paper, we try to study the nature of this triple peak structure using the theory of $F$-state interference including the effects of partial frequency redistribution (PRD) and radiative transfer (RT). We compare our results with the observations taken in a quiet region near the solar limb. In spite of accounting for PRD and RT effects it has not been possible to reproduce the observed triple peak structure in $Q/I$. While the two wing PRD peaks (on either side of central peak) and the near wing continuum can be reproduced, the central peak is completely suppressed by the enhanced depolarization resulting from the hyperfine structure splitting. This suppression remains for all the tested widely different 1D model atmospheres or for any multi-component combinations of them. W...

  14. Aharonov-Bohm-type quantum interference effects in narrow gap semiconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillianfeld, R. B.; Kallaher, R. L.; Heremans, J. J.; Chen, Hong; Goel, N.; Chung, S. J.; Santos, M. B.; van Roy, W.; Borghs, G.

    2009-03-01

    We present experiments on quantum interference phenomena in semiconductors with strong spin-orbit interaction, using mesoscopic parallel ring arrays fabricated on InSb/InAlSb and InAs/AlGaSb heterostructures. Both external electric field effects and temperature dependence of the ring magnetoresistance are examined. Top-gate voltage-dependent oscillations in ring resistance in the absence of an external magnetic field are suggestive of Aharonov-Casher interference. At low magnetic fields the ring magnetoresistance is dominated by oscillations with h/2e periodicity characteristic of Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) oscillations, whereas the h/e periodicity characteristic of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations persists to high magnetic fields. Fourier spectra (FS) reveal AB amplitudes on the same order as AAS amplitudes at low fields, and in some samples reveal a splitting of the AB peaks, which has been interpreted as a signature of Berry's phase. The FS are also used to quantify the temperature dependence of the oscillation amplitudes (NSF DMR-0618235, DOE DE-FG02-08ER46532, NSF DMR-0520550).

  15. Quantum Spin Models for Copper Oxide Chains in High-T{sub c} Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugerud, H.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis presents some of the most important features of high temperature superconductors, emphasizing the properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (YBCO). The family of Hubbard-like models is considered and a simplified version of the Emery model derived. This model is applied to fermions on a cyclic chain and solved analytically in the strong correlation limit. For realistic model parameter values the effects of an external magnetic field is investigated by numerical diagonalization. Applying the Emery model to finite cyclic Cu-O chains it is shown that the behaviour of the chains is typical for a 1D Fermi-liquid. The relatively small difference between the values of the local charge and the local magnetic moment indicates that the degree of correlation in this system is very high. The ground state of the Emery model is shown to be antiferromagnetic for half and quarter filling, resembling the ground state of the Heisenberg model. The role of the ensemble of Cu-O chain fragments of the oxygen deficient planes of YBCO is addressed. By applying the Emery model to short Cu-O chains and calculating the free energy of the chains, the parameters of an Ising like lattice gas model are estimated. Several thermodynamical quantities are calculated by applying Monte Carlo technique to the model. The charge transfer from the chains to the planes is shown to correspond to the measured values of T{sub c}. The phase diagram and the average chain length agree well with experiments. The model is also capable of explaining the behaviour of the REBCO series of superconductors, where RE are various rare earth ions. A framework for simultaneously visualizing and computing numerical quantities from lattice simulations is presented and illustrated. 195 refs., 69 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. An Efficient Scheme for Implementing an N-Qubit Toffoli Gate with Superconducting Quantum-Interference Devices in Cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG An-Shou; LIU Ji-Bing; XIANG Dong; LIU Cui-Lan; YUAN Hong

    2007-01-01

    An alternative approach is proposed to realize an n-qubit Toffoli gate with superconducting quantum-interference devices (SQUIDs) in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). In the proposal, we represent two logical gates of a qubit with the two lowest levels of a SQUID while a higher-energy intermediate level of each SQUID is utilized for the gate manipulation. During the operating process, because the cavity field is always in vacuum state, the requirement on the cavity is greatly loosened and there is no transfer of quantum information between the cavity and SQUIDs.

  17. Unravelling the role of quantum interference in the weak-field laser phase modulation control of photofragment distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Vela, Alberto; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2016-01-01

    The role played by quantum interference in the laser phase modulation coherent control of photofragment distributions in the weak-field regime is investigated in detail in this work. The specific application involves realistic wave packet calculations of the transient vibrational populations of t...

  18. Tiny adiabatic-demagnetization refrigerator for a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taku J.; Okuyama, Daisuke; Kimura, Hideo

    2016-12-01

    A tiny adiabatic-demagnetization refrigerator (T-ADR) has been developed for a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer [Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS) from Quantum Design]. The whole T-ADR system is fit in a cylindrical space of diameter 8.5 mm and length 250 mm, and can be inserted into the narrow sample tube of MPMS. A sorption pump is self-contained in T-ADR, and hence no complex gas handling system is necessary. With the single crystalline Gd3Ga5O12 garnet (˜2 g) used as a magnetic refrigerant, the routinely achievable lowest temperature is ˜0.56 K. The lower detection limit for a magnetization anomaly is ˜1 × 10-7 emu, estimated from fluctuation of the measured magnetization. The background level is ˜5 × 10-5 emu below 2 K at H = 100 Oe, which is largely attributable to a contaminating paramagnetic signal from the magnetic refrigerant.

  19. Tiny adiabatic-demagnetization refrigerator for a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taku J; Okuyama, Daisuke; Kimura, Hideo

    2016-12-01

    A tiny adiabatic-demagnetization refrigerator (T-ADR) has been developed for a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer [Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS) from Quantum Design]. The whole T-ADR system is fit in a cylindrical space of diameter 8.5 mm and length 250 mm, and can be inserted into the narrow sample tube of MPMS. A sorption pump is self-contained in T-ADR, and hence no complex gas handling system is necessary. With the single crystalline Gd3Ga5O12 garnet (∼2 g) used as a magnetic refrigerant, the routinely achievable lowest temperature is ∼0.56 K. The lower detection limit for a magnetization anomaly is ∼1 × 10(-7) emu, estimated from fluctuation of the measured magnetization. The background level is ∼5 × 10(-5) emu below 2 K at H = 100 Oe, which is largely attributable to a contaminating paramagnetic signal from the magnetic refrigerant.

  20. First observation of quantum interference in the process phi -> KS KL ->pi+pi-pi+pi-: a test of quantum mechanics and CPT symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Bowring, D; Branchini, P; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Conetti, S; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Incagli, M; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Sibidanov, A L; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Xu, G

    2006-01-01

    We present the first observation of quantum interference in the process phi -> KS KL ->pi+pi-pi+pi-. This analysis is based on data collected with the KLOE detector at the e^+e^- collider DAFNE in 2001--2002 for an integrated luminosity of about 380pb^-1. Fits to the distribution of Delta t, the difference between the two kaon decay times, allow tests of the validity of quantum mechanics and CPT symmetry. No deviations from the expectations of quantum mechanics and CPT symmetry have been observed. New or improved limits on various decoherence and CPT violation parameters have been obtained

  1. Electron-phonon interaction in Ba-K-Bi-O superconductor by quantum path integral molecular dynamics (QPIMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Chong Young.

    1990-01-01

    The author introduces two different techniques to investigate the high-Tc superconductor BaKBiO{sub 3}. The first one is the rigid-ion molecular dynamics model to calculate classical properties of the crystal. This method provides the ionic anisotropic vibrational spectra. It is found that the oxygen modes dominate the vibrational spectrum from 150 up to 820 cm{sup {minus}1}. An increase in the number of substituted K around an oxygen favors high frequency vibrational modes. Also determined by experiment was an IR spectrum, with absorption peaks between 380 to 880 cm{sup {minus}1}. Experimental and computational data are in good agreement in the high frequency region. The second technique used is based on quantum path integral molecular dynamics. It is applied for the first time to the determination of electron-phonon interaction energy. The electron-phonon coupling constant is estimated at about 1.34. This value represents a weak to moderate electron-phonon coupling in Ba{sub 1(minus)x}K{sub x}BiO{sub 3} in agreement with current views of this pairing mechanism in this material.

  2. Modeling the quantum interference signatures of the Ba II D2 4554 A line in the second solar spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Smitha, H N; Stenflo, J O; Sampoorna, M

    2013-01-01

    Quantum interference effects play a vital role in shaping the linear polarization profiles of solar spectral lines. The Ba II D2 line at 4554 A is a prominent example, where the F-state interference effects due to the odd isotopes produce polarization profiles, which are very different from those of the even isotopes that have no F-state interference. It is therefore necessary to account for the contributions from the different isotopes to understand the observed linear polarization profiles of this line. Here we do radiative transfer modeling with partial frequency redistribution (PRD) of such observations while accounting for the interference effects and isotope composition. The Ba II D2 polarization profile is found to be strongly governed by the PRD mechanism. We show how a full PRD treatment succeeds in reproducing the observations, while complete frequency redistribution (CRD) alone fails to produce polarization profiles that have any resemblance with the observed ones. However, we also find that the li...

  3. Proposed Aharonov-Casher interferometry of non-Abelian vortices in chiral p-wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosfeld, Eytan; Seradjeh, Babak; Vishveshwara, Smitha

    2011-03-01

    We propose a two-path vortex interferometry experiment based on the Aharonov- Casher effect for detecting the non-Abelian nature of vortices in a chiral p-wave superconductor. The effect is based on observing vortex interference patterns upon enclosing a finite charge of externally controllable magnitude within the interference path. We predict that when the interfering vortices enclose an odd number of identical vortices in their path, the interference pattern disappears only for non-Abelian vortices. When pairing involves two distinct spin species, we derive the mutual statistics between half quantum and full quantum vortices and show that, remarkably, our predictions still hold for the situation of a full quantum vortex enclosing a half quantum vortex in its path. We discuss the experimentally relevant conditions under which these effects can be observed. Work supported by ICMT at UIUC, NSERC of Canada, CAS fellowship at UIUC, and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Weak-Light, Zero to -\\pi Lossless Kerr-Phase Gate in Quantum-well System via Tunneling Interference Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Y L; Wu, J X; Zhu, C J; Xu, J P; Yang, Y P

    2015-01-01

    We examine a Kerr phase gate in a semiconductor quantum well structure based on the tunnelling interference effect. We show that there exist a specific signal field detuning, at which the absorption/amplification of the probe field will be eliminated with the increase of the tunnelling interference. Simultaneously, the probe field will acquire a -\\pi phase shift at the exit of the medium. We demonstrate with numerical simulations that a complete 180^\\circ phase rotation for the probe field at the exit of the medium is achieved, which may result in many applications in information science and telecommunication.

  5. Tunable strong nonlinearity of a micromechanical beam embedded in a dc-superconducting quantum interference device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ella, Lior, E-mail: lior.ella@weizmann.ac.il; Yuvaraj, D.; Suchoi, Oren; Shtempluk, Oleg; Buks, Eyal [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-01-07

    We present a study of the controllable nonlinear dynamics of a micromechanical beam coupled to a dc-SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device). The coupling between these systems places the modes of the beam in a highly nonlinear potential, whose shape can be altered by varying the bias current and applied flux of the SQUID. We detect the position of the beam by placing it in an optical cavity, which sets free the SQUID to be used solely for actuation. This enables us to probe the previously unexplored full parameter space of this device. We measure the frequency response of the beam and find that it displays a Duffing oscillator behavior which is periodic in the applied magnetic flux. To account for this, we develop a model based on the standard theory for SQUID dynamics. In addition, with the aim of understanding if the device can reach nonlinearity at the single phonon level, we use this model to show that the responsivity of the current circulating in the SQUID to the position of the beam can become divergent, with its magnitude limited only by noise. This suggests a direction for the generation of macroscopically distinguishable superposition states of the beam.

  6. Parasitic effects in superconducting quantum interference device-based radiation comb generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosisio, R., E-mail: riccardo.bosisio@nano.cnr.it [SPIN-CNR, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); NEST, Instituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Giazotto, F., E-mail: giazotto@sns.it [NEST, Instituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Solinas, P., E-mail: paolo.solinas@spin.cnr.it [SPIN-CNR, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2015-12-07

    We study several parasitic effects on the implementation of a Josephson radiation comb generator based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) driven by an external magnetic field. This system can be used as a radiation generator similarly to what is done in optics and metrology, and allows one to generate up to several hundreds of harmonics of the driving frequency. First we take into account how the assumption of a finite loop geometrical inductance and junction capacitance in each SQUID may alter the operation of the devices. Then, we estimate the effect of imperfections in the fabrication of an array of SQUIDs, which is an unavoidable source of errors in practical situations. We show that the role of the junction capacitance is, in general, negligible, whereas the geometrical inductance has a beneficial effect on the performance of the device. The errors on the areas and junction resistance asymmetries may deteriorate the performance, but their effect can be limited to a large extent by a suitable choice of fabrication parameters.

  7. Three-dimensional dynamic photonic crystal creation by four laser beams interference in colloidal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A. M.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Ezhova, K. V.; Tikhonov, I. V.; Dneprovskii, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a simple way to create dynamic photonic crystals with different lattice symmetry by interference of four non-coplanar laser beams in colloidal solution of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The formation of dynamic photonic crystal was confirmed by the observed diffraction of the beams that have excited photonic crystal at the angles equal to that calculated for the corresponding three-dimensional lattice (self-diffraction regime). Self-diffraction from an induced 3D transient photonic crystal has been discovered in the case of resonant excitation of the excitons (electron - hole transitions) in CdSe/ZnS QDs (highly absorbing colloidal solution) by powerful beams of mode-locked laser with picosecond pulse duration. Self-diffraction arises for four laser beams intersecting in the cell with colloidal CdSe/ZnS QDs due to the induced 3D dynamic photonic crystal. The physical processes that arise in CdSe/ZnS QDs and are responsible for the observed self-action effects are discussed.

  8. Probing Electron-Phonon Interaction through Two-Photon Interference in Resonantly Driven Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigue, Antoine; Iles-Smith, Jake; Lux, Fabian; Monniello, Léonard; Bernard, Mathieu; Margaillan, Florent; Lemaitre, Aristide; Martinez, Anthony; McCutcheon, Dara P. S.; Mørk, Jesper; Hostein, Richard; Voliotis, Valia

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of photon coherence properties through two-photon interference (TPI) measurements from a single quantum dot (QD) under resonant excitation. We show that the loss of indistinguishability is related only to the electron-phonon coupling and is not affected by spectral diffusion. Through these measurements and a complementary microscopic theory, we identify two independent separate decoherence processes, both of which are associated with phonons. Below 10 K, we find that the relaxation of the vibrational lattice is the dominant contribution to the loss of TPI visibility. This process is non-Markovian in nature and corresponds to real phonon transitions resulting in a broad phonon sideband in the QD emission spectra. Above 10 K, virtual phonon transitions to higher lying excited states in the QD become the dominant dephasing mechanism, this leads to a broadening of the zero phonon line, and a corresponding rapid decay in the visibility. The microscopic theory we develop provides analytic expressions for the dephasing rates for both virtual phonon scattering and non-Markovian lattice relaxation.

  9. Spin-dependent quantum interference in photoemission process from spin-orbit coupled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, Koichiro; Kuroda, Kenta; Toyohisa, Sogen; Harasawa, Ayumi; Ishida, Yukiaki; Watanabe, Shuntaro; Chen, Chuangtian; Kobayashi, Katsuyoshi; Komori, Fumio; Shin, Shik

    2017-01-01

    Spin–orbit interaction entangles the orbitals with the different spins. The spin–orbital-entangled states were discovered in surface states of topological insulators. However, the spin–orbital-entanglement is not specialized in the topological surface states. Here, we show the spin–orbital texture in a surface state of Bi(111) by laser-based spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (laser-SARPES) and describe three-dimensional spin-rotation effect in photoemission resulting from spin-dependent quantum interference. Our model reveals that, in the spin–orbit-coupled systems, the spins pointing to the mutually opposite directions are independently locked to the orbital symmetries. Furthermore, direct detection of coherent spin phenomena by laser-SARPES enables us to clarify the phase of the dipole transition matrix element responsible for the spin direction in photoexcited states. These results permit the tuning of the spin polarization of optically excited electrons in solids with strong spin–orbit interaction. PMID:28232721

  10. An ultra-sensitive and wideband magnetometer based on a superconducting quantum interference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Jan-Hendrik; Hömmen, Peter; Drung, Dietmar; Körber, Rainer

    2017-02-01

    The magnetic field noise in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) used for biomagnetic research such as magnetoencephalography or ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance is usually limited by instrumental dewar noise. We constructed a wideband, ultra-low noise system with a 45 mm diameter superconducting pick-up coil inductively coupled to a current sensor SQUID. Thermal noise in the liquid helium dewar is minimized by using aluminized polyester fabric as superinsulation and aluminum oxide strips as heat shields. With a magnetometer pick-up coil in the center of the Berlin magnetically shielded room 2 (BMSR2), a noise level of around 150 aT Hz-1/2 is achieved in the white noise regime between about 20 kHz and the system bandwidth of about 2.5 MHz. At lower frequencies, the resolution is limited by magnetic field noise arising from the walls of the shielded room. Modeling the BMSR2 as a closed cube with continuous μ-metal walls, we can quantitatively reproduce its measured field noise.

  11. Development of a Cryostat to Characterize Nano-scale Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Mathew; Matheny, Matthew; Knudsen, Jasmine

    2016-03-01

    We have designed and constructed a low-noise vacuum cryostat to be used for the characterization of nano-scale superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). Such devices are very sensitive to magnetic fields and can measure changes in flux on the order of a single electron magnetic moment. As a part of the design process, we calculated the separation required between the cryogenic preamplifier and superconducting magnet, including a high-permeability magnetic shield, using a finite-element model of the apparatus. The cryostat comprises a vacuum cross at room temperature for filtered DC and shielded RF electrical connections, a thin-wall stainless steel support tube, a taper-sealed cryogenic vacuum can, and internal mechanical support and wiring for the nanoSQUID. The Dewar is modified with a room-temperature flange with a sliding seal for the cryostat. The flange supports the superconducting 3 Tesla magnet and thermometry wiring. Upon completion of the cryostat fabrication and Dewar modifications, operation of the nanoSQUIDs as transported from our collaborator's laboratory in Israel will be confirmed, as the lead forming the SQUID is sensitive to oxidation and the SQUIDs must be shipped in a vacuum container. After operation of the nanoSQUIDs is confirmed, the primary work of characterizing their high-speed properties will begin. This will include looking at the measurement of relaxation oscillations at high bandwidth in comparison to the theoretical predictions of the current model.

  12. Detection of bacteria in suspension using a superconducting Quantum interference device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, H.L.; Myers, W.R.; Vreeland, V.J.; Alper, J.D.; Bertozzi, C.R.; Clarke, J.

    2003-06-09

    We demonstrate a technique for detecting magnetically-labeled Listeria monocytogenes and for measuring the binding rate between antibody-linked magnetic particles and bacteria. This assay, which is both sensitive and straightforward to perform, can quantify specific bacteria in a sample without the need to immobilize the bacteria or wash away unbound magnetic particles. In the measurement, we add 50 nm diameter superparamagnetic particles, coated with antibodies, to a liquid sample containing L. monocytogenes. We apply a pulsed magnetic field to align the magnetic dipole moments and use a high transition temperature Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID), an extremely sensitive detector of magnetic flux, to measure the magnetic relaxation signal when the field is turned off. Unbound particles randomize direction by Brownian rotation too quickly to be detected. In contrast, particles bound to L. monocytogenes are effectively immobilized and relax in about 1 s by rotation of the internal dipole moment. This Neel relaxation process is detected by the SQUID. The measurements indicate a detection limit of (5.6 {+-} 1.1) x 10{sup 6} L. monocytogenes for a 20 {micro}L sample volume. If the sample volume were reduced to 1 nL, we estimate that the detection limit could be improved to 230 {+-} 40 L. monocytogenes cells. Time-resolved measurements yield the binding rate between the particles and bacteria.

  13. Detection of bacteria in suspension using a superconducting Quantum interference device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, H.L.; Myers, W.R.; Vreeland, V.J.; Alper, J.D.; Bertozzi, C.R.; Clarke, J.

    2003-06-09

    We demonstrate a technique for detecting magnetically-labeled Listeria monocytogenes and for measuring the binding rate between antibody-linked magnetic particles and bacteria. This assay, which is both sensitive and straightforward to perform, can quantify specific bacteria in a sample without the need to immobilize the bacteria or wash away unbound magnetic particles. In the measurement, we add 50 nm diameter superparamagnetic particles, coated with antibodies, to a liquid sample containing L. monocytogenes. We apply a pulsed magnetic field to align the magnetic dipole moments and use a high transition temperature Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID), an extremely sensitive detector of magnetic flux, to measure the magnetic relaxation signal when the field is turned off. Unbound particles randomize direction by Brownian rotation too quickly to be detected. In contrast, particles bound to L. monocytogenes are effectively immobilized and relax in about 1 s by rotation of the internal dipole moment. This Neel relaxation process is detected by the SQUID. The measurements indicate a detection limit of (5.6 {+-} 1.1) x 10{sup 6} L. monocytogenes for a 20 {micro}L sample volume. If the sample volume were reduced to 1 nL, we estimate that the detection limit could be improved to 230 {+-} 40 L. monocytogenes cells. Time-resolved measurements yield the binding rate between the particles and bacteria.

  14. High temperature superconducting thin films and quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) for gradiometers

    CERN Document Server

    Graf zu Eulenburg, A

    1999-01-01

    the best balance and gradient sensitivity at 1kHz were 3x10 sup - sup 3 and 222fT/(cm sq root Hz))) respectively. The measured spatial response to a current carrying wire was in good agreement with a theoretical model. A significant performance improvement was obtained with the development of a single layer gradiometer with 13mm baseline, fabricated on 30x10mm sup 2 bicrystals. For such a device, the gradient sensitivity at 1kHz was 50fT/(cm sq root Hz)) and the gradiometer was used successfully for unshielded magnetocardiography. A parasitic effective area compensation scheme was employed with two neighbouring SQUIDs coupled in an opposite sense to the same gradiometer loop. This improved the balance from the intrinsic value of 10 sup - sup 3 to 3x10 sup - sup 5. This thesis describes several aspects of the development of gradiometers using high temperature Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID). The pulsed laser deposition of thin films of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - subdelta (YBCO) on Sr...

  15. Aluminum and boron nuclear quadrupole resonance with a direct current superconducting quantum interference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C.; Chang, J.; Pines, A.

    1990-12-01

    We report the application of our dc SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) spectrometer [C. Connor, J. Chang, and A. Pines, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1059(1990)] to nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) studies of aluminum-27, and boron-11 in crystalline and glassy solids. Our results give e2qQ/h=2.38 MHz and η=0.0 for α-Al2O3 at 4.2 K. For the natural mineral petalite (LiAlSi4O10), we obtain e2qQ/h=4.56 MHz and η=0.47. The quadrupole resonance frequency is 1467 kHz in boron nitride, and in the vicinity of 1300 kHz for various borates in the B2O3ṡxH2O system. The distribution of boron environments in a B2O3 glass gives rise to a linewidth of about 80 kHz in the SQUID detected resonance.

  16. Superconducting multiturn flux transformers for radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H. R.; Zhang, Y.; Schubert, J.; Zander, W.; Zeng, X. H.; Klein, N.

    2000-11-01

    This article describes three planar layouts of superconducting multiturn flux transformers integrated with a coplanar resonator for radio frequency (rf) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. The best magnetic field noise values of 22 and 11.5 fT/Hz1/2 in the white noise regime were obtained for the layout with two input coils and the layout with the labyrinth resonator, respectively. Excess low-frequency noise (about 200 fT/Hz1/2 at 10 Hz) was present. Computer simulation showed that the loss in this trilayer system was dominated by the high loss tangent of the dielectric film used for the separation of the upper and lower superconducting films. The rf coupling coefficient krf between the resonator and the flip-chip-coupled SQUID was also estimated. The values krf2≈14×10-3 obtained for the layout with two input coils, and krf2≈45×10-3 for the layout with the labyrinth resonator were considerably higher than the typical value of krf2≈7×10-3 for the single-layer coplanar resonator. These high coupling coefficients have compensated the somewhat degraded unloaded quality factor of the resonator, thus securing the optimum operation of the rf SQUID.

  17. Close relation between quantum interference in molecular conductance and diradical existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yuta; Hoffmann, Roald; Strange, Mikkel; Solomon, Gemma C

    2016-01-26

    An empirical observation of a relationship between a striking feature of electronic transmission through a π-system, destructive quantum interference (QI), on one hand, and the stability of diradicals on the other, leads to the proof of a general theorem that relates the two. Subject to a number of simplifying assumptions, in a π-electron system, QI occurs when electrodes are attached to those positions of an N-carbon atom N-electron closed-shell hydrocarbon where the matrix elements of the Green's function vanish. These zeros come in two types, which are called easy and hard. Suppose an N+2 atom, N+2 electron hydrocarbon is formed by substituting 2 CH2 groups at two atoms, where the electrodes were. Then, if a QI feature is associated with electrode attachment to the two atoms of the original N atom system, the resulting augmented N+2 molecule will be a diradical. If there is no QI feature, i.e., transmission of current is normal if electrodes are attached to the two atoms, the resulting hydrocarbon will not be a diradical but will have a classical closed-shell electronic structure. Moreover, where a diradical exists, the easy zero is associated with a nondisjoint diradical, and the hard zero is associated with a disjoint one. A related theorem is proven for deletion of two sites from a hydrocarbon.

  18. Quantum Interference of Dual-Channel Excited Magnons in Spin-1 Bose—Einstein Condensates Atomic Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Zhao, Xing-Dong; Zhou, Lu; Jing, Hui; Zhang, Wei-Ping

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the quantum interference of spin wave excitations of a spin-1 atomic Bose condensate confined in an optical lattice. Single-channel and dual-channel interactions are employed in our system, and their induced excitations are compared. Also we consider the interplay of magneto-optical excitations, which leads to a constructive or destructive effect for the creation of magnons based on background excitations. The population distributions of excited magnons can be well controlled by steering the long-range dipole-dipole interactions. Such a scheme can be used to demonstrate conventional quantum-optical phenomena like dynamical Casimir effect at finite temperatures.

  19. Quantum Interference of Dual-Channel Excited Magnons in Spin-1 Bose-Einstein Condensates Atomic Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xu; ZHAO Xing-Dong; ZHOU Lu; JING Hui; ZHANG Wei-Ping

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the quantum interference of spin wave excitations of a spin-1 atomic Bose condensate confined in an optical lattice.Single-channel and dual-channel interactions are employed in our system,and their induced excitations are compared.Also we consider the interplay of magneto-optical excitations,which leads to a constructive or destructive effect for the creation of magnons based on background excitations.The population distributions of excited magnons can be well controlled by steering the long-range dipole-dipole interactions.Such a scheme can be used to demonstrate conventional quantum-optical phenomena like dynamical Casimir effect at finite temperatures.

  20. Partial Wave Analysis of Scattering with Nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Anomalous Cross Section induced by Quantum Interference

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, D H

    2003-01-01

    Partial wave theory of a three dmensional scattering problem for an arbitray short range potential and a nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux is established. The scattering process of a ``hard shere'' like potential and the magnetic flux is examined. An anomalous total cross section is revealed at the specific quantized magnetic flux at low energy which helps explain the composite fermion and boson model in the fractional quantum Hall effect. Since the nonlocal quantum interference of magnetic flux on the charged particles is universal, the nonlocal effect is expected to appear in quite general potential system and will be useful in understanding some other phenomena in mesoscopic phyiscs.

  1. Transport anomalies and quantum criticality in electron-doped cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu; Yu, Heshan; He, Ge; Hu, Wei; Yuan, Jie; Zhu, Beiyi [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Jin, Kui, E-mail: kuijin@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Electrical transport and its complementary thermal transport on electron-doped cuprates are reviewed. • The common features of electron-doped cuprates are sorted out and shown in the last figure. • The complex superconducting fluctuations and quantum fluctuations are distinguished. - Abstract: Superconductivity research is like running a marathon. Three decades after the discovery of high-T{sub c} cuprates, there have been mass data generated from transport measurements, which bring fruitful information. In this review, we give a brief summary of the intriguing phenomena reported in electron-doped cuprates from the aspect of electrical transport as well as the complementary thermal transport. We attempt to sort out common features of the electron-doped family, e.g. the strange metal, negative magnetoresistance, multiple sign reversals of Hall in mixed state, abnormal Nernst signal, complex quantum criticality. Most of them have been challenging the existing theories, nevertheless, a unified diagram certainly helps to approach the nature of electron-doped cuprates.

  2. Note: simultaneous measurements of magnetization and electrical transport signal by a reconstructed superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H L; Yu, X Z; Wang, S L; Chen, L; Zhao, J H

    2013-08-01

    We have developed a sample rod which makes the conventional superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer capable of performing magnetization and electrical transport measurements simultaneously. The sample holder attached to the end of a 140 cm long sample rod is a nonmagnetic drinking straw or a 1.5 mm wide silicon strip with small magnetic background signal. Ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As films are used to test the new sample rod, and the results are in good agreement with previous report.

  3. Suppression and Enhancement in Parametric Two-Photon Resonant Nondegenerate Four-Wave Mixing via Quantum Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jiang; MI Xin; YU Zu-He; JIANG Qian; ZUO Zhan-Chun; WANG Yan-Bang; WU Ling-An; FU Pan-Ming

    2004-01-01

    @@ Quantum interference may lead to suppression and enhancement of the two-photon resonant nondegenerate fourwave mixing signal in a cascade four-level system. Such phenomena are demonstrated in Ba through inducing atomic coherence between the ground state 6s2 and the doubly excited autoionizing Rydberg state 6pnd. This method can be used as a new spectroscopic tool for measuring the transition dipole moment between two highly excited atomic states.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of YBa2Cu3O7(Y123) via sol-gel method for development of superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Noorhana; Zakariah, Muhammad Hanis

    2012-10-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) waves transmitted by Horizontal Electric Dipole (HED) source to detect contrasts in subsurface resistivity termed Seabed Logging (SBL) is now an established method for hydrocarbon exploration. However, currently used EM wave detectors for SBL have several challenges including the sensitivity and its bulk size. This work exploits the benefit of superconductor technology in developing a magnetometer termed Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) which can potentially be used for SBL. A SQUID magnetometer was fabricated using hexagon shape-niobium wire with YBa2Cu37O, (YBCO) as a barrier. The YBa2Cu37O, samples were synthesized by sol-gel method and were sintered using a furnace and conventional microwave oven. The YBCO gel was dried at 120 degrees C in air for 72 hours. It was then ground and divided into 12 parts. Four samples were sintered at 750 degrees C, 850 degrees C, 900 degrees C, and 950 degrees C for 12 hours in a furnace to find the optimum temperature. The other eight samples were sintered in a microwave with 1100 Watt (W) with a different sintering time, 5, 15, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 1 hour 15 minutes, 1 hour 30 minutes, 1 hour 45 minutes and 2 hours. A DEWAR container was designed and fabricated using fiberglass material. It was filled with liquid nitrogen (LN2) to ensure the superconducting state of the magnetometer. XRD results showed that the optimum sintering temperature for the formation of orthorhombic Y-123 phase was at 950 degrees C with the crystallite size of 67 nm. The morphology results from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) showed that the grains had formed a rod shape with an average diameter of 60 nm. The fabricated SQUID magnetometer was able to show an increment of approximately 249% in the intensity of the EM waves when the source receiver offset was one meter apart.

  5. Prediction of quantum interference in molecular junctions using a parabolic diagram: Understanding the origin of Fano and anti- resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Daijiro; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M.; Sevinçli, Hâldun; Gutierrez, Rafael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2013-03-01

    Recently the interest in quantum interference (QI) phenomena in molecular devices (molecular junctions) has been growing due to the unique features observed in the transmission spectra. In order to design single molecular devices exploiting QI effects as desired, it is necessary to provide simple rules for predicting the appearance of QI effects such as anti-resonances or Fano line shapes and for controlling them. In this study, we derive a transmission function of a generic molecular junction with a side group (T-shaped molecular junction) using a minimal toy model. We developed a simple method to predict the appearance of quantum interference, Fano resonances or anti- resonances, and its position in the conductance spectrum by introducing a simple graphical representation (parabolic model). Using it we can easily visualize the relation between the key electronic parameters and the positions of normal resonant peaks and anti-resonant peaks induced by quantum interference in the conductance spectrum. We also demonstrate Fano and anti-resonance in T-shaped molecular junctions using a simple tight-binding model. This parabolic model enables one to infer on-site energies of T-shaped molecules and the coupling between side group and main conduction channel from transmission spectra.

  6. All-high-Tc superconductor rapid-single-flux-quantum circuit operating at ˜30 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokhor, S.; Nadgorny, B.; Gurvitch, M.; Semenov, V.; Polyakov, Yu.; Likharev, K.; Hou, S. Y.; Phillips, Julia M.

    1995-11-01

    We have implemented a simple circuit of the rapid single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) logic family using a single-layer YBa2Cu3O7-x thin-film structure with 14 in-plane Josephson junctions formed by direct electron beam writing. The circuit includes two dc/SFQ converters, two Josephson transmission lines, a complete RS SFQ flip-flop, and an SFQ/dc converter (readout SQUID). Low-frequency testing has shown that the dc-current-biased circuit operates correctly and reliably at T˜30 K, a few degrees below the effective critical temperature of the junctions. Prospects for a further increase of the operation temperature and implementation of more complex RSFQ circuits are discussed in brief.

  7. Quasiparticle parity lifetime of bound states in a hybrid superconductor-semiconductor quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Albrecht, Sven; Kirsanskas, Gediminas; Chang, Willy; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Krogstrup, Peter; Jespersen, Thomas; Nygård, Jesper; Flensberg, Karsten; Marcus, Charles

    2015-03-01

    We measure quasiparticle transport in an InAs nanowire that is half-covered with epitaxial superconducting aluminum, then locally gated to form a quantum dot. We observe negative differential conductance at finite source-drain bias, and temperature dependent even-odd alternations in the Coulomb blockade peak spacings at zero bias. These observations can be understood in terms of a mid-gap semiconductor discrete state and a continuum of BCS quasiparticle states. Comparing with simple models, we bound the discrete state's parity lifetime and the quasiparticle temperature. These results indicate that parity fluctuations are slow, and imply Majorana qubit poisoning times on the order of a millisecond. Additional results indicate that the bound states move to zero energy in a magnetic field, qualitatively consistent with expectations for Majorana fermions in a finite system. Research supported by Microsoft Station Q, Danish National Research Foundation, Villum Foundation, Lundbeck Foundation, and the European Commission.

  8. Transport anomalies and quantum criticality in electron-doped cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Yu, Heshan; He, Ge; Hu, Wei; Yuan, Jie; Zhu, Beiyi; Jin, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Superconductivity research is like running a marathon. Three decades after the discovery of high-Tc cuprates, there have been mass data generated from transport measurements, which bring fruitful information. In this review, we give a brief summary of the intriguing phenomena reported in electron-doped cuprates from the aspect of electrical transport as well as the complementary thermal transport. We attempt to sort out common features of the electron-doped family, e.g. the strange metal, negative magnetoresistance, multiple sign reversals of Hall in mixed state, abnormal Nernst signal, complex quantum criticality. Most of them have been challenging the existing theories, nevertheless, a unified diagram certainly helps to approach the nature of electron-doped cuprates.

  9. Nano Superconducting Quantum Interference device: A powerful tool for nanoscale investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, Carmine, E-mail: carmine.granata@cnr.it; Vettoliere, Antonio

    2016-02-19

    The magnetic sensing at nanoscale level is a promising and interesting research topic of nanoscience. Indeed, magnetic imaging is a powerful tool for probing biological, chemical and physical systems. The study of small spin cluster, like magnetic molecules and nanoparticles, single electron, cold atom clouds, is one of the most stimulating challenges of applied and basic research of the next years. In particular, the magnetic nanoparticle investigation plays a fundamental role for the modern material science and its relative technological applications like ferrofluids, magnetic refrigeration and biomedical applications, including drug delivery, hyper-thermia cancer treatment and magnetic resonance imaging contrast-agent. Actually, one of the most ambitious goals of the high sensitivity magnetometry is the detection of elementary magnetic moment or spin. In this framework, several efforts have been devoted to the development of a high sensitivity magnetic nanosensor pushing sensing capability to the individual spin level. Among the different magnetic sensors, Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) exhibit an ultra high sensitivity and are widely employed in numerous applications. Basically, a SQUID consists of a superconducting ring (sensitive area) interrupted by two Josephson junctions. In the recent years, it has been proved that the magnetic response of nano-objects can be effectively measured by using a SQUID with a very small sensitive area (nanoSQUID). In fact, the sensor noise, expressed in terms of the elementary magnetic moment (spin or Bohr magneton), is linearly dependent on the SQUID loop side length. For this reason, SQUIDs have been progressively miniaturized in order to improve the sensitivity up to few spin per unit of bandwidth. With respect to other techniques, nanoSQUIDs offer the advantage of direct measurement of magnetization changes in small spin systems. In this review, we focus on nanoSQUIDs and its applications. In

  10. Operation of a superconducting nanowire quantum interference device with mesoscopic leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekker, David; Bezryadin, Alexey; Hopkins, David S.; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2005-09-01

    A theory describing the operation of a superconducting nanowire quantum interference device (NQUID) is presented. The device consists of a pair of thin-film superconducting leads connected by a pair of topologically parallel ultranarrow superconducting wires. It exhibits intrinsic electrical resistance, due to thermally activated dissipative fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter. Attention is given to the dependence of this resistance on the strength of an externally applied magnetic field aligned perpendicular to the leads, for lead dimensions such that there is essentially complete and uniform penetration of the leads by the magnetic field. This regime, in which at least one of the lead dimensions—length or width—lies between the superconducting coherence and penetration lengths, is referred to as the mesoscopic regime. The magnetic field causes a pronounced oscillation of the device resistance, with a period not dominated by the Aharonov-Bohm effect through the area enclosed by the wires and the film edges but, rather, in terms of the geometry of the leads, in contrast to the well-known Little-Parks resistance of thin-walled superconducting cylinders. A detailed theory, encompassing this phenomenology quantitatively, is developed through extensions, to the setting of parallel superconducting wires, of the Ivanchenko-Zil’berman-Ambegaokar-Halperin theory of intrinsic resistive fluctuations in a current-biased Josephson junction and the Langer-Ambegaokar-McCumber-Halperin theory of intrinsic resistive fluctuations in a superconducting wire. In particular, it is demonstrated that via the resistance of the NQUID, the wires act as a probe of spatial variations in the superconducting order parameter along the perimeter of each lead: in essence, a superconducting phase gradiometer.

  11. Nano Superconducting Quantum Interference device: A powerful tool for nanoscale investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Carmine; Vettoliere, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic sensing at nanoscale level is a promising and interesting research topic of nanoscience. Indeed, magnetic imaging is a powerful tool for probing biological, chemical and physical systems. The study of small spin cluster, like magnetic molecules and nanoparticles, single electron, cold atom clouds, is one of the most stimulating challenges of applied and basic research of the next years. In particular, the magnetic nanoparticle investigation plays a fundamental role for the modern material science and its relative technological applications like ferrofluids, magnetic refrigeration and biomedical applications, including drug delivery, hyper-thermia cancer treatment and magnetic resonance imaging contrast-agent. Actually, one of the most ambitious goals of the high sensitivity magnetometry is the detection of elementary magnetic moment or spin. In this framework, several efforts have been devoted to the development of a high sensitivity magnetic nanosensor pushing sensing capability to the individual spin level. Among the different magnetic sensors, Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) exhibit an ultra high sensitivity and are widely employed in numerous applications. Basically, a SQUID consists of a superconducting ring (sensitive area) interrupted by two Josephson junctions. In the recent years, it has been proved that the magnetic response of nano-objects can be effectively measured by using a SQUID with a very small sensitive area (nanoSQUID). In fact, the sensor noise, expressed in terms of the elementary magnetic moment (spin or Bohr magneton), is linearly dependent on the SQUID loop side length. For this reason, SQUIDs have been progressively miniaturized in order to improve the sensitivity up to few spin per unit of bandwidth. With respect to other techniques, nanoSQUIDs offer the advantage of direct measurement of magnetization changes in small spin systems. In this review, we focus on nanoSQUIDs and its applications. In

  12. Low-noise nano superconducting quantum interference device operating in Tesla magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Tobias; Nagel, Joachim; Wölbing, Roman; Kemmler, Matthias; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter

    2013-01-22

    Superconductivity in the cuprate YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) (YBCO) persists up to huge magnetic fields (B) up to several tens of Teslas, and sensitive direct current (dc) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) can be realized in epitaxially grown YBCO films by using grain boundary Josephson junctions (GBJs). Here we present the realization of high-quality YBCO nanoSQUIDs, patterned by focused ion beam milling. We demonstrate low-noise performance of such a SQUID up to B = 1 T applied parallel to the plane of the SQUID loop at the temperature T = 4.2 K. The GBJs are shunted by a thin Au layer to provide nonhysteretic current voltage characteristics, and the SQUID incorporates a 90 nm wide constriction which is used for on-chip modulation of the magnetic flux through the SQUID loop. The white flux noise of the device increases only slightly from 1.3 μΦ(0)/(Hz)(1/2) at B = 0 to 2.3 μΦ(0)/(Hz))(1/2) at 1 T. Assuming that a point-like magnetic particle with magnetization in the plane of the SQUID loop is placed directly on top of the constriction and taking into account the geometry of the SQUID, we calculate a spin sensitivity S(μ)(1/2) = 62 μ(B)/(Hz))(1/2) at B = 0 and 110 μ(B)/(Hz))(1/2) at 1 T. The demonstration of low noise of such a SQUID in Tesla fields is a decisive step toward utilizing the full potential of ultrasensitive nanoSQUIDs for direct measurements of magnetic hysteresis curves of magnetic nanoparticles and molecular magnets.

  13. Low-noise dc superconducting quantum interference devices for gravity wave detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Insik

    I have designed, built and tested a low noise dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) system which is intended primarily for use in a 50 mK omnidirectional gravity wave antenna. The SQUID system has three SQUIDs on a single chip: one SQUID is the sensor, another SQUID is the main readout, and the last is a spare readout. For good impedance matching between the sensor SQUID and the input circuit, I use a thin-film transformer. This thin-film transformer gives an input inductance of about 1 muH, which is good for many applications. A SQUID system in a gravity wave antenna must operate continuously for at least 6 months with high reliability. To meet these requirements, I fabricated dc SQUID chips from Nb-Al/AlOsbx-Nb trilayers. I tested the SQUID chips in a liquid helium bath and a dilution refrigerator in the temperature range of 4.2 K to 90 mK. I have designed and tested an eddy-current damping filter as a distributed microwave filter to damp out microwave resonances in strip-line input coils coupled to SQUIDs. The filter chip consists of a Au/Cu-dot array. The filter chip was coupled to the SQUID using a flip-chip arrangement on the SQUID chip. I found that the filter reduced noise bumps and removed distortion from the current-voltage curves. To flux-lock the SQUID system, I developed 2-stage SQUID feedback loops. I investigated two cascade SQUID systems in which I feed the feedback signal into the sensor SQUID and couple the ac modulation signal to the readout SQUID. I found that the noise spectrum with 2-SQUID feedback operation recovers the noise spectrum of the sensor SQUID with about 9% higher noise.

  14. Quantum criticality in the 122 iron pnictide superconductors emerging from orbital-selective Mottness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. D.; Laad, M. S.; Craco, L.; Gillett, J.; Tripathi, V.; Sebastian, S. E.

    2015-10-01

    The twin issues of the nature of the "normal" state and competing order(s) in the iron arsenides are central to understanding their unconventional, high-Tc superconductivity. We use a combination of transport anisotropy measurements on detwinned Sr (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 single crystals and local density approximation plus dynamical mean field theory (LDA + DMFT) calculations to revisit these issues. The peculiar resistivity anisotropy and its evolution with x are naturally interpreted in terms of an underlying orbital-selective Mott transition (OSMT) that gaps out the dx z or dy z states. Further, we use a Landau-Ginzburg approach using LDA + DMFT input to rationalize a wide range of anomalies seen up to optimal doping, providing strong evidence for secondary electronic nematic order. These findings suggest that strong dynamical fluctuations linked to a marginal quantum-critical point associated with this OSMT and a secondary electronic nematic order constitute an intrinsically electronic pairing mechanism for superconductivity in Fe arsenides.

  15. Topological surface states in nodal superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Andreas P; Brydon, Philip M R

    2015-06-24

    Topological superconductors have become a subject of intense research due to their potential use for technical applications in device fabrication and quantum information. Besides fully gapped superconductors, unconventional superconductors with point or line nodes in their order parameter can also exhibit nontrivial topological characteristics. This article reviews recent progress in the theoretical understanding of nodal topological superconductors, with a focus on Weyl and noncentrosymmetric superconductors and their protected surface states. Using selected examples, we review the bulk topological properties of these systems, study different types of topological surface states, and examine their unusual properties. Furthermore, we survey some candidate materials for topological superconductivity and discuss different experimental signatures of topological surface states.

  16. Inductance mode characteristics of a ceramic YBa2Cu3O7-x radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device at 77 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Il'ichev, E. V.; Andreev, A. V.; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results on some radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device (rf-SQUID) signal properties are presented. The quantum interferometer was made of ceramic YBa2Cu3O7−x and was due to a low critical current operated in the inductance or nonhysteretic mode. With bias current...

  17. Coupling spin qubits via superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leijnse, Martin; Flensberg, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We show how superconductors can be used to couple, initialize, and read out spatially separated spin qubits. When two single-electron quantum dots are tunnel coupled to the same superconductor, the singlet component of the two-electron state partially leaks into the superconductor via crossed...... Andreev reflection. This induces a gate-controlled singlet-triplet splitting which, with an appropriate superconductor geometry, remains large for dot separations within the superconducting coherence length. Furthermore, we show that when two double-dot singlet-triplet qubits are tunnel coupled...... to a superconductor with finite charging energy, crossed Andreev reflection enables a strong two-qubit coupling over distances much larger than the coherence length....

  18. Two-photon interference at telecom wavelengths for time-bin-encoded single photons from quantum-dot spin qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M.; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S.; Tanner, Michael G.; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H.; Fejer, Martin M.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-11-01

    Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911 nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances.

  19. Potential Applications of Microtesla Magnetic Resonance ImagingDetected Using a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Whittier Ryan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of protons performed in a precession field of 132 μT. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a pulsed 40-300 mT magnetic field prepolarizes the sample spins and an untuned second-order superconducting gradiometer coupled to a low transition temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detects the subsequent 5.6-kHz spin precession. Imaging sequences including multiple echoes and partial Fourier reconstruction are developed. Calculating the SNR of prepolarized SQUID-detected MRI shows that three-dimensional Fourier imaging yields higher SNR than slice-selection imaging. An experimentally demonstrated field-cycling pulse sequence and post-processing algorithm mitigate image artifacts caused by concomitant gradients in low-field MRI. The magnetic field noise of SQUID untuned detection is compared to the noise of SQUID tuned detection, conventional Faraday detection, and the Nyquist noise generated by conducting biological samples. A second-generation microtesla MRI system employing a low-noise SQUID is constructed to increase SNR. A 2.4-m cubic, eddy-current shield with 6-mm thick aluminum walls encloses the experiment to attenuate external noise. The measured noise is 0.75 fT Hz-1/2 referred to the bottom gradiometer loop. Solenoids wound from 30-strand braided wire to decrease Nyquist noise and cooled by either liquid nitrogen or water polarize the spins. Copper wire coils wound on wooden supports produce the imaging magnetic fields and field gradients. Water phantom images with 0.8 x 0.8 x 10 mm3 resolution have a SNR of 6. Three-dimensional 1.6 x 1.9 x 14 mm3 images of bell peppers and 3 x 3 x 26 mm3 in vivo images of the human arm are presented. Since contrast based on the transverse spin relaxation rate (T1) is enhanced at low magnetic fields, microtesla MRI could potentially be used for tumor imaging. The

  20. Theory of quantum frequency translation of light in optical fiber: application to interference of two photons of different color

    CERN Document Server

    McGuinness, H J; McKinstrie, C J

    2011-01-01

    We study quantum frequency translation and two-color photon interference enabled by the Bragg scattering four-wave mixing process in optical fiber. Using realistic model parameters, we computationally and analytically determine the Green function and Schmidt modes for cases with various pump-pulse lengths. These cases can be categorized as either "non-discriminatory" or "discriminatory" in regards to their propensity to exhibit high-efficiency translation or high-visibility two-photon interference for many different shapes of input wave packets or for only a few input wave packets, respectively. Also, for a particular case, the Schmidt mode set was found to be nearly equal to a Hermite-Gaussian function set. The methods and results also apply with little modification to frequency conversion by sum-frequency conversion in optical crystals.

  1. Gate-tuned Superconductor-Insulator transition in (Li,Fe)OHFeSe

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, B; Xiang, Z. J.; Lu, X. F.; Wang, N. Z.; Chang, J. R.; Shang, C.; Luo, X. G.; Wu, T.; Z. Sun; Chen, X. H.

    2015-01-01

    The antiferromagnetic(AFM) insulator-superconductor transition has been always a center of interest in the underlying physics of unconventional superconductors. The quantum phase transition between Mott insulator with AFM and superconductor can be induced by doping charge carriers in high-Tc cuprate superconductors. For the best characterized organic superconductors of k-(BEDT-TTF)2X (X=anion), a first order transition between AFM insulator and superconductor can be tuned by applied external ...

  2. One-Step Realization of SWAP Gate with Superconducting Quantum-Interference Devices and Atoms in Cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Zhi-Ming

    2008-01-01

    We put forward a simple scheme for one-step realization of a two-qubit SWAP gate with SQUIDs (super-conducting quantum-interference devices) in cavity QED via Raman transition. In this scheme, the cavity field is only virtually excited and thus the cavity decay is suppressed. The SWAP gate is realized by using only two lower flux states of the SQUID system and the excited state would not be excited. Therefore, the effect of decoherence caused from the levels of the SQUID system is possibly minimized. The scheme can also be used to implement the SWAP gate with atoms.

  3. A new type of HTc superconducting film comb-shape resonator for radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Hai-yan; WANG Fu-ren; MENG Shu-chao; MAO Bo; LI Zhuang-zhi; NIE Rui-juan; LIU Xin-yuan; DAI Yuan-dong

    2006-01-01

    A new type of HTc superconducting film combshape resonator for radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices (RF SQUID) has been designed.This new type of superconducting film comb-shape resonator is formed by a foursquare microstrip line without a flux concentrator.The range of the center frequency of this type of resonator varies from 800 MHz to 1300 MHz by changing the length of the teeth.In this paper,we report on simulating the relationship of the value of the center frequency and the length of the teeth,and testing the noise of HTc RF SQUID coupling this comb-shape resonator.

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles for high-sensitivity detection on nucleic acids via superconducting-quantum-interference-device-based immunomagnetic reduction assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. Y.; Chieh, J. J.; Wang, W. C.; Yu, C. Y.; Hing, N. S.; Horng, H. E.; Hong, Chin-Yih; Yang, H. C.; Chang, C. F.; Lin, H. Y.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we investigate the feasibility of detecting quantitatively DNA molecules utilizing the technology named after the immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assay. Magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in a phosphate buffer saline solution were bio-functionalized with probing single-strand DNA. A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) ac magnetosusceptometer was employed to detect IMR signals related to the concentration of the target DNA. The results reveal that use of IMR assay had merits such as a high convenience level, e.g. wash-free processes and high sensitivity, down to pM, for DNA detection.

  5. High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device recordings of spontaneous brain activity: Towards high-Tc magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öisjöen, F.; Schneiderman, J. F.; Figueras, G. A.; Chukharkin, M. L.; Kalabukhov, A.; Hedström, A.; Elam, M.; Winkler, D.

    2012-03-01

    We have performed single- and two-channel high transition temperature (high-Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of spontaneous brain activity in two healthy human subjects. We demonstrate modulation of two well-known brain rhythms: the occipital alpha rhythm and the mu rhythm found in the motor cortex. We further show that despite higher noise-levels compared to their low-Tc counterparts, high-Tc SQUIDs can be used to detect and record physiologically relevant brain rhythms with comparable signal-to-noise ratios. These results indicate the utility of high-Tc technology in MEG recordings of a broader range of brain activity.

  6. Quantum interference in laser-assisted photo-ionization excited by a femtosecond x-ray pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Yu-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    The photoelectron energy spectra (PESs) excited by monochromatic femtosecond x-ray pulses in the presence of a femtosecond laser are investigated. APES is composed of a set of separate peaks, showing interesting comb-like structures. These structures result from the quantum interferences between photoelectron wave packets generated at different times. The width and the localization of each peak as well as the number of peaks are determined by all the laser and x-ray parameters. Most of peak heights of the PES are higher than the classical predictions.

  7. Unshielded use of thin-film Nb dc superconducting quantum interference devices and integrated asymmetric gradiometers for nondestructive evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, M.E.; Nakane, H.; Cochran, A.; Weston, R.G.; Klein, U.; Pegrum, C.M.; Donaldson, G.B. [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    Novel nondestructive evaluation measurements made using niobium dc superconducting quantum interference devices with integrated asymmetric first-order gradiometers are described. Comparative theoretical and experimental studies of their spatial response have been described, and it is shown that the gradiometric response makes operation possible in an unshielded and electromagnetically noisy environment. As a demonstration of their capabilities, subsurface defects in a multilayer aluminum structure have been located and mapped using induced eddy currents at 70 Hz, with no magnetic shielding around the specimen or cryostat. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Multiple lobes in the far-field distribution of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers due to self-interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Röben, B., E-mail: roeben@pdi-berlin.de; Wienold, M.; Schrottke, L.; Grahn, H. T. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Leibniz-Institut im Forschungsverbund Berlin e. V., Hausvogteiplatz 5–7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The far-field distribution of the emission intensity of terahertz (THz) quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) frequently exhibits multiple lobes instead of a single-lobed Gaussian distribution. We show that such multiple lobes can result from self-interference related to the typically large beam divergence of THz QCLs and the presence of an inevitable cryogenic operation environment including optical windows. We develop a quantitative model to reproduce the multiple lobes. We also demonstrate how a single-lobed far-field distribution can be achieved.

  9. Low-frequency nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, N. Q.; Clarke, John

    1991-06-01

    A sensitive spectrometer, based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device, for the direct detection of low-frequency pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), is described. The frequency response extends from about 10 to 200 kHz, and the recovery time after the magnetic pulse is removed is typically 50 μs. As examples, NMR spectra are shown from Pt and Cu metal powders in a magnetic field of 6 mT, and NQR spectra are shown from 2D in a tunneling methyl group and 14N in NH4ClO4.

  10. Unconventional Geometric Phase-Shift Gates Based on Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices Coupled to a Single-Mode Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ke-Hui; ZHOU Zheng-Wei; GUO Guang-Can

    2006-01-01

    We present a scheme to realize geometric phase-shift gate for two superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubits coupled to a single-mode microwave field. The geometric phase-shift gate operation is performed transitions during the gate operation. Thus, the docoherence due to energy spontaneous emission based on the levels of SQUIDs are suppressed. The gate is insensitive to the cavity decay throughout the operation since the cavity mode is displaced along a circle in the phase space, acquiring a phase conditional upon the two lower flux states of the SQUID qubits, and the cavity mode is still in the original vacuum state. Based on the SQUID qubits interacting with the cavity mode, our proposed approach may open promising prospects for quantum logic in SQUID-system.

  11. Radiation-damage-free quantum crystallography and resolution-enhanced x-ray imaging techniques using quantum multipath interference of thermal light

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zheng; Medvedev, Nikita; Wang, Fenglin; Chapman, Henry N; Shih, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Using higher order coherence of thermal light sources, we can achieve enhancement of resolution of standard x-ray imaging techniques, such as x-ray diffraction and phase contrast imaging. The cost of implementing such schemes is minimal comparing to the schemes using entangled two-photon pairs. The proposed diffractive quan- tum crystallography using multipath interference of thermal light can be eventually free of radiation damage, because the diffraction pattern could be formed by using low energy photons of optical wavelength. Thus it is promising to apply the proposed quantum crystallography scheme to nanocrystalline or non-crystalline samples that are too difficult to be crystallized.

  12. Spatially and spectrally resolved quantum path interference with chirped driving pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Preclíková, Jana; Lorek, Eleonora; Larsen, Esben Witting; Heyl, Christoph M; Paleček, David; Zigmantas, Donatas; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B; Mauritsson, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We measure spectrally and spatially resolved high-order harmonics generated in argon using chirped multi-cycle laser pulses. Using a very stable, high-repetition rate laser we are able to clearly observe the interference between light emitted from the two shortest trajectories and study this interference structure systematically. The interference structure is clearly observed over a large range of harmonic orders, ranging from harmonic 11, which is below the ionization threshold of argon, to harmonic 25. The interference pattern contains more information than just the relative phase of the light from the two trajectories, since it is both spatially and spectrally resolved. We can access this additional information by changing the chirp of the driving laser pulses which affects both the spatial and the spectral phases of the two trajectories differently, allowing us to reconstruct the dipole phase parameters for the short ($\\alpha_s$) and long ($\\alpha_l$) trajectories from the data. The reconstruction is done...

  13. Direct method for measuring and witnessing quantum entanglement of arbitrary two-qubit states through Hong-Ou-Mandel interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Chimczak, Grzegorz; Lemr, Karel

    2017-02-01

    We describe a direct method for experimental determination of the negativity of an arbitrary two-qubit state with 11 measurements performed on multiple copies of the two-qubit system. Our method is based on the experimentally accessible sequences of singlet projections performed on up to four qubit pairs. In particular, our method permits the application of the Peres-Horodecki separability criterion to an arbitrary two-qubit state. We explicitly demonstrate that measuring entanglement in terms of negativity requires three measurements more than detecting two-qubit entanglement. The reported minimal set of interferometric measurements provides a complete description of bipartite quantum entanglement in terms of two-photon interference. This set is smaller than the set of 15 measurements needed to perform a complete quantum state tomography of an arbitrary two-qubit system. Finally, we demonstrate that the set of nine Makhlin's invariants needed to express the negativity can be measured by performing 13 multicopy projections. We demonstrate both that these invariants are a useful theoretical concept for designing specialized quantum interferometers and that their direct measurement within the framework of linear optics does not require performing complete quantum state tomography.

  14. Holographic complexity in gauge/string superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Momeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Following a methodology similar to [1], we derive a holographic complexity for two dimensional holographic superconductors (gauge/string superconductors with backreactions. Applying a perturbation method proposed by Kanno in Ref. [2], we study behaviors of the complexity for a dual quantum system near critical points. We show that when a system moves from the normal phase (T>Tc to the superconductor phase (T

  15. Cooperative biexciton generation and destructive interference in coupled quantum dots using adiabatic rapid passage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, N.; Grozema, F.C.

    2014-01-01

    We report numerical simulations of biexciton generation in coupled quantum dots (CQDs) placed in a static electric field and excited by a chirped laser pulse. Our simulations explicitly account for exciton-phonon interactions at finite temperature using a non-Markovian quantum jump approach to solve

  16. Determining the in-plane Fermi surface topology in high T(c) superconductors using angle-dependent magnetic quantum oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, N; McDonald, R D

    2009-05-13

    We propose a quantum oscillation experiment by which the rotation of an underdoped YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6+x) sample about two different axes with respect to the orientation of the magnetic field can be used to infer the shape of the in-plane cross-section of corrugated Fermi surface cylinder(s). Deep corrugations in the Fermi surface are expected to give rise to nodes in the quantum oscillation amplitude that depend on the magnitude and orientation of the magnetic induction B. Because the symmetries of electron and hole cylinders within the Brillouin zone are expected to be very different, the topology can provide essential clues as to the broken symmetry responsible for the observed oscillations. The criterion for the applicability of this method to the cuprate superconductors (as well as other layered metals) is that the difference in quantum oscillation frequency 2ΔF between the maximum (belly) and minimum (neck) extremal cross-sections of the corrugated Fermi surface exceeds |B|.

  17. Conformation-driven quantum interference effects mediated by through-space conjugation in self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, Marco; Kovalchuk, Andrii; Wächter, Tobias; Qiu, Xinkai; Zharnikov, Michael; Chiechi, Ryan C.

    2016-12-01

    Tunnelling currents through tunnelling junctions comprising molecules with cross-conjugation are markedly lower than for their linearly conjugated analogues. This effect has been shown experimentally and theoretically to arise from destructive quantum interference, which is understood to be an intrinsic, electronic property of molecules. Here we show experimental evidence of conformation-driven interference effects by examining through-space conjugation in which π-conjugated fragments are arranged face-on or edge-on in sufficiently close proximity to interact through space. Observing these effects in the latter requires trapping molecules in a non-equilibrium conformation closely resembling the X-ray crystal structure, which we accomplish using self-assembled monolayers to construct bottom-up, large-area tunnelling junctions. In contrast, interference effects are completely absent in zero-bias simulations on the equilibrium, gas-phase conformation, establishing through-space conjugation as both of fundamental interest and as a potential tool for tuning tunnelling charge-transport in large-area, solid-state molecular-electronic devices.

  18. Kondo Resonance versus Fano Interference in Double Quantum Dots Coupled to a Two-Lead One-Ring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiong-Wen; SHI Zhen-Gang; CHEN Bao-Ju; SONG Ke-Hui

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the transport properties of a coupled double quantum dot (DQD) device with one of the dots (QD1) coupled to metallic leads and the other (QD2) embedded in an Aharonov-Bhom (A-B) ring by means of the slave-boson mean-Geld theory. It is found that in this system, the Kondo resonance and the Fano interference exist simultaneously, the enhancing Kondo effect and the increasing hopping of the QD2-Ring destroy the localized electron state in the QD2 for the QD1-leads, and accordingly, the Fano interference between the DQD-leads and the QD1-leads are suppressed. Under some conditions, the Fano interference can be quenched fully and the single Kondo resonance of the QD1-leads comes into being. Moreover, when the magnetic flux of the A-B ring is zero, the influence of the parity of the A-B ring on the transport properties is very weak, but this inSuence becomes more obvious with non-zero magnetic flux. Thus this model may be a candidate for future device applications.

  19. Coherent and correlated spin transport in nanoscale superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morten, Jan Petter

    2008-03-15

    Motivated by the desire for better understanding of nano electronic systems, we theoretically study the conductance and noise characteristics of current flow between superconductors, ferromagnets, and normal-metals. Such nano structures can reveal information about superconductor proximity effects, spin-relaxation processes, and spintronic effects with potential applications for different areas of mesoscopic physics. We employ the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity in the Keldysh formalism, and calculate the nonequilibrium transport of spin and charge using various approaches like the circuit theory of quantum transport and full counting statistics. For two of the studied structures, we have been able to compare our theory to experimental data and obtain good agreement. Transport and relaxation of spin polarized current in superconductors is governed by energy-dependent transport coefficients and spin-flip rates which are determined by quantum interference effects. We calculate the resulting temperature-dependent spin flow in ferromagnet-superconductor devices. Experimental data for spin accumulation and spin relaxation in a superconducting nano wire is in agreement with the theory, and allows for a spin-flip spectroscopy that determines the dominant mechanism for spin-flip relaxation in the studied samples. A ferromagnet precessing under resonance conditions can give rise to pure spin current injection into superconductors. We find that the absorbed spin current is measurable as a temperature dependent Gilbert damping, which we calculate and compare to experimental data. Crossed Andreev reflection denotes superconducting pairing of electrons flowing from different normal-metal or ferromagnet terminals into a superconductor. We calculate the nonlocal currents resulting from this process in competition with direct electron transport between the normal-metal terminals. We take dephasing into account, and study the nonlocal current when the types of contact in

  20. New method to simulate quantum interference using deterministic processes and application to event-based simulation of quantum computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; De Raedt, K.; Michielsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that networks of locally connected processing units with a primitive learning capability exhibit behavior that is usually only attributed to quantum systems. We describe networks that simulate single-photon beam-splitter and Mach-Zehnder interferometer experiments on a causal, event-b

  1. Anisotropy-Induced Quantum Interference and Population Trapping between Orthogonal Quantum Dot Exciton States in Semiconductor Cavity Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen; Agarwal, Girish S

    2017-02-10

    We describe how quantum dot semiconductor cavity systems can be engineered to realize anisotropy-induced dipole-dipole coupling between orthogonal dipole states in a single quantum dot. Quantum dots in single-mode cavity structures as well as photonic crystal waveguides coupled to spin states or linearly polarized excitons are considered. We demonstrate how the dipole-dipole coupling can control the radiative decay rate of excitons and form pure entangled states in the long time limit. We investigate both field-free entanglement evolution and coherently pumped exciton regimes, and show how a double-field pumping scenario can completely eliminate the decay of coherent Rabi oscillations and lead to population trapping. In the Mollow triplet regime, we explore the emitted spectra from the driven dipoles and show how a nonpumped dipole can take on the form of a spectral triplet, quintuplet, or a singlet, which has applications for producing subnatural linewidth single photons and more easily accessing regimes of high-field quantum optics and cavity-QED.

  2. Quantum interference and Kondo effects in an Aharonov-Bohm-Casher interferometer containing a laterally coupled double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, T.; Tokura, Y.; Tarucha, S.

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically investigate spin-dependent electron transport through an Aharonov-Bohm-Casher interferometer containing a laterally coupled double quantum dot. In particular, we numerically calculate the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher oscillations of the linear conductance in the Kondo regime. We show that the AC oscillation in the Kondo regime deviates from the sinusoidal form.

  3. Novel interference effects and a new quantum phase in mesoscopic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Singha Deo; A M Jayannavar

    2001-02-01

    Mesoscopic systems have provided an opportunity to study quantum effects beyond the atomic realm. In these systems quantum coherence prevails over the entire sample. We discuss several novel effects related to persistent currents in open systems which do not have analogues in closed systems. Some phenomena arising simultaneously due to two non-classical effects namely, Aharonov–Bohm effect and quantum tunneling are presented. Simple analysis of sharp phase jumps observed in double-slit Aharonov–Bohm experiments is given. Some consequences of parity violation are elaborated. Finally, we briefly describe the dephasing of Aharonov–Bohm oscillations in Aharonov–Bohm ring geometry due to spin-flip scattering in one of the arms. Several experimental manifestations of these phenomena and their applications are given.

  4. Experimental Study of Electronic Quantum Interference, Photonic Crystal Cavity, Photonic Band Edge Effects for Optical Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-26

    performed. 2.0 INTRODUCTION Three dimensional (3D) photonic crystals and their optical properties have attracted a lot of attention in the past decade... physical phenomena. The band gap frequency of this system can be varied to tailor to the electronic transition levels of a gain medium such as InAs...quantum dot or an InGaAs quantum well. The band gap can be varied in addition to include either one or two electronic levels of a multi-level system

  5. Quantum measurements are physical processes. Comment on "Consciousness and the double-slit interference pattern: Six experiments," By Dean Radin et al. [Physics Essays 25, 2 (2012)

    CERN Document Server

    de Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli

    2013-01-01

    The validity of the assertion that some recent double-slit interference experiments, conducted by Radin et al., would have tested the possible role of the experimenter's mind in the collapse of the quantum wave function, is questioned. It is emphasized that quantum mechanics doesn't need any psychophysical ingredient to explain the measurement processes, and therefore parapsychologists shouldn't resort to the latter to support the possibility of psychokinesis, but search for more convincing explanations.

  6. An integrated quantum photonic sensor based on Hong-Ou-Mandel interference

    CERN Document Server

    Basiri-Esfahani, Sahar; Armin, Ardalan; Combes, Joshua; Milburn, Gerard J

    2015-01-01

    Photonic-crystal-based integrated optical systems have been used for a broad range of sensing applications with great success. This has been motivated by several advantages such as high sensitivity, miniaturization, remote sensing, selectivity and stability. Many photonic crystal sensors have been proposed with various fabrication designs that result in improved optical properties. Here we propose a novel multi-purpose sensor architecture that can be used for force, refractive index and possibly local temperature detection. In this scheme, two coupled cavities behave as an "effective beam splitter". The sensor works based on fourth order interference (the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect) and requires a sequence of single photon pulses and consequently has low pulse power. Changes in the parameter to be measured induce variations in the effective beam splitter reflectivity and result in changes to the visibility of interference. We demonstrate this generic scheme in coupled L3 photonic crystal cavities as an example and...

  7. Play building blocks on population distribution of multilevel superconducting flux qubit with quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Xueda; Yu, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments on Landau-Zener interference in multilevel superconducting flux qubits revealed various interesting characteristics, which have been studied theoretically in our recent work by simply using rate equation method [PRB 79, 094529, (2009)]. In this note we extend this method to the same system but with larger driving amplitude and higher driving frequency. The results show various anomalous characteristics, some of which have been observed in a recent work.

  8. Quantum interferences in swift highly-charged dressed-ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, J M; Rivarola, R D [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avenida Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Fainstein, P D [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (RN) (Argentina)], E-mail: jmonti@ifir.edu.ar

    2008-10-28

    Ionization of He targets by impact of partially stripped nuclei is investigated. A unified theoretical model, based on the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state approximation, is employed to describe the appearance of structures in the experimental doubly differential spectra. These structures are interpreted in terms of coherent interference of short- and long-range contributions of the perturbative projectile potential. (fast track communication)

  9. Quantum transport in bilayer graphene. Fabry-Perot interferences and proximity-induced superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Renjun

    2015-10-30

    Bilayer graphene (BLG) p-n junctions made of hBN-BLG-hBN (hexagonal boron nitride) heterostructures enable ballistic transport over long distances. We investigate Fabry-Perot interferences, and detect that the bilayer-like anti-Klein tunneling transits into single-layer-like Klein tunneling when tuning the Fermi level towards the band edges. Furthermore, the proximity-induced superconductivity has been studied in these devices with Al leads.

  10. Measurement of gravitation-induced quantum interference for neutrons in a spin-echo spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, V.O.; Plomp, J.; Van Well, A.A.; Rekveldt, M.T.; Hasegawa, Y.H.; Dalgliesh, R.M.; Steinke, N.J.

    2014-01-01

    With a neutron spin-echo reflectometer (OffSpec at ISIS, UK) it is possible to measure the gravitation-induced quantum phase difference between the two spin states of the neutron wave function in a magnetic field. In the small-angle approximation, this phase depends linearly on the inclination angle

  11. Single-molecule phenyl-acetylene-macrocycle-based optoelectronic switch functioning as a quantum-interference-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liang-Yan; Rabitz, Herschel

    2012-11-02

    This work proposes a new type of optoelectronic switch, the phenyl-acetylene-macrocycle-based single-molecule transistor, which utilizes photon-assisted tunneling and destructive quantum interference. The analysis uses single-particle Green's functions along with Floquet theory. Without the optical field, phenyl-acetylene-macrocycle exhibits a wide range of strong antiresonance between its frontier orbitals. The simulations show large on-off ratios (over 10(4)) and measurable currents (~10(-11) A) enabled by photon-assisted tunneling in a weak optical field (~2 × 10(5) V/cm) and at a small source-drain voltage (~0.05 V). Field amplitude power scaling laws and a range of field intensities are given for operating one- and two-photon assisted tunneling in phenyl-acetylene-macrocycle-based single-molecule transistors. This development opens up a new direction for creating molecular switches.

  12. High critical temperature superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer with feedforward active noise control system for magnetocardiographic measurement in unshielded circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizukami, A.; Nishiura, H.; Sakuta, K.; Kobayashi, T

    2003-10-15

    Magnetocardiographic (MCG) measurement in unshielded environment for practical use requires to suppress the environmental magnetic noise. We have designed the high critical temperature superconducting quantum interference device (High-T{sub c} SQUID) magnetometer with feedforward active noise control (ANC) system to suppress the environmental magnetic noise. The compensatory system consisted of two SQUID magnetometers, a digital signal processor (DSP) and the coil wound around the input magnetometer. The DSP calculated the output data to minimize the environmental noise from the input and reference date and then the coil generated the magnetic field to cancel the environmental noise. This method achieved the effective noise attenuation below 100 Hz about 40 dB. MCG measurement in unshielded environment was also performed.

  13. Magnetic gradiometer based on a high-transition temperaturesuperconducting quantum interference device for improved sensitivity of abiosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, SeungKyun; Myers, W.R.; Grossman, H.L.; Cho, H-M.; Chemla,Y.R.; Clarke, John

    2002-07-08

    We describe a gradiometer based on a high-transition temperature Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) for improving the sensitivity of a SQUID-based biosensor. The first-derivative gradiometer, fabricated from a single layer of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}, has a baseline of 480 {micro}m and a balance against uniform fields of 1 part in 150. Used in our SQUID ''microscope,'' it reduces parasitic magnetic fields generated by the measurement process to the level of the SQUID noise. The gradiometer-based microscope is two orders of magnitude more sensitive to super paramagnetic nanoparticles bound to biological targets than our earlier magnetometer-based microscope.

  14. Quantum interference effects on the probe amplification without and with inversion in a four-level system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Bing; Xu Wei-Hua; Zhang Hui-Fang; Gao Jin-Yue

    2004-01-01

    A four-level system driven by two coherent fields is considered. It is shown that in the presence of an incoherent pump, the probe gain at a short wavelength can be achieved due to the quantum interference. Our density matrix calculation provides the conditions for probe amplification from different origins, including gain without population inversion on any state basis, gain with population inversion on the dressed-state basis, and gain with population inversion on the bare-state basis. Also, by controlling the Rabi frequency of the coupling field a total change from non-inversion to inversion can be achieved which does not depend on the intensity of the incoherent pump.

  15. Superconductor Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, Stephen E.; Burlone, Dominick A.; Morgan; Carol W.

    1999-02-02

    A superconducting conductor fabricated from a plurality of wires, e.g., fine silver wires, coated with a superconducting powder. A process of applying superconducting powders to such wires, to the resulting coated wires and superconductors produced therefrom.

  16. Modified Entropic Gravitation in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Clovis Jacinto

    2011-01-01

    Verlinde recently developed a theoretical account of gravitation in terms of an entropic force. The central element in Verlinde's derivation is information and its relation with entropy through the holographic principle. The application of this approach to the case of superconductors requires to take into account that information associated with superconductor's quantum vacuum energy is not stored on Planck size surface elements, but in four volume cells with Planck-Einstein size. This has profound consequences on the type of gravitational force generated by the quantum vacuum condensate in superconductors, which is closely related with the cosmological repulsive acceleration responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Remarkably this new gravitational type force depends on the level of breaking of the weak equivalence principle for cooper pairs in a given superconducting material, which was previously derived by the author starting from similar principles. It is also shown that this new gravit...

  17. STRONG CORRELATIONS AND ELECTRON-PHONON COUPLING IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS - A QUANTUM MONTE-CARLO STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MORGENSTERN, [No Value; FRICK, M; VONDERLINDEN, W

    1992-01-01

    We present quantum simulation studies for a system of strongly correlated fermions coupled to local anharmonic phonons. The Monte Carlo calculations are based on a generalized version of the Projector Quantum Monte Carlo Method allowing a simultaneous treatment of fermions and dynamical phonons. The

  18. Quantum Interference between a Single-Photon Fock State and a Coherent State

    CERN Document Server

    Windhager, Armin; Pacher, Christoph; Peev, Momtchil; Poppe, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the single mode quantum field state at the individual output ports of a beam splitter when a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state are incident on the input ports. The output states turn out to be a statistical mixture between a displaced Fock state and a coherent state. Consequently we are able to find an analytical expression for the corresponding Wigner function. Because of the generality of our calculations the obtained results are valid for all passive and lossless optical four port devices. We show further how the results can be adapted to the case of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition we consider the case for which the single-photon Fock state is replaced with a general input state: a coherent input state displaces each general quantum state at the output port of a beam splitter with the displacement parameter being the amplitude of the coherent state.

  19. Quantum interference between a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhager, A.; Suda, M.; Pacher, C.; Peev, M.; Poppe, A.

    2011-04-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the single mode quantum field state at the individual output ports of a beam splitter when a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state are incident on the input ports. The output states turn out to be a statistical mixture between a displaced Fock state and a coherent state. Consequently we are able to find an analytical expression for the corresponding Wigner function. Because of the generality of our calculations the obtained results are valid for all passive and lossless optical four port devices. We show further how the results can be adapted to the case of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition we consider the case for which the single-photon Fock state is replaced with a general input state: a coherent input state displaces each general quantum state at the output port of a beam splitter with the displacement parameter being the amplitude of the coherent state.

  20. Quantum Interference of Surface States in Bismuth Nanowires in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, L. A.; Huber, T. E.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Burceacov, L. A.

    2013-06-01

    We report the results of studies of the magnetoresistance (MR) and electric field effect (EFE) of single-crystal Bi nanowires with diameter dMurakami, bismuth bilayers can exhibit the quantum spin Hall effect. A Bi crystal can be viewed as a stacking of bilayers with a honeycomblike lattice structure along the [111] direction. An interpretation of transverse MR oscillations with using this theory is presented.

  1. Quantum Interference in Spontaneous Emission from a V-Type Three-Level Atom in a Two-Band Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ya-Ping; Chen Hong; ZHU Shi-Yao

    2000-01-01

    The spontaneous emission from a V-type three-level atom embedded in a two-band photonic crystal is studied.Due to the quantum interference between the two transitions and existence of two bands, the populations in the upper levels display some novel behavior: anti-trapping, population oscillation, and population inversion.

  2. Quantum interference and radiative coupling in two-atom single-photon emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, G.; Ben-Reuven, A.

    1985-10-01

    The recent experiment by Grangier, Aspect, and Vigue on interference in the emission from fragments of electronically photodissociated molecules is treated as a special case of cooperative fluorescence (CF) from products of various molecular processes. This treatment relates time-resolved features of the CF to characteristics (such as orbital symmetry) of the dissociating parent molecule (PM), suggests various PM state preparations (including formation of subradiant states), and discusses the persistence of CF in systems of nonidentical fragments. The diagnostic potentialities of such studies are emphasized.

  3. Quantum interferences in single ionization of He by highly charged dressed-ions impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, J M; Rivarola, R D [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Fainstein, P D, E-mail: rivarola@fceia.unr.edu.ar [Comision Nacional de EnergIa Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2011-06-15

    Ionization of He targets by impact of partially stripped ions is investigated by means of an extension to the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state model with a particular representation of the projectile potential. Structures appearing superimposed on the binary encounter peak are interpreted in terms of coherent interference of short- and long-range contributions of the perturbative projectile potential. The case of 600 keV u{sup -1}Au{sup 11+} ions impinging on He is presented and discussed.

  4. Nonlinear optical spectra having characteristics of Fano interferences in coherently coupled lowest exciton biexciton states in semiconductor quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Gotoh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical nonlinear effects are examined using a two-color micro-photoluminescence (micro-PL method in a coherently coupled exciton-biexciton system in a single quantum dot (QD. PL and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (PLE are employed to measure the absorption spectra of the exciton and biexciton states. PLE for Stokes and anti-Stokes PL enables us to clarify the nonlinear optical absorption properties in the lowest exciton and biexciton states. The nonlinear absorption spectra for excitons exhibit asymmetric shapes with peak and dip structures, and provide a distinct contrast to the symmetric dip structures of conventional nonlinear spectra. Theoretical analyses with a density matrix method indicate that the nonlinear spectra are caused not by a simple coherent interaction between the exciton and biexciton states but by coupling effects among exciton, biexciton and continuum states. These results indicate that Fano quantum interference effects appear in exciton-biexciton systems at QDs and offer important insights into their physics.

  5. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-01

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  6. Destructive quantum interference in electron transport: A reconciliation of the molecular orbital and the atomic orbital perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Geskin, Victor; Stadler, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Destructive quantum interference (DQI) in single molecule electronics is a purely quantum mechanical effect and is entirely defined by the inherent properties of the molecule in the junction such as its structure and symmetry. This definition of DQI by molecular properties alone suggests its relation to other more general concepts in chemistry as well as the possibility of deriving simple models for its understanding and molecular device design. Recently, two such models have gained a wide spread attention, where one was a graphical scheme based on visually inspecting the connectivity of the carbon sites in conjugated π systems in an atomic orbital (AO) basis and the other one puts the emphasis on the amplitudes and signs of the frontier molecular orbitals (MOs). There have been discussions on the range of applicability for these schemes, but ultimately conclusions from topological molecular Hamiltonians should not depend on whether they are drawn from an AO or a MO representation, as long as all the orbitals are taken into account. In this article, we clarify the relation between both models in terms of the zeroth order Green's function and compare their predictions for a variety of systems. From this comparison, we conclude that for a correct description of DQI from a MO perspective, it is necessary to include the contributions from all MOs rather than just those from the frontier orbitals. The cases where DQI effects can be successfully predicted within a frontier orbital approximation we show them to be limited to alternant even-membered hydrocarbons, as a direct consequence of the Coulson-Rushbrooke pairing theorem in quantum chemistry.

  7. Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices for the Detection of Magnetic Flux and Application to Airborne High Frequency Direction Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    initial value problem L-C inductor -capacitor MATLAB Matrix Laboratory MHz megahertz MRI magnetic resonance imaging NDE non-destructive examination ODE...theory of operation ( Type I and Type II superconductors), by critical temperature (high and low temperature superconductors), or by the material itself...superconducting research is focused on critical temperatures below 77 K. There are several material types that are used for this temperature range with Niobium as

  8. Quantum Interference between a Single-Photon Fock State and a Coherent State

    OpenAIRE

    Windhager, Armin; Suda, Martin; Pacher, Christoph; Peev, Momtchil; Poppe, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the single mode quantum field state at the individual output ports of a beam splitter when a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state are incident on the input ports. The output states turn out to be a statistical mixture between a displaced Fock state and a coherent state. Consequently we are able to find an analytical expression for the corresponding Wigner function. Because of the generality of our calculations the obtained results are valid for al...

  9. Quantum phase transitions and phase diagram for a one-dimensional p-wave superconductor with an incommensurate potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X

    2014-04-16

    The effect of the incommensurate potential is studied for the one-dimensional p-wave superconductor. It is determined by analyzing various properties, such as the superconducting gap, the long-range order of the correlation function, the inverse participation ratio and the Z2 topological invariant, etc. In particular, two important aspects of the effect are investigated: (1) as disorder, the incommensurate potential destroys the superconductivity and drives the system into the Anderson localized phase; (2) as a quasi-periodic potential, the incommensurate potential causes band splitting and turns the system with certain chemical potential into the band insulator phase. A full phase diagram is also presented in the chemical potential-incommensurate potential strength plane.

  10. Mesoscopic quantum interference experiments in InGaAs and GaAs two-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shaola

    The study of quantum interference in solid-state systems yields insight in fundamental properties of mesoscopic systems. Electron quantum interference constitutes an important method to explore mesoscopic physics and quantum decoherence. This dissertation focuses on two-dimensional (2D) electron systems in delta-Si doped n-type In0:64Ga0:36As/In 0:45Al0:55As, 2D hole systems in Si-doped p-type GaAs/Al 0:35Ga0:65As and C-doped p-type GaAs/Al0:24Ga 0:76As heterostructures. The low temperature experiments study the magnetotransport of nano- and micro-scale lithographically defined devices fabricated on the heterostructures. These devices include a single ring interferometer and a ring interferometer array in 2D electron system, Hall bar geometries and narrow wires in 2D hole systems. The single ring interferometer yields pronounced Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations with magnetic flux periodicity of h/e over a wide range of magnetic field. The periodicity was confirmed by Fourier transformation of the oscillations. The AB oscillation amplitude shows a quasi-periodic modulation over applied magnetic field due to local magnetic flux threading through the interferometer arms. Further study of current and temperature dependence of the amplitude of the oscillations indicates that the Thouless energy forms the measure of excitation energies giving quantum decoherence. An in-plane magnetic field was applied to the single ring interferometer to study the Berry's phase and the Aharonov-Casher effect. The ring interferometer array yields both AB oscillations and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) oscillations, the latter with magnetic flux periodicity of h/2e. The AAS oscillations require time-reversal symmetry and hence can be used to qualify time-reversal symmetry breaking. More importantly, the fundamental mesoscopic dephasing length associated with time-reversal symmetry breaking under applied magnetic field, an effective magnetic length, can be obtained by the analysis of the AAS

  11. Super quantum probabilities and three-slit experiments—Wright's pentagon state and the Popescu-Rohrlich box require third-order interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niestegge, Gerd

    2014-04-01

    Quantum probabilities differ from classical ones in many ways, e.g. by violating the well-known Bell and Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities or another simple inequality due to R Wright. The latter has recently regained attention because of its equivalence to a novel noncontextual inequality by Klyachko et al. On the other hand, quantum probabilities still obey many limitations which need not hold in more general probabilistic theories (super quantum probabilities). Wright, Popescu and Rohrlich identified states which are included in such theories, but impossible in quantum mechanics, and they showed this using the Hilbert space formalism. Recently, Fritz et al and Cabello detected that the impossibility of these states can be derived from very general principles (local orthogonality and global exclusive disjunction, respectively) without using Hilbert space techniques. In the paper, an alternative derivation from rather different physical principles will be presented. These are a reasonable calculus of conditional probability (i.e. a model for the quantum measurement process) and the absence of third-order interference. The concept of third-order interference was introduced by Sorkin, who also recognized its impossibility in quantum mechanics.

  12. Possible latitude effects of Chern-Simons gravity on quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Okawara, Hiroki; Asada, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    It has been recently suggested that possible effects of Chern-Simons gravity on a quantum interferometer are dependent on the latitude and direction of the interferometer on Earth in orbital motion around Sun. Continuing work initiated in the earlier publication [Okawara, Yamada and Asada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 231101 (2012)], we perform numerical calculations of time variation in the induced phase shifts for nonequatorial cases. We show that the maximum phase shift at any latitude might occur at 6, 0 (and 12), and 18 hours (in local time) of each day, when the normal vector to the interferometer is vertical, eastbound and northbound, respectively. If two identical interferometers were located at different latitudes, the difference between two phase shifts that are measured at the same local time would be $O(\\sin \\delta\\varphi)$ for a small latitude difference $\\delta\\varphi$. It might thus become maximally $\\sim 20$ percents for $\\delta\\varphi \\sim 10$ degrees, for instance.

  13. Quantum interference effects in a multidriven transition Fg = 3 (←→) Fe= 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Ya-Bin; Zhang Jun-Xiang; Wang Hai-Hong; Gao Jiang-Rui

    2006-01-01

    We have theoretically and experimentally studied the quantum coherence effects of a degenerate transition Fg =3 (←→)Fe = 2 system interacting with a weak linearly polarized (with σ± components) probe light and a strong linearly polarized (with σ± components) coupling field. Due to the competition between the drive Rabi frequency and the Zeeman splitting, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA)are present at the different values of applied magnetic field in the case where the Zeeman splitting of excited state △e is larger than the Zeeman splitting of ground state △g (i.e. △e >△g).

  14. Quasiparticle spin relaxation with superconducting velocity-tunable state in GaAs(100) quantum wells in proximity to s -wave superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T.; Wu, M. W.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the quasiparticle spin relaxation with superconducting-velocity-tunable state in GaAs (100) quantum wells in proximity to an s -wave superconductor. We first present the influence of the supercurrent on the quasiparticle state in GaAs (100) quantum wells, which can be tuned by the superconducting velocity. Rich features such as the suppressed Cooper pairings, large quasiparticle density and nonmonotonically tunable momentum current can be realized by varying the superconducting velocity. In the degenerate regime, the quasiparticle Fermi surface is composed by two arcs, referred to as Fermi arcs, which are contributed by the electron- and holelike branches. The D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation is then explored, and intriguing physics is revealed when the Fermi arc emerges. Specifically, when the order parameter tends to zero, it is found that the branch-mixing scattering is forbidden in the quasielectron band. When the condensation process associated with the annihilation of the quasielectron and quasihole is slow, this indicates that the electron- and holelike Fermi arcs in the quasielectron band are independent. The open structure of the Fermi arc leads to the nonzero angular average of the effective magnetic field due to the spin-orbit coupling, which acts as an effective Zeeman field. This Zeeman field leads to spin oscillations even in the strong-scattering regime. Moreover, in the strong-scattering regime, we show that the open structure of the Fermi arc also leads to the insensitiveness of the spin relaxation to the momentum scattering, in contrast to the conventional motional narrowing situation. Nevertheless, with a finite order parameter, the branch-mixing scattering can be triggered, opening the interbranch spin relaxation channel, which is dominant in the strong-scattering regime. In contrast to the situation with an extremely small order parameter, due to the interbranch channel, the spin oscillations vanish and the spin relaxation

  15. Quantum interferences induced by multiple scattering paths of the electron prior to emission in large molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agueny, H.; Makhoute, A.; Tökési, K.; Dubois, A.; Hansen, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    We theoretically investigate electron emission process from a dimer generated by swift highly charged ions. The process under consideration is dealt with a non-perturbative approach by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation on a two-dimensional spatial grid. Numerical calculations show rich structures related to the multiple scattering paths of the electron prior to emission. This manifests by the emergence of additional oscillations with high-frequency superimposed on the Young-type oscillatory structure in the observed electron-ejected spectrum. This is not the case when calculations are performed based on the superposition principle, in which the final wave function is just a coherent sum of component wave functions described the electron emission from two-independent atoms. Within this assumption, only a direct electron emission process is taken into account. We find that contributions arising from these multiple scattering paths modify the dynamic electron emission process, and therefore, show the incorrect applicability of the above-mentioned principle, in concordance with the recent findings based on a simple three-slit interference experiment, reported in Sawant et al. (2014).

  16. Superconducting instabilities and quasipartical interference in the LiFeAs and Co-doped NaFeAs iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenfeld, Dustin; Ahn, Felix; Eremin, Ilya [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Borisenko, Sergey [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State Research, IFW-Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We analyze and compare the structure of the pairing interaction and superconducting gaps in LiFeAs and Co-doped NaFeAs by using the ten-orbital tight-binding model, derived from ab initio LDA calculations with hopping parameters extracted from the fit to ARPES experiments. We discuss the phase diagram and experimental probes to determine the structure of the superconducting gap in these systems with special emphasis on the quasiparticle interference, computed using the T-matrix approximation. In particular, we analyze how the superconducting state with opposite sign of the gaps on the two inner hole pockets in LiFeAs evolve upon changing the parameters towards NaFeAs compound.

  17. Potential aerospace applications of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Raouf

    1994-01-01

    The recent discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) with superconducting transition temperature, T(sub c), above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has opened the door for using these materials in new and practical applications. These materials have zero resistance to electric current, have the capability of carrying large currents and as such have the potential to be used in high magnetic field applications. One of the space applications that can use superconductors is electromagnetic launch of payloads to low-earth-orbit. An electromagnetic gun-type launcher can be used in small payload systems that are launched at very high velocity, while sled-type magnetically levitated launcher can be used to launch larger payloads at smaller velocities. Both types of launchers are being studied by NASA and the aerospace industry. The use of superconductors will be essential in any of these types of launchers in order to produce the large magnetic fields required to obtain large thrust forces. Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) technology is mature enough and can be easily integrated in such systems. As for the HTS, many leading companies are currently producing HTS coils and magnets that potentially can be mass-produced for these launchers. It seems that designing and building a small-scale electromagnetic launcher is the next logical step toward seriously considering this method for launching payloads into low-earth-orbit. A second potential application is the use of HTS to build sensitive portable devices for the use in Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) are the most sensitive instruments for measuring changes in magnetic flux. By using HTS in SQUID's, one will be able to design a portable unit that uses liquid nitrogen or a cryocooler pump to explore the use of gradiometers or magnetometers to detect deep cracks or corrosion in structures. A third use is the replacement of Infra-Red (IR) sensor leads on

  18. Quantum mechanics and the second law of thermodynamics: an insight gleaned from magnetic hysteresis in the first order phase transition of an isolated mesoscopic-size type I superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Peter D.

    2012-11-01

    J Bardeen proposed that the adiabatic phase transition of mesoscopic-size type I superconductors must be accompanied by magnetic hysteresis in the critical magnetic field of sufficient magnitude to satisfy the second law of thermodynamics, herein referred to as ‘Bardeen Hysteresis’. Bardeen Hysteresis remains speculative in that it has not been reported in the literature. This paper investigates Bardeen Hysteresis as a possible accompaniment to the adiabatic phase transition of isolated mesoscopic-size type I superconductors and its implications with respect to the second law of thermodynamics. A causal mechanism for Bardeen Hysteresis is discussed which contrasts with the long accepted causal mechanism of magnetic hysteresis, as first summarized by Pippard, herein referred to as ‘Pippard Hysteresis’. The paper offers guidance for an experimental verification and comments on how the existence of Bardeen Hysteresis has relation to a quantum mechanical basis for the second law of thermodynamics.

  19. Search for Majorana fermions in topological superconductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shi, Xiaoyan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hawkins, Samuel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klem, John Frederick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this project is to search for Majorana fermions (a new quantum particle) in a topological superconductor (a new quantum matter achieved in a topological insulator proximitized by an s-wave superconductor). Majorana fermions (MFs) are electron-like particles that are their own anti-particles. MFs are shown to obey non-Abelian statistics and, thus, can be harnessed to make a fault-resistant topological quantum computer. With the arrival of topological insulators, novel schemes to create MFs have been proposed in hybrid systems by combining a topological insulator with a conventional superconductor. In this LDRD project, we will follow the theoretical proposals to search for MFs in one-dimensional (1D) topological superconductors. 1D topological superconductor will be created inside of a quantum point contact (with the metal pinch-off gates made of conventional s-wave superconductors such as niobium) in a two-dimensional topological insulator (such as inverted type-II InAs/GaSb heterostructure).

  20. Achieving the Han-Kobayashi inner bound for the quantum interference channel by sequential decoding

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Pranab

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the power of sequential decoding strategies for several channels with classical input and quantum output. In our sequential decoding strategies, the receiver loops through all candidate messages trying to project the received state onto a `typical' subspace for the candidate message under consideration, stopping if the projection succeeds for a message, which is then declared as the guess of the receiver for the sent message. We show that even such a conceptually simple strategy can be used to achieve rates up to the mutual information for a single sender single receiver channel called cq-channel henceforth, as well as the standard inner bound for a two sender single receiver multiple access channel, called ccq-MAC in this paper. Our decoding scheme for the ccq-MAC uses a new kind of conditionally typical projector which is constructed using a geometric result about how two subspaces interact structurally. As the main application of our methods, we construct an encoding and decoding sc...

  1. Quantum interference effects in topological nanowires in a longitudinal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacksteder, Vincent E.; Wu, Quansheng

    2016-11-01

    We study the magnetoconductance of topological insulator nanowires in a longitudinal magnetic field, including Aharonov-Bohm, Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak, perfectly conducting channel, and universal conductance fluctuation effects. Our focus is on predicting experimental behavior in single wires in the quantum limit where temperature is reduced to zero. We show that changing the Fermi energy EF can tune a wire from from ballistic to diffusive conduction and to localization. In both ballistic and diffusive single wires we find both Aharonov-Bohm and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations with similar strengths, accompanied by quite strong universal conductance fluctuations, all with amplitudes between 0.3 G0 and 1 G0 . This contrasts strongly with the average behavior of many wires, which shows Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the ballistic regime and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations in the diffusive regime, with both oscillations substantially larger than the conductance fluctuations. In single wires the ballistic and diffusive regimes can be distinguished by varying EF and studying the sign of the Aharonov-Bohm signal, which depends periodically on EF in ballistic wires and randomly on EF in diffusive wires. We also show that in long wires the perfectly conducting channel is visible at a wide range of energies within the bulk gap. We present typical conductance profiles at several wire lengths, showing that conductance fluctuations can dominate the average signal. Similar behavior will be found in carbon nanotubes.

  2. Andreev Spectra and Subgap Bound States in Multiband Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Golubov, A. A.; Brinkman, A.; Tanaka, Yukio; Mazin, I.I.; Dolgov, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    The theory of Andreev conductance is formulated for junctions involving normal metals (N) and multiband superconductors (S) and applied to the case of superconductors with nodeless extended $s_{\\pm}$-wave order parameter symmetry, as possibly realized in the recently discovered ferro pnictides. We find qualitative differences from tunneling into s-wave or d-wave superconductors that may help to identify such a state. First, interband interference leads to a suppression of Andreev reflection i...

  3. Superconductor cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Arnaud; Schmidt, Frank; Marzahn, Erik

    2010-05-04

    A superconductor cable is described, having a superconductive flexible cable core (1) , which is laid in a cryostat (2, 3, 4), in which the cable core (1) runs in the cryostat (2, 3, 4) in the form of a wave or helix at room temperature.

  4. Fermi energy dependence of first- and second-order Raman spectra in graphene: Kohn anomaly and quantum interference effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasdeo, Eddwi H.; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Saito, Riichiro

    2016-08-01

    Intensities of the first- and the second-order Raman spectra are calculated as a function of the Fermi energy. We show that the Kohn anomaly effect, i.e., phonon frequency renormalization, in the first-order Raman spectra originates from the phonon renormalization by the interband electron-hole excitation, whereas in the second-order Raman spectra, a competition between the interband and intraband electron-hole excitations takes place. By this calculation, we confirm the presence of different dispersive behaviors of the Raman peak frequency as a function of the Fermi energy for the first- and the second-order Raman spectra, as observed in some previous experiments. Moreover, the calculated results of the Raman intensity sensitively depend on the Fermi energy for both the first- and the second-order Raman spectra, indicating the presence of the quantum interference effect. The electron-phonon matrix element plays an important role in the intensity increase (decrease) of the combination (overtone) phonon modes as a function of the Fermi energy.

  5. Magnetic measurements at pressures above 10 GPa in a miniature ceramic anvil cell for a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateiwa, Naoyuki; Haga, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Tatsuma D; Fisk, Zachary

    2012-05-01

    A miniature ceramic anvil high pressure cell (mCAC) was earlier designed by us for magnetic measurements at pressures up to 7.6 GPa in a commercial superconducting quantum interference magnetometer [N. Tateiwa et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053906 (2011)]. Here, we describe methods to generate pressures above 10 GPa in the mCAC. The efficiency of the pressure generation is sharply improved when the Cu-Be gasket is sufficiently preindented. The maximum pressure for the 0.6 mm culet anvils is 12.6 GPa when the Cu-Be gasket is preindented from the initial thickness of 300-60 μm. The 0.5 mm culet anvils were also tested with a rhenium gasket. The maximum pressure attainable in the mCAC is about 13 GPa. The present cell was used to study YbCu(2)Si(2) which shows a pressure induced transition from the non-magnetic to magnetic phases at 8 GPa. We confirm a ferromagnetic transition from the dc magnetization measurement at high pressure. The mCAC can detect the ferromagnetic ordered state whose spontaneous magnetic moment is smaller than 1 μ(B) per unit cell. The high sensitivity for magnetic measurements in the mCAC may result from the simplicity of cell structure. The present study shows the availability of the mCAC for precise magnetic measurements at pressures above 10 GPa.

  6. A High-Performance Nb Nano-Superconducting Quantum Interference Device with a Three-Dimensional Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Hao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Long; Wang, Zhen

    2016-12-14

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) miniaturized into the nanoscale is promising in the inductive detection of a single electron spin. A nano-SQUID with a strong spin coupling coefficient, a low flux noise, and a wide working magnetic field range is highly desired in a single spin resonance measurement. Nano-SQUIDs with Dayem bridge junctions excel in a high working field range and in the direct coupling from spins to the bridge. However, the common planar structure of nano-SQUIDs is known for problems such as a shallow flux modulation depth and a troublesome hysteresis in current-voltage curves. Here, we developed a fabrication process for creating three-dimensional (3-D) niobium (Nb) nano-SQUIDs with nanobridge junctions that can be tuned independently. Characterization of the device shows up to 45.9% modulation depth with a reversible current-voltage curve. Owning to the large modulation depth, the measured flux noise is as low as 0.34 μΦ0/Hz(1/2). The working field range of the SQUID is greater than 0.5 T parallel to the SQUID plane. We believe that 3-D Nb nano-SQUIDs provide a promising step toward effective single-spin inductive detection.

  7. Quantum interferences revealed by neutron diffraction accord with a macroscopic-scale quantum-theory of ferroelectrics KH2(1- ρ)D2 ρ PO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillaux, François; Cousson, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Neutron diffraction by single-crystals KH2(1- ρ)D2 ρ PO4 at 293 K reveal quantum interferences consistent with a static lattice of entangled proton-deuteron scatterers. These crystals are represented by a macroscopic-scale condensate of phonons with continuous space-time-translation symmetry and zero-entropy. This state is energetically favored and decoherence-free over a wide temperature-range. Projection of the crystal state onto a basis of four electrically- and isotopically-distinct state-vectors accounts for isotope and pressure effects on the temperature of the ferroelectric-dielectric transition, as well as for the latent heat. At the microscopic level, an incoming wave realizes a transitory state either in the space of static positional parameters (elastic scattering) or in that of the symmetry species (energy transfer). Neutron diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, relaxometry and neutron Compton scattering support the conclusion that proton and deuteron scatterers are separable exclusively through resonant energy-transfer.

  8. Transport and quantum interference in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As nanostructures; Transportuntersuchungen von Quanteninterferenzeffekten in ferromagnetischen (Ga,Mn)As Nanostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Konrad

    2007-09-15

    In the framework of the thesis presented here for the first time quantum interference effects in ferromagnetic semiconductors could be uniquely detected. For this wire and ring structures with line widths of few nanometers were fabricated and universal conductivity fluctuations and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations at very low temperatures (<20 mK) were studied. From the analysis of the temperature and length dependence of the fluctuations knowledge about the coherence length and the scattering processes connected with this could be obtained.

  9. Majorana Fermions and Topology in Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Topological superconductors are novel classes of quantum condensed phases, characterized by topologically nontrivial structures of Cooper pairing states. On the surfaces of samples and in vortex cores of topological superconductors, Majorana fermions, which are particles identified with their own anti-particles, appear as Bogoliubov quasiparticles. The existence and stability of Majorana fermions are ensured by bulk topological invariants constrained by the symmetries of the systems. Majorana...

  10. Superconductor Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gömöry, F

    2014-01-01

    Superconductors used in magnet technology could carry extreme currents because of their ability to keep the magnetic flux motionless. The dynamics of the magnetic flux interaction with superconductors is controlled by this property. The cases of electrical transport in a round wire and the magnetization of wires of various shapes (circular, elliptical, plate) in an external magnetic field are analysed. Resistance to the magnetic field penetration means that the field produced by the superconducting magnet is no longer proportional to the supplied current. It also leads to a dissipation of electromagnetic energy. In conductors with unequal transverse dimensions, such as flat cables, the orientation with respect to the magnetic field plays an essential role. A reduction of magnetization currents can be achieved by splitting the core of a superconducting wire into fine filaments; however, new kinds of electrical currents that couple the filaments consequently appear. Basic formulas allowing qualitative analyses ...

  11. Iron-Based Superconductors as Odd-Parity Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Parity is a fundamental quantum number used to classify a state of matter. Materials rarely possess ground states with odd parity. We show that the superconducting state in iron-based superconductors is classified as an odd-parity s-wave spin-singlet pairing state in a single trilayer FeAs/Se, the building block of the materials. In a low-energy effective model constructed on the Fe square bipartite lattice, the superconducting order parameter in this state is a combination of an s-wave normal pairing between two sublattices and an s-wave η pairing within the sublattices. The state has a fingerprint with a real-space sign inversion between the top and bottom As/Se layers. The results suggest that iron-based superconductors are a new quantum state of matter, and the measurement of the odd parity can help to establish high-temperature superconducting mechanisms.

  12. Miniature ceramic-anvil high-pressure cell for magnetic measurements in a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateiwa, Naoyuki; Haga, Yoshinori; Fisk, Zachary; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2011-05-01

    A miniature opposed-anvil high-pressure cell has been developed for magnetic measurement in a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. Non-magnetic anvils made of composite ceramic material were used to generate high-pressure with a Cu-Be gasket. We have examined anvils with different culet sizes (1.8, 1.6, 1.4, 1.2, 1.0, 0.8, and 0.6 mm). The pressure generated at low temperature was determined by the pressure dependence of the superconducting transition of lead (Pb). The maximum pressure P(max) depends on the culet size of the anvil: the values of P(max) are 2.4 and 7.6 GPa for 1.8 and 0.6 mm culet anvils, respectively. We revealed that the composite ceramic anvil has potential to generate high-pressure above 5 GPa. The background magnetization of the Cu-Be gasket is generally two orders of magnitude smaller than the Ni-Cr-Al gasket for the indenter cell. The present cell can be used not only with ferromagnetic and superconducting materials with large magnetization but also with antiferromagnetic compounds with smaller magnetization. The production cost of the present pressure cell is about one tenth of that of a diamond anvil cell. The anvil alignment mechanism is not necessary in the present pressure cell because of the strong fracture toughness (6.5 MPa m(1∕2)) of the composite ceramic anvil. The simplified pressure cell is easy-to-use for researchers who are not familiar with high-pressure technology. Representative results on the magnetization of superconducting MgB(2) and antiferromagnet CePd(5)Al(2) are reported.

  13. Two-particle excitations in the Hubbard model for high-temperature superconductors. A quantum cluster study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, Sascha

    2009-02-26

    Two-particle excitations, such as spin and charge excitations, play a key role in high-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors (HTSC). Due to the antiferromagnetism of the parent compound the magnetic excitations are supposed to be directly related to the mechanism of superconductivity. In particular, the so-called resonance mode is a promising candidate for the pairing glue, a bosonic excitation mediating the electronic pairing. In addition, its interactions with itinerant electrons may be responsible for some of the observed properties of HTSC. Hence, getting to the bottom of the resonance mode is crucial for a deeper understanding of the cuprate materials. To analyze the corresponding two-particle correlation functions we develop in the present thesis a new, non-perturbative and parameter-free technique for T=0 which is based on the Variational Cluster Approach (VCA, an embedded cluster method for one-particle Green's functions). Guided by the spirit of the VCA we extract an effective electron-hole vertex from an isolated cluster and use a fully renormalized bubble susceptibility {chi}{sub 0} including the VCA one-particle propagators. Within our new approach, the magnetic excitations of HTSC are shown to be reproduced for the Hubbard model within the relevant strong-coupling regime. Exceptionally, the famous resonance mode occurring in the underdoped regime within the superconductivity-induced gap of spin-flip electron-hole excitations is obtained. Its intensity and hourglass dispersion are in good overall agreement with experiments. Furthermore, characteristic features such as the position in energy of the resonance mode and the difference of the imaginary part of the susceptibility in the superconducting and the normal states are in accord with Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) experiments. For the first time, a strongly-correlated parameter-free calculation revealed these salient magnetic properties supporting the S=1 magnetic exciton scenario for the

  14. Andreev reflection through a ferromagnet-quantum dot-superconductor system with intradot Coulomb correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudziński Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin-dependent tunneling through a quantum dot coupled to one ferromagnetic and one superconducting electrodes is studied in the Andreev reflection (AR regime. Electrical conductance is calculated within the nonequilibrium Green function technique. Effects due to a competition between the Coulomb correlations on the dot and intradot spin-flip processes are considered in the linear transport regime and for different coupling strengths between the dot and the external electrodes. It is shown that when a coherent spin rotation is present on the dot, Coulomb interactions may lead to a significant enhancement of the AR tunneling current and even to the perfect AR transmission. Origin of occurrence of a variety of the multipeak structure of the linear conductance is also discussed.

  15. Two-photon interference from a quantum dot-microcavity: Persistent pure-dephasing and suppression of time-jitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unsleber, S.; McCutcheon, Dara; Dambach, M.;

    We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasiresonantly pumped coupled quantum dot–microcavity system operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Changing the sample temperature allows us to vary the quantum dot–cavity detuning, and on spectral...

  16. Ground-State Cooling of a Mechanical Oscillator by Interference in Andreev Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, P.; Belzig, W.; Rastelli, G.

    2016-11-01

    We study the ground-state cooling of a mechanical oscillator linearly coupled to the charge of a quantum dot inserted between a normal metal and a superconducting contact. Such a system can be realized, e.g., by a suspended carbon nanotube quantum dot with a capacitive coupling to a gate contact. Focusing on the subgap transport regime, we analyze the inelastic Andreev reflections which drive the resonator to a nonequilibrium state. For small coupling, we obtain that vibration-assisted reflections can occur through two distinct interference paths. The interference determines the ratio between the rates of absorption and emission of vibrational energy quanta. We show that ground-state cooling of the mechanical oscillator can be achieved for many of the oscillator's modes simultaneously or for single modes selectively, depending on the experimentally tunable coupling to the superconductor.

  17. Controllable Andreev retroreflection and specular Andreev reflection in a four-terminal graphene-superconductor hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-guang; Xing, Yanxia; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qing-feng

    2009-10-16

    We report the investigation of electron transport through a four-terminal graphene-superconductor hybrid system. Because of the quantum interference of the reflected holes from two graphene-superconductor interfaces with a phase difference theta, it is found that the specular Andreev reflection vanishes at theta=0 while the Andreev retroreflection disappears at theta=pi. This means that retroreflection and specular reflection can be easily controlled and separated in this device. In addition, because of the diffraction effect in the narrow graphene nanoribbon, the reflected hole can exit from both graphene terminals. As the width of nanoribbon increases, the diffraction effect gradually disappears and the reflected hole eventually exits from a particular graphene terminal depending on the type of Andreev reflection.

  18. Ferromagnetic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxley, Andrew D.

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Review of ferromagnetic superconductors. • Covers UGe{sub 2}, URhGe and UCoGe and briefly other materials. • The focus is on experimental data and the pairing mechanism. - Abstract: The co-existence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism is of potential interest for spintronics and high magnetic field applications as well as a fascinating fundamental state of matter. The recent focus of research is on a family of ferromagnetic superconductors that are superconducting well below their Curie temperature, the first example of which was discovered in 2000. Although there is a ‘standard’ theoretical model for how magnetic pairing might bring about such a state, why it has only been seen in a few materials that at first sight appear to be very closely related has yet to be fully explained. This review covers the current state of knowledge of the magnetic and superconducting properties of these materials with emphasis on how they conform and differ from the behaviour expected from the ‘standard’ model and from each other.

  19. Animal magnetocardiography using superconducting quantum interference device gradiometers assisted with magnetic nanoparticle injection: A sensitive method for early detecting electromagnetic changes induced by hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. C.; Hong, B. F.; Wu, B. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Horng, H. E.; Yang, H. C.; Tseng, W. Y. Isaac; Tseng, W. K.; Liu, Y. B.; Lin, L. C.; Lu, L. S.; Lee, Y. H.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the authors used a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetocardiography (MCG) system consisted of 64-channel low-transition-temperature SQUID gradiometers to detect the MCG signals of hepercholesterolemic rabbits. In addition, the MCG signals were recorded before and after the injection of magnetic nanoparticles into the rabbits' ear veins to investigate the effects of magnetic nanoparticles on the MCG signals. These MCG data were compared to those of normal rabbits to reveal the feasibility for early detection of the electromagnetic changes induced by hypercholesterolemia using MCG with the assistance of magnetic nanoparticle injection.

  20. Preparation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entangled states with multiple superconducting quantum-interference device qubits or atoms in cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chui-Ping; Han, Siyuan

    2004-12-01

    A scheme is proposed for generating Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states of multiple superconducting quantum-interference device (SQUID) qubits by the use of a microwave cavity. The scheme operates essentially by creating a single photon through an auxiliary SQUID built in the cavity and performing a joint multiqubit phase shift with assistance of the cavity photon. It is shown that entanglement can be generated using this method, deterministic and independent of the number of SQUID qubits. In addition, we show that the present method can be applied to preparing many atoms in a GHZ entangled state, with tolerance to energy relaxation during the operation.

  1. Realization of the Greenberg-Horne (ghz) State and Swap Gate with Superconducting Quantum-Interference Devices in a Cavity via Adiabatic Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, An-Shou; Cheng, Yong-Jin; Liu, Ji-Bing; Li, Tie-Ping

    We propose an alternative scheme to prepare the Greenberg-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and realize a SWAP gate by using Superconducting Quantum-interference devices (SQUIDs) coupled to a cavity. The present scheme, based on the adiabatic evolution of dark state, constitutes a decoherence-free method in the sense that spontaneous emission and cavity damping are avoided. Besides, the standard GHZ state can be directly obtained without measurement or any auxiliary SQUIDs and the construction of the SWAP gate does not require a composition of elementary gates from a universal set. Thus the procedure is simplified and decoherence is greatly suppressed.

  2. Generation of entangled state using superconducting quantum interference devices%利用超导量子相干装置制备纠缠态的方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马驰; 叶柳; 王戴木

    2007-01-01

    本文提出用两个超导量子相干装置在一个单模大失谐腔中制备一个最大纠缠态的新方案,在这个方案里,腔场态处于虚激发,在超导量子相干装置和腔场之间没有信息传递,因此对腔的品质要求大大减低.%We propose a new scheme to generate a maximally entangled state of twosuperconducting quantum interference devices with a nonresonant cavity. In this scheme, the cavity field is virtually excited, no quantum-information transfer exists between the SQUIDs system and the cavity field, thus the requirement on the quality factor of the cavity is greatly relaxed.

  3. Ferromagnetic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Andrew D.

    2015-07-01

    The co-existence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism is of potential interest for spintronics and high magnetic field applications as well as a fascinating fundamental state of matter. The recent focus of research is on a family of ferromagnetic superconductors that are superconducting well below their Curie temperature, the first example of which was discovered in 2000. Although there is a 'standard' theoretical model for how magnetic pairing might bring about such a state, why it has only been seen in a few materials that at first sight appear to be very closely related has yet to be fully explained. This review covers the current state of knowledge of the magnetic and superconducting properties of these materials with emphasis on how they conform and differ from the behaviour expected from the 'standard' model and from each other.

  4. Superconductor cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Arnaud; Schmidt, Frank (Langenhagen, DE

    2009-12-15

    A superconductor cable includes a superconductive cable core (1) and a cryostat (2) enclosing the same. The cable core (1) has a superconductive conductor (3), an insulation (4) surrounding the same and a shielding (5) surrounding the insulation (4). A layer (3b) of a dielectric or semiconducting material is applied to a central element (3a) formed from a normally conducting material as a strand or tube and a layer (3c) of at least one wire or strip of superconductive material is placed helically on top. The central element (3a) and the layer (3c) are connected to each other in an electrically conducting manner at the ends of the cable core (1).

  5. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2016-05-01

    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  6. Modified entropic gravitation in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Clovis Jacinto de, E-mail: clovis.de.matos@esa.int [European Space Agency, 8-10 rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris (France)

    2012-01-15

    Verlinde recently developed a theoretical account of gravitation in terms of an entropic force. The central element in Verlinde's derivation is information and its relation with entropy through the holographic principle. The application of this approach to the case of superconductors requires to take into account that information associated with superconductor's quantum vacuum energy is not stored on Planck size surface elements, but in four volume cells with Planck-Einstein size. This has profound consequences on the type of gravitational force generated by the quantum vacuum condensate in superconductors, which is closely related with the cosmological repulsive acceleration responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Remarkably this new gravitational type force depends on the level of breaking of the weak equivalence principle for cooper pairs in a given superconducting material, which was previously derived by the author starting from similar principles. It is also shown that this new gravitational force can be interpreted as a surface force. The experimental detection of this new repulsive gravitational-type force appears to be challenging.

  7. Quantum interference in graphene with quantum anomalous hall effect system%石墨烯量子反常霍尔效应体系中的量子干涉效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐娟; 吴泽文; 王雪娇; 邢燕霞

    2016-01-01

    To study characteristics of quantum interference in graphene possessed quantum anomalous Hall effect,graphene has been made into specific structure.With the aid of the tight-binding model and none-equilibrium Green’s function,the interfer-ences between the quantum anomalous Hall edge states in a graphene based quantum scattering cavity are investigated in the pres-ence of weak magnetic field.The interference period is inversely proportional with flux penetrating the scattering cavity.Further-more,the interfering effects are sensitive to the disorder scattering and the bulk states.Finally,researches show that quantum interference can be used to measure the edge states in graphene.%为了研究量子边缘态间的干涉效应,以锯齿型石墨烯纳米带为基础,通过引入外部自旋轨道耦合及磁交换场,在石墨烯纳米带中实现量子反常霍尔效应。在此基础上,构造弱耦合量子散射腔,并采用紧束缚近似下的哈密顿模型和非平衡格林函数方法,研究经由2个耦合边界反射的量子边缘态间的量子干涉效应。结果表明:弱磁场下,2个理想的反射边缘态间产生 A-B 干涉效应,随着磁场的变化,透射系数发生周期性的相长或相消干涉,干涉周期和穿过散射腔的磁通成反比。此外,干涉效应对杂质散射和体态非常敏感。因此,通过观测量子干涉效应可以定性地判断体系是否存在真正的边缘态。

  8. How does interference fall?

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, Patrick J; Modi, Kavan

    2016-01-01

    We study how single- and double-slit interference patterns fall in the presence of gravity. First, we demonstrate that universality of free fall still holds in this case, i.e., interference patterns fall just like classical objects. Next, we explore lowest order relativistic effects in the Newtonian regime by employing a recent quantum formalism which treats mass as an operator. This leads to interactions between non-degenerate internal degrees of freedom (like spin in an external magnetic field) and external degrees of freedom (like position). Based on these effects, we present an unusual phenomenon, in which a falling double slit interference pattern periodically decoheres and recoheres. The oscillations in the visibility of this interference occur due to correlations built up between spin and position. Finally, we connect the interference visibility revivals with non-Markovian quantum dynamics.

  9. 基于SQUIDs和腔场相互作用传送量子信息的方案%Quantum information transfer with superconducting quantum interference device qubits in cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韬; 何娟; 倪致祥

    2009-01-01

    本文提出了一个基于SQUIDs和腔场的大失谐相互作用传送量子信息的方案,此方案可以直接地、百分之百地实现量子信息的传送.该方案中腔场和SQUIDs系统之间没有量子信息的传递,腔场只是虚激发,这样对腔的品质因子的要求大大的降低了.同时也可以在SQUIDs之间建立传送量子信息的量子网络.%We propose a scheme for transferring Quantum information via superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubits and cavity field interaction with a large detuning.In the scheme,no quantum information is transferred between the SQUIDs and the cavities,the cavity-fields are only virtually excited,thus the requirement on the quality factor of the cavities is greatly relaxed.In addition,in the scheme the quantum information can be directly transferred with a successful probability of 100% in a simple manner.And meanwhile we can establish a network for transferring quantum information between SQUID qubits.

  10. Magnetic-Field-Induced Soft-Mode Quantum Phase Transition in the High-Temperature Superconductor La1.855Sr0.145CuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Christensen, Niels Bech; Niedermayer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Inelastic neutron-scattering experiments on the high-temperature superconductor La1.855Sr0.145CuO4 reveal a magnetic excitation gap Delta that decreases continuously upon application of a magnetic field perpendicular to the CuO2 planes. The gap vanishes at the critical field required to induce long...

  11. High-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The present book aims at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors discovered by Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The book covers the superconductivity phenomenon, structure of high-Tc superconductors, critical currents, synthesis routes for high Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity effect and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and applications of superconductors.

  12. Giant supercurrent states in a superconductor-InAs/GaSb-superconductor junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xiaoyan, E-mail: xshi@sandia.gov; Pan, W.; Hawkins, S. D.; Klem, J. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Yu, Wenlong; Jiang, Zhigang [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Andrei Bernevig, B. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    Superconductivity in topological materials has attracted a great deal of interest in both electron physics and material sciences since the theoretical predictions that Majorana fermions can be realized in topological superconductors. Topological superconductivity could be realized in a type II, band-inverted, InAs/GaSb quantum well if it is in proximity to a conventional superconductor. Here, we report observations of the proximity effect induced giant supercurrent states in an InAs/GaSb bilayer system that is sandwiched between two superconducting tantalum electrodes to form a superconductor-InAs/GaSb-superconductor junction. Electron transport results show that the supercurrent states can be preserved in a surprisingly large temperature-magnetic field (T – H) parameter space. In addition, the evolution of differential resistance in T and H reveals an interesting superconducting gap structure.

  13. Two-photon interference from a quantum dot-microcavity: Persistent pure-dephasing and suppression of time-jitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unsleber, Sebastian; McCutcheon, Dara; Dambach, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    , we observea threefold improvement in the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibility, reaching values in excess of 80%. Ourmeasurements off-resonance allow us to investigate varying Purcell enhancements, and to probe the dephasingenvironment at different temperatures and energy scales. By comparison...

  14. Aharanov-Bohm quantum interference in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Hall bar structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Patrick; Lu, Shicheng; Annadi, Anil; Cheng, Guanglei; Tomczyk, Michelle; Huang, Mengchen; Levy, Jeremy; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom

    Aharanov-Bohm (AB) interference can arise in transport experiments when magnetic flux threads through two or more transport channels. The existence of this behavior requires long-range ballistic transport and is typically observed only in exceptionally clean materials. We observe AB interference in wide (w ~ 100 nm) channels created at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface using conductive AFM lithography. Interference occurs above a critical field B ~ 4 T and increases in magnitude with increasing magnetic field. The period of oscillation implies a ballistic length that greatly exceeds the micron-scale length of the channel, consistent with Fabry-Perot interference in 1D channels. The conditions under which AB oscillations are observed will be discussed in the context of the electron pairing mechanism in LaAlO3/SrTiO3. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from AFOSR (FA9550-10-1-0524 (JL), FA9550-12-1-0268 (JL), and FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE)) and NSF (DMR-1124131 (JL), DMR-1104191 (JL), and DMR-1234096 (CBE)).

  15. Localized superconductivity in the quantum-critical region of the disorder-driven superconductor-insulator transition in TiN thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturina, T I; Mironov, A Yu; Vinokur, V M; Baklanov, M R; Strunk, C

    2007-12-21

    We investigate low-temperature transport properties of thin TiN superconducting films in the vicinity of the disorder-driven superconductor-insulator transition. In a zero magnetic field, we find an extremely sharp separation between superconducting and insulating phases, evidencing a direct superconductor-insulator transition without an intermediate metallic phase. At moderate temperatures, in the insulating films we reveal thermally activated conductivity with the magnetic field-dependent activation energy. At very low temperatures, we observe a zero-conductivity state, which is destroyed at some depinning threshold voltage V{T}. These findings indicate the formation of a distinct collective state of the localized Cooper pairs in the critical region at both sides of the transition.

  16. The role of quantum interference and partial redistribution in the solar Ba II D2 4554 A line

    CERN Document Server

    Smitha, H N; Stenflo, J O; Sampoorna, M

    2014-01-01

    The Ba II D2 line at 4554 A is a good example, where the F-state interference effects due to the odd isotopes produce polarization profiles, which are very different from those of the even isotopes that do not exhibit F-state interference. It is therefore necessary to account for the contributions from the different isotopes to understand the observed linear polarization profiles of this line. In this paper we present radiative transfer modeling with partial frequency redistribution (PRD), which is shown to be essential to model this line. This is because complete frequency redistribution (CRD) cannot reproduce the observed wing polarization. We present the observed and computed Q/I profiles at different limb distances. The theoretical profiles strongly depend on limb distance (\\mu) and the model atmosphere which fits the limb observations fails at other \\mu\\ positions.

  17. Spin-glass and variable range hopping quantum interference magnetoresistance in FeSr2Y1.3Ce0.7Cu2O10-x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambale, S.; Williams, G. V. M.; Stephen, J.; Chong, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Electronic transport and magnetic measurements have been made on FeSr2Y1.3Ce0.7Cu2O10-x. We observe a spin-glass at ˜23 K and a magnetoresistance that reaches -22% at 8 T. The magnetoresistance is due to variable range hopping quantum interference where at low temperatures each hop is over a large number of scatterers. This magnetoresistance is negative at and above 5 K and can be described by the Nguen, Spivak, and Shklovskii (NSS) model. However, there is an increasingly positive contribution to the magnetoresistance for temperatures below 5 K that may be due to scattering from localized free spins during each hop that is not accounted for in the NSS model.

  18. Direct current superconducting quantum interference device spectrometer for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance at frequencies up to 5 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    TonThat, Dinh M.; Clarke, John

    1996-08-01

    A spectrometer based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) has been developed for the direct detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) at frequencies up to 5 MHz. The sample is coupled to the input coil of the niobium-based SQUID via a nonresonant superconducting circuit. The flux locked loop involves the direct offset integration technique with additional positive feedback in which the output of the SQUID is coupled directly to a low-noise preamplifier. Precession of the nuclear quadrupole spins is induced by a magnetic field pulse with the feedback circuit disabled; subsequently, flux locked operation is restored and the SQUID amplifies the signal produced by the nuclear free induction signal. The spectrometer has been used to detect 27Al NQR signals in ruby (Al2O3[Cr3+]) at 359 and 714 kHz.

  19. Magnetic characteristics measurements of ethanol-water mixtures using a hybrid-type high-temperature superconducting quantum-interference device magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Keiji; Matsunaga, Yasuaki; Isshiki, Ryota; Nakamura, Yuta; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko

    2017-05-01

    The magnetic characteristics of ethanol-water mixtures were investigated using our newly developed hybrid-type magnetometer based on a high-temperature superconducting quantum-interference device. The magnetization (M-H) curves of ethanol-water mixtures show good diamagnetic characteristics. The magnetic moments of the mixture show ethanol concentration dependence. However, the variation in magnetic moment differs from the characteristics expected by considering the magnetic moment ratio between water and ethanol, and volume-reduction rate. It showed two decrement regions separated at approximately 50-60% concentration values. It is also observed that the concentration dependence of the magnetic moment measured using the sample vibration method under a uniform magnetic field and that by the sample rotation method showed slightly different characteristics. These anomalies are attributed to the formation of clustered structures in the mixture.

  20. Conditions for stimulated emission in anomalous gravity-superconductors interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Modanese, G

    2009-01-01

    Several authors have studied the generation of gravitational fields by condensed-matter systems in non-extreme density conditions. General Relativity and lowest-order perturbative Quantum Gravity predict in this case an extremely small emission rate, so these phenomena can become relevant only if some strong quantum effect occurs. Quantum aspects of gravity are still poorly understood. It is believed that they could play a role in systems which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence, like superconductors and superfluids, leading to an "anomalous" coupling between matter and field. We mention here recent work in this field by Woods, Chiao, Becker, Agop et al., Ummarino, Kiefer and Weber. New results are presented concerning anomalous stimulated gravitational emission in a layered superconductor like YBCO. We model the superconductor as an array of intrinsic Josephson junctions. The superconducting parameters are defined by our preliminary measurements with melt-textured samples. We write explicitly and solve nu...

  1. Two-photon interference and coherent control of single InAs quantum dot emissions in an Ag-embedded structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X., E-mail: iu.xiangming@nims.go.jp [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Kumano, H.; Nakajima, H.; Odashima, S.; Asano, T.; Suemune, I. [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Kuroda, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-07-28

    We have recently reported the successful fabrication of bright single-photon sources based on Ag-embedded nanocone structures that incorporate InAs quantum dots. The source had a photon collection efficiency as high as 24.6%. Here, we show the results of various types of photonic characterizations of the Ag-embedded nanocone structures that confirm their versatility as regards a broad range of quantum optical applications. We measure the first-order autocorrelation function to evaluate the coherence time of emitted photons, and the second-order correlation function, which reveals the strong suppression of multiple photon generation. The high indistinguishability of emitted photons is shown by the Hong-Ou-Mandel-type two-photon interference. With quasi-resonant excitation, coherent population flopping is demonstrated through Rabi oscillations. Extremely high single-photon purity with a g{sup (2)}(0) value of 0.008 is achieved with π-pulse quasi-resonant excitation.

  2. Fine uniform filament superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jr., Gilbert N.; Li, Qi; Roberts, Peter R.; Antaya, Peter D.; Seuntjens, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Steven; DeMoranville, Kenneth L.; Christopherson, Craig J.; Garrant, Jennifer H.; Craven, Christopher A.

    2002-01-01

    A multifilamentary superconductor composite having a high fill factor is formed from a plurality of stacked monofilament precursor elements, each of which includes a low density superconductor precursor monofilament. The precursor elements all have substantially the same dimensions and characteristics, and are stacked in a rectilinear configuration and consolidated to provide a multifilamentary precursor composite. The composite is thereafter thermomechanically processed to provide a superconductor composite in which each monofilament is less than about 50 microns thick.

  3. Magnetic impurities in spin-split superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven Oei, W.-V.; Tanasković, D.; Žitko, R.

    2017-02-01

    Hybrid semiconductor-superconductor quantum dot devices are tunable physical realizations of quantum impurity models for a magnetic impurity in a superconducting host. The binding energy of the localized subgap Shiba states is set by the gate voltages and external magnetic field. In this work we discuss the effects of the Zeeman spin splitting, which is generically present both in the quantum dot and in the (thin-film) superconductor. The unequal g factors in semiconductor and superconductor materials result in respective Zeeman splittings of different magnitude. We consider both classical and quantum impurities. In the first case we analytically study the spectral function and the subgap states. The energy of bound states depends on the spin-splitting of the Bogoliubov quasiparticle bands as a simple rigid shift. For the case of collinear magnetization of impurity and host, the Shiba resonance of a given spin polarization remains unperturbed when it overlaps with the branch of the quasiparticle excitations of the opposite spin polarization. In the quantum case, we employ numerical renormalization group calculations to study the effect of the Zeeman field for different values of the g factors of the impurity and of the superconductor. We find that in general the critical magnetic field for the singlet-doublet transition changes nonmonotonically as a function of the superconducting gap, demonstrating the existence of two different transition mechanisms: Zeeman splitting of Shiba states or gap closure due to Zeeman splitting of Bogoliubov states. We also study how in the presence of spin-orbit coupling, modeled as an additional noncollinear component of the magnetic field at the impurity site, the Shiba resonance overlapping with the quasiparticle continuum of the opposite spin gradually broadens and then merges with the continuum.

  4. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  5. Photothermal measurements of superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kino, G.S.; Studenmund, W.R.; Fishman, I.M. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A photothermal technique has been used to measure diffusion and critical temperature in high temperature superconductors. The technique is particularly suitable for determining material quality and inhomogeneity.

  6. On Quantum Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Cleve, R; Henderson, L; Macchiavello, C; Mosca, M

    1998-01-01

    Quantum computers use the quantum interference of different computational paths to enhance correct outcomes and suppress erroneous outcomes of computations. In effect, they follow the same logical paradigm as (multi-particle) interferometers. We show how most known quantum algorithms, including quantum algorithms for factorising and counting, may be cast in this manner. Quantum searching is described as inducing a desired relative phase between two eigenvectors to yield constructive interference on the sought elements and destructive interference on the remaining terms.

  7. Destructive Interference of Dualities

    CERN Document Server

    Wotzasek, C

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fusion of two (diffeomorphism) invariant self-dual scalars described by right and left chiral-WZW actions, produces a Hull non-mover field. After fusion, right and left moving modes disappear from the spectrum, displaying in this way the phenomenon of (destructive) quantum interference of dualities.

  8. Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Adiabatic superconductor logic (ASL), including adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic, exhibits high energy efficiency because its bit energy can be decreased below the thermal energy through adiabatic switching operations. In the present paper, we present the general scaling laws of ASL and compare the energy efficiency of ASL with those of other energy-efficient logics. Also, we discuss the minimum energy-delay product (EDP) of ASL at finite temperature. Our study shows that there is a maximum temperature at which the EDP can reach the quantum limit given by ħ/2, which is dependent on the superconductor material and the Josephson junction quality, and that it is reasonable to operate ASL at cryogenic temperatures in order to achieve an EDP that approaches ħ/2.

  9. Quantum transport in two dimensional electron gas/p-wave superconductor junction with Rashba spin–orbit coupling at the interface and in the normal layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadkhani, R., E-mail: rmkhani@znu.ac.ir; Hassanloo, Gh.

    2014-11-01

    We have studied the tunneling conductance of a clean two dimensional electron gas/p- wave superconductor junction with Rashba spin–orbit coupling (RSOC) which is present in the normal layer and at the interface. Using the extended Blonder–Tinkham–Klapwijk formalism we have found that the subgap conductance peaks are shifted to a nonzero bias by RSOC at the interface which are the same as Ref. [1]. It is shown that for low insulating barrier and in the absence of the interface RSOC, the tunneling conductance decreases within energy gap with increasing of the RSOC in the normal layer while for high insulating barrier it enhances by increase of the RSOC. We have also shown that the RSOC inside the normal cannot affect the location of the subgap conductance peaks shifted by the interface RSOC.

  10. Towards Structural Testing of Superconductor Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, A.J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2003-01-01

    Many of the semiconductor technologies are already facing limitations while new-generation data and telecommunication systems are implemented. Although in its infancy, superconductor electronics (SCE) is capable of handling some of these high-end tasks. We have started a defect-oriented test methodology for SCE, so that reliable systems can be implemented in this technology. In this paper, the details of the study on the Rapid Single-Flux Quantum (RSFQ) process are presented. We present commo...

  11. Phonon-Mediated Nonclassical Interference in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Duncan G.; Fisher, Kent A. G.; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W.; Bustard, Philip J.; Heshami, Khabat; Resch, Kevin J.; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum interference of single photons is a fundamental aspect of many photonic quantum processing and communication protocols. Interference requires that the multiple pathways through an interferometer be temporally indistinguishable to within the coherence time of the photon. In this Letter, we use a diamond quantum memory to demonstrate interference between quantum pathways, initially temporally separated by many multiples of the optical coherence time. The quantum memory can be viewed as a light-matter beam splitter, mapping a THz-bandwidth single photon to a variable superposition of the output optical mode and stored phononic mode. Because the memory acts both as a beam splitter and as a buffer, the relevant coherence time for interference is not that of the photon, but rather that of the memory. We use this mechanism to demonstrate nonclassical single-photon and two-photon interference between quantum pathways initially separated by several picoseconds, even though the duration of the photons themselves is just ˜250 fs .

  12. Fabrication of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Dorris, Stephen E.; Ma, Beihai; Li, Meiya

    2003-06-17

    A method of forming a biaxially aligned superconductor on a non-biaxially aligned substrate substantially chemically inert to the biaxially aligned superconductor comprising is disclosed. A non-biaxially aligned substrate chemically inert to the superconductor is provided and a biaxially aligned superconductor material is deposited directly on the non-biaxially aligned substrate. A method forming a plume of superconductor material and contacting the plume and the non-biaxially aligned substrate at an angle greater than 0.degree. and less than 90.degree. to deposit a biaxially aligned superconductor on the non-biaxially aligned substrate is also disclosed. Various superconductors and substrates are illustrated.

  13. Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) thin film dc SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference device)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racah, Daniel

    1991-03-01

    Direct current superconducting quantum interferometers (SQUIDs) based on HTSC thin films have been measured and characterized. The thin films used were of different quality: (1) Granular films on Sapphire substrates, prepared either by e-gun evaporation, by laser ablation or by MOCVD (metal oxide chemical vapor deposition), (2) Epitaxial films on MgO substrates. Modulations of the voltage on the SQUIDs as a function of the applied flux have been observed in a wide range of temperatures. The nature of the modulation was found to be strongly dependent on the morphology of the film and on its critical current. The SQUIDs based on granular films were relatively noisy, hysteretic and with a complicated V-phi shape. Those devices based on low quality (lowIc) granular films could be measured only at low temperatures (much lower than 77 K). While those of higher quality (granular films with high Ic) could be measured near to the superconductive transition. The SQUID based on high quality epitaxial film was measured near Tc and showed an anomalous, time dependent behavior.

  14. Interference in Time: A Comment

    CERN Document Server

    Horwitz, L P

    2005-01-01

    I comment on the interpretation of a recent experiment showing quantum interference in time. It is pointed out that the standard nonrelativistic quantum theory, used by the authors in their analysis, cannot account for the results found, and therefore that this experiment has fundamental importance beyond the technical advances it represents.

  15. Effects of nanoscale quantum dots in male Chinese loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus):Estrogenic interference action,toxicokinetics and oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received more and more attention as a novel example of nanocrystals due to their unique fluorescent characteristics. Recently, the toxicity and the potential environmental effects of QDs have become a research hotspot. In this work, in vivo endocrine disrupting effect, toxicokinetics and oxidative stress of QDs were characterized following the intraperitoneal dosing in Chinese loaches. Vitellogenin (Vtg) levels induced by E2 decreased significantly when administrated with the mixture of QDs and E2, which was consistent with the observations of histopathology in testes. The release of free Cd2+ from QDs and the non-specific adsorption of E2 by QDs might be the joint factors contributing to the inhibition of Vtg expression induced by E2 in the male Chinese loaches. In the muscle, bone, intestines, blood and testis, CdSe QDs reached the maximal concentration (Cmax) in approximately 1-h postinjection and subsequently presented downtrend with the prolonged time. Whereas, there were even increasing tendencies of CdSe QDs’ concentrations in the liver and kidney. It is educible that CdSe QDs can be persistent at least for 7 days, indicating the overall half-life of CdSe QDs in the fish body is very long. The measurement of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) content indicate that QDs have smaller effects on the antioxidative system of the organisms compared with free Cd2+ due to the effective prevention of the release of Cd by PEG coating of QDs. The comprehensive evaluation of QDs’ toxicity in the present study provides an essential and general framework towards more focused research on the elucidation of the biological effects of QDs in vivo.

  16. Effects of nanoscale quantum dots in male Chinese Ioaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus): Estrogenic interference action, toxicokinetics and oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HongCheng; LUO WenRu; TAO Yong; WU Yuan; LV XueFei; ZHOU QunFang; JIANG GuiBin

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received more and more attention as a novel example of nanocrystals due to their unique fluorescent characteristics. Recently, the toxicity and the potential environmental effects of QDs have become a research hotspot. In this work, in vivo endocrine disrupting effect, toxicokinetics and oxidative stress of QDs were characterized following the intraperitoneal dosing in Chinese Ioaches. Vitellogenin (Vtg) levels induced by E2 decreased significantly when administrated with the mixture of QDs and E2, which was consistent with the observations of histopathology in testes. The release of free Cd~(2+) from QDs and the non-specific adsorption of E2 by QDs might be the joint factors contributing to the inhibition of Vtg expression induced by E2 in the male Chinese Ioaches. In the muscle, bone, intestines, blood and testis, CdSe QDs reached the maximal concentration (Cmax) in approximately 1-h postinjection and subsequently presented downtrend with the prolonged time. Whereas, there were even increasing tendencies of CdSe ODs' concentrations in the liver and kidney. It is educible that CdSe QDs can be persistent at least for 7 days, indicating the overall half-life of CdSe QDs in the fish body is very long. The measurement of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) content indicate that QDs have smaller effects on the antioxidative system of the organisms compared with free Cd~(2+) due to the effective prevention of the release of Cd by PEG coating of QDs. The comprehensive evaluation of QDs' toxicity in the present study provides an essential and general framework towards more focused research on the elucidation of the biological effects of QDs in vivo.

  17. Molecular Orbital Rule for Quantum Interference in Weakly Coupled Dimers: Low-Energy Giant Conductivity Switching Induced by Orbital Level Crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Daijiro; Lücke, Andreas; Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    2017-02-16

    Destructive quantum interference (QI) in molecular junctions has attracted much attention in recent years. It can tune the conductance of molecular devices dramatically, which implies numerous potential applications in thermoelectric and switching applications. There are several schemes that address and rationalize QI in single molecular devices. Dimers play a particular role in this respect because the QI signal may disappear, depending on the dislocation of monomers. We derive a simple rule that governs the occurrence of QI in weakly coupled dimer stacks of both alternant and nonalternant polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and extends the Tada-Yoshizawa scheme. Starting from the Green's function formalism combined with the molecular orbital expansion approach, it is shown that QI-induced antiresonances and their energies can be predicted from the amplitudes of the respective monomer terminal molecular orbitals. The condition is illustrated for a toy model consisting of two hydrogen molecules and applied within density functional calculations to alternant dimers of oligo(phenylene-ethynylene) and nonalternant PAHs. Minimal dimer structure modifications that require only a few millielectronvolts and lead to an energy crossing of the essentially preserved monomer orbitals are shown to result in giant conductance switching ratios.

  18. Role of oxygen content on micro-whiskers in mercury based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan Çataltepe, Ö., E-mail: ozdenaslan@yahoo.com [Faculty of Engineering, Gedik University, 34876 İstanbul (Turkey); Güven Özdemir, Z. [Department of Physics, Yıldız Technical University, 34210 İstanbul (Turkey); Onbaşlı, Ü. [Department of Physics, Marmara University, Rıdvanpaşa cad.3.sok., 85/12, 34730 İstanbul (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the formation of micro-whiskers at the mercury based cuprate superconductors, synthesized by solid state reaction technique has been investigated for both oxygen and argon annealed samples. In this context, the superconducting samples have been annealed by the oxygen or argon gases in same rate (pressure) of 150 bar. Moreover, the over doped sample has been subjected to oxygen annealing twice at the same oxygen rate. Hence, micro-whiskers in the mercury cuprates have spontaneously grown for the over oxygen annealed sample, so we have not intended to have whisker grown. The whiskers grown in the mercury based cuprate superconductor has been investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction analysis and Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices measurements for the first time. It has been determined that whiskers grown on the over doped sample, which are in micrometer dimensions, have been observed only surfaces of the bulk sample. Moreover, the formation of whiskers has been examined for the optimally oxygen and argon doped samples. It has been shown that neither the optimally oxygen doped nor argon doped samples with the same gas rate have displayed any whisker structures. Hence, it has been decided that that the type of gas, the density of gas flowing and the bulk properties of the superconductor play a crucial role on formation of whisker structure in the system. Moreover, it has been revealed that in order to get rich whisker content, the oxygen process should be applied to the powder form of the superconductor in such a way to get the over oxygen doping rate for the superconducting system investigated. For further works, the magnetic and transport properties of the mercury based whiskers grown are planned to be determined. - Highlights: • Effect of gas type on whiskers has been investigated for Hg-based superconductor. • Concentration of the gas have a crucial role for whisker formation. • Shape of the superconducting

  19. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  20. Superconductor terahertz metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Cao, Wei; Xing, Qirong; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the behaviour of split ring resonators made up of high-transition temperature YBCO superconductor using terahertz time domain spectroscopy. The superconductor metamaterial shows sharp change in the transmission spectrum at the fundamental inductive-capacitive resonance and the dipole resonance as the temperature dips below the transition temperature. Our results reveal that the high performance of such a metamaterial is limited by material imperfections and defects such as cracks, voids and secondary phases which play dominant role in partially impeding the flow of current causing dissipation of energy and electrical resistance to appear in the superconductor film.

  1. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  2. Synthesis of superconductor MgCNi3 with carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Qing-Lin; Yi Jian-Hong; Peng Yuan-Dong; Luo Shu-Dong; Wang Hong-Zhong; Li Li-Ya

    2008-01-01

    MgCNia, an intermetallic compound superconductor with a cubic perovskite crystal structure, has been synthesized using fine Mg and Ni powders and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as starting materials by the conventional powder metallurgy method. The composition, microstructure and superconductivity are characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The results indicate that the phases of the synthesized samples are MgCNi3 (major phase) and traces of C and MgO. The MgCNi3 particle sizes range from several hundreds of nanometres to several micrometres.The onset superconducting transition temperature Tc of the MgCNi3 sample is about 7.2 K. The critical current density Jc is about 3.44 × 104 A/cm2 calculated according to the Bean model from the magnetization hysteresis loop of the slab MgCNi3 sample at 5 K and zero applied field.

  3. Understanding ghost interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Tabish; Chingangbam, Pravabati; Shafaq, Sheeba

    2016-08-01

    The ghost interference observed for entangled photons is theoretically analyzed using wave-packet dynamics. It is shown that ghost interference is a combined effect of virtual double-slit creation due to entanglement, and quantum erasure of which-path information for the interfering photon. For the case where the two photons are of different color, it is shown that fringe width of the interfering photon depends not only on its own wavelength, but also on the wavelength of the other photon which it is entangled with.

  4. Wave and particle in molecular interference lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffmann, Thomas; Truppe, Stefan; Geyer, Philipp; Major, András G; Deachapunya, Sarayut; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Arndt, Markus

    2009-12-31

    The wave-particle duality of massive objects is a cornerstone of quantum physics and a key property of many modern tools such as electron microscopy, neutron diffraction or atom interferometry. Here we report on the first experimental demonstration of quantum interference lithography with complex molecules. Molecular matter-wave interference patterns are deposited onto a reconstructed Si(111) 7x7 surface and imaged using scanning tunneling microscopy. Thereby both the particle and the quantum wave character of the molecules can be visualized in one and the same image. This new approach to nanolithography therefore also represents a sensitive new detection scheme for quantum interference experiments.

  5. Wave and Particle in Molecular Interference Lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Juffmann, Thomas; Geyer, Philipp; Major, Andras G; Deachapunya, Sarayut; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Arndt, Markus; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.263601

    2010-01-01

    The wave-particle duality of massive objects is a cornerstone of quantum physics and a key property of many modern tools such as electron microscopy, neutron diffraction or atom interferometry. Here we report on the first experimental demonstration of quantum interference lithography with complex molecules. Molecular matter-wave interference patterns are deposited onto a reconstructed Si(111) 7x7 surface and imaged using scanning tunneling microscopy. Thereby both the particle and the quantum wave character of the molecules can be visualized in one and the same image. This new approach to nanolithography therefore also represents a sensitive new detection scheme for quantum interference experiments.

  6. Electrodynamics of Metallic Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dressel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental aspects of the microwave, terahertz, and infrared properties of superconductors are discussed. Electrodynamics can provide information about the superconducting condensate as well as about the quasiparticles. The aim is to understand the frequency dependence of the complex conductivity, the change with temperature and time, and its dependence on material parameters. We confine ourselves to conventional metallic superconductors, in particular, Nb and related nitrides and review the seminal papers but also highlight latest developments and recent experimental achievements. The possibility to produce well-defined thin films of metallic superconductors that can be tuned in their properties allows the exploration of fundamental issues, such as the superconductor-insulator transition; furthermore it provides the basis for the development of novel and advanced applications, for instance, superconducting single-photon detectors.

  7. Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.

  8. Controllable Quantum States Mesoscopic Superconductivity and Spintronics (MS+S2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku; Nakano, Hayato

    2008-10-01

    Mesoscopic effects in superconductors. Tunneling measurements of charge imbalance of non-equilibrium superconductors / R. Yagi. Influence of magnetic impurities on Josephson current in SNS junctions / T. Yokoyama. Nonlinear response and observable signatures of equilibrium entanglement / A. M. Zagoskin. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage with a Cooper pair box / Giuseppe Falci. Crossed Andreev reflection-induced giant negative magnetoresistance / Francesco Giazotto -- Quantum modulation of superconducting junctions. Adiabatic pumping through a Josephson weak link / Fabio Taddei. Squeezing of superconducting qubits / Kazutomu Shiokawa. Detection of Berrys phases in flux qubits with coherent pulses / D. N. Zheng. Probing entanglement in the system of coupled Josephson qubits / A. S. Kiyko. Josephson junction with tunable damping using quasi-particle injection / Ryuta Yagi. Macroscopic quantum coherence in rf-SQUIDs / Alexey V. Ustinov. Bloch oscillations in a Josephson circuit / D. Esteve. Manipulation of magnetization in nonequilibrium superconducting nanostructures / F. Giazotto -- Superconducting qubits. Decoherence and Rabi oscillations in a qubit coupled to a quantum two-level system / Sahel Ashhab. Phase-coupled flux qubits: CNOT operation, controllable coupling and entanglement / Mun Dae Kim. Characteristics of a switchable superconducting flux transformer with a DC-SQUID / Yoshihiro Shimazu. Characterization of adiabatic noise in charge-based coherent nanodevices / E. Paladino -- Unconventional superconductors. Threshold temperatures of zero-bias conductance peak and zero-bias conductance dip in diffusive normal metal/superconductor junctions / Iduru Shigeta. Tunneling conductance in 2DEG/S junctions in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling / T. Yokoyama. Theory of charge transport in diffusive ferromagnet/p-wave superconductor junctions / T. Yokoyama. Theory of enhanced proximity effect by the exchange field in FS bilayers / T. Yokoyama. Theory of

  9. Topological superconductors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masatoshi; Ando, Yoichi

    2017-04-03

    This review elaborates pedagogically on the fundamental concept, basic theory, expected properties, and materials realizations of topological superconductors. The relation between topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions are explained, and the difference between dispersive Majorana fermions and a localized Majorana zero mode is emphasized. A variety of routes to topological superconductivity are explained with an emphasis on the roles of spin-orbit coupling. Present experimental situations and possible signatures of topological superconductivity are summarized with an emphasis on intrinsic topological superconductors.

  10. Layered nickel based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronning, Filip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, Eric D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Tuson [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kurita, Nobuyuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klimczuk, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Movshovich, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, J D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sefat, A S [ORNL; Mandrus, D [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    We review the properties of Ni-based superconductors which contain Ni{sub 2}X{sub 2} (X=As, P, Bi, Si, Ge, B) planes, a common structural element to the recently discovered FeAs superconductors. We also compare the properties ofthe Ni-and Fe-based systems from a perspective ofelectronic structure as well as structure-property relations.

  11. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  12. Free energy of a Lovelock holographic superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Aranguiz, Ligeia

    2014-01-01

    We study black hole solutions in Lanczos-Lovelock AdS gravity in d+1 dimensions coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics and a Stueckelberg scalar field. This class of theories with [d/2] gravitational coupling constants and two arbitrary functions that govern the matter interaction is used in the context of gauge/gravity duality to describe a high-temperature superconductor in d dimensions. We regularize the gravitational action and find the finite conserved quantities for a planar black hole with scalar hair. Then we derive the quantum statistical relation in the Euclidean sector of the theory, and obtain the exact formula for the free energy of the superconductor in the holographic quantum field theory. Our result is exact, analytic and it includes the effects of back reaction of the gravitational field. We further discuss on how this formula could be used to analyze second order phase transitions through the discontinuities of the free energy, and classify holographic superconductors in terms of the parameter...

  13. On the magnetization relaxation of ring-shaped Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 thin films as determined by superconducting quantum interference device measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hai-hu; Ziemann, Paul; Radovan, Henri A.; Herzog, Thomas

    1998-09-01

    By using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), the temporal relaxation of the magnetization was determined for ring-shaped Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 thin films at various temperatures between 10 K and 80 K in magnetic fields ranging from 2 mT to 0.3 T. Based on these data, a detailed analysis has been performed related to the following methods or models: (1) Fitting the data to the thermally activated flux motion and collective pinning model; (2) Applying the Generalized Inversion Scheme to extract the temperature dependence of the unrelaxed critical current density jc( T) and pinning potential Uc( T); (3) Testing a modified Maley's method to obtain the current dependent activation energy for flux motion; (4) 2D vortex glass scaling. It is found that, for low fields (2 mT, 10 mT, 40 mT) the experimental data can be described by an elastic flux motion, most probably due to 3D single vortex creep. At higher fields (0.1 T, 0.2 T, 0.3 T), the observed behavior can be interpreted in terms of plastic flux motion which is probably governed by dislocation mediated flux creep. These high field data can also be consistently described by the 2D vortex glass scaling with scaling parameters ν2D, T0 and p being consistent with those derived from corresponding transport measurement. Also, results are presented demonstrating the importance of optimizing the scan length of the sample in a moving sample SQUID magnetometer to avoid artifacts.

  14. A Fifth Force: Generalized through Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1999-01-01

    The connection between the Biefield-Brown Effect, the recent repeat of the 1902 Trouton-Noble (TN) experiments, and the gravity shielding experiments was explored. This connection is visualized through high capacitive electron concentrations. From this connection, a theory is proposed that connects mass energy to gravity and a fifth force. The theory called the Gravi-Atomic Energy theory presents two new terms: Gravi-atomic energy and quantum vacuum pressure (QVP). Gravi-atomic energy is defined as the radiated mass energy, which acts on vacuum energy to create a QVP about a mass, resulting in gravity and the fifth force. The QVP emission from a superconductor was discussed followed by the description of a test for QVP from a superconductor using a Cavendish balance.

  15. Iron-Based Superconductors as topological matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangping

    We show the existence of non-trivial topological properties in Iron-based superconductors. Several examples are provided, including (1) the single layer FeSe grown on SrTiO3 substrate, in which an topological insulator phase exists due to the band inversion at M point; (2) CaFeAs2, a staggered intercalation compound that integrates both quantum spin hall and superconductivity in which the nontrivial topology stems from the chain-like As layers away from FeAs layers; (3) the Fe(Te,Se) thin films in which the nontrivial Z2 topological invariance originates from the parity exchange at Γ point that is controlled by the Te(Se) height; (4 nontrivial topology that is driven by the nematic order in FeSe. These results lay ground for integrating high Tc superconductivity with topological properties to realize new emergent phenomena, such as majorana particles, in iron-based high temperature superconductors

  16. Topological properties in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangping; Hao, Ningning; Wu, X. X.

    2015-03-01

    We show the existence of non-trivial topological properties in Iron-based superconductors. Several examples are provided, including (1) the single layer FeSe grown on SrTiO3 substrate, in which an topological insulator phase exists due to the band inversion at M point; (2) CaFeAs2, a staggered intercalation compound that integrates both quantum spin hall and superconductivity in which the nontrivial topology stems from the chain-like As layers away from FeAs layers; (3) the Fe(Te,Se) thin films in which the nontrivial Z2 topological invariance originates from the parity exchange at ? point that is controlled by the Te(Se) height. These results lay ground for integrating high Tc superconductivity with topological properties to realize new emergent phenomena, such as majorana particles, in iron-based high temperature superconductors. The work is supported by NSFC and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China.

  17. Band Structure of FeAs-based Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashurnikov, V. A.; Krasavin, A. V.

    The excitation spectrum of two-dimensional FeAs-clusters modeling iron-based superconductors has been obtained by using a quantum Monte Carlo algorithm within the limits of the full two-orbital model. The first data are presented for clusters of size up to 10×10 FeAs-cells. The influence of interaction strength on dispersion is analyzed.

  18. Quantum transport of vortices in a weakly dissipative ring threaded by an Aharonov-Casher flux: A tight-binding model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J. [Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-5932 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Wang, Z.D. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    1997-11-01

    Based on the tight-binding model and taking into account the effect of dissipation as well as the disorder, we study quantum interference via the Aharonov-Casher effect for fluxons in a ring-shaped superconductor. The electrical resistance in terms of the transmission probability for a quantum vortex to traverse the ring is calculated. It is shown that a quantum interference effect is exhibited in the resistance in the presence of weak dissipation. Our analysis may also be applied to a Josephson-junction array system. In particular, by including the disorder effect, we are able to explain the experimental measurements in the dissipative regime done by Elion {ital et al.} [Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 71}, 2311 (1993)]. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.

    2016-01-01

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and dev

  20. Superconductor Digital Electronics: -- Current Status, Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhanov, Oleg

    2011-03-01

    Two major applications of superconductor electronics: communications and supercomputing will be presented. These areas hold a significant promise of a large impact on electronics state-of-the-art for the defense and commercial markets stemming from the fundamental advantages of superconductivity: simultaneous high speed and low power, lossless interconnect, natural quantization, and high sensitivity. The availability of relatively small cryocoolers lowered the foremost market barrier for cryogenically-cooled superconductor electronic systems. These fundamental advantages enabled a novel Digital-RF architecture - a disruptive technological approach changing wireless communications, radar, and surveillance system architectures dramatically. Practical results were achieved for Digital-RF systems in which wide-band, multi-band radio frequency signals are directly digitized and digital domain is expanded throughout the entire system. Digital-RF systems combine digital and mixed signal integrated circuits based on Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) technology, superconductor analog filter circuits, and semiconductor post-processing circuits. The demonstrated cryocooled Digital-RF systems are the world's first and fastest directly digitizing receivers operating with live satellite signals, enabling multi-net data links, and performing signal acquisition from HF to L-band with 30 GHz clock frequencies. In supercomputing, superconductivity leads to the highest energy efficiencies per operation. Superconductor technology based on manipulation and ballistic transfer of magnetic flux quanta provides a superior low-power alternative to CMOS and other charge-transfer based device technologies. The fundamental energy consumption in SFQ circuits defined by flux quanta energy 2 x 10-19 J. Recently, a novel energy-efficient zero-static-power SFQ technology, eSFQ/ERSFQ was invented, which retains all advantages of standard RSFQ circuits: high-speed, dc power, internal memory. The